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1

Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

James, Mark

2009-01-01

2

Benchmarking natural-language parsers for biological applications using dependency graphs  

PubMed Central

Background Interest is growing in the application of syntactic parsers to natural language processing problems in biology, but assessing their performance is difficult because differences in linguistic convention can falsely appear to be errors. We present a method for evaluating their accuracy using an intermediate representation based on dependency graphs, in which the semantic relationships important in most information extraction tasks are closer to the surface. We also demonstrate how this method can be easily tailored to various application-driven criteria. Results Using the GENIA corpus as a gold standard, we tested four open-source parsers which have been used in bioinformatics projects. We first present overall performance measures, and test the two leading tools, the Charniak-Lease and Bikel parsers, on subtasks tailored to reflect the requirements of a system for extracting gene expression relationships. These two tools clearly outperform the other parsers in the evaluation, and achieve accuracy levels comparable to or exceeding native dependency parsers on similar tasks in previous biological evaluations. Conclusion Evaluating using dependency graphs allows parsers to be tested easily on criteria chosen according to the semantics of particular biological applications, drawing attention to important mistakes and soaking up many insignificant differences that would otherwise be reported as errors. Generating high-accuracy dependency graphs from the output of phrase-structure parsers also provides access to the more detailed syntax trees that are used in several natural-language processing techniques. PMID:17254351

Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

2007-01-01

3

Parallel Processing of Natural Language Parsers M. P. van Lohuizen  

E-print Network

demand for computing power. Almost all of today's NLP systems use unification-based parsers the most compu- tationally expensive component. In order to let NLP systems be responsive, NLP systems Parallel parsing for NLP in specific has been researched extensively. For example, Tomita[9] presented

Kuzmanov, Georgi

4

Extending a natural language parser with UMLS knowledge.  

PubMed Central

Over the past several years our research efforts have been directed toward the identification of natural language processing methods and techniques for improving access to biomedical information stored in computerized form. To provide a testing ground for some of these ideas we have undertaken the development of SPECIALIST, a prototype system for parsing and accessing biomedical text. The system includes linguistic and biomedical knowledge. Linguistic knowledge involves rules and facts about the grammar of the language. Biomedical knowledge involves rules and facts about the domain of biomedicine. The UMLS knowledge sources, Meta-1 and the Semantic Network, as well as the UMLS test collection, have recently contributed to the development of the SPECIALIST system. PMID:1807586

McCray, A. T.

1991-01-01

5

Flexible natural language parser based on a two-level representation of syntax  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors present a parser which allows to make explicit the interconnections between syntax and semantics, to analyze the sentences in a quasi-deterministic fashion and, in many cases, to identify the roles of the various constituents even if the sentence is ill-formed. The main feature of the approach on which the parser is based consists in a two-level representation of the syntactic knowledge: a first set of rules emits hypotheses about the constituents of the sentence and their functional role and another set of rules verifies whether a hypothesis satisfies the constraints about the well-formedness of sentences. However, the application of the second set of rules is delayed until the semantic knowledge confirms the acceptability of the hypothesis. If the semantics reject it, a new hypothesis is obtained by applying a simple and relatively inexpensive natural modification; a set of these modifications is predefined and only when none of them is applicable a real backup is performed: in most cases this situation corresponds to a case where people would normally garden path. 19 references.

Lesmo, L.; Torasso, P.

1983-01-01

6

The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally, this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

Sagan, D.; Forster, M.; /Cornell U., LNS; Bates, D.A.; /LBL, Berkeley; Wolski, A.; /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Schmidt, F.; /CERN; Walker, N.J.; /DESY; Larrieu, T.; Roblin, Y.; /Jefferson Lab; Pelaia, T.; /Oak Ridge; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Reiche, S.; /UCLA

2006-10-06

7

Towards Incremental Parsing of Natural Language Using Recursive Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In this paper we develop novel algorithmic ideas for building a natural language parser grounded upon the hypothesis of incrementality. Although widely accepted and experimentally supported under a cognitive perspective as a model of the human parser, the incrementality assumption has never been exploited for building automatic parsers of unconstrained real texts. The essentials of the hypothesis are that

Fabrizio Costa; Paolo Frasconi; Vincenzo Lombardo; Giovanni Soda

2003-01-01

8

Towards Incremental Parsing of Natural Language Using Recursive Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop novel algorithmic ideas for building a natural language parser grounded upon the hypothesis of incrementality. Although widely accepted and experimentally supported under a cognitive perspective as a model of the human parser, the incrementality assumption has never been exploited for building automatic parsers of unconstrained real texts. The essentials of the hypothesis are that words

F. Costa; P. Frasconi; V. Lombardo; G. Soda

2003-01-01

9

Evaluation of a parallel chart parser. Project Memo  

SciTech Connect

A parallel implementation of a chart parser is described for a shared-memory multiprocessor. The speedups obtained with this parser were measured for a number of small natural-language grammars. For the largest of these, part of an operational question-answering system, the parser ran 5 to 7 times faster than the serial version.

Grishman, R.; Chitrao, M.

1987-09-01

10

Natural-Language Parser for PBEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called "Hunter" accepts, as input, a colloquial-English description of a set of policy-based-management rules, and parses that description into a form useable by policy-based enterprise management (PBEM) software. PBEM is a rules-based approach suitable for automating some management tasks. PBEM simplifies the management of a given enterprise through establishment of policies addressing situations that are likely to occur. Hunter was developed to have a unique capability to extract the intended meaning instead of focusing on parsing the exact ways in which individual words are used.

James, Mark

2010-01-01

11

Speed up of XML parsers with PHP language implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, authors introduce PHP5's XML implementation and show how to read, parse, and write a short and uncomplicated XML file using Simple XML in a PHP environment. The possibilities for mutual work of PHP5 language and XML standard are described. The details of parsing process with Simple XML are also cleared. A practical project PHP-XML-MySQL presents the advantages of XML implementation in PHP modules. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of PHP software tools. The proposed project includes database, which can be extended with new data and new XML parsing functions.

Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

2012-11-01

12

Natural Language Parsing as Statistical Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional natural language parsers are based on rewrite rule systems developed in an arduous, time-consuming manner by grammarians. A majority of the grammarian's efforts are devoted to the disambiguation process, first hypothesizing rules which dictate constituent categories and relationships among words in ambiguous sentences, and then seeking exceptions and corrections to these rules. In this work, I propose an automatic

David M. Magerman

1994-01-01

13

A Model-Driven Probabilistic Parser Generator  

E-print Network

Existing probabilistic scanners and parsers impose hard constraints on the way lexical and syntactic ambiguities can be resolved. Furthermore, traditional grammar-based parsing tools are limited in the mechanisms they allow for taking context into account. In this paper, we propose a model-driven tool that allows for statistical language models with arbitrary probability estimators. Our work on model-driven probabilistic parsing is built on top of ModelCC, a model-based parser generator, and enables the probabilistic interpretation and resolution of anaphoric, cataphoric, and recursive references in the disambiguation of abstract syntax graphs. In order to prove the expression power of ModelCC, we describe the design of a general-purpose natural language parser.

Quesada, Luis; Cortijo, Francisco J

2012-01-01

14

Action Representation for Natural Language Interfaces to Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we outline a framework for the development of natural language interfaces to agent systems, with a focus on action representation. The architecture comprises a natural language parser and case frame based analysis for semantic representation for the linguistic content of the input. The knowledge base, used as core instance of the mapping and interpretation process, features a

Christel Kemke

2006-01-01

15

Action Representation for Natural Language Interfaces to Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we outline a framework for the development of natural language interfaces to agent systems with a focus on action representation. The architecture comprises a natural language parser and a case frame based analysis for the semantic representation of the linguistic content of the input. The knowledge base is the core component of the system used in the

Christel Kemke

2007-01-01

16

A Learning Natural Language Parser Duncan McKee  

E-print Network

are playing as well as the phrase structure of the sentence ­ that is, what parts constitute the subject was to develop a system to parse grammatical English sentences into phrase structures in a way that deals that analyzes the syntactic structure of an input sentence in relation to a specified grammar and generates all

Krebsbach, Kurt D.

17

Bootstrapping parsers via syntactic projection across parallel texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad coverage, high quality parsers are available for only a handful of languages. A prerequisite for developing broad coverage parsers for more languages is the annotation of text with the desired linguistic representations (also known as \\

REBECCA HWA; PHILIP RESNIK; AMY WEINBERG; CLARA CABEZAS; OKAN KOLAK

2005-01-01

18

NEWCAT: Parsing natural language using left-associative grammar  

SciTech Connect

This book shows that constituent structure analysis induces an irregular order of linear composition which is the direct cause of extreme computational inefficiency. It proposes an alternative left-associative grammar which operates with a regular order of linear compositions. Left-associative grammar is based on building up and cancelling valencies. Left-associative parsers differ from all other systems in that the history of the parse doubles as the linguistic analysis. Left-associative grammar is illustrated with two left-associative natural language parsers: one for German and one for English.

Hausser, R.

1986-01-01

19

Building friendly parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential part of any interactive programming development system is an incremental parser capable of error recovery. This paper presents a general incremental parser for LR(1) grammars allowing several\\/any form of modifications in the input program. The parser is suplemented with error recovery routines using an error automaton. Errors can be corrected automatically by recovery routines, or by the user

Fahimeh Jalili; Jean H. Gallier

1982-01-01

20

An Efficient Natural Language Processing System Specially Designed for the Chinese Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an efficient natural language processing system specially designed for the Chinese language is presented. The center of the present system is a bottom-up chart parser with head-driven operation; i.e., phrases are built up by starting with their heads and adjoining constituents to the left or right of the heads instead of strictly from left to right. In

Lin-Shan Lee; Lee-Feng Chien; Long Ji Lin; James Huang; Keh-Jiann Chen

1991-01-01

21

Natural language control of interactive 3D animation and computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a fully implemented system for speech and natural language control of 3D animation and computer games. The experimental framework has features that have been emulated from the popular DOOM™ computer game. It implements an integrated parser based on a linguistic formalism tailored to the processing of the specific natural language instructions required to control a

M. Cavazza; I. Palmer

1999-01-01

22

An Action Representation Formalism for Natural Language Interfaces to Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we outline a framework for the development of natural language interfaces to agent systems with a focus on action representation. The architecture comprises a natural language parser and a case frame based analysis for the semantic representation of the linguistic content of the input. The knowledge base is the core component of the system used in the

Christel Kemke

2007-01-01

23

Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

Rieger, C.; Small, S.

1981-01-01

24

Automatic natural language parsing  

SciTech Connect

This collection of papers on automatic natural language parsing examines research and development in language processing over the past decade. It focuses on current trends toward a phrase structure grammar and deterministic parsing.

Sprack-Jones, K.; Wilks, Y.

1985-01-01

25

Analyzing modal and enunciative discursive heterogeneity: how to combine semantic resources and a syntactic parser analysis  

E-print Network

and a syntactic parser analysis Delphine Battistelli Marine Damiani Université Paris Sorbonne, STIH, EA 4509.battistelli@paris- sorbonne.fr marinedamiani@gmail.com Abstract This paper introduces our methodology for annotating the first step of our global natural language processing (NLP) workflow which uses a syntactic analysis

Boyer, Edmond

26

Online Large-Margin Training of Dependency Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an effective training al- gorithm for linearly-scored dependency parsers that implements online large- margin multi-class training (Crammer and Singer, 2003; Crammer et al., 2003) on top of efficient parsing techniques for de- pendency trees (Eisner, 1996). The trained parsers achieve a competitive dependency accuracy for both English and Czech with no language specific enhancements.

Ryan T. Mcdonald; Koby Crammer; Fernando C. N. Pereira

2005-01-01

27

Natural language generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

Maybury, Mark T.

28

Natural Language Interface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study, by David M. Lane of Rice University, assesses the question, "Is it easier to learn to use computer software that uses natural language commands?" Main concepts are analysis of covariance, adjusted means, and boxplots. The experimental design, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and raw data are all given.

Lane, David M.

2009-02-05

29

A distributed intelligent information system with natural language input for ad hoc knowledge discovery in databases  

SciTech Connect

A distributed information system is described which features a graphic user interface incorporating natural language input and which provides ad hoc knowledge discovery in relational databases. The system is comprised of multiple processes which communicate with each other over a network. The knowledge discovery process involves extracting generalizations from data using background knowledge in the form of concept hierarchies and a learning procedure based upon an attribute-oriented induction technique. The natural language understanding process is a parser based on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), a modern lexicon-based grammar formalism better equipped than older rule-based approaches for handling the often idiosyncratic behavior of words. To generate semantic interpretations, the parser makes use of a process which orders logical access paths in unnormalized databases based on the strength of their dependency structures and on their efficiency of execution.

Fass, D.; Hall, G.; Laurens, O.; McFetridge, P.; Popowich, F.; Rueden, M. von [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

1996-11-01

30

A Model-Driven Parser Generator, from Abstract Syntax Trees to Abstract Syntax Graphs  

E-print Network

Model-based parser generators decouple language specification from language processing. The model-driven approach avoids the limitations that conventional parser generators impose on the language designer. Conventional tools require the designed language grammar to conform to the specific kind of grammar supported by the particular parser generator (being LL and LR parser generators the most common). Model-driven parser generators, like ModelCC, do not require a grammar specification, since that grammar can be automatically derived from the language model and, if needed, adapted to conform to the requirements of the given kind of parser, all of this without interfering with the conceptual design of the language and its associated applications. Moreover, model-driven tools such as ModelCC are able to automatically resolve references between language elements, hence producing abstract syntax graphs instead of abstract syntax trees as the result of the parsing process. Such graphs are not confined to directed ac...

Quesada, Luis; Cubero, Juan-Carlos

2012-01-01

31

Java Mathematical Expression Parser  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Java Mathematical Expression Parser (JEP) is a handy tool "for parsing and evaluating mathematical expressions." It is a no-frills package that incorporates several important features, including user-definable functions and implicit multiplication for easy use. JEP can be downloaded as a complete application, or a couple of its features can be used online as applets. There is a separate page of documentation and installation instructions. Also available on this Web site is the AutoAbacus, which allows users to input a system of equations and obtain the solutions instantaneously.

Funk, Nathan.

32

A Concept-Centric Framework for Building Natural Language Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural language interfaces are expected to come into practical use in many situations. It is, however, not practical to expect to achieve a universal interface because language use is so diverse. To that end, not only advancements in speech and language technologies but also well-designed development frameworks are required so that developers can build domain-specific interfaces rapidly and easily. This paper proposes KNOLU, a framework for building natural language interfaces of a broad range of applications. Developers using this framework can easily build an interface capable of understanding subsets of natural language expressions just by providing an ontology (a concept hierarchy with semantic frames and a lexicon), an onomasticon (a set of instances and their names) and API functions that provide procedural knowledge required to connect the interface to a target application. To develop an interface using KNOLU, first developers define a concept hierarchy for a target domain. Then they provide other declarative and procedural knowledge components with these knowledge components asscicated to the hierarchy. This developmental flow affords an unobstructed view both for development and maintanance. KNOLU uses an existing general-purpose parser and requires neither grammar rules nor expression patterns. It does not require rules to generate semantic interpretations from parsing results, either. Therefore, developers can build an interface without deep knowledge and experience of natural language processing. We applied KNOLU to two applications and confirmed the effectiveness.

Funakoshi, Kotaro; Nakano, Mikio; Hasegawa, Yuji; Tsujino, Hiroshi

33

Left-corner unification-based natural language processing  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for parsing natural language using unification grammars. The algorithm is an extension of left-corner parsing, a bottom-up algorithm which utilizes top-down expectations. The extension exploits unification grammar`s uniform representation of syntactic, semantic, and domain knowledge, by incorporating all types of grammatical knowledge into parser expectations. In particular, we extend the notion of the reachability table, which provides information as to whether or not a top-down expectation can be realized by a potential subconstituent, by including all types of grammatical information in table entries, rather than just phrase structure information. While our algorithm`s worst-case computational complexity is no better than that of many other algorithms, we present empirical testing in which average-case linear time performance is achieved. Our testing indicates this to be much improved average-case performance over previous leftcomer techniques.

Lytinen, S.L.; Tomuro, N. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

34

Designing a Constraint Based Parser for Sanskrit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verbal understanding (?? bdabodha) of any utterance requires the knowledge of how words in that utterance are related to each other. Such knowledge is usually available in the form of cognition of grammatical relations. Generative grammars describe how a language codes these relations. Thus the knowledge of what information various grammatical relations convey is available from the generation point of view and not the analysis point of view. In order to develop a parser based on any grammar one should then know precisely the semantic content of the grammatical relations expressed in a language string, the clues for extracting these relations and finally whether these relations are expressed explicitly or implicitly. Based on the design principles that emerge from this knowledge, we model the parser as finding a directed Tree, given a graph with nodes representing the words and edges representing the possible relations between them. Further, we also use the M?m? ?s? constraint of ?k? ?k?? (expectancy) to rule out non-solutions and sannidhi (proximity) to prioritize the solutions. We have implemented a parser based on these principles and its performance was found to be satisfactory giving us a confidence to extend its functionality to handle the complex sentences.

Kulkarni, Amba; Pokar, Sheetal; Shukl, Devanand

35

Natural Language Spatial Reasoning  

E-print Network

a program that understands language in the corpus. See how well the program works. Analyze why the program a program that understands language in the corpus. See how well the program works. Analyze why the program, state, people, those, too, how, Mr., little, good, world, make, very, year, still, see, own, work, men

Tellex, Stefanie

36

INTERFACING A CDG PARSER WITH AN HMM WORD RECOGNIZER USING WORD GRAPHS  

E-print Network

INTERFACING A CDG PARSER WITH AN HMM WORD RECOGNIZER USING WORD GRAPHS M. P. Harper, M. T. Johnson component based on hidden Markov models with a constraint depen- dency grammar (CDG) parser using a word with the spoken language system, and there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each choice 3

Johnson, Michael T.

37

Bootstrapping statistical parsers from small datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a practical co-training method for bootstrapping statistical parsers using a small amount of manually parsed training material and a much larger pool of raw sentences. Experimental results show that unlabelled sentences can be used to improve the performance of statistical parsers. In addition, we consider the problem of boot-strapping parsers when the manually parsed training material is in

Mark Steedman; Anoop Sarkar; Miles Osborne; Rebecca Hwa; Stephen Clark; Julia Hockenmaier; Paul Ruhlent; Steven BakerI; Jeremiah Crimt

2003-01-01

38

Readings in natural language processing  

SciTech Connect

The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

1986-01-01

39

Prolog implementation of lexical functional grammar as a base for a natural language processing system  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a system which constructs a database out of a narrative natural language text. Firstly they give a detailed description of the PROLOG implementation of the parser which is based on the theory of lexical functional grammar (LFG). They show that PROLOG provides an efficient tool for LFG implementation. Secondly, they postulate some requirements a semantic representation has to fulfil in order to be able to analyse whole texts. They show how kamps theory meets these requirements by analysing sample discourses involving anaphoric nps. 4 references.

Frey, W.; Reyle, U.

1983-01-01

40

Building representations from natural language  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I describe a system I built that produces instantiated representations from descriptions embedded in natural language. For example, in the sentence 'The girl walked to the table', my system produces a ...

Seifter, Mark J

2007-01-01

41

Research in Natural Language Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary interest is in the development of systems which can automatically process natural language text concerning limited domains. At the outset of our research, a number of research groups had created systems which could analyze some moderately complex ...

R. Grishman

1990-01-01

42

Natural Language Processing for Biosurveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information described in electronic clinical reports can be useful for both detection and characterization of outbreaks. However,\\u000a the information is in unstructured, free-text format and is not available to computerized applications. Natural Language processing\\u000a methods structure free-text information by classifying, extracting, and encoding details from the text. We provide a brief\\u000a description of the types of natural Language processing techniques

Wendy W. Chapman; Adi V. Gundlapalli; Brett R. South; John N. Dowling

43

Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

Rieger, C.

1980-01-01

44

A Table Look-Up Parser in Online ILTS Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple table look-up parser (TLUP) has been developed for parsing and consequently diagnosing syntactic errors in semi-free formatted learners' input sentences of an intelligent language tutoring system (ILTS). The TLUP finds a parse tree for a correct version of an input sentence, diagnoses syntactic errors of the learner by tracing and…

Chen, Liang; Tokuda, Naoyuki; Hou, Pingkui

2005-01-01

45

A Table Look-Up Parser in Online ILTS Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple table look-up parser (TLUP) has been developed for parsing and consequently diagnosing syntactic errors in semi-free formatted learners' input sentences of an intelligent language tutoring system (ILTS). The TLUP finds a parse tree for a correct version of an input sentence, diagnoses syntactic errors of the learner by tracing and regarding the deviations of the input from the

Liang Chen; Naoyuki Tokuda; Pingkui Hou

2005-01-01

46

A Specification and Validating Parser for Simplified Technical Spanish  

Microsoft Academic Search

AECMA Simplified English for aircraft maintenance manuals is one of the best- known examples of a controlled language. In this paper we describe the development of its equivalent for Spanish. We also present a prototype validating parser and outline its evaluation.

Remedios Ruiz Cascales; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

47

Type Parser 1.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy utility helps users who want to get more information on the usage of their drives. With Type Parser, users can discover wasted drive space, the types of files responsible, and where they reside. The options menu allows users to specify whether they wish to calculate cluster size or directory data and what size files they wish to analyze. A good way to discover long forgotten files and recover some of that seemingly ever-elusive disk space.

2000-01-01

48

Natural language processing information retrieval  

E-print Network

Natural language processing for information retrieval David D. Lewis AT&T Bell Laboratories Karen with `end' text. We will however use information retrieval (IR), sometimes taken to mean document retrieval the essential properties of document retrieval and reviews both conventional practice and research findings

Haddadi, Hamed

49

Natural Language Generation from Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of designing a system that accepts a plan structure of the sort generated by AI planning programs and produces natural language text explaining how to execute the plan. We describe a system that generates text from plans produced by the NONLIN planner (Tate 1976).The results of our system are promising, but the texts still lack

Chris Mellish; Roger Evans

1989-01-01

50

Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: this paperas "the first clear demonstration of a probabilistic parser outperforming a trigram model" (pg. 457), itdoes not discuss what features of the algorithm lead to its superior results

Christopher D. Manning; Hinrich Schiitze

1999-01-01

51

Ambiguity resolution analysis in incremental parsing of natural language.  

PubMed

Incremental parsing gains its importance in natural language processing and psycholinguistics because of its cognitive plausibility. Modeling the associated cognitive data structures, and their dynamics, can lead to a better understanding of the human parser. In earlier work, we have introduced a recursive neural network (RNN) capable of performing syntactic ambiguity resolution in incremental parsing. In this paper, we report a systematic analysis of the behavior of the network that allows us to gain important insights about the kind of information that is exploited to resolve different forms of ambiguity. In attachment ambiguities, in which a new phrase can be attached at more than one point in the syntactic left context, we found that learning from examples allows us to predict the location of the attachment point with high accuracy, while the discrimination amongst alternative syntactic structures with the same attachment point is slightly better than making a decision purely based on frequencies. We also introduce several new ideas to enhance the architectural design, obtaining significant improvements of prediction accuracy, up to 25% error reduction on the same dataset used in previous work. Finally, we report large scale experiments on the entire Wall Street Journal section of the Penn Treebank. The best prediction accuracy of the model on this large dataset is 87.6%, a relative error reduction larger than 50% compared to previous results. PMID:16121736

Costa, Fabrizio; Frasconi, Paolo; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Sturt, Patrick; Soda, Giovanni

2005-07-01

52

Parser Combinators: a Practical Application for Generating Parsers for NMR Data  

PubMed Central

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a technique for acquiring protein data at atomic resolution and determining the three-dimensional structure of large protein molecules. A typical structure determination process results in the deposition of a large data sets to the BMRB (Bio-Magnetic Resonance Data Bank). This data is stored and shared in a file format called NMR-Star. This format is syntactically and semantically complex making it challenging to parse. Nevertheless, parsing these files is crucial to applying the vast amounts of biological information stored in NMR-Star files, allowing researchers to harness the results of previous studies to direct and validate future work. One powerful approach for parsing files is to apply a Backus-Naur Form (BNF) grammar, which is a high-level model of a file format. Translation of the grammatical model to an executable parser may be automatically accomplished. This paper will show how we applied a model BNF grammar of the NMR-Star format to create a free, open-source parser, using a method that originated in the functional programming world known as “parser combinators”. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of a principled approach to file specification and parsing. This paper also builds upon our previous work [1], in that 1) it applies concepts from Functional Programming (which is relevant even though the implementation language, Java, is more mainstream than Functional Programming), and 2) all work and accomplishments from this project will be made available under standard open source licenses to provide the community with the opportunity to learn from our techniques and methods. PMID:24352525

Fenwick, Matthew; Weatherby, Gerard; Ellis, Heidi JC; Gryk, Michael R.

2013-01-01

53

A Flexible Parser for a Linguistic Development Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the parser of LEU\\/2, the Linguistic Experimentation Environment of the LILOG project. The parser is designed to support and encourage experimentation with different grammars, different styles of writing grammar, and with different parsing strategies. Unlike the parser of the first LILOG prototype, which was designed specifically for Categorial Unification Grammars (Uszkoreit 1986), the present parser places hardly any

Gregor Erbach

1991-01-01

54

Natural language processing: an introduction  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide an overview and tutorial of natural language processing (NLP) and modern NLP-system design. Target audience This tutorial targets the medical informatics generalist who has limited acquaintance with the principles behind NLP and/or limited knowledge of the current state of the art. Scope We describe the historical evolution of NLP, and summarize common NLP sub-problems in this extensive field. We then provide a synopsis of selected highlights of medical NLP efforts. After providing a brief description of common machine-learning approaches that are being used for diverse NLP sub-problems, we discuss how modern NLP architectures are designed, with a summary of the Apache Foundation's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We finally consider possible future directions for NLP, and reflect on the possible impact of IBM Watson on the medical field. PMID:21846786

Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Chapman, Wendy W

2011-01-01

55

Classroom Classics: Natural Language Stimulation for Language Delayed Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes methods of natural language enhancement which both teachers and parents can use with young children who have language delays. The importance of connecting language to meaningful, functional communication is stressed. The reinforcement for the child becomes the adult's natural and spontaneous response. Adults, then, must prove…

Lowenthal, Barbara

1984-01-01

56

Using Speech and Natural Language Technology in Language Intervention  

E-print Network

--- well into their school­age years. Those who do eventually acquire functional language seem to do soUsing Speech and Natural Language Technology in Language Intervention Jill Fain Lehman March 19­3890 Abstract Educational and clinical techniques for language intervention in children with autistic spectrum

57

Applying Software Engineering Techniques to Parser Design: the development of a C # parser  

E-print Network

of metrics that describe the parser's evolution. This paper presents and reinforces an argument for the ap System CVS to checkpoint the de­ velopment phases, and a rigorous testing framework to guide this application can take place. It presents one of the first case studies of parser design, and contrasts sharply

Malloy, Brian

58

Natural Language Processing, Instructor: Diana Inkpen  

E-print Network

@eecs.uottawa.ca Preliminaries #12;Why study Natural Language Processing (NLP)? NLP is a very important current area to the world #12;NLP and related terms Natural language processing (NLP) = manipulation, processing the way people do it". Language engineering = Building systems that apply the techniques of NLP; has

Inkpen, Diana

59

Integration of speech with natural language understanding.  

PubMed Central

The integration of speech recognition with natural language understanding raises issues of how to adapt natural language processing to the characteristics of spoken language; how to cope with errorful recognition output, including the use of natural language information to reduce recognition errors; and how to use information from the speech signal, beyond just the sequence of words, as an aid to understanding. This paper reviews current research addressing these questions in the Spoken Language Program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). I begin by reviewing some of the ways that spontaneous spoken language differs from standard written language and discuss methods of coping with the difficulties of spontaneous speech. I then look at how systems cope with errors in speech recognition and at attempts to use natural language information to reduce recognition errors. Finally, I discuss how prosodic information in the speech signal might be used to improve understanding. PMID:7479813

Moore, R C

1995-01-01

60

Lagrangian relaxation for natural language decoding  

E-print Network

The major success story of natural language processing over the last decade has been the development of high-accuracy statistical methods for a wide-range of language applications. The availability of large textual data ...

Rush, Alexander M. (Alexander Matthew)

2014-01-01

61

Natural Language Processing on the Web  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing on the Web Guy Lapalme RALI-DIRO, Universit� de Montr�al ! http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~lapalme #12;Overview � What is Natural Language Processing (NLP) � NLP for the Web � The Web for NLP 2 #12 recognition 5 #12;http://rali.iro.umontreal.ca #12;NLP for the syntactic Web search engines � NLP saved

62

SIMPLIFYING PARSER GENERATION Gabriel J. Ferrer  

E-print Network

Hendrix College Conway, AR 72032 (501) 450-3879 ferrer@ hendrix.edu ABSTRACT This paper describes Squirrel, a parser generator that uses a modification of the Packrat algorithm [7]. Squirrel is designed to avoid to learn to use Squirrel in about a week. These students were successful in using Squirrel to create

Ferrer, Gabriel J.

63

A Maximum-Entropy-Inspired Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new parser for parsing down to Penn tree-bank style parse trees that achieves 90.1% average precision\\/recall for sentences of length 40 and less, and 89.5% for sentences of length 100 and less when trained and tested on the previously established [5, 9, 10, 15, 17] \\

Eugene Charniak

2000-01-01

64

Natural language interface for command and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A working prototype of a flexible 'natural language' interface for command and control situations is presented. This prototype is analyzed from two standpoints. First is the role of natural language for command and control, its realistic requirements, and how well the role can be filled with current practical technology. Second, technical concepts for implementation are discussed and illustrated by their application in the prototype system. It is also shown how adaptive or 'learning' features can greatly ease the task of encoding language knowledge in the language processor.

Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

1986-01-01

65

A broad-coverage parser for German based on defeasible constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a parser for German that achieves a competitive accuracy on unrestricted input while maintaining a coverage of 100%. By writing well-formedness rules as declarative, defeasible constraints that integrate different sources of linguistic knowledge, very high robustness is achieved against all sorts of language error.

Kilian A. Foth; Michael Daum; Wolfgang Menzel

2005-01-01

66

Evaluation Methodology for Natural Language Processing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Neal-Montgomery NLP Evaluation Methodology was developed under the 'Benchmark Investigation/Identification' project as a means of determining the linguistic competence of Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems. Embodied in an evaluation tool based ...

C. A. Montgomery, D. J. Funke, E. L. Feit, J. G. Neal

1992-01-01

67

A Natural Language Interface to Databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a Natural Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

Ford, D. R.

1990-01-01

68

Semi-supervised learning for natural language  

E-print Network

Statistical supervised learning techniques have been successful for many natural language processing tasks, but they require labeled datasets, which can be expensive to obtain. On the other hand, unlabeled data (raw text) ...

Liang, Percy

2005-01-01

69

Natural language search of structured documents  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on techniques with which natural language can be used to search for specific elements in a structured document, such as an XML file. The goal is to create a system capable of being trained to identify ...

Oney, Stephen W

2008-01-01

70

Natural Language Processing, 2003 Discussion Sessions  

E-print Network

be used to resolve problem ZZ? -- Could this program be extended to handle language LL? -- Why does or two volunteers. The discussion leaders should focus on interesting aspects of each paper, relate them-state Transducer for Extracting Information from Natural-Language Text" (Hobbs, Appelt et al 1997) (about Mar 27

Ward, Nigel

71

Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web  

E-print Network

information, we strongly believe that it should be grounded in the information access method humans are most that natural language is the best information access mechanism for humans; it is intuitive, #12; easy to use be equally accessible by computers using spe­ cialized languages and interchange formats, and humans using

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, InfoLab

72

Domain Driven Technologies for Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

1 28/07/06 1 Domain Driven Technologies for Natural Language Processing Alfio Massimiliano Gliozzo. These properties have been exploited to develop innovative technologies for a wide range of different Natural that covers a whole spectrum of phenomena, a domain (Structuralist paradigm) e.g. Medicine: hospital, doctor

Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

73

Natural Language Access to Medical Text *  

PubMed Central

This paper describes research on the development of a methodology for representing the information in texts and of procedures for relating the linguistic structure of a request to the corresponding representations. The work is being done in the context of a prototype system that will allow physicians and other health professionals to access information in a computerized textbook of hepatitis through natural language dialogues. The interpretation of natural language queries is derived from DIAMOND/DIAGRAM, a linguistically motivated, domain-independent natural language interface developed at SRI. A text access component is being developed that uses representations of the propositional content of text passages and of the hierarchical structure of the text as a whole to retrieve relevant information.

Walker, Donald E.; Hobbs, Jerry R.

1981-01-01

74

Attacks on Lexical Natural Language Steganography Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications.

Cuneyt M. Taskiran; Umut Topkara; Mercan Topkara; Edward J. Delp

75

Fourteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning  

E-print Network

of the Conference 15-16 July 2010 Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden #12;Production and Manufacturing by Taberg Media Group AB Box 94, 562 02 Taberg Sweden CoNLL-2010 Best Paper Sponsors: c 2010 The Association interest group on natural language learning. CONLL-2010 will be held in Uppsala, Sweden, 15-16 July 2010

76

Natural Language Interfaces and Strategic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern weaponry is often too complex for unaided human operation, and is largely or totally controlled by computers. But modern software, particularly artificial intelligence software, exhibits such complexity and inscrutability that there are grave dangers associated with its use in non-benign applications. Recent efforts to make computer systems more accessible to military personnel through natural language processing systems, as proposed

Geoffrey K. Pullum

1987-01-01

77

Natural Language Information Retrieval: Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the progress of the natural language information retrieval project, a joint effort led by GE (General Electric) Research, and its evaluation at the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). Discusses stream-based information retrieval, which uses alternative methods of document indexing; advanced linguistic streams; weighting; and query…

Perez-Carballo, Jose; Strzalkowski, Tomek

2000-01-01

78

Commercial Applications of Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

Commercial Applications of Natural Language Processing Kenneth W. Church AT&T Bell Laboratories with the first public demonstration of MT in 1954 and ending with the sobering findings of the ALPAC committee (in contrast with machine translation). As the AL­ PAC committee predicted, word processing has

Church, Kenneth W.

79

Natural Language Engineering Group University of Essex  

E-print Network

Natural Language Engineering Group University of Essex Wivenhoe Park Colchester CO4 3SQ United Kingdom Centering: a parametric theory and its instantiations Massimo Poesio University of Essex poesio@essex that will appear in Computational Linguistics, 30(3), 2004 #12;University of Essex, Department of Computer Science

Poesio, Massimo

80

A Testbed for Portuguese Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a data-text aligned corpus for Brazilian Portuguese Natural Language Generation (NLG) called SINotas, which we believe to be the first of its kind. SINotas provides a testbed for research on various aspects of trainable, corpus-based NLG, and it is the basis of a simple NLG application under development in the education domain.

Eder Miranda de Novais; Rafael Lage de Oliveira; Daniel Bastos Pereira; Thiago Dias Tadeu; Ivandre Paraboni

2009-01-01

81

Research Report AI199601 Natural Language Plurals  

E-print Network

be distinct. For example, the Beatles and the owners of Apple Records refer to two distinct collections to the other). Formally, the premises beatles appleowners appleowners beatles do not imply appleowners = beatles. Natural language plurals have at least three readings: · The collective reading, which attribut

Covington, Michael A.

82

Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web  

E-print Network

information, we strongly believe that it should be grounded in the information access method humans are most that natural language is the best information access mechanism for humans; it is intuitive, In Proceedings IBM Internet Technology Division 1 Rogers Street Cambridge, MA 02142 dennisq@us.ibm.com Abstract

Lin, Jimmy

83

A Comparison of Chinese Parsers for Stanford Dependencies Wanxiang Che  

E-print Network

- oriented representation, commonly generated either by (i) converting the output of a con- stituent parser for producing automatic (rather than gold) part- of-speech tags to train Chinese dependency parsers. Finally, we are widely used: in biomedical text mining (Kim et al., 2009), as well as in textual entailment (Androutsopou

Tomkins, Andrew

84

Fast, Error Correcting Parser Combinatiors: A Short Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compiler writers have always heavily relied on tools: parser generators for gen- erating parsers out of context free grammars, attribute grammar systems for generating semantic analyzers out of attribute grammars, and systems for gen- erating code generators out of descriptions of machine architectures. Since de- signing such special formalisms and constructing such tools deals with one of the most important

S. Doaitse Swierstra; Pablo R. Azero Alcocer

1999-01-01

85

Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

1994-01-01

86

Understanding requirements via natural language information modeling  

SciTech Connect

Information system requirements that are expressed as simple English sentences provide a clear understanding of what is needed between system specifiers, administrators, users, and developers of information systems. The approach used to develop the requirements is the Natural-language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM). NIAM allows the processes, events, and business rules to be modeled using natural language. The natural language presentation enables the people who deal with the business issues that are to be supported by the information system to describe exactly the system requirements that designers and developers will implement. Computer prattle is completely eliminated from the requirements discussion. An example is presented that is based upon a section of a DOE Order involving nuclear materials management. Where possible, the section is analyzed to specify the process(es) to be done, the event(s) that start the process, and the business rules that are to be followed during the process. Examples, including constraints, are developed. The presentation steps through the modeling process and shows where the section of the DOE Order needs clarification, extensions or interpretations that could provide a more complete and accurate specification.

Sharp, J.K.; Becker, S.D.

1993-07-01

87

Reference And Description In Natural Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a theory for modeling the semantic and pragmatic properties of natural language expressions used to refer. The sorts of expressions to be discussed include proper names, definite noun phrases and personal pronouns. We will focus in this paper on such expressions in the singular, having discussed elsewhere procedures for extending the present sort of analysis to various plural uses of these expressions. Propositions involving referential expressions are formally redefined in a second order predicate calculus, in which various semantic and pragmatic factors involved in establishing and interpreting references are modeled as rules of inference. Uses of referential utterances are differentiated according to the means used for individuating the object referred to. Analyses are provided for anaphoric, contextual, demonstrative, introductory and citational individuative devices. We analyze sentences like 'The man [or John] is wise' as conditionals of the form 'Whatever is uniquely a man [or named "John"] relevant to the present discourse is wise'. So modeled, the presupposition of existence (which historically has concerned much logical analysis of such sentences) is represented as a conversational implicature of the sort which obtains from any proposition of the form '(P -> Q)' to the corresponding `P'. This formalization is intended to serve as part of an empirical theory of natural language phenomena. Being an empirical theory, ours will strive to model the greatest possible diversity of phenomena using a minimum of formal apparatus. Such a theory may provide a foundation for automatic systems to predict and replicate natural language phenomena for purposes of text understanding and synthesis.

Steinberg, Alan N.

1988-03-01

88

Understanding and representing natural language meaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (4) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (5) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (6) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (7) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

Waltz, D. L.; Maran, L. R.; Dorfman, M. H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

1982-12-01

89

Outline Introduction Parsing natural mathematical language FMathL and GF Conclusion Formal Mathematical Language  

E-print Network

Outline Introduction Parsing natural mathematical language FMathL and GF Conclusion FMathL Formal of Mathematics FMathL Formal Mathematical Language #12;Outline Introduction Parsing natural mathematical language FMathL and GF Conclusion Outline of the Talk Introduction Parsing natural mathematical language FMath

Neumaier, Arnold

90

Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning.  

PubMed

Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents. PMID:23301009

Thibodeau, Paul H; Boroditsky, Lera

2013-01-01

91

BioNLP 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

ACL 2014 BioNLP 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing Proceedings of the Workshop following the course set by the first ACL workshop on Natural Language Processing in the Biomedical Domain and natural language processing. The panel introduces the workshop participants to the long

92

The Linguistic Nature of Language and Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five recent books about language that address issues that arise in classrooms with an increasing number of diverse dialects and varied home languages. Discusses the complexities of language, misunderstandings in the Ebonics controversy, socioeducational issues, and classroom ideas for teachers. Describes two web sites. (SR)

Zitlow, Connie S., Ed.

2001-01-01

93

Building a Natural Language Interface for the ATNF Pulsar Database for Speeding up Execution of Complex Queries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, there has been no available natural language interfaces (NLI's) for querying a database of pulsars (rotating neutron stars emitting radiation at regular intervals). Currently, pulsar records are retrieved through an HTML form accessible via the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) website where one needs to be familiar with pulsar attributes used by the interface (e.g. BLC). Using a NLI relinquishes the need for learning form-specific formalism and allows execution of more powerful queries than those supported by the HTML form. Furthermore, on database access that requires comparison of attributes for all the pulsar records (e.g. what is the fastest pulsar?), using a NLI for retrieving answers to such complex questions is definitely much more efficient and less error-prone. This poster presents the first NLI ever created for the ATNF pulsar database (ATNF-Query) to facilitate database access using complex queries. ATNF-Query is built using a machine learning approach that induces a semantic parser from a question corpus; the innovative application is intended to provide pulsar researchers or laymen with an intelligent language understanding database system for friendly information access.

Tang, Rupert; Jenet, F.; Rangel, S.; Dartez, L.

2010-01-01

94

Sex and Gender in Natural Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between a real-world category (sex) and a linguistic category (gender) is examined. The gender system of Indo-European languages is discussed, and the way gender works in Greek, one of the older Indo-European languages, is examined at some length. The conclusion is that, but for the existence of separate gender-sensitive adjectival…

Percival, W. Keith

95

Sex and Gender in Natural Language  

E-print Network

The topic of this paper is the relation between a real-world category (sex) and a linguistic category (gender). In the first part, the gender system of Indo-European languages is discussed. Then the gender-system in a language without grammatical...

Percival, W. Keith

1981-01-01

96

Natural Language Processing in the Medical and Biological Domains  

E-print Network

.) of natural language utterances Medical Domain That of Medical Informatics : Health care (treat patients on Natural Language Processing Biomedical Domain That of Biomedical Informatics : Molecular Biology Genomics User Needs Biomedical NLP : More Focused User Needs 4 Impact of Text Genres Open Access Language 5

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

97

Menelas: Coding and Information Retrieval from Natural Language  

E-print Network

Menelas: Coding and Information Retrieval from Natural Language Patient Discharge Summaries Pierre@biomath.jussieu.fr Abstract. The overall goal of Menelas is to provide better access to the information contained in natural bases and systems for processing natural language patient discharge summaries. It has also produced

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

98

BALANCING ROBUSTNESS AND EFFICIENCY IN UNIFICATION-AUGMENTED CONTEXT FREE PARSERS FOR LARGE PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large practical NLP applications require robust analysis components that can eectively handle input that is disfluent or extra-grammatical. The eectiveness and eciency of any robust parser are a direct func- tion of three main factors: (1) Flexibility: what types of disfluencies and deviations from the grammar can the parser handle?; (2) Search: How does the parser search the space of

Carolyn Penstein Ros; Alon Lavie

2001-01-01

99

A Natural Interface for Sign Language Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general goal of our research is the creation of a natu- ral and intuitive interface for input and recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) math signs. The specific objective of this work is the development of two new interfaces for the Mathsignertm application. Mathsignertm is an interactive, 3D animation-based game designed to increase the mathematical skills of deaf children.

Nicoletta Adamo-villani; Bedrich Benes; Matt Brisbin; Bryce Hyland

2006-01-01

100

Two Types of Definites in Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis is concerned with the description and analysis of two semantically different types of definite articles in German. While the existence of distinct article paradigms in various Germanic dialects and other languages has been acknowledged in the descriptive literature for quite some time, the theoretical implications of their existence…

Schwarz, Florian

2009-01-01

101

Modes of Transcription in Natural Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to define the relationship between speech and writing as two separate media within language, and suggests the use of the term translation to describe moving from one medium to another. Such a view acknowledges the independence of speech and writing, the possibility of translation in either direction, the possible untranslatability…

Taylor, C. V.

102

NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING Lecture 1: Introduction  

E-print Network

service advertising agency specializing in direct and interactive marketing. Located in Irvine CA, 10TH://people.csail.mit.edu/regina/6864/ #12;What is NLP? · Goal: intelligent processing of human language ­ Not just effective string DEGREE is looking for an Assistant Account Manager to help manage and coordinate interactive marketing

Entekhabi, Dara

103

A computational model to connect gestalt perception and natural language  

E-print Network

We present a computational model that connects gestalt visual perception and language. The model grounds the meaning of natural language words and phrases in terms of the perceptual properties of visually salient groups. ...

Dhande, Sheel Sanjay, 1979-

2003-01-01

104

6.881 Natural Language Processing, Fall 2004  

E-print Network

This course is a graduate level introduction to natural language processing, the primary concern of which is the study of human language from a computational perspective. The class will cover models at the level of syntactic, ...

Barzilay, Regina

105

Trainable Methods for Surface Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present three systems for surface natural lan- guage generation that are trainable from annotated corpora. The first two systems, called NLG1 and NLG2, require a corpus marked only with domain- specific semantic attributes, while the last system, called NLG3, requires a corpus marked with both semantic attributes and syntactic dependency infor- mation. All systems attempt to produce a grammat-

Adwait Ratnaparkhi

2000-01-01

106

WYSIWYM: knowledge editing with natural language feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWYSIWYM (What You See Is What You Meant) is auser interface technique which allows an.author to createand edit in a natural and simple way the.knowledge contained in a generated document. More generally,WYSIWYM editing provides a self-documenting, multi-lingual approach to maintaining knowledge bases.We demonstrate here the use of WYSIWYM knowledge editing in the DRAFTER-If system. DRAFTER-Ifis an interactive software tool designed

Richard Power; Donia Scott

107

Fuzzy Modeling and Natural Language Processing for Panini's Sanskrit Grammar  

E-print Network

Indian languages have long history in World Natural languages. Panini was the first to define Grammar for Sanskrit language with about 4000 rules in fifth century. These rules contain uncertainty information. It is not possible to Computer processing of Sanskrit language with uncertain information. In this paper, fuzzy logic and fuzzy reasoning are proposed to deal to eliminate uncertain information for reasoning with Sanskrit grammar. The Sanskrit language processing is also discussed in this paper.

Reddy, P Venkata Subba

2010-01-01

108

XSS-FP: Browser Fingerprinting using HTML Parser Quirks  

E-print Network

Firefox 15) of a web-browser, exploiting HTML parser quirks exercised through XSS. Our experiments show that the exact version of a web browser can be determined with 71% of accuracy, and that only 6 tests are sufficient to quickly determine the exact family a web browser belongs to. I. INTRODUCTION In computer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

Constructing a Parser Evaluation Scheme Laura Rimell and Stephen Clark  

E-print Network

Constructing a Parser Evaluation Scheme Laura Rimell and Stephen Clark Oxford University Computing Laboratory Wolfson Building, Parks Road Oxford, OX1 3QD, United Kingdom {laura.rimell,stephen. (1998), King et al. (2003), and de Marneffe et al. (2006). However, there has been little analysis

Koehn, Philipp

110

Evalita'09 Parsing Task: comparing dependency parsers and treebanks  

E-print Network

Evalita'09 Parsing Task: comparing dependency parsers and treebanks Cristina Bosco*, Simonetta.montemagni,felice.dellorletta,alessandro.lenci}@ilc.cnr.it Abstract. The aim of Evalita Parsing Task is at defining and extending Italian state of the art parsing around two tracks, i.e. Dependency Parsing and Constituency Parsing. As a main novelty with respect

Mazzei, Alessandro

111

A Natural Language Interface for Crime-related Spatial Queries  

E-print Network

A Natural Language Interface for Crime-related Spatial Queries Chengyang Zhang, Yan Huang, Rada Mihalcea, Hector Cuellar Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of North Texas Denton build towards a natural language query interface to spatial databases to answer crime-related spatial

Huang, Yan

112

Searching for Music Using Natural Language Queries and Relevance Feedback  

E-print Network

Searching for Music Using Natural Language Queries and Relevance Feedback Peter Knees 1 and Gerhard to search inside large­scale music collections by enabling the user to give feedback on the retrieved music pieces. In the original approach, a search engine that can be queried through free­form natural language

Widmer, Gerhard

113

Searching for Music Using Natural Language Queries and Relevance Feedback  

E-print Network

Searching for Music Using Natural Language Queries and Relevance Feedback Peter Knees1 and Gerhard to search inside large-scale music collections by enabling the user to give feedback on the retrieved music pieces. In the original approach, a search engine that can be queried through free-form natural language

Widmer, Gerhard

114

CSI 5180: Topics in AI: Natural Language Processing,  

E-print Network

Inkpen e-mail: diana@site.uottawa.ca Preliminaries Why study Natural Language Processing (NLP)? NLP the world? ­ how to connect utterances to the world NLP and related terms Natural language processing (NLP the techniques of NLP; has an emphasis on the creation of large systems, software engineering Computational

Inkpen, Diana

115

Literature Research into Natural Language Generation for the Virtual Storyteller  

E-print Network

Literature Research into Natural Language Generation for the Virtual Storyteller Marissa Hoek natural language generation, virtual storytelling, Dutch, emergent narrative ABSTRACT This paper presents Storyteller, a multi-agent system that simulates actors to create a story. The goal was to come up

Theune, Mariët

116

University of Essex Natural Language Engineering and Web Applications Group  

E-print Network

University of Essex Natural Language Engineering and Web Applications Group Depratment of Computer Science Kappa3 = Alpha (or Beta) Ron Artstein artstein [at] essex.ac.uk Massimo Poesio poesio [at] essex;University of Essex Natural Language Engineering and Web Applications Group NLE Technical Note 05-1, CS

Poesio, Massimo

117

Hunting for Smells in Natural Language Tests Benedikt Hauptmann  

E-print Network

Hunting for Smells in Natural Language Tests Benedikt Hauptmann Maximilian Junker, Sebastian Eder. For source code and unit tests, so called code smells and test smells have been established as indicators to identify poorly written code. We apply the idea of smells to natural language tests by defining a set

118

Machine Learning in Natural Language Georgios P. Petasis  

E-print Network

Machine Learning in Natural Language Processing Georgios P. Petasis Software and Knowledge@iit.demokritos.gr Abstract. This thesis examines the use of machine learning techniques in various tasks of natural language-entity recog- nition, and b) the creation of a new machine learning algorithm and its assessment on synthetic

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

119

Multiobjective Genetic Programming for Natural Language Parsing and Tagging  

E-print Network

Multiobjective Genetic Programming for Natural Language Parsing and Tagging L. Araujo Dpto@sip.ucm.es Abstract. Parsing and Tagging are very important tasks in Natural Language Processing. Parsing amounts belong to more than one lexical class, it turns out to be a disambiguation task. Because parsing

Fernandez, Thomas

120

Head-Driven Statistical Models for Natural Language Parsing  

E-print Network

Head-Driven Statistical Models for Natural Language Parsing Michael Collins #3; MIT Arti#12;cial Intelligence Laboratory This paper describes three statistical models for natural language parsing. The models to approaches where a parse tree is represented as the sequence of decisions corresponding to a head

Collins, Michael

121

Improving Natural Language Parsing Through Machine Learning and Lexical Resources  

E-print Network

Improving Natural Language Parsing Through Machine Learning and Lexical Resources Conor Cafferkey@computing.dcu.ie Natural language parsing Parsing is the process of deducing the syntactic structure of a string such as Information Extraction (IE), Machine translation (MT) and Text Summarisation. Types of parsing: Shallow

Narasayya, Vivek

122

Representing and Reasoning with Events from Natural Language  

E-print Network

Representing and Reasoning with Events from Natural Language Miguel Leith and Jim Cunningham Department of Computing Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine 180 Queen's Gate, London in natural language. Following on from the work of Moens and Steedman and the later work of Kent, we have

Cunningham, Jim

123

Overview of computer-based Natural Language Processing  

SciTech Connect

Computer-based Natural Language processing and understanding is the key to enabling humans and their creations to interact with machines in natural language (in contrast to computer language). The doors that such an achievement can open has made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural languages interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and the future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state-of-the-art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants, and finally, future trends and expectations.

Gevarter, W.B.

1983-04-01

124

Natural Language Understanding by Computer The Next Step  

E-print Network

research in artificial intelligence (AI) attempts to model human skills in natural language understanding of Aristotle's observations about thought and language seem to hit the mark precisely today. after more than two millenia. (See [Aristotle].) And the study of language. which is inexUicably intertwined

Michalski, Ryszard S.

125

College of Natural Resources Suggested Language for Wills and Trusts  

E-print Network

College of Natural Resources Suggested Language for Wills and Trusts For unrestricted gifts: I give to the NC State Natural Resources Foundation, Inc. of Raleigh, North Carolina the sum in the College of Natural Resources at North Carolina State University to enhance the programs at the College

Buckel, Jeffrey A.

126

MyProLang - My Programming Language: A Template-Driven Automatic Natural Programming Language  

E-print Network

Modern computer programming languages are governed by complex syntactic rules. They are unlike natural languages; they require extensive manual work and a significant amount of learning and practicing for an individual to become skilled at and to write correct programs. Computer programming is a difficult, complicated, unfamiliar, non-automated, and a challenging discipline for everyone; especially, for students, new programmers and end-users. This paper proposes a new programming language and an environment for writing computer applications based on source-code generation. It is mainly a template-driven automatic natural imperative programming language called MyProLang. It harnesses GUI templates to generate proprietary natural language source-code, instead of having computer programmers write the code manually. MyProLang is a blend of five elements. A proprietary natural programming language with unsophisticated grammatical rules and expressive syntax; automation templates that automate the generation of in...

Bassil, Youssef

2012-01-01

127

Analyzing Learner Language: Towards a Flexible Natural Language Processing Architecture for Intelligent Language Tutors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligent language tutoring systems (ILTS) typically analyze learner input to diagnose learner language properties and provide individualized feedback. Despite a long history of ILTS research, such systems are virtually absent from real-life foreign language teaching (FLT). Taking a step toward more closely linking ILTS research to real-life…

Amaral, Luiz; Meurers, Detmar; Ziai, Ramon

2011-01-01

128

Sign languages are naturally occurring languages used by members of deaf communities throughout the world.  

E-print Network

Sign languages are naturally occurring languages used by members of deaf communities throughout, New Haven, Connecticut We investigated effects of sign language experience on deaf and hearing-spreading).AXB discrimination andAXB categorization and goodness ratings on the target items were completed by deaf early

129

Natural language command of an autonomous micro-air vehicle  

E-print Network

Natural language is a flexible and intuitive modality for conveying directions and commands to a robot but presents a number of computational challenges. Diverse words and phrases must be mapped into structures that the ...

Huang, Albert S.

130

MOOIDE : natural language interface for programming MOO environments  

E-print Network

MOOIDE is an interface to allow novice users to program a MOO environment using natural language. Programming the MOO involves a variety of tasks like creating objects and their states, assigning verb actions to objects, ...

Ahmad, Moinuddin

2008-01-01

131

Natural language processing for unmanned aerial vehicle guidance interfaces  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the opportunities and challenges involved in applying natural language processing techniques to the control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are addressed. The problem of controlling an unmanned aircraft ...

Craparo, Emily M. (Emily Marie), 1980-

2004-01-01

132

Information extraction to facilitate translation of natural language legislation  

E-print Network

There is a large body of existing legislation and policies that govern how government organizations and corporations can share information. Since these rules are generally expressed in natural language, it is difficult and ...

Wang, Samuel (Samuel Siyue)

2011-01-01

133

A General Natural-language Text Processor for Clinical Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDevelopment of a general natural-language processor that identifies clinical information in narrative reports and maps that information into a structured representation containing clinical terms.DesignThe natural-language processor provides three phases of processing, all of which are driven by different knowledge sources. The first phase performs the parsing. It identifies the structure of the text through use of a grammar that defines

Carol Friedman; Philip O Alderson; John H M Austin; James J Cimino; Stephen B Johnson

1994-01-01

134

An Evaluation of LOLITA and Related Natural Language Processing Systems  

E-print Network

An Evaluation of LOLITA and related Natural Language Processing Systems Paul Callaghan Submitted to the University of Durham for the degree of Ph.D., August 1997 --------------------- This research addresses the question, "how do we evaluate systems like LOLITA?" LOLITA is the Natural Language Processing (NLP) system under development at the University of Durham. It is intended as a platform for building NL applications. We are therefore interested in questions of evaluation for such general NLP systems. The thesis has two parts.

unknown authors

1998-01-01

135

An Evaluation of LOLITA and Related Natural Language Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Evaluation of LOLITA and related Natural Language Processing SystemsPaul CallaghanSubmitted to the University of Durham for the degree of Ph.D., August 1997---------------------This research addresses the question, "how do we evaluate systems like LOLITA?" LOLITA isthe Natural Language Processing (NLP) system under development at the University of Durham.It is intended as a platform for building NL applications. We are therefore

Paul Callaghan

1998-01-01

136

Plan-Based Integration of Natural Language and Graphics Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

W. Wahlster, E. André, W. Finkler, H.-J. Profitlich and T. Rist, Plan-based integration of natural language and graphics generation, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 387-427. Multimodal interfaces combining natural language and graphics take advantage of both the individual strength of each communication mode and the fact that several modes can be employed in parallel. The central claim of this paper is

Wolfgang Wahlster; Elisabeth André; Wolfgang Finkler; Hans-jürgen Profitlich; Thomas Rist

1993-01-01

137

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

138

Unsupervised Learning of the Morphology of a Natural Language  

E-print Network

Unsupervised Learning of the Morphology of a Natural Language John Goldsmith* University of Chicago learning of the morphological segmentation of European languages, using corpora ranging in size from 5 of concatenation. While that view is not free of controversy, it remains the traditional conception of morphology

Wicentowski, Richard

139

On the Representation of Physical Quantities in Natural Language Text  

E-print Network

language. Our focus is on physical quantities found in descriptions of physical processes that water will eventually boil if you heat it on a stove, that a ball placed at the top of a steep ramp continuous properties can appear in written natural language. Our focus is on physical quantities found

Forbus, Kenneth D.

140

Parallel Earley's parser and its application to syntactic image analysis  

SciTech Connect

A complete Earley parser which includes recognition and parse extraction has been implemented on a triangular array of processors. The detailed analysis of the complete parser is given. The recognition algorithm is executed in parallel by adopting a new operator, x/sup */, and restricting the input context-free grammar to be lamda-free. The parse extraction algorithm which follows recognition uses a nonrecursive subroutine to generate the correct right-parse in parallel. A special busing arrangement within this array enables the right data to reach the right place at the right time. Simulation examples are provided. The results show that when a string of length >n> is under testing, at the system time 2>n> + 1, the correct right-parse will be obtained if the string is accepted. 15 references.

Chiang, Y.P.; Fu, K.S.

1983-01-01

141

On the contingent nature of language?learning tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using methods from conversation analysis, this paper explores ways that teacher?designed language?learning task interactions can vary in their performance due to the nature of face?to?face interaction. The analysis describes three task interactions from language?learning classrooms, showing how the contingencies that are necessitated by learners working in small groups provide for different task performance as well as different potentials for language

John Hellermann; Simona Pekarek Doehler

2010-01-01

142

Overview of Computer-based Natural Language Processing  

SciTech Connect

Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

Gevarter, W.B.

1983-04-01

143

Overview of computer-based natural language processing  

SciTech Connect

Computer-based Natural Language-Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc. in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and the future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state-of-the-art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants, and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and other who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

Gevarter, W.B.

1983-04-01

144

Natural language processing techniques in computer-assisted language learning: Status and instructional issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of natural language processing (NLP) techniques, such as parsing and semantic analysis, is described within current language tutoring systems. Significant trends are distinguished in the exploitation of these techniques, design issues and tradeoffs are examined, and current and potential contributions of NLP technology are discussed with respect to instructional theory and educational practice. Limitations and problems are addressed

V. Melissa Holland; Jonathan D. Kaplan

1995-01-01

145

The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages  

PubMed Central

How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis. PMID:24936195

Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C.; Okanoya, Kazuo

2014-01-01

146

An Efficient Easily Adaptable System for Interpreting Natural Language Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overall account of a prototype natural language question answering system, called Chat-80. Chat-80 has been designed to be both efficient and easily adaptable to a variety of applications. The system is implemented entirely in Prolog, a programming language based on logic. With the aid of a logic-based grammar formalism called extraposition grammars, Chat-80 translates English questions

David H. D. Warren; Fernando C. N. Pereira

1982-01-01

147

Application of Natural Language in Fire Spread Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a How to express fire spread efficiently and effectively to firefighters was an important issue. The present study aimed to\\u000a investigate how to present the fire alarm information, focusing on whether natural language alarm presentation was better\\u000a than the alarm list presentation. Objective method and subjective evaluation were used to compare the difference among different\\u000a expressions. The results revealed that natural

Yan Ge; Li Wang; Xianghong Sun

148

Attacks on Lexical Natural Language Steganography Systems Cuneyt M. Taskirana  

E-print Network

Attacks on Lexical Natural Language Steganography Systems Cuneyt M. Taskirana , Umut Topkarab. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method

Topkara, Mercan

149

Generating Natural Language Aggregations Using a Propositional Representation of Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for aggregating information from an in- ternal, machine representation and building a text structure that allows us to express aggregations in natural language. Features of the knowledge representation system, a semantic network, allow us to produce an initial aggregation based on domain information and the competing aggregate structures. In the £nal stages of realization, the network

Susan M. Haller; Barbara Di Eugenio; Michael J. Trolio

2002-01-01

150

Non-Monotonic Formalisms for Natural Language Semantics  

E-print Network

) that would serve as a framework for natural language semantics; (iii) Attempts in artificial intelligence. Science logicism is expressed as an ideal in Aristotle's Organon. But Aristotle's logic is far too weak on a problem that can be made to seem urgent to anyone who has studied Aristotle indicates the difficulty

Thomason, Richmond H.

151

Non-Monotonic Formalisms for Natural Language Semantics  

E-print Network

) that would serve as a framework for natural language semantics; (iii) Attempts in arti#12;cial intelligence. Science logicism is expressed as an ideal in Aristotle's Organon. But Aristotle's logic is far too weak for over two millennia on a problem that can be made to seem urgent to anyone who has studied Aristotle

Thomason, Richmond H.

152

Wikipedia Vandalism Detection: Combining Natural Language, Metadata, and  

E-print Network

Wikipedia Vandalism Detection: Combining Natural Language, Metadata, and Reputation Features B of vandalism. Such behavior is characterized by modifications made in bad faith; introducing spam and other approaches to Wikipedia vandalism detection: a spatio- temporal analysis of metadata (STiki), a reputation

Rosso, Paolo

153

Orwell's 1984: Natural Language Searching and the Contemporary Metaphor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a natural language searching strategy for retrieving current material which has bearing on George Orwell's "1984," and identifies four main themes (technology, authoritarianism, press and psychological/linguistic implications of surveillance, political oppression) which have emerged from cross-database searches of the "Big Brother"…

Dadlez, Eva M.

1984-01-01

154

A Reference Architecture for Natural Language Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the rags (Reference Architecture for Generation Systems) framework: a specific- ation of an abstract Natural Language Generation (NLG) system architecture to support sharing, re-use, comparison and evaluation of NLG technologies. We argue that the evidence from a survey of actual NLG systems calls for a different emphasis in a reference proposal from that seen in similar initiatives in

CHRIS M ELLISH; DONIA S COTT; LYNNE C AHILL; D ANIEL P AIVA; ROGER E VANS; MIKE R EAPE

155

Natural Language Processing Applied to Navy Tactical Messages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural Language Processing (NLP) was investigated as a possible solution to the problem of automating the fusion of multisource data, and it was found that if there is a solution to the problem of timely use of text-like data in the Naval tactical messag...

D. M. Keirsey

1980-01-01

156

Design of Lexicons in Some Natural Language Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an investigation of certain problems concerning the structural design of lexicons used in computational approaches to natural language understanding. Emphasizes three aspects of design: retrieval of relevant portions of lexicals items, storage requirements, and representation of meaning in the lexicon. (Available from ALLC, Dr. Rex Last,…

Cercone, Nick; Mercer, Robert

1980-01-01

157

Principles of Organization in Young Children's Natural Language Hierarchies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When preschool children think of objects as organized into collections (e.g., forest, army) they solve certain problems better than when they think of the same objects as organized into classes (e.g., trees, soldiers). Present studies indicate preschool children occasionally distort natural language inclusion hierarchies (e.g., oak, tree) into the…

Callanan, Maureen A.; Markman, Ellen M.

1982-01-01

158

Research Report AI--1996--01 Natural Language Plurals  

E-print Network

be distinct. For example, the Beatles and the owners of Apple Records refer to two distinct collections to the other). Formally, the premises beatles # appleowners appleowners # beatles do not imply appleowners = beatles. Natural language plurals have at least three readings: . The collective reading, whi

Covington, Michael A.

159

From Web Content Mining to Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

panels, copyright notices, etc. Surface Web and deep Web. Surface Web: pages that can be browsed using a Web browser. Deep Web: databases that can only be accessed through parameterized query interfacesFrom Web Content Mining to Natural Language Processing Bing Liu Department of Computer Science

Illinois at Chicago, University of

160

Natural-language access to databases-theoretical/technical issues  

SciTech Connect

Although there have been many experimental systems for natural-language access to databases, with some now going into actual use, many problems in this area remain to be solved. The author presents descriptions of five problem areas that seem to me not to be adequately handled by any existing system.

Moore, R.C.

1982-01-01

161

What can natural language processing do for clinical decision support?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized clinical decision support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. natural language processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative

Dina Demner-fushman; Wendy Webber Chapman; Clement J. Mcdonald

2009-01-01

162

Natural Language Generation in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of collections of papers from the field of natural language generation (NLG) have been published over the last few years: Kempen (1987), Zock and Sabah (1988), Dale, Mellish, and Zock (1990), and now the present volume. All have in common that they are derived in one way or another from workshops on the subject, and should therefore make

William R. Swartout; William C. Mann

1991-01-01

163

An Annotated Bibliography of Affective Natural Language Generation  

E-print Network

choice. When one is looking for the definition of a word, an obvious place to start is the dictionaryAn Annotated Bibliography of Affective Natural Language Generation Paul Piwek ITRI - University Technical Report ITRI-02-02, University of Brighton March 2002) Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Affective NLG

Piwek, Paul

164

The Rhetorical Parsing of Natural Language Texts Daniel Marcu  

E-print Network

The Rhetorical Parsing of Natural Language Texts Daniel Marcu Department of Computer Science University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario Canada M5S 3G4 marcu@cs.toronto.edu Abstract We derive the rhetorical structures of texts by means of two new, surface­form­based algorithms: one that identifies discourse usages

Marcu, Daniel

165

Term Disambiguation in Natural Language Query for XML  

E-print Network

.V. Jagadish1, 1 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA {yunyaol, jag}@umich.edu 2 University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY 12222, USA hyang@albany.edu Abstract. Converting a natural language query. These failures are typically the result of either the user's poor knowledge of the database schema or the system

Michigan, University of

166

Evaluating Assistance of Natural Language Policy Kami Vaniea2  

E-print Network

. K4.1. Public policy issues: Privacy General Terms Design, Security, Human Factors. Keywords PrivacyEvaluating Assistance of Natural Language Policy Authoring Kami Vaniea2 , Clare-Marie Karat1 of the research study reported here was to investigate policy authors' ability to take descriptions of changes

Sadeh, Norman M.

167

Hermes: Natural Language Access to a Medical Database  

E-print Network

between mortals and gods. The cadecus is widely used as a symbol for the medical profession. Hermes usesHermes: Natural Language Access to a Medical Database Carlos B. Rivera and Nick Cercone Technical interface is named Hermes, in recognition of his ability as a messenger and his sta , the cadecus

Regina, University of

168

Hermes: Natural Language Access to a Medical Database  

E-print Network

between mortals and gods. The cadecus is widely used as a symbol for the medical profession. Hermes usesHermes: Natural Language Access to a Medical Database Carlos B. Rivera and Nick Cercone Technical interface is named Hermes, in recognition of his ability as a messenger and his staff, the cadecus

Regina, University of

169

WORKSHOP ON THE EVALUATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

WORKSHOP ON THE EVALUATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING SYSTEMS Martha Palmer UnisysCenterforAdvancedInformationTechnology Paoli, PA 19301 Tim Finin UnisysCenterfor AdvancedInformationTechnology Paoli, PA 19301 1 INTRODUCTION in Wayne, Pennsylvania. The workshop was organized by Martha Palmer (Unisys), assisted by a program

Finin, Tim

170

Towards Building Robust Natural Language Interfaces to Databases  

E-print Network

Towards Building Robust Natural Language Interfaces to Databases Michael Minock, Peter Olofsson) to databases has been the economics of configuring such systems [2, 5]. Typically configuration requires high levels of knowledge and long time commitments. The typical work environment has neither of these in great

Minock, Michael

171

Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

2007-01-01

172

Applying Software Engineering Techniques to Parser Design: the development of a C#  

E-print Network

of metrics that describe the parser's evolution. This paper presents and reinforces an argument for the ap System CVS to checkpoint the de- velopment phases, and a rigorous testing framework to guide this application can take place. It presents one of the first case studies of parser design, and contrasts sharply

Malloy, Brian

173

Deep Parser for Free English Texts Based on Machine Learning with Limited Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an attempt at the construction of a wide scale parser for English based on Inductive Learning and limited resources. The parser loosely preserves the shift-reduce scheme, enriched with powerful actions, and a compound Decision Tree instead of the decision table. The attempt originates directly from Hermjakob's ideas (3), but an important goal was to analyse possible extensions

Marek Labuzek; Maciej Piasecki

2005-01-01

174

Understanding the Bottom-Up SLR Parser SafniKhuri Jason Williams  

E-print Network

left hand side production rule. Aho et al. [Aho86] give rea~ons behind the importance and popularity behind the bottom-up SLR parser can be used to perform computer animation. The ditlerent phases-traditional environment, 1. INTRODUCTION In this work we show how the techniques behind the bottom-up SLR parser can

Khuri, Sami

175

The Present Use of Statistics in the Evaluation of NLP Parsers J.Entwisle D.M.W.Powers  

E-print Network

| Ii I m m m m m The Present Use of Statistics in the Evaluation of NLP Parsers J.Entwisle D powers~cs, flinders, edu. au Abstract We are concerned that the quality of results produced by an NLP parser bears little, if any, relation to the percentage-results claimed by the various NLP parser

176

Natural language understanding and speech recognition for industrial vision systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accepted method of programming machine vision systems for a new application is to incorporate sub-routines from a standard library into code, written specially for the given task. Typical programming languages that might be used here are Pascal, C, and assembly code, although other `conventional' (i.e., imperative) languages are often used instead. The representation of an algorithm to recognize a certain object, in the form of, say, a C language program is clumsy and unnatural, compared to the alternative process of describing the object itself and leaving the software to search for it. The latter method, known as declarative programming, is used extensively both when programming in Prolog and when people talk to one another in English, or other natural languages. Programs to understand a limited sub-set of a natural language can also be written conveniently in Prolog. The article considers the prospects for talking to an image processing system, using only slightly constrained English. Moderately priced speech recognition devices, which interface to a standard desk-top computer and provide a limited repertoire (200 words) as well as the ability to identify isolated words, are already available commercially. At the moment, the goal of talking in English to a computer is incompletely fulfilled. Yet, sufficient progress has been made to encourage greater effort in this direction.

Batchelor, Bruce G.

1992-11-01

177

Software Development Of XML Parser Based On Algebraic Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, is presented one software development and implementation of an algebraic method for XML data processing, which accelerates XML parsing process. Therefore, the proposed in this article nontraditional approach for fast XML navigation with algebraic tools contributes to advanced efforts in the making of an easier user-friendly API for XML transformations. Here the proposed software for XML documents processing (parser) is easy to use and can manage files with strictly defined data structure. The purpose of the presented algorithm is to offer a new approach for search and restructuring hierarchical XML data. This approach permits fast XML documents processing, using algebraic model developed in details in previous works of the same authors. So proposed parsing mechanism is easy accessible to the web consumer who is able to control XML file processing, to search different elements (tags) in it, to delete and to add a new XML content as well. The presented various tests show higher rapidity and low consumption of resources in comparison with some existing commercial parsers.

Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

2011-12-01

178

Mathematics as an Exact and Precise Language of Nature  

E-print Network

One of the outstanding problems of philosophy of science and mathematics today is whether there is just "one" unique mathematics or the same can be bifurcated into "pure" and "applied" categories. A novel solution for this problem is offered here. This will allow us to appreciate the manner in which mathematics acts as an exact and precise language of nature. This has significant implications for Artificial Intelligence.

Afsar Abbas

2005-11-05

179

Learning to Parse Natural Language with Maximum Entropy Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper presents a machine learning system for parsing natural language thatlearns from manually parsed example sentences, and parses unseen data at state-of-the-art accuracies.Its machine learning technology, based on the maximum entropy framework, is highlyreusable and not specific to the parsing problem, while the linguistic hints that it uses to learncan be specified concisely. It therefore requires a minimal

Adwait Ratnaparkhi

1999-01-01

180

Head-Driven Statistical Models for Natural Language Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes three statistical models for natural language parsing. The models extend methods from probabilistic context-free grammars to lexicalized grammars, leading to approaches in which a parse tree is represented as the sequence of decisions corresponding to a head-centered, top-down derivation of the tree. Independence assumptions then lead to parameters that encode the X-bar schema, subcategorization, ordering of complements,

Michael Collins

2003-01-01

181

A Codasyl-Type Schema for Natural Language Medical Records  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a CODASYL (network) database schema for information derived from narrative clinical reports. The goal of this work is to create an automated process that accepts natural language documents as input and maps this information into a database of a type managed by existing database management systems. The schema described here represents the medical events and facts identified through the natural language processing. This processing decomposes each narrative into a set of elementary assertions, represented as MEDFACT records in the database. Each assertion in turn consists of a subject and a predicate classed according to a limited number of medical event types, e.g., signs/symptoms, laboratory tests, etc. The subject and predicate are represented by EVENT records which are owned by the MEDFACT record associated with the assertion. The CODASYL-type network structure was found to be suitable for expressing most of the relations needed to represent the natural language information. However, special mechanisms were developed for storing the time relations between EVENT records and for recording connections (such as causality) between certain MEDFACT records. This schema has been implemented using the UNIVAC DMS-1100 DBMS.

Sager, N.; Tick, L.; Story, G.; Hirschman, L.

1980-01-01

182

Proceedingsof8thEuropeanWorkshoponNaturalLanguageGeneration,Toulouse,France:July2001.pp.92-100 Applying Natural Language Generation to Indicative Summarization  

E-print Network

Proceedingsof8thEuropeanWorkshoponNaturalLanguageGeneration,Toulouse,France:July2001.pp.92-100 Applying Natural Language Generation to Indicative Summarization Min-Yen Kan and Kathleen R. Mc produce sum- maries that are too specific. In this paper, we pro- pose a natural language generation (NLG

Kan, Min-Yen

183

Deviations in the Zipf and Heaps laws in natural languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to verifying of the empirical Zipf and Hips laws in natural languages using Google Books Ngram corpus data. The connection between the Zipf and Heaps law which predicts the power dependence of the vocabulary size on the text size is discussed. In fact, the Heaps exponent in this dependence varies with the increasing of the text corpus. To explain it, the obtained results are compared with the probability model of text generation. Quasi-periodic variations with characteristic time periods of 60-100 years were also found.

Bochkarev, Vladimir V.; Lerner, Eduard Yu; Shevlyakova, Anna V.

2014-03-01

184

Learning to resolve natural language ambiguities: a unified approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a few of the commonly used statistics based\\u000a and machine learning algorithms for natural language\\u000a disambiguation tasks and observe that they can be recast\\u000a as learning linear separators in the feature space. Each\\u000a of the methods makes a priori assumptions, which it\\u000a employs, given the data, when searching for its\\u000a hypothesis. Nevertheless, as we show, it searches a

Dan Roth

1998-01-01

185

Augmenting a database knowledge representation for natural language generation  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge representation is an important factor in natural language generation since it limits the semantic capabilities of the generation system. This paper identifies several information types in a knowledge representation that can be used to generate meaningful responses to questions about database structure. Creating such a knowledge representation, however, is a long and tedious process. A system is presented which uses the contents of the database to form part of this knowledge representation automatically. It employs three types of world knowledge axioms to ensure that the representation formed is meaningful and contains salient information. 7 references.

McCoy, K.F.

1982-01-01

186

Dependency Parser-based Negation Detection in Clinical Narratives.  

PubMed

Negation of clinical named entities is common in clinical documents and is a crucial factor to accurately compile patients' clinical conditions and to further support complex phenotype detection. In 2009, Mayo Clinic released the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES), which includes a negation annotator that identifies negation status of a named entity by searching for negation words within a fixed word distance. However, this negation strategy is not sophisticated enough to correctly identify complicated patterns of negation. This paper aims to investigate whether the dependency structure from the cTAKES dependency parser can improve the negation detection performance. Manually compiled negation rules, derived from dependency paths were tested. Dependency negation rules do not limit the negation scope to word distance; instead, they are based on syntactic context. We found that using a dependency-based negation proved a superior alternative to the current cTAKES negation annotator. PMID:22779038

Sohn, Sunghwan; Wu, Stephen; Chute, Christopher G

2012-01-01

187

Intelligent agents as a basis for natural language interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Typical natural-language interfaces respond passively to the users's commands and queries. They cannot volunteer information, correction user misconceptions, or reject unethical requests. In order to do these things, a system must be an intelligent agent. UC (UNIX Consultant), a natural language system that helps the user solve problems in using the UNIX operating system, is such an intelligent agent. The agent component of UC in UCEgo. UCEgo provides UC with its own goals and plans. By adopting different goals in different situations, UCEgo creates and executes different plans, enabling it to interact appropriately with the user. UCEgo adopts goals from its themes, adopts subgoals during planning, and adopts metagoals for dealing with goal interactions. It also adopts goals when it notices that the user either lacks necessary knowledge, or has incorrect beliefs. In these cases, UCEgo plans to volunteer information or correct the user's misconception as appropriate. The user's knowledge and beliefs are modeled by the KNOME (KNOwledge Model of Expertise) component of UC. KNOME is a double-stereotype system which categorizes users by expertise and categorizes UNIX facts by difficulty.

Chin, D.N.

1987-01-01

188

Probabilistic Top-Down Parsing and Language Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the functioning of a broad-coverage probabilistic top-down parser, and its application to the problem of language modeling for speech recognition. The paper first introduces key notions in language modeling and probabilistic parsing, and briefly reviews some previous approaches to using syntactic structure for language modeling. A lexicalized probabilistic top-down parser is then presented, which performs very well,

Brian Roark

2001-01-01

189

Semi-automatic syntactic and semantic corpus annotation with a deep parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a semi-automatic method for linguistically rich corpus annotation using a broad-coverage deep parser to generate syntactic structure, semantic representation and discourse information for task-oriented dialogs. The parser-generated analyses are checked by trained annotators. Incomplete coverage and incorrect analyses are addressed through lexicon and grammar development, after which the dialogs undergo another cycle of parsing and checking. Currently we

Mary D. Swift; Myroslava O. Dzikovska; Joel R. Tetreault; James F. Allen

2004-01-01

190

UMLS knowledge for biomedical language processing.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes efforts to provide access to the free text in biomedical databases. The focus of the effort is the development of SPECIALIST, an experimental natural language processing system for the biomedical domain. The system includes a broad coverage parser supported by a large lexicon, modules that provide access to the extensive Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Knowledge Sources, and a retrieval module that permits experiments in information retrieval. The UMLS Metathesaurus and Semantic Network provide a rich source of biomedical concepts and their interrelationships. Investigations have been conducted to determine the type of information required to effect a map between the language of queries and the language of relevant documents. Mappings are never straightforward and often involve multiple inferences. PMID:8472004

McCray, A T; Aronson, A R; Browne, A C; Rindflesch, T C; Razi, A; Srinivasan, S

1993-01-01

191

Generating patient-specific interactive natural language explanations.  

PubMed Central

Patient compliance is a significant problem and is strongly correlated with the patients' understanding of their condition and prescribed treatment. Since doctors typically do not have large amounts of time to educate patients, and impersonal, voluminous patient handouts are largely ineffective, we propose the use of a sophisticated computer-based information system to generate tailored, interactive handouts to communicate with patients. Our system uses text planning and user modeling techniques to generate natural language descriptions of migraine, its symptoms, triggering factors and prescriptions. The system is capable of handling follow-up questions requesting further information, and generating responses in the context of previously supplied information--a capability unavailable in previous patient information systems. The system tailors its interaction to: (i) the class of migraine patients, (ii) the individual patient, and (iii) the previous dialogue. Preliminary evaluation of the system indicates that patients find it useful and informative. More extensive evaluation is in progress. PMID:7949978

Carenini, G.; Mittal, V. O.; Moore, J. D.

1994-01-01

192

What can Natural Language Processing do for Clinical Decision Support?  

PubMed Central

Computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative NLP research of clinical narrative was followed by a period of stable research conducted at the major clinical centers and a shift of mainstream interest to biomedical NLP. This review primarily focuses on the recently renewed interest in development of fundamental NLP methods and advances in the NLP systems for CDS. The current solutions to challenges posed by distinct sublanguages, intended user groups, and support goals are discussed. PMID:19683066

Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chapman, Wendy W.; McDonald, Clement J.

2009-01-01

193

From Web Directories to Ontologies: Natural Language Processing Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical classifications are used pervasively by humans as a means to organize their data and knowledge about the world. One of their main advantages is that natural language labels, used to describe their contents, are easily understood by human users. However, at the same time, this is also one of their main disadvantages as these same labels are ambiguous and very hard to be reasoned about by software agents. This fact creates an insuperable hindrance for classifications to being embedded in the Semantic Web infrastructure. This paper presents an approach to converting classifications into lightweight ontologies, and it makes the following contributions: (i) it identifies the main NLP problems related to the conversion process and shows how they are different from the classical problems of NLP; (ii) it proposes heuristic solutions to these problems, which are especially effective in this domain; and (iii) it evaluates the proposed solutions by testing them on DMoz data.

Zaihrayeu, Ilya; Sun, Lei; Giunchiglia, Fausto; Pan, Wei; Ju, Qi; Chi, Mingmin; Huang, Xuanjing

194

Natural language processing in biomedicine: a unified system architecture overview.  

PubMed

In contemporary electronic medical records much of the clinically important data-signs and symptoms, symptom severity, disease status, etc.-are not provided in structured data fields but rather are encoded in clinician-generated narrative text. Natural language processing (NLP) provides a means of unlocking this important data source for applications in clinical decision support, quality assurance, and public health. This chapter provides an overview of representative NLP systems in biomedicine based on a unified architectural view. A general architecture in an NLP system consists of two main components: background knowledge that includes biomedical knowledge resources and a framework that integrates NLP tools to process text. Systems differ in both components, which we review briefly. Additionally, the challenge facing current research efforts in biomedical NLP includes the paucity of large, publicly available annotated corpora, although initiatives that facilitate data sharing, system evaluation, and collaborative work between researchers in clinical NLP are starting to emerge. PMID:24870142

Doan, Son; Conway, Mike; Phuong, Tu Minh; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2014-01-01

195

Literature-Based Knowledge Discovery using Natural Language Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature-based discovery (LBD) is an emerging methodology for uncovering nonovert relationships in the online research literature. Making such relationships explicit supports hypothesis generation and discovery. Currently LBD systems depend exclusively on co-occurrence of words or concepts in target documents, regardless of whether relations actually exist between the words or concepts. We describe a method to enhance LBD through capture of semantic relations from the literature via use of natural language processing (NLP). This paper reports on an application of LBD that combines two NLP systems: BioMedLEE and SemRep, which are coupled with an LBD system called BITOLA. The two NLP systems complement each other to increase the types of information utilized by BITOLA. We also discuss issues associated with combining heterogeneous systems. Initial experiments suggest this approach can uncover new associations that were not possible using previous methods.

Hristovski, D.; Friedman, C.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Peterlin, B.

196

The Unification Space implemented as a localist neural net: predictions and error-tolerance in a constraint-based parser.  

PubMed

We introduce a novel computer implementation of the Unification-Space parser (Vosse and Kempen in Cognition 75:105-143, 2000) in the form of a localist neural network whose dynamics is based on interactive activation and inhibition. The wiring of the network is determined by Performance Grammar (Kempen and Harbusch in Verb constructions in German and Dutch. Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2003), a lexicalist formalism with feature unification as binding operation. While the network is processing input word strings incrementally, the evolving shape of parse trees is represented in the form of changing patterns of activation in nodes that code for syntactic properties of words and phrases, and for the grammatical functions they fulfill. The system is capable, at least qualitatively and rudimentarily, of simulating several important dynamic aspects of human syntactic parsing, including garden-path phenomena and reanalysis, effects of complexity (various types of clause embeddings), fault-tolerance in case of unification failures and unknown words, and predictive parsing (expectation-based analysis, surprisal effects). English is the target language of the parser described. PMID:19784798

Vosse, Theo; Kempen, Gerard

2009-12-01

197

How natural is natural language?: how well do computer science students write use cases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use cases are one of the most common mechanisms for describing and analyzing software system requirements. Due to use of natural language in use case descriptions, it is often assumed that they are easy to understand for stakeholders involved in the software development process [8]. However some authors argue [17,18] that the most common pitfalls of use cases written by

Dorota Jagielska; Paul Wernick; Mick Wood; Steve Bennett

2006-01-01

198

Natural selection of the critical period for language acquisition  

E-print Network

approximately at the age of 13 (Lenneberg 1967). During this period children can learn a language (or several languages) with relative ease; after the age of 13 it becomes increasingly hard to acquire a language', and if an individual had acquired all of the language by a certain age, no further language acquisi- tion was possible

Nowak, Martin A.

199

Towards a continuous population model for natural language vowel shift.  

PubMed

The Great English Vowel Shift of 16th-19th centuries and the current Northern Cities Vowel Shift are two examples of collective language processes characterized by regular phonetic changes, that is, gradual changes in vowel pronunciation over time. Here we develop a structured population approach to modeling such regular changes in the vowel systems of natural languages, taking into account learning patterns and effects such as social trends. We treat vowel pronunciation as a continuous variable in vowel space and allow for a continuous dependence of vowel pronunciation in time and age of the speaker. The theory of mixtures with continuous diversity provides a framework for the model, which extends the McKendrick-von Foerster equation to populations with age and phonetic structures. We develop the general balance equations for such populations and propose explicit expressions for the factors that impact the evolution of the vowel pronunciation distribution. For illustration, we present two examples of numerical simulations. In the first one we study a stationary solution corresponding to a state of phonetic equilibrium, in which speakers of all ages share a similar phonetic profile. We characterize the variance of the phonetic distribution in terms of a parameter measuring a ratio of phonetic attraction to dispersion. In the second example we show how vowel shift occurs upon starting with an initial condition consisting of a majority pronunciation that is affected by an immigrant minority with a different vowel pronunciation distribution. The approach developed here for vowel systems may be applied also to other learning situations and other time-dependent processes of cognition in self-interacting populations, like opinions or perceptions. PMID:23624180

Shipman, Patrick D; Faria, Sérgio H; Strickland, Christopher

2013-09-01

200

Breaking the Molds: Signed Languages and the Nature of Human Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammars of signed languages tend to be based on grammars established for written languages, particularly the written language in use in the surrounding hearing community of a sign language. Such grammars presuppose categories of discrete elements which are combined into various sorts of structures. Recent analyses of signed languages go beyond…

Slobin, Dan I.

2008-01-01

201

Natural Language Generation for Nature Conservation: Automating Feedback to help Volunteers identify Bumblebee Species  

E-print Network

This paper explores the use of Natural Language Generation (NLG) for facilitating the provision of feedback to citizen scientists in the context of a nature conservation programme, BEEWATCH. BEEWATCH aims to capture the distribution of bumblebees, an ecologically and economically important species group in decline, across the UK and beyond. The NLG module described here uses comparisons of visual features of bumblebee species as well as contextual information to improve the citizen scientists ’ identification skills and to keep them motivated. We report studies that show a positive effect of NLG feedback on accuracy of bumblebee identification and on volunteer retention, along with a positive appraisal of the generated feedback.

N Irwan Sharma Anne-m Arie; Ben Dar Chris; M René Wal

202

The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages  

E-print Network

How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language ...

Miyagawa, Shigeru

203

Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time. PMID:23053906

Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

2013-08-01

204

Natural language processing framework to assess clinical conditions.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE The authors developed a natural language processing (NLP) framework that could be used to extract clinical findings and diagnoses from dictated physician documentation. DESIGN De-identified documentation was made available by i2b2 Bio-informatics research group as a part of their NLP challenge focusing on obesity and its co-morbidities. The authors describe their approach, which used a combination of concept detection, context validation, and the application of a variety of rules to conclude patient diagnoses. RESULTS The framework was successful at correctly identifying diagnoses as judged by NLP challenge organizers when compared with a gold standard of physician annotations. The authors overall kappa values for agreement with the gold standard were 0.92 for explicit textual results and 0.91 for intuited results. The NLP framework compared favorably with those of the other entrants, placing third in textual results and fourth in intuited results in the i2b2 competition. CONCLUSIONS The framework and approach used to detect clinical conditions was reasonably successful at extracting 16 diagnoses related to obesity. The system and methodology merits further development, targeting clinically useful applications. PMID:19390100

Ware, Henry; Mullett, Charles J; Jagannathan, V

2009-01-01

205

Analysis of Sinhala Using Natural Language Processing Techniques Sajika Gallege  

E-print Network

-Aryan branch of the Indo- European languages. Sinhala has a written alphabet which consists of 54 basic of Sri Lanka. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo- European languages. Sinhala is the mother

Liblit, Ben

206

One grammar or two? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language  

PubMed Central

Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages—such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality but also in the form of sign languages has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language—in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. PMID:25013534

Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

2014-01-01

207

A Cache-Based Natural Language Model for Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech-recognition systems must often decide between competing ways of breaking up the acoustic input into strings of words. Since the possible strings may be acoustically similar, a language model is required; given a word string, the model returns its linguistic probability. Several Markov language models are discussed. A novel kind of language model which reflects short-term patterns of word use

Roland Kuhn; Renato De Mori

1990-01-01

208

Automation of a problem list using natural language processing  

PubMed Central

Background The medical problem list is an important part of the electronic medical record in development in our institution. To serve the functions it is designed for, the problem list has to be as accurate and timely as possible. However, the current problem list is usually incomplete and inaccurate, and is often totally unused. To alleviate this issue, we are building an environment where the problem list can be easily and effectively maintained. Methods For this project, 80 medical problems were selected for their frequency of use in our future clinical field of evaluation (cardiovascular). We have developed an Automated Problem List system composed of two main components: a background and a foreground application. The background application uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) to harvest potential problem list entries from the list of 80 targeted problems detected in the multiple free-text electronic documents available in our electronic medical record. These proposed medical problems drive the foreground application designed for management of the problem list. Within this application, the extracted problems are proposed to the physicians for addition to the official problem list. Results The set of 80 targeted medical problems selected for this project covered about 5% of all possible diagnoses coded in ICD-9-CM in our study population (cardiovascular adult inpatients), but about 64% of all instances of these coded diagnoses. The system contains algorithms to detect first document sections, then sentences within these sections, and finally potential problems within the sentences. The initial evaluation of the section and sentence detection algorithms demonstrated a sensitivity and positive predictive value of 100% when detecting sections, and a sensitivity of 89% and a positive predictive value of 94% when detecting sentences. Conclusion The global aim of our project is to automate the process of creating and maintaining a problem list for hospitalized patients and thereby help to guarantee the timeliness, accuracy and completeness of this information. PMID:16135244

Meystre, Stephane; Haug, Peter J

2005-01-01

209

Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguists seek to understand the nature of the human language  

E-print Network

of the human language faculty by examining the formal properties of natural- language grammars and the process is Linguistics? Jobs for Linguists Linguists can be found in many different professions and industries where development · Standardized test development or administration · U.S. intelligence or foreign service

Saldin, Dilano

210

Toward the use of speech and natural language technology in intervention for a language-disordered population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design of Simone Says an interactive software environment for language remediation that brings together research in speech recognition, natural language processing and computer-aided instruction. The underlying technology for the implementation and the system's eventual evaluation are also discussed. 1 Motivation The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) defines pervasive developmental disorders (alternatively, autistic spectrum disorders

Jill Fain Lehman

1998-01-01

211

Evaluation of two dependency parsers on biomedical corpus targeted at protein-protein interactions.  

PubMed

We present an evaluation of Link Grammar and Connexor Machinese Syntax, two major broad-coverage dependency parsers, on a custom hand-annotated corpus consisting of sentences regarding protein-protein interactions. In the evaluation, we apply the notion of an interaction subgraph, which is the subgraph of a dependency graph expressing a protein-protein interaction. We measure the performance of the parsers for recovery of individual dependencies, fully correct parses, and interaction subgraphs. For Link Grammar, an open system that can be inspected in detail, we further perform a comprehensive failure analysis, report specific causes of error, and suggest potential modifications to the grammar. We find that both parsers perform worse on biomedical English than previously reported on general English. While Connexor Machinese Syntax significantly outperforms Link Grammar, the failure analysis suggests specific ways in which the latter could be modified for better performance in the domain. PMID:16099201

Pyysalo, Sampo; Ginter, Filip; Pahikkala, Tapio; Boberg, Jorma; Järvinen, Jouni; Salakoski, Tapio

2006-06-01

212

TreeParser-Aided Klee Diagrams Display Taxonomic Clusters in DNA Barcode and Nuclear Gene Datasets  

PubMed Central

Indicator vector analysis of a nucleotide sequence alignment generates a compact heat map, called a Klee diagram, with potential insight into clustering patterns in evolution. However, so far this approach has examined only mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences. To further explore, we developed TreeParser, a freely-available web-based program that sorts a sequence alignment according to a phylogenetic tree generated from the dataset. We applied TreeParser to nuclear gene and COI barcode alignments from birds and butterflies. Distinct blocks in the resulting Klee diagrams corresponded to species and higher-level taxonomic divisions in both groups, and this enabled graphic comparison of phylogenetic information in nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Our results demonstrate TreeParser-aided Klee diagrams objectively display taxonomic clusters in nucleotide sequence alignments. This approach may help establish taxonomy in poorly studied groups and investigate higher-level clustering which appears widespread but not well understood. PMID:24022383

Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Coffran, Cameron

2013-01-01

213

Introduction to Natural Language Processing Computer Science 585--Fall 2009  

E-print Network

syntactically as a past tense with respect to sequence of tenses where the older Indo-European languages have is common inmany Indo-European languages, has always been inter preted in essentially semantic terms The 'historical' or 'dramatic' present tense used in narrating past events, which is common inmany Indo-European

Smith, David A.

214

CS/Informatics Colloquium, 2006-03-03 Natural language,  

E-print Network

- Intellectual property rights and the Open Access movement · Shared languages or interpreter #12;The world Digital Divide 3. Language and the Global Human Knowledge Base #12;Knowledge: inside and outside to particular regions of the world. · Easily accessible knowledge is largely western. #12;Knowledge inequity

Gasser, Michael

215

Polarity in Natural Language: Predication, Quantification and Negation in Particular and Characterizing Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is an attempt at the investigation of the nature of polarity contrast in natural languages. Truth conditions\\u000a for natural language sentences are incomplete unless they include a proper definition of the conditions under which they are\\u000a false. It is argued that the tertium non datur principle of classical bivalent logical systems is empirically invalid for\\u000a natural languages:

Sebastian Löbner

2000-01-01

216

Of substance: the nature of language effects on entity construal.  

PubMed

Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200]. Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin speakers and English speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's [Prasada, S. (1999). Names for things and stuff: An Aristotelian perspective. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn (Eds.), Language, logic, and concepts (pp. 119-146). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object kind rather than substance kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind. PMID:19230873

Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

2009-06-01

217

A taxonomy of situated language in natural contexts  

E-print Network

This thesis develops a multi-modal dataset consisting of transcribed speech along with the locations in which that speech took place. Speech with location attached is called situated language, and is represented here as ...

Shaw, George Macaulay

2011-01-01

218

Modeling Nature's Emergent Patterns with Multi-agent Languages  

E-print Network

. (2000). Modeling Emergent Phenomena with StarLogoT. @Concord. Abstract NetLogo is a multi-agent modeling language, a parallel extension of Logo. NetLogo is designed to enable learners to explore and construct

Boone, Randall B.

219

Context-Free Grammars Introduction to Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

-free grammar The most common way of modeling constituency. CFG = Context-Free Grammar = Phrase Structure structure and meaning We want to know how meaning is mapped onto what language structures. Commonly

Smith, David A.

220

Iterative Statistical Language Model Generation for Use with an AgentOriented Natural Language Interface  

E-print Network

describe a method for developing a statistical language model (SLM) with high keyword spotting accuracy (AAOSA). Our experience shows that this method provides for rapid development of an SLM that is well language is the main mode of interaction with the back­end system. The fundamental principle in an NLI

Stolcke, Andreas

221

Integration of speech recognition and natural language processing in the MIT VOYAGER system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MIT VOYAGER speech understanding system is an urban exploration and navigation system that interacts with the user through spoken dialogue, text, and graphics. The authors describe recent attempts at improving the integration between the speech recognition and natural language components. They used the generation capability of the natural language component to produce a word-pair language model to constrain the

Victor Zue; James Glass; David Goodine; Hong Leung; Michael Phillips; Joseph Polifroni; S. Seneff

1991-01-01

222

A Framework for Connecting Natural Language and Symbol Sense ...  

E-print Network

mathematical word problems for English language learners. ... This can include assessing prior knowledge to determine an ELLs' familiarity .... we label the sides of the triangle as a, b, and c (see Figure 2) and simply state c2 = a2+b2. Here.

Rachael Kenney

2013-08-09

223

Evolutionary Developmental Linguistics: Naturalization of the Faculty of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since language is a biological trait, it is necessary to investigate its evolution, development, and functions, along with the mechanisms that have been set aside, and are now recruited, for its acquisition and use. It is argued here that progress toward each of these goals can be facilitated by new programs of research, carried out within a new…

Locke, John L.

2009-01-01

224

Modeling Nature's Emergent Patterns with Multi-agent Languages1  

E-print Network

. (2001). Proceedings of EuroLogo 2001 ­ Linz, Austria Abstract NetLogo is a multi-agent modeling language, a parallel extension of Logo. NetLogo is designed to enable scientists to conduct their research by building from the original in 2008 and again in 2013 to include link agents and a third example NetLogo model

Wilensky, Uri

225

Speech Graffiti vs. Natural Language: Assessing the User Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech-based interfaces have great potential but are hampered by problems related to spo- ken language such as variability, noise and ambiguity. Speech Graffiti was designed to address these issues via a structured, universal interface protocol for interacting with simple machines. Since Speech Graffiti requires that users speak to the system in a certain way, we were interested in how users

Stefanie Tomko; Roni Rosenfeld

2004-01-01

226

Natural language modeling for phoneme-to-text transcription  

SciTech Connect

This paper relates different kinds of language modeling methods that can be applied to the linguistic decoding part of a speech recognition system with a very large vocabulary. These models are studied experimentally on a pseudophonetic input arising from French stenotypy. The authors propose a model which combines the advantages of a statistical modeling with information theoretic tools, and those of a grammatical approach.

Derouault, A.M.; Merialdo, B.

1986-11-01

227

Natural Language Communication Between Human and Artificial Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a complex form of language for the purpose of communication with others, to exchange ideas and thoughts, to express statements, wishes, goals, and plans, and to issue questions, commands and instructions, is one of the most important and distinguishing aspects humankind. If artificial agents want to participate in a co-operative way in human-agent interaction, they must be

Christel Kemke

2006-01-01

228

Natural Language Interfaces for Data Warehouses Nicolas Kuchmann-Beauger  

E-print Network

-to-text technologies like Siri 2 has made natural search interfaces popular. This observation, and the fact that users://www.wolfram.com/mathematica/. 2. For more information about Siri: http://www.apple.com/iphone/features/#siri hal-00704293,version1

Boyer, Edmond

229

Video Event Understanding using Natural Language Descriptions Vignesh Ramanathan  

E-print Network

actions teenager shows tricks in a park... church wedding with orchestra... marching band on the road only a one-time annotation cost during the collection of a dataset. Internet repositories such as You in the description (e.g., "church wedding with orchestra")--see Fig.1. Bridging the gap between high- level natural

Pratt, Vaughan

230

Code-Switching: A Natural Phenomenon vs Language "Deficiency."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that code switching (CS) and code mixing are natural phenomena that may result in increased competency in various communicative contexts. Both assets and deficits of CS are analyzed, and an ethnographic approach to the variable underlying CS is recommended. (32 references) (Author/VWL)

Cheng, Li-Rong; Butler, Katharine

1989-01-01

231

The ‘language’ of informatics: The nature of information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second paper in a series examining the fundamental nature of informatics. The aim of the current paper is to provide a more detailed account of the concept of an information system based upon an earlier paper entitled Informatics and the Inca. The paper also builds upon the content of the first paper in this series entitled Neolithic

Paul Beynon-Davies

2009-01-01

232

Transportable Natural Language Interfaces for Taxonomic Knowledge Representation Systems  

E-print Network

Prechelt, Finn Dag Buø, Rolf Adams (precheltjfinndagjadams@ira.uka.de) Institut f¨ur Programmstrukturen und Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Applications Orlando, Florida, March 1­5, 1993 A general approach to use the natural lan­ guage interface for a new domain is high. In this paper we provide a framework

Prechelt, Lutz

233

Spatial and Numerical Abilities without a Complete Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations…

Hyde, Daniel C.; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2011-01-01

234

How to Write a Document in Controlled Natural Language Rolf Schwitter  

E-print Network

16, 2002. age of this language, ECOLE ­ a look-ahead edi- tor ­ has been created and especiallyHow to Write a Document in Controlled Natural Language Rolf Schwitter Centre for Language for Language Technology Macquarie University Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia anna@ics.mq.edu.au Abstract This paper

Schwitter, Rolf

235

A Study on Using Natural Language as a Computer Communication Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new computer communication protocol based on natural language called ‘language protocol’, a new communication\\u000a method based on the protocol, and an interface, called ‘LAPI (Language Application Programming Interface)’, which can connect\\u000a any communicaiton standard via natural language as a medium of the standards. With the proposed methods, we show the possibility\\u000a of providing flexible communication environment

Ichiro Kobayashi; Michiaki Iwazume; Shino Iwashita; Toru Sugimoto; Michio Sugeno

2002-01-01

236

Selective scenarios for the emergence of natural language.  

PubMed

The recent blossoming of evolutionary linguistics has resulted in a variety of theories that attempt to provide a selective scenario for the evolution of early language. However, their overabundance makes many researchers sceptical of such theorising. Here, we suggest that a more rigorous approach is needed towards their construction although, despite justified scepticism, there is no agreement as to the criteria that should be used to determine the validity of the various competing theories. We attempt to fill this gap by providing criteria upon which the various historical narratives can be judged. Although individually none of these criteria are highly constraining, taken together they could provide a useful evolutionary framework for thinking about the evolution of human language. PMID:16828925

Számadó, Szabolcs; Szathmáry, Eörs

2006-10-01

237

Emerging Approach of Natural Language Processing in Opinion Mining: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer Based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

Kim, Tai-Hoon

238

Reachability Analysis of the HTML5 Parser Specification and its Application to  

E-print Network

Reachability Analysis of the HTML5 Parser Specification and its Application to Compatibility for HTML, HTML5, includes the detailed specification of the parsing algorithm for HTML5 documents, includ of HTML5 and automatically generate HTML documents to test compatibilities of Web browsers. The set

Minamide, Yasuhiko

239

TagParser: well on the way to ISO-TC37 conformance Gil FRANCOPOULO  

E-print Network

is not "TagParser: ISO-TC37 standard conformance" be- cause most of the specifications developed within ISO-TC37 are not ISO standards yet. Let us recall that to be called "standard", a normative ISO document must have the status designated as "In- ternational Standard" with regards to the internal ISO process

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

The Topes Format Editor and Parser Christopher Scaffidi, Brad Myers, and Mary Shaw  

E-print Network

after Hurricane Katrina [17]. Some interviewees omitted validation because implementing validation would barriers to data collection, it would have been helpful if this Hurricane Katrina web application had takenThe Topes Format Editor and Parser Christopher Scaffidi, Brad Myers, and Mary Shaw May 2007 CMU

241

Evalita'09 Parsing Task: constituency parsers and the Penn format for Italian  

E-print Network

Evalita'09 Parsing Task: constituency parsers and the Penn format for Italian Cristina Bosco 185, 10149, Torino {bosco,mazzei,vincenzo}@di.unito.it Abstract. The aim of Evalita Parsing Task is at defining and extending the state of the art for parsing Italian by encouraging the application of existing

Mazzei, Alessandro

242

Turbo Parsers: Dependency Parsing by Approximate Variational Inference Andre F. T. Martins  

E-print Network

Turbo Parsers: Dependency Parsing by Approximate Variational Inference Andr´e F. T. Martins Noah A computationally in- tractable, causing a demand for understanding and improving approximate parsing algorithms for non-projective dependency parsing: loopy belief propagation (Smith and Eisner, 2008) and linear

Aguiar, Pedro M. Q.

243

MASCOT HTML and XML parser: an implementation of a novel object model for protein identification data.  

PubMed

Protein identification using MS is an important technique in proteomics as well as a major generator of proteomics data. We have designed the protein identification data object model (PDOM) and developed a parser based on this model to facilitate the analysis and storage of these data. The parser works with HTML or XML files saved or exported from MASCOT MS/MS ions search in peptide summary report or MASCOT PMF search in protein summary report. The program creates PDOM objects, eliminates redundancy in the input file, and has the capability to output any PDOM object to a relational database. This program facilitates additional analysis of MASCOT search results and aids the storage of protein identification information. The implementation is extensible and can serve as a template to develop parsers for other search engines. The parser can be used as a stand-alone application or can be driven by other Java programs. It is currently being used as the front end for a system that loads HTML and XML result files of MASCOT searches into a relational database. The source code is freely available at http://www.ccbm.jhu.edu and the program uses only free and open-source Java libraries. PMID:17006878

Yang, Chunguang G; Granite, Stephen J; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Winslow, Raimond L

2006-11-01

244

Applying Light Natural Language Processing to Ad-Hoc Cross Language Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

Lioma,C. Macdonald,C. Plachouras,V. He,B. Ounis,I. In Accessing Multilingual Information Repositories: 6th Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2005, Vienna, Austria, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4022 LNCS, Springer

Lioma, C.

245

Testing of a Natural Language Retrieval System for a Full Text Knowledge Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hepatitis Knowledge Base (text of prototype information system) was used for modifying and testing "A Navigator of Natural Language Organized (Textual) Data" (ANNOD), a retrieval system which combines probabilistic, linguistic, and empirical means to rank individual paragraphs of full text for similarity to natural language queries proposed by…

Bernstein, Lionel M.; Williamson, Robert E.

1984-01-01

246

Signed or Spoken, Children need Natural Languages Daphne Bavelier, Elissa L. Newport, and Ted Supalla  

E-print Network

for later education? New systems and new technology offer these children some additional alternatives --butSigned or Spoken, Children need Natural Languages Daphne Bavelier, Elissa L. Newport, and Ted Supalla Signed or Spoken, Children Need Natural Languages Daphne Bavelier, Elissa L. Newport, and Ted

DeAngelis, Gregory

247

Structured natural language requirements in nuclear energy domain towards improving regulatory guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements of a system are gathered from various stakeholders, but especially in safety critical application domains, such as the nuclear energy domain, public authorities also impose requirements. Major parts of requirements are often written in natural language. Despite being widely applied and a convenient means, natural language requirements have deficiencies such as impreciseness and vagueness. One approach to improve especially

Eero Uusitalo; Mikko Raatikainen; Tomi Mannisto; Teemu Tommila

2011-01-01

248

Meta-Knowledge Annotation for Efficient Natural-Language Question-Answering  

E-print Network

a tight integration of natural language processing (NLP), information retrieval (IR) and information question Q, generate a natural-language representation nlp(Q) 2. From nlp(Q), generate an information-retrieval query ir(nlp(Q)) #12;3. Use ir(nlp(Q)) to retrieve D documents from an authoritative text archive 4

Veale, Tony

249

Planning in AI and Text Planning in Natural Language JongGyun Lim  

E-print Network

1 Planning in AI and Text Planning in Natural Language Generation Jong­Gyun Lim Columbia University the content and structure of the natural language text and that of other AI planning tasks. The problem of text planning and other AI planning problems have been studied separately from each other, and while

250

Success story in software engineering using NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology)  

SciTech Connect

To create an information system, we employ NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology). NIAM supports the goals of both the customer and the analyst completely understanding the information. We use the customer`s own unique vocabulary, collect real examples, and validate the information in natural language sentences. Examples are discussed from a successfully implemented information system.

Eaton, S.M.; Eaton, D.S.

1995-10-01

251

Trainable approaches to surface natural language generation and their application to conversational dialog systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how decisions for word ordering and word choice in surface natural language generation can be automatically learned from annotated data. We examine four trainable systems for surface natural language generation in the air travel domain, called NLG[1–4]. NLG1 is a lookup table which stores the most frequent phrase to express a concept, and is intended as a baseline

Adwait Ratnaparkhi

2002-01-01

252

The Development of a Natural Language Generation System For Personalized e-Health Information  

E-print Network

The Development of a Natural Language Generation System For Personalized e-Health Information C. Di Division of Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada d a prototype Web-based Natural Language Genera- tion system for the authoring and subsequent per- sonalization

DiMarco, Chrysanne

253

Improving performance of natural language processing part-of-speech tagging on clinical  

E-print Network

Improving performance of natural language processing part-of-speech tagging on clinical narratives of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 5 VA Salt Lake City Healthcare System Objective Natural language processing (NLP) tasks are commonly decomposed into subtasks, chained together

Daume III, Hal

254

ScratchTalk and Social Computation: Towards a natural language scripting model  

E-print Network

ScratchTalk and Social Computation: Towards a natural language scripting model Ian Eslick MIT Media Lab 20 Ames St. E15-320R Cambridge, MA 02139 USA eslick@media.mit.edu ABSTRACT Natural Language- lenges. This paper introduces Social Computation, a theo- retical model targeting both challenges

255

Formalisation of product requirements: from natural language descriptions to formal specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In engineering design, customers usually provide product requirements in the form of a natural language while computer-aided design systems may prefer more formal and structured specifications. In this paper, a formalisation process is proposed to transform product requirements from its natural language descriptions to a formal specification. The formal specification is based on the product environment and the formulation of

Zhen Yu Chen; Shengji Yao; Jian Qiang Lin; Yong Zeng; Armin Eberlein

2007-01-01

256

CHI 99 special interest group on natural language in computer-human interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing interest in human-computer interfaces that use natural language in some way, researchers and practitioners who work on these interfaces are finding that two general fields of research, CHI and natural language processing (NLP), are complementary and converging. In the CHI research community, there have been investigations on a number of related issues such as usability of text

Nancy Green; David G. Novick

1999-01-01

257

Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

2013-04-01

258

A natural language for AdS/CFT correlators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide dramatic evidence that `Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into `left' and `right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. By analyzing the recursive structure of our factorization formula we obtain simple diagrammatic rules for the construction of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to tree-level Witten diagrams in any bulk scalar theory. We prove the diagrammatic rules using our finite difference equations. Finally, we show that our factorization formula and our diagrammatic rules morph into the flat space S-Matrix of the bulk theory, reproducing the usual Feynman rules, when we take the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. Throughout we emphasize a deep analogy with the properties of flat space scattering amplitudes in momentum space, which suggests that the Mellin amplitude may provide a holographic definition of the flat space S-Matrix.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Penedones, Joao; Raju, Suvrat; van Rees, Balt C.

2011-11-01

259

Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History Department of Native American Languages  

E-print Network

Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History Department of Native American Languages Restrictions archives for language materials, especially for Native Americans. A. The Department of Native American collections in the Department of Native American Languages archives: · central location for Tribal access

Oklahoma, University of

260

The Bermuda Triangle: Natural Language Semantics Between Linguistics, Knowledge Representation, and Knowledge Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linguistic parameters alone cannot determine the interpretation of natural language utterances. They can only constrain their interpretation and must leave the rest to other knowledge sources and other processes: language understanding is not just a matter of knowing the language, but also to a considerable degree a matter of logical inference and world knowledge. This is no news as far

Peter Bosch

1991-01-01

261

Choice of words in the generation process of a natural language interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present our approach to language generation focusing on the choice of words. We demonstrate the requirements for a generator that is successfully integrated with a complete natural language system. A basic word-mapping method for primitive relations of the semantic representation language is outlined that can be relied on if no specific realization is available for the

Helmut Horacek

1987-01-01

262

Acceptability of Unified Medical Language System terms as substitute for natural language general medicine clinic diagnoses.  

PubMed Central

The acceptability of using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept phrases to substitute for physicians' diagnosis statements was investigated. Physician diagnosis statements recorded in the University of New Mexico's General Medicine Clinic were input into a computer program that automatically finds the best matching UMLS concept phrases. The computer program written in C++ integrates UMLS searching and browsing with a graphical user interface. Five attending physicians in the Department of Internal Medicine rated the acceptability of the UMLS concept phrase as a substitute for the original physician statement. One hundred and ninety-five patients' notes were examined with 447 diagnosis statements recorded of which 271 statements were unique. Attending physicians rated their satisfaction with the automated UMLS substitutes on a scale of 1 (extremely dissatisfied) to 5 (extremely satisfied). Intrarater (mean 0.94) and interrater correlations (mean 0.75) were high. The mean rating was 4.0 (quite satisfied). Most (73%) of the substitution were satisfactory (rating of 4 or 5), 16% were neutral (rating of 3), and 21% were unsatisfactory (rating of 1 or 2). A review of the substitutions showed a frequent lack of clinical modifier terms in UMLS as has been previously described. Comparison to a previous study shows the broader term coverage of UMLS to be a more acceptable source of diagnosis codes than using International Classification of Diseases revision 9 alone. These results suggest that UMLS can be an effective tool for coding unconstrained physician diagnoses. PMID:7949918

Rosenberg, K. M.; Coultas, D. B.

1994-01-01

263

Entropy analysis of word-length series of natural language texts: Effects of text language and genre  

E-print Network

We estimate the $n$-gram entropies of natural language texts in word-length representation and find that these are sensitive to text language and genre. We attribute this sensitivity to changes in the probability distribution of the lengths of single words and emphasize the crucial role of the uniformity of probabilities of having words with length between five and ten. Furthermore, comparison with the entropies of shuffled data reveals the impact of word length correlations on the estimated $n$-gram entropies.

Kalimeri, Maria; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Karamanos, Kostantinos; Diakonos, Fotis K; Papageorgiou, Haris

2014-01-01

264

Efficient Lagrangian relaxation algorithms for exact inference in natural language tasks  

E-print Network

For many tasks in natural language processing, finding the best solution requires a search over a large set of possible structures. Solving these combinatorial search problems exactly can be inefficient, and so researchers ...

Rush, Alexander M. (Alexander Matthew)

2011-01-01

265

A Tutorial on Dual Decomposition and Lagrangian Relaxation for Inference in Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

Dual decomposition, and more generally Lagrangian relaxation, is a classical method for combinatorial optimization; it has recently been applied to several inference problems in natural language processing (NLP). This ...

Rush, Alexander Matthew

266

Evaluation of Automated Natural Language Processing in the Further Development of Science Information Retrieval.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes advances in computerized natural language processing (NLP) and relates them to present and potential functions of information systems. Section 1 summarizes developments in the information field which have led to a renewed interest in ...

N. Sager

1976-01-01

267

IR-NLI: an expert natural language interface to online data bases  

SciTech Connect

Constructing natural language interfaces to computer systems often requires achievement of advanced reasoning and expert capabilities in addition to basic natural language understanding. In this paper the above issues are faced in the context of an actual application concerning the design of a natural language interface for access to online information retrieval systems. After a short discussion of the peculiarities of this application, which requires both natural language understanding and reasoning capabilities, the general architecture and fundamental design criteria of IR-NLI, a system presently being developed at the University of Udine, are presented. Attention is then focused on the basic functions of IR-NLI, namely, understanding and dialogue, strategy generation, and reasoning. Knowledge representation methods and algorithms adopted are also illustrated. A short example of interaction with IR-NLI is presented. Perspectives and directions for future research are also discussed. 15 references.

Guida, G.; Tasso, C.

1983-01-01

268

A natural language interface plug-in for cooperative query answering in biological databases  

PubMed Central

Background One of the many unique features of biological databases is that the mere existence of a ground data item is not always a precondition for a query response. It may be argued that from a biologist's standpoint, queries are not always best posed using a structured language. By this we mean that approximate and flexible responses to natural language like queries are well suited for this domain. This is partly due to biologists' tendency to seek simpler interfaces and partly due to the fact that questions in biology involve high level concepts that are open to interpretations computed using sophisticated tools. In such highly interpretive environments, rigidly structured databases do not always perform well. In this paper, our goal is to propose a semantic correspondence plug-in to aid natural language query processing over arbitrary biological database schema with an aim to providing cooperative responses to queries tailored to users' interpretations. Results Natural language interfaces for databases are generally effective when they are tuned to the underlying database schema and its semantics. Therefore, changes in database schema become impossible to support, or a substantial reorganization cost must be absorbed to reflect any change. We leverage developments in natural language parsing, rule languages and ontologies, and data integration technologies to assemble a prototype query processor that is able to transform a natural language query into a semantically equivalent structured query over the database. We allow knowledge rules and their frequent modifications as part of the underlying database schema. The approach we adopt in our plug-in overcomes some of the serious limitations of many contemporary natural language interfaces, including support for schema modifications and independence from underlying database schema. Conclusions The plug-in introduced in this paper is generic and facilitates connecting user selected natural language interfaces to arbitrary databases using a semantic description of the intended application. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with a practical example. PMID:22759613

2012-01-01

269

The Nature of Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environments in Singapore Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…

Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.

2011-01-01

270

Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

2007-01-01

271

Transfer of a Natural Language System for Problem-Solving in Physics to Other Domains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The limited language capability of CAI systems has made it difficult to personalize problem-solving instruction. The intelligent tutoring system, ALBERT, is a problem-solving monitor and coach that has been used with high school and college level physics students for several years; it uses a natural language system to understand kinematics…

Oberem, Graham E.

272

Sequence Package Analysis: a new natural language understanding method for improving human response in critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will demonstrate how Sequence Package Analysis, as a new natural language under- standing method that is built on a set of parsing struc- tures that consist of context-free grammatical units and related prosodic features for identifying affec- tive\\/emotional data found in natural speech and blogs, may better accommodate the goals of crisis manage- ment and rapid decision making

Amy Neustein

2008-01-01

273

For the People...Citizenship Education and Naturalization Information. An English as a Second Language Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A textbook for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students presents lessons on U.S. citizenship education and naturalization information. The nine lessons cover the following topics: the U.S. system of government; the Bill of Rights; responsibilities and rights of citizens; voting; requirements for naturalization; the application process; the…

Short, Deborah J.; And Others

274

What You See Is What You Meant: direct knowledge editing with natural language feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many kinds of knowledge-based system would be easier to develop and maintain if domain experts (as opposed to knowledge engineers) were in a position to define and edit the knowledge. From the viewpoint of domain experts, the best medium for defining the knowledge would be a text in natural language; however, natural lan- guage input cannot be decoded reliably unless

Richard Power; Donia Scott; Roger Evans

1998-01-01

275

Dynamic changes in network activations characterize early learning of a natural language.  

PubMed

Those who are initially exposed to an unfamiliar language have difficulty separating running speech into individual words, but over time will recognize both words and the grammatical structure of the language. Behavioral studies have used artificial languages to demonstrate that humans are sensitive to distributional information in language input, and can use this information to discover the structure of that language. This is done without direct instruction and learning occurs over the course of minutes rather than days or months. Moreover, learners may attend to different aspects of the language input as their own learning progresses. Here, we examine processing associated with the early stages of exposure to a natural language, using fMRI. Listeners were exposed to an unfamiliar language (Icelandic) while undergoing four consecutive fMRI scans. The Icelandic stimuli were constrained in ways known to produce rapid learning of aspects of language structure. After approximately 4 min of exposure to the Icelandic stimuli, participants began to differentiate between correct and incorrect sentences at above chance levels, with significant improvement between the first and last scan. An independent component analysis of the imaging data revealed four task-related components, two of which were associated with behavioral performance early in the experiment, and two with performance later in the experiment. This outcome suggests dynamic changes occur in the recruitment of neural resources even within the initial period of exposure to an unfamiliar natural language. PMID:25058056

Plante, Elena; Patterson, Dianne; Dailey, Natalie S; Kyle, R Almyrde; Fridriksson, Julius

2014-09-01

276

Transformation-Based Error-Driven Learning and Natural Language Processing: A Case Study in Part-of-Speech Tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a rebirth of empiricism in the field of natural language processing. Manual encoding of linguistic information is being challenged by automated corpus-based learning as a method of providing a natural language processing system with linguistic knowledge. Although corpus-based approaches have been successful in many different areas of natural language processing, it is often the case that

Eric Brill

1995-01-01

277

Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP), pages 233240, Vancouver, October 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

of word errors. Evaluated on the Switchboard cor- pus of conversational telephone speech (Graff and Bird this prob- lem, we generate a set of candidate parses using an off-the-shelf, k-best parser, and use

278

SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

Simmons, Robert M.

1987-01-01

279

Thermo-msf-parser: an open source Java library to parse and visualize Thermo Proteome Discoverer msf files.  

PubMed

The Thermo Proteome Discoverer program integrates both peptide identification and quantification into a single workflow for peptide-centric proteomics. Furthermore, its close integration with Thermo mass spectrometers has made it increasingly popular in the field. Here, we present a Java library to parse the msf files that constitute the output of Proteome Discoverer. The parser is also implemented as a graphical user interface allowing convenient access to the information found in the msf files, and in Rover, a program to analyze and validate quantitative proteomics information. All code, binaries, and documentation is freely available at http://thermo-msf-parser.googlecode.com. PMID:21714566

Colaert, Niklaas; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc; Helsens, Kenny; Timmerman, Evy; Sickmann, Albert; Gevaert, Kris; Martens, Lennart

2011-08-01

280

XTandem Parser: an open-source library to parse and analyse X!Tandem MS/MS search results.  

PubMed

Identification of proteins by MS plays an important role in proteomics. A crucial step concerns the identification of peptides from MS/MS spectra. The X!Tandem Project (http://www.thegpm.org/tandem) supplies an open-source search engine for this purpose. In this study, we present an open-source Java library called XTandem Parser that parses X!Tandem XML result files into an easily accessible and fully functional object model (http://xtandem-parser.googlecode.com). In addition, a graphical user interface is provided that functions as a usage example and an end-user visualization tool. PMID:20140905

Muth, Thilo; Vaudel, Marc; Barsnes, Harald; Martens, Lennart; Sickmann, Albert

2010-04-01

281

Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…

Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe

2012-01-01

282

Discovering Novel Adverse Drug Events Using Natural Language Processing and Mining of the Electronic Health Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talk presents an overview of our research in use of medical knowledge, natural language processing, the electronic health\\u000a record, and statistical methods to automatically discover novel adverse drug events, which are serious problems world-wide.

Carol Friedman

2009-01-01

283

AutoTutor and Family: A Review of 17 Years of Natural Language Tutoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…

Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

2014-01-01

284

The Rape of Mother Nature? Women in the Language of Environmental Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the structure of language reflects and reproduces the dominant model, and reinforces many of the dualistic assumptions which underlie the separation of male and female, nature and culture, mind from body, emotion from reason, and intuition from fact. (LZ)

Berman, Tzeporah

1994-01-01

285

POPEL-HOW: A Distributed Parallel Model for Incremental Natural Language Production with Feedback  

E-print Network

15, Bau 17 6600 Saarbriicken 11, F R G fine@fbiOvax.mformatik.uni saarland.dbp.de A b s t r a c be characterized as a combination of methods of Distributed Artificial Intelligence and natural language generation

Neumann, Günter

286

Using Natural Language Generation Technology to Improve Information Flows in Intensive Care Units  

E-print Network

real-time patient care. In the healthcare sector there is increased interest in deploying technologyUsing Natural Language Generation Technology to Improve Information Flows in Intensive Care Units feature of this technology is that it brings together a diverse set of techniques such as medical signal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Dude, srsly?: The Surprisingly Formal Nature of Twitter's Language Yuheng Hu Kartik Talamadupula Subbarao Kambhampati  

E-print Network

Dude, srsly?: The Surprisingly Formal Nature of Twitter's Language Yuheng Hu Kartik Talamadupula, krt, rao}@asu.edu Abstract Twitter has become the de facto information sharing and com- munication platform. Given the factors that influence lan- guage on Twitter ­ size limitation as well as communication

Kambhampati, Subbarao

288

Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools for the analysis of incident and accident reports  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools for the analysis of incident and accident reports project, we use NLP methods to facilitate experience feedback in the field of civil aviation safety. In this paper, we present how NLP methods based on the extraction of textual information from the Air France ASR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Self-Regulated Learning in Learning Environments With Pedagogical Agents That Interact in Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the occurrence and measurement of self-regulated learning (SRL) both in human tutoring and in computer tutors with agents that hold conversations with students in natural language and help them learn at deeper levels. One challenge in building these computer tutors is to accommodate, encourage, and scaffold SRL because these skills are not adequately developed for most students.

ARTHUR GRAESSER; DANIELLE McNAMARA

2010-01-01

290

The Use of Natural Language Entry and Laser Videodisk Technology in CAI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of an authoring system is described that incorporates student interaction with the computer by natural language entry at the keyboard and the use of the microcomputer to direct a random-access laser video-disk player. (Author/MLW)

Abdulla, Abdulla M.; And Others

1984-01-01

291

Generating Affective Natural Language for Parents of Neonatal Infants Saad Mahamood and Ehud Reiter  

E-print Network

Generating Affective Natural Language for Parents of Neonatal Infants Saad Mahamood and Ehud Reiter. This is particularly appar- ent for parents of babies that are being looked after in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. It is also an en- vironment in which parents have to come to terms with information

Reiter, Ehud

292

A Study on Translating Regulatory Rules from Natural Language to Defeasible Logic  

E-print Network

and use cases mentioned above. Efforts along these lines appear in early work in artificial intelligence regulations are expressed in natural language. Yet, we cannot formally or automatically reason with regulations in that form. Defeasible Logic has been used to formally represent the semantic interpretation

Governatori, Guido

293

/Users/yvon/home/figs/L Statistical Learning in Natural Language  

E-print Network

a hybrid approach incorporating rules from sources such as Wordnet. ['souris'/animal or 'souris of psychologically motivated computational models of aspects of human NLP. automated processing tools is a hybrid. All systems use at least some statistical techniques. François Yvon Statistical Natural Language

Yvon, François

294

Dynamic context generation for natural language understanding: a multifaceted knowledge approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a comprehensive framework for text un- derstanding, based on the representation of context. It is designed to serve as a representation of semantics for the full range of in- terpretive and inferential needs of general natural language pro- cessing. Its most distinctive feature is its uniform representation of the various simple and independent linguistic sources that play a

Samuel W. K. Chan; James Franklin

2003-01-01

295

Using Natural Language Generation Technology to Improve Information Flows in Intensive Care Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the drive to improve patient safety, patients in modern intensive care units are closely monitored with the generation of very large volumes of data. Unless the data are further processed, it is difficult for medical and nursing staff to assimilate what is important. It has been demonstrated that data summarization in natural language has the potential to improve clinical

Jim Hunter; Albert Gatt; François Portet; Ehud Reiter; Somayajulu Sripada

2008-01-01

296

Biomimetic design through natural language analysis to facilitate cross-domain information retrieval  

E-print Network

Biomimetic design through natural language analysis to facilitate cross-domain information retrieval IVEY CHIU and L.H. SHU Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Received October 11, 2005; Accepted May 17, 2006! Abstract Biomimetic

Shu, Lily H.

297

Using HTML Formatting to Aid in Natural Language Processing on the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its magnitude and the fact that it is not computer understandable, the WorldWide Web has become a prime candidate for automatic natural language tasks. This thesisargues that there is information in the layout of a web page, and that by looking at theHTML formatting in addition to the text on a page, one can improve performance in taskssuch

Dan Dipasquo

1998-01-01

298

Speech Graffiti vs. Natural Language: Assessing the User Experience Stefanie Tomko and Roni Rosenfeld  

E-print Network

Speech Graffiti vs. Natural Language: Assessing the User Experience Stefanie Tomko and Roni. Speech Graffiti was designed to address these issues via a structured, universal interface protocol for interacting with simple machines. Since Speech Graffiti requires that users speak to the system in a certain

Rosenfeld, Roni

299

AI agents combining natural language interaction, task planning, and business ontologies can help  

E-print Network

AI agents combining natural language interaction, task planning, and business ontologies can help a new customer than to keep an existing one. How can AI help in addressing this problem? For several years we have built a domain-inde- pendent AI platform for creating conversation- al customer

Fox, Mark S.

300

Natural Vs. Precise Concise Languages for Human Operation of Computers: Research Issues and Experimental Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper raises concerns that natural language front ends for computer systems can limit a researcher's scope of thinking, yield inappropriately complex systems, and exaggerate public fear of computers. Alternative modes of computer use are suggested and the role of psychologically oriented controlled experimentation is emphasized. Research methods and recent experimental results are briefly reviewed.

Ben Shneiderman

1980-01-01

301

CAL Abstract Can natural language recognition technologies be used to enhance the learning  

E-print Network

experience of young children? Background Natural language as a bridge to useable technology. The features to handwritten input with quite young children. In this study, childrens handwriting was traced onto the machine that although the use of a computer did not improve the quality or quantity of childrens writing, the high

302

Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 56, pp157172 (2012) Automatic generation of natural language nursing shift summaries  

E-print Network

nursing shift summaries in neonatal intensive care: BT-Nurse James Hunter a, *, Yvonne Freer b , Albert automatically generate useful natural language nursing shift summaries solely from an electronic patient record and incoming nurses to be understandable (90%), and a majority were found to be accurate (70%), and useful (59

Reiter, Ehud

303

Developing Natural Language Enabled Games in (Extended) SCXML Jenny Brusk1  

E-print Network

Department of Game Design, Narrative and Time-based Media, Gotland University College, Sweden 2 Department with a very simple example in the form of a `game' where a display will show "YOU WON! Play againDeveloping Natural Language Enabled Games in (Extended) SCXML Jenny Brusk1 and Torbjörn Lager2 1

Thawonmas, Ruck

304

Generalized Probabilistic LR Parsing of Natural Language (Corpora) with Unification-Based Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe work toward the construction of a very wide-coverage probabilistic parsing system for natural language (NL), based on LR parsing techniques. The system is intended to rank the large number of syntactic analyses produced by NL grammars according to the frequency of occurrence of the individual rules deployed in each analysis. We discuss a fully automatic procedure for constructing

Ted Briscoe; John Carroll

1993-01-01

305

Fast Exact Inference with a Factored Model for Natural Language Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel generative model for natural language tree structures in which semantic (lexical dependency) and syntactic (PCFG) structures are scored with separate models. This factorization provides concep- tual simplicity, straightforward opportunities for separately improving the component models, and a level of performance comparable to simi- lar, non-factored models. Most importantly, unlike other modern parsing models, the factored model

Dan Klein; Christopher D. Manning

2002-01-01

306

A Practical System for HumanLike Parsing Content Areas: natural language processing, applications, cognitive modelling  

E-print Network

A Practical System for Human­Like Parsing Content Areas: natural language processing, applications­based grammar and grammar rule selection heuristics. Like humans, it parses in linear time, and generates one been evalu­ ated on two parsing metrics: Parseval [Black et al., 1991] and a dependency based metric

Huyck, Chris

307

The Nature of Auditory Discrimination Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: An MMN Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) show impairments in discriminating auditorily presented stimuli. The present study investigates whether these discrimination problems are speech specific or of a general auditory nature. This was studied using a linguistic and nonlinguistic contrast that were matched for acoustic complexity in…

Davids, Nina; Segers, Eliane; van den Brink, Danielle; Mitterer, Holger; van Balkom, Hans; Hagoort, Peter; Verhoeven, Ludo

2011-01-01

308

Art Related Experiences for Social Science, Natural Science, and Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to serve as an introduction to art experiences that relate to studies in social science, natural science, and language arts. It is designed to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of interaction of the abiotic, biotic, and cultural factors of the total environment as manifest in art forms. Each section, presented…

Mack, Edward B.

309

Generating animation from natural language texts and semantic analysis for motion search and scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an animation system that generates an animation from natural language texts such as movie scripts or stories. It also proposes a frame- work for a motion database that stores numerous mo- tion clips for various characters. We have developed se- mantic analysis methods to extract information for mo- tion search and scheduling from script-like input texts. Given

Masaki Oshita

2010-01-01

310

Generating Animation from Natural Language Texts and Framework of Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

time Figure 1. Example of our system. (a) Input text. (b) Searched motion clips and their execution timings. (c) Generated animation. Abstract— This paper presents an animation system that generates an animation from natural language texts such as movie scripts or stories. We also propose the framework of a motion database that stores many motion clips for various characters. When

Masaki Oshita

2009-01-01

311

Parsing, word associations and typical predicate-argument relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of collocational constraints in natural languages that ought to play a more important role in natural language parsers. Thus, for example, it is hard for most parsers to take advantage of the fact that ).

Kenneth Church; William Gale; Patrick Hanks; Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

312

Natural language processing with dynamic classification improves P300 speller accuracy and bit rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The P300 speller is an example of a brain-computer interface that can restore functionality to victims of neuromuscular disorders. Although the most common application of this system has been communicating language, the properties and constraints of the linguistic domain have not to date been exploited when decoding brain signals that pertain to language. We hypothesized that combining the standard stepwise linear discriminant analysis with a Naive Bayes classifier and a trigram language model would increase the speed and accuracy of typing with the P300 speller. With integration of natural language processing, we observed significant improvements in accuracy and 40-60% increases in bit rate for all six subjects in a pilot study. This study suggests that integrating information about the linguistic domain can significantly improve signal classification.

Speier, William; Arnold, Corey; Lu, Jessica; Taira, Ricky K.; Pouratian, Nader

2012-02-01

313

The Nature of the Language Faculty and Its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the ''narrow language faculty'') consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We…

Jackendoff, Ray; Pinker, Steven

2005-01-01

314

Abstract--Named entity recognition (NER) is a popular domain of natural language processing. For this reason, many  

E-print Network

Abstract-- Named entity recognition (NER) is a popular domain of natural language processing they rely upon, the entity types they can detect, the nature of the text they can handle, and their input of the natural language processing field (NLP), mainly for two reasons. First, NER is used directly in many

Boyer, Edmond

315

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 10061016, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

mentions. The first mechanism is motivated by the compositional nature of Chinese words, whose semanticsProceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing Association for Computational Linguistics Employing Compositional Semantics and Discourse Consistency

316

Evaluating a normalized conceptual representation produced from natural language patient discharge summaries.  

PubMed Central

The Menelas project aimed to produce a normalized conceptual representation from natural language patient discharge summaries. Because of the complex and detailed nature of conceptual representations, evaluating the quality of output of such a system is difficult. We present the method designed to measure the quality of Menelas output, and its application to the state of the French Menelas prototype as of the end of the project. We examine this method in the framework recently proposed by Friedman and Hripcsak. We also propose two conditions which enable to reduce the evaluation preparation workload. PMID:9357694

Zweigenbaum, P.; Bouaud, J.; Bachimont, B.; Charlet, J.; Boisvieux, J. F.

1997-01-01

317

A CHART PARSER TO ANALYZE LARGE MEDICAL CORPORA P.O. El Guedj1 and P. Nugues2  

E-print Network

syntax coverage can be obtained from Phrase-Structure rules. Large medical corpora show a strong. PHRASE-STRUCTURE GRAMMARS Many parsers rely on phrase-structure grammars to build syntactic structures such as the sentence (S) structure: S NP VP, which consists here of a noun phrase and a verb

Nugues, Pierre

318

NLP-SIR: A Natural Language Approach for Spreadsheet Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

Spreadsheets are a ubiquitous software tool, used for a wide variety of tasks such as financial modelling, statistical analysis and inventory management. Extracting meaningful information from such data can be a difficult task, especially for novice users unfamiliar with the advanced data processing features of many spreadsheet applications. We believe that through the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques this task can be made considerably easier. This paper introduces NLP-SIR, a Natural language interface for spreadsheet information retrieval. The results of a recent evaluation which compared NLP-SIR with existing Information retrieval tools are also outlined. This evaluation has shown that NLP-SIR is a more effective method of spreadsheet information retrieval.

Flood, Derek; Caffery, Fergal Mc

2009-01-01

319

2 Evolution in Language and Elsewhere It is a natural principle that the script and the sounds  

E-print Network

of the evolution of language in the human species, or the study of the biological evolution of the language organ21 2 Evolution in Language and Elsewhere It is a natural principle that the script and the sounds of language differ according to time and place. Chén Dì (1541-1617) Darwin's (1859) theory of the evolution

320

Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

1989-01-01

321

Probabilistic Tree-Adjoining Grammar As A Framework For Statistical Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue for the use of a probabilistic form of tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) in statistical natural language processing. I first discuss two previous statistical approaches --- one that concentrates on the probabilities of structural operations, and another that emphasizes co-occurrence relationships between words. I argue that a purely structural apprach, exemplified by probabilistic context-free grammar, lacks sufficient

Philip Resnik

1992-01-01

322

Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.  

SciTech Connect

Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

2003-09-01

323

The Exploring Nature of Definitions and Classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the nature of definitions and classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the current studies of second/foreign language learning in order to show the current problems regarding such definitions and classifications. The present study shows that there is not a universal agreeable definition and…

Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

2011-01-01

324

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

325

The nature of auditory discrimination problems in children with specific language impairment: an MMN study.  

PubMed

Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) show impairments in discriminating auditorily presented stimuli. The present study investigates whether these discrimination problems are speech specific or of a general auditory nature. This was studied using a linguistic and nonlinguistic contrast that were matched for acoustic complexity in an active behavioral task and a passive ERP paradigm, known to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN). In addition, attention skills and a variety of language skills were measured. Participants were 25 five-year-old Dutch children with SLI having receptive as well as productive language problems and 25 control children with typical speech- and language development. At the behavioral level, the SLI group was impaired in discriminating the linguistic contrast as compared to the control group, while both groups were unable to distinguish the non-linguistic contrast. Moreover, the SLI group tended to have impaired attention skills which correlated with performance on most of the language tests. At the neural level, the SLI group, in contrast to the control group, did not show an MMN in response to either the linguistic or nonlinguistic contrast. The MMN data are consistent with an account that relates the symptoms in children with SLI to non-speech processing difficulties. PMID:21070793

Davids, Nina; Segers, Eliane; van den Brink, Daniëlle; Mitterer, Holger; van Balkom, Hans; Hagoort, Peter; Verhoeven, Ludo

2011-01-01

326

First Joint Workshop on Statistical Parsing of Morphologically Rich Languages and Syntactic Analysis of Non-Canonical Languages, pages 9096 Dublin, Ireland, August 23-29 2014.  

E-print Network

for Dependency Parsing of Greek Prokopis Prokopidis Institute for Language and Speech Processing Athena Research Athena Research Center Athens, Greece xaris@ilsp.gr Abstract This paper describes experiments for Greek, a language with a moderately rich morphology. We show how scores obtained by the two parsers

327

The linguistic approach to the natural language requirements quality: benefit of the use of an automatic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language (NL) requirements are widely used in the software industry, at least as the first level of description of a system. Unfortunately they are often prone to errors and this is partially caused by interpretation problems due to the use of NL itself. The paper presents a methodology for the analysis of natural language requirements based on a quality

F. Fabbrini; M. Fusani; S. Gnesi; G. Lami

2001-01-01

328

Parsing spoken input introduces serious problems not present in parsing typed natural language. In particular, indeterminacies and  

E-print Network

simply between different word choices, this could be handled by the natural language processing, it is not sufficient merely to recognize which words were spoken. As in the case of typed natural language input processing is devoted to determining the meanings of word sequences typed into a computer. It seems

Hauptmann, Alexander G.

329

Reasoning about Meaning in Natural Language with Compact Closed Categories and Frobenius Algebras  

E-print Network

Compact closed categories have found applications in modeling quantum information protocols by Abramsky-Coecke. They also provide semantics for Lambek's pregroup algebras, applied to formalizing the grammatical structure of natural language, and are implicit in a distributional model of word meaning based on vector spaces. Specifically, in previous work Coecke-Clark-Sadrzadeh used the product category of pregroups with vector spaces and provided a distributional model of meaning for sentences. We recast this theory in terms of strongly monoidal functors and advance it via Frobenius algebras over vector spaces. The former are used to formalize topological quantum field theories by Atiyah and Baez-Dolan, and the latter are used to model classical data in quantum protocols by Coecke-Pavlovic-Vicary. The Frobenius algebras enable us to work in a single space in which meanings of words, phrases, and sentences of any structure live. Hence we can compare meanings of different language constructs and enhance the appl...

Kartsaklis, Dimitri; Pulman, Stephen; Coecke, Bob

2014-01-01

330

Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.  

PubMed

The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks. PMID:16956103

Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

2006-05-01

331

Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

Gomez, Fernando

1989-01-01

332

GenEng: A dialogue-based natural language interface to the GenBank  

SciTech Connect

To sequence all the genes in human DNA and analyze their functions, the Human Genome Project has been collecting a large body of data in data banks such as GenBank{copyright}. One of the important issues concerning computational biologists is the availability of the tools which can provide easy and efficient access to these data banks. In this paper, the author will give a brief overview of different approaches to the design of a relational database interface. The paper concentrates on the design of GenEng, a dialogue based natural language interface for information retrieval from the GenBank relational database.

Karimi, E. [Univ. of Texas System, Austin, TX (United States)

1993-12-31

333

Natural language interfaces to data-base systems. Final report, April-August 1988  

SciTech Connect

Data-base management resulted from a need for data to be retained in the computer beyond the period of the current run. Since the earliest times of computer interaction, retrieving this data has been a significant problem. The motivation for this study was to look at the history of data base in order to critique the human computer interface with data bases and to project the next areas of research in data base management. A chronic consequence of man's normal condition of possessing incomplete knowledge of the detailed information to access and use that data is query failure. Although all query failure is frustrating, natural language failure can be especially insidious because it can fail by giving erroneous information to an unsuspecting user. Despite the current level of enthusiasm for natural language communication with the machine, this emulation of human-human communication may be the wrong approach to improving human-machine communication. A better approach may be to use methods of artificial intelligence such as semantic networks and object-oriented programming to create information sublanguages. Such a sublanguage would relieve the user of the need to have knowledge of data base metadata. Adaptive methods, flexible interaction, conceptual pattern matching and disambiguation methods paradigms that can be employed into a new (i.e. beyond relational) hybrid data base to strengthen the underlying structure of databases before communication with them can be improved. This paper provides suggestions on research directions in order to achieve that strengthened database structure.

Von Schweber, E.; Bordeaux, L.; Gowens, J.W.

1988-08-01

334

Researcher SPOTLIGHT The University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language (CASL)  

E-print Network

Theoretical morphology Computational morphology Low-density languages CASL Research Projects Urdu/Bengali/Pashto- putational morphology and low-density languages (those for which few online resources exist, such as Pashto, and Urdu/Bengali/Pashto Lexicons and Morphological Parsers. Maxwell enjoys the work he does

Setiawan, Hendra

335

Formal ontology for natural language processing and the integration of biomedical databases.  

PubMed

The central hypothesis underlying this communication is that the methodology and conceptual rigor of a philosophically inspired formal ontology can bring significant benefits in the development and maintenance of application ontologies [A. Flett, M. Dos Santos, W. Ceusters, Some Ontology Engineering Procedures and their Supporting Technologies, EKAW2002, 2003]. This hypothesis has been tested in the collaboration between Language and Computing (L&C), a company specializing in software for supporting natural language processing especially in the medical field, and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS), an academic research institution concerned with the theoretical foundations of ontology. In the course of this collaboration L&C's ontology, LinKBase, which is designed to integrate and support reasoning across a plurality of external databases, has been subjected to a thorough auditing on the basis of the principles underlying IFOMIS's Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) [B. Smith, Basic Formal Ontology, 2002. http://ontology.buffalo.edu/bfo]. The goal is to transform a large terminology-based ontology into one with the ability to support reasoning applications. Our general procedure has been the implementation of a meta-ontological definition space in which the definitions of all the concepts and relations in LinKBase are standardized in the framework of first-order logic. In this paper we describe how this principles-based standardization has led to a greater degree of internal coherence of the LinKBase structure, and how it has facilitated the construction of mappings between external databases using LinKBase as translation hub. We argue that the collaboration here described represents a new phase in the quest to solve the so-called "Tower of Babel" problem of ontology integration [F. Montayne, J. Flanagan, Formal Ontology: The Foundation for Natural Language Processing, 2003. http://www.landcglobal.com/]. PMID:16153885

Simon, Jonathan; Dos Santos, Mariana; Fielding, James; Smith, Barry

2006-01-01

336

For a new edition of the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. The History of Natural Language Processing and Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article surveys fifty years of work in computational language processing and machine translation, and suggests that a great number of the important ideas were present in the earliest days and hampered only back lack of computational power. Sections review the influence of linguistics proper on the computational area, as well as the influence of artificial intelligence and concerns from

Yorick Wilks

337

Language in Nature: on the Evolutionary Roots of a Cultural Phenomenon (draft chapter for The Language Phenomenon)  

E-print Network

in the fossil record. The mechanisms driving the evolution of language are also largely unknown of these scenarios (by reasoning about 'convergent evolution' ­ as explained below). In this chapter I will survey linguistics as our starting point (section 3). 2. The comparative method in the light of cultural evolution

Amsterdam, University of

338

Neural network processing of natural language: I. Sensitivity to serial, temporal and abstract structure of language in the infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well before their érst birthday, babies can acquire knowledge of serial order relations (Saffran et al., 1996a), as well as knowledge of more abstract rule- based structural relations (Marcus et al., 1999) between neighbouringspeech sounds within 2 minutes of exposure. These early learners can likewise acquire knowledge of rhythmic or temporal structure of a new language within 5-10 minutes of

Peter Ford Dominey; Franck Ramus

2000-01-01

339

Improved P300 speller performance using electrocorticography, spectral features, and natural language processing  

PubMed Central

Objective The P300 speller is a system designed to restore communication to patients with advanced neuromuscular disorders. This study was designed to explore the potential improvement from using electrocorticography (ECoG) compared to the more traditional usage of electroencephalography (EEG). Methods We tested the P300 speller on two epilepsy patients with temporary subdural electrode arrays over the occipital and temporal lobes respectively. We then performed offline analysis to determine the accuracy and bit rate of the system and integrated spectral features into the classifier and used a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to further improve the results. Results The subject with the occipital grid achieved an accuracy of 82.77% and a bit rate of 41.02, which improved to 96.31% and 49.47 respectively using a language model and spectral features. The temporal grid patient achieved an accuracy of 59.03% and a bit rate of 18.26 with an improvement to 75.81% and 27.05 respectively using a language model and spectral features. Spatial analysis of the individual electrodes showed best performance using signals generated and recorded near the occipital pole. Conclusions Using ECoG and integrating language information and spectral features can improve the bit rate of a P300 speller system. This improvement is sensitive to the electrode placement and likely depends on visually evoked potentials. Significance This study shows that there can be an improvement in BCI performance when using ECoG, but that it is sensitive to the electrode location. PMID:23465430

Speier, William; Fried, Itzhak; Pouratian, Nader

2013-01-01

340

Interset: A natural language interface for teleoperated robotic assembly of the EASE space structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A teleoperated robot was used to assemble the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extra-vehicular activity (EASE) space structure under neutral buoyancy conditions, simulating a telerobot performing structural assembly in the zero gravity of space. This previous work used a manually controlled teleoperator as a test bed for system performance evaluations. From these results several Artificial Intelligence options were proposed. One of these was further developed into a real time assembly planner. The interface for this system is effective in assembling EASE structures using windowed graphics and a set of networked menus. As the problem space becomes more complex and hence the set of control options increases, a natural language interface may prove to be beneficial to supplement the menu based control strategy. This strategy can be beneficial in situations such as: describing the local environment, maintaining a data base of task event histories, modifying a plan or a heuristic dynamically, summarizing a task in English, or operating in a novel situation.

Boorsma, Daniel K.

1989-01-01

341

Recognizing Questions and Answers in EMR Templates Using Natural Language Processing.  

PubMed

Templated boilerplate structures pose challenges to natural language processing (NLP) tools used for information extraction (IE). Routine error analyses while performing an IE task using Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records identified templates as an important cause of false positives. The baseline NLP pipeline (V3NLP) was adapted to recognize negation, questions and answers (QA) in various template types by adding a negation and slot:value identification annotator. The system was trained using a corpus of 975 documents developed as a reference standard for extracting psychosocial concepts. Iterative processing using the baseline tool and baseline+negation+QA revealed loss of numbers of concepts with a modest increase in true positives in several concept categories. Similar improvement was noted when the adapted V3NLP was used to process a random sample of 318,000 notes. We demonstrate the feasibility of adapting an NLP pipeline to recognize templates. PMID:25000038

Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Forbush, Tyler; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

2014-01-01

342

Workshop on using natural language processing applications for enhancing clinical decision making: an executive summary.  

PubMed

In April 2012, the National Institutes of Health organized a two-day workshop entitled 'Natural Language Processing: State of the Art, Future Directions and Applications for Enhancing Clinical Decision-Making' (NLP-CDS). This report is a summary of the discussions during the second day of the workshop. Collectively, the workshop presenters and participants emphasized the need for unstructured clinical notes to be included in the decision making workflow and the need for individualized longitudinal data tracking. The workshop also discussed the need to: (1) combine evidence-based literature and patient records with machine-learning and prediction models; (2) provide trusted and reproducible clinical advice; (3) prioritize evidence and test results; and (4) engage healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients. The overall consensus of the NLP-CDS workshop was that there are promising opportunities for NLP and CDS to deliver cognitive support for healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients. PMID:23921193

Pai, Vinay M; Rodgers, Mary; Conroy, Richard; Luo, James; Zhou, Ruixia; Seto, Belinda

2014-02-01

343

Disclosure Control of Natural Language Information to Enable Secure and Enjoyable Communication over the Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.

Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

344

Interpretation of natural-language data base queries using optimization methods  

SciTech Connect

The automatic interpretation of natural language (in this work, English), database questions formulated by a user untrained in the technical aspects of database querying is an established problem in the field of artificial intelligence. State-of-the-art approaches involve the analysis of queries with syntactic and semantic grammars expressed in phrase structure grammar or transition network formalisms. With such method difficulties exist with the detection and resolution of ambiguity, with the misinterpretation possibilities inherent with finite length look-ahead, and with the modification and extension of a mechanism for other sources of semantic knowledge. This work examines the potential of optimization techniques to solve these problems and interpret natural language, database queries. The proposed method involves developing a 0-1 integer programming problem for each query. The possible values that the set of variables in the optimization may take on is an enumeration of possible such individual associations between the database schema and the query. The solution to the integer programming problem corresponds to a single assignment of database data items and relationships to the words in the query. Constraints are derived from systematic and database schema knowledge stored as libraries of templates. An objective function is used to rank the possible associations as to their likelihood of agreement with the intent of the questioner. A test mechanism was built to support evaluation of the proposed method. Suitable knowledge source template sets and an objective function were developed experimentally with the test mechanism from a learning sample of queries. Then the performance of the method was compared to that of an established system (PLANES) on a test set of queries. The performance of the new method was found to be comparable to that of the established system.

Leigh, W.E.

1984-01-01

345

LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

Will, H.

1994-01-01

346

The Effect of Complexity of Natural Language Mediators and the Associability of Pairs on Paired-Associate Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural language mediators (NLM) are widely used by Ss in paired-associate learning. Experiments which have documented their effect on learning have, however, largely ignored qualitative differences between them. Two large groups each learned a different ...

A. J. Wearing, W. E. Montague

1967-01-01

347

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 13021312, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

of domains in statistical natural lan- guage processing. A mismatch between training and test domains canProceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, these algorithms are traditionally evaluated in a balanced class la- bel setting, although in practice many multi

348

Neural substrates of figurative language during natural speech perception: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g., “He smokes like a chimney!”) occurring in a short story. Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences (CS). The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility, and comprehensibility. Similes contrasted with CS resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG) and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete CS as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG). Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions. PMID:24065897

Nagels, Arne; Kauschke, Christina; Schrauf, Judith; Whitney, Carin; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo

2013-01-01

349

Visual language recognition with a feed-forward network of spiking neurons  

SciTech Connect

An analogy is made and exploited between the recognition of visual objects and language parsing. A subset of regular languages is used to define a one-dimensional 'visual' language, in which the words are translational and scale invariant. This allows an exploration of the viewpoint invariant languages that can be solved by a network of concurrent, hierarchically connected processors. A language family is defined that is hierarchically tiling system recognizable (HREC). As inspired by nature, an algorithm is presented that constructs a cellular automaton that recognizes strings from a language in the HREC family. It is demonstrated how a language recognizer can be implemented from the cellular automaton using a feed-forward network of spiking neurons. This parser recognizes fixed-length strings from the language in parallel and as the computation is pipelined, a new string can be parsed in each new interval of time. The analogy with formal language theory allows inferences to be drawn regarding what class of objects can be recognized by visual cortex operating in purely feed-forward fashion and what class of objects requires a more complicated network architecture.

Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garrett, Kenyan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sottile, Matthew [GALOIS; Shreyas, Ns [INDIANA UNIV.

2010-01-01

350

9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

categories of performance each divided by age. · Spoken Language (Pre9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma from the Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair! We are pleased

Oklahoma, University of

351

A Bibliography on the Nature, Recognition and Treatment of Language Difficulties. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selected bibliography contains sources relevant to the general interests and specific needs of persons concerned with language and its disorders, especially specific language disability or ineptitude in learning the basic skills of language, such as dyslexia. The list was prepared first for students in language re-education at Hood College…

Rawson, Margaret B.

352

Semi-Supervised Learning of Statistical Models for Natural Language Understanding  

PubMed Central

Natural language understanding is to specify a computational model that maps sentences to their semantic mean representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to train the statistical models without using expensive fully annotated data. In particular, the input of our framework is a set of sentences labeled with abstract semantic annotations. These annotations encode the underlying embedded semantic structural relations without explicit word/semantic tag alignment. The proposed framework can automatically induce derivation rules that map sentences to their semantic meaning representations. The learning framework is applied on two statistical models, the conditional random fields (CRFs) and the hidden Markov support vector machines (HM-SVMs). Our experimental results on the DARPA communicator data show that both CRFs and HM-SVMs outperform the baseline approach, previously proposed hidden vector state (HVS) model which is also trained on abstract semantic annotations. In addition, the proposed framework shows superior performance than two other baseline approaches, a hybrid framework combining HVS and HM-SVMs and discriminative training of HVS, with a relative error reduction rate of about 25% and 15% being achieved in F-measure. PMID:25152899

He, Yulan

2014-01-01

353

Negation’s Not Solved: Generalizability Versus Optimizability in Clinical Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

A review of published work in clinical natural language processing (NLP) may suggest that the negation detection task has been “solved.” This work proposes that an optimizable solution does not equal a generalizable solution. We introduce a new machine learning-based Polarity Module for detecting negation in clinical text, and extensively compare its performance across domains. Using four manually annotated corpora of clinical text, we show that negation detection performance suffers when there is no in-domain development (for manual methods) or training data (for machine learning-based methods). Various factors (e.g., annotation guidelines, named entity characteristics, the amount of data, and lexical and syntactic context) play a role in making generalizability difficult, but none completely explains the phenomenon. Furthermore, generalizability remains challenging because it is unclear whether to use a single source for accurate data, combine all sources into a single model, or apply domain adaptation methods. The most reliable means to improve negation detection is to manually annotate in-domain training data (or, perhaps, manually modify rules); this is a strategy for optimizing performance, rather than generalizing it. These results suggest a direction for future work in domain-adaptive and task-adaptive methods for clinical NLP. PMID:25393544

Wu, Stephen; Miller, Timothy; Masanz, James; Coarr, Matt; Halgrim, Scott; Carrell, David; Clark, Cheryl

2014-01-01

354

Towards symbiosis in knowledge representation and natural language processing for structuring clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

The successful adoption by clinicians of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contained in clinical information systems requires efficient translation of free-text guidelines into computable formats. Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to improve the efficiency of such translation. However, it is laborious to develop NLP to structure free-text CPGs using existing formal knowledge representations (KR). In response to this challenge, this vision paper discusses the value and feasibility of supporting symbiosis in text-based knowledge acquisition (KA) and KR. We compare two ontologies: (1) an ontology manually created by domain experts for CPG eligibility criteria and (2) an upper-level ontology derived from a semantic pattern-based approach for automatic KA from CPG eligibility criteria text. Then we discuss the strengths and limitations of interweaving KA and NLP for KR purposes and important considerations for achieving the symbiosis of KR and NLP for structuring CPGs to achieve evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:24943582

Weng, Chunhua; Payne, Philip R O; Velez, Mark; Johnson, Stephen B; Bakken, Suzanne

2014-01-01

355

Automated extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from radiology reports with natural language processing.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm that determines American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment categories from radiology reports. This HIPAA-compliant study was granted institutional review board approval with waiver of informed consent. This cross-sectional study involved 1,165 breast imaging reports in the electronic medical record (EMR) from a tertiary care academic breast imaging center from 2009. Reports included screening mammography, diagnostic mammography, breast ultrasound, combined diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging studies. Over 220 reports were included from each study type. The recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of a NLP algorithm to collect BI-RADS final assessment categories stated in the report final text was evaluated against a manual human review standard reference. For all breast imaging reports, the NLP algorithm demonstrated a recall of 100.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 99.7, 100.0 %) and a precision of 96.6 % (95 % CI, 95.4, 97.5 %) for correct identification of BI-RADS final assessment categories. The NLP algorithm demonstrated high recall and precision for extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from the free text of breast imaging reports. NLP may provide an accurate, scalable data extraction mechanism from reports within EMRs to create databases to track breast imaging performance measures and facilitate optimal breast cancer population management strategies. PMID:23868515

Sippo, Dorothy A; Warden, Graham I; Andriole, Katherine P; Lacson, Ronilda; Ikuta, Ichiro; Birdwell, Robyn L; Khorasani, Ramin

2013-10-01

356

NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES FINDINGS FROM COLONOSCOPY AND PATHOLOGY REPORTS  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Little is known about the ability of natural language processing (NLP) to extract meaningful information from free text gastroenterology reports for secondary use. Methods We randomly selected 500 linked colonoscopy and pathology reports from 10,798 non-surveillance colonoscopies to train and test the NLP system. Using annotation by gastroenterologists as the reference standard, we assessed the accuracy of an open-source NLP engine that processed and extracted clinically relevant concepts. The primary outcome was the highest level of pathology. Secondary outcomes were: location of the most advanced lesion, largest size of an adenoma removed, and number of adenomas removed. Results The NLP system identified the highest level of pathology with 98% accuracy, compared with triplicate annotation by gastroenterologists (the standard). Accuracy values for location, size, and number were 97%, 96%, and 84%, respectively. Conclusions The NLP can extract specific meaningful concepts with 98% accuracy. It might be developed as a method to further quantify specific quality metrics. PMID:23313839

Imler, Timothy D.; Morea, Justin; Kahi, Charles; Imperiale, Thomas F.

2014-01-01

357

Discovering peripheral arterial disease cases from radiology notes using natural language processing.  

PubMed

As part of the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network, we applied, extended and evaluated an open source clinical Natural Language Processing system, Mayo's Clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System, for the discovery of peripheral arterial disease cases from radiology reports. The manually created gold standard consisted of 223 positive, 19 negative, 63 probable and 150 unknown cases. Overall accuracy agreement between the system and the gold standard was 0.93 as compared to a named entity recognition baseline of 0.46. Sensitivity for the positive, probable and unknown cases was 0.93-0.96, and for the negative cases was 0.72. Specificity and negative predictive value for all categories were in the 90's. The positive predictive value for the positive and unknown categories was in the high 90's, for the negative category was 0.84, and for the probable category was 0.63. We outline the main sources of errors and suggest improvements. PMID:21347073

Savova, Guergana K; Fan, Jin; Ye, Zi; Murphy, Sean P; Zheng, Jiaping; Chute, Christopher G; Kullo, Iftikhar J

2010-01-01

358

Generating Executable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Medicine Using Natural Language and Semantic Processing  

PubMed Central

With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the “gold standard” for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%. PMID:17238302

Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A.

2006-01-01

359

Searching for Cancer Information on the Internet: Analyzing Natural Language Search Queries  

PubMed Central

Background Searching for health information is one of the most-common tasks performed by Internet users. Many users begin searching on popular search engines rather than on prominent health information sites. We know that many visitors to our (National Cancer Institute) Web site, cancer.gov, arrive via links in search engine result. Objective To learn more about the specific needs of our general-public users, we wanted to understand what lay users really wanted to know about cancer, how they phrased their questions, and how much detail they used. Methods The National Cancer Institute partnered with AskJeeves, Inc to develop a methodology to capture, sample, and analyze 3 months of cancer-related queries on the Ask.com Web site, a prominent United States consumer search engine, which receives over 35 million queries per week. Using a benchmark set of 500 terms and word roots supplied by the National Cancer Institute, AskJeeves identified a test sample of cancer queries for 1 week in August 2001. From these 500 terms only 37 appeared ? 5 times/day over the trial test week in 17208 queries. Using these 37 terms, 204165 instances of cancer queries were found in the Ask.com query logs for the actual test period of June-August 2001. Of these, 7500 individual user questions were randomly selected for detailed analysis and assigned to appropriate categories. The exact language of sample queries is presented. Results Considering multiples of the same questions, the sample of 7500 individual user queries represented 76077 queries (37% of the total 3-month pool). Overall 78.37% of sampled Cancer queries asked about 14 specific cancer types. Within each cancer type, queries were sorted into appropriate subcategories including at least the following: General Information, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Testing, Treatment, Statistics, Definition, and Cause/Risk/Link. The most-common specific cancer types mentioned in queries were Digestive/Gastrointestinal/Bowel (15.0%), Breast (11.7%), Skin (11.3%), and Genitourinary (10.5%). Additional subcategories of queries about specific cancer types varied, depending on user input. Queries that were not specific to a cancer type were also tracked and categorized. Conclusions Natural-language searching affords users the opportunity to fully express their information needs and can aid users naïve to the content and vocabulary. The specific queries analyzed for this study reflect news and research studies reported during the study dates and would surely change with different study dates. Analyzing queries from search engines represents one way of knowing what kinds of content to provide to users of a given Web site. Users ask questions using whole sentences and keywords, often misspelling words. Providing the option for natural-language searching does not obviate the need for good information architecture, usability engineering, and user testing in order to optimize user experience. PMID:14713659

Theofanos, Mary Frances

2003-01-01

360

HPARSER: extracting formal patient data from free text history and physical reports using natural language processing software.  

PubMed Central

A prototype, HPARSER, processes a patient history and physical report such that specific data are obtained and stored in a patient data record. HPARSER is a recursive transition network (RTN) parser, and includes English and medical grammar rules, lexicon, and database constraints. Medical grammar rules augment the grammar rule base and specify common phrases seen in patient reports (e.g., "pupils are equal and reactive"). Each database constraint associates a grammar rule with a database table and attribute. Constraint behavior is such that if a rule is satisfied, data is extracted from the parse tree and stored into the database. Control reports guided construction of grammar and constraint rules. Test reports were processed with the control rules. 85% of test report sentences parsed and a 60% data capture rate, compared to controls, was achieved. HPARSER demonstrates use of an RTN to parse patient reports, and database constraints to transfer formal data from parse trees into a database. PMID:11825263

Sponsler, J. L.

2001-01-01

361

Time-Sampling Analysis of Infants' Natural Language Environments in the Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study reports a technique for analyzing and categorizing certain gross features of the receptive language environment which constitute the primary source material for all of a baby's language learning. (Authors/MB)

Friedlander, Bernard Z.; And Others

1972-01-01

362

Voice-Dictated versus Typed-in Clinician Notes: Linguistic Properties and the Potential Implications on Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

In this study, we comparatively examined the linguistic properties of narrative clinician notes created through voice dictation versus those directly entered by clinicians via a computer keyboard. Intuitively, the nature of voice-dictated notes would resemble that of natural language, while typed-in notes may demonstrate distinctive language features for reasons such as intensive usage of acronyms. The study analyses were based on an empirical dataset retrieved from our institutional electronic health records system. The dataset contains 30,000 voice-dictated notes and 30,000 notes that were entered manually; both were encounter notes generated in ambulatory care settings. The results suggest that between the narrative clinician notes created via these two different methods, there exists a considerable amount of lexical and distributional differences. Such differences could have a significant impact on the performance of natural language processing tools, necessitating these two different types of documents being differentially treated. PMID:22195229

Zheng, Kai; Mei, Qiaozhu; Yang, Lei; Manion, Frank J.; Balis, Ulysses J.; Hanauer, David A.

2011-01-01

363

Validation of psoriatic arthritis diagnoses in electronic medical records using natural language processing  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test whether data extracted from full text patient visit notes from an electronic medical record (EMR) would improve the classification of PsA compared to an algorithm based on codified data. Methods From the > 1,350,000 adults in a large academic EMR, all 2318 patients with a billing code for PsA were extracted and 550 were randomly selected for chart review and algorithm training. Using codified data and phrases extracted from narrative data using natural language processing, 31 predictors were extracted and three random forest algorithms trained using coded, narrative, and combined predictors. The receiver operator curve (ROC) was used to identify the optimal algorithm and a cut point was chosen to achieve the maximum sensitivity possible at a 90% positive predictive value (PPV). The algorithm was then used to classify the remaining 1768 charts and finally validated in a random sample of 300 cases predicted to have PsA. Results The PPV of a single PsA code was 57% (95%CI 55%–58%). Using a combination of coded data and NLP the random forest algorithm reached a PPV of 90% (95%CI 86%–93%) at sensitivity of 87% (95% CI 83% – 91%) in the training data. The PPV was 93% (95%CI 89%–96%) in the validation set. Adding NLP predictors to codified data increased the area under the ROC (p < 0.001). Conclusions Using NLP with text notes from electronic medical records improved the performance of the prediction algorithm significantly. Random forests were a useful tool to accurately classify psoriatic arthritis cases to enable epidemiological research. PMID:20701955

Cai, Tianxi; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

2013-01-01

364

Developing a natural language processing application for measuring the quality of colonoscopy procedures  

PubMed Central

Objective The quality of colonoscopy procedures for colorectal cancer screening is often inadequate and varies widely among physicians. Routine measurement of quality is limited by the costs of manual review of free-text patient charts. Our goal was to develop a natural language processing (NLP) application to measure colonoscopy quality. Materials and methods Using a set of quality measures published by physician specialty societies, we implemented an NLP engine that extracts 21 variables for 19 quality measures from free-text colonoscopy and pathology reports. We evaluated the performance of the NLP engine on a test set of 453 colonoscopy reports and 226 pathology reports, considering accuracy in extracting the values of the target variables from text, and the reliability of the outcomes of the quality measures as computed from the NLP-extracted information. Results The average accuracy of the NLP engine over all variables was 0.89 (range: 0.62–1.0) and the average F measure over all variables was 0.74 (range: 0.49–0.89). The average agreement score, measured as Cohen's ?, between the manually established and NLP-derived outcomes of the quality measures was 0.62 (range: 0.09–0.86). Discussion For nine of the 19 colonoscopy quality measures, the agreement score was 0.70 or above, which we consider a sufficient score for the NLP-derived outcomes of these measures to be practically useful for quality measurement. Conclusion The use of NLP for information extraction from free-text colonoscopy and pathology reports creates opportunities for large scale, routine quality measurement, which can support quality improvement in colonoscopy care. PMID:21946240

Chapman, Wendy W; Saul, Melissa; Dellon, Evan S; Schoen, Robert E; Mehrotra, Ateev

2011-01-01

365

Measuring Information Acquisition from Sensory Input Using Automated Scoring of Natural-Language Descriptions  

PubMed Central

Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a “wisdom of crowds” approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N?=?15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled. PMID:24695546

Saunders, Daniel R.; Bex, Peter J.; Rose, Dylan J.; Woods, Russell L.

2014-01-01

366

Sequence Package Analysis: a new natural language understanding method for improving human response in critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will demonstrate how Sequence Package Analysis, as a new natural language understanding method that is built on\\u000a a set of parsing structures that consist of context-free grammatical units and related prosodic features for identifying affective\\/emotional\\u000a data found in natural speech and blogs, may better accommodate the goals of crisis management and rapid decision making in\\u000a critical systems. Following

Amy Neustein

2006-01-01

367

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 7181, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

need simulators to train managers, but need managers to evaluate simulators. The issue to fledgling dialog systems (Eckert et al., 1997). Training effective dialog managers should benefit fromProceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Edinburgh, University of

368

Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pp. 514523, Prague, June 2007. c 2007 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and translation models also benefit statistical machine translation. However, there are two problems with using to overcome this problem. The second issue is domain prediction. In or- der to perform adaptation, the domain

369

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 546556, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

processing tasks such as au- tomatic thesaurus extraction (Grefenstette, 1994), word sense discriminationProceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing for Computational Linguistics A Comparison of Vector-based Representations for Semantic Composition William Blacoe

370

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 12011211, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing Association for Computational Linguistics Semantic Compositionality through Recursive Matrix-Vector Spaces,manning,ang}@stanford.edu Computer Science Department, Stanford University Abstract Single-word vector space models have been very

Pratt, Vaughan

371

Generating Performance Analysis of GPU compared to Single-core and Multi-core CPU for Natural Language Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, the main time-consuming process is string matching due to the large size of lexicon. In string matching processes, data dependence is minimal and hence it is ideal for parallelization. A dedicated system with memory interleaving and parallel processing techniques for string matching can reduce this burden of host CPU, thereby making the system more

M. Rajasekhara Babu Shubham Gupta

2011-01-01

372

Performance Analysis of GPU compared to Single core and Multi-core CPU for Natural Language Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, the main time-consuming process is string matching due to the large size of lexicon. In string matching processes, data dependence is minimal and hence it is ideal for parallelization. A dedicated system with memory interleaving and parallel processing techniques for string matching can reduce this burden of host CPU, thereby making the system more

Shubham Gupta; M. Rajasekhara Babu

2011-01-01

373

The Past and 3 Futures of NLP Natural Language text and speech processing (Computational Linguistics) is just over 50  

E-print Network

The Past and 3½ Futures of NLP Natural Language text and speech processing (Computational,and large-scale processing is increasingly being adopted (especially for commercial NLP) in this decade researchers focus on algorithms to effect the transformation of representation required in NLP;and the large

Chen, Sheng-Wei

374

An Examination of Natural Language as a Query Formation Tool for Retrieving Information on E-Health from Pub Med.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of Internet use for information searches on health-related topics focuses on a study that examined complexity and variability of natural language in using search terms that express the concept of electronic health (e-health). Highlights include precision of retrieved information; shift in terminology; and queries using the Pub Med…

Peterson, Gabriel M.; Su, Kuichun; Ries, James E.; Sievert, Mary Ellen C.

2002-01-01

375

Does It Really Matter whether Students' Contributions Are Spoken versus Typed in an Intelligent Tutoring System with Natural Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The "speech facilitation" hypothesis predicts that spoken input will "increase" learning, whereas the "text…

D'Mello, Sidney K.; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur

2011-01-01

376

Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Embodied Natural Language June 24-29, Prague, CZ; pp. 40-50.  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Embodied Natural Language June 24-29, Prague, CZ; pp. 40 scintillating, emotionally and socially expressive, and personality-rich. However, for the most part, those same-29, Prague, CZ; pp. 40-50. ture (Welji & Duncan, 2005). Tickle-Degnen & Rosenthal (1990) propose a model

Cassell, Justine

377

Natural language processing pipelines to annotate BioC collections with an application to the NCBI disease corpus  

PubMed Central

BioC is a new format and associated code libraries for sharing text and annotations. We have implemented BioC natural language preprocessing pipelines in two popular programming languages: C++ and Java. The current implementations interface with the well-known MedPost and Stanford natural language processing tool sets. The pipeline functionality includes sentence segmentation, tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatization and sentence parsing. These pipelines can be easily integrated along with other BioC programs into any BioC compliant text mining systems. As an application, we converted the NCBI disease corpus to BioC format, and the pipelines have successfully run on this corpus to demonstrate their functionality. Code and data can be downloaded from http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net PMID:24935050

Comeau, Donald C.; Liu, Haibin; Islamaj Dogan, Rezarta; Wilbur, W. John

2014-01-01

378

The Natural History of Human Language: Bridging the Gaps without Magic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human languages are quintessentially historical phenomena. Every known aspect of linguistic form and content is subject to change in historical time (Lehmann, 1995; Bybee, 2004). Many facts of language, syntactic no less than semantic, find their explanation in the historical processes that generated them. If adpositions were once verbs, then the fact that they tend to occur on the same side of their arguments as do verbs ("cross-category harmony": Hawkins, 1983) is a matter of historical contingency rather than a reflection of inherent structural constraints on human language (Delancey, 1993).

Merker, Bjorn; Okanoya, Kazuo

379

The Natural History of Human Language: Bridging the Gaps without Magic  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human languages are quintessentially historical phenomena. Every known aspect of linguistic form and content is subject to\\u000a change in historical time (Lehmann, 1995; Bybee, 2004). Many facts of language, syntactic no less than semantic, find their\\u000a explanation in the historical processes that generated them. If adpositions were once verbs, then the fact that they tend\\u000a to occur on the same

Bjorn Merker; Kazuo Okanoya

2007-01-01

380

Zipf's word frequency law in natural language: A critical review and future directions.  

PubMed

The frequency distribution of words has been a key object of study in statistical linguistics for the past 70 years. This distribution approximately follows a simple mathematical form known as Zipf's law. This article first shows that human language has a highly complex, reliable structure in the frequency distribution over and above this classic law, although prior data visualization methods have obscured this fact. A number of empirical phenomena related to word frequencies are then reviewed. These facts are chosen to be informative about the mechanisms giving rise to Zipf's law and are then used to evaluate many of the theoretical explanations of Zipf's law in language. No prior account straightforwardly explains all the basic facts or is supported with independent evaluation of its underlying assumptions. To make progress at understanding why language obeys Zipf's law, studies must seek evidence beyond the law itself, testing assumptions and evaluating novel predictions with new, independent data. PMID:24664880

Piantadosi, Steven T

2014-10-01

381

ON THE COEVOLUTION OF THEORY AND LANGUAGE AND THE NATURE OF SUCCESSFUL INQUIRY  

E-print Network

commitments, a satisfactory model of empirical knowledge should describe the coordinated evolution of both resources. Sender-predictor games, a variant of Skyrms-Lewis sender-receiver games, provide very simple norms. 1. Knowledge and the evolution of descriptive language On the standard account of propositional

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

382

School Meaning Systems: The Symbiotic Nature of Culture and "Language-In-Use"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has produced evidence to suggest a strong reciprocal link between school context-specific language constructions that reflect a school's vision and schoolwide pedagogy, and the way that meaning making occurs, and a school's culture is characterized. This research was conducted within three diverse settings: one school in…

Abawi, Lindy

2013-01-01

383

Formal Issues in Natural Language Generation Kees van Deemter *, Ehud Reiter *, and Helmut Horacek  

E-print Network

(*) Dept. of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen, UK () Universit�at des Saarlandes, Saarbr Hermes Science Publishing LTD #12;2 Language and Computation, Vol. ? � No. ?, 2004 1 Introduction To some- lations are included (e.g., `the bowl on the table'), or negations and disjunctions (e.g., `the porcelain

Reiter, Ehud

384

Nature and nurture in language acquisition: anatomical and functional brain-imaging studies in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech processing in adult sr elies on precise and specialized networks, located primarily in the left hemi- sphere. Behavioral studies in infants indicate that a considerable amount of language learning already takes place in the first year of life in the domains of phonology, prosody and word segmentation. Thanks to neuroima- ging, we can move beyond behavioral methods and examine

Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Lucie Hertz-Pannier; Jessica Dubois

2006-01-01

385

80-180 Nature of Language Instructor and Teaching Assistant information  

E-print Network

language sounds, sound systems, word structures, sentence structures and linguistic meaning. You will also that you will learn are the bread-and-butter of working linguists. The goal of the course is for you courses in linguistics. Structure of the Course The course meets three times a week. We have full class

Spirtes, Peter

386

80-180 Nature of Language Instructor and Teaching Assistant information  

E-print Network

precisely about language sounds, sound systems, word structures, sentence structures and linguistic meaning and skills that you will learn are the bread-and-butter of working linguists. The goal of the course courses in linguistics. Structure of the Course The course meets three times a week. We have full class

Spirtes, Peter

387

Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 419428, Honolulu, October 2008. c 2008 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 419 of Medicine jimmylin@umd.edu Abstract This paper explores the challenge of scaling up language processing

Lin, Jimmy

388

Understanding Differences in Perceived Peer-Review Helpfulness using Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

-level cognitive con- structs are more effective in modeling experts' perceived helpfulness. 1 Introduction Peer on fea- tures mined from textual reviews using Natural Lan- guage Processing (NLP) techniques the average of two expert-provided ratings as our gold standard of peer-review help- fulness1, there are other

Litman, Diane J.

389

76 nature neuroscience volume 5 no 1 january 2002 Language is a central and integral part of our personal and social  

E-print Network

for second language (L2) acquisition also exists. The age at which one acquires a second language correlates of the two languages decreases as proficiency decreases and/or age of acquisition increases5,8­16. More76 nature neuroscience · volume 5 no 1 · january 2002 articles Language is a central and integral

390

Critiquing Media Reports with Flawed Scientific Findings: Operation ARIES! A Game with Animated Agents and Natural Language Trialogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Operation Aries! is a computer environment that helps students learn about scientific methods and inquiry. The system has several components\\u000a designed to optimize learning and motivation, such as game features, animated agents, natural language communication, trialogues\\u000a among agents, an eBook, multimedia, and formative assessment. The present focus is on a Case Study learning module that involves\\u000a critiquing reports of scientific

Arthur C. Graesser; Mary Anne Britt; Keith K. Millis; Patty Wallace; Diane F. Halpern; Zhiqiang Cai; Kris Kopp; Carol Forsyth

2010-01-01

391

Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.  

PubMed Central

Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.

1984-01-01

392

A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

1987-01-01

393

Text mixing shapes the anatomy of rank-frequency distributions: A modern Zipfian mechanics for natural language  

E-print Network

Natural languages are full of rules and exceptions. One of the most famous quantitative rules is Zipf's law which states that the frequency of occurrence of a word is approximately inversely proportional to its rank. Though this `law' of ranks has been found to hold across disparate texts and forms of data, analyses of increasingly large corpora over the last 15 years have revealed the existence of two scaling regimes. These regimes have thus far been explained by a hypothesis suggesting a separability of languages into core and non-core lexica. Here, we present and defend an alternative hypothesis, that the two scaling regimes result from the act of aggregating texts. We observe that text mixing leads to an effective decay of word introduction, which we show provides accurate predictions of the location and severity of breaks in scaling. Upon examining large corpora from 10 languages, we find emphatic empirical support for the universality of our claim.

Williams, Jake Ryland; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

2014-01-01

394

FMS: A Format Manipulation System for Automatic Production of Natural Language Documents, Second Edition. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FMS/3 is a system for producing hard copy documentation at high speed from free format text and command input. The system was originally written in assembler language for a 12K IBM 360 model 20 using a high speed 1403 printer with the UCS-TN chain option (upper and lower case). Input was from an IBM 2560 Multi-function Card Machine. The model 20…

Silver, Steven S.

395

On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on the brains of human beings and other species provides insight into the evolution of the brain bases of human language. The neural substrate that regulated motor control in the common ancestor of apes and humans most likely was modified to enhance cognitive and linguistic ability. Speech communication played a central role in this process. However, the process that ultimately resulted in the human brain may have started when our earliest hominid ancestors began to walk.

Lieberman, Philip

2002-01-01

396

Salience: the key to the selection problem in natural language generation  

SciTech Connect

The authors argue that in domains where a strong notion of salience can be defined, it can be used to provide: (1) an elegant solution to the selection problem, i.e. the problem of how to decide whether a given fact should or should not be mentioned in the text; and (2) a simple and direct control framework for the entire deep generation process, coordinating proposing, planning, and realization. (Deep generation involves reasoning about conceptual and rhetorical facts, as opposed to the narrowly linguistic reasoning that takes place during realization.) The authors report on an empirical study of salience in pictures of natural scenes, and its use in a computer program that generates descriptive paragraphs comparable to those produced by people. 13 references.

Conklin, E.J.; McDonald, D.D.

1982-01-01

397

``I'm sorry Dave, I'm afraid I can't do that'': Linguistics, Statistics, and Natural Language Processing circa 2001  

E-print Network

? I was promised flying cars. -- Avery Brooks, IBM commercial According to many pop­culture visions``I'm sorry Dave, I'm afraid I can't do that'': Linguistics, Statistics, and Natural Language that''. Natural language processing, or NLP, is the field of computer science devoted to creating

Lee, Lillian

398

Natural language processing for the development of a clinical registry: a validation study in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical natural language processing (NLP) systems have been developed to identify, extract and encode information within clinical narrative text. However, the role of NLP in clinical research and patient care remains limited. Pancreatic cysts are common. Some pancreatic cysts, such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), have malignant potential and require extended periods of surveillance. We seek to develop a novel NLP system that could be applied in our clinical network to develop a functional registry of IPMN patients. Objectives: This study aims to validate the accuracy of our novel NLP system in the identification of surgical patients with pathologically confirmed IPMN in comparison with our pre-existing manually created surgical database (standard reference). Methods: The Regenstrief EXtraction Tool (REX) was used to extract pancreatic cyst patient data from medical text files from Indiana University Health. The system was assessed periodically by direct sampling and review of medical records. Results were compared with the standard reference. Results: Natural language processing detected 5694 unique patients with pancreas cysts, in 215 of whom surgical pathology had confirmed IPMN. The NLP software identified all but seven patients present in the surgical database and identified an additional 37 IPMN patients not previously included in the surgical database. Using the standard reference, the sensitivity of the NLP program was 97.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.8–98.9%) and its positive predictive value was 95.5% (95% CI 92.3–97.5%). Conclusions: Natural language processing is a reliable and accurate method for identifying selected patient cohorts and may facilitate the identification and follow-up of patients with IPMN. PMID:21083794

Al-Haddad, Mohammad A; Friedlin, Jeff; Kesterson, Joe; Waters, Joshua A; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan R; Schmidt, C Max

2010-01-01

399

Crowdsourcing a Normative Natural Language Dataset: A Comparison of Amazon Mechanical Turk and In-Lab Data Collection  

PubMed Central

Background Crowdsourcing has become a valuable method for collecting medical research data. This approach, recruiting through open calls on the Web, is particularly useful for assembling large normative datasets. However, it is not known how natural language datasets collected over the Web differ from those collected under controlled laboratory conditions. Objective To compare the natural language responses obtained from a crowdsourced sample of participants with responses collected in a conventional laboratory setting from participants recruited according to specific age and gender criteria. Methods We collected natural language descriptions of 200 half-minute movie clips, from Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (crowdsourced) and 60 participants recruited from the community (lab-sourced). Crowdsourced participants responded to as many clips as they wanted and typed their responses, whereas lab-sourced participants gave spoken responses to 40 clips, and their responses were transcribed. The content of the responses was evaluated using a take-one-out procedure, which compared responses to other responses to the same clip and to other clips, with a comparison of the average number of shared words. Results In contrast to the 13 months of recruiting that was required to collect normative data from 60 lab-sourced participants (with specific demographic characteristics), only 34 days were needed to collect normative data from 99 crowdsourced participants (contributing a median of 22 responses). The majority of crowdsourced workers were female, and the median age was 35 years, lower than the lab-sourced median of 62 years but similar to the median age of the US population. The responses contributed by the crowdsourced participants were longer on average, that is, 33 words compared to 28 words (P<.001), and they used a less varied vocabulary. However, there was strong similarity in the words used to describe a particular clip between the two datasets, as a cross-dataset count of shared words showed (P<.001). Within both datasets, responses contained substantial relevant content, with more words in common with responses to the same clip than to other clips (P<.001). There was evidence that responses from female and older crowdsourced participants had more shared words (P=.004 and .01 respectively), whereas younger participants had higher numbers of shared words in the lab-sourced population (P=.01). Conclusions Crowdsourcing is an effective approach to quickly and economically collect a large reliable dataset of normative natural language responses. PMID:23689038

Bex, Peter J; Woods, Russell L

2013-01-01

400

Research in knowledge representation for natural language communication and planning assistance. Final report, 18 March 1985-30 September 1988  

SciTech Connect

BBN's DARPA project in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Communication and Planning Assistance has two primary objectives: 1) To perform research on aspects of the interaction between users who are making complex decisions and systems that are assisting them with their task. In particular, this research is focused on communication and the reasoning required for performing its underlying task of discourse processing, planning, and plan recognition and communication repair. 2) Based on the research objectives to build tools for communication, plan recognition, and planning assistance and for the representation of knowledge and reasoning that underlie all of these processes. This final report summarizes BBN's research activities performed under this contract in the areas of knowledge representation and speech and natural language. In particular, the report discusses the work in the areas of knowledge representation, planning, and discourse modeling. We describe a parallel truth maintenance system. We provide an extension to the sentential theory of propositional attitudes by adding a sentential semantics. The report also contains a description of our research in discourse modelling in the areas of planning and plan recognition.

Goodman, B.A.; Grosz, B.; Haas, A.; Litman, D.; Reinhardt, T.

1988-11-01

401

Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP), pages 265272, Vancouver, October 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural for Computational Linguistics A Comparative Study on Language Model Adaptation Techniques Using New Evaluation adaptation, including a maximum a posteriori (MAP) method and three dis- criminative training methods

402

Understanding Natural Language Understanding  

E-print Network

'm afraid that's something I cannot allow to happen. HAL Siri (2011) Colbert: ... I don't want to search for anything! I want to write the show! Siri: Searching the Web for "search for anything. I want to write the shuffle." Colbert: ... For the love of God, the cameras are on, give me something? Siri: What kind

Pratt, Vaughan

403

Natural Language Spatal Reasoning  

E-print Network

, state, people, those, too, how, Mr., little, good, world, make, very, year, still, see, own, work, men, almost, enough, end, took, government, night, yet, system, better, four, nothing, told, eyes, city, going, development, interest, others, open, thing, seemed, want, area, god, members, mind, help, country, service

Tellex, Stefanie

404

Natural Language Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective is basic research and system devel-opment leading to (1) characterization of information carried by (a) syntax, semantics, and discourse struc-ture, (b) their relation to information carried by into-nation, and (c) development of methods for using this information for generation and understanding; (2) devel-opment of architectures for integration of utterance plan-ning with lexical, syntactic and intonational choice; (3)

Aravind K. Joshi; Mitchell P. Marcus; Mark Steedman; Bonnie L. Webber

1991-01-01

405

Natural Language Project (NLP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tasks which are being addressed during this phase of the contract are the following: design of a control strategy, design of interaction knowledge bases, inferring information within and between knowledge bases and derivation of concise, relevant summ...

1986-01-01

406

Application of Natural Language Processing to VA Electronic Health Records to Identify Phenotypic Characteristics for Clinical and Research Purposes  

PubMed Central

Informatics tools to extract and analyze clinical information on patients have lagged behind data-mining developments in bioinformatics. While the analyses of an individual’s partial or complete genotype is nearly a reality, the phenotypic characteristics that accompany the genotype are not well known and largely inaccessible in free-text patient health records. As the adoption of electronic medical records increases, there exists an urgent need to extract pertinent phenotypic information and make that available to clinicians and researchers. This usually requires the data to be in a structured format that is both searchable and amenable to computation. Using inflammatory bowel disease as an example, this study demonstrates the utility of a natural language processing system (MedLEE) in mining clinical notes in the paperless VA Health Care System. This adaptation of MedLEE is useful for identifying patients with specific clinical conditions, those at risk for or those with symptoms suggestive of those conditions. PMID:21347124

Gundlapalli, Adi V.; South, Brett R.; Phansalkar, Shobha; Kinney, Anita Y.; Shen, Shuying; Delisle, Sylvain; Perl, Trish; Samore, Matthew H.

2008-01-01

407

Application of Natural Language Processing to VA Electronic Health Records to Identify Phenotypic Characteristics for Clinical and Research Purposes.  

PubMed

Informatics tools to extract and analyze clinical information on patients have lagged behind data-mining developments in bioinformatics. While the analyses of an individual's partial or complete genotype is nearly a reality, the phenotypic characteristics that accompany the genotype are not well known and largely inaccessible in free-text patient health records. As the adoption of electronic medical records increases, there exists an urgent need to extract pertinent phenotypic information and make that available to clinicians and researchers. This usually requires the data to be in a structured format that is both searchable and amenable to computation. Using inflammatory bowel disease as an example, this study demonstrates the utility of a natural language processing system (MedLEE) in mining clinical notes in the paperless VA Health Care System. This adaptation of MedLEE is useful for identifying patients with specific clinical conditions, those at risk for or those with symptoms suggestive of those conditions. PMID:21347124

Gundlapalli, Adi V; South, Brett R; Phansalkar, Shobha; Kinney, Anita Y; Shen, Shuying; Delisle, Sylvain; Perl, Trish; Samore, Matthew H

2008-01-01

408

Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 13981407, Singapore, 6-7 August 2009. c 2009 ACL and AFNLP  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 1398 in the biomedical domain. The abstracts are available at the U.S. National Library of Medicine PubMed web page1

Radev, Dragomir R.

409

In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2013) Classifying Message Board Posts with an Extracted Lexicon of Patient  

E-print Network

In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP in the domain of veterinary medicine. Most of the posts in our corpus discuss a case involving a specific

Riloff, Ellen

410

BioNLP 2008: Current Trends in Biomedical Natural Language Processing, pages 8087, Columbus, Ohio, USA, June 2008. c 2008 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

BioNLP 2008: Current Trends in Biomedical Natural Language Processing, pages 80­87, Columbus, Ohio in this area, as well as hav- ing potential benefits to medicine and other branches of science. Lexical

Gaizauskas, Rob

411

On the dual nature of the Functional Discourse Grammar model: Context, the language system/language use distinction, and indexical reference in  

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/language use distinction, and indexical reference in discourse Francis Cornish Université de Toulouse-Le Mirail expression types being used to carry it out. In fine, the article argues that it is only by attempting

Boyer, Edmond

412

Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media (SocialNLP), pages 5965, Dublin, Ireland, August 24 2014.  

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, Twitter has become an extremely prolific social media engine, attracting an extremely diverse user baseProceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media (Social of Social Interactions and Linguist Content in Twitter User Classification W. M. Campbell Human Language

413

"I'm sorry Dave, I'm afraid I can't do that": Linguistics, Statistics, and Natural Language Processing circa 2001  

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was promised flying cars. ­ Avery Brooks, IBM commercial According to many pop-culture visions of the future"I'm sorry Dave, I'm afraid I can't do that": Linguistics, Statistics, and Natural Language door on the spacecraft, to which HAL responds, "I'm sorry Dave, I'm afraid I can't do that". Natural

Wicentowski, Richard

414

A Requirements-Based Exploration of Open-Source Software Development Projects--Towards a Natural Language Processing Software Analysis Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open source projects do have requirements; they are, however, mostly informal, text descriptions found in requests, forums, and other correspondence. Understanding such requirements provides insight into the nature of open source projects. Unfortunately, manual analysis of natural language requirements is time-consuming, and for large projects,…

Vlas, Radu Eduard

2012-01-01

415

Jordan Boyd-Graber and Philip Resnik. Holistic Sentiment Analysis Across Languages: Multilingual Super-vised Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 2010.  

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Jordan Boyd-Graber and Philip Resnik. Holistic Sentiment Analysis Across Languages: Multilingual. @inproceedings{Boyd-Graber:Resnik-2010, Author = {Jordan Boyd-Graber and Philip Resnik}, Booktitle = {Empirical-Graber UMD iSchool and UMIACS University of Maryland College Park, MD jbg@umiacs.umd.edu Philip Resnik

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

416

In: Proceedings of the Cognitive Science of Natural Language Processing Conference, Dublin City University, 1996. Ambiguous Data in Connectionist Language Processing Models  

E-print Network

expectation value derived from the training data. Indeed, in the limit of infinite training d University, 1996. Ambiguous Data in Connectionist Language Processing Models John A. Bullinaria Centre processing examples. 1. Introduction From the point of view of connectionist modelling, we may define

Bullinaria, John

417

Longitudinal analysis of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer using natural language processing of medical record text  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the feasibility of using text mining to depict meaningfully the experience of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, to identify novel pain phenotypes, and to propose methods for longitudinal visualization of pain status. Materials and methods Text from 4409 clinical encounters for 33 men enrolled in a 15-year longitudinal clinical/molecular autopsy study of metastatic prostate cancer (Project to ELIminate lethal CANcer) was subjected to natural language processing (NLP) using Unified Medical Language System-based terms. A four-tiered pain scale was developed, and logistic regression analysis identified factors that correlated with experience of severe pain during each month. Results NLP identified 6387 pain and 13?827 drug mentions in the text. Graphical displays revealed the pain ‘landscape’ described in the textual records and confirmed dramatically increasing levels of pain in the last years of life in all but two patients, all of whom died from metastatic cancer. Severe pain was associated with receipt of opioids (OR=6.6, p<0.0001) and palliative radiation (OR=3.4, p=0.0002). Surprisingly, no severe or controlled pain was detected in two of 33 subjects’ clinical records. Additionally, the NLP algorithm proved generalizable in an evaluation using a separate data source (889 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) discharge summaries). Discussion Patterns in the pain experience, undetectable without the use of NLP to mine the longitudinal clinical record, were consistent with clinical expectations, suggesting that meaningful NLP-based pain status monitoring is feasible. Findings in this initial cohort suggest that ‘outlier’ pain phenotypes useful for probing the molecular basis of cancer pain may exist. Limitations The results are limited by a small cohort size and use of proprietary NLP software. Conclusions We have established the feasibility of tracking longitudinal patterns of pain by text mining of free text clinical records. These methods may be useful for monitoring pain management and identifying novel cancer phenotypes. PMID:23144336

Heintzelman, Norris H; Taylor, Robert J; Simonsen, Lone; Lustig, Roger; Anderko, Doug; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Childs, Lois C; Bova, George Steven

2013-01-01

418

Informatics in radiology: RADTF: a semantic search-enabled, natural language processor-generated radiology teaching file.  

PubMed

Storing and retrieving radiology cases is an important activity for education and clinical research, but this process can be time-consuming. In the process of structuring reports and images into organized teaching files, incidental pathologic conditions not pertinent to the primary teaching point can be omitted, as when a user saves images of an aortic dissection case but disregards the incidental osteoid osteoma. An alternate strategy for identifying teaching cases is text search of reports in radiology information systems (RIS), but retrieved reports are unstructured, teaching-related content is not highlighted, and patient identifying information is not removed. Furthermore, searching unstructured reports requires sophisticated retrieval methods to achieve useful results. An open-source, RadLex(®)-compatible teaching file solution called RADTF, which uses natural language processing (NLP) methods to process radiology reports, was developed to create a searchable teaching resource from the RIS and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The NLP system extracts and de-identifies teaching-relevant statements from full reports to generate a stand-alone database, thus converting existing RIS archives into an on-demand source of teaching material. Using RADTF, the authors generated a semantic search-enabled, Web-based radiology archive containing over 700,000 cases with millions of images. RADTF combines a compact representation of the teaching-relevant content in radiology reports and a versatile search engine with the scale of the entire RIS-PACS collection of case material. PMID:20801868

Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew; Biswal, Sandip; Kamaya, Aya; Rubin, Daniel L

2010-11-01

419

Using Natural Language Processing on the Free Text of Clinical Documents to Screen for Evidence of Homelessness Among US Veterans  

PubMed Central

Information retrieval algorithms based on natural language processing (NLP) of the free text of medical records have been used to find documents of interest from databases. Homelessness is a high priority non-medical diagnosis that is noted in electronic medical records of Veterans in Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Using a human-reviewed reference standard corpus of clinical documents of Veterans with evidence of homelessness and those without, an open-source NLP tool (Automated Retrieval Console v2.0, ARC) was trained to classify documents. The best performing model based on document level work-flow performed well on a test set (Precision 94%, Recall 97%, F-Measure 96). Processing of a naïve set of 10,000 randomly selected documents from the VA using this best performing model yielded 463 documents flagged as positive, indicating a 4.7% prevalence of homelessness. Human review noted a precision of 70% for these flags resulting in an adjusted prevalence of homelessness of 3.3% which matches current VA estimates. Further refinements are underway to improve the performance. We demonstrate an effective and rapid lifecycle of using an off-the-shelf NLP tool for screening targets of interest from medical records. PMID:24551356

Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Carter, Marjorie E.; Palmer, Miland; Ginter, Thomas; Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steven; Shen, Shuying; South, Brett; Divita, Guy; Duvall, Scott; Nguyen, Thien M.; D'Avolio, Leonard W.; Samore, Matthew

2013-01-01

420

Using natural language processing on the free text of clinical documents to screen for evidence of homelessness among US veterans.  

PubMed

Information retrieval algorithms based on natural language processing (NLP) of the free text of medical records have been used to find documents of interest from databases. Homelessness is a high priority non-medical diagnosis that is noted in electronic medical records of Veterans in Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Using a human-reviewed reference standard corpus of clinical documents of Veterans with evidence of homelessness and those without, an open-source NLP tool (Automated Retrieval Console v2.0, ARC) was trained to classify documents. The best performing model based on document level work-flow performed well on a test set (Precision 94%, Recall 97%, F-Measure 96). Processing of a naïve set of 10,000 randomly selected documents from the VA using this best performing model yielded 463 documents flagged as positive, indicating a 4.7% prevalence of homelessness. Human review noted a precision of 70% for these flags resulting in an adjusted prevalence of homelessness of 3.3% which matches current VA estimates. Further refinements are underway to improve the performance. We demonstrate an effective and rapid lifecycle of using an off-the-shelf NLP tool for screening targets of interest from medical records. PMID:24551356

Gundlapalli, Adi V; Carter, Marjorie E; Palmer, Miland; Ginter, Thomas; Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steven; Shen, Shuying; South, Brett; Divita, Guy; Duvall, Scott; Nguyen, Thien M; D'Avolio, Leonard W; Samore, Matthew

2013-01-01

421

Automatic Extraction of Nanoparticle Properties Using Natural Language Processing: NanoSifter an Application to Acquire PAMAM Dendrimer Properties  

PubMed Central

In this study, we demonstrate the use of natural language processing methods to extract, from nanomedicine literature, numeric values of biomedical property terms of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. We have developed a method for extracting these values for properties taken from the NanoParticle Ontology, using the General Architecture for Text Engineering and a Nearly-New Information Extraction System. We also created a method for associating the identified numeric values with their corresponding dendrimer properties, called NanoSifter. We demonstrate that our system can correctly extract numeric values of dendrimer properties reported in the cancer treatment literature with high recall, precision, and f-measure. The micro-averaged recall was 0.99, precision was 0.84, and f-measure was 0.91. Similarly, the macro-averaged recall was 0.99, precision was 0.87, and f-measure was 0.92. To our knowledge, these results are the first application of text mining to extract and associate dendrimer property terms and their corresponding numeric values. PMID:24392101

Jones, David E.; Igo, Sean; Hurdle, John; Facelli, Julio C.

2014-01-01

422

Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP), pages 225232, Vancouver, October 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

objectives were pursued in its development: task-independence, ease-of- use, adaptability and scalability. WeProceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Introduction Over the last decade, improvements in speech rec- ognition and other component technologies have

423

Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP), pages 979986, Vancouver, October 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics  

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Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural equivalen- cies in news published in different countries, and so on. The experimental part of our work deals with revealing correspondences between different religions: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism

424

Study and examination regulations for English language Master's degree course "Advanced Materials" offered by the Faculties for Natural Science, Engineering  

E-print Network

" offered by the Faculties for Natural Science, Engineering Science and Computer Science, as well p. 505), the senate of the University of Ulm, on the advice of the Faculties of Natural Science independently questions relating to natural and material science using the methods of the natural sciences

Pfeifer, Holger

425

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 590599, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

to 31%. 1 Introduction Language and music are peculiar characteristics of human beings. The capability of producing and enjoying language and music appears in every hu- man society, regardless of the richness of its culture (Nettl, 2000). Importantly, language and music complement each other in many different

426

A Tool for Model-Based Language Specification  

E-print Network

Formal languages let us define the textual representation of data with precision. Formal grammars, typically in the form of BNF-like productions, describe the language syntax, which is then annotated for syntax-directed translation and completed with semantic actions. When, apart from the textual representation of data, an explicit representation of the corresponding data structure is required, the language designer has to devise the mapping between the suitable data model and its proper language specification, and then develop the conversion procedure from the parse tree to the data model instance. Unfortunately, whenever the format of the textual representation has to be modified, changes have to propagated throughout the entire language processor tool chain. These updates are time-consuming, tedious, and error-prone. Besides, in case different applications use the same language, several copies of the same language specification have to be maintained. In this paper, we introduce a model-based parser generat...

Quesada, Luis; Cubero, Juan-Carlos

2011-01-01

427

Proceedings of the BioNLP Workshop on Linking Natural Language Processing and Biology at HLT-NAACL 06, pages 6572, New York City, June 2006. c 2006 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the BioNLP Workshop on Linking Natural Language Processing and Biology at HLT for many natural language processing appli- cations. This paper describes experi- ments with generative of text follow a predictable structure, the knowledge of which would be useful in many natural language

Lin, Jimmy

428

The nature of the working memory system underlying language processing and its relationship to the long-term memory system  

E-print Network

This thesis examines two questions concerning the working memory system underlying language processing: (1) To what extent is the working memory system underlying language processing domain-specific? and (2) What is the ...

Fedorenko, Evelina Georgievna

2007-01-01

429

Natural Language Pragmatics on One Sheet of Paper Michael A. Covington University of Georgia 2008 June 17  

E-print Network

= why you say what you do, when you do. Pragmatics is the newest major area of linguistics (first taught of elements of language to each other; Semantics = relation of language to what you are talking about

Covington, Michael A.

430

Applying a Natural Language Processing Tool to Electronic Health Records to Assess Performance on Colonoscopy Quality Measures  

PubMed Central

Background Gastroenterology specialty societies have advocated that providers routinely assess their performance on colonoscopy quality measures. Such routine measurement has been hampered by the costs and time required to manually review colonoscopy and pathology reports. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a field of computer science in which programs are trained to extract relevant information from text reports in an automated fashion. Objective To demonstrate the efficiency and potential of NLP-based colonoscopy quality measurement Design In a cross-sectional study design, we used a previously validated NLP program to analyze colonoscopy reports and associated pathology notes. The resulting data were used to generate provider performance on colonoscopy quality measures. Setting Nine hospitals in the UPMC health care system. Patients Study sample consisted of the 24,157 colonoscopy reports and associated pathology reports from 2008-9 Main Outcome Measurements Provider performance on seven quality measures Results Performance on the colonoscopy quality measures was generally poor and there was a wide range of performance. For example, across hospitals, adequacy of preparation was noted overall in only 45.7% of procedures (range 14.6% to 86.1% across nine hospitals), documentation of cecal landmarks was noted in 62.7% of procedures (range 11.6% to 90.0%), and the adenoma detection rate was 25.2% (range 14.9% to 33.9%). Limitations Our quality assessment was limited to a single health care system in Western Pennsylvania Conclusions Our study illustrates how NLP can mine free-text data in electronic records to measure and report on the quality of care. Even within a single academic hospital system there is considerable variation in the performance on colonoscopy quality measures, demonstrating the need for better methods to regularly and efficiently assess quality. PMID:22482913

Mehrotra, Ateev; Dellon, Evan S.; Schoen, Robert E.; Saul, Melissa; Bishehsari, Faraz; Farmer, Carrie; Harkema, Henk

2013-01-01

431

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 466477, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

language (L1) or a second and for- eign language (L2), learning to read has been and re- mains one of the major concerns of education. When a teacher wants to improve his/her students' reading skills, he/she uses reading exercises, whether there are guided or independent. For this practice to be efficient

432

Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 10011009, Honolulu, October 2008. c 2008 Association for Computational Linguistics  

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Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 1001-grained sense inventory of WordNet as well as a lack of training examples. Using the WSD examples provided that though WSD systems trained with a large number of examples can obtain a high level of accuracy

Ng, Hwee Tou

433

Kim, Su Nam and Timothy Baldwin (2008) Benchmarking Noun Compound Interpretation, In Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing  

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of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP 2008), Hyderabad, India compounds (NCs): semantic similarity-based methods and their hybrids. We evaluate the methods using 7-way expresses the meaning that a student benefits from the price (SR = BENEFICIARY), while student protest

Baldwin, Timothy

434

Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL), pages 8492, Boulder, Colorado, June 2009. c 2009 Association for Computational Linguistics  

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constituents, determining who does what to whom. How do young children be- gin learning to interpret sentences to a corpus of child directed speech, the BabySRL learns shallow structural cues that allow it to mimicProceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL), pages

435

Proceedings of the 5th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, pages 12691278, Chiang Mai, Thailand, November 8 13, 2011. c 2011 AFNLP  

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­1278, Chiang Mai, Thailand, November 8 ­ 13, 2011. c 2011 AFNLP Models Cascade for Tree-Structured Named Entity Cedex, France rosset@limsi.fr Abstract Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a well-known Natural Language. In this paper we describe a new set of named entities having a multi- level tree structure, where base entities

Dinarelli, Marco

436

A natural-language approach to biomimetic design Biomimetics for Innovation and Design Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto,  

E-print Network

A natural-language approach to biomimetic design L.H. SHU Biomimetics for Innovation and Design Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario for engineer- ing design. Keywords: Analogical Reasoning; Biologically Inspired Design; Biomimetic Design

Shu, Lily H.

437

Eric Hardisty, Jordan Boyd-Graber, and Philip Resnik. Modeling Perspective using Adaptor Grammars. Em-pirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 2010.  

E-print Network

Eric Hardisty, Jordan Boyd-Graber, and Philip Resnik. Modeling Perspective using Adaptor Grammars. Em- pirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 2010. @inproceedings{Hardisty:Boyd-Graber:Resnik-2010, Author = {Eric Hardisty and Jordan Boyd-Graber and Philip Resnik}, Booktitle = {Empirical Methods

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

438

The Acquisition of Written Language: Response and Revision. Writing Research: Multidisciplinary Inquiries into the Nature of Writing Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viewing writing as both a form of language learning and an intellectual skill, this book presents essays on how writers acquire trusted inner voices and the roles schools and teachers can play in helping student writers in the learning process. The essays in the book focus on one of three topics: the language of instruction and how response and…

Freedman, Sarah Warshauer, Ed.

439

The Stock Statistics Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how use the HTMLEditorKit to perform web data mining on stock statistics for listed firms. Our focus is on making use of the web to get information about companies, using their stock symbols and YAHOO finance. We show how to map a stock ticker symbol into a company name gather statistics and derive new information. Our example

Douglas Lyon

2008-01-01

440

TThhee 6th Conference on Natural Language Learning 2002 (CoNLL-2002)6th Conference on Natural Language Learning 2002 (CoNLL-2002) Timothy Baldwin, Aline: Extracting the Unextractable: A Case Study on  

E-print Network

Study on Verb-particles William J. Black, Argyrios Vasilakopoulos: Language Independent Named Entity. Henderson, William T. Morgan: Statistical Named Entity Recognizer Adaptation Xavier Carreras, Llu�s M�rquez, Llu�s Padr�: Named Entity Extraction using AdaBoost Liviu Ciortuz: Learning Attribute Values in Typed

441

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 13891398, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

are elementary building blocks that play an important role in many natu- ral language processing tasks, from scenario. More recent work has used a subset of the observed word-tag pairs and focused on gener- alizing information about the capacity to gener- alize to different domains. Recent work by Das and Petrov (2011

442

Language Models Introduction to Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

ced of it . It would be an excellent match , for HE was rich , and SHE was hand you have any reason and exasperating stories ? The ship , that some reason of fine spirits were pulling towards the smoke in Persia , among the high hump was not a second iron bolt in genteel comedies , so that their tales , because

Smith, David A.

443

NLP & IR ... a tutorial presented at EACL'95 Alan F. Smeaton, Dublin City University, Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

· CEC 4FP has Information Engineering and Language Engineering as well as LIBRARIES in the Telematics. Smeaton, Dublin City University, 1995 . full-text retrieval systems and handle heterogeneous collections at EACL (again) ? Many different disciplines are "looking at information retrieval" as a vehicle

Smeaton, Alan F.

444

NLP & IR ... a lecture presented at the European Summer School in Information Retrieval, Glasgow. Alan F. Smeaton, Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

Engineering and Language Engineering as well as LIBRARIES in the Telematics Programme ... in the 3FP ... it is going to need to go beyond the current full-text retrieval systems and handle heterogeneous collections at EACL (again) ? Many different disciplines are "looking at information retrieval" as a vehicle

Smeaton, Alan F.

445

The Nature and Impact of Changes in Home Learning Environment on Development of Language and Academic Skills in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development…

Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J.

2010-01-01

446

Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL), Sofia, Bulgaria, August 2013, pp. 124132.  

E-print Network

and Vincent Ng Human Language Technology Research Institute University of Texas at Dallas Richardson, TX 75083 written for a two­sided topic in an online debate forum (e.g., ``Should abortion be al­ lowed of the following post is anti­abortion. Post 1: Abortion has been legal for decades and no one seems to have

Ng, Vincent

447

Finding Language in the Language Arts: Towards "Cognitive Language Arts."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language arts are constructed like a doughnut or a bagel, so that at their center where there might be something, there is instead a hole--emptiness. The dominant approach to understanding the nature of language--generative grammar--does not suggest a center for the language arts. An alternative approach to language and mind is "cognitive…

Chametzky, Robert A.

448

Proceedings of Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, pages 604609, Hissar, Bulgaria, 12-14 September 2011.  

E-print Network

of the features used by our sys- tem and an error analysis. This approach allowed us to obtain an F-measure of 0 in medical reports, task that was evaluated in the i2b2 2010 challenge. As relations are expressed in natural.70, classifying the system among the best sys- tems. 1 Introduction Medical information systems have developed

Ligozat, Anne-Laure

449

Proceedings of the 6th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP), Nagoya, Japan, October 2013, pp. 13481356.  

E-print Network

University of Texas at Dallas Richardson, TX 75083­0688 {saidul,vince}@hlt.utdallas.edu Abstract Determining written for a two­sided topic discussed in an online debate forum (e.g., ``Should abortion be banned for a given debate do­ main (e.g., Abortion) is fairly limited. A natural question is: given a debate domain

Ng, Vincent

450

You and Your Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure, complexity, and peculiarities of the English language are examined in this book, which begins with a discussion of the nature of language. Chapters are devoted to (1) naming--"Language as Answer to a Need"; (2) grammar--"Language as Economy"; (3) words--"Language as the Finding of Minds"; (4) etymology--"Language to Stretch Brains…

Laird, Charlton

451

A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools  

PubMed Central

Background We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Results Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance on the CRAFT corpus when tested with the publicly available models or rule sets. Trainable systems differed widely with respect to their ability to build high-performing models based on this data. Conclusions The finding that some systems were able to train high-performing models based on this corpus is additional evidence, beyond high inter-annotator agreement, that the quality of the CRAFT corpus is high. The overall poor performance of various systems indicates that considerable work needs to be done to enable natural language processing systems to work well when the input is full-text journal articles. The CRAFT corpus provides a valuable resource to the biomedical natural language processing community for evaluation and training of new models for biomedical full text publications. PMID:22901054

2012-01-01

452

Language Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collaborative project started by a language enthusiast that not only aims to help language learners, but also to "provide a window into the culture of the people who speak those languages." So how does the site accomplish this feat? It provides interactive language lessons, quizzes, and texts that allow the language learner to hear the word or text pronounced by fluent, often native, speakers. The sound quality is high, and by simply scrolling over any of the pictures in categories as diverse as the alphabet, weather, insects, and money, visitors will hear the word read pronounced. Thirteen languages are offered, including "Vietnamese", "Arabic", "German", "Hindi" and "Hebrew", with the most fully realized lessons for "English", "French" and "Spanish". However, the collaborative nature of the site should soon fill out the lessons of the other languages, because the "Collaborate/Volunteer" section of the site shows the many contributions volunteers can make, such as "Translating", "Suggesting Words/Phrases" or Contribute Your Voice". As the content of the site continues to expand, visitors can sign up for the "Newsletter" to be notified when major new content for a specific language has been added.

453

Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature is a weekly international journal publishing the finest peer-reviewed research in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality, importance, interdisciplinary interest, timeliness, accessibility, elegance, and surprising conclusions. Nature also provides rapid, authoritative, insightful and arresting news and interpretation of topical and coming trends affecting science, scientists and the wider public. Nature publishes more articles than any other multidisciplinary journal, and retains its position as the most cited weekly science journal. The site provides free access to news stories in the latest issue; access to research articles, and to the Nature archive, is by subscription.

454

A comparison of speech versus keyboard input and scrolling versus nonscrolling menus on a menu-based natural language interface  

E-print Network

A COivIPARISOV OF SPEECH YERSI S KEYBOARD IXPL'T AND SCROLLING VERSI S XOXSCROLLIViG XIEiVHS ONA XIEXL -BASED 'NATL RAL LAXGL AGE INTERFACE A Thesis 'iIARK EDWARD ARXISTRO'iG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AA:ii, l I. niversity... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of i IASTER OF SCIE'. iCE December 198i 'vlajor Subject: Industrial Engineering A COMPARISON OF SPEECH VERSUS KEYBOARD INPUT AND SCROLLING VERSUS NONSCROLLING IvIENUS ON A MENU-BASED NATURAL...

Armstrong, Mark Edward

2012-06-07

455

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 5458, Baltimore, Maryland USA, June 26-27 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 54 a patient's current clinical sta- tus. Natural language processing can help maintain an accurate problem Services, 2013). More recently, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) has be

456

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

457

Natural language processing: state of the art and prospects for significant progress, a workshop sponsored by the National Library of Medicine.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP) is crucial for advancing healthcare because it is needed to transform relevant information locked in text into structured data that can be used by computer processes aimed at improving patient care and advancing medicine. In light of the importance of NLP to health, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) recently sponsored a workshop to review the state of the art in NLP focusing on text in English, both in biomedicine and in the general language domain. Specific goals of the NLM-sponsored workshop were to identify the current state of the art, grand challenges and specific roadblocks, and to identify effective use and best practices. This paper reports on the main outcomes of the workshop, including an overview of the state of the art, strategies for advancing the field, and obstacles that need to be addressed, resulting in recommendations for a research agenda intended to advance the field. PMID:23810857

Friedman, Carol; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Corn, Milton

2013-10-01

458

New Figures of Merit for Best-First Probabilistic Chart Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Best-first parsing methods for natural language try to parse efficiently by considering the most likely constituents first. Some figure of merit is needed by which to compare the likelihood of con- stituents, and the choice of this figure has a sub- stantial impact on the efficiency of the parser. While several parsers described in the literature have used such techniques,

Sharon A. Caraballo; Eugene Chamiak

1996-01-01

459

New Figures of Merit for Best-First Probabilistic Chart Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Best-first parsing methods for natural language try to parse efficiently by considering the most likely constituents first. Some figure of merit is needed by which to compare the likelihood of constituents, and the choice of this figure has a substantial impact on the efficiency of the parser. While several parsers described in the literature have used such techniques, there is

Sharon A. Caraballo; Eugene Charniak

1998-01-01

460

What Is a Programming Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of programing languages is discussed, focusing on machine/assembly language and high-level languages. The latter includes systems (such as "Basic") in which an entire set of low-level instructions (in assembly/machine language) are combined. Also discusses the nature of other languages such as "Lisp" and list-processing languages. (JN)

Wold, Allen L.

1983-01-01

461

jmzReader: A Java parser library to process and visualize multiple text and XML-based mass spectrometry data formats.  

PubMed

We here present the jmzReader library: a collection of Java application programming interfaces (APIs) to parse the most commonly used peak list and XML-based mass spectrometry (MS) data formats: DTA, MS2, MGF, PKL, mzXML, mzData, and mzML (based on the already existing API jmzML). The library is optimized to be used in conjunction with mzIdentML, the recently released standard data format for reporting protein and peptide identifications, developed by the HUPO proteomics standards initiative (PSI). mzIdentML files do not contain spectra data but contain references to different kinds of external MS data files. As a key functionality, all parsers implement a common interface that supports the various methods used by mzIdentML to reference external spectra. Thus, when developing software for mzIdentML, programmers no longer have to support multiple MS data file formats but only this one interface. The library (which includes a viewer) is open source and, together with detailed documentation, can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/jmzreader/. PMID:22539430

Griss, Johannes; Reisinger, Florian; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

2012-03-01

462

Evaluation of a command-line parser-based order entry pathway for the Department of Veterans Affairs electronic patient record  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo improve and simplify electronic order entry in an existing electronic patient record, the authors developed an alternative system for entering orders, which is based on a command- interface using robust and simple natural-language techniques.DesignThe authors conducted a randomized evaluation of the new entry pathway, measuring time to complete a standard set of orders, and users' satisfaction measured by questionnaire.

Christian Lovis; Michael K Chapko; Diane P Martin; Thomas H Payne; Robert H Baud; Patty J Hoey; Stephan D Fihn

2001-01-01

463

Evaluation of an Ontology-anchored Natural Language-based Approach for Asserting Multi-scale Biomolecular Networks for Systems Medicine  

PubMed Central

The ability to adequately and efficiently integrate unstructured, heterogeneous datasets, which are incumbent to systems biology and medicine, is one of the primary limitations to their comprehensive analysis. Natural language processing (NLP) and biomedical ontologies are automated methods for capturing, standardizing and integrating information across diverse sources, including narrative text. We have utilized the BioMedLEE NLP system to extract and encode, using standard ontologies (e.g., Cell Type Ontology, Mammalian Phenotype, Gene Ontology), biomolecular mechanisms and clinical phenotypes from the scientific literature. We subsequently applied semantic processing techniques to the structured BioMedLEE output to determine the relationships between these biomolecular and clinical phenotype concepts. We conducted an evaluation that shows an average precision and recall of BioMedLEE with respect to annotating phrases comprised of cell type, anatomy/disease, and gene/protein concepts were 86% and 78%, respectively. The precision of the asserted phenotype-molecular relationships was 75%. PMID:21347135

Borlawsky, Tara B.; Li, Jianrong; Shagina, Lyudmila; Crowson, Matthew G.; Liu, Yang; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A.

2010-01-01

464

Evaluation of an Ontology-anchored Natural Language-based Approach for Asserting Multi-scale Biomolecular Networks for Systems Medicine.  

PubMed

The ability to adequately and efficiently integrate unstructured, heterogeneous datasets, which are incumbent to systems biology and medicine, is one of the primary limitations to their comprehensive analysis. Natural language processing (NLP) and biomedical ontologies are automated methods for capturing, standardizing and integrating information across diverse sources, including narrative text. We have utilized the BioMedLEE NLP system to extract and encode, using standard ontologies (e.g., Cell Type Ontology, Mammalian Phenotype, Gene Ontology), biomolecular mechanisms and clinical phenotypes from the scientific literature. We subsequently applied semantic processing techniques to the structured BioMedLEE output to determine the relationships between these biomolecular and clinical phenotype concepts. We conducted an evaluation that shows an average precision and recall of BioMedLEE with respect to annotating phrases comprised of cell type, anatomy/disease, and gene/protein concepts were 86% and 78%, respectively. The precision of the asserted phenotype-molecular relationships was 75%. PMID:21347135

Borlawsky, Tara B; Li, Jianrong; Shagina, Lyudmila; Crowson, Matthew G; Liu, Yang; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A

2010-01-01

465

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 1018, Baltimore, Maryland USA, June 26-27 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 10 of Medicine negacy.hailu@ucdenver.edu, natalya.panteleyeva@ucdenver.edu, kevin.cohen@gmail.com Abstract

466

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 128133, Baltimore, Maryland USA, June 26-27 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 128 to advance the state of the art in medicine. Currently, text mining meth- ods are being used to analyze

467

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 2428, Baltimore, Maryland USA, June 26-27 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 24 Information National Library of Medicine {robert.leaman, zhiyong.lu}@nih.gov Abstract While machine learning

468

Neural network processing of natural language: II. Towards a unified model of corticostriatal function in learning sentence comprehension and non-linguistic sequencing.  

PubMed

A central issue in cognitive neuroscience today concerns how distributed neural networks in the brain that are used in language learning and processing can be involved in non-linguistic cognitive sequence learning. This issue is informed by a wealth of functional neurophysiology studies of sentence comprehension, along with a number of recent studies that examined the brain processes involved in learning non-linguistic sequences, or artificial grammar learning (AGL). The current research attempts to reconcile these data with several current neurophysiologically based models of sentence processing, through the specification of a neural network model whose architecture is constrained by the known cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) neuroanatomy of the human language system. The challenge is to develop simulation models that take into account constraints both from neuranatomical connectivity, and from functional imaging data, and that can actually learn and perform the same kind of language and artificial syntax tasks. In our proposed model, structural cues encoded in a recurrent cortical network in BA47 activate a CSTC circuit to modulate the flow of lexical semantic information from BA45 to an integrated representation of meaning at the sentence level in BA44/6. During language acquisition, corticostriatal plasticity is employed to allow closed class structure to drive thematic role assignment. From the AGL perspective, repetitive internal structure in the AGL strings is encoded in BA47, and activates the CSTC circuit to predict the next element in the sequence. Simulation results from Caplan's [Caplan, D., Baker, C., & Dehaut, F. (1985). Syntactic determinants of sentence comprehension in aphasia. Cognition, 21, 117-175] test of syntactic comprehension, and from Gomez and Schvaneveldts' [Gomez, R. L., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1994). What is learned from artificial grammars?. Transfer tests of simple association. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 396-410] artificial grammar learning experiments are presented. These results are discussed in the context of a brain architecture for learning grammatical structure for multiple natural languages, and non-linguistic sequences. PMID:18835637

Dominey, Peter Ford; Inui, Toshio; Hoen, Michel

2009-01-01

469

Learning to parse database queries using inductive logic programming  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents recent work using the CHILL parser acquisition system to automate the construction of a natural-language interface for database queries. CHILL treats parser acquisition as the learning of search-control rules within a logic program representing a shift-reduce parser and uses techniques from Inductive Logic Programming to learn relational control knowledge. Starting with a general framework for constructing a suitable logical form, CHILL is able to train on a corpus comprising sentences paired with database queries and induce parsers that map subsequent sentences directly into executable queries. Experimental results with a complete database-query application for U.S. geography show that CHILL is able to learn parsers that outperform a preexisting, hand-crafted counterpart. These results demonstrate the ability of a corpus-based system to produce more than purely syntactic representations. They also provide direct evidence of the utility of an empirical approach at the level of a complete natural language application.

Zelle, J.M. [Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA (United States); Mooney, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

470

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 6876, Baltimore, Maryland USA, June 26-27 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 68 Operative Notes using Active Learning Kirk Roberts National Library of Medicine National Institutes- gical information (Park et al., 2010; Gur et al., 2011; Donahoe et al., 2012). The use of natural

471

The Resolution of Syntactic Ambiguity in Automatic Language Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how the problem of resolution of syntactic ambiguities is approached in the parser PHRASE, developed for use in experiments in automatic indexing and extracting. PHRASE is a multi-level parser for declarative sentences, in which the syntactic structure is built up in four stages. (10 references) (Author)

Earl, Lois L.

1972-01-01

472

Proceedings of the Conference on Language and Language Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains the papers read at the Conference on Language and Language Behavior held at the University of Michigan's Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior in October 1966. Papers are ordered under the following topics: First Language Acquisition in Natural Setting, Controlled Acquisition of First Language Skills, Second…

Zale, Eric M., Ed.

473

Language, Gesture, and Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American Sign Language"…

Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

474

Syntax and Language Origins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that language as humans now produce and comprehend evolved from languagelike precursors in the communication systems of nonhuman primates. The article reviews "Gesture and the Nature of Language" (GNL) (1995) and notes that GNL derives syntax incrementally without diluting it to an element not recognizable as a property of language. (37…

King, Barbara J.

1996-01-01

475

Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n?=?366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

2014-01-01

476

An AdaBoost Using a Weak-Learner Generating Several Weak-Hypotheses for Large Training Data of Natural Language Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AdaBoost is a method to create a final hypothesis by repeatedly generating a weak hypothesis in each training iteration with a given weak learner. AdaBoost-based algorithms are successfully applied to several tasks such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), OCR, and so on. However, learning on the training data consisting of large number of samples and features requires long training time. We propose a fast AdaBoost-based algorithm for learning rules represented by combination of features. Our algorithm constructs a final hypothesis by learning several weak-hypotheses at each iteration. We assign a confidence-rated value to each weak-hypothesis while ensuring a reduction in the theoretical upper bound of the training error of AdaBoost. We evaluate our methods with English POS tagging and text chunking. The experimental results show that the training speed of our algorithm are about 25 times faster than an AdaBoost-based learner, and about 50 times faster than Support Vector Machines with polynomial kernel on the average while maintaining state-of-the-art accuracy.

Iwakura, Tomoya; Okamoto, Seishi; Asakawa, Kazuo

477

Indexical grounding for a mobile robot  

E-print Network

We have outfitted a mobile research robot with several sensors and algorithms designed to facilitate small- and large-scale navigation and natural language interaction. We begin with a parser using a large, hand-crafted ...

Kehoe, Charles W. (Charles Ward)

2005-01-01

478

Language Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses kinds and characteristics of language play, explores the relationship of such play to wider domains of language and play, and speculates on the possible contributions of language play for language mastery and cognitive development. Jump rope chants and ritual insults ("Off my case, potato face") and other expressive language

Schwartz, Judy I.

479

SOL - SIZING AND OPTIMIZATION LANGUAGE COMPILER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SOL is a computer language which is geared to solving design problems. SOL includes the mathematical modeling and logical capabilities of a computer language like FORTRAN but also includes the additional power of non-linear mathematical programming methods (i.e. numerical optimization) at the language level (as opposed to the subroutine level). The language-level use of optimization has several advantages over the traditional, subroutine-calling method of using an optimizer: first, the optimization problem is described in a concise and clear manner which closely parallels the mathematical description of optimization; second, a seamless interface is automatically established between the optimizer subroutines and the mathematical model of the system being optimized; third, the results of an optimization (objective, design variables, constraints, termination criteria, and some or all of the optimization history) are output in a form directly related to the optimization description; and finally, automatic error checking and recovery from an ill-defined system model or optimization description is facilitated by the language-level specification of the optimization problem. Thus, SOL enables rapid generation of models and solutions for optimum design problems with greater confidence that the problem is posed correctly. The SOL compiler takes SOL-language statements and generates the equivalent FORTRAN code and system calls. Because of this approach, the modeling capabilities of SOL are extended by the ability to incorporate existing FORTRAN code into a SOL program. In addition, SOL has a powerful MACRO capability. The MACRO capability of the SOL compiler effectively gives the user the ability to extend the SOL language and can be used to develop easy-to-use shorthand methods of generating complex models and solution strategies. The SOL compiler provides syntactic and semantic error-checking, error recovery, and detailed reports containing cross-references to show where each variable was used. The listings summarize all optimizations, listing the objective functions, design variables, and constraints. The compiler offers error-checking specific to optimization problems, so that simple mistakes will not cost hours of debugging time. The optimization engine used by and included with the SOL compiler is a version of Vanderplatt's ADS system (Version 1.1) modified specifically to work with the SOL compiler. SOL allows the use of the over 100 ADS optimization choices such as Sequential Quadratic Programming, Modified Feasible Directions, interior and exterior penalty function and variable metric methods. Default choices of the many control parameters of ADS are made for the user, however, the user can override any of the ADS control parameters desired for each individual optimization. The SOL language and compiler were developed with an advanced compiler-generation system to ensure correctness and simplify program maintenance. Thus, SOL's syntax was defined precisely by a LALR(1) grammar and the SOL compiler's parser was generated automatically from the LALR(1) grammar with a parser-generator. Hence unlike ad hoc, manually coded interfaces, the SOL compiler's lexical analysis insures that the SOL compiler recognizes all legal SOL programs, can recover from and correct for many errors and report the location of errors to the user. This version of the SOL compiler has been implemented on VAX/VMS computer systems and requires 204 KB of virtual memory to execute. Since the SOL compiler produces FORTRAN code, it requires the VAX FORTRAN compiler to produce an executable program. The SOL compiler consists of 13,000 lines of Pascal code. It was developed in 1986 and last updated in 1988. The ADS and other utility subroutines amount to 14,000 lines of FORTRAN code and were also updated in 1988.

Scotti, S. J.

1994-01-01

480

Language Acquisition in Computers  

E-print Network

This project explores the nature of language acquisition in computers, guided by techniques similar to those used in children. While existing natural language processing methods are limited in scope and understanding, our system aims to gain an understanding of language from first principles and hence minimal initial input. The first portion of our system was implemented in Java and is focused on understanding the morphology of language using bigrams. We use frequency distributions and differences between them to define and distinguish languages. English and French texts were analyzed to determine a difference threshold of 55 before the texts are considered to be in different languages, and this threshold was verified using Spanish texts. The second portion of our system focuses on gaining an understanding of the syntax of a language using a recursive method. The program uses one of two possible methods to analyze given sentences based on either sentence patterns or surrounding words. Both methods have been i...

Belzner, Megan; Roman, Jorge H

2012-01-01

481

First Language Acquisition and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

2011-01-01

482

Packrat Parsing: Simple, Powerful, Lazy, Linear Time  

E-print Network

Packrat Parsing: Simple, Powerful, Lazy, Linear Time Functional Pearl Bryan Ford Massachusetts for implementing parsers in a lazy functional programming language. A packrat parser provides the power parser often involves only a fairly straightforward structural change. This paper describes packrat

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

483

Language Endangerment and Language Revival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

Muhlhausler, Peter

2003-01-01

484

Baldwin, Timothy, Paul Cook, Marco Lui, Andrew MacKinlay and Li Wang (to appear) How Noisy Social Media Text, How Diffrnt Social Media Sources?, In Proceedings of the 6th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

Media Text, How Diffrnt Social Media Sources?, In Proceedings of the 6th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP 2013), Nagoya, Japan. How Noisy Social Media Text, How Diffrnt Social While various claims have been made about text in social media text being noisy, there has never been

Baldwin, Timothy

485

Language in Wonderland: Linguistic processing during natural story listening Jonathan Brennan1, Yuval Nir4, Uri Hasson3, Rafael Malach4, David Heeger2,3 and Liina Pylkknen1,2  

E-print Network

Presentation: 9 subjects listened to two presentations of a 5-minute segment of the story "Alice's AdventuresLanguage in Wonderland: Linguistic processing during natural story listening Jonathan Brennan1 in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll (on compact disc, `Brilliance Audio', Grand Haven, MI, 46417, 1995). Recording

Pylkkänen, Liina

486

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 9397, Baltimore, Maryland USA, June 26-27 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP 2014), pages 93 University of Colorado School of Medicine richard.osborne@ucdenver.edu Alan R. Aronson National Library of Medicine Bethesda, MD alan@nlm.nih.gov K. Bretonnel Cohen Computational Bioscience University of Colorado

487

Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media (SocialNLP), pages 3843, Dublin, Ireland, August 24 2014.  

E-print Network

Hsinchu, Taiwan kid.a.rgueta@gmail.com Yi-Shin Chen National Tsing Hua University No. 101, Section 2, location, and language. They represent, for people and businesses, a potential opportunity to understand opinionated data in multiple languages could highlight a global trend around a target query. This is desirable

488

Logic, Language, and Computation  

E-print Network

Logic #12;Formal Language and Symbolic Logic Start with a formal language. Equip it with sound inference what we can say about Nature. Niels Bohr (1885­1962) #12;Symbolic Logic Start with logic is Symbolic Logic is one of the greatest discoveries of our age; and when this fact has been established

Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

489

Language Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

Dulay, Heidi; And Others

490

Learning Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

Black, Susan

1993-01-01

491

Language Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested in this column that trends in language testing in the last 15 years have followed trends in modern language teaching. Language testing adopted the tenets of audiolingualism and contrastive analysis, then incorporated test-making procedures of psychometrics, and finally became more eclectic in its approach. (SW)

Upshur, John A.

1974-01-01

492

Language generation and speech synthesis in dialogues for language learning  

E-print Network

Since 1989, the Spoken Language Systems group has developed an array of applications that allow users to interact with computers using natural spoken language. A recent project of interest is to develop an interactive ...

Zhang, Julia, 1981-

2004-01-01

493

Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You need to identify figurative language in books, poetry, and in the lyrics of music. Use the knowledge you have already obtained in class concerning figurative language to help you complete this activity. Follow each step carefully to complete this assignment. Step 1: Books, poetry and music contain figurative language. Click on the video below to learn about figurative language: simile, metephore, personification explanation Step 2: Listen to these examples of figurative language in music. Click on on the video to watch and listen. examples of simile and metephor in music Step 3: These are two songs that ...

Whittier, Mrs.

2010-01-28

494

Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

Lin, Li-Li

2008-01-01

495

Programming for the Language Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present book is an attempt to stimulate thinking on the nature of the problems involved in writing material for language laboratory use in relation to the teaching of five languages widely taught in Britain today. All the contributors to this volume are language teachers currently using the language laboratory in their work. The editor notes…

Turner, John D., Ed.

496

Multilingual Generation of Controlled Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We describe techniques based onnatural language generation whichallow a user to author a documentin controlled language for multiplenatural languages. The author is expectedto be an expert in the applicationdomain but not in the controlledlanguage or in more thanone of the supported natural languages.

R. Power; D. Scott; A. Hartley

2003-01-01

497

Language as a Liberal Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language, considered as a liberal art, is examined in the light of other philosophical viewpoints concerning the nature of language in relation to second language instruction in this paper. Critical of an earlier mechanistic audio-lingual learning theory, translation approaches to language learning, vocabulary list-oriented courses, graduate…

Stein, Jack M.

498

Language Switching and Language Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

2012-01-01

499

Language Ideology and Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the language-related educational policies of South Asia, and particularly of India, finds that language policies among colonial administrators and the native elite for over a century has left a deep imprint on contemporary language ideologies of different nations. The discussion begins with a look at the Indian dual education…

Khubchandani, L. M.

1997-01-01

500

Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue about the Nature of Oral and Written Language Problems in the Context of Developmental, Academic, and Phenotypic Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professionals across disciplines who assess and teach students with language problems should develop their own standards for best professional practices to improve the diagnostic and treatment (instructional) services in schools and nonschool settings rather than assessing only for eligibility for categories of special education services according…

Silliman, Elaine R.; Berninger, Virginia W.

2011-01-01