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1

Natural language parser  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a method and a parser for syntactically analyzing an input string. The parser applies a plurality of rules which describe syntactic properties of the language of the input strings. The plurality of rules comprise two types of rules. A first type of rules comprises immediate dominance rules and linear precedence rules. A second type of rules being sequence rules. All rules of the plurality of rules are applied according to a predefined order to the input string. This new incremental parsing architecture has advantages with respect to grammar engineering and allows a more efficient parsing.

2006-06-06

2

Constructing parser for industrial software specifications containing formal and natural language description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel framework for creating a parser to process and analyze texts written in a “partially structured” natural language. In many projects, the contents of document artifacts tend to be described as a mixture of formal parts (i.e. the text constructs follow specific conventions) and parts written in arbitrary free text. Formal parsers, typically defined and used

Futoshi Iwama; Taiga Nakamura; Hironori Takeuchi

2012-01-01

3

Benchmarking natural-language parsers for biological applications using dependency graphs  

PubMed Central

Background Interest is growing in the application of syntactic parsers to natural language processing problems in biology, but assessing their performance is difficult because differences in linguistic convention can falsely appear to be errors. We present a method for evaluating their accuracy using an intermediate representation based on dependency graphs, in which the semantic relationships important in most information extraction tasks are closer to the surface. We also demonstrate how this method can be easily tailored to various application-driven criteria. Results Using the GENIA corpus as a gold standard, we tested four open-source parsers which have been used in bioinformatics projects. We first present overall performance measures, and test the two leading tools, the Charniak-Lease and Bikel parsers, on subtasks tailored to reflect the requirements of a system for extracting gene expression relationships. These two tools clearly outperform the other parsers in the evaluation, and achieve accuracy levels comparable to or exceeding native dependency parsers on similar tasks in previous biological evaluations. Conclusion Evaluating using dependency graphs allows parsers to be tested easily on criteria chosen according to the semantics of particular biological applications, drawing attention to important mistakes and soaking up many insignificant differences that would otherwise be reported as errors. Generating high-accuracy dependency graphs from the output of phrase-structure parsers also provides access to the more detailed syntax trees that are used in several natural-language processing techniques.

Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

2007-01-01

4

Design Tool Combining Keyword Analyzer and Case-based Parser for Developing Natural Language Database Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and experimentally implemented a tool for developing a natural language systems that can accept extra-grammatical expressions, keyword sequences, and linguistic fragments, as well as ordinary natural language queries. The key to this tool's efficiency is its effective use of a simple keyword analyzer in combination with a conventional case-based parser. The keyword analyzer performs a majority of

Hideo Shimazu; Seigo Arita; Yosuke Takashima

1992-01-01

5

Parser Combinators, (Simply) Indexed Grammars, Natural Language Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Parser combinators [4, 6] are higher order functions that transform parsers into parsers. Parsing with context free grammars can be handled by defining combinators for the key operations in context free grammar rules: recognizing epsilon, recognizing a terminal, choice between rewrite rules for a given nonterminal, and sequencing under a nonterminal. After explaining and illustrating this in some detail,

Jan van Eijck

2004-01-01

6

Benchmarking natural-language parsers for biological applications using dependency graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Interest is growing in the application of syntactic parsers to natural language processing problems in biology, but assessing their performance is difficult because differences in linguistic convention can falsely appear to be errors. We present a method for evaluating their accuracy using an intermediate representation based on dependency graphs, in which the semantic relationships important in most information extraction

Andrew B. Clegg; Adrian J. Shepherd

2007-01-01

7

Natural and Flexible Error Recovery for Generated Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Parser generators are an indispensable tool for rapid language development. However, they often fall short of the finesse\\u000a of a hand-crafted parser, built with the language semantics in mind. One area where generated parsers have provided unsatisfactory\\u000a results is that of error recovery. Good error recovery is both natural, giving recovery suggestions in line with the intention\\u000a of the programmer;

Maartje de Jonge; Emma Nilsson-Nyman; Lennart C. L. Kats; Eelco Visser

2009-01-01

8

Linear Time Parsers for Classes of Non Context Free Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic parsers have been proposed for two-level control grammars. These parsers are efficient in both time and space and are simple extensions of the standard LL(I) and LR( 1) parsers for deterministic context free languages. An important advantage of the parsers proposed here is that existing parser generator tools can be augmented to generate them from grammar specifications. Since there

Sulekha R. Kulkarni; Priti Shankar

1996-01-01

9

Expressive Power and Consistency Properties of State-of-the-Art Natural Language Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define Probabilistic Constrained W-grammars (PCW- grammars), a two-level formalism capable of capturing grammatical frame- works used in two state of the art parsers, namely bilexical grammars and stochastic tree substitution grammars. We provide embeddings of these parser formalisms into PCW-grammars, which allows us to derive properties about their expressive power and consistency, and relations between the formalisms studied.

Gabriel G. Infante López; Maarten De Rijke

2004-01-01

10

Improved Identification of Noun Phrases in Clinical Radiology Reports Using a High-Performance Statistical Natural Language Parser Augmented with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method of extracting noun phrases with full phrase structures from a set of clinical radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and to investigate the effects of using the UMLS® Specialist Lexicon to improve noun phrase identification within clinical radiology documents. Design: The noun phrase identification (NPI) module is composed of a sentence boundary detector, a statistical natural language parser trained on a nonmedical domain, and a noun phrase (NP) tagger. The NPI module processed a set of 100 XML-represented clinical radiology reports in Health Level 7 (HL7)® Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)–compatible format. Computed output was compared with manual markups made by four physicians and one author for maximal (longest) NP and those made by one author for base (simple) NP, respectively. An extended lexicon of biomedical terms was created from the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and used to improve NPI performance. Results: The test set was 50 randomly selected reports. The sentence boundary detector achieved 99.0% precision and 98.6% recall. The overall maximal NPI precision and recall were 78.9% and 81.5% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 82.1% and 84.6% after. The overall base NPI precision and recall were 88.2% and 86.8% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 93.1% and 92.6% after, reducing false-positives by 31.1% and false-negatives by 34.3%. Conclusion: The sentence boundary detector performs excellently. After the adaptation using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, the statistical parser's NPI performance on radiology reports increased to levels comparable to the parser's native performance in its newswire training domain and to that reported by other researchers in the general nonmedical domain.

Huang, Yang; Lowe, Henry J.; Klein, Dan; Cucina, Russell J.

2005-01-01

11

Turkish Language Resources: Morphological Parser, Morphological Disambiguator and Web Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a set of language resources for building Turkish language processing applications. Specifically,\\u000a we present a finite-state implementation of a morphological parser, an averaged perceptron-based morphological disambiguator,\\u000a and compilation of a web corpus. Turkish is an agglutinative language with a highly productive inflectional and derivational\\u000a morphology. We present an implementation of a morphological parser based on

Hasim Sak; Tunga Güngör; Murat Saraclar

2008-01-01

12

LanguageGame - an interactive parser generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

LanguageGame is a tool for a non-professional computer user to make a new programming language. Playing with LanguageGame allows a user to make an original new programming language. In order to give an instruction to a computer, now we have many ways such as selecting menu, push button, drag icon or so. Recent researches of computer user interface have developed

Takashi Yamamiya

2003-01-01

13

The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

Sagan, David; Forster, M.; Bates, D.; Wolski, A.; Schmidt, F.; Walker, N.J.; Larrieu, Theodore; Roblin, Yves; Pelaia, T.; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; Reiche, S.

2006-07-01

14

The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally, this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

Sagan, D.; Forster, M.; /Cornell U., LNS; Bates, D.A.; /LBL, Berkeley; Wolski, A.; /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Schmidt, F.; /CERN; Walker, N.J.; /DESY; Larrieu, T.; Roblin, Y.; /Jefferson Lab; Pelaia, T.; /Oak Ridge; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Reiche, S.; /UCLA

2006-10-06

15

Lazy functional parser combinators in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parser is a program that checks if a text is a sentence\\u000aof the language as described by a grammar. Traditionally, the program\\u000atext of a parser is generated from a grammar description, after which it is\\u000acompiled and subsequently run. The language accepted by such a parser\\u000ais, by the nature of this process, hardcoded in the program.

D. S. Swierstra; J. van Oosten

2001-01-01

16

Evaluation of a parallel chart parser. Project Memo  

SciTech Connect

A parallel implementation of a chart parser is described for a shared-memory multiprocessor. The speedups obtained with this parser were measured for a number of small natural-language grammars. For the largest of these, part of an operational question-answering system, the parser ran 5 to 7 times faster than the serial version.

Grishman, R.; Chitrao, M.

1987-09-01

17

DR PARSERS: a generalization of LR parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented to construct a parser for a visual language whose specification can be done by a context-free grammar. The main idea is to allow a traditional LR parser to choose the next symbol to parse from a two-dimensional space. The positional grammar is defined, and some examples are given. The DR parser, along with the parsing algorithm

Gennaro Costagliola; Shi-kuo Chang

1990-01-01

18

Incremental generation of parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An LR-based parser generator for arbitrary context-free grammars is described, which generates parsers by need and processes grammar modifications by updating already existing parsers. We motivate the need for these techniques in the context of interactive language definition environments, present all required algorithms, and give measurements comparing their performance with that of conventional techniques.

J. Heering; P. Klint; J. Rekers

1989-01-01

19

Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is bas...

A. Wolski D. Sagan D. A. Bates F. Schmidt M. Forster N. J. Walker

2006-01-01

20

A Dependency Parser for Variable-Word-Order Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to the recognition of sentence structure by computerin human languages that have variable word order. In a sense, the algorithm is not new;there is good evidence that it was known 700 years ago (Covington 1984). But it has notbeen implemented on computers, and the modern implementations that are most like it failto realize its

Michael A. Covington

1990-01-01

21

A Lattice Framework for Analyzing Context-Free Languages with Applications in Parser Simplification and DataFlow Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a lattice framework for analyzing context-free grammars and context- free languages. This framework is motivated by a technique for simplifying parsers with information derived from the associated scanners. We define the lattice framework and demonstrate it using additional applications, including data-flow analysis. Soundness and other properties of the lattice framework are also discussed. In this paper, we first

Wuu Yang

1999-01-01

22

Tatoo: an innovative parser generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Tatoo, a new parser generator. This tool, written in Java 1.5, produces lexer and bottom-up parsers. Its design has been driven by three main concerns: the ability to use the parser with the non-blocking IO API; the possibility to simply deal with several language versions; a clean separation between the lexer denition, the parser denition and the

Julien Cervelle; Rémi Forax; Gilles Roussel

2006-01-01

23

Graph Parser Combinators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graph language can be described by a graph grammar in a manner similar to a string grammar known from the theory of formal\\u000a languages. Unfortunately, graph parsing is known to be computationally expensive in general. There are quite simple graph\\u000a languages that crush most general-purpose graph parsers.\\u000a \\u000a In this paper we present graph parser combinators, a new approach to

Steffen Mazanek; Mark Minas

2007-01-01

24

A Linear Observed Time Statistical Parser Based on Maximum Entropy Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a statistical parser for natural language that obtains a parsing accuracy--roughly 87% precision and 86% recall--which surpasses the best previously published results on the Wall St. Journal domain. The parser itself requires very lit- tle human intervention, since the informa- tion it uses to make parsing decisions is specified in a concise and simple manner, and is

Adwait Ratnaparkhi

1997-01-01

25

A microcomputer system for processing natural languages.  

PubMed

This correspondence describes a microcomputer system, called ¿BE (for microprocessor-based English), for processing natural languages. Its techniques and facilities, however, should be extendible to other languages. By using the microprocessor as special purpose hardware for several functions of a natural language processor (in particular, hashing and parsing), the system aids computational linguists by increasing the computational power available for natural language investigations. An overview of ¿BE is given followed by a more detailed discussion of the hasher and parser. The paper concludes with specific applications of the microprocessor system to computational linguistics. ¿BE is not based on a particular theory of language so that the system's user may define his own theory and investigate its consequences. ¿BE contains facilities and capabilities to assist such investigations. PMID:21869029

Smith, J W; Tharp, A L

1982-02-01

26

Generation of LR parsers by partial evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of modern programming languages and partial evaluation yields new approaches to old problems. In particular, the combination of functional programming and partial evaluation can turn a general parser into a parser generator. We use an inherently functional approach to implement general LR(k) parsers and specialize them with respect to the input grammars using offline partial evaluation. The functional

Michael Sperber; Peter Thiemann

2000-01-01

27

A combinator parser for Earley's algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show a combinator parser which corresponds to a standard vari- ation of Earley's algorithm. Combinator parsers are recursive descent parsers written using functional programming techniques, oering access to useful tradeos between expressiveness and parse time eciency, and a declarative approach to language processor specification enabling cus- tomisation and optimisation. Although it has been suggested (11) (13) that certain combinator

Ian D. Peake

28

Fast parsers for Entrez Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: NCBI completed the transition of its main genome annota- tion database from Locuslink to Entrez Gene in Spring 2005. However, to this date few parsers exist for the Entrez Gene annotation file. Owing to the widespread use of Locuslink and the popularity of Perl programming language in bioinformatics, a publicly available high performance Entrez Gene parser in Perl is

Mingyi Liu; Andrei Grigoriev

2005-01-01

29

Natural language control of interactive 3D animation and computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a fully implemented system for speech and natural language control of 3D animation and computer games. The experimental framework has features that have been emulated from the popular DOOM™ computer game. It implements an integrated parser based on a linguistic formalism tailored to the processing of the specific natural language instructions required to control a

M. Cavazza; I. Palmer

1999-01-01

30

Expression and cut parser for CMS event data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a parser to evaluate expressions and Boolean selections that is applied on CMS event data for event filtering and analysis purposes. The parser is based on Boost Spirit grammar definition, and uses Reflex dictionaries for class introspection. The parser allows for a natural definition of expressions and cuts in users' configurations, and provides good runtime performance compared to other existing parsers.

Lista, Luca; Jones, Christopher D.; Petrucciani, Giovanni

2010-04-01

31

Design Tool Combining Keyword Analyzer and Case-based Parser for  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and experimentally implemented a tool for developing a natural language systems that can accept extra-grammatica l expressions, keyword sequences, and linguistic fragments, as well as ordi nary natural language queries. The key to this tool's efficiency is its effective use of a simple keyword an- alyzer in combination with a conventional case-based parser. TILe keyword analyzer performs

Hideo Shimazu; Seigo Arit; Yosuke Takashima

32

Parser visualizations for developing grammars with yacc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Gyacc (graphical yacc), a tool we have developed to support a graphical approach to developing languages with parser generators such as yacc. Gyacc is an interactive environment which supports the construction of context-free grammars, and provides the user with the ability to study yacc-generated parsers. We are strongly convinced that to fully teach and understand the details

Mona E. Lovato; Michael F. Kleyn

1995-01-01

33

Natural Language Competent Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why use natural language (NL) to communicate with computer systems? I have always thought the answer was obvious. Since NL is the most natural communica-tion language for people to use [1], it would make computer systems easiest to use if they understood and spoke NL. I often get resistance to this opinion, but the resistance almost always takes the form

Stuart C. Shapiro

2006-01-01

34

Realization of Syntactic Parser for Inflectional Language Using XML and Regular Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper we present a method of syntactic parsing for inflectional language. This method consists of several steps including\\u000a morphological and syntactical levels of analysis. We proposed a bottom-up model of syntactic analysis of the sentence. Its\\u000a advantage is in the case of ill-formed sentence because the analyser is still able to parse at least parts of the sentence.

Marek Trabalka; Mária Bieliková

2000-01-01

35

Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

2012-01-01

36

Expression and cut parser for CMS event data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a parser to evaluate expressions and Boolean selections that is applied on CMS event data for event filtering and analysis purposes. The parser is based on Boost Spirit grammar definition, and uses Reflex dictionaries for class introspection. The parser allows for a natural definition of expressions and cuts in users' configurations, and provides good runtime performance compared to

Luca Lista; Christopher D. Jones; Giovanni Petrucciani

2010-01-01

37

SPIN: A Semantic Parser for Spoken Dialog Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents SPIN, a semantic parser developed for spoken dialog systems. The parser provides a powerful rule language for an easy and efficient creation of the rule set. Important featur es of the rule language include order-independent matching, built-in support for referring expressions, rule ordering, constraints and action functions. On the basis of an example utterance the advantages of

Ralf Engel

38

Natural Language Interface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study, by David M. Lane of Rice University, assesses the question, "Is it easier to learn to use computer software that uses natural language commands?" Main concepts are analysis of covariance, adjusted means, and boxplots. The experimental design, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and raw data are all given.

Lane, David M.

2009-02-05

39

Total parser combinators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monadic parser combinator library which guarantees termination of parsing, while still allowing many forms of left recursion, is described. The library's interface is similar to those of many other parser combinator libraries, with two important differences: one is that the interface clearly specifies which parts of the constructed parsers may be infinite, and which parts have to be finite,

Nils Anders Danielsson

2010-01-01

40

A Concept-Centric Framework for Building Natural Language Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural language interfaces are expected to come into practical use in many situations. It is, however, not practical to expect to achieve a universal interface because language use is so diverse. To that end, not only advancements in speech and language technologies but also well-designed development frameworks are required so that developers can build domain-specific interfaces rapidly and easily. This paper proposes KNOLU, a framework for building natural language interfaces of a broad range of applications. Developers using this framework can easily build an interface capable of understanding subsets of natural language expressions just by providing an ontology (a concept hierarchy with semantic frames and a lexicon), an onomasticon (a set of instances and their names) and API functions that provide procedural knowledge required to connect the interface to a target application. To develop an interface using KNOLU, first developers define a concept hierarchy for a target domain. Then they provide other declarative and procedural knowledge components with these knowledge components asscicated to the hierarchy. This developmental flow affords an unobstructed view both for development and maintanance. KNOLU uses an existing general-purpose parser and requires neither grammar rules nor expression patterns. It does not require rules to generate semantic interpretations from parsing results, either. Therefore, developers can build an interface without deep knowledge and experience of natural language processing. We applied KNOLU to two applications and confirmed the effectiveness.

Funakoshi, Kotaro; Nakano, Mikio; Hasegawa, Yuji; Tsujino, Hiroshi

41

Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

Naur, Peter

1975-01-01

42

Multibox parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional compiler front end generating tools such as Lex\\/Yacc assume a front end consisting of two boxes: a lexical box and a syntax box. Lex produces a lexical analyzer using regular expressions as a token description. Yacc generates a syntax analyzer from the LALR grammar for the parsed language. This approach has big problems with such lexically and syntactically complex

Lev J. Dyadkin

1994-01-01

43

Lex-based mad parser and its applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An embeddable and portable Lex-based MAD language parser has been developed. The parser consists of a front-end which reads a MAD file and keeps beam elements, beam line data and algebraic expressions in tree-like structures, and a back-end, which process...

O. Krivosheev

2001-01-01

44

Online Large-Margin Training of Dependency Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an effective training al- gorithm for linearly-scored dependency parsers that implements online large- margin multi-class training (Crammer and Singer, 2003; Crammer et al., 2003) on top of efficient parsing techniques for de- pendency trees (Eisner, 1996). The trained parsers achieve a competitive dependency accuracy for both English and Czech with no language specific enhancements.

Ryan T. Mcdonald; Koby Crammer; Fernando C. N. Pereira

2005-01-01

45

Understanding digital-system specifications written in natural language  

SciTech Connect

This thesis concerns itself with the specification of digital systems. The specific focus of the work described here was on understanding system specifications written in natural language. The long-term goals of the research are to provide methods and software to assure that the specifications are consistent, correct, and complete. The research described differs from previous research in several ways. First, the natural language input is used to construct an internal design representation, rather than just to query about existing design data. Second, using natural language allows a generality of expression not found in formal models. Finally, the natural language is not overly restricted. A major part of the research involves formally modeling the information found in system specifications. An extension of the USC Design Data Structure is described, with emphasis on timing and control flow. A semantic parser, PHRAN,is used as the basis for the actual interface software. PHRAN contains a knowledge base of sentence patterns along with associated concepts. PHRAN inputs English sentences and looks for patterns in the sentences. When it finds a pattern match, the concept associated with the pattern is particularized with the information found in the sentence.

Granacki, J.J. Jr.

1986-01-01

46

SRI International: Natural Language Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes the Natural Language Program that is part of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center. The center's research focuses on natural language theory and applications, with emphasis on three subgroups of study. The subprogram on Multimedia / Multimodal Interfaces seeks to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces. The subprogram on Spoken Language Systems integrates linguistic processing with speech recognition for use in ATIS, a system for retrieving airline schedules, fares, and related information from a relational database. The subprogram on Written Language Systems researches the problems involved in interpreting and extracting information from written text, such as on-line newspaper articles. Additional information on these projects, related publications, and software are available from this website.

47

An LR Substring Parser Applied in a Parallel Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential substring parser implemented by Cormack naturally lends itself to parallelization. Cormack's algorithm implements the theory developed by Richter for a suffix parser that parses the bounded context class of LR grammars. Of interest is the behavior of the parallel version, particularly the number of reductions done with small substrings. There are timing gains made when parsing sentences of

Gwen Clarke; David T. Barnard

1996-01-01

48

Natural Language Processing for Biosurveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information described in electronic clinical reports can be useful for both detection and characterization of outbreaks. However,\\u000a the information is in unstructured, free-text format and is not available to computerized applications. Natural Language processing\\u000a methods structure free-text information by classifying, extracting, and encoding details from the text. We provide a brief\\u000a description of the types of natural Language processing techniques

Wendy W. Chapman; Adi V. Gundlapalli; Brett R. South; John N. Dowling

49

Dependency Parser Based Textual Entailment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a parser based textual entailment system that is based on comparing the dependency relations in both the text and the hypothesis has been reported. The textual entailment system uses the CCG Parser and the Stanford Parser. The Dependency Parser has been run on the 2-way Parser Training and Evaluation (PETE) (SemEval-2010 Evaluation Exercises on Semantic Evaluation Task

Partha Pakray; Sivaji Bandyopadhyay; Alexander Gelbukh

2010-01-01

50

New trends in natural language processing: statistical natural language processing.  

PubMed Central

The field of natural language processing (NLP) has seen a dramatic shift in both research direction and methodology in the past several years. In the past, most work in computational linguistics tended to focus on purely symbolic methods. Recently, more and more work is shifting toward hybrid methods that combine new empirical corpus-based methods, including the use of probabilistic and information-theoretic techniques, with traditional symbolic methods. This work is made possible by the recent availability of linguistic databases that add rich linguistic annotation to corpora of natural language text. Already, these methods have led to a dramatic improvement in the performance of a variety of NLP systems with similar improvement likely in the coming years. This paper focuses on these trends, surveying in particular three areas of recent progress: part-of-speech tagging, stochastic parsing, and lexical semantics.

Marcus, M

1995-01-01

51

New trends in natural language processing: statistical natural language processing.  

PubMed

The field of natural language processing (NLP) has seen a dramatic shift in both research direction and methodology in the past several years. In the past, most work in computational linguistics tended to focus on purely symbolic methods. Recently, more and more work is shifting toward hybrid methods that combine new empirical corpus-based methods, including the use of probabilistic and information-theoretic techniques, with traditional symbolic methods. This work is made possible by the recent availability of linguistic databases that add rich linguistic annotation to corpora of natural language text. Already, these methods have led to a dramatic improvement in the performance of a variety of NLP systems with similar improvement likely in the coming years. This paper focuses on these trends, surveying in particular three areas of recent progress: part-of-speech tagging, stochastic parsing, and lexical semantics. PMID:7479725

Marcus, M

1995-10-24

52

GEMINI: A Natural Language System for Spoken-Language Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gemini is a natural language understanding system developed for spoken language applications. This paper describes the details of the system, and includes relevant measurements of size, efficiency, and performance of each of its sub-components in detail.

John Dowding; Jean Mark Gawron; Douglas E. Appelt; John Bear; Lynn Cherny; Robert C. Moore; Douglas B. Moran

1993-01-01

53

Natural Language Sourcebook Status Report (Briefing Charts).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These briefing charts provide a summary overview of the Natural Language Sourcebook which was developed as part of the natural language understanding portion of the Artificial Intelligence Measurement System (AIMS). The Sourcebook is a compilation of lang...

F. A. Butler E. L. Baker

1990-01-01

54

ANTLR: A Predicated- Parser Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Despite the parsing power of algorithms, e.g. YACC 1, programmers often choose to write recursive-descent parsers by hand to obtain increased flexi bility, better error handling, and ease of debug- ging. We introduce ANTLR, a public-domain parser generator that combines the flexibility of hand-coded parsing with the convenience of a parser generator, which is a component of PCCTS 2.

T. J. PARR; R. W. QUONG

55

SML-Yacc: A Parser-Generator System in Standard-ML. A User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes SML-Tacc, a parser-generator in Standard ML. The system expects a grammar specification as input and produces a parser for that language in Standard ML as output. The user may include Standard ML expressions (parse actions) within the ...

B. M. Matthews S. K. Robinson

1989-01-01

56

Parsing Expression Grammar as a Primitive Recursive-Descent Parser with Backtracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent developments in the fleld of formal languages are Parsing Expression Grammar (PEG) and packrat parsing. The PEG formalism is similar to BNF, but deflnes syntax in terms of recognizing strings, rather than constructing them. It is, in fact, precise speciflcation of a backtracking recursive- descent parser. Packrat parsing is a general method to handle backtracking in recursive-descent parsers.

Roman R. Redziejowski

2007-01-01

57

Designing a Constraint Based Parser for Sanskrit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verbal understanding (?? bdabodha) of any utterance requires the knowledge of how words in that utterance are related to each other. Such knowledge is usually available in the form of cognition of grammatical relations. Generative grammars describe how a language codes these relations. Thus the knowledge of what information various grammatical relations convey is available from the generation point of view and not the analysis point of view. In order to develop a parser based on any grammar one should then know precisely the semantic content of the grammatical relations expressed in a language string, the clues for extracting these relations and finally whether these relations are expressed explicitly or implicitly. Based on the design principles that emerge from this knowledge, we model the parser as finding a directed Tree, given a graph with nodes representing the words and edges representing the possible relations between them. Further, we also use the M?m? ?s? constraint of ?k? ?k?? (expectancy) to rule out non-solutions and sannidhi (proximity) to prioritize the solutions. We have implemented a parser based on these principles and its performance was found to be satisfactory giving us a confidence to extend its functionality to handle the complex sentences.

Kulkarni, Amba; Pokar, Sheetal; Shukl, Devanand

58

Discriminative Reranking for Natural Language Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers approaches which rerank the output of an existing probabilistic parser. The base parser produces a set of candidate parses for each input sentence, with associated probabilities that define an initial ranking of these parses. A second model then attempts to improve upon this initial ranking, using additional features of the tree as evidence. We describe and compare

Michael Collins

2000-01-01

59

Bilateral brain processes for comprehending natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehension of natural language - stories, conversa- tions, text - is very simple for those doing the comprehending and very complex for cognitive neuros- cientists. It also presents a paradox: the advantage of the left hemisphere (LH) for most language tasks is one of the best-established facts about the brain; yet, when it comes to comprehending complex, natural language, the

Mark Jung-Beeman

2005-01-01

60

Multitext Grammars and Synchronous Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multitext Grammars (MTGs) generate arbitrarily many parallel texts via production rules of arbitrary length. Both ordinary MTGs and their bilexical subclass admit relatively efficient parsers. Yet, MTGs are more expressive than other synchronous formalisms for which parsers have been described in the literature. The combination of greater expressive power and relatively low cost of inference makes MTGs an attractive foundation

I. Dan Melamed

2003-01-01

61

Integration of speech with natural language understanding.  

PubMed Central

The integration of speech recognition with natural language understanding raises issues of how to adapt natural language processing to the characteristics of spoken language; how to cope with errorful recognition output, including the use of natural language information to reduce recognition errors; and how to use information from the speech signal, beyond just the sequence of words, as an aid to understanding. This paper reviews current research addressing these questions in the Spoken Language Program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). I begin by reviewing some of the ways that spontaneous spoken language differs from standard written language and discuss methods of coping with the difficulties of spontaneous speech. I then look at how systems cope with errors in speech recognition and at attempts to use natural language information to reduce recognition errors. Finally, I discuss how prosodic information in the speech signal might be used to improve understanding.

Moore, R C

1995-01-01

62

Learning to Transform Natural to Formal Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for inducing transformation rules that map natural-language sentences into a formal query or command language. The approach assumes a formal gram- mar for the target representation language and learns trans- formation rules that exploit the non-terminal symbols in this grammar. The learned transformation rules incrementally map a natural-language sentence or its syntactic parse tree into

Rohit J. Kate; Yuk Wah Wong; Raymond J. Mooney

2005-01-01

63

Java Mathematical Expression Parser  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Java Mathematical Expression Parser (JEP) is a handy tool "for parsing and evaluating mathematical expressions." It is a no-frills package that incorporates several important features, including user-definable functions and implicit multiplication for easy use. JEP can be downloaded as a complete application, or a couple of its features can be used online as applets. There is a separate page of documentation and installation instructions. Also available on this Web site is the AutoAbacus, which allows users to input a system of equations and obtain the solutions instantaneously.

Funk, Nathan.

64

Recent Developments in Natural Language Text Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper reports on some,recent developments,in our natural language text retrieval system. The system uses advanced,natural language processing techniques to enhance,the,effectiveness of,term-based document retrieval. The backbone,of our system is a traditional statistical engine which,builds inverted index files from pre-processed documents, and then searches and ranks the documents,in response,to user queries. Natural language processing is used to (1) preprocess the

Tomek Strzalkowski; Jose Perez Carballo

1993-01-01

65

Multilingual Dependency Analysis with a Two-Stage Discriminative Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a two-stage multilingual de- pendency parser and evaluate it on 13 diverse languages. The first stage is based on the unlabeled dependency pars- ing models described by McDonald and Pereira (2006) augmented with morpho- logical features for a subset of the lan- guages. The second stage takes the out- put from the first and labels all the edges

Ryan McDonald; Kevin Lerman; Fernando Pereira

2006-01-01

66

A lex-based mad parser and its applications  

SciTech Connect

An embeddable and portable Lex-based MAD language parser has been developed. The parser consists of a front-end which reads a MAD file and keeps beam elements, beam line data and algebraic expressions in tree-like structures, and a back-end, which processes the front-end data to generate an input file or data structures compatible with user applications. Three working programs are described, namely, a MAD to C++ converter, a dynamic C++ object factory and a MAD-MARS beam line builder. Design and implementation issues are discussed.

Oleg Krivosheev et al.

2001-07-03

67

Natural language question-answering systems: 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments in programming natural language question-answering systems are reviewed to summarize the methods that have been developed for syntactic, semantic, and logical analysis of English strings. It is concluded that at least minimally effective techniques have been devised for answering questions from natural language subsets in small scale experimental systems and that a useful paradigm has evolved to guide

Robert F. Simmons

1970-01-01

68

Natural Language Information Retrieval: TREC-3 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we report on the recent developments in NYU's natural language information retrieval system, especially as related to the 3rd Text Retrieval Conference 'TREC-3'. The main characteristic of this system is the use of advanced natural language ...

J. P. Carballo M. Marinescu T. Strzalkowski

1994-01-01

69

Natural Language Information Retrieval: TREC4 Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT carballo@cs.nyu.edu n this paper we,report on the joint GE\\/NYU natural 4 language information retrieval project as related to the th Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-4). The main - i thrust of this project is to use natural language process ng techniques to enhance,the effectiveness of full-text T

Tomek Strzalkowski; Jose Perez Carballo

1995-01-01

70

Natural Language Information Retrieval: TREC-4 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we report on the joint GE/NYU natural language information retrieval project as related to the 4th Text Retrieval Conference 'TREC-4'. The main thrust of this project is to use natural language processing techniques to enhance the effectiven...

J. P. Carballo T. Strzalkowski

1995-01-01

71

Natural Language Information Retrieval: TREC3 Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the recent developments in NYU's natural language information retrieval system, especially as related to the 3rd Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-3). The main characteristic of this system is the use of advanced natural language processing to enhance the effectiveness of term-based document retrieval. The system is designed around a traditional statistical back- bone consisting of

Tomek Strzalkowski; Jose Perez Carballo; Mihnea Marinescu

1994-01-01

72

Language and the Multisemiotic Nature of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how language and the multisemiotic nature of mathematics can present potential challenges for English language learners (ELLs). Based on two qualitative studies of the discourse of mathematics, we discuss some of the linguistic challenges of mathematics for ELLs in order to highlight the potential difficulties they may have…

de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Cheng, Dazhi

2011-01-01

73

The nature of pragmatic language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present dissertation reports on research into the nature of Pragmatic Language Impairment (PLI) in children aged 4 to 7 in the Netherlands. First, the possibility of screening for PLI in the general population is examined. Results show that this is indeed possible as well as feasible. Second, an exploration of the relationship between pragmatic language problems and behavioural problems

M. P. Ketelaars

2010-01-01

74

Visual Tools for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe GATE, the General Architecture for Text Engineering, an integrated visual development environment to support the visual assembly, execution and analysis of modular natural language processing systems. The visual model is an executable data flow program graph, automatically synthesised from data dependency declarations of language processing modules. The graph is then directly executable: modules are run interactively in the

Robert J. Gaizauskas; Peter J. Rodgers; Kevin Humphreys

2001-01-01

75

Language and the Multisemiotic Nature of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how language and the multisemiotic nature of mathematics can present potential challenges for English language learners (ELLs). Based on two qualitative studies of the discourse of mathematics, we discuss some of the linguistic challenges of mathematics for ELLs in order to highlight the potential difficulties they may have…

de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Cheng, Dazhi

2011-01-01

76

Introduction: Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of research into information and text retrieval problems highlights the work with automatic natural language processing (NLP) that is reported in this issue. Topics discussed include the occurrences of nominal compounds; anaphoric references; discontinuous language constructs; automatic back-of-the-book indexing; and full-text analysis.…

Smeaton, Alan F.

1990-01-01

77

Research in Natural Language Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the significant features of KLONE as a representation language is its facility for expressing structural interrelations among the conceptual subparts of an object, activity, or relationship. These interrelations are expressed as a set of 'parameter...

R. J. Brachman

1978-01-01

78

Natural language from artificial life.  

PubMed

This article aims to show that linguistics, in particular the study of the lexico-syntactic aspects of language, provides fertile ground for artificial life modeling. A survey of the models that have been developed over the last decade and a half is presented to demonstrate that ALife techniques have a lot to offer an explanatory theory of language. It is argued that this is because much of the structure of language is determined by the interaction of three complex adaptive systems: learning, culture, and biological evolution. Computational simulation, informed by theoretical linguistics, is an appropriate response to the challenge of explaining real linguistic data in terms of the processes that underpin human language. PMID:12171637

Kirby, Simon

2002-01-01

79

A Better XML Parser through Functional Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates how a higher-level, declarative view of XML parsing as folding over XML documents has helped to design\\u000a and implement a better XML parser. By better we mean a full-featured, algorithmically optimal, pure-functional parser, which\\u000a can act as a stream processor. By better we mean an efficient SAX parser that is easy to use, a parser that does

Oleg Kiselyov

2002-01-01

80

Cooperative, natural language environmental information system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the extension of a natural language interface to relational databases with respect to its cooperative behavior. We argue that cooperative behavior is especially important for a complex domain such as environmental protection. In order...

R. Becker D. Kuepper D. Roesner M. Strobel

1992-01-01

81

Syntax Directed Interpretation of Natural Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissertation presents a method called syntax directed interpretation which permits the use of semantic information in a syntactic analysis of sentences taken from a restricted domain of natural language. This method is used in the resolution of syntac...

L. S. Coles

1967-01-01

82

Natural Language Information Retrieval: TREC5 Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the joint GE\\/Lockheed Martin\\/Rutgers\\/NYU natural language information retrieval project as related to the 5th Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-5). The main thrust of this project is to use natural language processing techniques to enhance the effectiveness of full-text document retrieval. Since our first TREC entry in 1992 (as NYU team) the basic premise of our

Tomek Strzalkowski; Louise Guthrie; Jussi Karlgren; Jim Leistensnider; Fang Lin; Jose Perez Carballo; Troy Straszheim; Jing Wang; Jon Wilding

1996-01-01

83

Syntactic dependency parsers for biomedical-NLP.  

PubMed

Syntactic parsers have made a leap in accuracy and speed in recent years. The high order structural information provided by dependency parsers is useful for a variety of NLP applications. We present a biomedical model for the EasyFirst parser, a fast and accurate parser for creating Stanford Dependencies. We evaluate the models trained in the biomedical domains of EasyFirst and Clear-Parser in a number of task oriented metrics. Both parsers provide stat of the art speed and accuracy in the Genia of over 89%. We show that Clear-Parser excels at tasks relating to negation identification while EasyFirst excels at tasks relating to Named Entities and is more robust to changes in domain. PMID:23304280

Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael

2012-11-03

84

Language processing in the natural world.  

PubMed

The authors argue that a more complete understanding of how people produce and comprehend language will require investigating real-time spoken-language processing in natural tasks, including those that require goal-oriented unscripted conversation. One promising methodology for such studies is monitoring eye movements as speakers and listeners perform natural tasks. Three lines of research that adopt this approach are reviewed: (i) spoken word recognition in continuous speech, (ii) reference resolution in real-world contexts, and (iii) real-time language processing in interactive conversation. In each domain, results emerge that provide insights which would otherwise be difficult to obtain. These results extend and, in some cases, challenge standard assumptions about language processing. PMID:17895223

Tanenhaus, Michael K; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

2008-03-12

85

An Automatic Web-based Natural Language Resource Builder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language resources, for natural language processing research and systems development such as language corpora and lexicons, are tediously built through many man-hours and expert linguists knowledge. We explore methods of automatically building NL resources through information on the World Wide Web. In particular, we will consider language resources for Philippine languages such as Tagalog.

Rachel Edita; O. Roxas; Davis D. Dimalen; Manuel A. Perez; Eileen Pamela Tiu

86

Knowledge sources for Natural Language Processing.  

PubMed

This paper aims at reviewing the problem of feeding Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools with convenient linguistic knowledge in the medical domain. A syntactic approach lacks the potential to solve a number of typical situations with ambiguities and is clearly insufficient for quality treatment of natural language. On the other hand, a conceptual approach relies on some modelling of the domain, of which the elaboration is d long-term process and where the ultimate solutions are far from being recognised and universally accepted. In-between is the beauty of the compromise. How can we significantly improve the coverage of linguistic knowledge in the years to come? PMID:8947630

Baud, R H; Rassinoux, A M; Lovis, C; Wagner, J; Griesser, V; Michel, P A; Scherrer, J R

1996-01-01

87

Entropy analysis of natural language written texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present work is to investigate the relative contribution of ordered and stochastic components in natural written texts and examine the influence of text category and language on these. To this end, a binary representation of written texts and the generated symbolic sequences are examined by the standard block entropy analysis and the Shannon and Kolmogorov entropies are obtained. It is found that both entropies are sensitive to both language and text category with the text category sensitivity to follow almost the same trends in both languages (English and Greek) considered. The values of these entropies are compared with those of stochastically generated symbolic sequences and the nature of correlations present in this representation of real written texts is identified.

Papadimitriou, C.; Karamanos, K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.; Papageorgiou, H.

2010-08-01

88

Using Natural Language Descriptions to Improve the Usability of Databases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the REGIS extended command language, a relational data language that allows users to name and describe database objects using natural language phrases. REGIS accepts multiple-word phrases as the names of tables and columns (unlike mos...

C. D. Hafner J. D. Joyce

1983-01-01

89

Natural Language, Sortal Reducibility and Generalized Quantifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work in natural language semantics leads to some new observations on generalized quantifiers. In $\\\\S 1$ we show that English quantifiers of type $<1,1>$ are booleanly generated by their generalized universal and generalized existential members. These two classes also constitute the sortally reducible members of this type. Section 2 presents our main result--the Generalized Prefix Theorem (GPT). This theorem

Edward L. Keenan

1993-01-01

90

Natural Language Processing for Conceptual Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-automated approach for the design of databases in enhanced-ERD notation is presented. It focuses on the very early stage of the database development which is the stage of user requirement analysis. It is supposed to be used between the requirements determination stage and analysis. The approach provides the opportunity of using natural language text documents as a source of

Lilac A. E. Al-Safadi

2009-01-01

91

Natural Language Querying of Historical Data Bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the connection between two areas of semantics, namely the semantics of historical databases and the semantics of natural language querying, and link them together via a common view of the semantics of time. Since the target application domain is an historical database, we present the essential features of the Historical Relational Database Model (HRDM), an

James Clifford

1988-01-01

92

Mobile robot programming using natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will naive users program domestic robots? This paper describes the design of a practical system that uses natural language to teach a vision-based robot how to navigate in a miniature town. To enable unconstrained speech the robot is provided with a set of primitive procedures derived from a corpus of route instructions. When the user refers to a route

Stanislao Lauria; Guido Bugmann; Theocharis Kyriacou; Ewan Klein

2002-01-01

93

Natural Language Information Retrieval TREC6 Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the joint GE\\/Lockheed Martin\\/Rutgers\\/NYU natural language information retrieval projectas related to the 5th Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-5). The main thrust of this project is to use natural languageprocessing techniques to enhance the effectiveness of full-text document retrieval. Since our first TREC entry in 1992(as NYU team) the basic premise of our research was to

Tomek Strzalkowski; Fang Lin; Jose Perez Carballo

1997-01-01

94

Some Topics in Parser Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An algorithm has been developed that generates an error-correcting recursive-descent syntax analyzer (parser) with no backtrack from an extended context-free grammar. A program, LLGEN, has been written to implement this algorithm. The paper discusses three aspects of the algorithm: the support of separate compilation, the mechanism for the static or dynamic resolving of conflicts, and the error-correction method used

CERIEL J. H. JACOBS

95

Type Parser 1.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy utility helps users who want to get more information on the usage of their drives. With Type Parser, users can discover wasted drive space, the types of files responsible, and where they reside. The options menu allows users to specify whether they wish to calculate cluster size or directory data and what size files they wish to analyze. A good way to discover long forgotten files and recover some of that seemingly ever-elusive disk space.

2000-01-01

96

Natural language interface for nuclear data bases  

SciTech Connect

A natural language interface has been developed for access to information from a data base, simulating a nuclear plant reliability data system (NPRDS), one of the several existing data bases serving the nuclear industry. In the last decade, the importance of information has been demonstrated by the impressive diffusion of data base management systems. The present methods that are employed to access data bases fall into two main categories of menu-driven systems and use of data base manipulation languages. Both of these methods are currently used by NPRDS. These methods have proven to be tedious, however, and require extensive training by the user for effective utilization of the data base. Artificial intelligence techniques have been used in the development of several intelligent front ends for data bases in nonnuclear domains. Lunar is a natural language program for interface to a data base describing moon rock samples brought back by Apollo. Intellect is one of the first data base question-answering systems that was commercially available in the financial area. Ladder is an intelligent data base interface that was developed as a management aid to Navy decision makers. A natural language interface for nuclear data bases that can be used by nonprogrammers with little or no training provides a means for achieving this goal for this industry.

Heger, A.S.; Koen, B.V.

1987-01-01

97

Information Extraction by Two Dimensional Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a learning algorithm for a two dimensional parser. The parser is designed to analyze page layout of documents and extract information using both textual and layout information. The parsing rules are expressed by an extended stochastic context free grammar that decomposes tokens located in two dimensional space both horizontally and vertically. In this paper we focus on

Atsuhiro Takasu

2008-01-01

98

TRX: A Formally Verified Parser Interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parsing is an important problem in computer science and yet surprisingly little attention has been devoted to its formal verification. In this paper, we present TRX: a parser interpreter formally developed in the proof assistant Coq, capable of producing formally correct parsers. We are using parsing expression grammars (PEGs), a formalism essentially representing recursive descent parsing, which we consider an

Adam Koprowski; Henri Binsztok

2011-01-01

99

Evaluating and Improving Recursive Descent Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time formulas are symbolic formulas which express the execution time of a program as a function of its input data and of variables representing the time to execute individual operations (e.g., push, pop, transfer, etc.). It is shown that in many cases the time formulas for recursive descent parsers may be generated automatically by a simple inspection of the parser

Jacques Cohen; Robin Sitver; David Auty

1979-01-01

100

Naturally Speaking: A Systems Biology Tool with Natural Language Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper describes a systems biology software tool that can engage in a dialogue with a biologist by responding to questions posed to it in English (or another natural language) regarding the behavior of a complex biological system, and by suggesting a set of \\

Marco Antoniotti; Ian T. Lau; Bud Mishra

101

GALENA: Tabular DCG Parsing for Natural Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a definite clause based parsing environment for natural languages, whoseoperational model is the dynamic interpretation of logical push-down automata. We attemptto briefly explain our design decisions in terms of a set of properties that practical naturallanguage processing systems should incorporate. The aim is to show both the advantagesand the drawbacks of our approach.1 IntroductionLogic programming have been extensively

Manuel Vilares Ferro; Miguel A. Alonso; Jorge Graña Gil; David Cabrero Souto

1998-01-01

102

Discovering protein similarity using natural language processing.  

PubMed Central

Extracting protein interaction relationships from textual repositories, such as MEDLINE, may prove useful in generating novel biological hypotheses. Using abstracts relevant to two known functionally related proteins, we modified an existing natural language processing tool to extract protein interaction terms. We were able to obtain functional information about two proteins, Amyloid Precursor Protein and Prion Protein, that have been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's Disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, respectively.

Sarkar, Indra N.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2002-01-01

103

Robust natural language dialogues for instruction tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being able to understand and carry out spoken natural instructions even in limited domains is extremely challenging for current robots. The difficulties are multifarious, ranging from problems with speech recognizers to difficulties with parsing disfluent speech or resolving references based on perceptual or task-based knowledge. In this paper, we present our efforts at starting to address these problems with an integrated natural language understanding system implemented in our DIARC architecture on a robot that can handle fairly unconstrained spoken ungrammatical and incomplete instructions reliably in a limited domain.

Scheutz, Matthias

2010-04-01

104

Generation of Efficient LALR Parsers for Regular Right Part Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for building small fast LALR parsers for regular right part grammars is given. No grammar transformation is required. No extra state of the LALR parser for the recognition of strings generated by a right part is required. At some reduce states the parser may refer to lookback states (states in which the parser may be restarted after the

Ikuo Nakata; Masataka Sassa

1986-01-01

105

Language Processing Via Canonical Verbs and Semantic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Anatural,language ,question ,answering ,system ,is presented.,The system's ,parser,maps ,semantic ,para­ phrases,into ,a single ,deep ,structure ,characterized ,by acanonical,verb. ,A modeling ,scheme ,using ,semantic nets,and ,STRIPS-like operators ,assimilates ,the ,se­ quence,of input ,information. ,Natural ,language ,respon­ ses to questions ,are generated from a data base of semantic,nets ,by \\

Gary G. Hendrix; C. W. Thompson; Jonathan Slocum

1973-01-01

106

Attacks on lexical natural language steganography systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal steganalysis method based on language models and support vector machines to differentiate sentences modified by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method on classification of steganographically modified sentences was 84.9%. On classification of isolated sentences we obtained a high recall rate whereas the precision was low.

Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Topkara, Umut; Topkara, Mercan; Delp, Edward J.

2006-02-01

107

Written Language Is as Natural as Spoken language: A Biolinguistic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commonly held belief is that language is an aspect of the biological system since the capacity to acquire language is innate and evolved along Darwinian lines. Written language, on the other hand, is thought to be an artifact and a surrogate of speech; it is, therefore, neither natural nor biological. This disparaging view of written language, even though propounded

P. G. Aaron; R. Malatesha Joshi

2006-01-01

108

Written Language Is as Natural as Spoken Language: A Biolinguistic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commonly held belief is that language is an aspect of the biological system since the capacity to acquire language is innate and evolved along Darwinian lines. Written language, on the other hand, is thought to be an artifact and a surrogate of speech; it is, therefore, neither natural nor biological. This disparaging view of written language,…

Aaron, P. G.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

2006-01-01

109

An adaptive, fast, and safe XML parser based on byte sequences memorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

XML (Extensible Markup Language) processing can incur significant runtime overhead in XML-based infrastructural middleware such as Web service application servers. This paper proposes a novel mechanism for efficiently processing similar XML documents. Given a new XML document as a byte sequence, the XML parser proposed in this paper normally avoids syntactic analysis but simply matches the document with previously processed

Toshiro Takase; Hisashi MIYASHITA; Toyotaro Suzumura; Michiaki Tatsubori

2005-01-01

110

An Evolutionary History of the Natural Language English and the Artificial Language FORTRAN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes similarities between certain aspects of the development of the natural language English and the artificial language FORTRAN. Discusses evolutionary history, grammar, style, syntax, varieties, and attempts at standardization. Emphasizes modifications which natural and artificial languages have undergone. Suggests that some modifications were…

Koman, Joseph J., III

1988-01-01

111

IDL-Expressions: A Formalism for Representing and Parsing Finite Languages in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a formalism for representation of nite languages, referred to as the class of IDL-expressions, which combines concepts that were only considered in isolation in existing formalisms. The suggested applications are in natural language processing, more specically in surface natural language generation and in machine translation, where a sentence is obtained by rst generating a large set of candidate

Mark-jan Nederhof; Giorgio Satta

2004-01-01

112

An Evolutionary History of the Natural Language English and the Artificial Language FORTRAN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes similarities between certain aspects of the development of the natural language English and the artificial language FORTRAN. Discusses evolutionary history, grammar, style, syntax, varieties, and attempts at standardization. Emphasizes modifications which natural and artificial languages have undergone. Suggests that some modifications were…

Koman, Joseph J., III

1988-01-01

113

Natural language insensitive short textual string compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are applications (such as Internet search engines) where short textual strings, for example abstracts or pieces of Web pages, need to be compressed independently of each other. The usual adaptive compression algorithms perform poorly on these short strings due to the lack of necessary data to learn. In this manuscript, we introduce a compression algorithm targeting short text strings; e.g., containing a few hundred symbols. We also target natural language insensitivity, to facilitate its robust compression and fast implementation. The algorithm is based on the following findings. Applying the move-to-front transform (MTFT) after the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) brings the short textual strings to a "normalized form" where the distribution of the resulting "ranks" has a shape similar over the set of natural language strings. This facilitates the use of a static coding method with few variations, which we call shortBWT, where no on-line learning is needed, to encode the ranks. Finally, for short strings, shortBWT runs very fast because the strings fit into the cache of most current computers. The introduction for this paper will review the mathematical bases of BWT and MTF, it will also review our recently published metric for rapidly pre-characterizing the compressibility of such short textual strings when using these transforms.

Constantinescu, Cornel; Trelewicz, Jennifer Q.; Arps, Ronald B.

2004-01-01

114

Mango: A Parser Generator for Self  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango is a parser generator that is included in Release 3.0 of the Self system. Mango goes beyond LEX\\/YACC in several respects. First, Mango grammars are structured, thus easier to read and map onto parse trees. Second, Mango parsers automatically build parse trees rather than merely provide hooks for calling low-level reduce actions during parsing. Third, Mango automati- cally maintains

Ole Agesen

1994-01-01

115

TRX: A Formally Verified Parser Interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Parsing is an important problem in computer science and yet surprisingly little attention has been devoted to its formal verification.\\u000a In this paper, we present TRX: a parser interpreter formally developed in the proof assistant Coq, capable of producing formally\\u000a correct parsers. We are using parsing expression grammars (PEGs), a formalism essentially representing recursive descent parsing,\\u000a which we consider an

Adam Koprowski; Henri Binsztok

2010-01-01

116

A Dialogue Manager Supporting Natural Language Tutorial Dialogue on Proofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dialog project investigates exible natural language tutorial dialogue on math- ematical proofs. Due to the exible and unpredictable nature of tutorial dialogue in natural language it is essential to include a sophisticated, dedicated dialogue manager to handle the interaction between student and the system modules. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the dialogue manager for

Mark Buckley; Christoph Benzm

2006-01-01

117

Understanding and representing natural language meaning  

SciTech Connect

During this contract period the authors have: (a) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (b) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process known as activation and inhibition; (c) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (d) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (e) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (f) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (g) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

Waltz, D.L.; Maran, L.R.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

1982-12-01

118

An Effective Application of Natural Language Processing in Second Language Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an intelligent computer-assisted language instruction (CALI) system called "Nihongo-CALI" (Japanese Computer Assisted Language Instruction), which employs natural language processing to provide immediate, grammatically sophisticated feedback to students in an interactive environment. The study compares the efficacy of this type of…

Nagata, Noriko

1995-01-01

119

Natural Language Requirements Analysis and Class Model Generation Using UCDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a methodology to automate natural language requirements analysis and class model generation based on the\\u000a Rational Unified Process (RUP). Use-case language schemas are proposed to reduce complexity and vagueness of natural language.\\u000a Some rules are identified and used to automate class model generation from use-case specifications. A CASE tool named Use-Case\\u000a driven Development Assistant (UCDA) is implemented

Dong Liu; Kalaivani Subramaniam; Armin Eberlein; Behrouz Homayoun Far

2004-01-01

120

Towards Automatic Generation of Natural Language Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems that interact with the user via natural language are in their infancy. As these systems mature and become more complex, it would be desirable for a system developer if there were an automatic method for creating natural language generation components that can produce quality output efficiently. We conduct experiments that show that this goal appears to be realizable. In

John Chen; Srinivas Bangalore; Owen Rambow; Marilyn A. Walker

2002-01-01

121

Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

2012-01-01

122

Towards a theory of natural language interfaces to databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for Natural Language Interfaces to databases (NLIs) has become increasingly acute as more and more people access information through their web browsers, PDAs, and cell phones. Yet NLIs are only usable if they map natural language questions to SQL queries correctly. As Schneiderman and Norman have argued, people are unwilling to trade reliable and predictable user interfaces for

Ana-Maria Popescu; Oren Etzioni; Henry A. Kautz

2003-01-01

123

THESAURUS FOR NATURAL-LANGUAGE-BASED CONCEPTUAL DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design is a process wherein new functions are created through engineering design. In conceptual design, we use natural language since it plays an important role in the expression and operation of a function. Moreover, natural language is used in our day-to-day thinking processes and is expected to keep a fine interface with the designer. However, it is at a

Eiko Yamamoto; Toshiharu Taura; Shota Ohashi; Masaki Yamamoto

2009-01-01

124

What Conceptual Graph Workbenches Need for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important capability of the conceptual graph knowledge engineering tools now under development will be the transformation of natural language texts into graphs (conceptual parsing) and its reverse, the production of text from graphs (conceptual generation). Are the existing basic designs adequate for these tasks? Experience developing the BEELINE system's natural language capabilities suggests that good entry\\/editing tools, a generous

Graham A. Mann

1995-01-01

125

MENELAS: an access system for medical records using natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of Menelas is to provide better access to the information contained in natural language patient discharge summaries, through the design and implementation of a pilot system able to access medical reports through natural languages. A first, experimental version of the Menelas indexing prototype for French has been assembled. Its function is to encode free text PDSs into

Pierre Zweigenbaum

1994-01-01

126

Building Effective Queries in Natural Language Information Retrieval.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we report on our natural language information retrieval (NLIR) project as related to the recently concluded 5th Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-5). The main thrust of this project is to use natural language processing techniques to enhance t...

F. Lin J. Perez-Carballo J. Wang T. Strzalkowski

1997-01-01

127

Classification of Natural Language Sentences using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the task of classifying natural language sen- tences using recurrent neural networks is considered. The goal is the classification of the sentences as grammatical or ungrammatical. An acceptable classification percentage was achieved, using encoded natural language sentences as ex- amples to train a recurrent neural network. This encoding is based on the linguistic theory of Government and

Sergio Roa; Fernando Niño

2003-01-01

128

Building a Natural Language Interface for the ATNF Pulsar Database for Speeding up Execution of Complex Queries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, there has been no available natural language interfaces (NLI's) for querying a database of pulsars (rotating neutron stars emitting radiation at regular intervals). Currently, pulsar records are retrieved through an HTML form accessible via the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) website where one needs to be familiar with pulsar attributes used by the interface (e.g. BLC). Using a NLI relinquishes the need for learning form-specific formalism and allows execution of more powerful queries than those supported by the HTML form. Furthermore, on database access that requires comparison of attributes for all the pulsar records (e.g. what is the fastest pulsar?), using a NLI for retrieving answers to such complex questions is definitely much more efficient and less error-prone. This poster presents the first NLI ever created for the ATNF pulsar database (ATNF-Query) to facilitate database access using complex queries. ATNF-Query is built using a machine learning approach that induces a semantic parser from a question corpus; the innovative application is intended to provide pulsar researchers or laymen with an intelligent language understanding database system for friendly information access.

Tang, Rupert; Jenet, F.; Rangel, S.; Dartez, L.

2010-01-01

129

Moose: A Robust High-Performance Parser and Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Moose, a robust bottom-up parser that implements the MetaMorpho formalism. During the development of the formalism and the parser we have aimed at a compromise between expressive power and performance for MT-related applications. The characteristics of an English-Hungarian grammar are discussed along with the parser.

Gábor Prószéky; László Tihanyi; Gábor L. Ugra

130

Natural Language Metaphors Covertly Influence Reasoning  

PubMed Central

Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city’s crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people’s reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents.

Thibodeau, Paul H.; Boroditsky, Lera

2013-01-01

131

Sex and Gender in Natural Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relation between a real-world category (sex) and a linguistic category (gender) is examined. The gender system of Indo-European languages is discussed, and the way gender works in Greek, one of the older Indo-European languages, is examined at some length. The conclusion is that, but for the existence of separate gender-sensitive adjectival…

Percival, W. Keith

132

On the contingent nature of language?learning tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using methods from conversation analysis, this paper explores ways that teacher?designed language?learning task interactions can vary in their performance due to the nature of face?to?face interaction. The analysis describes three task interactions from language?learning classrooms, showing how the contingencies that are necessitated by learners working in small groups provide for different task performance as well as different potentials for language

John Hellermann; Simona Pekarek Doehler

2010-01-01

133

A natural language teaching paradigm for nonverbal autistic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to attempt to improve verbal language acquisition for nonverbal autistic children by manipulating traditional teaching techniques so they incorporated parameters of natural language interactions and motivational techniques. Within a multiple baseline design, treatment was conducted in a baseline condition with trials presented serially in a traditional analogue clinical format where the therapist presented instructions,

Robert L. Koegel; Mary C. O'Dell; Lynn Kern Koegel

1987-01-01

134

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

135

Studies in Interactive Communication: Limited Vocabulary Natural Language Dialogue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complexity and costs of interactive, natural-language computer systems could be reduced if the man-computer communication used only a limited subset of the English language. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that people, although ac...

M. J. Kelly

1975-01-01

136

Recursion Engineering for Reduction Incorporated Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction Incorporated (RI) recognisers and parsers deliver high performance by suppressing the stack activity except for those rules that generate fully embedded recursion. Automaton constructions for RI parsing have been presented by Aycock and Horspool [John Aycock and Nigel Horspool. Faster generalised LR parsing. In Compiler Construction, 8th Intnl. Conf, CC'99, volume 1575 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages

Adrian Johnstone; Elizabeth Scott

2005-01-01

137

A Maximum-Entropy-Inspired Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new parser for parsing down to Penn tree-bank style parse trees that achieves 90.1% average precision\\/recall for sentences of length 40 and less, and 89.5% for sentences of length 100 and less when trained and tested on the previously established [5, 9, 10, 15, 17] \\

Eugene Charniak

2000-01-01

138

LRSYS. PASCAL LR(1) Parser Generator System  

Microsoft Academic Search

LRSYS is a complete LR(1) parser generator system written entirely in a portable subset of Pascal. The system, LRSYS, includes a grammar analyzer program (LR) which reads a context-free (BNF) grammar as input and produces LR(1) parsing tables as output, a lexical analyzer generator (LEX) which reads regular expressions created by the REG process as input and produces lexical tables

1985-01-01

139

Improving the Performance of the Link Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an approach to extend the coverage of a Link grammar based parser on the constructions that are not being handled currently by the grammar. There are about thirty types of constructions which we have identified till now. In order to make Link grammar handle these constructions, we introduce a preprocessor and a postprocessor. The idea is to

Yalamanchi Viswanatha Naidu; Anil Kumar Singh; Dipti Misra Sharma; Akshar Bharati

2009-01-01

140

Can Subcategorisation Probabilities Help a Statistical Parser?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the automatic acquisition of lex- ical information from corpora is starting to produce large-scale computational lexicons con- taining data on the relative frequencies of sub- categorisation alternatives for individual verbal predicates. However, the empirical question of whether this type of frequency information can in practice improve the accuracy of a statisti- cal parser has not yet been answered.

John Carroll; Guido Minnen; Ted Briscoe

1998-01-01

141

Nature et seconde nature dans l'enseignement/apprentissage des language (Nature and Second Nature in the Teaching/Learning of Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes the naturalist argument underlying current propositions bearing on second language (L2) learning in natural or formal contexts. Contests Piaget's interpretation of "Didacta Magna," shows how Krashen's acquisition/learning hypothesis follows from the two brain theory and certain naturalist suppositions, and proposes language learning…

Besse, Henri

1998-01-01

142

Stochastic natural language generation for spoken dialog systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe a corpus-based,approach,to natural language,generation (NLG). The approach,has been implemented,as a component,of a spoken,dialog system and,a series of evaluations,were carried out. Our system uses n-gram language models, which have been found useful in other language technology applications, in a generative mode. It is not yet clear whether,the simple n-grams can adequately,model,human language generation in general, but we show

Alice H Oh; Alexander I. Rudnicky

2002-01-01

143

Natural Language Processing Neural Network Considering Deep Cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel neural network considering deep cases. It can learn knowledge from natural language documents and can perform recall and inference. Various techniques of natural language processing using Neural Network have been proposed. However, natural language sentences used in these techniques consist of about a few words, and they cannot handle complicated sentences. In order to solve these problems, the proposed network divides natural language sentences into a sentence layer, a knowledge layer, ten kinds of deep case layers and a dictionary layer. It can learn the relations among sentences and among words by dividing sentences. The advantages of the method are as follows: (1) ability to handle complicated sentences; (2) ability to restructure sentences; (3) usage of the conceptual dictionary, Goi-Taikei, as the long term memory in a brain. Two kinds of experiments were carried out by using goo dictionary and Wikipedia as knowledge sources. Superior performance of the proposed neural network has been confirmed.

Sagara, Tsukasa; Hagiwara, Masafumi

144

Metaphor: An Inescapable Phenomenon in Natural Language Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interpreting metaphors is an integral and inescapable process in human understanding of natural language. This paper discusses a method of analyzing metaphors based on the existence of a small number of generalized metaphor mappings. Each generalized meta...

J. G. Carbonell

1981-01-01

145

The nature of written language deficits in children with SLI.  

PubMed

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have associated difficulties in reading decoding and reading comprehension. To date, few research studies have examined the children's written language. The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the nature and extent of the children's difficulties with writing and (b) investigate the relationship between oral and written language. Eleven children with SLI were identified (mean age = 11 years) and were compared with a group of children matched for chronological age (CA; mean age = 11;2 [years;months]) and language age (LA; mean CA = 7;3). All groups completed standardized measures of language production, writing, and reading decoding. The writing assessment revealed that the SLI group wrote fewer words and produced proportionately more syntax errors than the CA group, but they did not differ on a measure of content of written language or on the proportion of spelling errors. The SLI group also produced proportionately more syntax errors than the LA group. The relationships among oral language, reading, and writing differed for the 3 groups. The nature and extent of the children's written language problems are considered in the context of difficulties with spoken language. PMID:15842023

Mackie, Clare; Dockrell, Julie E

2004-12-01

146

Maximum Entropy Models For Natural Language Ambiguity Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis demonstrates that several important kinds of natural language ambiguities can be resolved to state-of-the-art accuracies using a single statistical modeling technique based on the principle of maximum entropy. We discuss the problems of sentence boundary detection, part-of-speech tagging, prepositional phrase attachment, natural language parsing, and text categorization under the maximum entropy framework. In practice, we have found that

Adwait Ratnaparkhi

1998-01-01

147

A General Natural-language Text Processor for Clinical Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDevelopment of a general natural-language processor that identifies clinical information in narrative reports and maps that information into a structured representation containing clinical terms.DesignThe natural-language processor provides three phases of processing, all of which are driven by different knowledge sources. The first phase performs the parsing. It identifies the structure of the text through use of a grammar that defines

Carol Friedman; Philip O Alderson; John H M Austin; James J Cimino; Stephen B Johnson

1994-01-01

148

Plan-Based Integration of Natural Language and Graphics Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

W. Wahlster, E. André, W. Finkler, H.-J. Profitlich and T. Rist, Plan-based integration of natural language and graphics generation, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 387-427. Multimodal interfaces combining natural language and graphics take advantage of both the individual strength of each communication mode and the fact that several modes can be employed in parallel. The central claim of this paper is

Wolfgang Wahlster; Elisabeth André; Wolfgang Finkler; Hans-jürgen Profitlich; Thomas Rist

1993-01-01

149

Overview of Computer-based Natural Language Processing  

SciTech Connect

Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

Gevarter, W.B.

1983-04-01

150

Overview of computer-based natural language processing  

SciTech Connect

Computer-based Natural Language-Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc. in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and the future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state-of-the-art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants, and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and other who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

Gevarter, W.B.

1983-04-01

151

Two Types of Definites in Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This thesis is concerned with the description and analysis of two semantically different types of definite articles in German. While the existence of distinct article paradigms in various Germanic dialects and other languages has been acknowledged in the descriptive literature for quite some time, the theoretical implications of their existence…

Schwarz, Florian

2009-01-01

152

Concise natural language interaction (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in both hardware and software continue to make it possible to design user oriented systems more easily. Because we have not had a language for describing the user orientation of computer systems, a variety of interpersonal metaphors have been used to aid in the comparative evaluations of systems. Recent cultural history has shaped the semantics of computer systems. Out

Paul Roller Michaelis; James A. Hendler

1982-01-01

153

Concise natural language interaction (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in both hardware and software continue to make it possible to design user oriented systems more easily. Because we have not had a language for describing the user orientation of computer systems, a variety of interpersonal metaphors have been used to aid in the comparative evaluations of systems. Recent cultural history has shaped the semantics of computer systems. Out

Paul Roller Michaelis; James A. Hendler

1981-01-01

154

A Character Recognizer for Turkish Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents particularly a contextual post processing subsystem for a Turkish machine printed character recognition system. The contextual post processing subsystem is based on positional binary 3- gram statistics for Turkish language, an error corrector parser and a lexicon, which contains root words and the inflected forms of the root words. Error corrector parser is used for correcting CR

Sait Ulas Korkmaz; G. Kirçiçegi; Y. Akinci; Volkan Atalay

2003-01-01

155

Natural Language Access to a Large Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the first year's accomplishments toward a natural language system which answers questions about a data base of naval aircraft maintenance and flight data. The system is designed to: Allow a user to ask questions in natural English; pr...

D. L. Waltz

1975-01-01

156

Natural language order - a streamlined approach to modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer models of biological systems need to manage both form and function. The transformation of scientific observation to computer code requires a means of describing form and function that fits both systems approaches. We propose the use of formal natural language order. Our hypothesis is that by designing such a process we can provide a tool that both “feels” natural

Benjamin Dinan; Fred Hudson Jr

2006-01-01

157

Detection of Duplicate Defect Reports Using Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defect reports are generated from various testing and development activities in software engineering. Sometimes two reports are submitted that describe the same problem, leading to duplicate reports. These reports are mostly written in structured natural language, and as such, it is hard to compare two reports for similarity with formal methods. In order to identify duplicates, we investigate using natural

Per Runeson; Magnus Alexandersson; Oskar Nyholm

2007-01-01

158

Implementing a Japanese Semantic Parser Based on Glue Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of a Japanese semantic parser based on glue ap- proach. The parser is designed as domain-independent, and produces fully scoped higher-order in- tensional logical expressions, coping with semantically ambiguous sentences without storage mechanism. It is constructed from an English semantic parser on top of Lexical-Functional Gram- mar (LFG), and it attains broad coverage through relatively

Hiroshi Umemoto

159

Packrat parsers can handle practical grammars in mostly constant space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packrat parsing is a powerful parsing algorithm presented by Ford in 2002. Packrat parsers can handle complicated grammars and recursive structures in lexical elements more easily than the traditional LL(k) or LR(1) parsing algorithms. However, packrat parsers require O(n) space for memoization, where n is the length of the input. This space inefficiency makes packrat parsers impractical in some applications.

Kota Mizushima; Atusi Maeda; Yoshinori Yamaguchi

2010-01-01

160

LL(*): the foundation of the ANTLR parser generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the power of Parser Expression Grammars (PEGs) and GLR, parsing is not a solved problem. Adding nondeterminism (parser speculation) to traditional LL and LR parsers can lead to unexpected parse-time behavior and introduces practical issues with error handling, single-step debugging, and side-effecting embedded grammar actions. This paper introduces the LL(*) parsing strategy and an associated grammar analysis algorithm that

Terence Parr; Kathleen Fisher

2011-01-01

161

Automatic recursion engineering of reduction incorporated parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction Incorporated (RI) parsers deliver high performance by suppressing the stack activity except for those rules that generate embedded recursion. Automaton constructions for RI parsing have been presented by Aycock and Horspool [J. Aycock, N. Horspool, Faster generalised LR parsing, in: Compiler Construction, 8th Intnl. Conf, CC’99, in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1575, Springer-Verlag, 1999, pp. 32–46] and

Adrian Johnstone; Elizabeth Scott

2007-01-01

162

Improvements to Earley's Context-Free Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the presentation of a two-parameter family M\\u000ak\\u000at\\u000a of parsers for general context-free grammars ; the algorithms have a top-down structure, in which all the possible candidate parses are investigated in parallel. Backtracking is avoided by keeping track of the stage reached in all parses in a set of \\

M. Bouckaert; Alain Pirotte; M. Snelling

1973-01-01

163

Quicky location determination based on geographic keywords of natural language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In location determination based on natural language, it is common to find the location by describing relationship between the undetermined position and one or several determined position. That indicates that the uncertainty of location determination processing is derived from the one of natural language procedure, the one of spatial position description and the one of spatial relationship description. Most of current researches and regular GIS software take certainty as prerequisite and try to avoid uncertainty and its influence. The research reported in this paper is an attempt to create a new combing method of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Fuzzy set theory and spatial information science named Quickly Location Determination based on Geographic Keywords (QLDGK) to rise to the challenge of location searching technique based on natural language. QLDGK have two technical gists. The first one is geographic-keywords-library and special natural-language-separation-model-library that increases the language processing efficiency. The second one is fuzzy theory based definition of spatial relationship, spatial metric and spatial orientation that extends the searching scope and defines variant confidences on variant searching outcome. QLDGK takes consideration on both higher query efficiency and the lower omission rate. The above method has been proved workable and efficient by QLDGK prototype system which was tested by about 12000 emergency call reports from K-city, Southwest of China, and achieved the test result with 78% accuracy in highest confidence and 8% omitting ration.

Guo, Danhuai; Cui, Weihong

2007-08-01

164

Natural Language Generation in Dialog Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent advances in Automatic Speech Recognition technology have put the goal of naturally sounding dialog systems within reach. However, the improved speech recognition has brought to light a new problem: as dialog systems understand more of what the user...

M. Walker O. Rambow S. Bangalore

2001-01-01

165

Pivotal responses and the natural language teaching paradigm.  

PubMed

This article discusses the identification of pivotal behaviors for maximizing the impact of intervention for children with autism. Language deficits are not likely to make sufficient improvement unless pivotal variables, such as motivation, are addressed in the design of intervention programs. Pivotal target behaviors related to such children's motivation to engage in social communication are discussed, and their integration into a Natural Language Teaching Paradigm is described. Of particular interest are variables related to child choice, the use of natural reinforcers, the interspersal of maintenance trials to build behavioral momentum, and reinforcing communicative attempts. When used in combination to motivate the children to engage in and initiate communicative interactions, the impact on development can be considerable in terms of rate of acquisition, generalization of gains, and normalization of language development. PMID:9857392

Koegel, L K; Koegel, R L; Carter, C M

1998-01-01

166

Fast, Error Correcting Parser Combinatiors: A Short Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compiler writers have always heavily relied on tools: parser generators for gen- erating parsers out of context free grammars, attribute grammar systems for generating semantic analyzers out of attribute grammars, and systems for gen- erating code generators out of descriptions of machine architectures. Since de- signing such special formalisms and constructing such tools deals with one of the most important

S. Doaitse Swierstra; Pablo R. Azero Alcocer

1999-01-01

167

Mouse: From Parsing Expressions to a Practical Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parsing Expression Grammar (PEG) is a new way to specify recursive-descent parsers with limited backtracking. The use of backtracking lifts the LL(1) restriction usually imposed by top-down parsers. In addition, PEG can directly define the structures that usually require a separate \\

Roman R. Redziejowski

2009-01-01

168

An Alternative Method of Training Probabilistic LR Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss existing approaches to train LR parsers, which have been used for statistical resolution of structural ambiguity. These approaches are non- optimal, in the sense that a collection of probability distributions cannot be obtained. In particular, some probability distributions expressible in terms of a context-free grammar cannot be expressed in terms of the LR parser constructed from that grammar,

Mark-jan Nederhof; Giorgio Satta

2004-01-01

169

The constituent object parser: syntactic structure matching for information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Constituent Object Parser is a shallow syntactic parser designed to produce dependency tree representations of syntactic structure that can be used to specify the intended meanings of a sentence more precisely than can the key terms of the sentence alone. It is intended to improve the precision\\/recall performance of information retrieval and similar text processing applications by providing more

Douglas P. Metzler; Stephanie W. Haas

1989-01-01

170

PRINCIPAR - An Efficient, Broad-coverage, Principle-based Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient, broad-coverage, principle-based parser for English. The parser has been implemented in C++ and runs on SUN Sparcstations with X-windows. It contains a lexicon with over 90,000 entries, constructed automatically by applying a set of extraction and conversion rules to entries from machine readable dictionaries.

Dekang Lin

1994-01-01

171

Orwell's 1984: Natural Language Searching and the Contemporary Metaphor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a natural language searching strategy for retrieving current material which has bearing on George Orwell's "1984," and identifies four main themes (technology, authoritarianism, press and psychological/linguistic implications of surveillance, political oppression) which have emerged from cross-database searches of the "Big Brother"…

Dadlez, Eva M.

1984-01-01

172

Improving the Efficiency of a Natural Language Processor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NLP is a processor being developed at the Naval Postgraduate School for research in natural language man-machine communication. With this system text can be translated into an entity-attribute-value information structure, and such a structure can be trans...

A. H. Mossler

1972-01-01

173

State of the Art of Natural Language Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was carried out to determine the state of the art of the natural language processing requirements of a battle management system. The study was based on a method developed by this contractor. Study results indicate the field is in an early stage of...

T. Anderson

1987-01-01

174

Design of Lexicons in Some Natural Language Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses an investigation of certain problems concerning the structural design of lexicons used in computational approaches to natural language understanding. Emphasizes three aspects of design: retrieval of relevant portions of lexicals items, storage requirements, and representation of meaning in the lexicon. (Available from ALLC, Dr. Rex…

Cercone, Nick; Mercer, Robert

1980-01-01

175

Word-based self-indexes for natural language text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverted index supports efficient full-text searches on natural language text collections. It requires some extra space over the compressed text that can be traded for search speed. It is usually fast for single-word searches, yet phrase searches require more expensive intersections. In this article we introduce a different kind of index. It replaces the text using essentially the same

Antonio Fariña; Nieves R. Brisaboa; Gonzalo Navarro; Francisco Claude

2012-01-01

176

What Is the Nature of Poststroke Language Recovery and Reorganization?  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on three main topics related to the nature of poststroke language recovery and reorganization. The first topic pertains to the nature of anatomical and physiological substrates in the infarcted hemisphere in poststroke aphasia, including the nature of the hemodynamic response in patients with poststroke aphasia, the nature of the peri-infarct tissue, and the neuronal plasticity potential in the infarcted hemisphere. The second section of the paper reviews the current neuroimaging evidence for language recovery in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of recovery. The third and final section examines changes in connectivity as a function of recovery in poststroke aphasia, specifically in terms of changes in white matter connectivity, changes in functional effective connectivity, and changes in resting state connectivity after stroke. While much progress has been made in our understanding of language recovery, more work needs to be done. Future studies will need to examine whether reorganization of language in poststroke aphasia corresponds to a tighter, more coherent, and efficient network of residual and new regions in the brain. Answering these questions will go a long way towards being able to predict which patients are likely to recover and may benefit from future rehabilitation.

Kiran, Swathi

2012-01-01

177

Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks and Finite State Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that pessimistic assessments of the adequacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for natural language processing (NLP) on the grounds that they have a finite state architecture are unjustified, and that their adequacy in this regard is an empirical issue. First, arguments that counter standard objections to finite state NLP on the…

Moisl, Hermann

178

Recognizing Textual Entailment with Temporal Expressions in Natural Language Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TACTE system proposed in this paper focuses on one problem in natural language processing, namely recognizing textual entailment involving temporal expressions. The system consists of two components: one for temporal expression extraction and anchoring, and the other one for recognizing textual entailment based on events. The entailment rules are constructed using a small set of temporal expression relations and

Rui Wang; Yajing Zhang

2008-01-01

179

Bringing natural language information retrieval out of the closet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype information retrieval system was developed that gives users fast and easy access to textual information. This system uses a statistical ranking methodology that allows a user to input a query using only natural language, such as a sentence or a noun phrase, with no special syntax required. The system returns a set of text titles or descriptions, ranked

Donna Harman; Gerald Candela

1990-01-01

180

Natural-language retrieval of images based on descriptive captions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a prototype intelligent information retrieval system that uses natural-language understanding to efficiently locate captioned data. Multimedia data generally require captions to explain their features and significance. Such descriptive captions often rely on long nominal compounds (strings of consecutive nouns) which create problems of disambiguating word sence. In our system, captions and user queries are parsed and interpreted to

Eugene J. Guglielmo; Neil C. Rowe

1996-01-01

181

Multiobjective Genetic Programming for Natural Language Parsing and Tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parsing and Tagging are very important tasks in Natural Language Processing. Parsing amounts to searching the correct combina- tion of grammatical rules among those compatible with a given sentence. Tagging amounts to labeling each word in a sentence with its lexical cat- egory and, because many words belong to more than one lexical class, it turns out to be a

Lourdes Araujo

2006-01-01

182

Natural language command of an autonomous micro-air vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language is a flexible and intuitive modality for conveying directions and commands to a robot but presents a number of computational challenges. Diverse words and phrases must be mapped into structures that the robot can understand, and elements in those structures must be grounded in an uncertain environment. In this paper we present a micro-air vehicle (MAV) capable of

Albert S. Huang; Stefanie Tellex; Abraham Bachrach; Thomas Kollar; Deb Roy; Nicholas Roy

2010-01-01

183

On smoothing techniques for bigram-based natural language modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors study various problems related to smoothing bigram probabilities for natural language modeling: the type of interpolation, i.e. linear vs. nonlinear, the optimal estimation of interpolation parameters, and the use of word equivalence classes (parts of speech). A nonlinear interpolation method that results in significant improvements over linear interpolation in the experimental tests is proposed. It is shown that

Hermann Ney; Ute Essen

1991-01-01

184

Robust Processing of Real-World Natural-Language Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often assumed that when natural language processing meets the real world, the ideal of aiming for complete and correct interpretations has to be abandoned. However, our experience with TACITUS; especially in the MUC-3 evaluation, has shown that principled techniques for syntactic and pragmatic analysis can be bolstered with methods for achieving robustness. We describe three techniques for making

Jerry R. Hobbs; Douglas E. Appelt; John Bear; Mabry Tyson

1992-01-01

185

What can natural language processing do for clinical decision support?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized clinical decision support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. natural language processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative

Dina Demner-fushman; Wendy Webber Chapman; Clement J. Mcdonald

2009-01-01

186

Learning Models for Object Recognition from Natural Language Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the task of learning models for visual object recognition from natural language descriptions alone. The approach contributes to the recognition of fine-grain object categories, such as animal and plant species, where it may be difficult to collect many images for training, but where textual descriptions of visual attributes are readily available. As an example we tackle recognition of

Josiah Wang; Katja Markert; Mark Everingham

2009-01-01

187

An Automatic Quality Evaluation for Natural Language Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tool called QuARS (Quality Analyzer of Requirements Specification) for the analysis of natural language software requirements. The definition of QuARS has been based on a special Quality Model for software requirements. The Quality Model aims at providing a quantitative, corrective and repeatable evaluation of software requirement documents. To validate the Quality Model several real software requirements

F. Fabbrini; M. Fusani; S. Gnesi; G. Lami

2001-01-01

188

Natural Language Interactions in Distributed Networks of Smart Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in sensing and networking hardware have made the prospect of ambient in- telligence more realistic, but the challenge of creating a software framework suitable for ambient intelligence systems remains. We present ADE, the Agent Development Envi- ronment, a distributed agent infrastructure with built-in natural language processing capabilities connected to a sophisticated goal manager that controls access to the world

Paul W. Schermerhorn; Matthias Scheutz

2008-01-01

189

Time, Tense and Aspect in Natural Language Database Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Most existing natural language database interfaces (nldbs) were designed to be used with database systems that provide very limited facilities for manipulating time-dependent data, and they do not support adequately temporal linguistic mechanisms (verb tenses, temporal adverbials, temporal subordinate clauses, etc.). The database community is becoming increasingly interested in temporal database systems, that are intended to store and manipulate

Ion Androutsopoulos; Graeme D. Ritchie; Peter Thanisch

1998-01-01

190

Anaphora in Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the linguistic phenomenon of anaphora; surveys the approaches to anaphora undertaken in theoretical linguistics and natural language processing (NLP); presents results of research conducted at Syracuse University on anaphora in information retrieval; and discusses the future of anaphora research in regard to information retrieval tasks.…

Liddy, Elizabeth DuRoss

1990-01-01

191

Intelligent Decision Support System Based on Natural Language Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we simply introduced the traditional decision support system and its characteristics and limitations. And then some new types of intelligent decision support system are recommended, such as GDSS, DDSS, 3IDSS and IDSSKD. And at last IDSS based on natural language understanding are described in detail. Some techniques and methods of IDSSNLU are introduced detailedly. The prospects of

Yu Xingang; Zhou Faguo; Zhang Fan; Yang Bingru

2009-01-01

192

Learning from a Computer Tutor with Natural Language Capabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…

Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha

2003-01-01

193

Natural Language Interaction Using a Scalable Reference Dictionary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A truly natural language interface needs to be feasible for actual implementation. We developed such a new approach for database query and tested it successfully in a laboratory environment. The new result is based on metadata search, where the metadata grow in largely linear manner and the search is linguistics-free (allowing for grammatically incorrect and incomplete input). A new class

Veera Boonjing; Cheng Hsu

2003-01-01

194

Robotics with Natural Language Comprehension and Learning Abilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is progressing on two fronts: our learning robotics system and natural language processing. The robotics system is nearly implemented. It will run in INTERLISP on a XEROX 1108 Lisp Processor. Most of the major component sub-systems have been fini...

G. DeJong

1985-01-01

195

Language Analysis and Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

this document 3.6.1.Here, we consider a more informal and empirical dimension of variation that has greatimpact in the development of parsers and language models: how much of the requiredpredictive and evidential power belongs to the grammar itself and how much resides inthe search procedure controlling the use of the grammar. Choices along this dimensionoften involve philosophical disagreements on whether language

Annie Zaenen; Hans Uszkoreit

1996-01-01

196

Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning…

Jarman, Jay

2011-01-01

197

Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized Versus Common Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms, such as association rule mining and decision tree induction, are used to

Jay Jarman

2011-01-01

198

Conclusiveness of natural languages and recognition of images  

SciTech Connect

The conclusiveness is investigated using recognition processes and one-one correspondence between expressions of a natural language and graphs representing events. The graphs, as conceived in psycholinguistics, are obtained as a result of perception processes. It is possible to generate and process the graphs automatically, using computers and then to convert the resulting graphs into expressions of a natural language. Correctness and conclusiveness of the graphs and sentences are investigated using the fundamental condition for events representation processes. Some consequences of the conclusiveness are discussed, e.g. undecidability of arithmetic, human brain assymetry, correctness of statistical calculations and operations research. It is suggested that the group theory should be imposed on mathematical models of any real system. Proof of the fundamental condition is also presented. 14 references.

Wojcik, Z.M.

1983-01-01

199

Automatic Item Generation via Frame Semantics: Natural Language Generation of Math Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is an exploration of the conceptual issues that have arisen in the course of building a natural language generation (NLG) system for automatic test item generation. While natural language processing techniques are applicable to general verbal items, mathematics word problems are particularly tractable targets for natural language

Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen

200

A Preferential, Pattern-Seeking, Semantics for Natural Language Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the way in which a Preference Semantics system for natural language analysis and generation tackles a\\u000a difficult class of anaphoric inference problems: those requiring either analytic (conceptual) knowledge of a complex sort,\\u000a or requiring weak inductive knowledge of the course of events in the real world. The method employed converts all available\\u000a knowledge to a canonical template

Yorick Wilks

201

Corpus-Based Lexical Choice in Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing the best lexeme to realize a meaning in natural language generation is a hard task. We investigate different tree-based stochastic models for lexical choice. Because of the difficulty of obtaining a sense-tagged corpus, we generalize the notion of synonymy. We show that a tree-based model can achieve a word-bag based accuracy of 90%, representing an improvement over the baseline.

Srinivas Bangalore; Owen Rambow

2000-01-01

202

Automatic Description of Static Images in Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, the description of an image in natural language is carried out. The main idea is that from an image, with objects\\u000a without movement, it is possible to obtain phrases in Spanish describing the position among the objects. In order to put this\\u000a description into effect, we place ourselves in a theoretical model in which a cognitive-semantic analysis

Azucena Montes Rendón; Pablo Sánchez Luna; Gerardo Reyes Salgado; Juan Gabriel González Serna; Ricardo Fuentes Covarrubias

2005-01-01

203

Natural language interface for information management on mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural language interface (NLI) enables the ease-of-use of information systems in performing sophisticated human – computer interaction. To address the challenges of mobile devices to user interaction in information management, we propose an NLI as a promising solution. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art NLI technologies and analyse user requirements for managing notable information on mobile devices. To minimize any technical

L. Zhou

2007-01-01

204

Learning to Parse Natural Language with Maximum Entropy Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper presents a machine learning system for parsing natural language thatlearns from manually parsed example sentences, and parses unseen data at state-of-the-art accuracies.Its machine learning technology, based on the maximum entropy framework, is highlyreusable and not specific to the parsing problem, while the linguistic hints that it uses to learncan be specified concisely. It therefore requires a minimal

Adwait Ratnaparkhi

1999-01-01

205

AutoTutor: A tutor with dialogue in natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

AutoTutor is a learning environment that tutors students by holding a conversation in natural language. AutoTutor has been\\u000a developed for Newtonian qualitative physics and computer literacy. Its design was inspired by explanation-based constructivist\\u000a theories of learning, intelligent tutoring systems that adaptively respond to student knowledge, and empirical research on\\u000a dialogue patterns in tutorial discourse. AutoTutor presents challenging problems (formulated as

Arthur C. Graesser; Shulan Lu; George Tanner Jackson; Heather Hite Mitchell; Mathew Ventura; Andrew Olney; Max M. Louwerse

2004-01-01

206

Natural language processing to identify adverse drug events.  

PubMed

We tested and adapted Cancer Text Information Extraction System (caTIES), a publicly available natural language processing tool (NLP), as a method for identifying terms suggestive of adverse drug events (ADEs). Although caTIES was intended to extract concepts from surgical pathology reports, we report that it can successfully be used to search for ADEs on a much broader range of documents. PMID:18999130

Gysbers, Michael; Reichley, Richard; Kilbridge, Peter M; Noirot, Laura; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Dunagan, W Claiborne; Bailey, Thomas C

2008-11-06

207

An Intelligent Natural-language Interface for ArcView  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ordinary GIS systems use command line, menu or window interface, which are difficult for a naïve user to use. In this paper, SNePS (the Semantic Network Processing System) is used to represent geographic spatial knowledge. An intelligent natural- language interface between ArcView and SNePS (the Semantic Network Processing System) was implemented. The interface will accept the input command and

Jun Xu

208

Natural Language Assistant: A Dialog System for Online Product Recommendation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emergence of e-commerce systems, successful information access on e-commerce websites becomes essential. Menu-driven navigation and keyword search currently provided by most commercial sites have considerable limitations, as they tend to overwhelm and frustrate users with lengthy, rigid and not very effective interactions. To provide an efficient solution for information access, we have built the Natural Language Assistant (NLA),

Joyce Yue Chai; Veronika Horvath; Nicolas Nicolov; Margo Stys; Nanda Kambhatla; Wlodek Zadrozny; Prem Melville

2002-01-01

209

Research Paper: Natural Language Processing Framework to Assess Clinical Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe authors developed a natural language processing (NLP) framework that could be used to extract clinical findings and diagnoses from dictated physician documentation.DesignDe-identified documentation was made available by i2b2 Bio-informatics research group as a part of their NLP challenge focusing on obesity and its co-morbidities. The authors describe their approach, which used a combination of concept detection, context validation, and

Henry Ware; Charles J. Mullett; V. Jagannathan

2009-01-01

210

ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE  

PubMed Central

Background ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE) is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis) and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data). ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. Findings We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein–ligand complexes from the PDB. Conclusions ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

2012-01-01

211

Knowledge-Assisted Document Retrieval: I. The Natural-Language Interface. II. The Retrieval Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two articles describe a model for processing natural-language queries in information retrieval systems. Part I proposes a language interface based on fuzzy set techniques to handle the uncertainty inherent in natural-language semantics. Part II develops a model of the retrieval system and describes an implementation using a knowledge-based…

Biswas, Gautam; And Others

1987-01-01

212

Dehumanized people and humanized programs: a natural language view of being there  

Microsoft Academic Search

The language used by Chance the gardener, the main character in Jerzy Kosinski's Being There, is uncannily like that of several well known natural language understanding systems: ELIZA, PARRY and SAM. This natural language understanding (NLU) view of Chance meshes remarkably well with literary criticism of the character and the book. In light of these resemblances, there is some (not-too-serious)

Dan Fass

1990-01-01

213

A Linguistic Approach Proposal for Mechanical Design Using Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents a computational framework proposal to capture the designer natural language in the preliminary design\\u000a process activities. This approach can be implemented by using the natural language processing. Symbolic technical language\\u000a can be used to keep relationships with geometric and non geometric attributes from parametric features own of CAD systems.

João Carlos Linhares; Altamir Dias

2003-01-01

214

Measuring the Expressiveness of a Constrained Natural Language: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that constraining a natural language (NL) reduces the degree of ambiguity of requirement specifications written in that language. There is also a tendency to assume that an inescapable side effect of constraining a natural language is a subsequent reduction in its expressiveness. The primary objective of this paper is to describe a technique that we have

Stephen Boyd; Didar Zowghi; Alia Farroukh

2005-01-01

215

Parsing Computer Languages with an Automaton Compiled from a Single Regular Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a programmer is faced with the task of producing a parser for a context-free language there are many tools to choose from. We find that programmers avoid such tools when making parsers for simpler, domain-specific computer languages, such as file formats, communication protocols and end-user inputs. Since these languages often meet the criteria for regular languages, the extra run-time

Adrian D. Thurston

2006-01-01

216

Learning to resolve natural language ambiguities: a unified approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a few of the commonly used statistics based\\u000a and machine learning algorithms for natural language\\u000a disambiguation tasks and observe that they can be recast\\u000a as learning linear separators in the feature space. Each\\u000a of the methods makes a priori assumptions, which it\\u000a employs, given the data, when searching for its\\u000a hypothesis. Nevertheless, as we show, it searches a

Dan Roth

1998-01-01

217

CIMS-TR 2004-853 Naturally Speaking: A Systems Biology Tool with Natural Language Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper describes a systems biology software tool that can engage in a dialogue with a biologist by responding to questions posed to it in English (or another natural language) regarding the behavior of a complex biological system, and by suggesting a set of \\

Marco Antoniotti; Ian T. Lau; Bud Mishra

218

Neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics as a basis for computer acquisition of natural language  

SciTech Connect

Research into natural language understanding systems for computers has concentrated on implementing particular grammars and grammatical models of the language concerned. This paper presents a rationale for research into natural language understanding systems based on neurological and psychological principles. Important features of the approach are that it seeks to place the onus of learning the language on the computer, and that it seeks to make use of the vast wealth of relevant psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic theory. 22 references.

Powers, D.M.W.

1983-04-01

219

Breaking the Molds: Signed Languages and the Nature of Human Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammars of signed languages tend to be based on grammars established for written languages, particularly the written language in use in the surrounding hearing community of a sign language. Such grammars presuppose categories of discrete elements which are combined into various sorts of structures. Recent analyses of signed languages go beyond…

Slobin, Dan I.

2008-01-01

220

Natural-Language Spatial Relations Between Linear and Areal Objects: The Topology and Metric of English-Language Terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial relations are the basis for many selections users perform when they query geographic information systems (GISs). Although such query languages use natural-language-like terms, the formal definitions of those spatial relations rarely reflect the same meaning people would apply when they communicate among each other. To bridge the gap between computational models for spatial relations and people's use of spatial

A. Rashid B. M. Shariff; Max J. Egenhofer; David M. Mark

1998-01-01

221

Emerging Approach of Natural Language Processing in Opinion Mining: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer Based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

Kim, Tai-Hoon

222

On Determining Developmental Stages in Natural Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues for the studying of the language learning process itself, rather than doing contrastive or error analyses for determining the source of error in second language acquisiton. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies can help determine the language learning stages. A multidimensional model of language learning is proposed. (PJM)|

Meisel, Jurgen M.; And Others

1981-01-01

223

System Description: A Dialogue Manager Supporting Natural Language Tutorial Dialogue on Proofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dialog project investigates exible natural language tutorial dialogue on math- ematical proofs. Since the medium of communication is natural language dialogue, and since tutorial dialogues are by nature both exible and unpredictable, it is essential to include a sophisticated, dedicated dialogue manager to handle the in- teraction between student and the system modules. In this paper we present the

Mark Buckley; Christoph Benzmuller

2005-01-01

224

Loosely Coupling Java Algorithms and XML Parsers: a Performance-Oriented Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of XML to represent any kind of data and documents, even complex and huge, is becoming a matter of fact. However, interfacing algorithms and applications with XML Parsers requires to adapt algorithms and appli- cations: event-based SAX Parsers need algorithms that re- act to events generated by the parser. But parsing\\/loading XML documents provides poor per- formance (if

Giuseppe Psaila; Viale Marconi

2006-01-01

225

Spatial and numerical abilities without a complete natural language  

PubMed Central

We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations involving the use of both exact and approximate numbers. Tests of spatial and geometrical abilities revealed an interesting patchwork of age-typical strengths and localized deficits. In particular, the child performed extremely well on navigation tasks involving geometrical or landmark information presented in isolation, but very poorly on otherwise similar tasks that required the combination of the two types of spatial information. Tests of number- and space-specific language revealed proficiency in the use of number words and deficits in the use of spatial terms. This case suggests that a full linguistic system is not necessary to reap the benefits of linguistic vocabulary on basic numerical tasks. Furthermore, it suggests that language plays an important role in the combination of mental representations of space.

Hyde, Daniel C.; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2011-01-01

226

The Bermuda Triangle: Natural Language Semantics Between Linguistics, Knowledge Representation, and Knowledge Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linguistic parameters alone cannot determine the interpretation of natural language utterances. They can only constrain their interpretation and must leave the rest to other knowledge sources and other processes: language understanding is not just a matter of knowing the language, but also to a considerable degree a matter of logical inference and world knowledge. This is no news as far

Peter Bosch

1991-01-01

227

The Relationship of Machine Learning and Data Compression to Natural Language Processing: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the state of the art in natural language processing (NLP), machine learning, and data compression. Central to both the NLP and the compression problems is that of finding a language model, or probability distribution P over the set of strings in a human language such as English. As large text corpora become available, the traditional NLP approach of

Matt Mahoney

228

Statistical Learning in a Natural Language by 8-Month-Old Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly sim- plified relative to real speech. To what extent can these conclusions be scaled up to natural

Bruna Pelucchi; Jessica F. Hay; Jenny R. Saffran

2009-01-01

229

What can Natural Language Processing do for Clinical Decision Support?  

PubMed Central

Computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative NLP research of clinical narrative was followed by a period of stable research conducted at the major clinical centers and a shift of mainstream interest to biomedical NLP. This review primarily focuses on the recently renewed interest in development of fundamental NLP methods and advances in the NLP systems for CDS. The current solutions to challenges posed by distinct sublanguages, intended user groups, and support goals are discussed.

Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chapman, Wendy W.; McDonald, Clement J.

2009-01-01

230

Generating patient-specific interactive natural language explanations.  

PubMed

Patient compliance is a significant problem and is strongly correlated with the patients' understanding of their condition and prescribed treatment. Since doctors typically do not have large amounts of time to educate patients, and impersonal, voluminous patient handouts are largely ineffective, we propose the use of a sophisticated computer-based information system to generate tailored, interactive handouts to communicate with patients. Our system uses text planning and user modeling techniques to generate natural language descriptions of migraine, its symptoms, triggering factors and prescriptions. The system is capable of handling follow-up questions requesting further information, and generating responses in the context of previously supplied information--a capability unavailable in previous patient information systems. The system tailors its interaction to: (i) the class of migraine patients, (ii) the individual patient, and (iii) the previous dialogue. Preliminary evaluation of the system indicates that patients find it useful and informative. More extensive evaluation is in progress. PMID:7949978

Carenini, G; Mittal, V O; Moore, J D

1994-01-01

231

Generating patient-specific interactive natural language explanations.  

PubMed Central

Patient compliance is a significant problem and is strongly correlated with the patients' understanding of their condition and prescribed treatment. Since doctors typically do not have large amounts of time to educate patients, and impersonal, voluminous patient handouts are largely ineffective, we propose the use of a sophisticated computer-based information system to generate tailored, interactive handouts to communicate with patients. Our system uses text planning and user modeling techniques to generate natural language descriptions of migraine, its symptoms, triggering factors and prescriptions. The system is capable of handling follow-up questions requesting further information, and generating responses in the context of previously supplied information--a capability unavailable in previous patient information systems. The system tailors its interaction to: (i) the class of migraine patients, (ii) the individual patient, and (iii) the previous dialogue. Preliminary evaluation of the system indicates that patients find it useful and informative. More extensive evaluation is in progress.

Carenini, G.; Mittal, V. O.; Moore, J. D.

1994-01-01

232

Building Gold Standard Corpora for Medical Natural Language Processing Tasks  

PubMed Central

We present the construction of three annotated corpora to serve as gold standards for medical natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Clinical notes from the medical record, clinical trial announcements, and FDA drug labels are annotated. We report high inter-annotator agreements (overall F-measures between 0.8467 and 0.9176) for the annotation of Personal Health Information (PHI) elements for a de-identification task and of medications, diseases/disorders, and signs/symptoms for information extraction (IE) task. The annotated corpora of clinical trials and FDA labels will be publicly released and to facilitate translational NLP tasks that require cross-corpora interoperability (e.g. clinical trial eligibility screening) their annotation schemas are aligned with a large scale, NIH-funded clinical text annotation project.

Deleger, Louise; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Kaiser, Megan; Molnar, Katalin; Stoutenborough, Laura; Kouril, Michal; Marsolo, Keith; Solti, Imre

2012-01-01

233

AutoTutor: a tutor with dialogue in natural language.  

PubMed

AutoTutor is a learning environment that tutors students by holding a conversation in natural language. AutoTutor has been developed for Newtonian qualitative physics and computer literacy. Its design was inspired by explanation-based constructivist theories of learning, intelligent tutoring systems that adaptively respond to student knowledge, and empirical research on dialogue patterns in tutorial discourse. AutoTutor presents challenging problems (formulated as questions) from a curriculum script and then engages in mixed initiative dialogue that guides the student in building an answer. It provides the student with positive, neutral, or negative feedback on the student's typed responses, pumps the student for more information, prompts the student to fill in missing words, gives hints, fills in missing information with assertions, identifies and corrects erroneous ideas, answers the student's questions, and summarizes answers. AutoTutor has produced learning gains of approximately .70 sigma for deep levels of comprehension. PMID:15354683

Graesser, Arthur C; Lu, Shulan; Jackson, George Tanner; Mitchell, Heather Hite; Ventura, Mathew; Olney, Andrew; Louwerse, Max M

2004-05-01

234

Natural Language Processing Methods and Systems for Biomedical Ontology Learning  

PubMed Central

While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of natural language processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies.

Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

2010-01-01

235

Tasking and sharing sensing assets using controlled natural language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an approach to representing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) tasks at a relatively high level in controlled natural language. We demonstrate that this facilitates both human interpretation and machine processing of tasks. More specically, it allows the automatic assignment of sensing assets to tasks, and the informed sharing of tasks between collaborating users in a coalition environment. To enable automatic matching of sensor types to tasks, we created a machine-processable knowledge representation based on the Military Missions and Means Framework (MMF), and implemented a semantic reasoner to match task types to sensor types. We combined this mechanism with a sensor-task assignment procedure based on a well-known distributed protocol for resource allocation. In this paper, we re-formulate the MMF ontology in Controlled English (CE), a type of controlled natural language designed to be readable by a native English speaker whilst representing information in a structured, unambiguous form to facilitate machine processing. We show how CE can be used to describe both ISR tasks (for example, detection, localization, or identication of particular kinds of object) and sensing assets (for example, acoustic, visual, or seismic sensors, mounted on motes or unmanned vehicles). We show how these representations enable an automatic sensor-task assignment process. Where a group of users are cooperating in a coalition, we show how CE task summaries give users in the eld a high-level picture of ISR coverage of an area of interest. This allows them to make ecient use of sensing resources by sharing tasks.

Preece, Alun; Pizzocaro, Diego; Braines, David; Mott, David

2012-05-01

236

Natural language acquisition in large scale neural semantic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis puts forward the view that a purely signal- based approach to natural language processing is both plausible and desirable. By questioning the veracity of symbolic representations of meaning, it argues for a unified, non-symbolic model of knowledge representation that is both biologically plausible and, potentially, highly efficient. Processes to generate a grounded, neural form of this model-dubbed the semantic filter-are discussed. The combined effects of local neural organisation, coincident with perceptual maturation, are used to hypothesise its nature. This theoretical model is then validated in light of a number of fundamental neurological constraints and milestones. The mechanisms of semantic and episodic development that the model predicts are then used to explain linguistic properties, such as propositions and verbs, syntax and scripting. To mimic the growth of locally densely connected structures upon an unbounded neural substrate, a system is developed that can grow arbitrarily large, data- dependant structures composed of individual self- organising neural networks. The maturational nature of the data used results in a structure in which the perception of concepts is refined by the networks, but demarcated by subsequent structure. As a consequence, the overall structure shows significant memory and computational benefits, as predicted by the cognitive and neural models. Furthermore, the localised nature of the neural architecture also avoids the increasing error sensitivity and redundancy of traditional systems as the training domain grows. The semantic and episodic filters have been demonstrated to perform as well, or better, than more specialist networks, whilst using significantly larger vocabularies, more complex sentence forms and more natural corpora.

Ealey, Douglas

237

Using Decision Trees to Construct a Practical Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This l)al)er describes novel and,practical .lal)anesc parsers that uses decision trees, l'irst, we COl> struct a single, decision tree to estimate modifica-- lion probabilities; how,one phrase,tends t.o modify another. Next, we introduce a boosting algorithm in which,several decision t.rees are COllst.ructed and then combined,for probalfility estiinat.ion. 'lThe two constructed,parsers are evalua.ted I)y using the El)t{ .Japanese annotated,corpus. The single-tree

Masahiko Haruno; Satoshi Shirai; Yoshifumi Ooyama

1999-01-01

238

Connectionist natural language processing: the state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Issue on Connectionist Models of Human Language Processing provides an opportunity for an appraisal both of specific connectionist models and of the status and utility of connectionist models of language in general. This introduction provides the background for the papers in the Special Issue. The development of connectionist models of language is traced, from their intellectual origins, to

Morten H. Christiansen; Nick Chater

1999-01-01

239

LandScan: A Natural Language and Computer Vision System for Analyzing Aerial Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

LandScan (LANguage Driven SCene ANalysis) is presented as an integrated vision system which covers most levels of both vision and natural language processing. Computations are both data-driven and query-driven. In the report we focus on the design of the vision and control modules. Future work will investigate in more detail the design of the natural language interface. The data-driven system

Ruzena Bajcsy; Aravind K. Joshi; Eric Krotkov; Amy E. Zwarico

1985-01-01

240

Natural and Artificial Intelligence, Language, Consciousness, Emotion, and Anticipation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical paradigm of the neural brain as the seat of human natural intelligence is too restrictive. This paper defends the idea that the neural ectoderm is the actual brain, based on the development of the human embryo. Indeed, the neural ectoderm includes the neural crest, given by pigment cells in the skin and ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, and the neural tube, given by the brain, the spinal cord, and motor neurons. So the brain is completely integrated in the ectoderm, and cannot work alone. The paper presents fundamental properties of the brain as follows. Firstly, Paul D. MacLean proposed the triune human brain, which consists to three brains in one, following the species evolution, given by the reptilian complex, the limbic system, and the neo-cortex. Secondly, the consciousness and conscious awareness are analysed. Thirdly, the anticipatory unconscious free will and conscious free veto are described in agreement with the experiments of Benjamin Libet. Fourthly, the main section explains the development of the human embryo and shows that the neural ectoderm is the whole neural brain. Fifthly, a conjecture is proposed that the neural brain is completely programmed with scripts written in biological low-level and high-level languages, in a manner similar to the programmed cells by the genetic code. Finally, it is concluded that the proposition of the neural ectoderm as the whole neural brain is a breakthrough in the understanding of the natural intelligence, and also in the future design of robots with artificial intelligence.

Dubois, Daniel M.

2010-11-01

241

Natural Language Understanding Systems Within the A. I. Paradigm: A Survey and Some Comparisons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper surveys the major projects on the understanding of natural language that fall within what may now be called the artificial intelligence paradigm of natural language systems. Some space is devoted to arguing that the paradigm is now a reality and different in significant respects from the generative paradigm of present-day linguistics.…

Wilks, Yorick

242

Testing of a Natural Language Retrieval System for a Full Text Knowledge Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hepatitis Knowledge Base (text of prototype information system) was used for modifying and testing "A Navigator of Natural Language Organized (Textual) Data" (ANNOD), a retrieval system which combines probabilistic, linguistic, and empirical means to rank individual paragraphs of full text for similarity to natural language queries proposed by…

Bernstein, Lionel M.; Williamson, Robert E.

1984-01-01

243

Parameterized Action Representation and Natural Language Instructions for Dynamic Behavior Modification of Embodied Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a prototype for building a strategy game. A player can control and modify the behavior of all the characters in a game, and introduce new strategies, through the powerful medium of natural language instructions. We describe a Parameterized Action Representation (PAR) designed to bridge the gap between natural language instructions and the virtual agents who are to carry

Norman I. Badler; Rama Bindiganavale; Jan Allbeck; William Schuler; Liwei Zhao; Seung-Joo Lee; Hogeun Shin; Martha Palmer

2000-01-01

244

Natural Language Sales Assistant - A Web-Based Dialog System for Online Sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a web-based dialog system - Natural Language Sales Assistant (NLSA) - that helps users find relevant information about products and services in e- commerce sites. The system leverages technologies in natural language processing and human computer interaction to create a faster and more intuitive way of interacting with websites. By combining traditional AI rule- based technology with

Joyce Yue Chai; Malgorzata Budzikowska; Veronika Horvath; Nicolas Nicolov; Nanda Kambhatla; Wlodek Zadrozny

2001-01-01

245

Formalisation of product requirements: from natural language descriptions to formal specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In engineering design, customers usually provide product requirements in the form of a natural language while computer-aided design systems may prefer more formal and structured specifications. In this paper, a formalisation process is proposed to transform product requirements from its natural language descriptions to a formal specification. The formal specification is based on the product environment and the formulation of

Zhen Yu Chen; Shengji Yao; Jian Qiang Lin; Yong Zeng; Armin Eberlein

2007-01-01

246

Identifying significant single phrases in submitted free - Order arabic natural language questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a technique for extracting significant phrases from Arabic natural language questions to databases. An Arabic natural language (ANL) question is accepted as an input and then outputs all possible relations and its corresponding attributes. Arabic morphological, ontological, and syntactical analyses were applied in this paper. A lexicon is derived from the database which consists of

Khaleel Saleh Al-Rababah; Safwan Mahmood Shatnawi; AbdelMahdi Saleh Al-Rababah

2011-01-01

247

GATE: An Environment to Support Research and Development in Natural Language Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a software environment to support research and development in natural language (NL) engineering. This environment - GATE (General Architecture for Text Engineering) - aims to advance research in the area of machine processing of natural languages by providing a software infrastructure on top of which heterogeneous NL component modules may be evaluated and refined individ- ually or may

Robert J. Gaizauskas; Hamish Cunningham; Yorick Wilks; Peter J. Rodgers; Kevin Humphreys

1996-01-01

248

AbstFinder, A Prototype Natural Language Text Abstraction Finder for Use in Requirements Elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstraction identification is named as a key problem in requirements analysis. Typically, the abstrac- tions must be found among the large mass of natural language text collected from the clients and users. This paper motivates and describes a new approach, based on traditional signal processing methods, for finding abstractions in natural language text and offers a new tool, AbstFinder as

Leah Goldin; Daniel M. Berry

1997-01-01

249

Applying Semantic-based Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar to Medical Language Processing - A Preliminary Study on Parsing Medication Sentences  

PubMed Central

Semantic-based sublanguage grammars have been shown to be an efficient method for medical language processing. However, given the complexity of the medical domain, parsers using such grammars inevitably encounter ambiguous sentences, which could be interpreted by different groups of production rules and consequently result in two or more parse trees. One possible solution, which has not been extensively explored previously, is to augment productions in medical sublanguage grammars with probabilities to resolve the ambiguity. In this study, we associated probabilities with production rules in a semantic-based grammar for medication findings and evaluated its performance on reducing parsing ambiguity. Using the existing data set from 2009 i2b2 NLP (Natural Language Processing) challenge for medication extraction, we developed a semantic-based CFG (Context Free Grammar) for parsing medication sentences and manually created a Treebank of 4,564 medication sentences from discharge summaries. Using the Treebank, we derived a semantic-based PCFG (probabilistic Context Free Grammar) for parsing medication sentences. Our evaluation using a 10-fold cross validation showed that the PCFG parser dramatically improved parsing performance when compared to the CFG parser.

Xu, Hua; AbdelRahman, Samir; Lu, Yanxin; Denny, Joshua C.; Doan, Son

2011-01-01

250

Some uses of natural language interfaces in computer assisted language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been proposed that computer programs simulating written conversation could be effective in language teaching and remediation. This paper presents a theoretical rationale for this approach, and reports empirical studies of its potential. Although the studies were concemed mainly with language-impaired children, their findings should have some relevance for the wider field of computer assisted language learning in

R. D. Ward

1989-01-01

251

Natural Second Language Acquisition or Pidginization? Present Tense Verb Usage by Adult Chinese Speakers of Spanish in Guayaquil, Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I investigate adult natural second language acquisition and social acculturation resulting from Chinese immigrants coming into contact with the Spanish language and Ecuadorian culture after their arrival in Ecuador in very recent times. Special account is taken of social factors that influence their language acquisition. Most particularly, I compare natural second language acquisition by older speakers to

Hsiao-Ping Hu

252

A common type system for clinical natural language processing  

PubMed Central

Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

2013-01-01

253

Nature and Nurture in School-Based Second Language Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variability in achievement across learners is a hallmark of second language (L2) learning, especially in academic-based learning. The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), based on a large, population-representative sample in the United Kingdom, provides the first opportunity to examine individual differences in second language achievement in a…

Dale, Philip S.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

2012-01-01

254

Statistical learning in a natural language by 8-month-old infants.  

PubMed

Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real speech. To what extent can these conclusions be scaled up to natural language learning? In the current experiments, English-learning 8-month-old infants' ability to track transitional probabilities in fluent infant-directed Italian speech was tested (N = 72). The results suggest that infants are sensitive to transitional probability cues in unfamiliar natural language stimuli, and support the claim that statistical learning is sufficiently robust to support aspects of real-world language acquisition. PMID:19489896

Pelucchi, Bruna; Hay, Jessica F; Saffran, Jenny R

255

Language related problems in the IPC and search systems using natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of the IPC as a search retrieval tool, independent of the specific language of both the documents retrieved and the user, is briefly reviewed. Emphasis is laid on the limitations of any form of word searching, especially when synonymous terms need to be found in more than one language in the course of a search. The need for

Michèlle Lyon

1999-01-01

256

Computational Nonlinear Morphology with Emphasis on Semitic Languages. Studies in Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a tractable computational model that can cope with complex morphological operations, especially in Semitic languages, and less complex morphological systems present in Western languages. It outlines a new generalized regular rewrite rule system that uses multiple finite-state automata to cater to root-and-pattern morphology,…

Kiraz, George Anton

257

Regular right part grammars and their parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an alternative to context-free grammars called regular right part (RRP) grammars, which resemble PASCAL syntax diagrams. Formally, RRP grammars have production right parts, which are nondeterministic finite state machines (FSMs), and, as a special case, regular expression, since these can be converted to FSMs. RRP grammars describe the syntax of programming languages more concisely and more understandably

Wilf R. LaLonde

1977-01-01

258

Learning and comprehension of BASIC and natural language computer programming by novices  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effectiveness of teaching novices to program in Natural Language as a prerequisite for learning BASIC, and the learning and comprehension processes for Natural Language and BASIC computer-programming languages. Three groups of computer-naive subjects participated in five self-paced learning sessions; in each sessions, subjects solved a series of programming problems with immediate feedback. Twenty-four subjects learned to solve BASIC programming problems (BASIC group) for all five sessions, 23 subjects learned to solve corresponding Natural Language programming problems for all five sessions (Natural Language group), and 23 subjects learned to solve Natural Language programming problems for three sessions and then transferred to BASIC for the two sessions (Transfer group). At the end of the fifth session, all subjects completed a post-test which required the subjects to use their programming knowledge in a new way. Results indicated that the Natural Language trained subjects had complete transfer to BASIC, as indicated by no overall difference in comprehension time or accuracy for final BASIC sessions (i.e., sessions four and five) for the Transfer and BASIC groups. In addition, there was an interaction between group and session on accuracy, in which the Transfer group increased its accuracy at a faster rate than the BASIC group.

Dyck, J.L.

1987-01-01

259

Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to increase vocalizations of older adults with cognitive impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated in a multiple baseline design across participants. Data were collected on appropriate

Linda A. LeBlanc; Kaneen B. Geiger; Rachael A. Sautter; Tina M. Sidener

2007-01-01

260

Structured Natural-Language Descriptions for Semantic Content Retrieval of Visual Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a structure for natural language descriptions of the semantic content of visual materials that requires descriptions to be (modified) keywords, phrases, or simple sentences, with components that are grammatical relations common to many languages. This structure makes it easy to implement a collection's descriptions as a relational…

Tam, A. M.; Leung, C. H. C.

2001-01-01

261

The pseudo-simultaneous nature of complex verb forms in German Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we shall be concerned with the nature of the morphosyntactic structure of verb signs in German Sign Language (Deutsche Gebaerdensprache: DGS). It has often been claimed that the morphological and morphosyntactic structure of signs is fundamentally different from what we know from the analysis of spoken languages. In the following, we intend to demonstrate that this, in

Roland Pfau; S. Gluck

2001-01-01

262

The Nature of Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environments in Singapore Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…

Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.

2011-01-01

263

Formeel Raamwerk voor Natuurlijke Taal Verwerking (Formal Frame for Natural Language Processing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for a natural-language interface was developed for the written language. The general structure of a simple model, a model for sentence analysis, a complete model, and a model describing the world treated by the text, are presented. Aspects of morp...

T. Vosse

1986-01-01

264

The Nature of Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environments in Singapore Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…

Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.

2011-01-01

265

Using Answer Set Programming and Lambda Calculus to Characterize Natural Language Sentences with Normatives and Exceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to solve the knowledge acquisition bottle- neck is to have ways to translate natural language sen- tences and discourses to a formal knowledge represen- tation language, especially ones that are appropriate to express domain knowledge in sciences, such as Biol- ogy. While there have been several proposals, includ- ing by Montague (1970), to give model theoretic se- mantics

Chitta Baral; Juraj Dzifcak; Tran Cao Son

2008-01-01

266

A natural language based legal expert system for consultation and tutoring—the LEX project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LEX (Legal Expert System) project is one of the European based projects investigating legal expert systems from both a professional and a teaching perspective. The project is a cooperative project between the University of Tübingen and IBM Germany and developed out of research into a User Specialty Language system (USL) for natural language queries to a relational data base.

Fritjof Haft; R. P. Jones; Thomas Wetter

1987-01-01

267

Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal  

PubMed Central

Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind (whisk; Imai and Gentner, 1997). Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin-speakers and English-speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's (1999) hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object-kind rather than substance-kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind.

Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

2009-01-01

268

Talking to InterFIS: Adding Speech Input to a Natural Language Interface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the addition of speech recognition capabilities to InterFIS, the natural language interface to the Fault Isolation Shell (FIS), an expert system for trouble-shooting electronics equipment. Because of the limitations of today's speech...

S. S. Everett K. Wauchope D. Perzanowski

1992-01-01

269

Evaluation of Automated Natural Language Processing in the Further Development of Science Information Retrieval.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes advances in computerized natural language processing (NLP) and relates them to present and potential functions of information systems. Section 1 summarizes developments in the information field which have led to a renewed interest in ...

N. Sager

1976-01-01

270

Prospects for Knowledge-Based Customization of Natural Language Query Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the potential sources of knowledge for customizing transportable natural language query systems, including sophisticated dictionaries, database content, and human database experts. A rough quantification of the importance of each source is provided. (17 references) (Author/CLB)|

Damerau, Fred J.

1988-01-01

271

A Dependency-based Method for Evaluating Broad-Coverage Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emergence of broad-coverage parsers, quantitativeevaluation of parsers becomes increasingly moreimportant. We propose a dependency-based method forevaluating broad-coverage parsers. The method offersseveral advantages over previous methods that are basedon phrase boundaries. The error count score we proposehere is not only more intuitively meaningful than otherscores, but also more relevant to semantic interpretation.We will also present an algorithm for transforming...

Dekang Lin

1995-01-01

272

Towards a Finite-State Parser for Swedish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we describe a method for parsing part-of-speech tagged unrestricted texts in Swedish using finite-state networks. We use the Xerox Finite-State Tool because of its expressiveness and power for writing and compiling regular expressions and relations. The parser is divided into four modules: i) contiguous phrase structure marker, ii) phrasal head marker, iii) syntactic function tagger, and iv)

Beáta Megyesi; Sara Rydin

2000-01-01

273

binpac: a yacc for writing application protocol parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key step in the semantic analysis of network trafc is to parse the trafc stream according to the high-level protocols it contains. This process transforms raw bytes into structured, typed, and semanti- cally meaningful data elds that provide a high-level representation of the trafc. However, constructing protocol parsers by hand is a tedious and error-prone affair due to the

Ruoming Pang; Vern Paxson; Robin Sommer; Larry L. Peterson

2006-01-01

274

Natural language technology and query expansion: issues, state-of-the-art and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of an abundance of knowledge sources has spurred a large amount of effort in the development and enhancement\\u000a of Information Retrieval techniques. Users’ information needs are expressed in natural language and successful retrieval is\\u000a very much dependent on the effective communication of the intended purpose. Natural language queries consist of multiple linguistic\\u000a features which serve to represent the

Bhawani Selvaretnam; Mohammed Belkhatir

275

Evolutionary explanations for natural language: criteria from evolutionary biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of the evolutionary origins of language must be informed by empirical and theoretical results from a variety of different fields. Complementing recent surveys of relevant work from linguistics, animal behaviour and genetics, this paper surveys the requirements on evolutionary scenarios that derive from mathematical evolutionary biology. It presents a number of simple but fundamental models from population genetics, evolutionary

Willem Zuidema; Bart de Boer

2008-01-01

276

Speech Graffiti vs. Natural Language: Assessing the User Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech-based interfaces have great potential but are hampered by problems related to spo- ken language such as variability, noise and ambiguity. Speech Graffiti was designed to address these issues via a structured, universal interface protocol for interacting with simple machines. Since Speech Graffiti requires that users speak to the system in a certain way, we were interested in how users

Stefanie Tomko; Roni Rosenfeld

2004-01-01

277

Towards a Natural Language Driven Automated Help Desk  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the linguistic components required for a natu- ral language driven automated help desk. This work is signifi cant for two reasons: First, the combination of neural networks and supertagging represents a novel and very robust way to classify non-trivial user utterances. Se cond, we show a novel way of integrating known linguistic techniques for the

Melanie Knapp; Jens Woch

2002-01-01

278

Evolutionary Developmental Linguistics: Naturalization of the Faculty of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since language is a biological trait, it is necessary to investigate its evolution, development, and functions, along with the mechanisms that have been set aside, and are now recruited, for its acquisition and use. It is argued here that progress toward each of these goals can be facilitated by new programs of research, carried out within a new…

Locke, John L.

2009-01-01

279

Early understanding of emotion: Evidence from natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young children's early understanding of emotion was investigated by examining their use of emotion terms such as happy, sad, mud, and cry. Five children's emotion language was examined longitudinally from the age of 2 to 5 years, and as a comparison their reference to pains via such terms as burn, sting, and hurt was also examined. In Phase 1 we

Henry M. Wellman; Paul L. Harris; Mita Banerjee; Anna Sinclair

1995-01-01

280

Unit 1001: The Nature of Meaning in Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 10th-grade unit in Minnesota's "language-centered" curriculum introduces the complexity of linguistic meaning by demonstrating the relationships among linguistic symbols, their referents, their interpreters, and the social milieu. The unit begins with a discussion of Ray Bradbury's "The Kilimanjaro Machine," which illustrates how an otherwise…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

281

Natural Language Processing (NLP) as an Instrument of Raising the Language Awareness of Learners of English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the statistical regularity of certain error types, an interlanguage grammar could be devised and applied to develop an intelligent computer tool, capable not only of identifying the typical errors in L2 student writing, but also of making adequate corrections. The purpose of the corrections is to make the student aware of the language

Dodigovic, Marina

2003-01-01

282

Sequence Package Analysis: a new natural language understanding method for improving human response in critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will demonstrate how Sequence Package Analysis, as a new natural language under- standing method that is built on a set of parsing struc- tures that consist of context-free grammatical units and related prosodic features for identifying affec- tive\\/emotional data found in natural speech and blogs, may better accommodate the goals of crisis manage- ment and rapid decision making

Amy Neustein

2008-01-01

283

Banzai+Tatoo: Using cutting-edge parsers for implementing high-performance servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents how the Tatoo parser generator enables the implementation of Java high-performance servers using the Banzai generic server shell. The performance of these servers relies on the ability of Tatoo to produce push non-blocking parsers with a fixed memory footprint during parsing and on the generic and efficient server architecture of Banzai. This approach reconciles the use of

Julien Cervelle; Rémi Forax; Gautier Loyauté; Gilles Roussel

284

The Unification Space implemented as a localist neural net: predictions and error-tolerance in a constraint-based parser.  

PubMed

We introduce a novel computer implementation of the Unification-Space parser (Vosse and Kempen in Cognition 75:105-143, 2000) in the form of a localist neural network whose dynamics is based on interactive activation and inhibition. The wiring of the network is determined by Performance Grammar (Kempen and Harbusch in Verb constructions in German and Dutch. Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2003), a lexicalist formalism with feature unification as binding operation. While the network is processing input word strings incrementally, the evolving shape of parse trees is represented in the form of changing patterns of activation in nodes that code for syntactic properties of words and phrases, and for the grammatical functions they fulfill. The system is capable, at least qualitatively and rudimentarily, of simulating several important dynamic aspects of human syntactic parsing, including garden-path phenomena and reanalysis, effects of complexity (various types of clause embeddings), fault-tolerance in case of unification failures and unknown words, and predictive parsing (expectation-based analysis, surprisal effects). English is the target language of the parser described. PMID:19784798

Vosse, Theo; Kempen, Gerard

2009-09-26

285

Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.  

PubMed

The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key. PMID:22371983

Clody, Michael C

2011-01-01

286

The frequencies of disease names with the natural language used in the hospital information system.  

PubMed

The statistical behavior of disease names referred by physicians with the natural language in a large hospital information system is little known despite the theoretical and practical interest. To address this issue, we reviewed and investigated the usage-frequencies of 18,274 disease names, 10,288 for outpatient care and 7986 for inpatient care, referred from October 1983 to June 1992 with the notation of the natural language in Japanese by the use of the registration-retrieval system of disease names at Fukui Medical School, Japan. Consequently, we found that the investigated distributions did not conform to the Poisson distribution, but conformed well to the Polya-Eggenberger distribution in both cases of outpatient and inpatient care. It implies that the disease names with the natural language are possibly referred by physicians with some interrelations. PMID:8613712

Lin, Z J; Yamamoto, K; Kamae, I; Sasagawa, N; Yamashita, Y; Sudo, M

1995-10-01

287

Integrated pathology reporting, indexing, and retrieval system using natural language diagnoses.  

PubMed

Pathology computer systems are making increasing use of natural language diagnoses. The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions integrated pathology reporting system, a commercial product with extensive, locally added enhancements, covers all information management functions within autopsy and surgical pathology divisions and has on-line linkages to clinical laboratory reports and the medical library's Mini-MEDLINE system. All diagnoses are written in natural language, using a word processor and spelling checker. A security system with personal passwords and different levels of access for different staff members allows reports to be signed out with an electronic signature. The system produces financial reports, overdue case reports, and Boolean searches of the database. Our experience with 128,790 consecutively entered pathology reports suggests that the greater precision of natural language diagnoses makes them the most suitable vehicle for follow-up, retrieval, and systems development functions in pathology. PMID:3070549

Moore, G W; Boitnott, J K; Miller, R E; Eggleston, J C; Hutchins, G M

1988-01-01

288

Extending the VA CPRS electronic patient record order entry system using natural language processing techniques.  

PubMed Central

An automated practitioner order entry system was recently implemented at the VA Puget Sound Health Care System. Since the introduction of this system, we have experienced various problems, among them an increase in time required for practitioners to enter orders. In order to improve usability and acceptance of the order entry, an alternate pathway was built within CPRS that allows direct natural language based order entry. Implementation of the extension in CPRS has been made possible because of the three layers CPRS architecture and its strong object oriented models. This paper discusses the advantages and needs for a natural language based order entry system and its implementation within an existing order entry system.

Lovis, C.; Payne, T. H.

2000-01-01

289

Natural language processing with dynamic classification improves P300 speller accuracy and bit rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The P300 speller is an example of a brain-computer interface that can restore functionality to victims of neuromuscular disorders. Although the most common application of this system has been communicating language, the properties and constraints of the linguistic domain have not to date been exploited when decoding brain signals that pertain to language. We hypothesized that combining the standard stepwise linear discriminant analysis with a Naive Bayes classifier and a trigram language model would increase the speed and accuracy of typing with the P300 speller. With integration of natural language processing, we observed significant improvements in accuracy and 40-60% increases in bit rate for all six subjects in a pilot study. This study suggests that integrating information about the linguistic domain can significantly improve signal classification.

Speier, William; Arnold, Corey; Lu, Jessica; Taira, Ricky K.; Pouratian, Nader

2012-02-01

290

The Exploring Nature of Definitions and Classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the nature of definitions and classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the current studies of second/foreign language learning in order to show the current problems regarding such definitions and classifications. The present study shows that there is not a universal agreeable definition and…

Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

2011-01-01

291

Natural and Artificial Intelligence, Language, Consciousness, Emotion, and Anticipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical paradigm of the neural brain as the seat of human natural intelligence is too restrictive. This paper defends the idea that the neural ectoderm is the actual brain, based on the development of the human embryo. Indeed, the neural ectoderm includes the neural crest, given by pigment cells in the skin and ganglia of the autonomic nervous system,

Daniel M. Dubois

2010-01-01

292

The Research and Realization about Question Answer System based on Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Question Answer System (QAS) is a kind of high-powered software system based on Internet. Its key technology is the interrelated technology based on natural language understanding, including the construction of knowledge base and corpus, the Word Segmentation and POS Tagging of text, the Grammatical Analysis and Semantic Analysis of sentences etc. This thesis dissertated mainly the denotation of knowledge-information

Qinglin Guo; Kehe Wu; Wei Li

2007-01-01

293

Research on natural language IR system based on genetic algorithm and VSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work brought forward a kind of arithmetic of information retrieval, namely combining the positive genes of genetic algorithm and vector space model on the base of nature language. Genetic algorithm is used for a predication case-frame of query in this system. Based on HowNet, this algorithm gains inherent characteristics of data objects, and retrieve the useful information according to

Hai-Yan Kang; Yan-Fang Li; Gui-Fa Teng; Xiao-Zhong Fan; Xiao-Yang He

2004-01-01

294

The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

2012-01-01

295

FASTUS: A Cascaded Finite-State Transducer for Extracting Information from Natural-Language Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract FASTUS is a system for extracting information from natural language text for entry into a database and for other applications. It works essentially as a cascaded, nondeterministic finite-state automaton. There are five stages in the operation of FASTUS. In Stage 1, names and other fixed form expressions are recognized. In Stage 2, basic noun groups, verb groups, and prepositions

Jerry R. Hobbs; Douglas E. Appelt; John Bear; David J. Israel; Megumi Kameyama; Mark E. Stickel; Mabry Tyson

1997-01-01

296

Comparing Natural Language Processing Tools to Extract Medical Problems from Narrative Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help maintain a complete, accurate and timely Problem List, we are developing a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. This system uses Natural Language Processing to analyze all electronic narrative text documents in a patient's record. Here we evaluate and compare 3 different applications of NLP technology in our system: the first using MMTx (MetaMap Transfer)

Stéphane M. Meystre; Peter J. Haug

2005-01-01

297

The Contemporary Thesaurus of Social Science Terms and Synonyms: A Guide for Natural Language Computer Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed primarily to help users find meaningful words for natural language, or free-text, computer searching of bibliographic and textual databases in the social and behavioral sciences. Additionally, it covers many socially relevant and technical topics not covered by the usual literary thesaurus, therefore it may also be useful…

Knapp, Sara D., Comp.

298

Constructing Web search queries from the user's information need expressed in a natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on improving the quality of information retrieval on the Web through the use of long queries. Long queries allow use of natural language and provide for a more complete description of the user's information need. We propose and analyze several novel algorithms dealing with long query information retrieval on the Web. These algorithms include selecting of search

Jacob Shapiro; Isak Taksa

2003-01-01

299

Computer Verification of the Completeness of a Simulation Problem Description by Natural Language Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research project in natural language man-machine communication is currently being conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School. The system being developed, called NLPQ, is an application of a more general system, known as NLP, which consists of a rule lan...

F. H. Hemphill

1971-01-01

300

Real English: A Translator to Enable Natural Language Man-Machine Conversation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation presents a pragmatic interpreter/translator called Real English to serve as a natural language man-machine communication interface in a multi-mode on-line information retrieval system. This multi-mode feature affords the user a library-l...

H. Gautin

1969-01-01

301

Introduction to Special Issue: Understanding the Nature-Nurture Interactions in Language and Learning Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction to this special issue on nature-nurture interactions notes that the following articles represent five biologically oriented research approaches which each provide a tutorial on the investigator's major research tool, a summary of current research understandings regarding language and learning differences, and a discussion of…

Berninger, Virginia Wise

2001-01-01

302

Using natural language processing tools to assist semiotic analysis of information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract Semiotic Analysis has been used to aid understanding of information or communication systems, providing information that can be used during requirements engineering. The MEASUR approach begins by analysing short, natural language problem statements and manually extracting the key themes involved. As the process is scaled up and applied to longer problem statements, as found in many real life

Ken Cosh; Pete Sawyer

303

An automatic answering system with template matching for natural language questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using computers to answer natural language questions is an interesting and challenging problem. Generally such problems are handled under two categories: open domain problems and close domain problems. This paper presents a system that attempts to solve close domain problems. Typically, in a close domain, answers to questions are not available in the public domain and therefore they cannot be

Tilani Gunawardena; Medhavi Lokuhetti; Nishara Pathirana; Roshan Ragel; Sampath Deegalla

2010-01-01

304

Extracting Chemical CYP proteins interactions from Literature Using Natural Language Processing Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster describes the development of an information extraction system which maps interactions between chemicals and CYP proteins from existing literature, using machine learning and natural language processing methods. The interaction between CYP proteins and chemicals is important in drug discovery and development. In this system, abstracts from articles related to CYP and chemical interactions are preprocessed using named entity

D Jiao; D Wild

2007-01-01

305

Ontology-Driven Semantic Ranking for Natural Language Disambiguation in the OntoNL Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the semantic relatedness has many applications in natural language processing, and many different measures have been proposed. Most of these measures use WordNet as their central resource and not domain ontologies of a particular context. We propose and evaluate a semantic relatedness measure for OWL domain ontologies that concludes to the semantic ranking of ontological, grammatically-related structures.

Anastasia Karanastasi; Stavros Christodoulakis

2007-01-01

306

Eliza - a Computer Program for the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man and Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ELIZA is a program operating within the MAC time-sharing system at MIT which makes certain kinds of natural language conversation between man and computer possible. Input sentences are analyzed on the basis of decomposition rules which are triggered by ke...

J. Weizenbaum

1965-01-01

307

ELIZA — a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ELIZA is a program operating within the MAC time-sharing system of MIT which makes certain kinds of natural language conversation between man and computer possible. Input sentences are analyzed on the basis of decomposition rules which are triggered by key words appearing in the input text. Responses are generated by reassembly rules associated with selected decomposition rules. The fundamental technical

Joseph Weizenbaum

1983-01-01

308

Technology-Mediated Telepathy: A Natural Language Brain-Computer Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new model for a communication interface between the human brain and a computer. The neurological mechanisms of thought and language in the brain are at present poorly understood. By contrast, the basis of motor activity in the brain is relatively well-known. Our research involves reading the motor signals generated by the human brain while communicating naturally and

Anand Kulkarni; Kevin Simler; Alex Storer

309

The Contemporary Thesaurus of Social Science Terms and Synonyms: A Guide for Natural Language Computer Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed primarily to help users find meaningful words for natural language, or free-text, computer searching of bibliographic and textual databases in the social and behavioral sciences. Additionally, it covers many socially relevant and technical topics not covered by the usual literary thesaurus, therefore it may also be useful for…

Knapp, Sara D., Comp.

310

Real English: A Translator to Enable Natural Language Man-Machine Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation presents a pragmatic interpreter/translator called Real English to serve as a natural language man-machine communication interface in a multi-mode on-line information retrieval system. This multi-mode feature affords the user a library-like searching tool by giving him access to a dictionary, lexicon, thesaurus, synonym table,…

Gautin, Harvey

311

Integration of an XML electronic dictionary with linguistic tools for natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes the codification of lexical information in electronic dictionaries, in accordance with a generic and extendable XML scheme model, and its conjunction with linguistic tools for the processing of natural language. Our approach is different from other similar studies in that we propose XML coding of those items from a dictionary of meanings that are less related to

Octavio Santana Suárez; Francisco J. Carreras Riudavets; Zenón José Hernández Figueroa; Antonio C. González Cabrera

2007-01-01

312

Do What I Mean: Online Shopping with a Natural Language Search Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle to online shopping is the lack of meaning understanding and precision in e -catalog searching engines. These are problems that Natural Language Query (NLQ) should be able to solve, but historically, has been unable to due to difficulties of scaling to the complexities and performance demands of large -scale online catalogs. Recent research, however, has now enabled

Barry G. Silverman; Mintu Bachann; Khaled Al-akharas

2001-01-01

313

The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

2012-01-01

314

The application of natural language processing to augmentative and alternative communication.  

PubMed

Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next generation of AAC technology. PMID:22590796

Higginbotham, D Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W; Moulton, Bryan J; Roark, Brian

2011-01-01

315

GENIES: a natural-language processing system for the extraction of molecular pathways from journal articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems that extract structured information from natural language passages have been highly successful in specialized domains. The time is opportune for devel- oping analogous applications for molecular biology and genomics. We present a system, GENIES, that extracts and structures information about cellular pathways from the biological literature in accordance with a knowledge model that we developed earlier. We implemented GENIES

Carol Friedman; Pauline Kra; Hong Yu; Michael Krauthammer; Andrey Rzhetsky

2001-01-01

316

Self-Regulated Learning in Learning Environments With Pedagogical Agents That Interact in Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the occurrence and measurement of self-regulated learning (SRL) both in human tutoring and in computer tutors with agents that hold conversations with students in natural language and help them learn at deeper levels. One challenge in building these computer tutors is to accommodate, encourage, and scaffold SRL because these skills are not adequately developed for most students.

ARTHUR GRAESSER; DANIELLE McNAMARA

2010-01-01

317

Discovering Novel Adverse Drug Events Using Natural Language Processing and Mining of the Electronic Health Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talk presents an overview of our research in use of medical knowledge, natural language processing, the electronic health\\u000a record, and statistical methods to automatically discover novel adverse drug events, which are serious problems world-wide.

Carol Friedman

2009-01-01

318

The Rape of Mother Nature? Women in the Language of Environmental Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that the structure of language reflects and reproduces the dominant model, and reinforces many of the dualistic assumptions which underlie the separation of male and female, nature and culture, mind from body, emotion from reason, and intuition from fact. (LZ)|

Berman, Tzeporah

1994-01-01

319

Neural finite-state transducers: a bottom-up approach to natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks call for a formal model of computations that they carry out during solving natural language processing tasks. At present, formal symbolic models are a reference point for using neural networks. Such an approach may be called top-down because it assumes that neural computations are based on a direct or indirect manipulation of structured symbolic representations. In this paper

Roman Pozarlik

1999-01-01

320

Self-Regulated Learning in Learning Environments with Pedagogical Agents that Interact in Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the occurrence and measurement of self-regulated learning (SRL) both in human tutoring and in computer tutors with agents that hold conversations with students in natural language and help them learn at deeper levels. One challenge in building these computer tutors is to accommodate, encourage, and scaffold SRL because…

Graesser, Arthur; McNamara, Danielle

2010-01-01

321

Children's web search with Google: the effectiveness of natural language queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present work in progress on how elementary school children use modern search engines to solve informational search tasks. Specifically, in a laboratory study with 21 children aged 8-10 we investigated whether the use of natural-language queries leads to more successful search outcomes than keyword queries when searching the Internet with Google. Both quantitative and qualitative data

Yvonne Kammerer; Maja Bohnacker

2012-01-01

322

A UMLS-based spell checker for natural language processing in vaccine safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine has identified patient safety as a key goal for health care in the United States. Detecting vaccine adverse events is an important public health activity that contributes to patient safety. Reports about adverse events following immunization (AEFI) from surveillance systems contain free-text components that can be analyzed using natural language processing. To extract Unified Medical

Herman D Tolentino; Michael D Matters; Wikke Walop; Barbara Law; Wesley Tong; Fang Liu; Paul Fontelo; Katrin Kohl; Daniel C Payne

2007-01-01

323

A Sublanguage Approach to Natural Language Processing for an Expert System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the development of an NLP (natural language processing) component for processing the free-text comments on life insurance applications for evaluation by an underwriting expert system. A sublanguage grammar approach with strong reliance on semantic word classes is described. Highlights include lexical analysis, adjacency analysis, and…

Liddy, Elizabeth D.; And Others

1993-01-01

324

Effectiveness and Efficiency in Natural Language Processing for Large Amounts of Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a system that was developed in Germany for natural language processing (NLP) to improve free text analysis for information retrieval. Techniques from empirical linguistics are discussed, system architecture is explained, and rules for dealing with conjunctions in dependency analysis for free text processing are proposed. (13 references)…

Ruge, Gerda; And Others

1991-01-01

325

An Evaluation of Help Mechanisms in Natural Language Information Retrieval Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluates the current state of natural language processing information retrieval systems from the user's point of view, focusing on the structure and components of the systems' help mechanisms. Topics include user/system interaction; semantic parsing; syntactic parsing; semantic mapping; and concept matching. (Author/LRW)|

Kreymer, Oleg

2002-01-01

326

To Catch a Predator: A Natural Language Approach for Eliciting Malicious Payloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an automated, scalable, method for craft- ing dynamic responses to real-time network requests. Specifically, we provide a flexible technique based on natural language processing and string alignment tech- niques for intelligently interacting with protocols trained directly from raw network traffic. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by creating a low-interaction web- based honeypot capable of luring attacks

Sam Small; Joshua Mason; Fabian Monrose; Niels Provos; Adam Stubblefield

2008-01-01

327

Limitations of Co-Training for Natural Language Learning from Large Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-Training is a weakly supervised learning paradigm in which the redundancy of the learn- ing task is captured by training two classifiers using separate views of the same data. This enables bootstrapping from a small set of la- beled training data via a large set of unlabeled data. This study examines the learning behav- ior of co-training on natural language

David Pierce; Claire Cardie

2001-01-01

328

Generalized Probabilistic LR Parsing of Natural Language (Corpora) with Unification-Based Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe work toward the construction of a very wide-coverage probabilistic parsing system for natural language (NL), based on LR parsing techniques. The system is intended to rank the large number of syntactic analyses produced by NL grammars according to the frequency of occurrence of the individual rules deployed in each analysis. We discuss a fully automatic procedure for constructing

Ted Briscoe; John Carroll

1993-01-01

329

Naturally-Occurring Comprehension Strategies Instruction in 9th-Grade Language Arts Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this descriptive classroom study, we used video-based observations supplemented with teacher interviews to provide precise information about the instruction of comprehension strategies that naturally occurred in 4 Norwegian lower-secondary language arts classrooms while students worked with expository texts. The results showed that the teachers varied vastly with respect to the amount of comprehension strategies instruction, that the repertoire of

Øistein Anmarkrud; Ivar Bråten

2011-01-01

330

Acceptability of Unified Medical Language System terms as substitute for natural language general medicine clinic diagnoses.  

PubMed

The acceptability of using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept phrases to substitute for physicians' diagnosis statements was investigated. Physician diagnosis statements recorded in the University of New Mexico's General Medicine Clinic were input into a computer program that automatically finds the best matching UMLS concept phrases. The computer program written in C++ integrates UMLS searching and browsing with a graphical user interface. Five attending physicians in the Department of Internal Medicine rated the acceptability of the UMLS concept phrase as a substitute for the original physician statement. One hundred and ninety-five patients' notes were examined with 447 diagnosis statements recorded of which 271 statements were unique. Attending physicians rated their satisfaction with the automated UMLS substitutes on a scale of 1 (extremely dissatisfied) to 5 (extremely satisfied). Intrarater (mean 0.94) and interrater correlations (mean 0.75) were high. The mean rating was 4.0 (quite satisfied). Most (73%) of the substitution were satisfactory (rating of 4 or 5), 16% were neutral (rating of 3), and 21% were unsatisfactory (rating of 1 or 2). A review of the substitutions showed a frequent lack of clinical modifier terms in UMLS as has been previously described. Comparison to a previous study shows the broader term coverage of UMLS to be a more acceptable source of diagnosis codes than using International Classification of Diseases revision 9 alone. These results suggest that UMLS can be an effective tool for coding unconstrained physician diagnoses. PMID:7949918

Rosenberg, K M; Coultas, D B

1994-01-01

331

The Nature of the Language Faculty and Its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the ''narrow language faculty'') consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We…

Jackendoff, Ray; Pinker, Steven

2005-01-01

332

The Nature of the Language Faculty and Its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the ''narrow language faculty'') consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We…

Jackendoff, Ray; Pinker, Steven

2005-01-01

333

Parsing, word associations and typical predicate-argument relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of collocational constraints in natural languages that ought to play a more important role in natural language parsers. Thus, for example, it is hard for most parsers to take advantage of the fact that ).

Kenneth Church; William Gale; Patrick Hanks; Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

334

Psychological aspects of natural language. use: our words, our selves.  

PubMed

The words people use in their daily lives can reveal important aspects of their social and psychological worlds. With advances in computer technology, text analysis allows researchers to reliably and quickly assess features of what people say as well as subtleties in their linguistic styles. Following a brief review of several text analysis programs, we summarize some of the evidence that links natural word use to personality, social and situational fluctuations, and psychological interventions. Of particular interest are findings that point to the psychological value of studying particles-parts of speech that include pronouns, articles, prepositions, conjunctives, and auxiliary verbs. Particles, which serve as the glue that holds nouns and regular verbs together, can serve as markers of emotional state, social identity, and cognitive styles. PMID:12185209

Pennebaker, James W; Mehl, Matthias R; Niederhoffer, Kate G

2002-06-10

335

A Natural Language for AdS/CFT Correlators  

SciTech Connect

We provide dramatic evidence that 'Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into 'left' and 'right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. By analyzing the recursive structure of our factorization formula we obtain simple diagrammatic rules for the construction of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to tree-level Witten diagrams in any bulk scalar theory. We prove the diagrammatic rules using our finite difference equations. Finally, we show that our factorization formula and our diagrammatic rules morph into the flat space S-Matrix of the bulk theory, reproducing the usual Feynman rules, when we take the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. Throughout we emphasize a deep analogy with the properties of flat space scattering amplitudes in momentum space, which suggests that the Mellin amplitude may provide a holographic definition of the flat space S-Matrix.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC; Penedones, Joao; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Raju, Suvrat; /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst.; van Rees, Balt C.; /YITP, Stony Brook

2012-02-14

336

A natural language for AdS/CFT correlators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide dramatic evidence that `Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into `left' and `right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. By analyzing the recursive structure of our factorization formula we obtain simple diagrammatic rules for the construction of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to tree-level Witten diagrams in any bulk scalar theory. We prove the diagrammatic rules using our finite difference equations. Finally, we show that our factorization formula and our diagrammatic rules morph into the flat space S-Matrix of the bulk theory, reproducing the usual Feynman rules, when we take the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. Throughout we emphasize a deep analogy with the properties of flat space scattering amplitudes in momentum space, which suggests that the Mellin amplitude may provide a holographic definition of the flat space S-Matrix.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Penedones, Joao; Raju, Suvrat; van Rees, Balt C.

2011-11-01

337

Evaluation of two dependency parsers on biomedical corpus targeted at protein-protein interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We present an evaluation of Link Grammar and Connexor Machinese Syn-tax, two major broad-coverage dependency parsers, on a custom hand-annotated corpus consisting of sentences regarding protein, protein interactions. In the eval-uation, we apply the notion of an interaction subgraph, which is the subgraph of a dependency graph expressing a protein, protein interaction. We measure the perfor-mance of the parsers

Sampo Pyysalo; Filip Ginter; Tapio Pahikkala; Jorma Boberg; Jouni Järvinen; Tapio Salakoski

2006-01-01

338

Combining Shallow and Deep Processing for a Robust, Fast, Deep-Linguistic Dependency Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Pro3Gres, a fast, robust, broad-coverage parser that delivers deep-linguistic grammatical relation structures as output, which are closer to predicate-argument structures and more informative than pure con- stituency structures. The parser stays as shallow as is possible for each task, combining shallow and deep-linguistic methods by integrating chunking and by expressing the majority of long-distance dependencies in a

Gerold Schneider

339

New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

Dubois, Daniel M.

2008-10-01

340

Natural Language Based Reformulation Resource and Wide Exploitation for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and evaluate how a generalized natural language based reformulation resource in our TextMapquestion answering system improves web exploitation and answer pinpointing. The reformulation resource,which can be viewed as a clausal extension of WordNet, supports high-precision syntactic and semanticreformulations of questions and other sentences, as well as inferencing and answer generation. The papershows in some detail how these reformulations

Ulf Hermjakob; Abdessamad Echihabi; Daniel Marcu

2002-01-01

341

An on-line question-answering systems with natural language and pictorial input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various approaches have been employed in the design of question-answering systems with natural language input. An excellent survey of such systems can be found in Simmons.1 A more recent and critical survey of data-retrieval systems prepared by Kasher points out what he considers to be some of the major weaknesses of previous work. One of the problems cited by Kasher

L. Stephen Coles

1968-01-01

342

Functor-Driven Natural Language Generation with Categorial-Unification Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a functor-driven approach to natural language generation which pairs logical forms, expressed in first-order predicate logic, with syntactically well-formed English sentences. Gram- matical knowledge is expressed in the fi'amework of categorial unifieation-qrammars developed by Kart- tunen (1986), Wittenburg (1986), Uszkoreit (1986), and Zeevat et. al. (1987). The semantic component of the grammar makes crucial use

Dale Gerdemann; Erhard W. Hinrichs

1990-01-01

343

Evaluating Natural Language Processing Applications Applied to Outbreak and Disease Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the pre-existing electronic data that could be harnessed for early out- break detection is in free-text format. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques may be useful to biosurveillance by classifying and extracting information described in free- text sources. In the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance laboratory we are de- veloping and evaluating NLP techniques for surveillance of syndromic presentations

Wendy W. Chapman; John N. Dowling; Oleg Ivanov; Per H. Gesteland; Robert T. Olszewski; U. Espino; Michael M. Wagner

344

Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.  

SciTech Connect

Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

2003-09-01

345

Combining Goal Inference and Natural-Language Dialogue for Human-Robot Joint Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate how combining the reasoning compo- nents from two existing systems designed for human-robot joint ac- tion produces an integrated system with greater capabilities than ei- ther of the individual systems. One of the systems supports primarily non-verbal interaction and uses dynamic neural fields to infer the user's goals and to suggest appropriate system responses; the other emphasises natural-language

Mary Ellen Foster; Manuel Giuliani; Markus Rickert; Alois Knoll; Wolfram Erlhagen; Estela Bicho; Luis Louro

346

Natural Language Learning by Recurrent Neural Networks: A Comparison with probabilistic approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present preliminary results of experiments with two types of recurrent neural networks for a natural language learning task. The neural networks, Elman networks and Recurrent Cascade Correlation (RCC), were trained on the text of a first-year primary school reader. The networks performed a one-step-look-ahead task, i.e. they had to predict the lexical category of the next following word. Elman

Michael Towsey; Joachim Diederich; Stephan Chalup; Claudia Brugman

1998-01-01

347

BT-Nurse: computer generation of natural language shift summaries from complex heterogeneous medical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BT-Nurse system uses data-to-text technology to automatically generate a natural language nursing shift summary in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The summary is solely based on data held in an electronic patient record system, no additional data-entry is required. BT-Nurse was tested for two months in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh NICU. Nurses were asked to rate the

James Hunter; Yvonne Freer; Albert Gatt; Ehud Reiter; Somayajulu Sripada; Cindy Sykes; Dave Westwater

2011-01-01

348

Practical systems use natural languages and store human expertise (artificial intelligence)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For earlier articles see T. Manuel et al., ibid., vol.56, no.22, p.127-37. This second part of a special report on commercial applications of artificial intelligence examines the milestones which mark this major new path for the software industry. It covers state-space search, the problem of ambiguity, augmented transition networks, early commercial products, current and expected personal computer software, natural-language interfaces,

S. Evanczuk; T. Manuel

1983-01-01

349

Ziv Lempel Compression of Huge Natural Language Data Tries Using Suffix Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a very efficient, in terms of space and access speed, data structure for storing huge natural language data sets.\\u000a The structure is described as LZ (Ziv Lempel) compressed linked list trie and is a step further beyond directed acyclic word\\u000a graph in automata compression. We are using the structure to store DELAF, a huge French lexicon with syntactical,

Strahil Ristov; Eric Laporte

1999-01-01

350

Using information extraction and natural language generation to answer e-mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of information extraction (IE) and natural language generation (NLG) in the design of an automated e-mail answering system. We analyse short free-form texts and generate a customised and linguistically motivated answer to frequently asked questions. We describe the approach and the design of a system currently being developed to answer e-mail in French regarding printer-related

Leila Kosseim; Stéphane Beauregard; Guy Lapalme

2001-01-01

351

Using Information Extraction and Natural Language Generation to Answer E-Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of information extraction and natural language generation in the design of an automated e-mail answering system. We analyse short free-form texts and generating a customised and linguistically-motivated answer to frequently asked questions. We describe the approach and the design of a system currently being developed to answer e-mail in French regarding printer- related questions addressed

Leila Kosseim; Stéphane Beauregard; Guy Lapalme

2000-01-01

352

The effect of teachers' language on students' conceptions of the nature of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conveying an adequate conception of the nature of science to students is implicit in the border context of what has come to be known as scientific literacy. However, it has previously been demonstrated that possession of valid conceptions of the nature of science does not necessarily result in the performance of those teaching behaviors that are related to improved student conceptions. The present study examines the possibility that the language teachers use to communicate science content may provide the context (Realist or Instrumentalist orientations) in which students come to formulate a world view of science. Eighteen high school biology teachers and one randomly selected class from each of their sections (n = 409 students) were administered pre- and posttests at the beginning and end of the fall term using the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Composite scores of the student changes on the Testable, Developmental, and Creative subscales were used to compare those six classes that exhibited the greatest change with those six classes that had the least change on the NSKS. Intensive qualitative observations of each teacher were also conducted over the fall semester, resulting in complete transcripts of teacher-student interactions. Qualitative comparisons of classes with respect to six variables related to Realist and Instrumentalist conceptions of the nature of science were conducted. TEACHERS' ordinary language in the presentation of subject matter was found to have significant impact on students' conceptions of the nature of science. These variables represented different contexts (Realist-Instrumental) teachers used to express themselves, scientific information, and concepts. Determining the extent to which TEACHERS' language has an impact on changes in students' conception of the nature of science has direct bearing on all preservice and inservice science teacher education programs.

Zeidler, Dana L.; Lederman, Norman G.

353

De-Centering English: Highlighting the Dynamic Nature of the English Language to Promote the Teaching of Code-Switching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Embracing the dynamic nature of English language can help students learn more about all forms of English. To fully engage students, teachers should not adhere to an anachronistic and static view of English. Instead, they must acknowledge, accept, and even use different language forms within the classroom to make that classroom dynamic, inclusive,…

White, John W.

2011-01-01

354

The Effect of Complexity of Natural Language Mediators and the Associability of Pairs on Paired-Associate Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural language mediators (NLM) are widely used by Ss in paired-associate learning. Experiments which have documented their effect on learning have, however, largely ignored qualitative differences between them. Two large groups each learned a different ...

A. J. Wearing W. E. Montague

1967-01-01

355

A natural language interface to relational data bases for waste management  

SciTech Connect

INTELLECT(TM) for Rdb/VMS is a natural language system for data base access which runs under the VAX/VMS operating system. It allows English language query, report formatting, and data updates to Rdb/VMS relational databases. INTELLECT translates English requests into database commands, and allows non-technical users to perform a variety of retrieval and processing tasks for decision support or data maintenance using conversational English. The heart of an INTELLECT application is the lexicon, a dictionary of common English words. Initially, the INTELLECT lexicon has about 400 basic words. Customization of this lexicon, including definition of new vocabulary, the basic step in the development of an INTELLECT application. An application of INTELLECT for an Rdb/VMS waste management database was developed. The database, which consists of waste stream characterization and waste management practice information for solid low-level radioactive wastes generated at the three Department of Energy plants in Oak Ridge, is used in disposal resource development and alternatives evaluation. An account of our experience using INTELLECT with the low-level waste management database is given, including the process of lexicon building. The usefulness of the natural language interface in this context is discussed. 13 refs.

Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Rodgers, B.R.

1988-01-01

356

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

357

Three-Dimensional Parametrization for Parsing Morphologically Rich Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current parameters of accurate unlexical- ized parsers based on Probabilistic Context- Free Grammars (PCFGs) form a two- dimensional grid in which rewrite events are conditioned on both horizontal (head- outward) and vertical (parental) histories. In Semitic languages, where arguments may move around rather freely and phrase- structures are often shallow, there are ad- ditional morphological factors that govern the generation

Reut Tsarfaty; Khalil Sima' an

2007-01-01

358

A Structured Interactive Workspace for a Visual Configuration Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how language technologies such as the automatic generation of parsers for analyzing user ac- tions and visual parsing can be applied to build a flexible tool specialized in complex specification tasks, namely the configuration of distributed applications. The central iss ue is to propose to structure the workspace through a syntax of user actions on one hand,

Jean-yves Vion-dury; François Pacull

1997-01-01

359

Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to increase vocalizations of older adults with cognitive impairments.  

PubMed

The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated in a multiple baseline design across participants. Data were collected on appropriate and inappropriate vocalizations with appropriate vocalizations coded as prompted or unprompted during baseline and treatment sessions. All participants experienced increases in appropriate speech during NLP with variable response patterns. Additionally, the two participants with substantial inappropriate vocalizations showed decreases in inappropriate speech. Implications for intervention in day programs are discussed. PMID:16889934

Leblanc, Linda A; Geiger, Kaneen B; Sautter, Rachael A; Sidener, Tina M

2006-08-04

360

Aspects of a Natural Language Based Artificial Intelligence System Report Number Seven: Language and the Structure of Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ARIS is an artificial intelligence system which uses the English language to learn, understand, and communicate. The system attempts to simulate the psychoneurological processes which enable man to communicate verbally. It uses a modified stratificational grammar model and is being programed in PL/1 (a programing language) for an IBM 360/67…

Borden, George A.

361

System and method for dynamically determining the attitude of an author of a natural language document  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for adaptively analyzing a natural language document containing at least one lexical item, said analysis to determine an attitude of an author towards an entity, comprising determining at least one actual valence for the at least one lexical item by analyzing the at least one lexical item in context, determining the attitude based on the at least one actual valence, associating the author, the entity and the attitude, and wherein the at least one lexical item encodes attitude information about the entity.

2008-05-06

362

Detecting inpatient falls by using natural language processing of electronic medical records  

PubMed Central

Background Incident reporting is the most common method for detecting adverse events in a hospital. However, under-reporting or non-reporting and delay in submission of reports are problems that prevent early detection of serious adverse events. The aim of this study was to determine whether it is possible to promptly detect serious injuries after inpatient falls by using a natural language processing method and to determine which data source is the most suitable for this purpose. Methods We tried to detect adverse events from narrative text data of electronic medical records by using a natural language processing method. We made syntactic category decision rules to detect inpatient falls from text data in electronic medical records. We compared how often the true fall events were recorded in various sources of data including progress notes, discharge summaries, image order entries and incident reports. We applied the rules to these data sources and compared F-measures to detect falls between these data sources with reference to the results of a manual chart review. The lag time between event occurrence and data submission and the degree of injury were compared. Results We made 170 syntactic rules to detect inpatient falls by using a natural language processing method. Information on true fall events was most frequently recorded in progress notes (100%), incident reports (65.0%) and image order entries (12.5%). However, F-measure to detect falls using the rules was poor when using progress notes (0.12) and discharge summaries (0.24) compared with that when using incident reports (1.00) and image order entries (0.91). Since the results suggested that incident reports and image order entries were possible data sources for prompt detection of serious falls, we focused on a comparison of falls found by incident reports and image order entries. Injury caused by falls found by image order entries was significantly more severe than falls detected by incident reports (p<0.001), and the lag time between falls and submission of data to the hospital information system was significantly shorter in image order entries than in incident reports (p<0.001). Conclusions By using natural language processing of text data from image order entries, we could detect injurious falls within a shorter time than that by using incident reports. Concomitant use of this method might improve the shortcomings of an incident reporting system such as under-reporting or non-reporting and delayed submission of data on incidents.

2012-01-01

363

Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.  

PubMed

The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks. PMID:16956103

Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

2006-05-01

364

On the Simultaneous Interpretation of Real World Image Sequences and their Natural Language Description: The System Soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of previous attempts at connecting vision systems and natural lan- guage systems has been to provide a retrospective descripti on of the analysed image sequence. The step from such an a posterioriapproach towards simultane- ous natural language description reveals a problem which has not yet been dealt with in generation systems. Automatic generation of simultaneous descriptions calls for

Elisabeth André; Gerd Herzog; Thomas Rist

1988-01-01

365

Teaching the tacit knowledge of programming to noviceswith natural language tutoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For beginning programmers, inadequate problem solving and planning skills are among the most salient of their weaknesses. In this paper, we test the efficacy of natural language tutoring to teach and scaffold acquisition of these skills. We describe ProPL (Pro-PELL), a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system that elicits goal decompositions and program plans from students in natural language. The system uses a variety of tutoring tactics that leverage students' intuitive understandings of the problem, how it might be solved, and the underlying concepts of programming. We report the results of a small-scale evaluation comparing students who used ProPL with a control group who read the same content. Our primary findings are that students who received tutoring from ProPL seem to have developed an improved ability to solve the composition problem and displayed behaviors that suggest they were able to think at greater levels of abstraction than students in the read-only group.

Lane, H. Chad; Vanlehn, Kurt

2005-09-01

366

BT-Nurse: computer generation of natural language shift summaries from complex heterogeneous medical data  

PubMed Central

The BT-Nurse system uses data-to-text technology to automatically generate a natural language nursing shift summary in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The summary is solely based on data held in an electronic patient record system, no additional data-entry is required. BT-Nurse was tested for two months in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh NICU. Nurses were asked to rate the understandability, accuracy, and helpfulness of the computer-generated summaries; they were also asked for free-text comments about the summaries. The nurses found the majority of the summaries to be understandable, accurate, and helpful (p<0.001 for all measures). However, nurses also pointed out many deficiencies, especially with regard to extra content they wanted to see in the computer-generated summaries. In conclusion, natural language NICU shift summaries can be automatically generated from an electronic patient record, but our proof-of-concept software needs considerable additional development work before it can be deployed.

Freer, Yvonne; Gatt, Albert; Reiter, Ehud; Sripada, Somayajulu; Sykes, Cindy; Westwater, Dave

2011-01-01

367

WEB-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING: AUTHORING AND ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using up-to-date web technology we designed 13 language activity templates using XML. On the authoring side, for each activity type, we created an easy-to-use web interface to XML templates allowing teachers to create language exercises on- line easily. The interfaces create the XML code for the given exercise and an on-line parser transforms the XML specification into a dynamic HTML

FABIO TAMBURINI; STEFANIA PACI

368

Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) ? and an input formula F are given, and the goal is to construct a formula with certain properties which is equivalent to F, given ? and a set of permitted assumptions. If the LDT is of a certain specified type, whose formulas are either conditional equivalences or Horn-clauses, we show that the AET problem can be reduced to a goal-directed inference method. We present an abstract description of this method, and sketch its realization in Prolog. The relationship between AET and several problems previously discussed in the literature is discussed. In particular, we show how AET can provide a simple and elegant solution to the so-called ``Doctor on Board'' problem, and in effect allows a ``relativization'' of the Closed World Assumption. The ideas in the thesis have all been implemented concretely within the SRI CLARE project, using a real projects and payments database. The LDT for the example database is described in detail, and examples of the types of functionality that can be achieved within the example domain are presented.

Rayner, Manny

1994-05-01

369

The Power of the TSNLP: Lessons from a Diagnostic Evaluation of a Broad-Coverage Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show a diagnostic evaluation of DIPETT, a broad-coverage parser of English sentences. We consider the TSNLP suite as a diagnostic tool, and propose an alternative broader-coverage test suite of test sentences extracted from Quirk et al. We compare the diagnostic effectiveness of the two suites, and draw a few general conclusions. The evaluation results were used to make significant

Elizabeth Scarlett; Stan Szpakowicz

2000-01-01

370

Design and implementation of the Sweble Wikitext parser: unlocking the structured data of Wikipedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart of each wiki, including Wikipedia, is its content. Most machine processing starts and ends with this content. At present, such processing is limited, because most wiki engines today cannot provide a complete and precise representation of the wiki's content. They can only generate HTML. The main reason is the lack of well-defined parsers that can handle the complexity

Hannes Dohrn; Dirk Riehle

2011-01-01

371

Automatic reconstruction of a bacterial regulatory network using Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

Background Manual curation of biological databases, an expensive and labor-intensive process, is essential for high quality integrated data. In this paper we report the implementation of a state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing system that creates computer-readable networks of regulatory interactions directly from different collections of abstracts and full-text papers. Our major aim is to understand how automatic annotation using Text-Mining techniques can complement manual curation of biological databases. We implemented a rule-based system to generate networks from different sets of documents dealing with regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. Results Performance evaluation is based on the most comprehensive transcriptional regulation database for any organism, the manually-curated RegulonDB, 45% of which we were able to recreate automatically. From our automated analysis we were also able to find some new interactions from papers not already curated, or that were missed in the manual filtering and review of the literature. We also put forward a novel Regulatory Interaction Markup Language better suited than SBML for simultaneously representing data of interest for biologists and text miners. Conclusion Manual curation of the output of automatic processing of text is a good way to complement a more detailed review of the literature, either for validating the results of what has been already annotated, or for discovering facts and information that might have been overlooked at the triage or curation stages.

Rodriguez-Penagos, Carlos; Salgado, Heladia; Martinez-Flores, Irma; Collado-Vides, Julio

2007-01-01

372

Neural substrates of figurative language during natural speech perception: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g., "He smokes like a chimney!") occurring in a short story. Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences (CS). The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility, and comprehensibility. Similes contrasted with CS resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG) and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete CS as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG). Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions. PMID:24065897

Nagels, Arne; Kauschke, Christina; Schrauf, Judith; Whitney, Carin; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo

2013-09-19

373

Neural substrates of figurative language during natural speech perception: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g., “He smokes like a chimney!”) occurring in a short story. Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences (CS). The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility, and comprehensibility. Similes contrasted with CS resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG) and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete CS as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG). Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions.

Nagels, Arne; Kauschke, Christina; Schrauf, Judith; Whitney, Carin; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo

2013-01-01

374

Neural network processing of natural language: I. Sensitivity to serial, temporal and abstract structure of language in the infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well before their érst birthday, babies can acquire knowledge of serial order relations (Saffran et al., 1996a), as well as knowledge of more abstract rule- based structural relations (Marcus et al., 1999) between neighbouringspeech sounds within 2 minutes of exposure. These early learners can likewise acquire knowledge of rhythmic or temporal structure of a new language within 5-10 minutes of

Peter Ford Dominey; Franck Ramus

2000-01-01

375

For a new edition of the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. The History of Natural Language Processing and Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article surveys fifty years of work in computational language processing and machine translation, and suggests that a great number of the important ideas were present in the earliest days and hampered only back lack of computational power. Sections review the influence of linguistics proper on the computational area, as well as the influence of artificial intelligence and concerns from

Yorick Wilks

376

Disclosure Control of Natural Language Information to Enable Secure and Enjoyable Communication over the Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.

Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

377

A Natural Language Intelligent Tutoring System for Training Pathologists - Implementation and Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Introduction We developed and evaluated a Natural Language Interface (NLI) for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) in Diagnostic Pathology. The system teaches residents to examine pathologic slides and write accurate pathology reports while providing immediate feedback on errors they make in their slide review and diagnostic reports. Residents can ask for help at any point in the case, and will receive context-specific feedback. Research Questions We evaluated (1) the performance of our natural language system, (2) the effect of the system on learning (3) the effect of feedback timing on learning gains and (4) the effect of ReportTutor on performance to self-assessment correlations. Methods The study uses a crossover 2×2 factorial design. We recruited 20 subjects from 4 academic programs. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions - two conditions for the immediate interface, and two for the delayed interface. An expert dermatopathologist created a reference standard and 2 board certified AP/CP pathology fellows manually coded the residents' assessment reports. Subjects were given the opportunity to self grade their performance and we used a survey to determine student response to both interfaces. Results Our results show a highly significant improvement in report writing after one tutoring session with 4-fold increase in the learning gains with both interfaces but no effect of feedback timing on performance gains. Residents who used the immediate feedback interface first experienced a feature learning gain that is correlated with the number of cases they viewed. There was no correlation between performance and self-assessment in either condition.

El Saadawi, Gilan M.; Tseytlin, Eugene; Legowski, Elizabeth; Jukic, Drazen; Castine, Melissa; Fine, Jeffrey; Gormley, Robert; Crowley, Rebecca S.

2009-01-01

378

Language in Nature: On the Evolutionary Roots of a Cultural Phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What could an evolutionary explanation for language look like? Here I review relevant evidence from linguistics, comparative biology, evolutionary theory and the fossil record, which suggest vocal imitation and hierarchical compositionality as the essential and uniquely human biological foundations of language. I also outline a plausible scenario for how human language evolved, and propose that language preceded, and facilitated the development of, other cognitive domains such as reasoning, the ability to plan, and consciousness.

Zuidema, Willem

379

‘Ideal learning’ of natural language: Positive results about learning from positive evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold's [1967. Language identification in the limit. Information and Control, 16, 447–474] celebrated work on learning in the limit has been taken, by many cognitive scientists, to have powerful negative implications for the learnability of language from positive data (i.e., from mere exposure to linguistic input). This provides one, of several, lines of argument that language acquisition must draw on

Nick Chater; Paul Vitányi

2007-01-01

380

Natural Language as a Tool for Analyzing the Proving Process: The Case of Plane Geometry Proof  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the field of human cognition, language plays a special role that is connected directly to thinking and mental development (e.g., Vygotsky, "1938"). Thanks to "verbal thought", language allows humans to go beyond the limits of immediately perceived information, to form concepts and solve complex problems (Luria, "1975"). So, it appears language

Robotti, Elisabetta

2012-01-01

381

A natural language processing (NLP) tool to assist in the curation of the laboratory Mouse Tumor Biology Database.  

PubMed

A substantial effort of the biological community involves the development of model organism databases containing key genomic information concerning specific organisms. This paper describes a developing natural language processing (NLP) tool, which is aimed at assisting curators of the Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) Database of the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) group by helping them quickly find key information in the articles. PMID:17238769

Xu, Hua; Krupke, Debra; Blake, Judith; Friedman, Carol

2006-01-01

382

A Natural Language Processing (NLP) Tool to Assist in the Curation Of the Laboratory Mouse Tumor Biology Database  

PubMed Central

A substantial effort of the biological community involves the development of model organism databases containing key genomic information concerning specific organisms. This paper describes a developing natural language processing (NLP) tool, which is aimed at assisting curators of the Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) Database of the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) group by helping them quickly find key information in the articles.

Xu, Hua; Krupke, Debra; Blake, Judith; Friedman, Carol

2006-01-01

383

AbstFinder, a prototype abstraction finder for natural language text for use in requirements elicitation: design, methodology, and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to help solve the problems of requirements elicitation, this paper motivates and describes a new approach, based on traditional signal processing methods, for finding abstractions in natural language text. The design of AbstFinder, an implementation of the approach, and the evaluation of its effectiveness on an industrial-strength example are described

Leah Goldin; Daniel M. Berry

1994-01-01

384

Programming Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)|

Tesler, Lawrence G.

1984-01-01

385

Sequence Package Analysis: a new natural language understanding method for improving human response in critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will demonstrate how Sequence Package Analysis, as a new natural language understanding method that is built on\\u000a a set of parsing structures that consist of context-free grammatical units and related prosodic features for identifying affective\\/emotional\\u000a data found in natural speech and blogs, may better accommodate the goals of crisis management and rapid decision making in\\u000a critical systems. Following

Amy Neustein

2006-01-01

386

Toward a Theory-Based Natural Language Capability in Robots and Other Embodied Agents: Evaluating Hausser's SLIM Theory and Database Semantics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computational natural language understanding and generation have been a goal of artificial intelligence since McCarthy, Minsky, Rochester and Shannon first proposed to spend the summer of 1956 studying this and related problems. Although statistical approaches dominate current natural language applications, two current research trends bring…

Burk, Robin K.

2010-01-01

387

You and Your Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The structure, complexity, and peculiarities of the English language are examined in this book, which begins with a discussion of the nature of language. Chapters are devoted to (1) naming--"Language as Answer to a Need"; (2) grammar--"Language as Economy"; (3) words--"Language as the Finding of Minds"; (4) etymology--"Language to Stretch Brains…

Laird, Charlton

388

Identifying QT prolongation from ECG impressions using a general-purpose Natural Language Processor  

PubMed Central

Objective Typically detected via electrocardiograms (ECGs), QT interval prolongation is a known risk factor for sudden cardiac death. Since medications can promote or exacerbate the condition, detection of QT interval prolongation is important for clinical decision support. We investigated the accuracy of natural language processing (NLP) for identifying QT prolongation from cardiologist-generated, free-text ECG impressions compared to corrected QT (QTc) thresholds reported by ECG machines. Methods After integrating negation detection to a locally-developed natural language processor, the KnowledgeMap concept identifier, we evaluated NLP-based detection of QT prolongation compared to the calculated QTc on a set of 44,318 ECGs obtained from hospitalized patients. We also created a string query using regular expressions to identify QT prolongation. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of the methods using manual physician review of the cardiologist-generated reports as the gold standard. To investigate causes of “false positive” calculated QTc, we manually reviewed randomly selected ECGs with a long calculated QTc but no mention of QT prolongation. Separately, we validated the performance of the negation detection algorithm on 5,000 manually-categorized ECG phrases for any medical concept (not limited to QT prolongation) prior to developing the NLP query for QT prolongation. Results The NLP query for QT prolongation correctly identified 2,364 of 2,373 ECGs with QT prolongation with a sensitivity of 0.996 and a positive predictive value of 1.000. There were no false positives. The regular expression query had a sensitivity of 0.999 and positive predictive value of 0.982. In contrast, the positive predictive value of common QTc thresholds derived from ECG machines was 0.07–0.25 with corresponding sensitivities of 0.994–0.046. The negation detection algorithm had a recall of 0.973 and precision of 0.982 for 10,490 concepts found within ECG impressions. Conclusions NLP and regular expression queries of cardiologists’ ECG interpretations can more effectively identify QT prolongation than the automated QTc intervals reported by ECG machines. Future clinical decision support could employ NLP queries to detect QTc prolongation and other reported ECG abnormalities.

Denny, Joshua C.; Miller, Randolph A.; Waitman, Lemuel Russell; Arrieta, Mark; Peterson, Joshua F.

2009-01-01

389

Thai grapheme-to-phoneme using probabilistic GLR parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many difficulties in the Thai language such as the absence of boundary word, linking syllables in pronunciation, and homographs are challenging us in developing a Thai Grapheme-to-Phoneme (G2P) converter. Presently there are a couple Thai G2P systems which are proposed in ruled-based and decision-tree approach. The rule-based approach has a drawback in the limitation of employing the context. The decision-tree

Pongthai Tarsaku; Virach Sornlertlamvanich; Rachod Thongprasirt

2001-01-01

390

Some other kind of being: Human nature and animal subjects in ape language research  

Microsoft Academic Search

When asked to describe herself, Koko the nonhuman primate replied in sign-language that she was indeed a ‘fine animal gorilla’. One of several nonhuman primates that have been undergoing language training since the 1970s, Koko’s ability to grasp the fundaments of human expression have caused both fascination and derision in popular and scientific cultures. Yet visions of the language-using ape

Rebecca Bishop

2010-01-01

391

LDC1: a transportable, knowledge-based natural language processor for office environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1970s, a number of systems providing limited English-language processing capabilities were developed to permit computer access by casual or untrained users. Our interest is in adapting and extending techniques developed for these systems, especially those used in database query systems and our own English-language programming language system (NLC), for use in office environments. This paper describes the Layered

Bruce W. Ballard; John C. Lusth; Nancy L. Tinkham

1984-01-01

392

CTEMP: A Chinese Temporal Parser for Extracting and Normalizing Temporal Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Temporal information is useful in many NLP applications, such as information extraction, question answering and summarization.\\u000a In this paper, we present a temporal parser for extracting and normalizing temporal expressions from Chinese texts. An integrated\\u000a temporal framework is proposed, which includes basic temporal concepts and the classification of temporal expressions. The\\u000a identification of temporal expressions is fulfilled by powerful chart-parsing

Mingli Wu; Wenjie Li; Qin Lu; Baoli Li

2005-01-01

393

Generation of efficient parsers through direct compilation of XML Schema grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread adoption of SOAP and Web services, XML-based processing, and parsing of XML documents in particular, is becoming a performance-critical aspect of business computing. In such scenarios, XML is often constrained by an XML Schema grammar, which can be used during parsing to improve performance. Although traditional grammar-based parser generation techniques could be applied to the XML Schema

Eric Perkins; Morris Matsa; Margaret Gaitatzes Kostoulas; Abraham Heifets; Noah Mendelsohn

2006-01-01

394

Framework for the natural-language-perception-based creative control of unmanned ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. That is why mobile robotics problems are complex with many unanswered questions. To reach a high degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. On the one hand, promising learning theories such as the adaptive critic and creative control have been proposed, while on other hand the human brain"s processing ability has amazed and inspired researchers in the area of Unmanned Ground Vehicles but has been difficult to emulate in practice. A new direction in the fuzzy theory tries to develop a theory to deal with the perceptions conveyed by the natural language. This paper tries to combine these two fields and present a framework for autonomous robot navigation. The proposed creative controller like the adaptive critic controller has information stored in a dynamic database (DB), plus a dynamic task control center (TCC) that functions as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and multi-criteria functions. The TCC module utilizes computational theory of perceptions to deal with the high levels of task planning. The authors are currently trying to implement the model on a real mobile robot and the preliminary results have been described in this paper.

Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

2004-09-01

395

Determining the Reasons for Medication Prescriptions in the EHR using Knowledge and Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of medication indications is significant for automatic applications aimed at improving patient safety, such as computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) contains pertinent information related to patient safety such as information related to appropriate prescribing. However, the reasons for medication prescriptions are usually not explicitly documented in the patient record. This paper describes a method that determines the reasons for medication uses based on information occurring in outpatient notes. The method utilizes drug-indication knowledge that we acquired, and natural language processing. Evaluation showed the method obtained a sensitivity of 62.8%, specificity of 93.9%, precision of 90% and F-measure of 73.9%. This pilot study demonstrated that linking external drug indication knowledge to the EHR for determining the reasons for medication use was promising, but also revealed some challenges. Future work will focus on increasing the accuracy and coverage of the indication knowledge and evaluating its performance using a much larger set of drugs frequently used in the outpatient population.

Li, Ying; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol

2011-01-01

396

ReportTutor - An Intelligent Tutoring System that Uses a Natural Language Interface  

PubMed Central

ReportTutor is an extension to our work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems for visual diagnosis. ReportTutor combines a virtual microscope and a natural language interface to allow students to visually inspect a virtual slide as they type a diagnostic report on the case. The system monitors both actions in the virtual microscope interface as well as text created by the student in the reporting interface. It provides feedback about the correctness, completeness, and style of the report. ReportTutor uses MMTx with a custom data-source created with the NCI Metathesaurus. A separate ontology of cancer specific concepts is used to structure the domain knowledge needed for evaluation of the student’s input including co-reference resolution. As part of the early evaluation of the system, we collected data from 4 pathology residents who typed in their reports without the tutoring aspects of the system, and compared responses to an expert dermatopathologist. We analyzed the resulting reports to (1) identify the error rates and distribution among student reports, (2) determine the performance of the system in identifying features within student reports, and (3) measure the accuracy of the system in distinguishing between correct and incorrect report elements.

Crowley, Rebecca S.; Tseytlin, Eugene; Jukic, Drazen

2005-01-01

397

Natural-Language Syntax as Procedures for Interpretation: The Dynamics of Ellipsis Construal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we set out the preliminaries needed for a formal theory of context, relative to a linguistic framework in which natural-language syntax is defined as procedures for context-dependent interpretation. Dynamic Syntax provides a formalism where both representations of content and context are defined dynamically and structurally, with time-linear monotonic growth across sequences of partial trees as the core structure-inducing notion. The primary data involve elliptical fragments, as these provide less familiar evidence of the requisite concept of context than anaphora, but equally central. As part of our sketch of the framework, we show how apparent anomalies for a time-linear basis for interpretation can be straightforwardly characterised once we adopt a new perspective on syntax as the dynamics of transitions between parse-states. We then take this as the basis for providing an integrated account of ellipsis construal. And, as a bonus, we will show how this intrinsically dynamic perspective extends in a seamless way to dialogue exchanges with free shifting of role between speaking and hearing (split-utterances). We shall argue that what is required to explain such dialogue phenomena is for contexts, as representations of content, to include not merely partial structures but also the sequence of actions that led to such structures.

Kempson, Ruth; Gregoromichelaki, Eleni; Meyer-Viol, Wilfried; Purver, Matthew; White, Graham; Cann, Ronnie

398

Determining the reasons for medication prescriptions in the EHR using knowledge and natural language processing.  

PubMed

Knowledge of medication indications is significant for automatic applications aimed at improving patient safety, such as computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) contains pertinent information related to patient safety such as information related to appropriate prescribing. However, the reasons for medication prescriptions are usually not explicitly documented in the patient record. This paper describes a method that determines the reasons for medication uses based on information occurring in outpatient notes. The method utilizes drug-indication knowledge that we acquired, and natural language processing. Evaluation showed the method obtained a sensitivity of 62.8%, specificity of 93.9%, precision of 90% and F-measure of 73.9%. This pilot study demonstrated that linking external drug indication knowledge to the EHR for determining the reasons for medication use was promising, but also revealed some challenges. Future work will focus on increasing the accuracy and coverage of the indication knowledge and evaluating its performance using a much larger set of drugs frequently used in the outpatient population. PMID:22195134

Li, Ying; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol

2011-10-22

399

Natural language processing to extract follow-up provider information from hospital discharge summaries  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluate the performance of a Natural Language Processing (NLP) application designed to extract follow-up provider information from free-text discharge summaries at two hospitals. Evaluation: We compare performance by the NLP application, called the Regenstrief EXtracion tool (REX), to performance by three physician reviewers at extracting follow-up provider names, phone/fax numbers and location information. Precision, recall, and F-measures are reported, with 95% CI for pairwise comparisons. Results: Of 556 summaries with follow-up information, REX performed as follows in precision, recall, F-measure respectively: Provider Name 0.96, 0.92, 0.94; Phone/Fax 0.99, 0.92, 0.96; Location 0.83, 0.82, 0.82. REX was as good as all physician-reviewers in identifying follow-up provider names and phone/fax numbers, and slightly inferior to two physicians at identifying location information. REX took about four seconds (vs. 3–5 minutes for physician-reviewers) to extract follow-up information. Conclusion: A NLP program had physician-like performance at extracting provider follow-up information from discharge summaries.

Were, Martin C.; Gorbachev, Sergey; Cadwallader, Jason; Kesterson, Joe; Li, Xiaochun; Overhage, J. Marc; Friedlin, Jeff

2010-01-01

400

Bringing Chatbots into education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an extensive body of work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: computer environments for education, teaching and training that adapt to the needs of the individual learner. Work on personalisation and adaptivity has included research into allowing the student user to enhance the system's adaptivity by improving the accuracy of the underlying learner model. Open Learner Modelling, where the system's model of the user's knowledge is revealed to the user, has been proposed to support student reflection on their learning. Increased accuracy of the learner model can be obtained by the student and system jointly negotiating the learner model. We present the initial investigations into a system to allow people to negotiate the model of their understanding of a topic in natural language. This paper discusses the development and capabilities of both conversational agents (or chatbots) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular Open Learner Modelling. We describe a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to investigate the feasibility of using a chatbot to support negotiation, and conclude that a fusion of the two fields can lead to developing negotiation techniques for chatbots and the enhancement of the Open Learner Model. This technology, if successful, could have widespread application in schools, universities and other training scenarios.

Kerlyl, Alice; Hall, Phil; Bull, Susan

401

Automated Extraction of BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories from Radiology Reports with Natural Language Processing.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm that determines American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment categories from radiology reports. This HIPAA-compliant study was granted institutional review board approval with waiver of informed consent. This cross-sectional study involved 1,165 breast imaging reports in the electronic medical record (EMR) from a tertiary care academic breast imaging center from 2009. Reports included screening mammography, diagnostic mammography, breast ultrasound, combined diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging studies. Over 220 reports were included from each study type. The recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of a NLP algorithm to collect BI-RADS final assessment categories stated in the report final text was evaluated against a manual human review standard reference. For all breast imaging reports, the NLP algorithm demonstrated a recall of 100.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 99.7, 100.0 %) and a precision of 96.6 % (95 % CI, 95.4, 97.5 %) for correct identification of BI-RADS final assessment categories. The NLP algorithm demonstrated high recall and precision for extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from the free text of breast imaging reports. NLP may provide an accurate, scalable data extraction mechanism from reports within EMRs to create databases to track breast imaging performance measures and facilitate optimal breast cancer population management strategies. PMID:23868515

Sippo, Dorothy A; Warden, Graham I; Andriole, Katherine P; Lacson, Ronilda; Ikuta, Ichiro; Birdwell, Robyn L; Khorasani, Ramin

2013-10-01

402

Natural Language Processing Versus Content-Based Image Analysis for Medical Document Retrieval  

PubMed Central

One of the most significant recent advances in health information systems has been the shift from paper to electronic documents. While research on automatic text and image processing has taken separate paths, there is a growing need for joint efforts, particularly for electronic health records and biomedical literature databases. This work aims at comparing text-based versus image-based access to multimodal medical documents using state-of-the-art methods of processing text and image components. A collection of 180 medical documents containing an image accompanied by a short text describing it was divided into training and test sets. Content-based image analysis and natural language processing techniques are applied individually and combined for multimodal document analysis. The evaluation consists of an indexing task and a retrieval task based on the “gold standard” codes manually assigned to corpus documents. The performance of text-based and image-based access, as well as combined document features, is compared. Image analysis proves more adequate for both the indexing and retrieval of the images. In the indexing task, multimodal analysis outperforms both independent image and text analysis. This experiment shows that text describing images can be usefully analyzed in the framework of a hybrid text/image retrieval system.

Neveol, Aurelie; Deserno, Thomas M.; Darmoni, Stefan J.; Guld, Mark Oliver; Aronson, Alan R.

2009-01-01

403

A unified architecture for natural language processing: deep neural networks with multitask learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a single convolutional neural net- work architecture that, given a sentence, out- puts a host of language processing predic- tions: part-of-speech tags, chunks, named en- tity tags, semantic roles, semantically similar words and the likelihood that the sentence makes sense (grammatically and semanti- cally) using a language model. The entire network is trained jointly on all these tasks

Ronan Collobert; Jason Weston

2008-01-01

404

Language Teaching Methodologies and the Nature of the Individual: A New Definition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the theory that modern language teaching methodologies are based on the assumption that language training can best advance when the individual is viewed as part of a broader context in which interaction between student and teacher, individuals and their learning environment, are considered. (EKN)|

Yoshikawa, Muneo

1982-01-01

405

Why\\/AutoTutor: A Test of Learning Gains from a Physics Tutor with Natural Language Dialog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why\\/AutoTutor is a tutoring system that helps students construct answers to qualitative physics problems by holding a conversation in natural language. Why\\/AutoTutor provides feedback to the student on what the student types in (positive, neutral, negative feedback), pumps the student for more information, prompts the student to fill in missing words, gives hints, fills in missing information with assertions, identifies

E. C. Mathews; H. H. Mitchell; A. Olney; M. Ventura; P. Chipman; M. M. Louwerse

406

Tailoring online information retrieval to user's needs based on a logical semantic approach to natural language processing and UMLS mapping.  

PubMed

Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs. PMID:18694113

Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

2007-10-11

407

Probabilistic Constraint Logic Programming. Formal Foundations of Quantitative and Statistical Inference in Constraint-Based Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, we present two approaches to a rigorous mathematical and\\u000aalgorithmic foundation of quantitative and statistical inference in\\u000aconstraint-based natural language processing. The first approach, called\\u000aquantitative constraint logic programming, is conceptualized in a clear logical\\u000aframework, and presents a sound and complete system of quantitative inference\\u000afor definite clauses annotated with subjective weights. This approach combines\\u000aa

Stefan Riezler

2000-01-01

408

Research Paper: Active Computerized Pharmacovigilance Using Natural Language Processing, Statistics, and Electronic Health Records: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIt is vital to detect the full safety profile of a drug throughout its market life. Current pharmacovigilance systems still have substantial limitations, however. The objective of our work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using natural language processing (NLP), the comprehensive Electronic Health Record (EHR), and association statistics for pharmacovigilance purposes.DesignNarrative discharge summaries were collected from the Clinical Information

Xiaoyan Wang; George Hripcsak; Marianthi Markatou; Carol Friedman

2009-01-01

409

Active computerized pharmacovigilance using natural language processing, statistics, and electronic health records: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE It is vital to detect the full safety profile of a drug throughout its market life. Current pharmacovigilance systems still have substantial limitations, however. The objective of our work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using natural language processing (NLP), the comprehensive Electronic Health Record (EHR), and association statistics for pharmacovigilance purposes. DESIGN Narrative discharge summaries were collected from the Clinical Information System at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH). MedLEE, an NLP system, was applied to the collection to identify medication events and entities which could be potential adverse drug events (ADEs). Co-occurrence statistics with adjusted volume tests were used to detect associations between the two types of entities, to calculate the strengths of the associations, and to determine their cutoff thresholds. Seven drugs/drug classes (ibuprofen, morphine, warfarin, bupropion, paroxetine, rosiglitazone, ACE inhibitors) with known ADEs were selected to evaluate the system. RESULTS One hundred thirty-two potential ADEs were found to be associated with the 7 drugs. Overall recall and precision were 0.75 and 0.31 for known ADEs respectively. Importantly, qualitative evaluation using historic roll back design suggested that novel ADEs could be detected using our system. CONCLUSIONS This study provides a framework for the development of active, high-throughput and prospective systems which could potentially unveil drug safety profiles throughout their entire market life. Our results demonstrate that the framework is feasible although there are some challenging issues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using comprehensive unstructured data from the EHR for pharmacovigilance. PMID:19261932

Wang, Xiaoyan; Hripcsak, George; Markatou, Marianthi; Friedman, Carol

2009-03-04

410

PS2-25: Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Findings from Mammography Reports  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Mammographic findings such as a mass may be associated with breast cancer risk, but these data are only available in free-text reports and require resource-intensive manual abstraction. We developed and tested a Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithm to extract mammographic findings (mass, calcification, asymmetric density, and architectural distortion) from free-text mammography reports. Methods We identified 92,947 reports for women receiving screening and diagnostic mammography at Group Health between 2007–2008. We developed an NLP algorithm based on Perl Regular Expressions in SAS v9.2. The algorithm identifies words indicating mammography findings (mass, distortion, asymmetry and calcification) and their related words denoting laterality, negation, family history, personal history and uncertainty. Three flags are made indicating possible errors of the NLP algorithm. An experienced abstractor manually reviewed a random sample of 50 mammography reports to test and refine the NLP algorithm. Results The algorithm correctly identified a mass on 46/50 reports, calcifications on 48/50 reports, asymmetric density on 50/50 reports, and architectural distortion on 48/50 reports. The NLP algorithm misinterprets sentences such as, “there are calcifications with no other asymmetry.” The NLP algorithm incorrectly associated the negation word “No” with the key word “calcifications.” Building more refined rules on association between negation words and key words will improve the accuracy. Conclusions This NLP algorithm holds promise for accurate and fast identification of findings from free-text mammography reports. It can be shared across institutions and is an example of what can be done with free-text radiology reports, in addition to mammography. Manual review may still be necessary for some reports with a high probability of error, depending on resources available.

Gao, Hongyuan; Bowles, Erin Aiello; Carrell, David; Biust, Diana

2013-01-01

411

What to do and how to do it: Translating natural language directives into temporal and dynamic logic representation for goal management and action execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots that can be given instructions in spoken language need to be able to parse a natural language utterance quickly, determine its meaning, generate a goal representation from it, check whether the new goal conflicts with existing goals, and if acceptable, produce an action sequence to achieve the new goal (ideally being sensitive to the existing goals). In this paper,

Juraj Dzifcak; Matthias Scheutz; Chitta Baral; Paul W. Schermerhorn

2009-01-01

412

FASTUS: A System for Extracting Information from Natural-Language Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FASTUS is a system for extracting information from free text in English, and potentially other languages as well, for entry into a database, and potentially for other applications. It works essentially as a cascaded, nondeterministic finite state automato...

D. Appelt D. Israel J. R. Hobbs J. S. Bear W. M. Tyson

1992-01-01

413

The Natural History of Human Language: Bridging the Gaps without Magic  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human languages are quintessentially historical phenomena. Every known aspect of linguistic form and content is subject to\\u000a change in historical time (Lehmann, 1995; Bybee, 2004). Many facts of language, syntactic no less than semantic, find their\\u000a explanation in the historical processes that generated them. If adpositions were once verbs, then the fact that they tend\\u000a to occur on the same

Bjorn Merker; Kazuo Okanoya

2007-01-01

414

Supporting Text Mining for e-Science: the challenges for Grid-enabled Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, language technology has moved rapidly from 'applied research' to 'en- gineering', and from small-scale to large-scale engineering. Applications such as advanced text mining systems are feasible, but very resource-intensive, while research seeking to address the un- derlying language processing questions faces very real practical and methodological limitations. The e-Science vision, and the creation of the

John Carroll; Roger Evans; Ewan Klein

415

A BROAD-COVERAGE, REPRESENTATIONALLY MINIMAL LFG PARSER: CHUNKS AND F-STRUCTURES ARE SUFFICIENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A major reason why LFG employs c-structure is because it is context-free. According to Tree-Adjoining Grammar (TAG), the only context-sensitive operation that is needed to express natural language is Adjoining, from which LFG functional uncertainty has been shown to follow. Functional uncertainty, which is expressed on the level of f-structure, would then be the only extension needed to an

Gerold Schneider

416

Tamacola --- a meta language kit for the web: a report on creating a self-hosting lisp compiler on the Tamarin VM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamacola is a dynamic, self-sustaining meta-language system grounded upon the Tamarin VM. Tamacola compiles a Scheme-like S-expression language into ActionScript bytecodes, and contains meta-linguistic features, such as a PEG parser generator and macro system, which make it useful for defining new languages. In fact, Tamacola is written in itself, using its meta-linguistic features. Since the Tamarin VM can load ActionScript

Takashi Yamamiya; Yoshiki Ohshima

2010-01-01

417

In silico Evolutionary Developmental Neurobiology and the Origin of Natural Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is justified to assume that part of our genetic endowment contributes to our language skills, yet it is impossible to tell at this moment exactly how genes affect the language faculty. We complement experimental biological studies by an in silico approach in that we simulate the evolution of neuronal networks under selection for language-related skills. At the heart of this project is the Evolutionary Neurogenetic Algorithm (ENGA) that is deliberately biomimetic. The design of the system was inspired by important biological phenomena such as brain ontogenesis, neuron morphologies, and indirect genetic encoding. Neuronal networks were selected and were allowed to reproduce as a function of their performance in the given task. The selected neuronal networks in all scenarios were able to solve the communication problem they had to face. The most striking feature of the model is that it works with highly indirect genetic encoding--just as brains do.

Szathmáry, Eörs; Szathmáry, Zoltán; Ittzés, Péter; Orbaán, Gero?; Zachár, István; Huszár, Ferenc; Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Számadó, Szabolcs

418

XTandem Parser: an open-source library to parse and analyse X!Tandem MS/MS search results.  

PubMed

Identification of proteins by MS plays an important role in proteomics. A crucial step concerns the identification of peptides from MS/MS spectra. The X!Tandem Project (http://www.thegpm.org/tandem) supplies an open-source search engine for this purpose. In this study, we present an open-source Java library called XTandem Parser that parses X!Tandem XML result files into an easily accessible and fully functional object model (http://xtandem-parser.googlecode.com). In addition, a graphical user interface is provided that functions as a usage example and an end-user visualization tool. PMID:20140905

Muth, Thilo; Vaudel, Marc; Barsnes, Harald; Martens, Lennart; Sickmann, Albert

2010-04-01

419

Guiding a Reinforcement Learner with Natural Language Advice: Initial Results in RoboCup Soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our current efforts towards creating a reinforc e- ment learner that learns both from reinforcements provided by its environment and from human-generated advice. Our research involves two complementary components: (a) map- ping advice expressed in English to a formal advice language and (b) using advice expressed in a formal notation in a re- inforcement learner. We use a

Gregory Kuhlmann; Peter Stone; Raymond Mooney; Jude Shavlik

2004-01-01

420

FASTUS: A System for Extracting Information from Natural-Language Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

FASTUS is a system for extracting information from free text in En- glish, and potentially other languages as well, for entry into a database, and potentially for other applications. It works essentially as a cas- caded, nondeterministic finite state automaton. There are four steps in the operation of FASTUS. In Step 1 sentences are scanned for cer- tain trigger words

Jerry R. Hobbs; Douglas Appelt; John Bear

1992-01-01

421

Nature and nurture in language acquisition: anatomical and functional brain-imaging studies in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech processing in adult sr elies on precise and specialized networks, located primarily in the left hemi- sphere. Behavioral studies in infants indicate that a considerable amount of language learning already takes place in the first year of life in the domains of phonology, prosody and word segmentation. Thanks to neuroima- ging, we can move beyond behavioral methods and examine

Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Lucie Hertz-Pannier; Jessica Dubois

2006-01-01

422

Natural human-robot interaction through spatial language: A Dynamic Neural Field approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an autonomous robotic system, the ability to share the same workspace and interact with humans is the basis for cooperative behavior. In this work, we investigate human spatial language as the communicative channel between the robot and the human, facilitating their joint work on a tabletop. We specifically combine the theory of Dynamic Neural Fields that represent perceptual and

Yulia Sandamirskaya; John Lipinski; Ioannis Iossifidis; G. Scho?ner

2010-01-01

423

Language evolution without natural selection: From vocabulary to syntax in a population of learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper I put forward a new approach to understanding the origins of some of thekey ingredients in a syntactic system. I show using a computational model that compositionalsyntax is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics of observationally learned communicationsystems. In the model described, a population of simple learning mechanisms traineach other to produce utterances. The "language" in the population

Simon Kirby

1998-01-01

424

What developmental disorders can tell us about the nature and origins of language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few areas in the cognitive sciences evoke more controversy than language evolution, due in part to the difficulty in gathering relevant empirical data. The study of developmental disorders is well placed to provide important new clues, but has been hampered by a lack of consensus on the aims and interpretation of the research project. We suggest that the application of

Hugh Rabagliati; Gary Marcus

2006-01-01

425

Development of a Natural Language Interface to a Geographical Information System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California...

S. W. Toledo B. Davis

1993-01-01

426

Naturalization language testing and its basis in ideologies of national identity and citizenship  

Microsoft Academic Search

National belonging is a central facet of modern social identities. In Europe, nation-building often went hand in hand with linguistic nationalism. While the monarchial empires that preceded the modern nation had been multilingual polities (e.g., the Habsburg Empire), nations were founded on the ideology of “One Language, One Nation.” Nations are not only “Imagined Communities,” that is, systems of cultural

Ingrid Piller

2001-01-01

427

Natural language processing for the development of a clinical registry: a validation study in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical natural language processing (NLP) systems have been developed to identify, extract and encode information within clinical narrative text. However, the role of NLP in clinical research and patient care remains limited. Pancreatic cysts are common. Some pancreatic cysts, such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), have malignant potential and require extended periods of surveillance. We seek to develop a novel NLP system that could be applied in our clinical network to develop a functional registry of IPMN patients. Objectives: This study aims to validate the accuracy of our novel NLP system in the identification of surgical patients with pathologically confirmed IPMN in comparison with our pre-existing manually created surgical database (standard reference). Methods: The Regenstrief EXtraction Tool (REX) was used to extract pancreatic cyst patient data from medical text files from Indiana University Health. The system was assessed periodically by direct sampling and review of medical records. Results were compared with the standard reference. Results: Natural language processing detected 5694 unique patients with pancreas cysts, in 215 of whom surgical pathology had confirmed IPMN. The NLP software identified all but seven patients present in the surgical database and identified an additional 37 IPMN patients not previously included in the surgical database. Using the standard reference, the sensitivity of the NLP program was 97.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.8–98.9%) and its positive predictive value was 95.5% (95% CI 92.3–97.5%). Conclusions: Natural language processing is a reliable and accurate method for identifying selected patient cohorts and may facilitate the identification and follow-up of patients with IPMN.

Al-Haddad, Mohammad A; Friedlin, Jeff; Kesterson, Joe; Waters, Joshua A; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan R; Schmidt, C Max

2010-01-01

428

Crowdsourcing a Normative Natural Language Dataset: A Comparison of Amazon Mechanical Turk and In-Lab Data Collection  

PubMed Central

Background Crowdsourcing has become a valuable method for collecting medical research data. This approach, recruiting through open calls on the Web, is particularly useful for assembling large normative datasets. However, it is not known how natural language datasets collected over the Web differ from those collected under controlled laboratory conditions. Objective To compare the natural language responses obtained from a crowdsourced sample of participants with responses collected in a conventional laboratory setting from participants recruited according to specific age and gender criteria. Methods We collected natural language descriptions of 200 half-minute movie clips, from Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (crowdsourced) and 60 participants recruited from the community (lab-sourced). Crowdsourced participants responded to as many clips as they wanted and typed their responses, whereas lab-sourced participants gave spoken responses to 40 clips, and their responses were transcribed. The content of the responses was evaluated using a take-one-out procedure, which compared responses to other responses to the same clip and to other clips, with a comparison of the average number of shared words. Results In contrast to the 13 months of recruiting that was required to collect normative data from 60 lab-sourced participants (with specific demographic characteristics), only 34 days were needed to collect normative data from 99 crowdsourced participants (contributing a median of 22 responses). The majority of crowdsourced workers were female, and the median age was 35 years, lower than the lab-sourced median of 62 years but similar to the median age of the US population. The responses contributed by the crowdsourced participants were longer on average, that is, 33 words compared to 28 words (P<.001), and they used a less varied vocabulary. However, there was strong similarity in the words used to describe a particular clip between the two datasets, as a cross-dataset count of shared words showed (P<.001). Within both datasets, responses contained substantial relevant content, with more words in common with responses to the same clip than to other clips (P<.001). There was evidence that responses from female and older crowdsourced participants had more shared words (P=.004 and .01 respectively), whereas younger participants had higher numbers of shared words in the lab-sourced population (P=.01). Conclusions Crowdsourcing is an effective approach to quickly and economically collect a large reliable dataset of normative natural language responses.

Bex, Peter J; Woods, Russell L

2013-01-01

429

Proceedings of the Conference on Language and Language Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains the papers read at the Conference on Language and Language Behavior held at the University of Michigan's Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior in October 1966. Papers are ordered under the following topics: First Language Acquisition in Natural Setting, Controlled Acquisition of First Language Skills, Second…

Zale, Eric M., Ed.

430

Toward a Natural Language Interface for Transferring Grasping Skills to Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the findings of a human-robot interaction study that aims at developing a communication language for transferring grasping skills from a nontechnical user to a robot. Participants with different backgrounds and education levels were asked to command a five-degree-of-freedom human-scale robot arm to grasp five small everyday objects. They were allowed to use either commands

Maria Ralph; Medhat A. Moussa

2008-01-01

431

Creating Complex Interactive 3D Visualisations of Naval Battles from Natural Language Narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D graphics programming employing 3D models provide an information-rich, interactive environment. Their use in CGI supported films, such as Avatar, demonstrate their ability to create a compelling audience experience. 3D models and 3D graphics programming have been available for many years. Graphics programming depends on knowledge of programming languages such as C++ and graphics libraries such as OpenGL and DirectX.

Steve Presland; B. Farrimond; P. Hazlewood; A. Oddie

2010-01-01

432

A Proof of the Correctness of a Simple Parser of Expressions by the Boyer-Moore System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this report is to convey the essential idea of a proof by the Boyer-Moore Theorem Prover of the correctness of a parser. The proof required a total of 147 definitions and lemmas--all of which have been listed in the appendix. (Author)

P. Y. Gloess

1978-01-01

433

An Experiment with the Boyer-Moore Theorem Prover: A Proof of the Correctness of a Simple Parser of Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to convey the essential idea of a proof by the Boyer-Moore theorem prover of the correctness of a parser. The proof required a total of 147 functions and lemmas — all of which have been listed in the appendix of [4].

Paul Y. Gloess

1980-01-01

434

GazeParser: an open-source and multiplatform library for low-cost eye tracking and analysis.  

PubMed

Eye movement analysis is an effective method for research on visual perception and cognition. However, recordings of eye movements present practical difficulties related to the cost of the recording devices and the programming of device controls for use in experiments. GazeParser is an open-source library for low-cost eye tracking and data analysis; it consists of a video-based eyetracker and libraries for data recording and analysis. The libraries are written in Python and can be used in conjunction with PsychoPy and VisionEgg experimental control libraries. Three eye movement experiments are reported on performance tests of GazeParser. These showed that the means and standard deviations for errors in sampling intervals were less than 1 ms. Spatial accuracy ranged from 0.7° to 1.2°, depending on participant. In gap/overlap tasks and antisaccade tasks, the latency and amplitude of the saccades detected by GazeParser agreed with those detected by a commercial eyetracker. These results showed that the GazeParser demonstrates adequate performance for use in psychological experiments. PMID:23239074

Sogo, Hiroyuki

2013-09-01

435

Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus within the Nation's Veterans Affairs Medical Centers using natural language processing  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate information is needed to direct healthcare systems’ efforts to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Assembling complete and correct microbiology data is vital to understanding and addressing the multiple drug-resistant organisms in our hospitals. Methods Herein, we describe a system that securely gathers microbiology data from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) network of databases. Using natural language processing methods, we applied an information extraction process to extract organisms and susceptibilities from the free-text data. We then validated the extraction against independently derived electronic data and expert annotation. Results We estimate that the collected microbiology data are 98.5% complete and that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was extracted accurately 99.7% of the time. Conclusions Applying natural language processing methods to microbiology records appears to be a promising way to extract accurate and useful nosocomial pathogen surveillance data. Both scientific inquiry and the data’s reliability will be dependent on the surveillance system’s capability to compare from multiple sources and circumvent systematic error. The dataset constructed and methods used for this investigation could contribute to a comprehensive infectious disease surveillance system or other pressing needs.

2012-01-01

436

The Common Command Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common command language has been proposed for use by systems designers and those developing new user interfaces. There is controversy over the appropriateness of a standard command language, and those who are working in artificial intelligence believe that natural language interfaces will make it unnecessary for users to learn such a language,…

Fayen, Emily Gallup

437

Writing in science: Exploring teachers' and students' views of the nature of science in language enriched environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an influence on meaning construction and understanding in science. Finally, this study concluded that the relationship between students' views of the nature of science and writing in science is complex and is dependent on several factors including the teachers' influence and attitude towards student writing in science.

Decoito, Isha

438

A Natural Language Processing System to Extract and Code Concepts Relating to Congestive Heart Failure from Chest Radiology Reports  

PubMed Central

We have developed a natural language processing system for extracting and coding clinical data from free text reports. The system is designed to be easily modified and adapted to a variety of free text clinical reports such as admission notes, radiology and pathology reports, and discharge summaries. This report presents the results of this system to extract and code clinical concepts related to congestive heart failure from 39,000 chest radiology reports. The system detects the presence or absence of six concepts: congestive heart failure, Kerley B lines, cardiomegaly, prominent pulmonary vasculature, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion. We compared its output to a gold standard which consisted of specially trained human coders as well as an experienced physician. Results indicate that the system had high specificity, recall and precision for each of the concepts it is designed to detect.

Friedlin, Jeff; McDonald, Clement J.

2006-01-01

439

Computer-Aided TRIZ Ideality and Level of Invention Estimation Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patent textual descriptions provide a wealth of information that can be used to understand the underlying design approaches that result in the generation of novel and innovative technology. This article will discuss a new approach for estimating Degree of Ideality and Level of Invention metrics from the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) using patent textual information. Patent text includes information that can be used to model both the functions performed by a design and the associated costs and problems that affect a design’s value. The motivation of this research is to use patent data with calculation of TRIZ metrics to help designers understand which combinations of system components and functions result in creative and innovative design solutions. This article will discuss in detail methods to estimate these TRIZ metrics using natural language processing and machine learning with the use of neural networks.

Adams, Christopher; Tate, Derrick

440

Language Design, Computers and Brains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The processing of natural languages by computers and the programming of computers to simulate some aspects of language learning offer insights into those aspects of language design which allow successful processing to take place as well as those propertie...

H. Kucera

1985-01-01

441

Disfluencies and human language comprehension.  

PubMed

Spoken language contains disfluencies, which include editing terms such as uh and um as well as repeats and corrections. In less than ten years the question of how disfluencies are handled by the human sentence comprehension system has gone from virtually ignored to a topic of major interest in computational linguistics and psycholinguistics. We discuss relevant empirical findings and describe a computational model that captures how disfluencies influence parsing and comprehension. The research reviewed shows that the parser, which presumably evolved to handle conversations, deals with disfluencies in a way that is efficient and linguistically principled. The success of this research program reinforces the current trend in cognitive science to view cognitive mechanisms as adaptations to real-world constraints and challenges. PMID:15120682

Ferreira, Fernanda; Bailey, Karl G D

2004-05-01

442

Why is combinatorial communication rare in the natural world, and why is language an exception to this trend?  

PubMed

In a combinatorial communication system, some signals consist of the combinations of other signals. Such systems are more efficient than equivalent, non-combinatorial systems, yet despite this they are rare in nature. Why? Previous explanations have focused on the adaptive limits of combinatorial communication, or on its purported cognitive difficulties, but neither of these explains the full distribution of combinatorial communication in the natural world. Here, we present a nonlinear dynamical model of the emergence of combinatorial communication that, unlike previous models, considers how initially non-communicative behaviour evolves to take on a communicative function. We derive three basic principles about the emergence of combinatorial communication. We hence show that the interdependence of signals and responses places significant constraints on the historical pathways by which combinatorial signals might emerge, to the extent that anything other than the most simple form of combinatorial communication is extremely unlikely. We also argue that these constraints can be bypassed if individuals have the socio-cognitive capacity to engage in ostensive communication. Humans, but probably no other species, have this ability. This may explain why language, which is massively combinatorial, is such an extreme exception to nature's general trend for non-combinatorial communication. PMID:24047871

Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Blythe, Richard A

2013-09-18

443

A Parsing Algorithm of Free-Word Order Language Using Flat Configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

TagFWO (Tagalog Free-Word Order parser) is a web-based implementation of a new technique to address the problem of parsing discontinuous constituents in a free-word order language, Tagalog. It uses a flat (the verb and all the rest of the constituents are sisters) syntactic structure that differs from the current approaches that use a hierarchical syntactic structure. Using the hierarchical approach

Editha D. Dimalen

444

Arbitrary Symbolism in Natural Language Revisited: When Word Forms Carry Meaning  

PubMed Central

Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog). Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1–2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete) for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., “apartment”) as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., “fate”) as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words.

Reilly, Jamie; Westbury, Chris; Kean, Jacob; Peelle, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

445

Arbitrary symbolism in natural language revisited: when word forms carry meaning.  

PubMed

Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog). Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1-2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete) for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., "apartment") as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., "fate") as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words. PMID:22879931

Reilly, Jamie; Westbury, Chris; Kean, Jacob; Peelle, Jonathan E

2012-08-06

446

Pupils Reasoning about the Nature of Change Using an Abstract Picture Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research is concerned with investigating children's understanding of physical, chemical, and biological changes while using an approach developed by the project Energy and Change. This project aimed to provide novel ways of teaching about the nature and direction of changes, in particular introducing ideas related to the Second Law of…

Stylianidou, Fani; Boohan, Richard

447

FASTUS: A Cascaded Finite-State Transducer for Extracting Information from Natural-Language Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

FASTUS is a system for extracting information from natural lan- guage text for entry into a database and for other applications. It works essentially as a cascaded, nondeterministic finite-state automa- ton. There are five stages in the operation of FASTUS. In Stage 1, names and other fixed form expressions are recognized. In Stage 2, basic noun groups, verb groups, and

Jerry R. Hobbs; Douglas Appelt; John Bear

1996-01-01

448

Not So Randomly Typing Monkeys - Rank-frequency Behavior of Natural and Artificial Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power laws arise through many natural processes. Zipf showed that the frequencies of words, as they appear in Shakespeare's Hamlet, follow a power law distribution. Mandelbrot explained this effect as a result of an underlying information-theoretic optimization problem. Miller invoked doubt by showing that a very simple mechanism could also explain the presence of power laws: A monkey typ- ing

Andreas Krause; Andreas Zollmann

449

Coexistence of Languages is possible  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we study the dynamics of language competition. In Abrams and Strogatz [Modeling the dynamics of language death, Nature 424 (2003) 900], the extinction of one of the competing languages is predicted, although in some case the coexistence occurs. The preservation of both languages was explained by Patriarca and Leppanen [Modeling language competition, Physica A 338 (2004) 296

J. P. Pinasco; L. Romanelli

2006-01-01

450

Exploring the Nature of Language Anxiety: Experiences of NonNative EnglishSpeaking College Students in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thought of learning another language makes some people cringe, while others display neutral to positive reactions. To understand the complex experiences of students learning a new language, this study investigated the affective psychological development encompassing language anxiety (LA) among nonnative Englishspeaking college students in the United States (US). The purpose of this study was to identify LA, while keeping

Noriko Ito

2008-01-01

451

Equilibrium (Zipf) and Dynamic (Grasseberg-Procaccia) method based analyses of human texts. A comparison of natural (english) and artificial (esperanto) languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of two english texts from Lewis Carroll, one (Alice in wonderland), also translated into esperanto, the other (Through a looking glass) are discussed in order to observe whether natural and articial languages signicantly dier from each other. One dimensional time series like signals are constructed using only word frequencies (FTS) or word lengths (LTS). The data is studied

Marcel Ausloos; U. Liege

2008-01-01

452

Evaluation of natural language processing from emergency department computerized medical records for intra-hospital syndromic surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of patients who pose an epidemic hazard when they are admitted to a health facility plays a role in preventing the risk of hospital acquired infection. An automated clinical decision support system to detect suspected cases, based on the principle of syndromic surveillance, is being developed at the University of Lyon's Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse. This tool will analyse structured data and narrative reports from computerized emergency department (ED) medical records. The first step consists of developing an application (UrgIndex) which automatically extracts and encodes information found in narrative reports. The purpose of the present article is to describe and evaluate this natural language processing system. Methods Narrative reports have to be pre-processed before utilizing the French-language medical multi-terminology indexer (ECMT) for standardized encoding. UrgIndex identifies and excludes syntagmas containing a negation and replaces non-standard terms (abbreviations, acronyms, spelling errors...). Then, the phrases are sent to the ECMT through an Internet connection. The indexer's reply, based on Extensible Markup Language, returns codes and literals corresponding to the concepts found in phrases. UrgIndex filters codes corresponding to suspected infections. Recall is defined as the number of relevant processed medical concepts divided by the number of concepts evaluated (coded manually by the medical epidemiologist). Precision is defined as the number of relevant processed concepts divided by the number of concepts proposed by UrgIndex. Recall and precision were assessed for respiratory and cutaneous syndromes. Results Evaluation of 1,674 processed medical concepts contained in 100 ED medical records (50 for respiratory syndromes and 50 for cutaneous syndromes) showed an overall recall of 85.8% (95% CI: 84.1-87.3). Recall varied from 84.5% for respiratory syndromes to 87.0% for cutaneous syndromes. The most frequent cause of lack of processing was non-recognition of the term by UrgIndex (9.7%). Overall precision was 79.1% (95% CI: 77.3-80.8). It varied from 81.4% for respiratory syndromes to 77.0% for cutaneous syndromes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of and interest in developing an automated method for extracting and encoding medical concepts from ED narrative reports, the first step required for the detection of potentially infectious patients at epidemic risk.

2011-01-01

453

SIMD-parallel understanding of natural language with application to magnitude-only optical parsing of text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel parallel model of natural language (NL) understanding is presented which can realize high levels of semantic abstraction, and is designed for implementation on synchronous SIMD architectures and optical processors. Theory is expressed in terms of the Image Algebra (IA), a rigorous, concise, inherently parallel notation which unifies the design, analysis, and implementation of image processing algorithms. The IA has been implemented on numerous parallel architectures, and IA preprocessors and interpreters are available for the FORTRAN and Ada languages. In a previous study, we demonstrated the utility of IA for mapping MEA- conformable (Multiple Execution Array) algorithms to optical architectures. In this study, we extend our previous theory to map serial parsing algorithms to the synchronous SIMD paradigm. We initially derive a two-dimensional image that is based upon the adjacency matrix of a semantic graph. Via IA template mappings, the operations of bottom-up parsing, semantic disambiguation, and referential resolution are implemented as image-processing operations upon the adjacency matrix. Pixel-level operations are constrained to Hadamard addition and multiplication, thresholding, and row/column summation, which are available in magnitude-only optics. Assuming high parallelism in the parse rule base, the parsing of n input symbols with a grammar consisting of M rules of arity H, on an N-processor architecture, could exhibit time complexity of T(n)

Schmalz, Mark S.

1992-08-01

454

Young Children, Language and English Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide, through the study of young children and the nature of language, a real insight into the effective way the young children in Taiwan are supposed to acquire the English language. To begin with, the innate capacities of young children, the principles and needs of their development are examined to discover the nature of early childhood

Wen-Hsiung Lien

455

Integrating Language Study With Literature and Composition Toward an Integrated Language Arts Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|GRADES OR AGES: Grades 3, 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Language, Literature, and Composition. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is organized under six general language concepts: Nature of Language, Language and Communication, Structure of Language, Changes in Language, Relationship Between Speaking and Writing, Language and…

Baltimore County Board of Education, Towson, MD.

456

Medical data analysis and coding using natural language processing techniques in order to derive structured data information.  

PubMed

Medical data are, most of the times, very complex both in form and content. One of the greatest challenges for the IT community in healthcare is to enable the full utilization of these data by information systems. This explicit variety combined with the fact that data usually derives from diverse systems are great obstacles to this task. The result is that data stored in medical information systems usually do not accurately represent reality. In order to eliminate the fallacy between stored and real data, specialized applications that facilitate and accelerate data import into information systems must be developed. This is the goal of Natural Language Processing, the scientific field that combines computer science and linguistics. As a result NLP systems use applications for the coding and standardization of information, known as controlled medical vocabularies. The result of these processes is data that can be used by various technologies, such as clinical data warehouses and decision support systems, the functionality of which is fully dependable on the completeness and accuracy of the data on which their analysis is imposed. PMID:23823373

Nikiforou, Aggeliki; Ponirou, Paraskevi; Diomidous, Marianna

2013-01-01

457

Probabilistic Constraint Logic Programming. Formal Foundations of Quantitative and Statistical Inference in Constraint-Based Natural Language Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we present two approaches to a rigorous mathematical and algorithmic foundation of quantitative and statistical inference in constraint-based natural language processing. The first approach, called quantitative constraint logic programming, is conceptualized in a clear logical framework, and presents a sound and complete system of quantitative inference for definite clauses annotated with subjective weights. This approach combines a rigorous formal semantics for quantitative inference based on subjective weights with efficient weight-based pruning for constraint-based systems. The second approach, called probabilistic constraint logic programming, introduces a log-linear probability distribution on the proof trees of a constraint logic program and an algorithm for statistical inference of the parameters and properties of such probability models from incomplete, i.e., unparsed data. The possibility of defining arbitrary properties of proof trees as properties of the log-linear probability model and efficiently estimating appropriate parameter values for them permits the probabilistic modeling of arbitrary context-dependencies in constraint logic programs. The usefulness of these ideas is evaluated empirically in a small-scale experiment on finding the correct parses of a constraint-based grammar. In addition, we address the problem of computational intractability of the calculation of expectations in the inference task and present various techniques to approximately solve this task. Moreover, we present an approximate heuristic technique for searching for the most probable analysis in probabilistic constraint logic programs.

Riezler, Stefan

2000-08-01

458

Does it really matter whether students' contributions are spoken versus typed in an intelligent tutoring system with natural language?  

PubMed

There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The speech facilitation hypothesis predicts that spoken input will increase learning, whereas the text facilitation hypothesis predicts typed input will be superior. The modality equivalence hypothesis claims that learning gains will be equivalent. Previous experiments that tested these hypotheses were confounded by automated speech recognition systems with substantial error rates that were detected by learners. We addressed this concern in two experiments via a Wizard of Oz procedure, where a human intercepted the learner's speech and transcribed the utterances before submitting them to the tutor. The overall pattern of the results supported the following conclusions: (1) learning gains associated with spoken and typed input were on par and quantitatively higher than a no-intervention control, (2) participants' evaluations of the session were not influenced by modality, and (3) there were no modality effects associated with differences in prior knowledge and typing proficiency. Although the results generally support the modality equivalence hypothesis, highly motivated learners reported lower cognitive load and demonstrated increased learning when typing compared with speaking. We discuss the implications of our findings for intelligent tutoring systems that can support typed and spoken input. PMID:21443377

D'Mello, Sidney K; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur

2011-03-01

459

The CMS DBS query language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS experiment has implemented a flexible and powerful system enabling users to find data within the CMS physics data catalog. The Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) comprises a database and the services used to store and access metadata related to CMS physics data. To this, we have added a generalized query system in addition to the existing web and programmatic interfaces to the DBS. This query system is based on a query language that hides the complexity of the underlying database structure by discovering the join conditions between database tables. This provides a way of querying the system that is simple and straightforward for CMS data managers and physicists to use without requiring knowledge of the database tables or keys. The DBS Query Language uses the ANTLR tool to build the input query parser and tokenizer, followed by a query builder that uses a graph representation of the DBS schema to construct the SQL query sent to underlying database. We will describe the design of the query system, provide details of the language components and overview of how this component fits into the overall data discovery system architecture.

Kuznetsov, Valentin; Riley, Daniel; Afaq, Anzar; Sekhri, Vijay; Guo, Yuyi; Lueking, Lee

2010-04-01

460

Integrating Learner Corpora and Natural Language Processing: A Crucial Step towards Reconciling Technological Sophistication and Pedagogical Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learner corpora, electronic collections of spoken or written data from foreign language learners, offer unparalleled access to many hitherto uncovered aspects of learner language, particularly in their error-tagged format. This article aims to demonstrate the role that the learner corpus can play in CALL, particularly when used in conjunction…

Granger, Sylviane; Kraif, Olivier; Ponton, Claude; Antoniadis, Georges; Zampa, Virginie

2007-01-01

461

The Acquisition of Written Language: Response and Revision. Writing Research: Multidisciplinary Inquiries into the Nature of Writing Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viewing writing as both a form of language learning and an intellectual skill, this book presents essays on how writers acquire trusted inner voices and the roles schools and teachers can play in helping student writers in the learning process. The essays in the book focus on one of three topics: the language of instruction and how response and…

Freedman, Sarah Warshauer, Ed.

462

The Acquisition of Written Language: Response and Revision. Writing Research: Multidisciplinary Inquiries into the Nature of Writing Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Viewing writing as both a form of language learning and an intellectual skill, this book presents essays on how writers acquire trusted inner voices and the roles schools and teachers can play in helping student writers in the learning process. The essays in the book focus on one of three topics: the language of instruction and how response and…

Freedman, Sarah Warshauer, Ed.

463

A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools  

PubMed Central

Background We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Results Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance on the CRAFT corpus when tested with the publicly available models or rule sets. Trainable systems differed widely with respect to their ability to build high-performing models based on this data. Conclusions The finding that some systems were able to train high-performing models based on this corpus is additional evidence, beyond high inter-annotator agreement, that the quality of the CRAFT corpus is high. The overall poor performance of various systems indicates that considerable work needs to be done to enable natural language processing systems to work well when the input is full-text journal articles. The CRAFT corpus provides a valuable resource to the biomedical natural language processing community for evaluation and training of new models for biomedical full text publications.

2012-01-01

464

The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

2010-05-01

465

Natural Language Grammatical Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is concerned with programming a computer to make predictions aboutwhich words are most likely to follow a small segment of English text. At first thismay seem a strange problem, but I intend to show that there exist a wide rangeof applications that would benefit from such a program. Indeed, my motivation forapproaching this problem was to provide a

Jason L. Hutchens

1995-01-01

466

Natural Language Project (NLP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tasks which are being addressed during this phase of the contract are the following: design of a control strategy, design of interaction knowledge bases, inferring information within and between knowledge bases and derivation of concise, relevant summ...

1986-01-01

467

Coh-metrix: analysis of text on cohesion and language.  

PubMed

Advances in computational linguistics and discourse processing have made it possible to automate many language- and text-processing mechanisms. We have developed a computer tool called Coh-Metrix, which analyzes texts on over 200 measures of cohesion, language, and readability. Its modules use lexicons, part-of-speech classifiers, syntactic parsers, templates, corpora, latent semantic analysis, and other components that are widely used in computational linguistics. After the user enters an English text, CohMetrix returns measures requested by the user. In addition, a facility allows the user to store the results of these analyses in data files (such as Text, Excel, and SPSS). Standard text readability formulas scale texts on difficulty by relying on word length and sentence length, whereas Coh-Metrix is sensitive to cohesion relations, world knowledge, and language and discourse characteristics. PMID:15354684

Graesser, Arthur C; McNamara, Danielle S; Louwerse, Max M; Cai, Zhiqiang

2004-05-01

468

Auditory processing in dyslexia and specific language impairment: is there a deficit? What is its nature? Does it explain anything?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much controversy about the extent to which auditory processing deficits are important in the genesis of language disorders, particularly specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia (or specific reading disability—SRD). A review of the available literature reveals that some but not all auditory skills are impaired, on average, in groups of SLI\\/SRD listeners. Typically only a minority of SLI\\/SRD

Stuart Rosen

2003-01-01

469

Natural language processing: State of the art and prospects for significant progress, a workshop sponsored by the National Library of Medicine.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP) is crucial for advancing healthcare because it is needed to transform relevant information locked in text into structured data that can be used by computer processes aimed at improving patient care and advancing medicine. In light of the importance of NLP to health, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) recently sponsored a workshop to review the state of the art in NLP focusing on text in English, both in biomedicine and in the general language domain. Specific goals of the NLM-sponsored workshop were to identify the current state of the art, grand challenges and specific roadblocks, and to identify effective use and best practices. This paper reports on the main outcomes of the workshop, including an overview of the state of the art, strategies for advancing the field, and obstacles that need to be addressed, resulting in recommendations for a research agenda intended to advance the field. PMID:23810857

Friedman, Carol; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Corn, Milton

2013-06-25

470

A SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESIGNED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS AND PERSONS PREPARING TO BECOME FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1892 AND 1966 CONTAINS SECTIONS OF--(1) THE NATURE AND FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE, (2) LINGUISTICS, INCLUDING APPLIED LINGUISTICS FOR SPECIFIC LANGUAGES, (3) PSYCHOLOGY OF LANGUAGE, (4) PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH, (5)…

MICHEL, JOSEPH

471

Understanding Why Things Happen: Case-Studies of Pupils Using an Abstract Picture Language to Represent the Nature of Changes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six 12-year-old students were followed during an eight-month course using "Energy and Change" curricular materials, which introduce ideas related to the Second Law of Thermodynamics through an abstract picture language. Concludes that students had higher levels of generalization in their explanations of physical, chemical, and biological change.…

Stylianidou, Fani; Boohan, Richard

1998-01-01

472

The Nature and Impact of Changes in Home Learning Environment on Development of Language and Academic Skills in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J.

2010-01-01

473

The Nature and Impact of Changes in Home Learning Environment on Development of Language and Academic Skills in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,018) revealed an overall improvement

Seung-Hee Son; Frederick J. Morrison

2010-01-01

474

Language-Dependent Pitch Encoding Advantage in the Brainstem Is Not Limited to Acceleration Rates that Occur in Natural Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experience-dependent enhancement of neural encoding of pitch in the auditory brainstem has been observed for only specific portions of native pitch contours exhibiting high rates of pitch acceleration, irrespective of speech or nonspeech contexts. This experiment allows us to determine whether this language-dependent advantage transfers to…

Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Smalt, Christopher J.; Bidelman, Gavin M.

2010-01-01

475

Paying Attention to Attention Allocation in Second-Language Learning: Some Insights into the Nature of Linguistic Thresholds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three threshold hypotheses proposed by Cummins (1976) and Diaz (1985) as explanations of data on the cognitive consequences of bilingualism are examined in depth and compared to one another. A neuroscientifically updated information-processing perspective on the interaction of second-language comprehension and visual-processing ability is…

Hawson, Anne

1997-01-01

476

Integrated Digital Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the field of technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) is undeniably thriving, most technology-enhanced language\\u000a tools are still relatively crude. One reason for this is that the field is disconnected from research in natural language\\u000a processing (NLP) and corpus linguistics (CL), two fields which could greatly improve the effectiveness of most pedagogical\\u000a tools. The research carried out within the framework of

Georges Antoniadis; Sylviane Granger; Olivier Kraif; Claude Ponton; Julia Medori; Virginie Zampa

477

Development of Clinical Contents Model Markup Language for Electronic Health Records  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop dedicated markup language for clinical contents models (CCM) to facilitate the active use of CCM in electronic health record systems. Methods Based on analysis of the structure and characteristics of CCM in the clinical domain, we designed extensible markup language (XML) based CCM markup language (CCML) schema manually. Results CCML faithfully reflects CCM in both the syntactic and semantic aspects. As this language is based on XML, it can be expressed and processed in computer systems and can be used in a technology-neutral way. Conclusions CCML has the following strengths: it is machine-readable and highly human-readable, it does not require a dedicated parser, and it can be applied for existing electronic health record systems.

Yun, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Yoon

2012-01-01

478

Human Language Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tension exists between the increasingly rich semantic models in knowledge management systems and the continuing prevalence of human language materials in large organisations. The process of tying semantic models and natural language together is referred to as semantic annotation, which may also be char- acterized as the dynamic creation of bidirectional relationships between ontologies and unstructured and semi-structured documents.

Kalina Bontcheva; Brian Davis; Adam Funk; Yaoyong Li; Ting Wang

479

Language, Gesture, and Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American Sign…

Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

480

VHDL - The Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VHSIC hardware description language (or VHDL) provides a standard textual means of description for hardware components at abstraction levels ranging from the logic gate level to the digital system level. It provides precise syntax and semantics for these hardware components, enabling design transfer both within and among organizations. The language is designed to be efficiently simulated and natural for

Roger Lipsett; Erich Marschner; Moe Shahdad

1986-01-01

481

Learning Language from Perceptual Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current natural language processing (NLP) systems are built using statistical learning algo- rithms trained on large annotated corpora which can be expensive and time-consuming to collect. In contrast, humans can learn language through exposure to linguistic input in the context of a rich, rele- vant, perceptual environment. If a machine learning system can acquire language in a similar manner

David L. Chen

482

Programmed Instruction and Language Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article first takes some characteristics of language and suggests that the nature of language makes it, intrinsically, unsuitable to treatment by a fully programmed course. Second, it takes programming and suggests what aspects of language might be assigned to programmed instruction. (Author/LG)|

Littlewood, W. T.

1974-01-01

483

More Fragments of Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

By a fragment of a natural language, we understand a\\u000acollection of sentences forming a naturally delineated subset of\\u000athat language and equipped with a semantics commanding the general\\u000aassent of its native speakers. By the semantic complexity of\\u000asuch a fragment, we understand the computational complexity of\\u000adeciding whether any given set of sentences in that fragment\\u000arepresents a

Ian Pratt-Hartmann; Allan Third

2006-01-01

484

Lampooning Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses trademarks that are calculated misspellings, bumper sticker slogans, the strained and pretentious language of Howard Cosell, and governmental jargon to illustrate how to attune students to the magic and power of language, while poking fun at language abuse. (RL)|

Gillespie, Tim

1982-01-01

485

Language Death or Language Suicide?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of disappearing and no longer used languages in anthropomorphic metaphors "language death" and "language suicide." Three stages in the disappearance of several specific languages are described. Ultimately, the direct cause of "language suicide" is not disappearance of rules but disappearance of speakers; parents stop teaching the…

Denison, Norman

1977-01-01

486

Conceptual Complexity and Apparent Contradictions in Mathematics Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics is like a language, although technically it is not a natural or informal human language, but a formal, that is, artificially constructed language. Importantly, educators use their natural everyday language to teach the formal language of mathematics. At times, however, instructors encounter problems when the technical words they use,…

Gough, John

2007-01-01

487

Language Endangerment and Language Revival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)|

Muhlhausler, Peter

2003-01-01

488

New Figures of Merit for Best-First Probabilistic Chart Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Best-first parsing methods for natural language try to parse efficiently by considering the most likely constituents first. Some figure of merit is needed by which to compare the likelihood of con- stituents, and the choice of this figure has a sub- stantial impact on the efficiency of the parser. While several parsers described in the literature have used such techniques,

Sharon A. Caraballo; Eugene Chamiak

1996-01-01

489

New Figures of Merit for Best-First Probabilistic Chart Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Best-first parsing methods for natural language try to parse efficiently by considering the most likely constituents first. Some figure of merit is needed by which to compare the likelihood of constituents, and the choice of this figure has a substantial impact on the efficiency of the parser. While several parsers described in the literature have used such techniques, there is

Sharon A. Caraballo; Eugene Charniak

1998-01-01

490

Naturalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Things may be split into natural and non-natural. In turn, the natural things may exist either in nature or in society; and\\u000a the unnatural things may be artificial like books or supernatural like gods. Naturalism is the philosophical view, first advanced\\u000a by Thales of Miletus, that the universe and nature are the same, so that there is nothing supernatural and

Mario Bunge

491

Computational Models of Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Child language acquisition, one of Nature’s most fascinating phenomena, is to a large extent still a puzzle. Experimental\\u000a evidence seems to support the view that early language is highly formulaic, consisting for the most part of frozen items with\\u000a limited productivity. Fairly quickly, however, children find patterns in the ambient language and generalize them to larger\\u000a structures, in a process

Shuly Wintner

2010-01-01

492

English Only Movement: Confrontation with Language Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the movement to make English the only official language in the United States' multilingual society examines the nature and scope of the movement and draws instructional and language policy implications for teaching situations involving language-minority populations. It draws a relationship between the politics of language diversity…

Ovando, Carlos J.

493

Intelligent Computer Feedback for Second Language Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a study of the application natural language processing to second-language instruction, two versions of the Nihongo-CALI (computer-assisted language instruction) system were developed. Empirical data support the possibility/effectiveness of intelligent CALI to facilitate second-language acquisition. (19 references) (LB)|

Nagata, Noriko

1993-01-01

494

A Survey of Automatic Urdu Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the research in last few decades has focused on automatic natural language processing (NLP) in English, European and East Asian languages. But unfortunately South Asian languages especially Urdu have received less attention. In this paper we present a survey regarding classification of Urdu language. The main goal of this survey is to present briefly about the material available

Waqas Anwar; Xuan Wang; Xiao-Long Wang

2006-01-01

495

Language Policy and Language Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the problems of language policy and planning in terms of past history. Two principles most basic to language policy orientation are: (1) principle of personality (the state accommodates itself to the individual's language preference), and (2) principle of territoriality (the individual accommodates to the language of the state). (JMF)|

Mackey, William F.

1979-01-01

496

Developmental Changes in the Nature of Language Proficiency and Reading Fluency Paint a More Complex View of Reading Comprehension in ELL and EL1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined theoretical issues concerning the development of reading fluency and language proficiency in 390 English Language Learners (ELLs,) and 149 monolingual, English-as-a-first language (EL1) students. The extent to which performance on these constructs in Grade 5 (i.e., concurrent predictors) contributes to reading comprehension in the…

Geva, Esther; Farnia, Fataneh

2012-01-01

497

Coexistence of Languages is possible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we study the dynamics of language competition. In Abrams and Strogatz [Modeling the dynamics of language death, Nature 424 (2003) 900], the extinction of one of the competing languages is predicted, although in some case the coexistence occurs. The preservation of both languages was explained by Patriarca and Leppanen [Modeling language competition, Physica A 338 (2004) 296] by introducing the existence of two disjoint zones where each language is predominant. However, their results cannot explain the survivance of both languages in only one zone of competition. In this work we discuss their results and propose a new alternative model of Lotka Volterra type in order to explain the coexistence of two languages.

Pinasco, J. P.; Romanelli, L.

2006-02-01

498

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature.

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

499

Evolutionary biology of language.  

PubMed Central

Language is the most important evolutionary invention of the last few million years. It was an adaptation that helped our species to exchange information, make plans, express new ideas and totally change the appearance of the planet. How human language evolved from animal communication is one of the most challenging questions for evolutionary biology The aim of this paper is to outline the major principles that guided language evolution in terms of mathematical models of evolutionary dynamics and game theory. I will discuss how natural selection can lead to the emergence of arbitrary signs, the formation of words and syntactic communication.

Nowak, M A

2000-01-01

500

Positivity of the English Language  

PubMed Central

Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use.

Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

2012-01-01