Science.gov

Sample records for natural language parsers

  1. Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

  2. Evaluating contributions of natural language parsers to protein–protein interaction extraction

    PubMed Central

    Miyao, Yusuke; Sagae, Kenji; Sætre, Rune; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: While text mining technologies for biomedical research have gained popularity as a way to take advantage of the explosive growth of information in text form in biomedical papers, selecting appropriate natural language processing (NLP) tools is still difficult for researchers who are not familiar with recent advances in NLP. This article provides a comparative evaluation of several state-of-the-art natural language parsers, focusing on the task of extracting protein–protein interaction (PPI) from biomedical papers. We measure how each parser, and its output representation, contributes to accuracy improvement when the parser is used as a component in a PPI system. Results: All the parsers attained improvements in accuracy of PPI extraction. The levels of accuracy obtained with these different parsers vary slightly, while differences in parsing speed are larger. The best accuracy in this work was obtained when we combined Miyao and Tsujii's Enju parser and Charniak and Johnson's reranking parser, and the accuracy is better than the state-of-the-art results on the same data. Availability: The PPI extraction system used in this work (AkanePPI) is available online at http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/-100downloads/downloads.cgi. The evaluated parsers are also available online from each developer's site. Contact: yusuke@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp PMID:19073593

  3. Benchmarking natural-language parsers for biological applications using dependency graphs

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2007-01-01

    Background Interest is growing in the application of syntactic parsers to natural language processing problems in biology, but assessing their performance is difficult because differences in linguistic convention can falsely appear to be errors. We present a method for evaluating their accuracy using an intermediate representation based on dependency graphs, in which the semantic relationships important in most information extraction tasks are closer to the surface. We also demonstrate how this method can be easily tailored to various application-driven criteria. Results Using the GENIA corpus as a gold standard, we tested four open-source parsers which have been used in bioinformatics projects. We first present overall performance measures, and test the two leading tools, the Charniak-Lease and Bikel parsers, on subtasks tailored to reflect the requirements of a system for extracting gene expression relationships. These two tools clearly outperform the other parsers in the evaluation, and achieve accuracy levels comparable to or exceeding native dependency parsers on similar tasks in previous biological evaluations. Conclusion Evaluating using dependency graphs allows parsers to be tested easily on criteria chosen according to the semantics of particular biological applications, drawing attention to important mistakes and soaking up many insignificant differences that would otherwise be reported as errors. Generating high-accuracy dependency graphs from the output of phrase-structure parsers also provides access to the more detailed syntax trees that are used in several natural-language processing techniques. PMID:17254351

  4. Application of a rules-based natural language parser to critical value reporting in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Owens, Scott R; Balis, Ulysses G J; Lucas, David R; Myers, Jeffrey L

    2012-03-01

    Critical values in anatomic pathology are rare occurrences and difficult to define with precision. Nevertheless, accrediting institutions require effective and timely communication of all critical values generated by clinical and anatomic laboratories. Provisional gating criteria for potentially critical anatomic diagnoses have been proposed, with some success in their implementation reported in the literature. Ensuring effective communication is challenging, however, making the case for programmatic implementation of a turnkey-style integrated information technology solution. To address this need, we developed a generically deployable laboratory information system-based tool, using a tiered natural language processing predicate calculus inference engine to identify qualifying cases that meet criteria for critical diagnoses but lack an indication in the electronic medical record for an appropriate clinical discussion with the ordering physician of record. Using this tool, we identified an initial cohort of 13,790 cases over a 49-month period, which were further explored by reviewing the available electronic medical record for each patient. Of these cases, 35 (0.3%) were judged to require intervention in the form of direct communication between the attending pathologist and the clinical physician of record. In 8 of the 35 cases, this intervention resulted in the conveyance of new information to the requesting physician and/or a change in the patient's clinical plan. The very low percentage of such cases (0.058%) illustrates their rarity in daily practice, making it unlikely that manual identification/notification approaches alone can reliably manage them. The automated turnkey system was useful in avoiding missed handoffs of significant, clinically actionable diagnoses. PMID:22343338

  5. COD::CIF::Parser: an error-correcting CIF parser for the Perl language

    PubMed Central

    Merkys, Andrius; Vaitkus, Antanas; Butkus, Justas; Okulič-Kazarinas, Mykolas; Kairys, Visvaldas; Gražulis, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    A syntax-correcting CIF parser, COD::CIF::Parser, is presented that can parse CIF 1.1 files and accurately report the position and the nature of the discovered syntactic problems. In addition, the parser is able to automatically fix the most common and the most obvious syntactic deficiencies of the input files. Bindings for Perl, C and Python programming environments are available. Based on COD::CIF::Parser, the cod-tools package for manipulating the CIFs in the Crystallography Open Database (COD) has been developed. The cod-tools package has been successfully used for continuous updates of the data in the automated COD data deposition pipeline, and to check the validity of COD data against the IUCr data validation guidelines. The performance, capabilities and applications of different parsers are compared. PMID:26937241

  6. The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser

    SciTech Connect

    Sagan, D.; Forster, M.; Bates, D.A.; Wolski, A.; Schmidt, F.; Walker, N.J.; Larrieu, T.; Roblin, Y.; Pelaia, T.; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; Reiche, S.; /UCLA

    2006-10-06

    A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally, this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

  7. Natural-Language Parser for PBEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A computer program called "Hunter" accepts, as input, a colloquial-English description of a set of policy-based-management rules, and parses that description into a form useable by policy-based enterprise management (PBEM) software. PBEM is a rules-based approach suitable for automating some management tasks. PBEM simplifies the management of a given enterprise through establishment of policies addressing situations that are likely to occur. Hunter was developed to have a unique capability to extract the intended meaning instead of focusing on parsing the exact ways in which individual words are used.

  8. Speed up of XML parsers with PHP language implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, authors introduce PHP5's XML implementation and show how to read, parse, and write a short and uncomplicated XML file using Simple XML in a PHP environment. The possibilities for mutual work of PHP5 language and XML standard are described. The details of parsing process with Simple XML are also cleared. A practical project PHP-XML-MySQL presents the advantages of XML implementation in PHP modules. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of PHP software tools. The proposed project includes database, which can be extended with new data and new XML parsing functions.

  9. A natural language interface to databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a Natural Language Interface which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation is presented. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine. A key point is that the parser handles morphological analysis, which expands its capabilities of understanding more words.

  10. Parsing clinical text: how good are the state-of-the-art parsers?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Parsing, which generates a syntactic structure of a sentence (a parse tree), is a critical component of natural language processing (NLP) research in any domain including medicine. Although parsers developed in the general English domain, such as the Stanford parser, have been applied to clinical text, there are no formal evaluations and comparisons of their performance in the medical domain. Methods In this study, we investigated the performance of three state-of-the-art parsers: the Stanford parser, the Bikel parser, and the Charniak parser, using following two datasets: (1) A Treebank containing 1,100 sentences that were randomly selected from progress notes used in the 2010 i2b2 NLP challenge and manually annotated according to a Penn Treebank based guideline; and (2) the MiPACQ Treebank, which is developed based on pathology notes and clinical notes, containing 13,091 sentences. We conducted three experiments on both datasets. First, we measured the performance of the three state-of-the-art parsers on the clinical Treebanks with their default settings. Then we re-trained the parsers using the clinical Treebanks and evaluated their performance using the 10-fold cross validation method. Finally we re-trained the parsers by combining the clinical Treebanks with the Penn Treebank. Results Our results showed that the original parsers achieved lower performance in clinical text (Bracketing F-measure in the range of 66.6%-70.3%) compared to general English text. After retraining on the clinical Treebank, all parsers achieved better performance, with the best performance from the Stanford parser that reached the highest Bracketing F-measure of 73.68% on progress notes and 83.72% on the MiPACQ corpus using 10-fold cross validation. When the combined clinical Treebanks and Penn Treebank was used, of the three parsers, the Charniak parser achieved the highest Bracketing F-measure of 73.53% on progress notes and the Stanford parser reached the highest F

  11. Fast parsers for Entrez Gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyi; Grigoriev, Andrei

    2005-07-15

    NCBI completed the transition of its main genome annotation database from Locuslink to Entrez Gene in Spring 2005. However, to this date few parsers exist for the Entrez Gene annotation file. Owing to the widespread use of Locuslink and the popularity of Perl programming language in bioinformatics, a publicly available high performance Entrez Gene parser in Perl is urgently needed. We present four such parsers that were developed using several parsing approaches (Parse::RecDescent, Parse::Yapp, Perl-byacc and Perl 5 regular expressions) and provide the first in-depth comparison of these sophisticated Perl tools. Our fastest parser processes the entire human Entrez Gene annotation file in under 12 min on one Intel Xeon 2.4 GHz CPU and can be of help to the bioinformatics community during and after the transition from Locuslink to Entrez Gene. PMID:15879451

  12. Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Small, S.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

  13. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  14. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  15. PASCAL LR(1) Parser Generator System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1988-05-04

    LRSYS is a complete LR(1) parser generator system written entirely in a portable subset of Pascal. The system, LRSYS, includes a grammar analyzer program (LR) which reads a context-free (BNF) grammar as input and produces LR(1) parsing tables as output, a lexical analyzer generator (LEX) which reads regular expressions created by the REG process as input and produces lexical tables as output, and various parser skeletons that get merged with the tables to produce completemore » parsers (SMAKE). Current parser skeletons include Pascal, FORTRAN 77, and C. Other language skeletons can easily be added to the system. LRSYS is based on the LR program.« less

  16. Natural language parsing in a hybrid connectionist-symbolic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-03-01

    Most connectionist parsers either cannot guarantee the correctness of their derivations or have to simulate a serial flow of control. In the first case, users have to restrict the tasks (e.g. parse less complex or shorter sentences) of the parser or they need to believe in the soundness of the result. In the second case, the resulting network has lost most of its attractivity because seriality needs to be hard-coded into the structure of the net. We here present a hybrid symbolic connectionist parser, which was designed to fulfill the following goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free grammar, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network. Our hybrid architecture consists of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. BrainC (Backtracking and Backpropagation in C) combines the well known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent the typical properties of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN- Workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. We discuss how BrainC reached its design goals and what results we observed.

  17. Natural language watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkara, Mercan; Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we discuss natural language watermarking, which uses the structure of the sentence constituents in natural language text in order to insert a watermark. This approach is different from techniques, collectively referred to as "text watermarking," which embed information by modifying the appearance of text elements, such as lines, words, or characters. We provide a survey of the current state of the art in natural language watermarking and introduce terminology, techniques, and tools for text processing. We also examine the parallels and differences of the two watermarking domains and outline how techniques from the image watermarking domain may be applicable to the natural language watermarking domain.

  18. La Description des langues naturelles en vue d'applications linguistiques: Actes du colloque (The Description of Natural Languages with a View to Linguistic Applications: Conference Papers). Publication K-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellon, Conrad, Comp.

    Presentations from a colloquium on applications of research on natural languages to computer science address the following topics: (1) analysis of complex adverbs; (2) parser use in computerized text analysis; (3) French language utilities; (4) lexicographic mapping of official language notices; (5) phonographic codification of Spanish; (6)…

  19. The parser generator as a general purpose tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.; Collins, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The parser generator has proven to be an extremely useful, general purpose tool. It can be used effectively by programmers having only a knowledge of grammars and no training at all in the theory of formal parsing. Some of the application areas for which a table-driven parser can be used include interactive, query languages, menu systems, translators, and programming support tools. Each of these is illustrated by an example grammar.

  20. Natural language generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  1. Natural language modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  2. A shallow parser based on closed-class words to capture relations in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Gondy; Chen, Hsinchun; Martinez, Jesse D

    2003-06-01

    Natural language processing for biomedical text currently focuses mostly on entity and relation extraction. These entities and relations are usually pre-specified entities, e.g., proteins, and pre-specified relations, e.g., inhibit relations. A shallow parser that captures the relations between noun phrases automatically from free text has been developed and evaluated. It uses heuristics and a noun phraser to capture entities of interest in the text. Cascaded finite state automata structure the relations between individual entities. The automata are based on closed-class English words and model generic relations not limited to specific words. The parser also recognizes coordinating conjunctions and captures negation in text, a feature usually ignored by others. Three cancer researchers evaluated 330 relations extracted from 26 abstracts of interest to them. There were 296 relations correctly extracted from the abstracts resulting in 90% precision of the relations and an average of 11 correct relations per abstract. PMID:14615225

  3. Left-corner unification-based natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lytinen, S.L.; Tomuro, N.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for parsing natural language using unification grammars. The algorithm is an extension of left-corner parsing, a bottom-up algorithm which utilizes top-down expectations. The extension exploits unification grammar`s uniform representation of syntactic, semantic, and domain knowledge, by incorporating all types of grammatical knowledge into parser expectations. In particular, we extend the notion of the reachability table, which provides information as to whether or not a top-down expectation can be realized by a potential subconstituent, by including all types of grammatical information in table entries, rather than just phrase structure information. While our algorithm`s worst-case computational complexity is no better than that of many other algorithms, we present empirical testing in which average-case linear time performance is achieved. Our testing indicates this to be much improved average-case performance over previous leftcomer techniques.

  4. A Table Look-Up Parser in Online ILTS Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang; Tokuda, Naoyuki; Hou, Pingkui

    2005-01-01

    A simple table look-up parser (TLUP) has been developed for parsing and consequently diagnosing syntactic errors in semi-free formatted learners' input sentences of an intelligent language tutoring system (ILTS). The TLUP finds a parse tree for a correct version of an input sentence, diagnoses syntactic errors of the learner by tracing and…

  5. A lex-based mad parser and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg Krivosheev et al.

    2001-07-03

    An embeddable and portable Lex-based MAD language parser has been developed. The parser consists of a front-end which reads a MAD file and keeps beam elements, beam line data and algebraic expressions in tree-like structures, and a back-end, which processes the front-end data to generate an input file or data structures compatible with user applications. Three working programs are described, namely, a MAD to C++ converter, a dynamic C++ object factory and a MAD-MARS beam line builder. Design and implementation issues are discussed.

  6. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naur, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

  7. A natural language interface for real-time dialogue in the flight domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M.; Ai, C.-S.; Ferber, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A flight expert system (FLES) is being developed to assist pilots in monitoring, diagnosisng and recovering from in-flight faults. To provide a communications interface between the flight crew and FLES, a natural language interface, has been implemented. Input to NALI is processed by three processors: (1) the semantic parser, (2) the knowledge retriever, and (3) the response generator. The architecture of NALI has been designed to process both temporal and nontemporal queries. Provisions have also been made to reduce the number of system modifications required for adapting NALI to other domains. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of NALI.

  8. The Nature of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UWM Magazine, 1968

    1968-01-01

    Four behavioral scientists in a colloquium at the University of Wisconsin discussed various aspects of language learning. Concerned primarily with pre-high-school pupils and addressing their remarks to language teachers, the scientists offered these proposals: (1) language teaching is more effective if taught in a natural setting, (2)…

  9. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  10. The Nature of Natural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Joe E.

    A variety of types of evidence are examined to help determine the true nature of "deep structure" and what, if any, implications this has for linguistic theory as well as culture theory generally. The evidence accumulated over the past century on the nature of phonetic and phonemic systems is briefly discussed, and the following areas of analysis…

  11. Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

  12. A Natural Language Graphics System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David, C.; Kwasny, Stan C.

    This report describes an experimental system for drawing simple pictures on a computer graphics terminal using natural language input. The system is capable of drawing lines, points, and circles on command from the user, as well as answering questions about system capabilities and objects on the screen. Erasures are permitted and language input…

  13. Parser Combinators: a Practical Application for Generating Parsers for NMR Data.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Matthew; Weatherby, Gerard; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Gryk, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a technique for acquiring protein data at atomic resolution and determining the three-dimensional structure of large protein molecules. A typical structure determination process results in the deposition of a large data sets to the BMRB (Bio-Magnetic Resonance Data Bank). This data is stored and shared in a file format called NMR-Star. This format is syntactically and semantically complex making it challenging to parse. Nevertheless, parsing these files is crucial to applying the vast amounts of biological information stored in NMR-Star files, allowing researchers to harness the results of previous studies to direct and validate future work. One powerful approach for parsing files is to apply a Backus-Naur Form (BNF) grammar, which is a high-level model of a file format. Translation of the grammatical model to an executable parser may be automatically accomplished. This paper will show how we applied a model BNF grammar of the NMR-Star format to create a free, open-source parser, using a method that originated in the functional programming world known as "parser combinators". This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of a principled approach to file specification and parsing. This paper also builds upon our previous work [1], in that 1) it applies concepts from Functional Programming (which is relevant even though the implementation language, Java, is more mainstream than Functional Programming), and 2) all work and accomplishments from this project will be made available under standard open source licenses to provide the community with the opportunity to learn from our techniques and methods. PMID:24352525

  14. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. PMID:26185244

  15. Connectionist natural language parsing with BrainC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-08-01

    A close examination of pure neural parsers shows that they either could not guarantee the correctness of their derivations or had to hard-code seriality into the structure of the net. The authors therefore decided to use a hybrid architecture, consisting of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. The system fulfills the following design goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free language, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network to increase the efficiency of the whole system. BrainC (backtracktacking and backpropagation in C) combines the well- known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent typical structures of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. The design of the system and then the results are discussed.

  16. Wild Words: Nature, Language and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisner, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ways that language misrepresents nature, pointing out that frequently used metaphors and problematic language usage provide limited conceptual and emotional understanding of the natural world and contribute to a degraded view of nature. Discusses strategies for changing language as the first step in changing attitudes toward nature. (LP)

  17. Computational models of natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bara, B.G.; Guida, G.

    1984-01-01

    The main concern in this work is the illustration of models for natural language processing, and the discussion of their role in the development of computational studies of language. Topics covered include the following: competence and performance in the design of natural language systems; planning and understanding speech acts by interpersonal games; a framework for integrating syntax and semantics; knowledge representation and natural language: extending the expressive power of proposition nodes; viewing parsing as word sense discrimination: a connectionist approach; a propositional language for text representation; from topic and focus of a sentence to linking in a text; language generation by computer; understanding the Chinese language; semantic primitives or meaning postulates: mental models of propositional representations; narrative complexity based on summarization algorithms; using focus to constrain language generation; and towards an integral model of language competence.

  18. Integration of speech with natural language understanding.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R C

    1995-01-01

    The integration of speech recognition with natural language understanding raises issues of how to adapt natural language processing to the characteristics of spoken language; how to cope with errorful recognition output, including the use of natural language information to reduce recognition errors; and how to use information from the speech signal, beyond just the sequence of words, as an aid to understanding. This paper reviews current research addressing these questions in the Spoken Language Program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). I begin by reviewing some of the ways that spontaneous spoken language differs from standard written language and discuss methods of coping with the difficulties of spontaneous speech. I then look at how systems cope with errors in speech recognition and at attempts to use natural language information to reduce recognition errors. Finally, I discuss how prosodic information in the speech signal might be used to improve understanding. PMID:7479813

  19. Natural language processing: an introduction

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview and tutorial of natural language processing (NLP) and modern NLP-system design. Target audience This tutorial targets the medical informatics generalist who has limited acquaintance with the principles behind NLP and/or limited knowledge of the current state of the art. Scope We describe the historical evolution of NLP, and summarize common NLP sub-problems in this extensive field. We then provide a synopsis of selected highlights of medical NLP efforts. After providing a brief description of common machine-learning approaches that are being used for diverse NLP sub-problems, we discuss how modern NLP architectures are designed, with a summary of the Apache Foundation's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We finally consider possible future directions for NLP, and reflect on the possible impact of IBM Watson on the medical field. PMID:21846786

  20. Multilingual environment and natural acquisition of language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Shunichi; Nakamura, Shigeru

    2000-06-01

    Language and human are not anything in the outside of nature. Not only babies, even adults can acquire new language naturally, if they have a natural multilingual environment around them. The reason it is possible would be that any human has an ability to grasp the whole of language, and at the same time, language has an order which is the easiest to acquire for humans. The process of this natural acquisition and a result of investigating the order of Japanese vowels are introduced. .

  1. Networks Generated from Natural Language Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemann, Chris; Quasthoff, Uwe

    The study of large-scale characteristics of graphs that arise in natural language processing is an essential step in finding structural regularities. Structure discovery processes have to be designed with an awareness of these properties. Examining and contrasting the effects of processes that generate graph structures similar to those observed in language data sheds light on the structure of language and its evolution.

  2. Language Interventions in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Claire C.

    1983-01-01

    Described is a milieu teaching approach to language development of young handicapped children. The method involves prompting and contingent delivery of reinforcers during normal language interactions in such classroom settings as free play, lunch, or instructional periods. (MC)

  3. Natural language interface for command and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A working prototype of a flexible 'natural language' interface for command and control situations is presented. This prototype is analyzed from two standpoints. First is the role of natural language for command and control, its realistic requirements, and how well the role can be filled with current practical technology. Second, technical concepts for implementation are discussed and illustrated by their application in the prototype system. It is also shown how adaptive or 'learning' features can greatly ease the task of encoding language knowledge in the language processor.

  4. Introduction: Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of research into information and text retrieval problems highlights the work with automatic natural language processing (NLP) that is reported in this issue. Topics discussed include the occurrences of nominal compounds; anaphoric references; discontinuous language constructs; automatic back-of-the-book indexing; and full-text analysis.…

  5. Language and the Multisemiotic Nature of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Cheng, Dazhi

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how language and the multisemiotic nature of mathematics can present potential challenges for English language learners (ELLs). Based on two qualitative studies of the discourse of mathematics, we discuss some of the linguistic challenges of mathematics for ELLs in order to highlight the potential difficulties they may have…

  6. A Natural Language Interface to Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a Natural Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

  7. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  8. Natural Phonology Interference in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Geoffrey S.

    The natural phonology theory, related to European structuralism, makes two fundamental assumptions: (1) phonemes are mental images of the sounds of language, and (2) phonological processes represent subconscious mental substitutions of one sound or class of sounds for another that are the natural response to the relative difficulties of sound…

  9. Prediction During Natural Language Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L; Nijhof, Annabel D; Hagoort, Peter; van den Bosch, Antal

    2016-06-01

    The notion of prediction is studied in cognitive neuroscience with increasing intensity. We investigated the neural basis of 2 distinct aspects of word prediction, derived from information theory, during story comprehension. We assessed the effect of entropy of next-word probability distributions as well as surprisal A computational model determined entropy and surprisal for each word in 3 literary stories. Twenty-four healthy participants listened to the same 3 stories while their brain activation was measured using fMRI. Reversed speech fragments were presented as a control condition. Brain areas sensitive to entropy were left ventral premotor cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left supplementary motor area. Areas sensitive to surprisal were left inferior temporal sulcus ("visual word form area"), bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right amygdala, bilateral anterior temporal poles, and right inferior frontal sulcus. We conclude that prediction during language comprehension can occur at several levels of processing, including at the level of word form. Our study exemplifies the power of combining computational linguistics with cognitive neuroscience, and additionally underlines the feasibility of studying continuous spoken language materials with fMRI. PMID:25903464

  10. Natural Language Access to Medical Text *

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Donald E.; Hobbs, Jerry R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes research on the development of a methodology for representing the information in texts and of procedures for relating the linguistic structure of a request to the corresponding representations. The work is being done in the context of a prototype system that will allow physicians and other health professionals to access information in a computerized textbook of hepatitis through natural language dialogues. The interpretation of natural language queries is derived from DIAMOND/DIAGRAM, a linguistically motivated, domain-independent natural language interface developed at SRI. A text access component is being developed that uses representations of the propositional content of text passages and of the hierarchical structure of the text as a whole to retrieve relevant information.

  11. Entropy analysis of natural language written texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, C.; Karamanos, K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.; Papageorgiou, H.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the relative contribution of ordered and stochastic components in natural written texts and examine the influence of text category and language on these. To this end, a binary representation of written texts and the generated symbolic sequences are examined by the standard block entropy analysis and the Shannon and Kolmogorov entropies are obtained. It is found that both entropies are sensitive to both language and text category with the text category sensitivity to follow almost the same trends in both languages (English and Greek) considered. The values of these entropies are compared with those of stochastically generated symbolic sequences and the nature of correlations present in this representation of real written texts is identified.

  12. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  13. PBS: An Economical Natural Language Query Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samstag-Schnock, Uwe; Meadow, Charles T.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the design and implementation of PBS (Parsing, Boolean Recognition, Stemming), a software module used in conjunction with an intermediary program to interpret natural language queries used for online database searching. Results of a test of the initial version, which is designed for use with bibliographic files, are reported. (13…

  14. Enhanced Text Retrieval Using Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.

    1998-01-01

    Defines natural language processing (NLP); describes the use of NLP in information retrieval (IR); provides seven levels of linguistic analysis: phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and pragmatic. Discusses the commercial use of NLP in IR with the example of DR-LINK (Document Retrieval using LINguistic Knowledge)…

  15. Natural Language Information Retrieval: Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Carballo, Jose; Strzalkowski, Tomek

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the progress of the natural language information retrieval project, a joint effort led by GE (General Electric) Research, and its evaluation at the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). Discusses stream-based information retrieval, which uses alternative methods of document indexing; advanced linguistic streams; weighting; and query…

  16. Porting a lexicalized-grammar parser to the biomedical domain.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Laura; Clark, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a state-of-the-art, linguistically motivated statistical parser to the biomedical text mining community, and proposes a method of adapting it to the biomedical domain requiring only limited resources for data annotation. The parser was originally developed using the Penn Treebank and is therefore tuned to newspaper text. Our approach takes advantage of a lexicalized grammar formalism, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (ccg), to train the parser at a lower level of representation than full syntactic derivations. The ccg parser uses three levels of representation: a first level consisting of part-of-speech (pos) tags; a second level consisting of more fine-grained ccg lexical categories; and a third, hierarchical level consisting of ccg derivations. We find that simply retraining the pos tagger on biomedical data leads to a large improvement in parsing performance, and that using annotated data at the intermediate lexical category level of representation improves parsing accuracy further. We describe the procedure involved in evaluating the parser, and obtain accuracies for biomedical data in the same range as those reported for newspaper text, and higher than those previously reported for the biomedical resource on which we evaluate. Our conclusion is that porting newspaper parsers to the biomedical domain, at least for parsers which use lexicalized grammars, may not be as difficult as first thought. PMID:19141332

  17. Brain readiness and the nature of language

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To identify the neural components that make a brain ready for language, it is important to have well defined linguistic phenotypes, to know precisely what language is. There are two central features to language: the capacity to form signs (words), and the capacity to combine them into complex structures. We must determine how the human brain enables these capacities. A sign is a link between a perceptual form and a conceptual meaning. Acoustic elements and content elements, are already brain-internal in non-human animals, but as categorical systems linked with brain-external elements. Being indexically tied to objects of the world, they cannot freely link to form signs. A crucial property of a language-ready brain is the capacity to process perceptual forms and contents offline, detached from any brain-external phenomena, so their “representations” may be linked into signs. These brain systems appear to have pleiotropic effects on a variety of phenotypic traits and not to be specifically designed for language. Syntax combines signs, so the combination of two signs operates simultaneously on their meaning and form. The operation combining the meanings long antedates its function in language: the primitive mode of predication operative in representing some information about an object. The combination of the forms is enabled by the capacity of the brain to segment vocal and visual information into discrete elements. Discrete temporal units have order and juxtaposition, and vocal units have intonation, length, and stress. These are primitive combinatorial processes. So the prior properties of the physical and conceptual elements of the sign introduce combinatoriality into the linguistic system, and from these primitive combinatorial systems derive concatenation in phonology and combination in morphosyntax. Given the nature of language, a key feature to our understanding of the language-ready brain is to be found in the mechanisms in human brains that enable the

  18. Brain readiness and the nature of language.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To identify the neural components that make a brain ready for language, it is important to have well defined linguistic phenotypes, to know precisely what language is. There are two central features to language: the capacity to form signs (words), and the capacity to combine them into complex structures. We must determine how the human brain enables these capacities. A sign is a link between a perceptual form and a conceptual meaning. Acoustic elements and content elements, are already brain-internal in non-human animals, but as categorical systems linked with brain-external elements. Being indexically tied to objects of the world, they cannot freely link to form signs. A crucial property of a language-ready brain is the capacity to process perceptual forms and contents offline, detached from any brain-external phenomena, so their "representations" may be linked into signs. These brain systems appear to have pleiotropic effects on a variety of phenotypic traits and not to be specifically designed for language. Syntax combines signs, so the combination of two signs operates simultaneously on their meaning and form. The operation combining the meanings long antedates its function in language: the primitive mode of predication operative in representing some information about an object. The combination of the forms is enabled by the capacity of the brain to segment vocal and visual information into discrete elements. Discrete temporal units have order and juxtaposition, and vocal units have intonation, length, and stress. These are primitive combinatorial processes. So the prior properties of the physical and conceptual elements of the sign introduce combinatoriality into the linguistic system, and from these primitive combinatorial systems derive concatenation in phonology and combination in morphosyntax. Given the nature of language, a key feature to our understanding of the language-ready brain is to be found in the mechanisms in human brains that enable the unique

  19. Natural language processing, pragmatics, and verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cherpas, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) is that part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with endowing computers with verbal and listener repertoires, so that people can interact with them more easily. Most attention has been given to accurately parsing and generating syntactic structures, although NLP researchers are finding ways of handling the semantic content of language as well. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the pragmatic (contextual and consequential) dimension of natural language is critical for producing effective NLP systems. While there are some techniques for applying pragmatics in computer systems, they are piecemeal, crude, and lack an integrated theoretical foundation. Unfortunately, there is little awareness that Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior provides an extensive, principled pragmatic analysis of language. The implications of Skinner's functional analysis for NLP and for verbal aspects of epistemology lead to a proposal for a “user expert”—a computer system whose area of expertise is the long-term computer user. The evolutionary nature of behavior suggests an AI technology known as genetic algorithms/programming for implementing such a system. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:22477052

  20. Current trends with natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Rassinoux, A M; Michel, P A; Wagner, J; Baud, R

    1995-01-01

    Natural Language Processing in the medical domain becomes more and more powerful, efficient, and ready to be used in daily practice. The needs for such tools are enormous in the medical field, due to the vast amount of written texts for medical records. In the authors' point of view, the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) is achieved neither with Information Systems of all kinds nor with commercially available word processing systems. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is one dimension of the EPR, as well as Image Processing and Decision Support Systems. Analysis of medical texts to facilitate indexing and retrieval is well known. The need for a generation tool is to produce progress notes from menu driven systems. The computer systems of tomorrow cannot miss any single dimension. Since 1988, we've been developing an NLP system; it is supported by the European program AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine) within the GALEN and HELIOS consortium and the CERS (Commission d'Encouragement á la Recherche Scientifique) in Switzerland. The main directions of development are: a medical language analyzer, a language generator, a query processor, and dictionary building tools to support the Medical Linguistic Knowledge Base (MLKB). The knowledge representation schema is essentially based on Sowa's conceptual graphs, and the MLKB is multilingual from its design phase; it currently incorporates the English and the French languages; it will also continue using German. The goal of this demonstration is to provide evidence of what exists today, what will be soon available, and what is planned for the long term. Complete sentences will be processed in real time, and the browsing capabilities of the MLKB will be exercised. In particular, the following features will be presented: Analysis of complete sentences with verbs and relatives, as extracted from clinical narratives, with special attention to the method of "proximity processing" as developed in our group and the rule based

  1. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE) is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis) and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data). ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. Findings We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein–ligand complexes from the PDB. Conclusions ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications. PMID:22824207

  2. Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

  3. Automated database design from natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos; Delaune, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Users and programmers of small systems typically do not have the skills needed to design a database schema from an English description of a problem. This paper describes a system that automatically designs databases for such small applications from English descriptions provided by end-users. Although the system has been motivated by the space applications at Kennedy Space Center, and portions of it have been designed with that idea in mind, it can be applied to different situations. The system consists of two major components: a natural language understander and a problem-solver. The paper describes briefly the knowledge representation structures constructed by the natural language understander, and, then, explains the problem-solver in detail.

  4. Reference And Description In Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Alan N.

    1988-03-01

    We propose a theory for modeling the semantic and pragmatic properties of natural language expressions used to refer. The sorts of expressions to be discussed include proper names, definite noun phrases and personal pronouns. We will focus in this paper on such expressions in the singular, having discussed elsewhere procedures for extending the present sort of analysis to various plural uses of these expressions. Propositions involving referential expressions are formally redefined in a second order predicate calculus, in which various semantic and pragmatic factors involved in establishing and interpreting references are modeled as rules of inference. Uses of referential utterances are differentiated according to the means used for individuating the object referred to. Analyses are provided for anaphoric, contextual, demonstrative, introductory and citational individuative devices. We analyze sentences like 'The man [or John] is wise' as conditionals of the form 'Whatever is uniquely a man [or named "John"] relevant to the present discourse is wise'. So modeled, the presupposition of existence (which historically has concerned much logical analysis of such sentences) is represented as a conversational implicature of the sort which obtains from any proposition of the form '(P -> Q)' to the corresponding `P'. This formalization is intended to serve as part of an empirical theory of natural language phenomena. Being an empirical theory, ours will strive to model the greatest possible diversity of phenomena using a minimum of formal apparatus. Such a theory may provide a foundation for automatic systems to predict and replicate natural language phenomena for purposes of text understanding and synthesis.

  5. Natural Language Processing: Toward Large-Scale, Robust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.

    1996-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is concerned with getting computers to do useful things with natural language. Major applications include machine translation, text generation, information retrieval, and natural language interfaces. Reviews important developments since 1987 that have led to advances in NLP; current NLP applications; and problems…

  6. LCS: a natural language comprehension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigano, Philippe; Talon, Benedicte; Baltazart, Didier; Demko, Christophe; Newstead, Emma

    1991-03-01

    LCS (Language Comprehension System) is a software package designed to improve man-machine communication with computer programs. Different simple structures and functions are available to build man-machine interfaces in natural language. A user may write a sentence in good English or in telegraphical style. The system used pattern matching techniques to detect misspelled words (or badly typed words) and to correct them. Several methods of analysis are available at any level (lexical, syntactic, semantic...). A special knowledge acquisition system is used to introduce new works by giving a description in natural language. A semantic network is extended to a representation close to a connexionist graph, for a better understanding of polysemic words and ambiguities. An application is currently used for a man-machine interface of an expert system in computer-aided education, for a better dialogue with the user during the explanation of reasoning phase. The object of this paper is to present the LCS system, especially at the lexical level, the knowledge representation and acquisition level, and the semantic level (for pronoun references and ambiguity).

  7. Attacks on lexical natural language steganography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Topkara, Umut; Topkara, Mercan; Delp, Edward J.

    2006-02-01

    Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal steganalysis method based on language models and support vector machines to differentiate sentences modified by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method on classification of steganographically modified sentences was 84.9%. On classification of isolated sentences we obtained a high recall rate whereas the precision was low.

  8. Building a Natural Language Interface for the ATNF Pulsar Database for Speeding up Execution of Complex Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rupert; Jenet, F.; Rangel, S.; Dartez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, there has been no available natural language interfaces (NLI's) for querying a database of pulsars (rotating neutron stars emitting radiation at regular intervals). Currently, pulsar records are retrieved through an HTML form accessible via the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) website where one needs to be familiar with pulsar attributes used by the interface (e.g. BLC). Using a NLI relinquishes the need for learning form-specific formalism and allows execution of more powerful queries than those supported by the HTML form. Furthermore, on database access that requires comparison of attributes for all the pulsar records (e.g. what is the fastest pulsar?), using a NLI for retrieving answers to such complex questions is definitely much more efficient and less error-prone. This poster presents the first NLI ever created for the ATNF pulsar database (ATNF-Query) to facilitate database access using complex queries. ATNF-Query is built using a machine learning approach that induces a semantic parser from a question corpus; the innovative application is intended to provide pulsar researchers or laymen with an intelligent language understanding database system for friendly information access.

  9. Intelligent CAI: An Author Aid for a Natural Language Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

    This report addresses the problems of using natural language (English) as the communication language for advanced computer-based instructional systems. The instructional environment places requirements on a natural language understanding system that exceed the capabilities of all existing systems, including: (1) efficiency, (2) habitability, (3)…

  10. An Overview of Computer-Based Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gevarter, William B.

    Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines using natural languages (English, Japanese, German, etc.) rather than formal computer languages. NLP is a major research area in the fields of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Commercial…

  11. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  12. Written Language Is as Natural as Spoken Language: A Biolinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, P. G.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2006-01-01

    A commonly held belief is that language is an aspect of the biological system since the capacity to acquire language is innate and evolved along Darwinian lines. Written language, on the other hand, is thought to be an artifact and a surrogate of speech; it is, therefore, neither natural nor biological. This disparaging view of written language,…

  13. An Evolutionary History of the Natural Language English and the Artificial Language FORTRAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Joseph J., III

    1988-01-01

    Notes similarities between certain aspects of the development of the natural language English and the artificial language FORTRAN. Discusses evolutionary history, grammar, style, syntax, varieties, and attempts at standardization. Emphasizes modifications which natural and artificial languages have undergone. Suggests that some modifications were…

  14. Linguistic Analysis of Natural Language Communication with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bozena Henisz

    Interaction with computers in natural language requires a language that is flexible and suited to the task. This study of natural dialogue was undertaken to reveal those characteristics which can make computer English more natural. Experiments were made in three modes of communication: face-to-face, terminal-to-terminal, and human-to-computer,…

  15. Understanding and representing natural language meaning

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, D.L.; Maran, L.R.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

    1982-12-01

    During this contract period the authors have: (a) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (b) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process known as activation and inhibition; (c) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (d) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (e) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (f) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (g) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

  16. Understanding and representing natural language meaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, D. L.; Maran, L. R.; Dorfman, M. H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

    1982-12-01

    During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (4) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (5) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (6) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (7) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

  17. Understanding natural language for spacecraft sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Boris; Brooks, Robert N., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a natural language understanding system, START, that translates English text into a knowledge base. The understanding and the generating modules of START share a Grammar which is built upon reversible transformations. Users can retrieve information by querying the knowledge base in English; the system then produces an English response. START can be easily adapted to many different domains. One such domain is spacecraft sequencing. A high-level overview of sequencing as it is practiced at JPL is presented in the paper, and three areas within this activity are identified for potential application of the START system. Examples are given of an actual dialog with START based on simulated data for the Mars Observer mission.

  18. The Linguistic Nature of Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlow, Connie S., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five recent books about language that address issues that arise in classrooms with an increasing number of diverse dialects and varied home languages. Discusses the complexities of language, misunderstandings in the Ebonics controversy, socioeducational issues, and classroom ideas for teachers. Describes two web sites. (SR)

  19. The Parser Doesn't Ignore Intransitivity, after All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Several previous studies (B. C. Adams, C. Clifton, & D. C. Mitchell, 1998; D. C. Mitchell, 1987; R. P. G. van Gompel & M. J. Pickering, 2001) have explored the question of whether the parser initially analyzes a noun phrase that follows an intransitive verb as the verb's direct object. Three eye-tracking experiments examined this issue in more…

  20. MGFp: an open Mascot Generic Format parser library implementation.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Marc; Steen, Judith A J; Hamprecht, Fred A; Steen, Hanno

    2010-05-01

    Despite the efforts of the mass spectrometry (MS) community to migrate data representation toward modern file formats, legacy text formats still play an important role in MS data processing workflows. We provide a formal grammar and a portable, efficient C++ implementation for a Mascot Generic Format (MGF) parser. Software and technical documentation are available from http://software.steenlab.org/mgfp/. PMID:20334363

  1. Linking Parser Development to Acquisition of Syntactic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaki, Akira; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, acquisition of syntactic knowledge and the development of sentence comprehension behaviors have been treated as separate disciplines. This article reviews a growing body of work on the development of incremental sentence comprehension mechanisms and discusses how a better understanding of the developing parser can shed light on two…

  2. Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

  3. Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

  4. Tutorial on techniques and applications for natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P.J.; Carbonell, J.G.

    1983-10-17

    Natural language communication with computers has long been a major goal of Artificial Intelligence both for what it can tell us about intelligence in general and for its practical utility - data bases, software packages, and Al-based expert systems all require flexible interfaces to a growing community of users who are not able or do not wish to communicate with computers in formal, artificial command languages. Whereas many of the fundamental problems of general natural language processing (NLP) by machine remain to be solved, the area has matured in recent years to the point where practical natural language interfaces to software systems can be constructed in many restricted, but nevertheless useful, circumstances. This tutorial is intended to survey the current state of applied natural language processing by presenting computationally effective NLP techniques, by discussing the range of capabilities these techniques provide for NLP systems, an by discussing their current limitations. Following the introduction, this document is divided into two major sections: the first on language recognition strategies at the single sentence level, and the second on language processing issues that arise during interactive dialogues. In both cases, we concentrate on those aspects of the problem appropriate for interactive natural language interfaces, but relate the techniques and systems discussed to more general work on natural language, independent of application domain.

  5. A Hybrid Architecture For Natural Language Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loatman, R. Bruce

    1987-05-01

    The PRC Adaptive Knowledge-based Text Understanding System (PAKTUS) is an environment for developing natural language understanding (NLU) systems. It uses a knowledge-based approach in an integrated hybrid architecture based on a factoring of the NLU problem into its lexi-cal, syntactic, conceptual, domain-specific, and pragmatic components. The goal is a robust system that benefits from the strengths of several NLU methodologies, each applied where most appropriate. PAKTUS employs a frame-based knowledge representation and associative networks throughout. The lexical component uses morphological knowledge and word experts. Syntactic knowledge is represented in an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) grammar that incorporates rule-based programming. Case grammar is used for canonical conceptual representation with constraints. Domain-specific templates represent knowledge about specific applications as patterns of the form used in logic programming. Pragmatic knowledge may augment any of the other types and is added wherever needed for a particular domain. The system has been constructed in an interactive graphic programming environment. It has been used successfully to build a prototype front end for an expert system. This integration of existing technologies makes limited but practical NLU feasible now for narrow, well-defined domains.

  6. SISAL: streams and iteration in a single-assignment language. Language reference manual, Version 1. 1

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, J.; Skedzielewski, S.; Allan, S.; Grit, D.; Oldehoeft, R.; Glauert, J.; Dobes, I.; Hohensee, P.

    1983-07-20

    Many multi-processor systems are currently under study by various groups around the world. The understanding and exploitation of parallelism in these systems is a primary goal of these studies. To facilitate the use and comparison of these systems, we proposed to define a common high-level language. The primary candidate was a single-assignment, applicative, dataflow language. In spite of remarkable diversity in hardware structures, all proposed systems could benefit from the functional semantics of such a language, and from other characteristics such as implicit parallelism, freedom from side effects, locality of effects, etc. A compiler would be produced having a single Front-end (language specific) parser and several Back-end (machine specific) code generators. An Intermediate Format is defined to serve as the interface between parser and code generators and interface between this system and other language systems. Benchmark programs were produced. SISAL is designed to express algorithms for execution on computers capable of highly concurrent operation. More specifically, the application area to be supported is numerical computation which strains the limits of high performance machines, and the primary targets for translation of SISAL programs are dataflow data-driven machines. Nevertheless, it has been our intention that the language not have idiosyncrasies reflecting the particular nature of the application area or target machine. It should be reasonable for SISAL to evolve into a general purpose language appropriate for writing programs to run on future general parallel computers.

  7. Sex and Gender in Natural Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, W. Keith

    The relation between a real-world category (sex) and a linguistic category (gender) is examined. The gender system of Indo-European languages is discussed, and the way gender works in Greek, one of the older Indo-European languages, is examined at some length. The conclusion is that, but for the existence of separate gender-sensitive adjectival…

  8. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  9. Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

  10. Semantics of Context-Free Fragments of Natural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The objective of this paper is to combine the viewpoint of model-theoretic semantics and generative grammar, to define semantics for context-free languages, and to apply the results to some fragments of natural language. Following the introduction in the first section, Section 2 describes a simple artificial example to illustrate how a semantic…

  11. NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

  12. Survey of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hua; Wu, Yun; Hong, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    Informatics methods, such as text mining and natural language processing, are always involved in bioinformatics research. In this study, we discuss text mining and natural language processing methods in bioinformatics from two perspectives. First, we aim to search for knowledge on biology, retrieve references using text mining methods, and reconstruct databases. For example, protein-protein interactions and gene-disease relationship can be mined from PubMed. Then, we analyze the applications of text mining and natural language processing techniques in bioinformatics, including predicting protein structure and function, detecting noncoding RNA. Finally, numerous methods and applications, as well as their contributions to bioinformatics, are discussed for future use by text mining and natural language processing researchers. PMID:26525745

  13. Natural language watermarking: Challenges in building a practical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkara, Mercan; Riccardi, Giuseppe; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek; Atallah, Mikhail J.

    2006-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research and implementation challenges we encountered in building an end-to-end natural language processing based watermarking system. With natural language watermarking, we mean embedding the watermark into a text document, using the natural language components as the carrier, in such a way that the modifications are imperceptible to the readers and the embedded information is robust against possible attacks. Of particular interest is using the structure of the sentences in natural language text in order to insert the watermark. We evaluated the quality of the watermarked text using an objective evaluation metric, the BLEU score. BLEU scoring is commonly used in the statistical machine translation community. Our current system prototype achieves 0.45 BLEU score on a scale [0,1].

  14. Natural Language Processing Neural Network Considering Deep Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagara, Tsukasa; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose a novel neural network considering deep cases. It can learn knowledge from natural language documents and can perform recall and inference. Various techniques of natural language processing using Neural Network have been proposed. However, natural language sentences used in these techniques consist of about a few words, and they cannot handle complicated sentences. In order to solve these problems, the proposed network divides natural language sentences into a sentence layer, a knowledge layer, ten kinds of deep case layers and a dictionary layer. It can learn the relations among sentences and among words by dividing sentences. The advantages of the method are as follows: (1) ability to handle complicated sentences; (2) ability to restructure sentences; (3) usage of the conceptual dictionary, Goi-Taikei, as the long term memory in a brain. Two kinds of experiments were carried out by using goo dictionary and Wikipedia as knowledge sources. Superior performance of the proposed neural network has been confirmed.

  15. Survey of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hua; Wu, Yun; Hong, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    Informatics methods, such as text mining and natural language processing, are always involved in bioinformatics research. In this study, we discuss text mining and natural language processing methods in bioinformatics from two perspectives. First, we aim to search for knowledge on biology, retrieve references using text mining methods, and reconstruct databases. For example, protein-protein interactions and gene-disease relationship can be mined from PubMed. Then, we analyze the applications of text mining and natural language processing techniques in bioinformatics, including predicting protein structure and function, detecting noncoding RNA. Finally, numerous methods and applications, as well as their contributions to bioinformatics, are discussed for future use by text mining and natural language processing researchers. PMID:26525745

  16. Storing files in a parallel computing system based on user-specified parser function

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Manzanares, Adam; Torres, Aaron

    2014-10-21

    Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system based on a user-specified parser function. A plurality of files generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system are stored by obtaining a parser from the distributed application for processing the plurality of files prior to storage; and storing one or more of the plurality of files in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system based on the processing by the parser. The plurality of files comprise one or more of a plurality of complete files and a plurality of sub-files. The parser can optionally store only those files that satisfy one or more semantic requirements of the parser. The parser can also extract metadata from one or more of the files and the extracted metadata can be stored with one or more of the plurality of files and used for searching for files.

  17. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively. PMID:26904105

  18. Geometry and Language--A Natural Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira-Mendoza, Lionel

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides a starting point for exploring geometric concepts through language. The activity incorporates three general ideas: (1) relating to personal experience; (2) integrating with other disciplines; and (3) requiring students to express their ideas. A sample activity would include writing a story about what life would…

  19. Two Types of Definites in Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Florian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the description and analysis of two semantically different types of definite articles in German. While the existence of distinct article paradigms in various Germanic dialects and other languages has been acknowledged in the descriptive literature for quite some time, the theoretical implications of their existence…

  20. FromTo-CLIR: Web-Based Natural Language Interface for Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taewan; Sim, Chul-Min; Yuh, Sanghwa; Jung, Hanmin; Kim, Young-Kil; Choi, Sung-Kwon; Park, Dong-In; Choi, Key Sun

    1999-01-01

    Describes the implementation of FromTo-CLIR, a Web-based natural-language interface for cross-language information retrieval that was tested with Korean and Japanese. Proposes a method that uses a semantic category tree and collocation to resolve the ambiguity of query translation. (Author/LRW)

  1. Parent-Implemented Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Language and Play in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Jill N.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Three parents of children with autism were taught to implement the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP). Data were collected on parent implementation, multiple measures of child language, and play. The parents were able to learn to implement the NLP procedures quickly and accurately with beneficial results for their children. Increases in the overall…

  2. Natural Language Processing Techniques in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Status and Instructional Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, V. Melissa; Kaplan, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of natural language processing (NLP) techniques, such as parsing and semantic analysis, within current language tutoring systems. Examines trends, design issues and tradeoffs, and potential contributions of NLP techniques with respect to instructional theory and educational practice. Addresses limitations and problems in using…

  3. Overview of Computer-based Natural Language Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gevarter, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  4. Overview of computer-based natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gevarter, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Computer-based Natural Language-Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc. in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and the future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state-of-the-art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants, and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and other who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  5. An overview of computer-based natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Computer based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  6. The redundancy of recursion and infinity for natural language.

    PubMed

    Luuk, Erkki; Luuk, Hendrik

    2011-02-01

    An influential line of thought claims that natural language and arithmetic processing require recursion, a putative hallmark of human cognitive processing (Chomsky in Evolution of human language: biolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45-61, 2010; Fitch et al. in Cognition 97(2):179-210, 2005; Hauser et al. in Science 298(5598):1569-1579, 2002). First, we question the need for recursion in human cognitive processing by arguing that a generally simpler and less resource demanding process--iteration--is sufficient to account for human natural language and arithmetic performance. We argue that the only motivation for recursion, the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence, is equally approachable by iteration and recursion. Second, we submit that the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence reduces to imagining infinite embedding or concatenation, which is completely independent from the ability to implement infinite processing, and thus, independent from both recursion and iteration. Furthermore, we claim that a property of natural language is physically uncountable finity and not discrete infinity. PMID:20652723

  7. Experience with a mixed semantic/syntactic parser.

    PubMed Central

    Haug, P. J.; Koehler, S.; Lau, L. M.; Wang, P.; Rocha, R.; Huff, S. M.

    1995-01-01

    The value of the computerized medical record is derived in part from the availability of medical information in a coded form accessible to manipulation by processes designed for automated decision support, medical research, and computer assistance in the management of health care delivery. To meet these needs medical reports captured and stored as natural language documents must be encoded. Below we discuss an ongoing formative process aimed at developing a natural language understanding system for chest x-ray reports. Comparative data showing the progress of this process is presented. PMID:8563286

  8. The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C.; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis. PMID:24936195

  9. Analyzing Learner Language: Towards a Flexible Natural Language Processing Architecture for Intelligent Language Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Luiz; Meurers, Detmar; Ziai, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent language tutoring systems (ILTS) typically analyze learner input to diagnose learner language properties and provide individualized feedback. Despite a long history of ILTS research, such systems are virtually absent from real-life foreign language teaching (FLT). Taking a step toward more closely linking ILTS research to real-life…

  10. Natural language processing and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of natural language processing tools to handle web-scale data, have recently arrived at models that remarkably match the expected features of human language processing under the Now-or-Never bottleneck framework. This provides additional support for said framework and highlights the research potential in the interaction between applied computational linguistics and cognitive science. PMID:27561430

  11. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  12. UMLS knowledge for biomedical language processing.

    PubMed Central

    McCray, A T; Aronson, A R; Browne, A C; Rindflesch, T C; Razi, A; Srinivasan, S

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to provide access to the free text in biomedical databases. The focus of the effort is the development of SPECIALIST, an experimental natural language processing system for the biomedical domain. The system includes a broad coverage parser supported by a large lexicon, modules that provide access to the extensive Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Knowledge Sources, and a retrieval module that permits experiments in information retrieval. The UMLS Metathesaurus and Semantic Network provide a rich source of biomedical concepts and their interrelationships. Investigations have been conducted to determine the type of information required to effect a map between the language of queries and the language of relevant documents. Mappings are never straightforward and often involve multiple inferences. PMID:8472004

  13. Toward a Natural Language Interface for EHR Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot study on the process of manually annotating natural language EHR questions with a formal meaning representation. This formal representation could then be used as a structured query as part of a natural language interface for electronic health records. This study analyzes the challenges of representing EHR questions as structured queries as well as the feasibility of creating a sufficiently large corpus of manually annotated structured queries for EHR questions. A set of 100 EHR questions, sampled from actual questions asked by ICU physicians[1], is used to perform the analysis. The ultimate goal of this research is to enable automatic methods for understanding EHR questions for use in a natural language EHR interface. PMID:26306260

  14. Software Development Of XML Parser Based On Algebraic Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, is presented one software development and implementation of an algebraic method for XML data processing, which accelerates XML parsing process. Therefore, the proposed in this article nontraditional approach for fast XML navigation with algebraic tools contributes to advanced efforts in the making of an easier user-friendly API for XML transformations. Here the proposed software for XML documents processing (parser) is easy to use and can manage files with strictly defined data structure. The purpose of the presented algorithm is to offer a new approach for search and restructuring hierarchical XML data. This approach permits fast XML documents processing, using algebraic model developed in details in previous works of the same authors. So proposed parsing mechanism is easy accessible to the web consumer who is able to control XML file processing, to search different elements (tags) in it, to delete and to add a new XML content as well. The presented various tests show higher rapidity and low consumption of resources in comparison with some existing commercial parsers.

  15. Orwell's 1984: Natural Language Searching and the Contemporary Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, Eva M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a natural language searching strategy for retrieving current material which has bearing on George Orwell's "1984," and identifies four main themes (technology, authoritarianism, press and psychological/linguistic implications of surveillance, political oppression) which have emerged from cross-database searches of the "Big Brother"…

  16. Principles of Organization in Young Children's Natural Language Hierarchies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.; Markman, Ellen M.

    1982-01-01

    When preschool children think of objects as organized into collections (e.g., forest, army) they solve certain problems better than when they think of the same objects as organized into classes (e.g., trees, soldiers). Present studies indicate preschool children occasionally distort natural language inclusion hierarchies (e.g., oak, tree) into the…

  17. Research at Yale in Natural Language Processing. Research Report #84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schank, Roger C.

    This report summarizes the capabilities of five computer programs at Yale that do automatic natural language processing as of the end of 1976. For each program an introduction to its overall intent is given, followed by the input/output, a short discussion of the research underlying the program, and a prognosis for future development. The programs…

  18. Naturally Simplified Input, Comprehension, and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    This article examines the concept of simplification in second language (SL) learning, reviewing research on the simplified input that both naturalistic and classroom SL learners receive. Research indicates that simplified input, particularly if derived from naturally occurring interactions, does aid comprehension but has not been shown to…

  19. Dealing with Quantifier Scope Ambiguity in Natural Language Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafezi Manshadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Quantifier scope disambiguation (QSD) is one of the most challenging problems in deep natural language understanding (NLU) systems. The most popular approach for dealing with QSD is to simply leave the semantic representation (scope-) underspecified and to incrementally add constraints to filter out unwanted readings. Scope underspecification has…

  20. The Nature of Object Marking in American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokgoz, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the nature of object marking in American Sign Language (ASL). I investigate object marking by means of directionality (the movement of the verb towards a certain location in signing space) and by means of handling classifiers (certain handshapes accompanying the verb). I propose that object marking in ASL is…

  1. Learning by Communicating in Natural Language with Conversational Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur; Li, Haiying; Forsyth, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Learning is facilitated by conversational interactions both with human tutors and with computer agents that simulate human tutoring and ideal pedagogical strategies. In this article, we describe some intelligent tutoring systems (e.g., AutoTutor) in which agents interact with students in natural language while being sensitive to their cognitive…

  2. Design of Lexicons in Some Natural Language Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Nick; Mercer, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an investigation of certain problems concerning the structural design of lexicons used in computational approaches to natural language understanding. Emphasizes three aspects of design: retrieval of relevant portions of lexicals items, storage requirements, and representation of meaning in the lexicon. (Available from ALLC, Dr. Rex Last,…

  3. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  4. What Is the Nature of Poststroke Language Recovery and Reorganization?

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on three main topics related to the nature of poststroke language recovery and reorganization. The first topic pertains to the nature of anatomical and physiological substrates in the infarcted hemisphere in poststroke aphasia, including the nature of the hemodynamic response in patients with poststroke aphasia, the nature of the peri-infarct tissue, and the neuronal plasticity potential in the infarcted hemisphere. The second section of the paper reviews the current neuroimaging evidence for language recovery in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of recovery. The third and final section examines changes in connectivity as a function of recovery in poststroke aphasia, specifically in terms of changes in white matter connectivity, changes in functional effective connectivity, and changes in resting state connectivity after stroke. While much progress has been made in our understanding of language recovery, more work needs to be done. Future studies will need to examine whether reorganization of language in poststroke aphasia corresponds to a tighter, more coherent, and efficient network of residual and new regions in the brain. Answering these questions will go a long way towards being able to predict which patients are likely to recover and may benefit from future rehabilitation. PMID:23320190

  5. Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks and Finite State Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisl, Hermann

    It is argued that pessimistic assessments of the adequacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for natural language processing (NLP) on the grounds that they have a finite state architecture are unjustified, and that their adequacy in this regard is an empirical issue. First, arguments that counter standard objections to finite state NLP on the…

  6. Analyzing Discourse Processing Using a Simple Natural Language Processing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) provides a powerful approach for discourse processing researchers. However, there remains a notable degree of hesitation by some researchers to consider using NLP, at least on their own. The purpose of this article is to introduce and make available a "simple" NLP (SiNLP) tool. The overarching goal of…

  7. Learning from a Computer Tutor with Natural Language Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha

    2003-01-01

    CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…

  8. CITE NLM: Natural-Language Searching in an Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doszkocs, Tamas E.

    1983-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Current Information Transfer in English public access online catalog offers unique subject search capabilities--natural-language query input, automatic medical subject headings display, closest match search strategy, ranked document output, dynamic end user feedback for search refinement. References, description…

  9. Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

  10. Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2007-01-01

    To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

  11. Parsley: a Command-Line Parser for Astronomical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deich, William

    Parsley is a sophisticated keyword + value parser, packaged as a library of routines that offers an easy method for providing command-line arguments to programs. It makes it easy for the user to enter values, and it makes it easy for the programmer to collect and validate the user's entries. Parsley is tuned for astronomical applications: for example, dates entered in Julian, Modified Julian, calendar, or several other formats are all recognized without special effort by the user or by the programmer; angles can be entered using decimal degrees or dd:mm:ss; time-like intervals as decimal hours, hh:mm:ss, or a variety of other units. Vectors of data are accepted as readily as scalars.

  12. Processing of ICARTT Data Files Using Fuzzy Matching and Parser Combinators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, Matthew T.; Typanski, Nathan D.; Wang, Dali; Chen, Gao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the task of parsing and matching inconsistent, poorly formed text data through the use of parser combinators and fuzzy matching is discussed. An object-oriented implementation of the parser combinator technique is used to allow for a relatively simple interface for adapting base parsers. For matching tasks, a fuzzy matching algorithm with Levenshtein distance calculations is implemented to match string pair, which are otherwise difficult to match due to the aforementioned irregularities and errors in one or both pair members. Used in concert, the two techniques allow parsing and matching operations to be performed which had previously only been done manually.

  13. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  14. Natural language processing and its future in medicine.

    PubMed

    Friedman, C; Hripcsak, G

    1999-08-01

    If accurate clinical information were available electronically, automated applications could be developed to use this information to improve patient care and lower costs. However, to be fully retrievable, clinical information must be structured or coded. Many online patient reports are not coded, but are recorded in natural-language text that cannot be reliably accessed. Natural language processing (NLP) can solve this problem by extracting and structuring text-based clinical information, making clinical data available for use. NLP systems are quite difficult to develop, as they require substantial amounts of knowledge, but progress has definitely been made. Some NLP systems have been developed and tested and have demonstrated promising performance in practical clinical applications; some of these systems have already been deployed. The authors provide background information about NLP, briefly describe some of the systems that have been recently developed, and discuss the future of NLP in medicine. PMID:10495728

  15. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Nastassja A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP)-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics. PMID:26199848

  16. Recent advances in natural language processing for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nigel; Nazarenko, Adeline; Baud, Robert; Ruch, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    We survey a set a recent advances in natural language processing applied to biomedical applications, which were presented in Geneva, Switzerland, in 2004 at an international workshop. While text mining applied to molecular biology and biomedical literature can report several interesting achievements, we observe that studies applied to clinical contents are still rare. In general, we argue that clinical corpora, including electronic patient records, must be made available to fill the gap between bioinformatics and medical informatics. PMID:16139564

  17. A statistical natural language processor for medical reports.

    PubMed Central

    Taira, R. K.; Soderland, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    Statistical natural language processors have been the focus of much research during the past decade. The main advantage of such an approach over grammatical rule-based approaches is its scalability to new domains. We present a statistical NLP for the domain of radiology and report on methods of knowledge acquisition, parsing, semantic interpretation, and evaluation. Preliminary performance data are given. A discussion of the perceived benefit, limitations and future work is presented. PMID:10566505

  18. A Codasyl-Type Schema for Natural Language Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Sager, N.; Tick, L.; Story, G.; Hirschman, L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a CODASYL (network) database schema for information derived from narrative clinical reports. The goal of this work is to create an automated process that accepts natural language documents as input and maps this information into a database of a type managed by existing database management systems. The schema described here represents the medical events and facts identified through the natural language processing. This processing decomposes each narrative into a set of elementary assertions, represented as MEDFACT records in the database. Each assertion in turn consists of a subject and a predicate classed according to a limited number of medical event types, e.g., signs/symptoms, laboratory tests, etc. The subject and predicate are represented by EVENT records which are owned by the MEDFACT record associated with the assertion. The CODASYL-type network structure was found to be suitable for expressing most of the relations needed to represent the natural language information. However, special mechanisms were developed for storing the time relations between EVENT records and for recording connections (such as causality) between certain MEDFACT records. This schema has been implemented using the UNIVAC DMS-1100 DBMS.

  19. Applications of Natural Language Processing in Biodiversity Science

    PubMed Central

    Thessen, Anne E.; Cui, Hong; Mozzherin, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Centuries of biological knowledge are contained in the massive body of scientific literature, written for human-readability but too big for any one person to consume. Large-scale mining of information from the literature is necessary if biology is to transform into a data-driven science. A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP) and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters), but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science. PMID:22685456

  20. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively "mine" these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. "Intelligent" search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. PMID:26761536

  1. Human task animation from performance models and natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

    1989-01-01

    Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

  2. Restricted natural language processing for case simulation tools.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, C. U.; Nguyen, B.; Kim, G. R.; Johnson, K. B.; Lehmann, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    For Interactive Patient II, a multimedia case simulation designed to improve history-taking skills, we created a new natural language interface called GRASP (General Recognition and Analysis of Sentences and Phrases) that allows students to interact with the program at a higher level of realism. Requirements included the ability to handle ambiguous word senses and to match user questions/queries to unique Canonical Phrases, which are used to identify case findings in our knowledge database. In a simulation of fifty user queries, some of which contained ambiguous words, this tool was 96% accurate in identifying concepts. PMID:10566424

  3. Natural Language Processing as a Discipline at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, M A

    2005-02-04

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is described as it applies to the needs of LLNL in handling free-text. The state of the practice is outlined with the emphasis placed on two specific aspects of NLP: Information Extraction and Discourse Integration. A brief description is included of the NLP applications currently being used at LLNL. A gap analysis provides a look at where the technology needs work in order to meet the needs of LLNL. Finally, recommendations are made to meet these needs.

  4. Deviations in the Zipf and Heaps laws in natural languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Vladimir V.; Lerner, Eduard Yu; Shevlyakova, Anna V.

    2014-03-01

    This paper is devoted to verifying of the empirical Zipf and Hips laws in natural languages using Google Books Ngram corpus data. The connection between the Zipf and Heaps law which predicts the power dependence of the vocabulary size on the text size is discussed. In fact, the Heaps exponent in this dependence varies with the increasing of the text corpus. To explain it, the obtained results are compared with the probability model of text generation. Quasi-periodic variations with characteristic time periods of 60-100 years were also found.

  5. A natural language understanding system combining syntactic and semantic techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Haug, P.; Koehler, S.; Lau, L. M.; Wang, P.; Rocha, R.; Huff, S.

    1994-01-01

    A large proportion of the medical record currently available in computerized medical information systems is in the form of free text reports. While the accessibility of this source of data is improved through inclusion in the computerized record, it remains unavailable for automated decision support, medical research, and management of medical delivery systems. Natural language understanding systems (NLUS) designed to encode free text reports represent one approach to making this information available for these uses. Below we describe an experimental NLUS designed to parse the reports of chest radiographs and store the clinical data extracted in a medical data base. PMID:7949928

  6. Description directed control: its implications for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper proposes a very specifically constrained virtual machine design for goal-directed natural language generation based on a refinement of the technique of data-directed control that the author has termed description-directed control. Important psycholinguistic properties of generation follow inescapably from the use of this control technique, including: efficient runtimes, bounded lookahead, indelible decisions, incremental production of the text, and inescapable adherence to gramaticality. The technique also provides a possible explanation for some well-known universal constraints, though this cannot be confirmed without further empirical investigation. 29 references.

  7. Event construal and temporal distance in natural language.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sudeep; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-07-01

    Construal level theory proposes that events that are temporally proximate are represented more concretely than events that are temporally distant. We tested this prediction using two large natural language text corpora. In study 1 we examined posts on Twitter that referenced the future, and found that tweets mentioning temporally proximate dates used more concrete words than those mentioning distant dates. In study 2 we obtained all New York Times articles that referenced U.S. presidential elections between 1987 and 2007. We found that the concreteness of the words in these articles increased with the temporal proximity to their corresponding election. Additionally the reduction in concreteness after the election was much greater than the increase in concreteness leading up to the election, though both changes in concreteness were well described by an exponential function. We replicated this finding with New York Times articles referencing US public holidays. Overall, our results provide strong support for the predictions of construal level theory, and additionally illustrate how large natural language datasets can be used to inform psychological theory. PMID:27015347

  8. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pestian, John; Nasrallah, Henry; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bennett, Aurora; Leenaars, Antoon

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes. PMID:21643548

  9. Natural Language Processing in Radiology: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ewoud; Braun, Loes M M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Kors, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Radiological reporting has generated large quantities of digital content within the electronic health record, which is potentially a valuable source of information for improving clinical care and supporting research. Although radiology reports are stored for communication and documentation of diagnostic imaging, harnessing their potential requires efficient and automated information extraction: they exist mainly as free-text clinical narrative, from which it is a major challenge to obtain structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) provides techniques that aid the conversion of text into a structured representation, and thus enables computers to derive meaning from human (ie, natural language) input. Used on radiology reports, NLP techniques enable automatic identification and extraction of information. By exploring the various purposes for their use, this review examines how radiology benefits from NLP. A systematic literature search identified 67 relevant publications describing NLP methods that support practical applications in radiology. This review takes a close look at the individual studies in terms of tasks (ie, the extracted information), the NLP methodology and tools used, and their application purpose and performance results. Additionally, limitations, future challenges, and requirements for advancing NLP in radiology will be discussed. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27089187

  10. Does textual feedback hinder spoken interaction in natural language?

    PubMed

    Le Bigot, Ludovic; Terrier, Patrice; Jamet, Eric; Botherel, Valerie; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of textual feedback on the content and outcome of spoken interaction with a natural language dialogue system. More specifically, the assumption that textual feedback could disrupt spoken interaction was tested in a human-computer dialogue situation. In total, 48 adult participants, familiar with the system, had to find restaurants based on simple or difficult scenarios using a real natural language service system in a speech-only (phone), speech plus textual dialogue history (multimodal) or text-only (web) modality. The linguistic contents of the dialogues differed as a function of modality, but were similar whether the textual feedback was included in the spoken condition or not. These results add to burgeoning research efforts on multimodal feedback, in suggesting that textual feedback may have little or no detrimental effect on information searching with a real system. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The results suggest that adding textual feedback to interfaces for human-computer dialogue could enhance spoken interaction rather than create interference. The literature currently suggests that adding textual feedback to tasks that depend on the visual sense benefits human-computer interaction. The addition of textual output when the spoken modality is heavily taxed by the task was investigated. PMID:20069480

  11. Query2Question: Translating Visualization Interaction into Natural Language.

    PubMed

    Nafari, Maryam; Weaver, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Richly interactive visualization tools are increasingly popular for data exploration and analysis in a wide variety of domains. Existing systems and techniques for recording provenance of interaction focus either on comprehensive automated recording of low-level interaction events or on idiosyncratic manual transcription of high-level analysis activities. In this paper, we present the architecture and translation design of a query-to-question (Q2Q) system that automatically records user interactions and presents them semantically using natural language (written English). Q2Q takes advantage of domain knowledge and uses natural language generation (NLG) techniques to translate and transcribe a progression of interactive visualization states into a visual log of styled text that complements and effectively extends the functionality of visualization tools. We present Q2Q as a means to support a cross-examination process in which questions rather than interactions are the focus of analytic reasoning and action. We describe the architecture and implementation of the Q2Q system, discuss key design factors and variations that effect question generation, and present several visualizations that incorporate Q2Q for analysis in a variety of knowledge domains. PMID:26357239

  12. Neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics as a basis for computer acquisition of natural language

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.M.W.

    1983-04-01

    Research into natural language understanding systems for computers has concentrated on implementing particular grammars and grammatical models of the language concerned. This paper presents a rationale for research into natural language understanding systems based on neurological and psychological principles. Important features of the approach are that it seeks to place the onus of learning the language on the computer, and that it seeks to make use of the vast wealth of relevant psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic theory. 22 references.

  13. Solving problems on base of concepts formalization of language image and figurative meaning of the natural-language constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisikalo, Oleg V.; Cieszczyk, Sławomir; Yussupova, Gulbahar

    2015-12-01

    Building of "clever" thesaurus by algebraic means on base of concepts formalization of language image and figurative meaning of the natural-language constructs in the article are proposed. A formal theory based on a binary operator of directional associative relation is constructed and an understanding of an associative normal form of image constructions is introduced. A model of a commutative semigroup, which provides a presentation of a sentence as three components of an interrogative language image construction, is considered.

  14. Emerging Approach of Natural Language Processing in Opinion Mining: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer Based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

  15. Breaking the Molds: Signed Languages and the Nature of Human Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobin, Dan I.

    2008-01-01

    Grammars of signed languages tend to be based on grammars established for written languages, particularly the written language in use in the surrounding hearing community of a sign language. Such grammars presuppose categories of discrete elements which are combined into various sorts of structures. Recent analyses of signed languages go beyond…

  16. Children with Language Disorders: Natural History and Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Anthony S.; Scavuzzo, Annebelle

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the academic difficulties of children with language disorders (including dyslexia) and suggests that their persistent academic vulnerability results from the lifelong need to acquire language, to learn with language, and to apply language knowledge for academic learning and social development. The need for continuing…

  17. Evaluation of two dependency parsers on biomedical corpus targeted at protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ginter, Filip; Pahikkala, Tapio; Boberg, Jorma; Järvinen, Jouni; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-06-01

    We present an evaluation of Link Grammar and Connexor Machinese Syntax, two major broad-coverage dependency parsers, on a custom hand-annotated corpus consisting of sentences regarding protein-protein interactions. In the evaluation, we apply the notion of an interaction subgraph, which is the subgraph of a dependency graph expressing a protein-protein interaction. We measure the performance of the parsers for recovery of individual dependencies, fully correct parses, and interaction subgraphs. For Link Grammar, an open system that can be inspected in detail, we further perform a comprehensive failure analysis, report specific causes of error, and suggest potential modifications to the grammar. We find that both parsers perform worse on biomedical English than previously reported on general English. While Connexor Machinese Syntax significantly outperforms Link Grammar, the failure analysis suggests specific ways in which the latter could be modified for better performance in the domain. PMID:16099201

  18. TreeParser-Aided Klee Diagrams Display Taxonomic Clusters in DNA Barcode and Nuclear Gene Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Coffran, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Indicator vector analysis of a nucleotide sequence alignment generates a compact heat map, called a Klee diagram, with potential insight into clustering patterns in evolution. However, so far this approach has examined only mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences. To further explore, we developed TreeParser, a freely-available web-based program that sorts a sequence alignment according to a phylogenetic tree generated from the dataset. We applied TreeParser to nuclear gene and COI barcode alignments from birds and butterflies. Distinct blocks in the resulting Klee diagrams corresponded to species and higher-level taxonomic divisions in both groups, and this enabled graphic comparison of phylogenetic information in nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Our results demonstrate TreeParser-aided Klee diagrams objectively display taxonomic clusters in nucleotide sequence alignments. This approach may help establish taxonomy in poorly studied groups and investigate higher-level clustering which appears widespread but not well understood. PMID:24022383

  19. Semantic Grammar: A Technique for Constructing Natural Language Interfaces to Instructional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

    A major obstacle to the effective educational use of computers is the lack of a natural means of communication between the student and the computer. This report describes a technique for generating such natural language front-ends for advanced instructional systems. It discusses: (1) the essential properties of a natural language front-end, (2)…

  20. What baboons can (not) tell us about natural language grammars.

    PubMed

    Poletiek, Fenna H; Fitz, Hartmut; Bocanegra, Bruno R

    2016-06-01

    Rey et al. (2012) present data from a study with baboons that they interpret in support of the idea that center-embedded structures in human language have their origin in low level memory mechanisms and associative learning. Critically, the authors claim that the baboons showed a behavioral preference that is consistent with center-embedded sequences over other types of sequences. We argue that the baboons' response patterns suggest that two mechanisms are involved: first, they can be trained to associate a particular response with a particular stimulus, and, second, when faced with two conditioned stimuli in a row, they respond to the most recent one first, copying behavior they had been rewarded for during training. Although Rey et al. (2012) 'experiment shows that the baboons' behavior is driven by low level mechanisms, it is not clear how the animal behavior reported, bears on the phenomenon of Center Embedded structures in human syntax. Hence, (1) natural language syntax may indeed have been shaped by low level mechanisms, and (2) the baboons' behavior is driven by low level stimulus response learning, as Rey et al. propose. But is the second evidence for the first? We will discuss in what ways this study can and cannot give evidential value for explaining the origin of Center Embedded recursion in human grammar. More generally, their study provokes an interesting reflection on the use of animal studies in order to understand features of the human linguistic system. PMID:26026382

  1. Spatial and numerical abilities without a complete natural language.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Daniel C; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2011-04-01

    We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations involving the use of both exact and approximate numbers. Tests of spatial and geometrical abilities revealed an interesting patchwork of age-typical strengths and localized deficits. In particular, the child performed extremely well on navigation tasks involving geometrical or landmark information presented in isolation, but very poorly on otherwise similar tasks that required the combination of the two types of spatial information. Tests of number- and space-specific language revealed proficiency in the use of number words and deficits in the use of spatial terms. This case suggests that a full linguistic system is not necessary to reap the benefits of linguistic vocabulary on basic numerical tasks. Furthermore, it suggests that language plays an important role in the combination of mental representations of space. PMID:21168425

  2. Validation of clinical problems using a UMLS-based semantic parser.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H S; Hsu, C; Law, V; Safran, C

    1998-01-01

    The capture and symbolization of data from the clinical problem list facilitates the creation of high-fidelity patient resumes for use in aggregate analysis and decision support. We report on the development of a UMLS-based semantic parser and present a preliminary evaluation of the parser in the recognition and validation of disease-related clinical problems. We randomly sampled 20% of the 26,858 unique non-dictionary clinical problems entered into OMR (Online Medical Record) between 1989 and August, 1997, and eliminated a series of qualified problem labels, e.g., history-of, to obtain a dataset of 4122 problem labels. Within this dataset, the authors identified 2810 labels (68.2%) as referring to a broad range of disease-related processes. The parser correctly recognized and validated 1398 of the 2810 disease-related labels (49.8 +/- 1.9%) and correctly excluded 1220 of 1312 non-disease-related labels (93.0 +/- 1.4%). 812 of the 1181 match failures (68.8%) were caused by terms either absent from UMLS or modifiers not accepted by the parser; 369 match failures (31.2%) were caused by labels having patterns not recognized by the parser. By enriching the UMLS lexicon with terms commonly found in provider-entered labels, it appears that performance of the parser can be significantly enhanced over a few subsequent iterations. This initial evaluation provides a foundation from which to make principled additions to the UMLS lexicon locally for use in symbolizing clinical data; further research is necessary to determine applicability to other health care settings. PMID:9929330

  3. Excess entropy in natural language: Present state and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debowski, Łukasz

    2011-09-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the meaning of mutual information in natural language. Let us define words in a text as strings that occur sufficiently often. In a few previous papers, we have shown that a power-law distribution for so defined words (a.k.a. Herdan's law) is obeyed if there is a similar power-law growth of (algorithmic) mutual information between adjacent portions of texts of increasing length. Moreover, the power-law growth of information holds if texts describe a complicated infinite (algorithmically) random object in a highly repetitive way, according to an analogous power-law distribution. The described object may be immutable (like a mathematical or physical constant) or may evolve slowly in time (like cultural heritage). Here, we reflect on the respective mathematical results in a less technical way. We also discuss feasibility of deciding to what extent these results apply to the actual human communication.

  4. Towards a semantic lexicon for clinical natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongfang; Wu, Stephen T; Li, Dingcheng; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Haug, Peter J; Huff, Stanley M; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    A semantic lexicon which associates words and phrases in text to concepts is critical for extracting and encoding clinical information in free text and therefore achieving semantic interoperability between structured and unstructured data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Directly using existing standard terminologies may have limited coverage with respect to concepts and their corresponding mentions in text. In this paper, we analyze how tokens and phrases in a large corpus distribute and how well the UMLS captures the semantics. A corpus-driven semantic lexicon, MedLex, has been constructed where the semantics is based on the UMLS assisted with variants mined and usage information gathered from clinical text. The detailed corpus analysis of tokens, chunks, and concept mentions shows the UMLS is an invaluable source for natural language processing. Increasing the semantic coverage of tokens provides a good foundation in capturing clinical information comprehensively. The study also yields some insights in developing practical NLP systems. PMID:23304329

  5. What can Natural Language Processing do for Clinical Decision Support?

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chapman, Wendy W.; McDonald, Clement J.

    2009-01-01

    Computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative NLP research of clinical narrative was followed by a period of stable research conducted at the major clinical centers and a shift of mainstream interest to biomedical NLP. This review primarily focuses on the recently renewed interest in development of fundamental NLP methods and advances in the NLP systems for CDS. The current solutions to challenges posed by distinct sublanguages, intended user groups, and support goals are discussed. PMID:19683066

  6. Literature-Based Knowledge Discovery using Natural Language Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristovski, D.; Friedman, C.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Peterlin, B.

    Literature-based discovery (LBD) is an emerging methodology for uncovering nonovert relationships in the online research literature. Making such relationships explicit supports hypothesis generation and discovery. Currently LBD systems depend exclusively on co-occurrence of words or concepts in target documents, regardless of whether relations actually exist between the words or concepts. We describe a method to enhance LBD through capture of semantic relations from the literature via use of natural language processing (NLP). This paper reports on an application of LBD that combines two NLP systems: BioMedLEE and SemRep, which are coupled with an LBD system called BITOLA. The two NLP systems complement each other to increase the types of information utilized by BITOLA. We also discuss issues associated with combining heterogeneous systems. Initial experiments suggest this approach can uncover new associations that were not possible using previous methods.

  7. Natural Language Processing Methods and Systems for Biomedical Ontology Learning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of natural language processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies. PMID:20647054

  8. From Web Directories to Ontologies: Natural Language Processing Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaihrayeu, Ilya; Sun, Lei; Giunchiglia, Fausto; Pan, Wei; Ju, Qi; Chi, Mingmin; Huang, Xuanjing

    Hierarchical classifications are used pervasively by humans as a means to organize their data and knowledge about the world. One of their main advantages is that natural language labels, used to describe their contents, are easily understood by human users. However, at the same time, this is also one of their main disadvantages as these same labels are ambiguous and very hard to be reasoned about by software agents. This fact creates an insuperable hindrance for classifications to being embedded in the Semantic Web infrastructure. This paper presents an approach to converting classifications into lightweight ontologies, and it makes the following contributions: (i) it identifies the main NLP problems related to the conversion process and shows how they are different from the classical problems of NLP; (ii) it proposes heuristic solutions to these problems, which are especially effective in this domain; and (iii) it evaluates the proposed solutions by testing them on DMoz data.

  9. Tasking and sharing sensing assets using controlled natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Pizzocaro, Diego; Braines, David; Mott, David

    2012-06-01

    We introduce an approach to representing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) tasks at a relatively high level in controlled natural language. We demonstrate that this facilitates both human interpretation and machine processing of tasks. More specically, it allows the automatic assignment of sensing assets to tasks, and the informed sharing of tasks between collaborating users in a coalition environment. To enable automatic matching of sensor types to tasks, we created a machine-processable knowledge representation based on the Military Missions and Means Framework (MMF), and implemented a semantic reasoner to match task types to sensor types. We combined this mechanism with a sensor-task assignment procedure based on a well-known distributed protocol for resource allocation. In this paper, we re-formulate the MMF ontology in Controlled English (CE), a type of controlled natural language designed to be readable by a native English speaker whilst representing information in a structured, unambiguous form to facilitate machine processing. We show how CE can be used to describe both ISR tasks (for example, detection, localization, or identication of particular kinds of object) and sensing assets (for example, acoustic, visual, or seismic sensors, mounted on motes or unmanned vehicles). We show how these representations enable an automatic sensor-task assignment process. Where a group of users are cooperating in a coalition, we show how CE task summaries give users in the eld a high-level picture of ISR coverage of an area of interest. This allows them to make ecient use of sensing resources by sharing tasks.

  10. Constructing Concept Schemes From Astronomical Telegrams Via Natural Language Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Zhang, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A. J.; Mahabal, A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using hierarchical clustering of processed natural language. This allows us to automatically organize ATELs based on the vocabulary used. We conclude that we can use simple algorithms to process and extract meaning from astronomical textual data.

  11. The Semantic Web as a Linguistic Resource: Opportunities for Natural Language Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellish, Chris; Sun, Xiantang

    This paper argues that, because the documents of the semantic web are created by human beings, they are actually much more like natural language documents than theory would have us believe. We present evidence that natural language words are used extensively and in complex ways in current ontologies. This leads to a number of dangers for the semantic web, but also opens up interesting new challenges for natural language processing. This is illustrated by our own work using natural language generation to present parts of ontologies.

  12. Human-Level Natural Language Understanding: False Progress and Real Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bignoli, Perrin G.

    2013-01-01

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) focuses on the study of how utterances composed of human-level languages can be understood and generated. Typically, there are considered to be three intertwined levels of structure that interact to create meaning in language: syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Not only is a large amount of…

  13. Natural and Artificial Intelligence, Language, Consciousness, Emotion, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2010-11-01

    The classical paradigm of the neural brain as the seat of human natural intelligence is too restrictive. This paper defends the idea that the neural ectoderm is the actual brain, based on the development of the human embryo. Indeed, the neural ectoderm includes the neural crest, given by pigment cells in the skin and ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, and the neural tube, given by the brain, the spinal cord, and motor neurons. So the brain is completely integrated in the ectoderm, and cannot work alone. The paper presents fundamental properties of the brain as follows. Firstly, Paul D. MacLean proposed the triune human brain, which consists to three brains in one, following the species evolution, given by the reptilian complex, the limbic system, and the neo-cortex. Secondly, the consciousness and conscious awareness are analysed. Thirdly, the anticipatory unconscious free will and conscious free veto are described in agreement with the experiments of Benjamin Libet. Fourthly, the main section explains the development of the human embryo and shows that the neural ectoderm is the whole neural brain. Fifthly, a conjecture is proposed that the neural brain is completely programmed with scripts written in biological low-level and high-level languages, in a manner similar to the programmed cells by the genetic code. Finally, it is concluded that the proposition of the neural ectoderm as the whole neural brain is a breakthrough in the understanding of the natural intelligence, and also in the future design of robots with artificial intelligence.

  14. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  15. Towards a continuous population model for natural language vowel shift.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Patrick D; Faria, Sérgio H; Strickland, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    The Great English Vowel Shift of 16th-19th centuries and the current Northern Cities Vowel Shift are two examples of collective language processes characterized by regular phonetic changes, that is, gradual changes in vowel pronunciation over time. Here we develop a structured population approach to modeling such regular changes in the vowel systems of natural languages, taking into account learning patterns and effects such as social trends. We treat vowel pronunciation as a continuous variable in vowel space and allow for a continuous dependence of vowel pronunciation in time and age of the speaker. The theory of mixtures with continuous diversity provides a framework for the model, which extends the McKendrick-von Foerster equation to populations with age and phonetic structures. We develop the general balance equations for such populations and propose explicit expressions for the factors that impact the evolution of the vowel pronunciation distribution. For illustration, we present two examples of numerical simulations. In the first one we study a stationary solution corresponding to a state of phonetic equilibrium, in which speakers of all ages share a similar phonetic profile. We characterize the variance of the phonetic distribution in terms of a parameter measuring a ratio of phonetic attraction to dispersion. In the second example we show how vowel shift occurs upon starting with an initial condition consisting of a majority pronunciation that is affected by an immigrant minority with a different vowel pronunciation distribution. The approach developed here for vowel systems may be applied also to other learning situations and other time-dependent processes of cognition in self-interacting populations, like opinions or perceptions. PMID:23624180

  16. Success story in software engineering using NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology)

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, S.M.; Eaton, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    To create an information system, we employ NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology). NIAM supports the goals of both the customer and the analyst completely understanding the information. We use the customer`s own unique vocabulary, collect real examples, and validate the information in natural language sentences. Examples are discussed from a successfully implemented information system.

  17. Testing of a Natural Language Retrieval System for a Full Text Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lionel M.; Williamson, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    The Hepatitis Knowledge Base (text of prototype information system) was used for modifying and testing "A Navigator of Natural Language Organized (Textual) Data" (ANNOD), a retrieval system which combines probabilistic, linguistic, and empirical means to rank individual paragraphs of full text for similarity to natural language queries proposed by…

  18. One grammar or two? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language

    PubMed Central

    Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages—such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality but also in the form of sign languages has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language—in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. PMID:25013534

  19. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time. PMID:23053906

  20. Natural language processing and visualization in the molecular imaging domain.

    PubMed

    Tulipano, P Karina; Tao, Ying; Millar, William S; Zanzonico, Pat; Kolbert, Katherine; Xu, Hua; Yu, Hong; Chen, Lifeng; Lussier, Yves A; Friedman, Carol

    2007-06-01

    Molecular imaging is at the crossroads of genomic sciences and medical imaging. Information within the molecular imaging literature could be used to link to genomic and imaging information resources and to organize and index images in a way that is potentially useful to researchers. A number of natural language processing (NLP) systems are available to automatically extract information from genomic literature. One existing NLP system, known as BioMedLEE, automatically extracts biological information consisting of biomolecular substances and phenotypic data. This paper focuses on the adaptation, evaluation, and application of BioMedLEE to the molecular imaging domain. In order to adapt BioMedLEE for this domain, we extend an existing molecular imaging terminology and incorporate it into BioMedLEE. BioMedLEE's performance is assessed with a formal evaluation study. The system's performance, measured as recall and precision, is 0.74 (95% CI: [.70-.76]) and 0.70 (95% CI [.63-.76]), respectively. We adapt a JAVA viewer known as PGviewer for the simultaneous visualization of images with NLP extracted information. PMID:17084109

  1. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging ‘the crowd’; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9–11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing. Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives PMID:27504010

  2. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives. PMID:27504010

  3. Nature and Nurture in School-Based Second Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Philip S.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Variability in achievement across learners is a hallmark of second language (L2) learning, especially in academic-based learning. The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), based on a large, population-representative sample in the United Kingdom, provides the first opportunity to examine individual differences in second language achievement in a…

  4. Teaching Language to Handicapped Children in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Claire C.; Poulson, Claire L.

    1985-01-01

    An adaptation of incidental teaching procedures was used to teach individually defined language responses to four language-delayed children (4-8 years old). Data showed that frequency of each targeted response increased only during incidental teaching, with most targeted responses produced spontaneously; and the teachers correctly implemented the…

  5. Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

  6. Three-dimensional grammar in the brain: Dissociating the neural correlates of natural sign language and manually coded spoken language.

    PubMed

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Mostowski, Piotr; Szwed, Marcin; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    In several countries natural sign languages were considered inadequate for education. Instead, new sign-supported systems were created, based on the belief that spoken/written language is grammatically superior. One such system called SJM (system językowo-migowy) preserves the grammatical and lexical structure of spoken Polish and since 1960s has been extensively employed in schools and on TV. Nevertheless, the Deaf community avoids using SJM for everyday communication, its preferred language being PJM (polski język migowy), a natural sign language, structurally and grammatically independent of spoken Polish and featuring classifier constructions (CCs). Here, for the first time, we compare, with fMRI method, the neural bases of natural vs. devised communication systems. Deaf signers were presented with three types of signed sentences (SJM and PJM with/without CCs). Consistent with previous findings, PJM with CCs compared to either SJM or PJM without CCs recruited the parietal lobes. The reverse comparison revealed activation in the anterior temporal lobes, suggesting increased semantic combinatory processes in lexical sign comprehension. Finally, PJM compared with SJM engaged left posterior superior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, areas crucial for sentence-level speech comprehension. We suggest that activity in these two areas reflects greater processing efficiency for naturally evolved sign language. PMID:25858311

  7. Automation of a problem list using natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    Meystre, Stephane; Haug, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Background The medical problem list is an important part of the electronic medical record in development in our institution. To serve the functions it is designed for, the problem list has to be as accurate and timely as possible. However, the current problem list is usually incomplete and inaccurate, and is often totally unused. To alleviate this issue, we are building an environment where the problem list can be easily and effectively maintained. Methods For this project, 80 medical problems were selected for their frequency of use in our future clinical field of evaluation (cardiovascular). We have developed an Automated Problem List system composed of two main components: a background and a foreground application. The background application uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) to harvest potential problem list entries from the list of 80 targeted problems detected in the multiple free-text electronic documents available in our electronic medical record. These proposed medical problems drive the foreground application designed for management of the problem list. Within this application, the extracted problems are proposed to the physicians for addition to the official problem list. Results The set of 80 targeted medical problems selected for this project covered about 5% of all possible diagnoses coded in ICD-9-CM in our study population (cardiovascular adult inpatients), but about 64% of all instances of these coded diagnoses. The system contains algorithms to detect first document sections, then sentences within these sections, and finally potential problems within the sentences. The initial evaluation of the section and sentence detection algorithms demonstrated a sensitivity and positive predictive value of 100% when detecting sections, and a sensitivity of 89% and a positive predictive value of 94% when detecting sentences. Conclusion The global aim of our project is to automate the process of creating and maintaining a problem list for hospitalized

  8. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system. PMID:23055164

  9. Of substance: the nature of language effects on entity construal.

    PubMed

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200]. Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin speakers and English speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's [Prasada, S. (1999). Names for things and stuff: An Aristotelian perspective. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn (Eds.), Language, logic, and concepts (pp. 119-146). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object kind rather than substance kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind. PMID:19230873

  10. On the neurolinguistic nature of language abnormalities in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wallesch, C W; Fehrenbach, R A

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous language of 18 patients suffering from Huntington's disease and 15 dysarthric controls suffering from Friedreich's ataxia were investigated. In addition, language functions in various modalities were assessed with the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). The Huntington patients exhibited deficits in the syntactical complexity of spontaneous speech and in the Token Test, confrontation naming, and language comprehension subtests of the AAT, which are interpreted as resulting from their dementia. Errors affecting word access mechanisms and production of syntactical structures as such were not encountered. PMID:2452241

  11. Statistical Learning in a Natural Language by 8-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real speech. To what extent can these conclusions be scaled up to natural language learning? In the current experiments, English-learning 8-month-old infants’ ability to track transitional probabilities in fluent infant-directed Italian speech was tested (N = 72). The results suggest that infants are sensitive to transitional probability cues in unfamiliar natural language stimuli, and support the claim that statistical learning is sufficiently robust to support aspects of real-world language acquisition. PMID:19489896

  12. Statistical learning in a natural language by 8-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Hay, Jessica F; Saffran, Jenny R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real speech. To what extent can these conclusions be scaled up to natural language learning? In the current experiments, English-learning 8-month-old infants' ability to track transitional probabilities in fluent infant-directed Italian speech was tested (N = 72). The results suggest that infants are sensitive to transitional probability cues in unfamiliar natural language stimuli, and support the claim that statistical learning is sufficiently robust to support aspects of real-world language acquisition. PMID:19489896

  13. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  14. Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D.…

  15. Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind (whisk; Imai and Gentner, 1997). Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin-speakers and English-speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's (1999) hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object-kind rather than substance-kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind. PMID:19230873

  16. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

  17. Dynamic changes in network activations characterize early learning of a natural language.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Patterson, Dianne; Dailey, Natalie S; Kyle, R Almyrde; Fridriksson, Julius

    2014-09-01

    Those who are initially exposed to an unfamiliar language have difficulty separating running speech into individual words, but over time will recognize both words and the grammatical structure of the language. Behavioral studies have used artificial languages to demonstrate that humans are sensitive to distributional information in language input, and can use this information to discover the structure of that language. This is done without direct instruction and learning occurs over the course of minutes rather than days or months. Moreover, learners may attend to different aspects of the language input as their own learning progresses. Here, we examine processing associated with the early stages of exposure to a natural language, using fMRI. Listeners were exposed to an unfamiliar language (Icelandic) while undergoing four consecutive fMRI scans. The Icelandic stimuli were constrained in ways known to produce rapid learning of aspects of language structure. After approximately 4 min of exposure to the Icelandic stimuli, participants began to differentiate between correct and incorrect sentences at above chance levels, with significant improvement between the first and last scan. An independent component analysis of the imaging data revealed four task-related components, two of which were associated with behavioral performance early in the experiment, and two with performance later in the experiment. This outcome suggests dynamic changes occur in the recruitment of neural resources even within the initial period of exposure to an unfamiliar natural language. PMID:25058056

  18. Dynamic Changes in Network Activations Characterize Early Learning of a Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Patterson, Dianne; Dailey, Natalie S.; Almyrde, Kyle, R.; Fridriksson, Julius

    2014-01-01

    Those who are initially exposed to an unfamiliar language have difficulty separating running speech into individual words, but over time will recognize both words and the grammatical structure of the language. Behavioral studies have used artificial languages to demonstrate that humans are sensitive to distributional information in language input, and can use this information to discover the structure of that language. This is done without direct instruction and learning occurs over the course of minutes rather than days or months. Moreover, learners may attend to different aspects of the language input as their own learning progresses. Here, we examine processing associated with the early stages of exposure to a natural language, using fMRI. Listeners were exposed to an unfamiliar language (Icelandic) while undergoing four consecutive fMRI scans. The Icelandic stimuli were constrained in ways known to produce rapid learning of aspects of language structure. After approximately 4 minutes of exposure to the Icelandic stimuli, participants began to differentiate between correct and incorrect sentences at above chance levels, with significant improvement between the first and last scan. An independent component analysis of the imaging data revealed four task-related components, two of which were associated with behavioral performance early in the experiment, and two with performance later in the experiment. This outcome suggests dynamic changes occur in the recruitment of neural resources even within the initial period of exposure to an unfamiliar natural language. PMID:25058056

  19. Computational Nonlinear Morphology with Emphasis on Semitic Languages. Studies in Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiraz, George Anton

    This book presents a tractable computational model that can cope with complex morphological operations, especially in Semitic languages, and less complex morphological systems present in Western languages. It outlines a new generalized regular rewrite rule system that uses multiple finite-state automata to cater to root-and-pattern morphology,…

  20. The Nature of Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environments in Singapore Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Thai Learning System on the Web Using Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansuwan, Suyada; Nishina, Kikuko; Akahori, Kanji; Shimizu, Yasutaka

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Thai Learning System, which is designed to help learners acquire the Thai word order system. The system facilitates the lessons on the Web using HyperText Markup Language and Perl programming, which interfaces with natural language processing by means of Prolog. (Author/VWL)

  2. Transfer of a Natural Language System for Problem-Solving in Physics to Other Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberem, Graham E.

    The limited language capability of CAI systems has made it difficult to personalize problem-solving instruction. The intelligent tutoring system, ALBERT, is a problem-solving monitor and coach that has been used with high school and college level physics students for several years; it uses a natural language system to understand kinematics…

  3. A Fuzzy Set Approach to Modifiers and Vagueness in Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Harry M.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    1976-01-01

    The proposition that natural language concepts are represented as fuzzy sets, a generalization of the traditional theory of sets, of meaning components and that language operators--adverbs, negative markers, and adjectives--can be considered as operators on fuzzy sets was assessed empirically. (Editor/RK)

  4. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

  5. Paradigms of Evaluation in Natural Language Processing: Field Linguistics for Glass Box Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2010-01-01

    Although software testing has been well-studied in computer science, it has received little attention in natural language processing. Nonetheless, a fully developed methodology for glass box evaluation and testing of language processing applications already exists in the field methods of descriptive linguistics. This work lays out a number of…

  6. Semantic Grammar: An Engineering Technique for Constructing Natural Language Understanding Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.

    In an attempt to overcome the lack of natural means of communication between student and computer, this thesis addresses the problem of developing a system which can understand natural language within an educational problem-solving environment. The nature of the environment imposes efficiency, habitability, self-teachability, and awareness of…

  7. Prospects for Knowledge-Based Customization of Natural Language Query Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damerau, Fred J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the potential sources of knowledge for customizing transportable natural language query systems, including sophisticated dictionaries, database content, and human database experts. A rough quantification of the importance of each source is provided. (17 references) (Author/CLB)

  8. GE FRST Evaluation Report: How Well Does a Statistically-Based Natural Language Processing System Score Natural Language Constructed-Responses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill C.; Kaplan, Randy M.

    There is a considerable interest at Educational Testing Service (ETS) to include performance-based, natural language constructed-response items on standardized tests. Such items can be developed, but the projected time and costs required to have these items scored by human graders would be prohibitive. In order for ETS to include these types of…

  9. Language Teaching in Literature Departments: Natural Partnership or Shotgun Marriage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumway, Nicolas

    1990-01-01

    It is noted that language teaching in literature departments in many colleges and universities does not confer the same benefits or offer the same rewards as teaching literature. The problems this imbalance creates in academic rigor and continuity and the questions addressing why this is imbalance exists are discussed. (GLR)

  10. Evolutionary Developmental Linguistics: Naturalization of the Faculty of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Since language is a biological trait, it is necessary to investigate its evolution, development, and functions, along with the mechanisms that have been set aside, and are now recruited, for its acquisition and use. It is argued here that progress toward each of these goals can be facilitated by new programs of research, carried out within a new…

  11. Inferring Speaker Affect in Spoken Natural Language Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon-Barry, Heather Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The field of spoken language processing is concerned with creating computer programs that can understand human speech and produce human-like speech. Regarding the problem of understanding human speech, there is currently growing interest in moving beyond speech recognition (the task of transcribing the words in an audio stream) and towards…

  12. Natural language modeling for phoneme-to-text transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Derouault, A.M.; Merialdo, B.

    1986-11-01

    This paper relates different kinds of language modeling methods that can be applied to the linguistic decoding part of a speech recognition system with a very large vocabulary. These models are studied experimentally on a pseudophonetic input arising from French stenotypy. The authors propose a model which combines the advantages of a statistical modeling with information theoretic tools, and those of a grammatical approach.

  13. Unit 1001: The Nature of Meaning in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This 10th-grade unit in Minnesota's "language-centered" curriculum introduces the complexity of linguistic meaning by demonstrating the relationships among linguistic symbols, their referents, their interpreters, and the social milieu. The unit begins with a discussion of Ray Bradbury's "The Kilimanjaro Machine," which illustrates how an otherwise…

  14. Visual language recognition with a feed-forward network of spiking neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Craig E; Garrett, Kenyan; Sottile, Matthew; Shreyas, Ns

    2010-01-01

    An analogy is made and exploited between the recognition of visual objects and language parsing. A subset of regular languages is used to define a one-dimensional 'visual' language, in which the words are translational and scale invariant. This allows an exploration of the viewpoint invariant languages that can be solved by a network of concurrent, hierarchically connected processors. A language family is defined that is hierarchically tiling system recognizable (HREC). As inspired by nature, an algorithm is presented that constructs a cellular automaton that recognizes strings from a language in the HREC family. It is demonstrated how a language recognizer can be implemented from the cellular automaton using a feed-forward network of spiking neurons. This parser recognizes fixed-length strings from the language in parallel and as the computation is pipelined, a new string can be parsed in each new interval of time. The analogy with formal language theory allows inferences to be drawn regarding what class of objects can be recognized by visual cortex operating in purely feed-forward fashion and what class of objects requires a more complicated network architecture.

  15. The Oscillopathic Nature of Language Deficits in Autism: From Genes to Language Evolution.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Murphy, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders involving a number of deficits to linguistic cognition. The gap between genetics and the pathophysiology of ASD remains open, in particular regarding its distinctive linguistic profile. The goal of this article is to attempt to bridge this gap, focusing on how the autistic brain processes language, particularly through the perspective of brain rhythms. Due to the phenomenon of pleiotropy, which may take some decades to overcome, we believe that studies of brain rhythms, which are not faced with problems of this scale, may constitute a more tractable route to interpreting language deficits in ASD and eventually other neurocognitive disorders. Building on recent attempts to link neural oscillations to certain computational primitives of language, we show that interpreting language deficits in ASD as oscillopathic traits is a potentially fruitful way to construct successful endophenotypes of this condition. Additionally, we will show that candidate genes for ASD are overrepresented among the genes that played a role in the evolution of language. These genes include (and are related to) genes involved in brain rhythmicity. We hope that the type of steps taken here will additionally lead to a better understanding of the comorbidity, heterogeneity, and variability of ASD, and may help achieve a better treatment of the affected populations. PMID:27047363

  16. The Oscillopathic Nature of Language Deficits in Autism: From Genes to Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Murphy, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders involving a number of deficits to linguistic cognition. The gap between genetics and the pathophysiology of ASD remains open, in particular regarding its distinctive linguistic profile. The goal of this article is to attempt to bridge this gap, focusing on how the autistic brain processes language, particularly through the perspective of brain rhythms. Due to the phenomenon of pleiotropy, which may take some decades to overcome, we believe that studies of brain rhythms, which are not faced with problems of this scale, may constitute a more tractable route to interpreting language deficits in ASD and eventually other neurocognitive disorders. Building on recent attempts to link neural oscillations to certain computational primitives of language, we show that interpreting language deficits in ASD as oscillopathic traits is a potentially fruitful way to construct successful endophenotypes of this condition. Additionally, we will show that candidate genes for ASD are overrepresented among the genes that played a role in the evolution of language. These genes include (and are related to) genes involved in brain rhythmicity. We hope that the type of steps taken here will additionally lead to a better understanding of the comorbidity, heterogeneity, and variability of ASD, and may help achieve a better treatment of the affected populations. PMID:27047363

  17. The language faculty that wasn't: a usage-based account of natural language recursion

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Morten H.; Chater, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the generative tradition, the language faculty has been shrinking—perhaps to include only the mechanism of recursion. This paper argues that even this view of the language faculty is too expansive. We first argue that a language faculty is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary considerations. We then focus on recursion as a detailed case study, arguing that our ability to process recursive structure does not rely on recursion as a property of the grammar, but instead emerges gradually by piggybacking on domain-general sequence learning abilities. Evidence from genetics, comparative work on non-human primates, and cognitive neuroscience suggests that humans have evolved complex sequence learning skills, which were subsequently pressed into service to accommodate language. Constraints on sequence learning therefore have played an important role in shaping the cultural evolution of linguistic structure, including our limited abilities for processing recursive structure. Finally, we re-evaluate some of the key considerations that have often been taken to require the postulation of a language faculty. PMID:26379567

  18. Concreteness and Psychological Distance in Natural Language Use

    PubMed Central

    Snefjella, Bryor; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence shows that more abstract mental representations are formed, and more abstract language is used, to characterize phenomena which are more distant from self. Yet the precise form of the functional relationship between distance and linguistic abstractness has been unknown. In four studies, we test whether more abstract language is used in textual references to more geographically distant cities (Study 1), times further into the past or future (Study 2), references to more socially distant people (Study 3), and references to a specific topic (Study 4). Using millions of linguistic productions from thousands of social media users, we determine that linguistic concreteness is a curvilinear function of the logarithm of distance and discuss psychological underpinnings of the mathematical properties of the relationship. We also demonstrate that gradient curvilinear effects of geographic and temporal distance on concreteness are near-identical, suggesting uniformity in representation of abstractness along multiple dimensions. PMID:26239108

  19. Concreteness and Psychological Distance in Natural Language Use.

    PubMed

    Snefjella, Bryor; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Existing evidence shows that more abstract mental representations are formed and more abstract language is used to characterize phenomena that are more distant from the self. Yet the precise form of the functional relationship between distance and linguistic abstractness is unknown. In four studies, we tested whether more abstract language is used in textual references to more geographically distant cities (Study 1), time points further into the past or future (Study 2), references to more socially distant people (Study 3), and references to a specific topic (Study 4). Using millions of linguistic productions from thousands of social-media users, we determined that linguistic concreteness is a curvilinear function of the logarithm of distance, and we discuss psychological underpinnings of the mathematical properties of this relationship. We also demonstrated that gradient curvilinear effects of geographic and temporal distance on concreteness are nearly identical, which suggests uniformity in representation of abstractness along multiple dimensions. PMID:26239108

  20. Rimac: A Natural-Language Dialogue System that Engages Students in Deep Reasoning Dialogues about Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Sandra; Jordan, Pamela; Litman, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The natural-language tutorial dialogue system that the authors are developing will allow them to focus on the nature of interactivity during tutoring as a malleable factor. Specifically, it will serve as a research platform for studies that manipulate the frequency and types of verbal alignment processes that take place during tutoring, such as…

  1. The Right Tool for the Job: Techniques for Analysis of Natural Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Georgia M.

    A variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing information about the natural use of natural languages is surveyed, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the properties of a research task that make a given technique more or less suitable to it rather than comparing techniques globally and ranking them absolutely. An initial goal is to…

  2. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  3. For the People...Citizenship Education and Naturalization Information. An English as a Second Language Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; And Others

    A textbook for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students presents lessons on U.S. citizenship education and naturalization information. The nine lessons cover the following topics: the U.S. system of government; the Bill of Rights; responsibilities and rights of citizens; voting; requirements for naturalization; the application process; the…

  4. Novels, Scripts, and Natural Discourse: Mediated Models of Language Use and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukup, Paul A.

    This paper explores the question of interpreting complex texts, particularly scripts and multimedia presentations. The paper first reviews the literature on natural discourse, noting that although interpreting spoken natural language seems rather straightforward, many scholars have discussed what is required to make sense of discourse. The paper…

  5. The feasibility of using natural language processing to extract clinical information from breast pathology reports

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Julliette M.; Coopey, Suzanne B.; Sharko, John; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Drohan, Brian; Belli, Ahmet K.; Kim, Elizabeth M. H.; Garber, Judy E.; Smith, Barbara L.; Gadd, Michele A.; Specht, Michelle C.; Roche, Constance A.; Gudewicz, Thomas M.; Hughes, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The opportunity to integrate clinical decision support systems into clinical practice is limited due to the lack of structured, machine readable data in the current format of the electronic health record. Natural language processing has been designed to convert free text into machine readable data. The aim of the current study was to ascertain the feasibility of using natural language processing to extract clinical information from >76,000 breast pathology reports. Approach and Procedure: Breast pathology reports from three institutions were analyzed using natural language processing software (Clearforest, Waltham, MA) to extract information on a variety of pathologic diagnoses of interest. Data tables were created from the extracted information according to date of surgery, side of surgery, and medical record number. The variety of ways in which each diagnosis could be represented was recorded, as a means of demonstrating the complexity of machine interpretation of free text. Results: There was widespread variation in how pathologists reported common pathologic diagnoses. We report, for example, 124 ways of saying invasive ductal carcinoma and 95 ways of saying invasive lobular carcinoma. There were >4000 ways of saying invasive ductal carcinoma was not present. Natural language processor sensitivity and specificity were 99.1% and 96.5% when compared to expert human coders. Conclusion: We have demonstrated how a large body of free text medical information such as seen in breast pathology reports, can be converted to a machine readable format using natural language processing, and described the inherent complexities of the task. PMID:22934236

  6. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key. PMID:22371983

  7. Integrated pathology reporting, indexing, and retrieval system using natural language diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Moore, G W; Boitnott, J K; Miller, R E; Eggleston, J C; Hutchins, G M

    1988-01-01

    Pathology computer systems are making increasing use of natural language diagnoses. The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions integrated pathology reporting system, a commercial product with extensive, locally added enhancements, covers all information management functions within autopsy and surgical pathology divisions and has on-line linkages to clinical laboratory reports and the medical library's Mini-MEDLINE system. All diagnoses are written in natural language, using a word processor and spelling checker. A security system with personal passwords and different levels of access for different staff members allows reports to be signed out with an electronic signature. The system produces financial reports, overdue case reports, and Boolean searches of the database. Our experience with 128,790 consecutively entered pathology reports suggests that the greater precision of natural language diagnoses makes them the most suitable vehicle for follow-up, retrieval, and systems development functions in pathology. PMID:3070549

  8. QATT: a Natural Language Interface for QPE. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Douglas Robert-Graham

    1989-01-01

    QATT, a natural language interface developed for the Qualitative Process Engine (QPE) system is presented. The major goal was to evaluate the use of a preexisting natural language understanding system designed to be tailored for query processing in multiple domains of application. The other goal of QATT is to provide a comfortable environment in which to query envisionments in order to gain insight into the qualitative behavior of physical systems. It is shown that the use of the preexisting system made possible the development of a reasonably useful interface in a few months.

  9. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  10. Spatial and Numerical Abilities without a Complete Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Daniel C.; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations…

  11. Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

  12. Natural language processing with dynamic classification improves P300 speller accuracy and bit rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, William; Arnold, Corey; Lu, Jessica; Taira, Ricky K.; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-02-01

    The P300 speller is an example of a brain-computer interface that can restore functionality to victims of neuromuscular disorders. Although the most common application of this system has been communicating language, the properties and constraints of the linguistic domain have not to date been exploited when decoding brain signals that pertain to language. We hypothesized that combining the standard stepwise linear discriminant analysis with a Naive Bayes classifier and a trigram language model would increase the speed and accuracy of typing with the P300 speller. With integration of natural language processing, we observed significant improvements in accuracy and 40-60% increases in bit rate for all six subjects in a pilot study. This study suggests that integrating information about the linguistic domain can significantly improve signal classification.

  13. Unifying syntactic theory and sentence processing difficulty through a connectionist minimalist parser.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Sabrina; Beim Graben, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Syntactic theory provides a rich array of representational assumptions about linguistic knowledge and processes. Such detailed and independently motivated constraints on grammatical knowledge ought to play a role in sentence comprehension. However most grammar-based explanations of processing difficulty in the literature have attempted to use grammatical representations and processes per se to explain processing difficulty. They did not take into account that the description of higher cognition in mind and brain encompasses two levels: on the one hand, at the macrolevel, symbolic computation is performed, and on the other hand, at the microlevel, computation is achieved through processes within a dynamical system. One critical question is therefore how linguistic theory and dynamical systems can be unified to provide an explanation for processing effects. Here, we present such a unification for a particular account to syntactic theory: namely a parser for Stabler's Minimalist Grammars, in the framework of Smolensky's Integrated Connectionist/Symbolic architectures. In simulations we demonstrate that the connectionist minimalist parser produces predictions which mirror global empirical findings from psycholinguistic research. PMID:19795221

  14. Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Neil

    Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

  15. The Contemporary Thesaurus of Social Science Terms and Synonyms: A Guide for Natural Language Computer Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Sara D., Comp.

    This book is designed primarily to help users find meaningful words for natural language, or free-text, computer searching of bibliographic and textual databases in the social and behavioral sciences. Additionally, it covers many socially relevant and technical topics not covered by the usual literary thesaurus, therefore it may also be useful for…

  16. Effectiveness and Efficiency in Natural Language Processing for Large Amounts of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruge, Gerda; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a system that was developed in Germany for natural language processing (NLP) to improve free text analysis for information retrieval. Techniques from empirical linguistics are discussed, system architecture is explained, and rules for dealing with conjunctions in dependency analysis for free text processing are proposed. (13 references)…

  17. You Are Your Words: Modeling Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with Natural Language Processing Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the degree to which the lexical properties of students' essays can inform stealth assessments of their vocabulary knowledge. In particular, we used indices calculated with the natural language processing tool, TAALES, to predict students' performance on a measure of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, two corpora were…

  18. Introduction to Special Issue: Understanding the Nature-Nurture Interactions in Language and Learning Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia Wise

    2001-01-01

    The introduction to this special issue on nature-nurture interactions notes that the following articles represent five biologically oriented research approaches which each provide a tutorial on the investigator's major research tool, a summary of current research understandings regarding language and learning differences, and a discussion of…

  19. Verification Processes in Recognition Memory: The Role of Natural Language Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Philip H.; Smith, Randolph A. S.

    1977-01-01

    The existence of verification processes in recognition memory was confirmed in the context of Adams' (Adams & Bray, 1970) closed-loop theory. Subjects' recognition was tested following a learning session. The expectation was that data would reveal consistent internal relationships supporting the position that natural language mediation plays an…

  20. Discrimination of Coronal Stops by Bilingual Adults: The Timing and Nature of Language Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the timing and nature of interaction between the two languages of bilinguals. For this purpose, we compared discrimination of Canadian French and Canadian English coronal stops by simultaneous bilingual, monolingual and advanced early L2 learners of French and English. French /d/ is phonetically…

  1. BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi

    2008-01-01

    BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…

  2. Art Related Experiences for Social Science, Natural Science, and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Edward B.

    This booklet is intended to serve as an introduction to art experiences that relate to studies in social science, natural science, and language arts. It is designed to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of interaction of the abiotic, biotic, and cultural factors of the total environment as manifest in art forms. Each section, presented…

  3. Speech perception and reading: two parallel modes of understanding language and implications for acquiring literacy naturally.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Dominic W

    2012-01-01

    I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally. PMID:22953690

  4. Cross-Linguistic Evidence for the Nature of Age Effects in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekeyser, Robert; Alfi-Shabtay, Iris; Ravid, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    Few researchers would doubt that ultimate attainment in second language grammar is negatively correlated with age of acquisition, but considerable controversy remains about the nature of this relationship: the exact shape of the age-attainment function and its interpretation. This article presents two parallel studies with native speakers of…

  5. Dimensions of Difficulty in Translating Natural Language into First Order Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Cox, Richard; Dale, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of a large corpus of student logic exercises in which we explore the relationship between two distinct measures of difficulty: the proportion of students whose initial attempt at a given natural language to first-order logic translation is incorrect, and the average number of attempts that are required in order to…

  6. Two-Level Document Ranking Using Mutual Information in Natural Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Key-Sun

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval and relevance focuses on mutual information, a measure which represents the relation between two words. A model of a natural-language information-retrieval system that is based on a two-level document-ranking method using mutual information is presented, and a Korean encyclopedia test collection is explained.…

  7. Real English: A Translator to Enable Natural Language Man-Machine Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautin, Harvey

    This dissertation presents a pragmatic interpreter/translator called Real English to serve as a natural language man-machine communication interface in a multi-mode on-line information retrieval system. This multi-mode feature affords the user a library-like searching tool by giving him access to a dictionary, lexicon, thesaurus, synonym table,…

  8. Self-Regulated Learning in Learning Environments with Pedagogical Agents that Interact in Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur; McNamara, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the occurrence and measurement of self-regulated learning (SRL) both in human tutoring and in computer tutors with agents that hold conversations with students in natural language and help them learn at deeper levels. One challenge in building these computer tutors is to accommodate, encourage, and scaffold SRL because these…

  9. AutoTutor and Family: A Review of 17 Years of Natural Language Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2014-01-01

    AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…

  10. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  11. The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

  12. Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…

  13. The Rape of Mother Nature? Women in the Language of Environmental Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Tzeporah

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the structure of language reflects and reproduces the dominant model, and reinforces many of the dualistic assumptions which underlie the separation of male and female, nature and culture, mind from body, emotion from reason, and intuition from fact. (LZ)

  14. The Use of Natural Language Entry and Laser Videodisk Technology in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulla, Abdulla M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The use of an authoring system is described that incorporates student interaction with the computer by natural language entry at the keyboard and the use of the microcomputer to direct a random-access laser video-disk player. (Author/MLW)

  15. A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

  16. The Exploring Nature of Definitions and Classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the nature of definitions and classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the current studies of second/foreign language learning in order to show the current problems regarding such definitions and classifications. The present study shows that there is not a universal agreeable definition and…

  17. Reconceptualizing the Nature of Goals and Outcomes in Language/s Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant; Scarino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Transformations associated with the increasing speed, scale, and complexity of mobilities, together with the information technology revolution, have changed the demography of most countries of the world and brought about accompanying social, cultural, and economic shifts (Heugh, 2013). This complex diversity has changed the very nature of…

  18. Language Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  19. A Natural Language for AdS/CFT Correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Penedones, Joao; Raju, Suvrat; van Rees, Balt C.; /YITP, Stony Brook

    2012-02-14

    We provide dramatic evidence that 'Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into 'left' and 'right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. By analyzing the recursive structure of our factorization formula we obtain simple diagrammatic rules for the construction of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to tree-level Witten diagrams in any bulk scalar theory. We prove the diagrammatic rules using our finite difference equations. Finally, we show that our factorization formula and our diagrammatic rules morph into the flat space S-Matrix of the bulk theory, reproducing the usual Feynman rules, when we take the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. Throughout we emphasize a deep analogy with the properties of flat space scattering amplitudes in momentum space, which suggests that the Mellin amplitude may provide a holographic definition of the flat space S-Matrix.

  20. The Nature of the Language Faculty and Its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackendoff, Ray; Pinker, Steven

    2005-01-01

    In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the ''narrow language faculty'') consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We…

  1. Naturalism and Ideological Work: How Is Family Language Policy Renegotiated as Both Parents and Children Learn a Threatened Minority Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Timothy Currie

    2014-01-01

    Parents who enroll their children to be educated through a threatened minority language frequently do not speak that language themselves and classes in the language are sometimes offered to parents in the expectation that this will help them to support their children's education and to use the minority language in the home. Providing…

  2. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities. PMID:26560154

  3. Applying natural language processing toolkits to electronic health records - an experience report.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Neil; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H

    2009-01-01

    A natural language challenge devised by Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) was to analyze free-text health data to construct a multi-class, multi-label classification system focused on obesity and its co-morbidities. This report presents a case study in which a natural language processing (NLP) toolkit, called NLTK, was used in the challenge. This report provides a brief review of NLP in the context of EHR applications, briefly surveys and contrasts some existing NLP toolkits, and reports on our experiences with the i2b2 case study. Our efforts uncovered issues including the lack of human annotated physician notes for use as NLP training data, differences between conventional free-text and medical notes, and potential hardware and software limitations affecting future projects. PMID:19380974

  4. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Molina, Martin; Sanchez-Soriano, Javier; Corcho, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods) and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions. PMID:26151211

  5. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Martin; Sanchez-Soriano, Javier; Corcho, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods) and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions. PMID:26151211

  6. Adapting existing natural language processing resources for cardiovascular risk factors identification in clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Meystre, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2 natural language processing shared task focused on identifying cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity and smoking status among other factors found in health records of diabetic patients. In addition, the task involved detecting medications, and time information associated with the extracted data. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a natural language processing (NLP) application conceived for this i2b2 shared task. For increased efficiency, the application main components were adapted from two existing NLP tools implemented in the Apache UIMA framework: Textractor (for dictionary-based lookup) and cTAKES (for preprocessing and smoking status detection). The application achieved a final (micro-averaged) F1-measure of 87.5% on the final evaluation test set. Our attempt was mostly based on existing tools adapted with minimal changes and allowed for satisfying performance with limited development efforts. PMID:26318122

  7. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  8. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  9. Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.

    SciTech Connect

    Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

    2003-09-01

    Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

  10. Language and cognition in children with metachromatic leukodystrophy: onset and natural course in a nationwide cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, genetic neurodegenerative disease. It leads to progressive demyelination resulting in regression of development and early death. With regard to experimental therapies, knowledge of the natural course of the disease is highly important. We aimed to analyse onset and character of first symptoms in MLD and to provide detailed natural course data concerning language and cognition. Methods Patients with MLD were recruited nationwide within the scope of the German research network LEUKONET. 59 patients’ questionnaires (23 late-infantile, 36 juvenile) were analysed. Results Time from first symptoms (at a median age of 1.5 years in late-infantile and 6 years in juvenile MLD) to diagnosis took one year in late-infantile and two years in juvenile patients on average. Gait disturbances and abnormal movement patterns were first signs in all patients with late-infantile and in most with juvenile MLD. Onset in the latter was additionally characterized by problems in concentration, behaviour and fine motor function (p = 0.0011, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0012). Half of late-infantile patients did not learn to speak in complete sentences after an initially normal language acquisition. They showed a rapid language decline with first language difficulties at a median age of 2.5 years and complete loss of expressive language within several months (median age 32, range 22–47 months). This was followed by total loss of communication at a median age of around four years. In juvenile patients, language decline was more protracted, and problems in concentration and behaviour were followed by decline in skills for reading, writing and calculating around four years after disease onset. Conclusions Our data reflect the natural course of decline in language and cognition in late-infantile and juvenile MLD in a large cohort over a long observation period. This is especially relevant to juvenile patients where the disease

  11. Using Natural Language And Voice To Control High Level Tasks In A Robotics Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackenberg, Robert G.

    1987-03-01

    RCA's Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has implemented an integrated system which permits control of high level tasks in a robotics environment through voice input in the form of natural language syntax. The paper to be presented will outline the architecture used to integrate voice recognition and synthesis hardware and natural language and intelligent reasoning software with a supervisory processor that controls robotic and vision operations in the robotic testbed. The application is intended to give the human operator of a Puma 782 industrial robot the ability to combine joystick teleoperation with voice input in order to provide a flexible man-machine interface in a hands-busy environment. The system is designed to give the operator a speech interface which is unobtrusive and undemanding in terms of predetermined syntax requirements. The voice recognizer accepts continuous speech and the natural language processor accepts full and partial sentence fragments and can perform a fair amount of disambiguation and context analysis. Output to the operator comes via the parallel channel of speech synthesis so that the operator does not have to consult the computer's CRT for messages. The messages are generated from the software and offer warnings about unacceptable situations, confirmations of actions completed, and feedback of system data.

  12. Modeling virtual organizations with Latent Dirichlet Allocation: a case for natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Gross, Alexander; Murthy, Dhiraj

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores a variety of methods for applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) automated topic modeling algorithm to the modeling of the structure and behavior of virtual organizations found within modern social media and social networking environments. As the field of Big Data reveals, an increase in the scale of social data available presents new challenges which are not tackled by merely scaling up hardware and software. Rather, they necessitate new methods and, indeed, new areas of expertise. Natural language processing provides one such method. This paper applies LDA to the study of scientific virtual organizations whose members employ social technologies. Because of the vast data footprint in these virtual platforms, we found that natural language processing was needed to 'unlock' and render visible latent, previously unseen conversational connections across large textual corpora (spanning profiles, discussion threads, forums, and other social media incarnations). We introduce variants of LDA and ultimately make the argument that natural language processing is a critical interdisciplinary methodology to make better sense of social 'Big Data' and we were able to successfully model nested discussion topics from forums and blog posts using LDA. Importantly, we found that LDA can move us beyond the state-of-the-art in conventional Social Network Analysis techniques. PMID:24930023

  13. Evaluating a normalized conceptual representation produced from natural language patient discharge summaries.

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenbaum, P.; Bouaud, J.; Bachimont, B.; Charlet, J.; Boisvieux, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    The Menelas project aimed to produce a normalized conceptual representation from natural language patient discharge summaries. Because of the complex and detailed nature of conceptual representations, evaluating the quality of output of such a system is difficult. We present the method designed to measure the quality of Menelas output, and its application to the state of the French Menelas prototype as of the end of the project. We examine this method in the framework recently proposed by Friedman and Hripcsak. We also propose two conditions which enable to reduce the evaluation preparation workload. PMID:9357694

  14. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  15. Exploring culture, language and the perception of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Dawn

    2002-01-01

    One dimension of early Canadian education is the attempt of the government to use the education system as an assimilative tool to integrate the First Nations and Me´tis people into Euro-Canadian society. Despite these attempts, many First Nations and Me´tis people retained their culture and their indigenous language. Few science educators have examined First Nations and Western scientific worldviews and the impact they may have on science learning. This study explored the views some First Nations (Cree) and Euro-Canadian Grade-7-level students in Manitoba had about the nature of science. Both qualitative (open-ended questions and interviews) and quantitative (a Likert-scale questionnaire) instruments were used to explore student views. A central hypothesis to this research programme is the possibility that the different world-views of two student populations, Cree and Euro-Canadian, are likely to influence their perceptions of science. This preliminary study explored a range of methodologies to probe the perceptions of the nature of science in these two student populations. It was found that the two cultural groups differed significantly between some of the tenets in a Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Cree students significantly differed from Euro-Canadian students on the developmental, testable and unified tenets of the nature of scientific knowledge scale. No significant differences were found in NSKS scores between language groups (Cree students who speak English in the home and those who speak English and Cree or Cree only). The differences found between language groups were primarily in the open-ended questions where preformulated responses were absent. Interviews about critical incidents provided more detailed accounts of the Cree students' perception of the nature of science. The implications of the findings of this study are discussed in relation to the challenges related to research methodology, further areas for investigation, science

  16. De-Centering English: Highlighting the Dynamic Nature of the English Language to Promote the Teaching of Code-Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Embracing the dynamic nature of English language can help students learn more about all forms of English. To fully engage students, teachers should not adhere to an anachronistic and static view of English. Instead, they must acknowledge, accept, and even use different language forms within the classroom to make that classroom dynamic, inclusive,…

  17. A natural language interface to relational data bases for waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    INTELLECT(TM) for Rdb/VMS is a natural language system for data base access which runs under the VAX/VMS operating system. It allows English language query, report formatting, and data updates to Rdb/VMS relational databases. INTELLECT translates English requests into database commands, and allows non-technical users to perform a variety of retrieval and processing tasks for decision support or data maintenance using conversational English. The heart of an INTELLECT application is the lexicon, a dictionary of common English words. Initially, the INTELLECT lexicon has about 400 basic words. Customization of this lexicon, including definition of new vocabulary, the basic step in the development of an INTELLECT application. An application of INTELLECT for an Rdb/VMS waste management database was developed. The database, which consists of waste stream characterization and waste management practice information for solid low-level radioactive wastes generated at the three Department of Energy plants in Oak Ridge, is used in disposal resource development and alternatives evaluation. An account of our experience using INTELLECT with the low-level waste management database is given, including the process of lexicon building. The usefulness of the natural language interface in this context is discussed. 13 refs.

  18. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    PubMed

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers. PMID:26856048

  19. A Comparison of Natural Language Processing Methods for Automated Coding of Motivational Interviewing.

    PubMed

    Tanana, Michael; Hallgren, Kevin A; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Srikumar, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an efficacious treatment for substance use disorders and other problem behaviors. Studies on MI fidelity and mechanisms of change typically use human raters to code therapy sessions, which requires considerable time, training, and financial costs. Natural language processing techniques have recently been utilized for coding MI sessions using machine learning techniques, rather than human coders, and preliminary results have suggested these methods hold promise. The current study extends this previous work by introducing two natural language processing models for automatically coding MI sessions via computer. The two models differ in the way they semantically represent session content, utilizing either 1) simple discrete sentence features (DSF model) and 2) more complex recursive neural networks (RNN model). Utterance- and session-level predictions from these models were compared to ratings provided by human coders using a large sample of MI sessions (N=341 sessions; 78,977 clinician and client talk turns) from 6 MI studies. Results show that the DSF model generally had slightly better performance compared to the RNN model. The DSF model had "good" or higher utterance-level agreement with human coders (Cohen's kappa>0.60) for open and closed questions, affirm, giving information, and follow/neutral (all therapist codes); considerably higher agreement was obtained for session-level indices, and many estimates were competitive with human-to-human agreement. However, there was poor agreement for client change talk, client sustain talk, and therapist MI-inconsistent behaviors. Natural language processing methods provide accurate representations of human derived behavioral codes and could offer substantial improvements to the efficiency and scale in which MI mechanisms of change research and fidelity monitoring are conducted. PMID:26944234

  20. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

  1. MEDSYNDIKATE--a natural language system for the extraction of medical information from findings reports.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Udo; Romacker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan

    2002-12-01

    MEDSYNDIKATE is a natural language processor, which automatically acquires medical information from findings reports. In the course of text analysis their contents is transferred to conceptual representation structures, which constitute a corresponding text knowledge base. MEDSYNDIKATE is particularly adapted to deal properly with text structures, such as various forms of anaphoric reference relations spanning several sentences. The strong demands MEDSYNDIKATE poses on the availability of expressive knowledge sources are accounted for by two alternative approaches to acquire medical domain knowledge (semi)automatically. We also present data for the information extraction performance of MEDSYNDIKATE in terms of the semantic interpretation of three major syntactic patterns in medical documents. PMID:12460632

  2. Role of PROLOG (Programming and Logic) in natural-language processing. Report for September-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, M.L.

    1988-03-01

    The field of artificial Intelligence strives to produce computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. One of the areas of interest is the processing of natural language. This report discusses the role of the computer language PROLOG in Natural Language Processing (NLP) both from theoretic and pragmatic viewpoints. The reasons for using PROLOG for NLP are numerous. First, linguists can write natural-language grammars almost directly as PROLOG programs; this allows fast-prototyping of NLP systems and facilitates analysis of NLP theories. Second, semantic representations of natural-language texts that use logic formalisms are readily produced in PROLOG because of PROLOG's logical foundations. Third, PROLOG's built-in inferencing mechanisms are often sufficient for inferences on the logical forms produced by NLPs. Fourth, the logical, declarative nature of PROLOG may make it the language of choice for parallel computing systems. Finally, the fact that PROLOG has a de facto standard (Edinburgh) makes the porting of code from one computer system to another virtually trouble free. Perhaps the strongest tie one could make between NLP and PROLOG was stated by John Stuart Mill in his inaugural Address at St. Andrews: The structure of every sentence is a lesson in logic.

  3. Aspects of a Natural Language Based Artificial Intelligence System Report Number Seven: Language and the Structure of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, George A.

    ARIS is an artificial intelligence system which uses the English language to learn, understand, and communicate. The system attempts to simulate the psychoneurological processes which enable man to communicate verbally. It uses a modified stratificational grammar model and is being programed in PL/1 (a programing language) for an IBM 360/67…

  4. Neural Network Processing of Natural Language: I. Sensitivity to Serial, Temporal, and Abstract Structure of Language in the Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominey, Peter Ford; Ramus, Franck

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates how innate representational capabilities for serial and temporal structure of language could arise from a common neural architecture, distinct from that required for the representation of abstract structure, and provides a predictive testable model of the initial computational state of the language learner. (Author/VWL)

  5. Validation of the "Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environment Inventory" for Investigating the Nature of Chinese Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Chua Siew; Wong, Angela F. L.; Der-Thanq, Victor Chen

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory (CLCEI) is a bilingual instrument developed for use in measuring students' and teachers' perceptions toward their Chinese Language classroom learning environments in Singapore secondary schools. The English version of the CLCEI was customised from the English version of the "What is happening in…

  6. A Principled Framework for Constructing Natural Language Interfaces To Temporal Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androutsopoulos, Ion

    1996-09-01

    Most existing natural language interfaces to databases (NLIDBs) were designed to be used with ``snapshot'' database systems, that provide very limited facilities for manipulating time-dependent data. Consequently, most NLIDBs also provide very limited support for the notion of time. The database community is becoming increasingly interested in _temporal_ database systems. These are intended to store and manipulate in a principled manner information not only about the present, but also about the past and future. This thesis develops a principled framework for constructing English NLIDBs for _temporal_ databases (NLITDBs), drawing on research in tense and aspect theories, temporal logics, and temporal databases. I first explore temporal linguistic phenomena that are likely to appear in English questions to NLITDBs. Drawing on existing linguistic theories of time, I formulate an account for a large number of these phenomena that is simple enough to be embodied in practical NLITDBs. Exploiting ideas from temporal logics, I then define a temporal meaning representation language, TOP, and I show how the HPSG grammar theory can be modified to incorporate the tense and aspect account of this thesis, and to map a wide range of English questions involving time to appropriate TOP expressions. Finally, I present and prove the correctness of a method to translate from TOP to TSQL2, TSQL2 being a temporal extension of the SQL-92 database language. This way, I establish a sound route from English questions involving time to a general-purpose temporal database language, that can act as a principled framework for building NLITDBs. To demonstrate that this framework is workable, I employ it to develop a prototype NLITDB, implemented using ALE and Prolog.

  7. Language of the Earth: Exploring Natural Hazards through a Literary Anthology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, B. D.; Rhodes, F. H. T.

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores natural hazards teaching and communications through the use of a literary anthology of writings about the earth aimed at non-experts. Teaching natural hazards in high-school and university introductory Earth Science and Geography courses revolves mostly around lectures, examinations, and laboratory demonstrations/activities. Often the results of such a course are that a student 'memorizes' the answers, and is penalized when they miss a given fact [e.g., "You lost one point because you were off by 50 km/hr on the wind speed of an F5 tornado."] Although facts and general methodologies are certainly important when teaching natural hazards, it is a strong motivation to a student's assimilation of, and enthusiasm for, this knowledge, if supplemented by writings about the Earth. In this paper, we discuss a literary anthology which we developed [Language of the Earth, Rhodes, Stone, Malamud, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008] which includes many descriptions about natural hazards. Using first- and second-hand accounts of landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions, through the writings of McPhee, Gaskill, Voltaire, Austin, Cloos, and many others, hazards become 'alive', and more than 'just' a compilation of facts and processes. Using short excerpts such as these, or other similar anthologies, of remarkably written accounts and discussions about natural hazards results in 'dry' facts becoming more than just facts. These often highly personal viewpoints of our catostrophic world, provide a useful supplement to a student's understanding of the turbulent world in which we live.

  8. Formal ontology for natural language processing and the integration of biomedical databases.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jonathan; Dos Santos, Mariana; Fielding, James; Smith, Barry

    2006-01-01

    The central hypothesis underlying this communication is that the methodology and conceptual rigor of a philosophically inspired formal ontology can bring significant benefits in the development and maintenance of application ontologies [A. Flett, M. Dos Santos, W. Ceusters, Some Ontology Engineering Procedures and their Supporting Technologies, EKAW2002, 2003]. This hypothesis has been tested in the collaboration between Language and Computing (L&C), a company specializing in software for supporting natural language processing especially in the medical field, and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS), an academic research institution concerned with the theoretical foundations of ontology. In the course of this collaboration L&C's ontology, LinKBase, which is designed to integrate and support reasoning across a plurality of external databases, has been subjected to a thorough auditing on the basis of the principles underlying IFOMIS's Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) [B. Smith, Basic Formal Ontology, 2002. http://ontology.buffalo.edu/bfo]. The goal is to transform a large terminology-based ontology into one with the ability to support reasoning applications. Our general procedure has been the implementation of a meta-ontological definition space in which the definitions of all the concepts and relations in LinKBase are standardized in the framework of first-order logic. In this paper we describe how this principles-based standardization has led to a greater degree of internal coherence of the LinKBase structure, and how it has facilitated the construction of mappings between external databases using LinKBase as translation hub. We argue that the collaboration here described represents a new phase in the quest to solve the so-called "Tower of Babel" problem of ontology integration [F. Montayne, J. Flanagan, Formal Ontology: The Foundation for Natural Language Processing, 2003. http://www.landcglobal.com/]. PMID:16153885

  9. Comparative study on the customization of natural language interfaces to databases.

    PubMed

    Pazos R, Rodolfo A; Aguirre L, Marco A; González B, Juan J; Martínez F, José A; Pérez O, Joaquín; Verástegui O, Andrés A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the popularity of natural language interfaces to databases (NLIDBs) has increased, because in many cases information obtained from them is used for making important business decisions. Unfortunately, the complexity of their customization by database administrators make them difficult to use. In order for a NLIDB to obtain a high percentage of correctly translated queries, it is necessary that it is correctly customized for the database to be queried. In most cases the performance reported in NLIDB literature is the highest possible; i.e., the performance obtained when the interfaces were customized by the implementers. However, for end users it is more important the performance that the interface can yield when the NLIDB is customized by someone different from the implementers. Unfortunately, there exist very few articles that report NLIDB performance when the NLIDBs are not customized by the implementers. This article presents a semantically-enriched data dictionary (which permits solving many of the problems that occur when translating from natural language to SQL) and an experiment in which two groups of undergraduate students customized our NLIDB and English language frontend (ELF), considered one of the best available commercial NLIDBs. The experimental results show that, when customized by the first group, our NLIDB obtained a 44.69 % of correctly answered queries and ELF 11.83 % for the ATIS database, and when customized by the second group, our NLIDB attained 77.05 % and ELF 13.48 %. The performance attained by our NLIDB, when customized by ourselves was 90 %. PMID:27190752

  10. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  11. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen's interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen's relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions. PMID:27478379

  12. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen’s interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen’s relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions. PMID:27478379

  13. Linking sounds to meanings: Infant statistical learning in a natural language

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jessica F.; Pelucchi, Bruna; Estes, Katharine Graf; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2011-01-01

    The processes of infant word segmentation and infant word learning have largely been studied separately. However, the ease with which potential word forms are segmented from fluent speech seems likely to influence subsequent mappings between words and their referents. To explore this process, we tested the link between the statistical coherence of sequences presented in fluent speech and infants’ subsequent use of those sequences as labels for novel objects. Notably, the materials were drawn from a natural language unfamiliar to the infants (Italian). The results of three experiments suggest that there is a close relationship between the statistics of the speech stream and subsequent mapping of labels to referents. Mapping was facilitated when the labels contained high transitional probabilities in the forward and/or backward direction (Experiment 1). When no transitional probability information was available (Experiment 2), or when the internal transitional probabilities of the labels were low in both directions (Experiment 3), infants failed to link the labels to their referents. Word learning appears to be strongly influenced by infants’ prior experience with the distribution of sounds that make up words in natural languages. PMID:21762650

  14. A study of the very high order natural user language (with AI capabilities) for the NASA space station common module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, E. N.

    1986-01-01

    The requirements are identified for a very high order natural language to be used by crew members on board the Space Station. The hardware facilities, databases, realtime processes, and software support are discussed. The operations and capabilities that will be required in both normal (routine) and abnormal (nonroutine) situations are evaluated. A structure and syntax for an interface (front-end) language to satisfy the above requirements are recommended.

  15. Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Manny

    1994-05-01

    The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) Γ and an input formula F are given, and the goal is to construct a formula with certain properties which is equivalent to F, given Γ and a set of permitted assumptions. If the LDT is of a certain specified type, whose formulas are either conditional equivalences or Horn-clauses, we show that the AET problem can be reduced to a goal-directed inference method. We present an abstract description of this method, and sketch its realization in Prolog. The relationship between AET and several problems previously discussed in the literature is discussed. In particular, we show how AET can provide a simple and elegant solution to the so-called ``Doctor on Board'' problem, and in effect allows a ``relativization'' of the Closed World Assumption. The ideas in the thesis have all been implemented concretely within the SRI CLARE project, using a real projects and payments database. The LDT for the example database is described in detail, and examples of the types of functionality that can be achieved within the example domain are presented.

  16. Voice-Dictated versus Typed-in Clinician Notes: Linguistic Properties and the Potential Implications on Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kai; Mei, Qiaozhu; Yang, Lei; Manion, Frank J.; Balis, Ulysses J.; Hanauer, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we comparatively examined the linguistic properties of narrative clinician notes created through voice dictation versus those directly entered by clinicians via a computer keyboard. Intuitively, the nature of voice-dictated notes would resemble that of natural language, while typed-in notes may demonstrate distinctive language features for reasons such as intensive usage of acronyms. The study analyses were based on an empirical dataset retrieved from our institutional electronic health records system. The dataset contains 30,000 voice-dictated notes and 30,000 notes that were entered manually; both were encounter notes generated in ambulatory care settings. The results suggest that between the narrative clinician notes created via these two different methods, there exists a considerable amount of lexical and distributional differences. Such differences could have a significant impact on the performance of natural language processing tools, necessitating these two different types of documents being differentially treated. PMID:22195229

  17. How many kinds of reasoning? Inference, probability, and natural language semantics.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Daniel; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-03-01

    The "new paradigm" unifying deductive and inductive reasoning in a Bayesian framework (Oaksford & Chater, 2007; Over, 2009) has been claimed to be falsified by results which show sharp differences between reasoning about necessity vs. plausibility (Heit & Rotello, 2010; Rips, 2001; Rotello & Heit, 2009). We provide a probabilistic model of reasoning with modal expressions such as "necessary" and "plausible" informed by recent work in formal semantics of natural language, and show that it predicts the possibility of non-linear response patterns which have been claimed to be problematic. Our model also makes a strong monotonicity prediction, while two-dimensional theories predict the possibility of reversals in argument strength depending on the modal word chosen. Predictions were tested using a novel experimental paradigm that replicates the previously-reported response patterns with a minimal manipulation, changing only one word of the stimulus between conditions. We found a spectrum of reasoning "modes" corresponding to different modal words, and strong support for our model's monotonicity prediction. This indicates that probabilistic approaches to reasoning can account in a clear and parsimonious way for data previously argued to falsify them, as well as new, more fine-grained, data. It also illustrates the importance of careful attention to the semantics of language employed in reasoning experiments. PMID:25497521

  18. Natural Language Query in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Domains Based on Cognition Search™

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Mendiratta, Saurabh; Akella, Radha; Dahlgren, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the increasing volume of scientific papers and heterogeneous nomenclature in the biomedical literature, it is apparent that an improvement over standard pattern matching available in existing search engines is required. Cognition Search Information Retrieval (CSIR) is a natural language processing (NLP) technology that possesses a large dictionary (lexicon) and large semantic databases, such that search can be based on meaning. Encoded synonymy, ontological relationships, phrases, and seeds for word sense disambiguation offer significant improvement over pattern matching. Thus, the CSIR has the right architecture to form the basis for a scientific search engine. Result: Here we have augmented CSIR to improve access to the MEDLINE database of scientific abstracts. New biochemical, molecular biological and medical language and acronyms were introduced from curated web-based sources. The resulting system was used to interpret MEDLINE abstracts. Meaning-based search of MEDLINE abstracts yields high precision (estimated at >90%), and high recall (estimated at >90%), where synonym, ontology, phrases and sense seeds have been encoded. The present implementation can be found at http://MEDLINE.cognition.com. Contact: Elizabeth.goldsmith@UTsouthwestern.edu Kathleen.dahlgren@cognition.com PMID:21347167

  19. Neural substrates of figurative language during natural speech perception: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Kauschke, Christina; Schrauf, Judith; Whitney, Carin; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo

    2013-01-01

    Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g., "He smokes like a chimney!") occurring in a short story. Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences (CS). The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility, and comprehensibility. Similes contrasted with CS resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG) and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete CS as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG). Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions. PMID:24065897

  20. Gender Differences in Natural Language Factors of Subjective Intoxication in College Students: An Experimental Vignette Study

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828

  1. Current and future applications of natural language processing in the field of digestive diseases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jason K; Imler, Timothy D; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2014-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a technology that uses computer-based linguistics and artificial intelligence to identify and extract information from free-text data sources such as progress notes, procedure and pathology reports, and laboratory and radiologic test results. With the creation of large databases and the trajectory of health care reform, NLP holds the promise of enhancing the availability, quality, and utility of clinical information with the goal of improving documentation, quality, and efficiency of health care in the United States. To date, NLP has shown promise in automatically determining appropriate colonoscopy intervals and identifying cases of inflammatory bowel disease from electronic health records. The objectives of this review are to provide background on NLP and its associated terminology, to describe how NLP has been used thus far in the field of digestive diseases, and to identify its potential future uses. PMID:24858706

  2. Knowledge Extraction from MEDLINE by Combining Clustering with Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose A.; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The identification of relevant predicates between co-occurring concepts in scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is crucial for using these sources for knowledge extraction, in order to obtain meaningful biomedical predications as subject-predicate-object triples. We consider the manually assigned MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) in MEDLINE records as a rich resource for extracting a broad range of domain knowledge. In this paper, we explore the combination of a clustering method for co-occurring concepts based on their related MeSH subheadings in MEDLINE with the use of SemRep, a natural language processing engine, which extracts predications from free text documents. As a result, we generated sets of clusters of co-occurring concepts and identified the most significant predicates for each cluster. The association of such predicates with the co-occurrences of the resulting clusters produces the list of predications, which were checked for relevance. PMID:26958228

  3. Interset: A natural language interface for teleoperated robotic assembly of the EASE space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boorsma, Daniel K.

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperated robot was used to assemble the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extra-vehicular activity (EASE) space structure under neutral buoyancy conditions, simulating a telerobot performing structural assembly in the zero gravity of space. This previous work used a manually controlled teleoperator as a test bed for system performance evaluations. From these results several Artificial Intelligence options were proposed. One of these was further developed into a real time assembly planner. The interface for this system is effective in assembling EASE structures using windowed graphics and a set of networked menus. As the problem space becomes more complex and hence the set of control options increases, a natural language interface may prove to be beneficial to supplement the menu based control strategy. This strategy can be beneficial in situations such as: describing the local environment, maintaining a data base of task event histories, modifying a plan or a heuristic dynamically, summarizing a task in English, or operating in a novel situation.

  4. Disclosure Control of Natural Language Information to Enable Secure and Enjoyable Communication over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

    Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.

  5. Workshop on using natural language processing applications for enhancing clinical decision making: an executive summary

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Vinay M; Rodgers, Mary; Conroy, Richard; Luo, James; Zhou, Ruixia; Seto, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012, the National Institutes of Health organized a two-day workshop entitled ‘Natural Language Processing: State of the Art, Future Directions and Applications for Enhancing Clinical Decision-Making’ (NLP-CDS). This report is a summary of the discussions during the second day of the workshop. Collectively, the workshop presenters and participants emphasized the need for unstructured clinical notes to be included in the decision making workflow and the need for individualized longitudinal data tracking. The workshop also discussed the need to: (1) combine evidence-based literature and patient records with machine-learning and prediction models; (2) provide trusted and reproducible clinical advice; (3) prioritize evidence and test results; and (4) engage healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients. The overall consensus of the NLP-CDS workshop was that there are promising opportunities for NLP and CDS to deliver cognitive support for healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients. PMID:23921193

  6. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  7. On application of image analysis and natural language processing for music search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwardys, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, I investigate a problem of finding most similar music tracks using, popular in Natural Language Processing, techniques like: TF-IDF and LDA. I de ned document as music track. Each music track is transformed to spectrogram, thanks that, I can use well known techniques to get words from images. I used SURF operation to detect characteristic points and novel approach for their description. The standard kmeans was used for clusterization. Clusterization is here identical with dictionary making, so after that I can transform spectrograms to text documents and perform TF-IDF and LDA. At the final, I can make a query in an obtained vector space. The research was done on 16 music tracks for training and 336 for testing, that are splitted in four categories: Hiphop, Jazz, Metal and Pop. Although used technique is completely unsupervised, results are satisfactory and encouraging to further research.

  8. Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    West, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Wikipedia is a collaboratively edited encyclopedia. One of the most popular websites on the Internet, it is known to be a frequently used source of health care information by both professionals and the lay public. Objective This paper quantifies the production and consumption of Wikipedia’s medical content along 4 dimensions. First, we measured the amount of medical content in both articles and bytes and, second, the citations that supported that content. Third, we analyzed the medical readership against that of other health care websites between Wikipedia’s natural language editions and its relationship with disease prevalence. Fourth, we surveyed the quantity/characteristics of Wikipedia’s medical contributors, including year-over-year participation trends and editor demographics. Methods Using a well-defined categorization infrastructure, we identified medically pertinent English-language Wikipedia articles and links to their foreign language equivalents. With these, Wikipedia can be queried to produce metadata and full texts for entire article histories. Wikipedia also makes available hourly reports that aggregate reader traffic at per-article granularity. An online survey was used to determine the background of contributors. Standard mining and visualization techniques (eg, aggregation queries, cumulative distribution functions, and/or correlation metrics) were applied to each of these datasets. Analysis focused on year-end 2013, but historical data permitted some longitudinal analysis. Results Wikipedia’s medical content (at the end of 2013) was made up of more than 155,000 articles and 1 billion bytes of text across more than 255 languages. This content was supported by more than 950,000 references. Content was viewed more than 4.88 billion times in 2013. This makes it one of if not the most viewed medical resource(s) globally. The core editor community numbered less than 300 and declined over the past 5 years. The members of this

  9. Integrating natural language processing and web GIS for interactive knowledge domain visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fangming

    Recent years have seen a powerful shift towards data-rich environments throughout society. This has extended to a change in how the artifacts and products of scientific knowledge production can be analyzed and understood. Bottom-up approaches are on the rise that combine access to huge amounts of academic publications with advanced computer graphics and data processing tools, including natural language processing. Knowledge domain visualization is one of those multi-technology approaches, with its aim of turning domain-specific human knowledge into highly visual representations in order to better understand the structure and evolution of domain knowledge. For example, network visualizations built from co-author relations contained in academic publications can provide insight on how scholars collaborate with each other in one or multiple domains, and visualizations built from the text content of articles can help us understand the topical structure of knowledge domains. These knowledge domain visualizations need to support interactive viewing and exploration by users. Such spatialization efforts are increasingly looking to geography and GIS as a source of metaphors and practical technology solutions, even when non-georeferenced information is managed, analyzed, and visualized. When it comes to deploying spatialized representations online, web mapping and web GIS can provide practical technology solutions for interactive viewing of knowledge domain visualizations, from panning and zooming to the overlay of additional information. This thesis presents a novel combination of advanced natural language processing - in the form of topic modeling - with dimensionality reduction through self-organizing maps and the deployment of web mapping/GIS technology towards intuitive, GIS-like, exploration of a knowledge domain visualization. A complete workflow is proposed and implemented that processes any corpus of input text documents into a map form and leverages a web

  10. LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

  11. Extracting drug indication information from structured product labels using natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Kin Wah; Jao, Chiang S; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Objective To extract drug indications from structured drug labels and represent the information using codes from standard medical terminologies. Materials and methods We used MetaMap and other publicly available resources to extract information from the indications section of drug labels. Drugs and indications were encoded by RxNorm and UMLS identifiers respectively. A sample was manually reviewed. We also compared the results with two independent information sources: National Drug File-Reference Terminology and the Semantic Medline project. Results A total of 6797 drug labels were processed, resulting in 19 473 unique drug–indication pairs. Manual review of 298 most frequently prescribed drugs by seven physicians showed a recall of 0.95 and precision of 0.77. Inter-rater agreement (Fleiss κ) was 0.713. The precision of the subset of results corroborated by Semantic Medline extractions increased to 0.93. Discussion Correlation of a patient's medical problems and drugs in an electronic health record has been used to improve data quality and reduce medication errors. Authoritative drug indication information is available from drug labels, but not in a format readily usable by computer applications. Our study shows that it is feasible to use publicly available natural language processing resources to extract drug indications from drug labels. The same method can be applied to other sections of the drug label—for example, adverse effects, contraindications. Conclusions It is feasible to use publicly available natural language processing tools to extract indication information from freely available drug labels. Named entity recognition sources (eg, MetaMap) provide reasonable recall. Combination with other data sources provides higher precision. PMID:23475786

  12. A UMLS-based spell checker for natural language processing in vaccine safety

    PubMed Central

    Tolentino, Herman D; Matters, Michael D; Walop, Wikke; Law, Barbara; Tong, Wesley; Liu, Fang; Fontelo, Paul; Kohl, Katrin; Payne, Daniel C

    2007-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine has identified patient safety as a key goal for health care in the United States. Detecting vaccine adverse events is an important public health activity that contributes to patient safety. Reports about adverse events following immunization (AEFI) from surveillance systems contain free-text components that can be analyzed using natural language processing. To extract Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts from free text and classify AEFI reports based on concepts they contain, we first needed to clean the text by expanding abbreviations and shortcuts and correcting spelling errors. Our objective in this paper was to create a UMLS-based spelling error correction tool as a first step in the natural language processing (NLP) pipeline for AEFI reports. Methods We developed spell checking algorithms using open source tools. We used de-identified AEFI surveillance reports to create free-text data sets for analysis. After expansion of abbreviated clinical terms and shortcuts, we performed spelling correction in four steps: (1) error detection, (2) word list generation, (3) word list disambiguation and (4) error correction. We then measured the performance of the resulting spell checker by comparing it to manual correction. Results We used 12,056 words to train the spell checker and tested its performance on 8,131 words. During testing, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) for the spell checker were 74% (95% CI: 74–75), 100% (95% CI: 100–100), and 47% (95% CI: 46%–48%), respectively. Conclusion We created a prototype spell checker that can be used to process AEFI reports. We used the UMLS Specialist Lexicon as the primary source of dictionary terms and the WordNet lexicon as a secondary source. We used the UMLS as a domain-specific source of dictionary terms to compare potentially misspelled words in the corpus. The prototype sensitivity was comparable to currently available tools, but the

  13. DBPQL: A view-oriented query language for the Intel Data Base Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    An interactive query language (BDPQL) for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. DBPQL includes a parser generator package which permits the analyst to easily create and manipulate the query statement syntax and semantics. The prototype language, DBPQL, includes trace and performance commands to aid the analyst when implementing new commands and analyzing the execution characteristics of the DBP. The DBPQL grammar file and associated key procedures are included as an appendix to this report.

  14. The Usual and the Unusual: Solving Remote Associates Test Tasks Using Simple Statistical Natural Language Processing Based on Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Ariel; Badia, Toni

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show how complex creative relations can arise from fairly frequent semantic relations observed in everyday language. By doing this, we reflect on some key cognitive aspects of linguistic and general creativity. In our experimentation, we automated the process of solving a battery of Remote Associates Test tasks. By applying…

  15. Natural language processing pipelines to annotate BioC collections with an application to the NCBI disease corpus.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Donald C; Liu, Haibin; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Wilbur, W John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a new format and associated code libraries for sharing text and annotations. We have implemented BioC natural language preprocessing pipelines in two popular programming languages: C++ and Java. The current implementations interface with the well-known MedPost and Stanford natural language processing tool sets. The pipeline functionality includes sentence segmentation, tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatization and sentence parsing. These pipelines can be easily integrated along with other BioC programs into any BioC compliant text mining systems. As an application, we converted the NCBI disease corpus to BioC format, and the pipelines have successfully run on this corpus to demonstrate their functionality. Code and data can be downloaded from http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. PMID:24935050

  16. Statistical Learning in a Natural Language by 8-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real…

  17. An Examination of Natural Language as a Query Formation Tool for Retrieving Information on E-Health from Pub Med.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gabriel M.; Su, Kuichun; Ries, James E.; Sievert, Mary Ellen C.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of Internet use for information searches on health-related topics focuses on a study that examined complexity and variability of natural language in using search terms that express the concept of electronic health (e-health). Highlights include precision of retrieved information; shift in terminology; and queries using the Pub Med…

  18. Evaluation of Automated Natural Language Processing in the Further Development of Science Information Retrieval. String Program Reports No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Naomi

    This investigation matches the emerging techniques in computerized natural language processing against emerging needs for such techniques in the information field to evaluate and extend such techniques for future applications and to establish a basis and direction for further research toward these goals. An overview describes developments in the…

  19. Does It Really Matter whether Students' Contributions Are Spoken versus Typed in an Intelligent Tutoring System with Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The "speech facilitation" hypothesis predicts that spoken input will "increase" learning, whereas the "text…

  20. Recent Advances in Clinical Natural Language Processing in Support of Semantic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, D.; South, B. R.; Kvist, M.; Dalianis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis. Methods We conducted a literature review of clinical NLP research from 2008 to 2014, emphasizing recent publications (2012-2014), based on PubMed and ACL proceedings as well as relevant referenced publications from the included papers. Results Significant articles published within this time-span were included and are discussed from the perspective of semantic analysis. Three key clinical NLP subtasks that enable such analysis were identified: 1) developing more efficient methods for corpus creation (annotation and de-identification), 2) generating building blocks for extracting meaning (morphological, syntactic, and semantic subtasks), and 3) leveraging NLP for clinical utility (NLP applications and infrastructure for clinical use cases). Finally, we provide a reflection upon most recent developments and potential areas of future NLP development and applications. Conclusions There has been an increase of advances within key NLP subtasks that support semantic analysis. Performance of NLP semantic analysis is, in many cases, close to that of agreement between humans. The creation and release of corpora annotated with complex semantic information models has greatly supported the development of new tools and approaches. Research on non-English languages is continuously growing. NLP methods have sometimes been successfully employed in real-world clinical tasks. However, there is still a gap between the development of advanced resources and their utilization in clinical settings. A plethora of new clinical use cases are emerging due to established health care initiatives and additional patient-generated sources through the extensive use of social media and other devices. PMID:26293867

  1. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    PubMed

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words. PMID:24268905

  2. Voice-enabled Knowledge Engine using Flood Ontology and Natural Language Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sermet, M. Y.; Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The IFIS is designed for use by general public, often people with no domain knowledge and limited general science background. To improve effective communication with such audience, we have introduced a voice-enabled knowledge engine on flood related issues in IFIS. Instead of navigating within many features and interfaces of the information system and web-based sources, the system provides dynamic computations based on a collection of built-in data, analysis, and methods. The IFIS Knowledge Engine connects to real-time stream gauges, in-house data sources, analysis and visualization tools to answer natural language questions. Our goal is the systematization of data and modeling results on flood related issues in Iowa, and to provide an interface for definitive answers to factual queries. The goal of the knowledge engine is to make all flood related knowledge in Iowa easily accessible to everyone, and support voice-enabled natural language input. We aim to integrate and curate all flood related data, implement analytical and visualization tools, and make it possible to compute answers from questions. The IFIS explicitly implements analytical methods and models, as algorithms, and curates all flood related data and resources so that all these resources are computable. The IFIS Knowledge Engine computes the answer by deriving it from its computational knowledge base. The knowledge engine processes the statement, access data warehouse, run complex database queries on the server-side and return outputs in various formats. This presentation provides an overview of IFIS Knowledge Engine, its unique information interface and functionality as an educational tool, and discusses the future plans

  3. Toward a Theory-Based Natural Language Capability in Robots and Other Embodied Agents: Evaluating Hausser's SLIM Theory and Database Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Robin K.

    2010-01-01

    Computational natural language understanding and generation have been a goal of artificial intelligence since McCarthy, Minsky, Rochester and Shannon first proposed to spend the summer of 1956 studying this and related problems. Although statistical approaches dominate current natural language applications, two current research trends bring…

  4. Searching for Cancer Information on the Internet: Analyzing Natural Language Search Queries

    PubMed Central

    Theofanos, Mary Frances

    2003-01-01

    .7%), Skin (11.3%), and Genitourinary (10.5%). Additional subcategories of queries about specific cancer types varied, depending on user input. Queries that were not specific to a cancer type were also tracked and categorized. Conclusions Natural-language searching affords users the opportunity to fully express their information needs and can aid users naïve to the content and vocabulary. The specific queries analyzed for this study reflect news and research studies reported during the study dates and would surely change with different study dates. Analyzing queries from search engines represents one way of knowing what kinds of content to provide to users of a given Web site. Users ask questions using whole sentences and keywords, often misspelling words. Providing the option for natural-language searching does not obviate the need for good information architecture, usability engineering, and user testing in order to optimize user experience. PMID:14713659

  5. Semi-Supervised Learning of Statistical Models for Natural Language Understanding

    PubMed Central

    He, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    Natural language understanding is to specify a computational model that maps sentences to their semantic mean representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to train the statistical models without using expensive fully annotated data. In particular, the input of our framework is a set of sentences labeled with abstract semantic annotations. These annotations encode the underlying embedded semantic structural relations without explicit word/semantic tag alignment. The proposed framework can automatically induce derivation rules that map sentences to their semantic meaning representations. The learning framework is applied on two statistical models, the conditional random fields (CRFs) and the hidden Markov support vector machines (HM-SVMs). Our experimental results on the DARPA communicator data show that both CRFs and HM-SVMs outperform the baseline approach, previously proposed hidden vector state (HVS) model which is also trained on abstract semantic annotations. In addition, the proposed framework shows superior performance than two other baseline approaches, a hybrid framework combining HVS and HM-SVMs and discriminative training of HVS, with a relative error reduction rate of about 25% and 15% being achieved in F-measure. PMID:25152899

  6. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  7. Negation's not solved: generalizability versus optimizability in clinical natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen; Miller, Timothy; Masanz, James; Coarr, Matt; Halgrim, Scott; Carrell, David; Clark, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    A review of published work in clinical natural language processing (NLP) may suggest that the negation detection task has been "solved." This work proposes that an optimizable solution does not equal a generalizable solution. We introduce a new machine learning-based Polarity Module for detecting negation in clinical text, and extensively compare its performance across domains. Using four manually annotated corpora of clinical text, we show that negation detection performance suffers when there is no in-domain development (for manual methods) or training data (for machine learning-based methods). Various factors (e.g., annotation guidelines, named entity characteristics, the amount of data, and lexical and syntactic context) play a role in making generalizability difficult, but none completely explains the phenomenon. Furthermore, generalizability remains challenging because it is unclear whether to use a single source for accurate data, combine all sources into a single model, or apply domain adaptation methods. The most reliable means to improve negation detection is to manually annotate in-domain training data (or, perhaps, manually modify rules); this is a strategy for optimizing performance, rather than generalizing it. These results suggest a direction for future work in domain-adaptive and task-adaptive methods for clinical NLP. PMID:25393544

  8. A framework for the natural-language-perception-based creative control of unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-09-01

    Mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. That is why mobile robotics problems are complex with many unanswered questions. To reach a high degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. On the one hand, promising learning theories such as the adaptive critic and creative control have been proposed, while on other hand the human brain"s processing ability has amazed and inspired researchers in the area of Unmanned Ground Vehicles but has been difficult to emulate in practice. A new direction in the fuzzy theory tries to develop a theory to deal with the perceptions conveyed by the natural language. This paper tries to combine these two fields and present a framework for autonomous robot navigation. The proposed creative controller like the adaptive critic controller has information stored in a dynamic database (DB), plus a dynamic task control center (TCC) that functions as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and multi-criteria functions. The TCC module utilizes computational theory of perceptions to deal with the high levels of task planning. The authors are currently trying to implement the model on a real mobile robot and the preliminary results have been described in this paper.

  9. Bringing Chatbots into education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlyl, Alice; Hall, Phil; Bull, Susan

    There is an extensive body of work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: computer environments for education, teaching and training that adapt to the needs of the individual learner. Work on personalisation and adaptivity has included research into allowing the student user to enhance the system's adaptivity by improving the accuracy of the underlying learner model. Open Learner Modelling, where the system's model of the user's knowledge is revealed to the user, has been proposed to support student reflection on their learning. Increased accuracy of the learner model can be obtained by the student and system jointly negotiating the learner model. We present the initial investigations into a system to allow people to negotiate the model of their understanding of a topic in natural language. This paper discusses the development and capabilities of both conversational agents (or chatbots) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular Open Learner Modelling. We describe a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to investigate the feasibility of using a chatbot to support negotiation, and conclude that a fusion of the two fields can lead to developing negotiation techniques for chatbots and the enhancement of the Open Learner Model. This technology, if successful, could have widespread application in schools, universities and other training scenarios.

  10. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  11. Natural Language Processing Versus Content-Based Image Analysis for Medical Document Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Deserno, Thomas M.; Darmoni, Stéfan J.; Güld, Mark Oliver; Aronson, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant recent advances in health information systems has been the shift from paper to electronic documents. While research on automatic text and image processing has taken separate paths, there is a growing need for joint efforts, particularly for electronic health records and biomedical literature databases. This work aims at comparing text-based versus image-based access to multimodal medical documents using state-of-the-art methods of processing text and image components. A collection of 180 medical documents containing an image accompanied by a short text describing it was divided into training and test sets. Content-based image analysis and natural language processing techniques are applied individually and combined for multimodal document analysis. The evaluation consists of an indexing task and a retrieval task based on the “gold standard” codes manually assigned to corpus documents. The performance of text-based and image-based access, as well as combined document features, is compared. Image analysis proves more adequate for both the indexing and retrieval of the images. In the indexing task, multimodal analysis outperforms both independent image and text analysis. This experiment shows that text describing images can be usefully analyzed in the framework of a hybrid text/image retrieval system. PMID:19633735

  12. Determining the reasons for medication prescriptions in the EHR using knowledge and natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of medication indications is significant for automatic applications aimed at improving patient safety, such as computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) contains pertinent information related to patient safety such as information related to appropriate prescribing. However, the reasons for medication prescriptions are usually not explicitly documented in the patient record. This paper describes a method that determines the reasons for medication uses based on information occurring in outpatient notes. The method utilizes drug-indication knowledge that we acquired, and natural language processing. Evaluation showed the method obtained a sensitivity of 62.8%, specificity of 93.9%, precision of 90% and F-measure of 73.9%. This pilot study demonstrated that linking external drug indication knowledge to the EHR for determining the reasons for medication use was promising, but also revealed some challenges. Future work will focus on increasing the accuracy and coverage of the indication knowledge and evaluating its performance using a much larger set of drugs frequently used in the outpatient population. PMID:22195134

  13. Methodological Issues in Predicting Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Candidates Through Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel; Glass, Benjamin; Greiner, Hansel M.; Holland-Bouley, Katherine; Standridge, Shannon; Arya, Ravindra; Faist, Robert; Morita, Diego; Mangano, Francesco; Connolly, Brian; Glauser, Tracy; Pestian, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We describe the development and evaluation of a system that uses machine learning and natural language processing techniques to identify potential candidates for surgical intervention for drug-resistant pediatric epilepsy. The data are comprised of free-text clinical notes extracted from the electronic health record (EHR). Both known clinical outcomes from the EHR and manual chart annotations provide gold standards for the patient’s status. The following hypotheses are then tested: 1) machine learning methods can identify epilepsy surgery candidates as well as physicians do and 2) machine learning methods can identify candidates earlier than physicians do. These hypotheses are tested by systematically evaluating the effects of the data source, amount of training data, class balance, classification algorithm, and feature set on classifier performance. The results support both hypotheses, with F-measures ranging from 0.71 to 0.82. The feature set, classification algorithm, amount of training data, class balance, and gold standard all significantly affected classification performance. It was further observed that classification performance was better than the highest agreement between two annotators, even at one year before documented surgery referral. The results demonstrate that such machine learning methods can contribute to predicting pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates and reducing lag time to surgery referral. PMID:27257386

  14. "It sounds like...": A natural language processing approach to detecting counselor reflections in motivational interviewing.

    PubMed

    Can, Doğan; Marín, Rebeca A; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2016-04-01

    The dissemination and evaluation of evidence-based behavioral treatments for substance abuse problems rely on the evaluation of counselor interventions. In Motivational Interviewing (MI), a treatment that directs the therapist to utilize a particular linguistic style, proficiency is assessed via behavioral coding-a time consuming, nontechnological approach. Natural language processing techniques have the potential to scale up the evaluation of behavioral treatments such as MI. We present a novel computational approach to assessing components of MI, focusing on 1 specific counselor behavior-reflections, which are believed to be a critical MI ingredient. Using 57 sessions from 3 MI clinical trials, we automatically detected counselor reflections in a maximum entropy Markov modeling framework using the raw linguistic data derived from session transcripts. We achieved 93% recall, 90% specificity, and 73% precision. Results provide insight into the linguistic information used by coders to make ratings and demonstrate the feasibility of new computational approaches to scaling up the evaluation of behavioral treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26784286

  15. Determining the Reasons for Medication Prescriptions in the EHR using Knowledge and Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of medication indications is significant for automatic applications aimed at improving patient safety, such as computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) contains pertinent information related to patient safety such as information related to appropriate prescribing. However, the reasons for medication prescriptions are usually not explicitly documented in the patient record. This paper describes a method that determines the reasons for medication uses based on information occurring in outpatient notes. The method utilizes drug-indication knowledge that we acquired, and natural language processing. Evaluation showed the method obtained a sensitivity of 62.8%, specificity of 93.9%, precision of 90% and F-measure of 73.9%. This pilot study demonstrated that linking external drug indication knowledge to the EHR for determining the reasons for medication use was promising, but also revealed some challenges. Future work will focus on increasing the accuracy and coverage of the indication knowledge and evaluating its performance using a much larger set of drugs frequently used in the outpatient population. PMID:22195134

  16. Generating Executable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Medicine Using Natural Language and Semantic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A.

    2006-01-01

    With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the “gold standard” for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%. PMID:17238302

  17. Towards symbiosis in knowledge representation and natural language processing for structuring clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Payne, Philip R O; Velez, Mark; Johnson, Stephen B; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The successful adoption by clinicians of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contained in clinical information systems requires efficient translation of free-text guidelines into computable formats. Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to improve the efficiency of such translation. However, it is laborious to develop NLP to structure free-text CPGs using existing formal knowledge representations (KR). In response to this challenge, this vision paper discusses the value and feasibility of supporting symbiosis in text-based knowledge acquisition (KA) and KR. We compare two ontologies: (1) an ontology manually created by domain experts for CPG eligibility criteria and (2) an upper-level ontology derived from a semantic pattern-based approach for automatic KA from CPG eligibility criteria text. Then we discuss the strengths and limitations of interweaving KA and NLP for KR purposes and important considerations for achieving the symbiosis of KR and NLP for structuring CPGs to achieve evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:24943582

  18. Semi-supervised learning of statistical models for natural language understanding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Deyu; He, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    Natural language understanding is to specify a computational model that maps sentences to their semantic mean representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to train the statistical models without using expensive fully annotated data. In particular, the input of our framework is a set of sentences labeled with abstract semantic annotations. These annotations encode the underlying embedded semantic structural relations without explicit word/semantic tag alignment. The proposed framework can automatically induce derivation rules that map sentences to their semantic meaning representations. The learning framework is applied on two statistical models, the conditional random fields (CRFs) and the hidden Markov support vector machines (HM-SVMs). Our experimental results on the DARPA communicator data show that both CRFs and HM-SVMs outperform the baseline approach, previously proposed hidden vector state (HVS) model which is also trained on abstract semantic annotations. In addition, the proposed framework shows superior performance than two other baseline approaches, a hybrid framework combining HVS and HM-SVMs and discriminative training of HVS, with a relative error reduction rate of about 25% and 15% being achieved in F-measure. PMID:25152899

  19. The Ising model for changes in word ordering rules in natural languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Sumie

    2004-11-01

    The order of ‘noun and adposition’ is an important parameter of word ordering rules in the world’s languages. The seven parameters, ‘adverb and verb’ and others, depend strongly on the ‘noun and adposition’. Japanese as well as Korean, Tamil and several other languages seem to have a stable structure of word ordering rules, while Thai and other languages, which have the opposite word ordering rules to Japanese, are also stable in structure. It seems therefore that each language in the world fluctuates between these two structures like the Ising model for finite lattice.

  20. Natural Language as a Tool for Analyzing the Proving Process: The Case of Plane Geometry Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robotti, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    In the field of human cognition, language plays a special role that is connected directly to thinking and mental development (e.g., Vygotsky, "1938"). Thanks to "verbal thought", language allows humans to go beyond the limits of immediately perceived information, to form concepts and solve complex problems (Luria, "1975"). So, it appears language…

  1. Natural and Constrained Language Production as a Function of Age and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglia, Cristina D.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Although it is often claimed that verbal abilities are relatively well maintained across the adult lifespan, certain aspects of language production have been found to exhibit cross-sectional differences and longitudinal declines. In the current project age-related differences in controlled and naturalistic elicited language production tasks were…

  2. Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.

    PubMed

    Moore, G W; Hutchins, G M; Miller, R E

    1984-04-01

    Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

  3. Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

  4. Temporal reasoning with medical data--a review with emphasis on medical natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Hripcsak, George

    2007-04-01

    Temporal information is crucial in electronic medical records and biomedical information systems. Processing temporal information in medical narrative data is a very challenging area. It lies at the intersection of temporal representation and reasoning (TRR) in artificial intelligence and medical natural language processing (MLP). Some fundamental concepts and important issues in relation to TRR have previously been discussed, mainly in the context of processing structured data in biomedical informatics; however, it is important that these concepts be re-examined in the context of processing narrative data using MLP. Theoretical and methodological TRR studies in biomedical informatics can be classified into three main categories: category 1 applies theories and models from temporal reasoning in AI; category 2 defines frameworks that meet needs from clinical applications; category 3 resolves issues such as temporal granularity and uncertainty. Currently, most MLP systems are not designed with a formal representation of time, and their ability to reason about temporal relations among medical events is limited. Previous work in processing time with clinical narrative data includes processing time in clinical reports, modeling textual temporal expressions in clinical databases, processing time in clinical guidelines, and building time standards for data exchange and integration. In addition to common problems in MLP, there are challenges specific to TRR in medical text, which occur at each level of linguistic structure and analysis. Despite advances in temporal reasoning in biomedical informatics, processing time in medical text deserves more attention. Besides the need for more research in temporal granularity, fuzzy time, temporal contradiction, intermittent events and uncertainty, broad areas for future research include enhancing functions of current MLP systems on processing temporal information, incorporating medical knowledge into temporal reasoning systems

  5. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports.

    PubMed

    Nath, Chinmoy; Albaghdadi, Mazen S; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92-99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  6. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  7. Measuring information acquisition from sensory input using automated scoring of natural-language descriptions.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel R; Bex, Peter J; Rose, Dylan J; Woods, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a "wisdom of crowds" approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85 y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66 y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled. PMID:24695546

  8. Measuring Information Acquisition from Sensory Input Using Automated Scoring of Natural-Language Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Daniel R.; Bex, Peter J.; Rose, Dylan J.; Woods, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a “wisdom of crowds” approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled. PMID:24695546

  9. The Complex Nature of Bilinguals' Language Usage Modulates Task-Switching Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hwajin; Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    In view of inconsistent findings regarding bilingual advantages in executive functions (EF), we reviewed the literature to determine whether bilinguals' different language usage causes measureable changes in the shifting aspects of EF. By drawing on the theoretical framework of the adaptive control hypothesis-which postulates a critical link between bilinguals' varying demands on language control and adaptive cognitive control (Green and Abutalebi, 2013), we examined three factors that characterize bilinguals' language-switching experience: (a) the interactional context of conversational exchanges, (b) frequency of language switching, and (c) typology of code-switching. We also examined whether methodological variations in previous task-switching studies modulate task-specific demands on control processing and lead to inconsistencies in the literature. Our review demonstrates that not only methodological rigor but also a more finely grained, theory-based approach will be required to understand the cognitive consequences of bilinguals' varied linguistic practices in shifting EF. PMID:27199800

  10. The Complex Nature of Bilinguals' Language Usage Modulates Task-Switching Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hwajin; Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    In view of inconsistent findings regarding bilingual advantages in executive functions (EF), we reviewed the literature to determine whether bilinguals' different language usage causes measureable changes in the shifting aspects of EF. By drawing on the theoretical framework of the adaptive control hypothesis—which postulates a critical link between bilinguals' varying demands on language control and adaptive cognitive control (Green and Abutalebi, 2013), we examined three factors that characterize bilinguals' language-switching experience: (a) the interactional context of conversational exchanges, (b) frequency of language switching, and (c) typology of code-switching. We also examined whether methodological variations in previous task-switching studies modulate task-specific demands on control processing and lead to inconsistencies in the literature. Our review demonstrates that not only methodological rigor but also a more finely grained, theory-based approach will be required to understand the cognitive consequences of bilinguals' varied linguistic practices in shifting EF. PMID:27199800

  11. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  12. Investigating the Nature of "Interest" Reported by a Group of Postgraduate Students in an MA in English Language Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Tan Bee

    2006-01-01

    "Interest" is a widely used term not only in language education but also in our everyday life. However, very little attempt has been made to investigate the nature of "interest" in language teaching and learning. This paper, using a definition of interest proposed in the field of educational psychology, reports on the findings of a study conducted…

  13. The complex of neural networks and probabilistic methods for mathematical modeling of the syntactic structure of a sentence of natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sboev, A.; Rybka, R.; Moloshnikov, I.; Gudovskikh, D.

    2016-02-01

    The formalized model to construct the syntactic structure of sentences of a natural language is presented. On base of this model the complex algorithm with use of neural networks founded on data of Russian National language Corpus and set of parameters extracted from this data was developed. The resulted accuracy along with possible accuracy which theoretically could be received with these parameters is presented.

  14. Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

  15. You and Your Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Charlton

    The structure, complexity, and peculiarities of the English language are examined in this book, which begins with a discussion of the nature of language. Chapters are devoted to (1) naming--"Language as Answer to a Need"; (2) grammar--"Language as Economy"; (3) words--"Language as the Finding of Minds"; (4) etymology--"Language to Stretch Brains…

  16. Natural Language Search Interfaces: Health Data Needs Single-Field Variable Search

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sam; Sufi, Shoaib; Goble, Carole; Buchan, Iain

    2016-01-01

    significantly faster using the Web search interface (F 1,19=18.0, P<.001). There was also a main effect of task (F 2,38=4.1, P=.025, Greenhouse-Geisser correction applied). Overall, participants were asked to rate learnability, ease of use, and satisfaction. Paired mean comparisons showed that the Web search interface received significantly higher ratings than the traditional search interface for learnability (P=.002, 95% CI [0.6-2.4]), ease of use (P<.001, 95% CI [1.2-3.2]), and satisfaction (P<.001, 95% CI [1.8-3.5]). The results show superior cross-domain usability of Web search, which is consistent with its general familiarity and with enabling queries to be refined as the search proceeds, which treats serendipity as part of the refinement. Conclusions The results provide clear evidence that data science should adopt single-field natural language search interfaces for variable search supporting in particular: query reformulation; data browsing; faceted search; surrogates; relevance feedback; summarization, analytics, and visual presentation. PMID:26769334

  17. In silico Evolutionary Developmental Neurobiology and the Origin of Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szathmáry, Eörs; Szathmáry, Zoltán; Ittzés, Péter; Orbaán, Geroő; Zachár, István; Huszár, Ferenc; Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Számadó, Szabolcs

    It is justified to assume that part of our genetic endowment contributes to our language skills, yet it is impossible to tell at this moment exactly how genes affect the language faculty. We complement experimental biological studies by an in silico approach in that we simulate the evolution of neuronal networks under selection for language-related skills. At the heart of this project is the Evolutionary Neurogenetic Algorithm (ENGA) that is deliberately biomimetic. The design of the system was inspired by important biological phenomena such as brain ontogenesis, neuron morphologies, and indirect genetic encoding. Neuronal networks were selected and were allowed to reproduce as a function of their performance in the given task. The selected neuronal networks in all scenarios were able to solve the communication problem they had to face. The most striking feature of the model is that it works with highly indirect genetic encoding--just as brains do.

  18. School Meaning Systems: The Symbiotic Nature of Culture and "Language-In-Use"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abawi, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has produced evidence to suggest a strong reciprocal link between school context-specific language constructions that reflect a school's vision and schoolwide pedagogy, and the way that meaning making occurs, and a school's culture is characterized. This research was conducted within three diverse settings: one school in…

  19. Methodology and Implications of Reconstruction and Automatic Processing of Natural Language of the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Marjorie; Barron, Nancy

    This paper discusses in some detail the procedural areas of reconstruction and automatic processing used by the Classroom Interaction Project of the University of Missouri's Center for Research in Social Behavior in the analysis of classroom language. First discussed is the process of reconstruction, here defined as the "process of adding to…

  20. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  1. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Dissemble Emotions in Hypothetical Scenarios and Natural Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin; Hurst, Noel Quist; Jones, Emily Rowberry; Spackman, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the ability of children with language impairment (LI) to dissemble (hide) emotional reactions when socially appropriate to do so. Method: Twenty-two children with LI and their typically developing peers (7;1-10;11 [years;months]) participated in two tasks. First, participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios…

  2. Automatically Detecting Failures in Natural Language Processing Tools for Online Community Text

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and value of patient-generated health text are increasing, but processing such text remains problematic. Although existing biomedical natural language processing (NLP) tools are appealing, most were developed to process clinician- or researcher-generated text, such as clinical notes or journal articles. In addition to being constructed for different types of text, other challenges of using existing NLP include constantly changing technologies, source vocabularies, and characteristics of text. These continuously evolving challenges warrant the need for applying low-cost systematic assessment. However, the primarily accepted evaluation method in NLP, manual annotation, requires tremendous effort and time. Objective The primary objective of this study is to explore an alternative approach—using low-cost, automated methods to detect failures (eg, incorrect boundaries, missed terms, mismapped concepts) when processing patient-generated text with existing biomedical NLP tools. We first characterize common failures that NLP tools can make in processing online community text. We then demonstrate the feasibility of our automated approach in detecting these common failures using one of the most popular biomedical NLP tools, MetaMap. Methods Using 9657 posts from an online cancer community, we explored our automated failure detection approach in two steps: (1) to characterize the failure types, we first manually reviewed MetaMap’s commonly occurring failures, grouped the inaccurate mappings into failure types, and then identified causes of the failures through iterative rounds of manual review using open coding, and (2) to automatically detect these failure types, we then explored combinations of existing NLP techniques and dictionary-based matching for each failure cause. Finally, we manually evaluated the automatically detected failures. Results From our manual review, we characterized three types of failure: (1) boundary failures, (2) missed

  3. A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

  4. FMS: A Format Manipulation System for Automatic Production of Natural Language Documents, Second Edition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Steven S.

    FMS/3 is a system for producing hard copy documentation at high speed from free format text and command input. The system was originally written in assembler language for a 12K IBM 360 model 20 using a high speed 1403 printer with the UCS-TN chain option (upper and lower case). Input was from an IBM 2560 Multi-function Card Machine. The model 20…

  5. Zipf’s word frequency law in natural language: A critical review and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The frequency distribution of words has been a key object of study in statistical linguistics for the past 70 years. This distribution approximately follows a simple mathematical form known as Zipf ’ s law. This article first shows that human language has a highly complex, reliable structure in the frequency distribution over and above this classic law, although prior data visualization methods have obscured this fact. A number of empirical phenomena related to word frequencies are then reviewed. These facts are chosen to be informative about the mechanisms giving rise to Zipf’s law and are then used to evaluate many of the theoretical explanations of Zipf’s law in language. No prior account straightforwardly explains all the basic facts or is supported with independent evaluation of its underlying assumptions. To make progress at understanding why language obeys Zipf’s law, studies must seek evidence beyond the law itself, testing assumptions and evaluating novel predictions with new, independent data. PMID:24664880

  6. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen L.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of programing languages is discussed, focusing on machine/assembly language and high-level languages. The latter includes systems (such as "Basic") in which an entire set of low-level instructions (in assembly/machine language) are combined. Also discusses the nature of other languages such as "Lisp" and list-processing languages. (JN)

  7. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus within the Nation’s Veterans Affairs Medical Centers using natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate information is needed to direct healthcare systems’ efforts to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Assembling complete and correct microbiology data is vital to understanding and addressing the multiple drug-resistant organisms in our hospitals. Methods Herein, we describe a system that securely gathers microbiology data from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) network of databases. Using natural language processing methods, we applied an information extraction process to extract organisms and susceptibilities from the free-text data. We then validated the extraction against independently derived electronic data and expert annotation. Results We estimate that the collected microbiology data are 98.5% complete and that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was extracted accurately 99.7% of the time. Conclusions Applying natural language processing methods to microbiology records appears to be a promising way to extract accurate and useful nosocomial pathogen surveillance data. Both scientific inquiry and the data’s reliability will be dependent on the surveillance system’s capability to compare from multiple sources and circumvent systematic error. The dataset constructed and methods used for this investigation could contribute to a comprehensive infectious disease surveillance system or other pressing needs. PMID:22533507

  8. Research in knowledge representation for natural language communication and planning assistance. Final report, 18 March 1985-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, B.A.; Grosz, B.; Haas, A.; Litman, D.; Reinhardt, T.

    1988-11-01

    BBN's DARPA project in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Communication and Planning Assistance has two primary objectives: 1) To perform research on aspects of the interaction between users who are making complex decisions and systems that are assisting them with their task. In particular, this research is focused on communication and the reasoning required for performing its underlying task of discourse processing, planning, and plan recognition and communication repair. 2) Based on the research objectives to build tools for communication, plan recognition, and planning assistance and for the representation of knowledge and reasoning that underlie all of these processes. This final report summarizes BBN's research activities performed under this contract in the areas of knowledge representation and speech and natural language. In particular, the report discusses the work in the areas of knowledge representation, planning, and discourse modeling. We describe a parallel truth maintenance system. We provide an extension to the sentential theory of propositional attitudes by adding a sentential semantics. The report also contains a description of our research in discourse modelling in the areas of planning and plan recognition.

  9. A Requirements-Based Exploration of Open-Source Software Development Projects--Towards a Natural Language Processing Software Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlas, Radu Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Open source projects do have requirements; they are, however, mostly informal, text descriptions found in requests, forums, and other correspondence. Understanding such requirements provides insight into the nature of open source projects. Unfortunately, manual analysis of natural language requirements is time-consuming, and for large projects,…

  10. L3 Interactive Data Language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-09-05

    The L3 system is a computational steering environment for image processing and scientific computing. It consists of an interactive graphical language and interface. Its purpose is to help advanced users in controlling their computational software and assist in the management of data accumulated during numerical experiments. L3 provides a combination of features not found in other environments; these are: - textual and graphical construction of programs - persistence of programs and associated data - directmore » mapping between the scripts, the parameters, and the produced data - implicit hierarchial data organization - full programmability, including conditionals and functions - incremental execution of programs The software includes the l3 language and the graphical environment. The language is a single-assignment functional language; the implementation consists of lexer, parser, interpreter, storage handler, and editing support, The graphical environment is an event-driven nested list viewer/editor providing graphical elements corresponding to the language. These elements are both the represenation of a users program and active interfaces to the values computed by that program.« less

  11. On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on

  12. The Two Cultures of Science: On Language-Culture Incommensurability Concerning "Nature" and "Observation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Seng Piew

    2007-01-01

    Culture without nature is empty, nature without culture is deaf Intercultural dialogue in higher education around the globe is needed to improve the theory, policy and practice of science and science education. The culture, cosmology and philosophy of "global" science as practiced today in all societies around the world are seemingly anchored in…

  13. Finding Language in the Language Arts: Towards "Cognitive Language Arts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chametzky, Robert A.

    The language arts are constructed like a doughnut or a bagel, so that at their center where there might be something, there is instead a hole--emptiness. The dominant approach to understanding the nature of language--generative grammar--does not suggest a center for the language arts. An alternative approach to language and mind is "cognitive…

  14. Linguistics in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  15. A translator writing system for microcomputer high-level languages and assemblers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. R.; Knight, J. C.; Noonan, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    In order to implement high level languages whenever possible, a translator writing system of advanced design was developed. It is intended for routine production use by many programmers working on different projects. As well as a fairly conventional parser generator, it includes a system for the rapid generation of table driven code generators. The parser generator was developed from a prototype version. The translator writing system includes various tools for the management of the source text of a compiler under construction. In addition, it supplies various default source code sections so that its output is always compilable and executable. The system thereby encourages iterative enhancement as a development methodology by ensuring an executable program from the earliest stages of a compiler development project. The translator writing system includes PASCAL/48 compiler, three assemblers, and two compilers for a subset of HAL/S.

  16. The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

  17. Writing in science: Exploring teachers' and students' views of the nature of science in language enriched environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decoito, Isha

    Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an

  18. Why is combinatorial communication rare in the natural world, and why is language an exception to this trend?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    In a combinatorial communication system, some signals consist of the combinations of other signals. Such systems are more efficient than equivalent, non-combinatorial systems, yet despite this they are rare in nature. Why? Previous explanations have focused on the adaptive limits of combinatorial communication, or on its purported cognitive difficulties, but neither of these explains the full distribution of combinatorial communication in the natural world. Here, we present a nonlinear dynamical model of the emergence of combinatorial communication that, unlike previous models, considers how initially non-communicative behaviour evolves to take on a communicative function. We derive three basic principles about the emergence of combinatorial communication. We hence show that the interdependence of signals and responses places significant constraints on the historical pathways by which combinatorial signals might emerge, to the extent that anything other than the most simple form of combinatorial communication is extremely unlikely. We also argue that these constraints can be bypassed if individuals have the socio-cognitive capacity to engage in ostensive communication. Humans, but probably no other species, have this ability. This may explain why language, which is massively combinatorial, is such an extreme exception to nature's general trend for non-combinatorial communication. PMID:24047871

  19. Computer-Aided TRIZ Ideality and Level of Invention Estimation Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Christopher; Tate, Derrick

    Patent textual descriptions provide a wealth of information that can be used to understand the underlying design approaches that result in the generation of novel and innovative technology. This article will discuss a new approach for estimating Degree of Ideality and Level of Invention metrics from the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) using patent textual information. Patent text includes information that can be used to model both the functions performed by a design and the associated costs and problems that affect a design’s value. The motivation of this research is to use patent data with calculation of TRIZ metrics to help designers understand which combinations of system components and functions result in creative and innovative design solutions. This article will discuss in detail methods to estimate these TRIZ metrics using natural language processing and machine learning with the use of neural networks.

  20. An Evaluation of a Natural Language Processing Tool for Identifying and Encoding Allergy Information in Emergency Department Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Foster R.; Plasek, Joseph M.; Lau, Jason J.; Seger, Diane L.; Chang, Frank Y.; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits due to allergic reactions are common. Allergy information is often recorded in free-text provider notes; however, this domain has not yet been widely studied by the natural language processing (NLP) community. We developed an allergy module built on the MTERMS NLP system to identify and encode food, drug, and environmental allergies and allergic reactions. The module included updates to our lexicon using standard terminologies, and novel disambiguation algorithms. We developed an annotation schema and annotated 400 ED notes that served as a gold standard for comparison to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an F-measure of 87.6% for the detection of allergen names and no known allergies, 90% for identifying true reactions in each allergy statement where true allergens were also identified, and 69% for linking reactions to their allergen. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility using NLP to extract and encode allergy information from clinical notes. PMID:25954363

  1. Pupils Reasoning about the Nature of Change Using an Abstract Picture Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianidou, Fani; Boohan, Richard

    The research is concerned with investigating children's understanding of physical, chemical, and biological changes while using an approach developed by the project Energy and Change. This project aimed to provide novel ways of teaching about the nature and direction of changes, in particular introducing ideas related to the Second Law of…

  2. The Nature of Language Learners' Beliefs: A Half-Told Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Qunyan

    2015-01-01

    Substantial amount of research regarding L2 learners' beliefs has been conducted in recent years. However, not enough attention has been paid to investigating the nature of learners' beliefs; hence our understanding of the construct is contradictory in the sense that early research studies report stability in beliefs, while more recent studies…

  3. Updating Norman's "Adequate Taxonomy": intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires.

    PubMed

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1985-09-01

    Research on the dimensions of personality represented in the English language has repeatedly led to the identification of five factors (Norman, 1963). An alternative classification of personality traits, based on analyses of standardized questionnaires, is provided by the NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness) model (Costa & McCrae, 1980b). In this study we examined the correspondence between these two systems in order to evaluate their comprehensiveness as models of personality. A sample of 498 men and women, participants in a longitudinal study of aging, completed an instrument containing 80 adjective pairs, which included 40 pairs proposed by Goldberg to measure the five dimensions. Neuroticism and extraversion factors from these items showed substantial correlations with corresponding NEO Inventory scales; however, analyses that included psychometric measures of intelligence suggested that the fifth factor in the Norman structure should be reconceptualized as openness to experience. Convergent correlations above .50 with spouse ratings on the NEO Inventory that were made three years earlier confirmed these relations across time, instrument, and source of data. We discuss the relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence, and we conclude that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience. PMID:4045699

  4. Neurolinguistic approach to natural language processing with applications to medical text analysis.

    PubMed

    Duch, Włodzisław; Matykiewicz, Paweł; Pestian, John

    2008-12-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts not found directly in the text. The approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  5. What Is a Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Page, R. B.

    A discussion on the nature of language argues the following: (1) the concept of a closed and finite rule system is inadequate for the description of natural languages; (2) as a consequence, the writing of variable rules to modify such rule systems so as to accommodate the properties of natural language is inappropriate; (3) the concept of such…

  6. BabelMeSH: development of a cross-language tool for MEDLINE/PubMed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ackerman, Michael; Fontelo, Paul

    2006-01-01

    BabelMeSH is a cross-language tool for searching MEDLINE/PubMed. Queries can be submitted as single terms or complex phrases in French, Spanish and Portuguese. Citations will be sent to the user in English. It uses a smart parser interface with a medical terms database in MySQL. Preliminary evaluation using compound key words in foreign language medical journals showed an accuracy of 68%, 60% and 51% for French, Spanish and Portuguese, respectively. Development is continuing. PMID:17238631

  7. Neurolinguistic Approach to Natural Language Processing with Applications to Medical Text Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matykiewicz, Paweł; Pestian, John

    2008-01-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts that are not found directly in the text. Approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  8. Arbitrary Symbolism in Natural Language Revisited: When Word Forms Carry Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Westbury, Chris; Kean, Jacob; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog). Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1–2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete) for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., “apartment”) as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., “fate”) as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words. PMID:22879931

  9. The nature of facilitation and interference in the multilingual language system: insights from treatment in a case of trilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Keane, Caitlin; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    The rehabilitation study described here sets out to test the premise of Abutalebi and Green's neurocognitive model--specifically, that language selection and control are components of overall cognitive control. We follow a trilingual woman (first language, L1: Amharic; second language, L2: English; third language, L3: French) with damage to the left frontal lobe and left basal ganglia who presented with cognitive control and naming deficits, through two periods of semantic treatment (French, followed by English) to alleviate naming deficits. The results showed that while the participant improved on trained items, she did not show within- or cross-language generalization. In addition, error patterns revealed a substantial increase of interference of the currently trained language into the nontrained language during each of the two treatment phases. These results are consistent with Abutalebi and Green's neurocognitive model and support the claim that language selection and control are components of overall cognitive control. PMID:26377506

  10. Natural language query system design for interactive information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-17.

  11. SIMD-parallel understanding of natural language with application to magnitude-only optical parsing of text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    1992-08-01

    A novel parallel model of natural language (NL) understanding is presented which can realize high levels of semantic abstraction, and is designed for implementation on synchronous SIMD architectures and optical processors. Theory is expressed in terms of the Image Algebra (IA), a rigorous, concise, inherently parallel notation which unifies the design, analysis, and implementation of image processing algorithms. The IA has been implemented on numerous parallel architectures, and IA preprocessors and interpreters are available for the FORTRAN and Ada languages. In a previous study, we demonstrated the utility of IA for mapping MEA- conformable (Multiple Execution Array) algorithms to optical architectures. In this study, we extend our previous theory to map serial parsing algorithms to the synchronous SIMD paradigm. We initially derive a two-dimensional image that is based upon the adjacency matrix of a semantic graph. Via IA template mappings, the operations of bottom-up parsing, semantic disambiguation, and referential resolution are implemented as image-processing operations upon the adjacency matrix. Pixel-level operations are constrained to Hadamard addition and multiplication, thresholding, and row/column summation, which are available in magnitude-only optics. Assuming high parallelism in the parse rule base, the parsing of n input symbols with a grammar consisting of M rules of arity H, on an N-processor architecture, could exhibit time complexity of T(n)

  12. Evaluation of natural language processing from emergency department computerized medical records for intra-hospital syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The identification of patients who pose an epidemic hazard when they are admitted to a health facility plays a role in preventing the risk of hospital acquired infection. An automated clinical decision support system to detect suspected cases, based on the principle of syndromic surveillance, is being developed at the University of Lyon's Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse. This tool will analyse structured data and narrative reports from computerized emergency department (ED) medical records. The first step consists of developing an application (UrgIndex) which automatically extracts and encodes information found in narrative reports. The purpose of the present article is to describe and evaluate this natural language processing system. Methods Narrative reports have to be pre-processed before utilizing the French-language medical multi-terminology indexer (ECMT) for standardized encoding. UrgIndex identifies and excludes syntagmas containing a negation and replaces non-standard terms (abbreviations, acronyms, spelling errors...). Then, the phrases are sent to the ECMT through an Internet connection. The indexer's reply, based on Extensible Markup Language, returns codes and literals corresponding to the concepts found in phrases. UrgIndex filters codes corresponding to suspected infections. Recall is defined as the number of relevant processed medical concepts divided by the number of concepts evaluated (coded manually by the medical epidemiologist). Precision is defined as the number of relevant processed concepts divided by the number of concepts proposed by UrgIndex. Recall and precision were assessed for respiratory and cutaneous syndromes. Results Evaluation of 1,674 processed medical concepts contained in 100 ED medical records (50 for respiratory syndromes and 50 for cutaneous syndromes) showed an overall recall of 85.8% (95% CI: 84.1-87.3). Recall varied from 84.5% for respiratory syndromes to 87.0% for cutaneous syndromes. The most frequent cause of

  13. Language and human nature: Kurt Goldstein's neurolinguistic foundation of a holistic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2012-01-01

    Holism in interwar Germany provides an excellent example for social and political influences on scientific developments. Deeply impressed by the ubiquitous invocation of a cultural crisis, biologists, physicians, and psychologists presented holistic accounts as an alternative to the "mechanistic worldview" of the nineteenth century. Although the ideological background of these accounts is often blatantly obvious, many holistic scientists did not content themselves with a general opposition to a mechanistic worldview but aimed at a rational foundation of their holistic projects. This article will discuss the work of Kurt Goldstein, who is known for both his groundbreaking contributions to neuropsychology and his holistic philosophy of human nature. By focusing on Goldstein's neurolinguistic research, I want to reconstruct the empirical foundations of his holistic program without ignoring its cultural background. In this sense, Goldstein's work provides a case study for the formation of a scientific theory through the complex interplay between specific empirical evidences and the general cultural developments of the Weimar Republic. PMID:25363384

  14. A perspective on the advancement of natural language processing tasks via topological analysis of complex networks. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2014-12-01

    Concepts and methods of complex networks have been applied to probe the properties of a myriad of real systems [1]. The finding that written texts modeled as graphs share several properties of other completely different real systems has inspired the study of language as a complex system [2]. Actually, language can be represented as a complex network in its several levels of complexity. As a consequence, morphological, syntactical and semantical properties have been employed in the construction of linguistic networks [3]. Even the character level has been useful to unfold particular patterns [4,5]. In the review by Cong and Liu [6], the authors emphasize the need to use the topological information of complex networks modeling the various spheres of the language to better understand its origins, evolution and organization. In addition, the authors cite the use of networks in applications aiming at holistic typology and stylistic variations. In this context, I will discuss some possible directions that could be followed in future research directed towards the understanding of language via topological characterization of complex linguistic networks. In addition, I will comment the use of network models for language processing applications. Additional prospects for future practical research lines will also be discussed in this comment.

  15. The CMS DBS query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Valentin; Riley, Daniel; Afaq, Anzar; Sekhri, Vijay; Guo, Yuyi; Lueking, Lee

    2010-04-01

    The CMS experiment has implemented a flexible and powerful system enabling users to find data within the CMS physics data catalog. The Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) comprises a database and the services used to store and access metadata related to CMS physics data. To this, we have added a generalized query system in addition to the existing web and programmatic interfaces to the DBS. This query system is based on a query language that hides the complexity of the underlying database structure by discovering the join conditions between database tables. This provides a way of querying the system that is simple and straightforward for CMS data managers and physicists to use without requiring knowledge of the database tables or keys. The DBS Query Language uses the ANTLR tool to build the input query parser and tokenizer, followed by a query builder that uses a graph representation of the DBS schema to construct the SQL query sent to underlying database. We will describe the design of the query system, provide details of the language components and overview of how this component fits into the overall data discovery system architecture.

  16. Neutrality in Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The unavoidability of language makes it critical that language policies appeal to some notion of language neutrality as part of their rationale, in order to assuage concerns that the policies might otherwise be unduly discriminatory. However, the idea of language neutrality is deeply ideological in nature, since it is not only an attempt to treat…

  17. Automated pancreatic cyst screening using natural language processing: a new tool in the early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roch, Alexandra M; Mehrabi, Saeed; Krishnan, Anand; Schmidt, Heidi E; Kesterson, Joseph; Beesley, Chris; Dexter, Paul R; Palakal, Mathew; Schmidt, C Max

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As many as 3% of computed tomography (CT) scans detect pancreatic cysts. Because pancreatic cysts are incidental, ubiquitous and poorly understood, follow-up is often not performed. Pancreatic cysts may have a significant malignant potential and their identification represents a ‘window of opportunity’ for the early detection of pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to implement an automated Natural Language Processing (NLP)-based pancreatic cyst identification system. Method A multidisciplinary team was assembled. NLP-based identification algorithms were developed based on key words commonly used by physicians to describe pancreatic cysts and programmed for automated search of electronic medical records. A pilot study was conducted prospectively in a single institution. Results From March to September 2013, 566 233 reports belonging to 50 669 patients were analysed. The mean number of patients reported with a pancreatic cyst was 88/month (range 78–98). The mean sensitivity and specificity were 99.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Conclusion NLP is an effective tool to automatically identify patients with pancreatic cysts based on electronic medical records (EMR). This highly accurate system can help capture patients ‘at-risk’ of pancreatic cancer in a registry. PMID:25537257

  18. Probabilistic Constraint Logic Programming. Formal Foundations of Quantitative and Statistical Inference in Constraint-Based Natural Language Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riezler, Stefan

    2000-08-01

    In this thesis, we present two approaches to a rigorous mathematical and algorithmic foundation of quantitative and statistical inference in constraint-based natural language processing. The first approach, called quantitative constraint logic programming, is conceptualized in a clear logical framework, and presents a sound and complete system of quantitative inference for definite clauses annotated with subjective weights. This approach combines a rigorous formal semantics for quantitative inference based on subjective weights with efficient weight-based pruning for constraint-based systems. The second approach, called probabilistic constraint logic programming, introduces a log-linear probability distribution on the proof trees of a constraint logic program and an algorithm for statistical inference of the parameters and properties of such probability models from incomplete, i.e., unparsed data. The possibility of defining arbitrary properties of proof trees as properties of the log-linear probability model and efficiently estimating appropriate parameter values for them permits the probabilistic modeling of arbitrary context-dependencies in constraint logic programs. The usefulness of these ideas is evaluated empirically in a small-scale experiment on finding the correct parses of a constraint-based grammar. In addition, we address the problem of computational intractability of the calculation of expectations in the inference task and present various techniques to approximately solve this task. Moreover, we present an approximate heuristic technique for searching for the most probable analysis in probabilistic constraint logic programs.

  19. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing: How You Can Get More From Those Electronic Notes You Are Generating.

    PubMed

    Kimia, Amir A; Savova, Guergana; Landschaft, Assaf; Harper, Marvin B

    2015-07-01

    Electronically stored clinical documents may contain both structured data and unstructured data. The use of structured clinical data varies by facility, but clinicians are familiar with coded data such as International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms codes, and commonly other data including patient chief complaints or laboratory results. Most electronic health records have much more clinical information stored as unstructured data, for example, clinical narrative such as history of present illness, procedure notes, and clinical decision making are stored as unstructured data. Despite the importance of this information, electronic capture or retrieval of unstructured clinical data has been challenging. The field of natural language processing (NLP) is undergoing rapid development, and existing tools can be successfully used for quality improvement, research, healthcare coding, and even billing compliance. In this brief review, we provide examples of successful uses of NLP using emergency medicine physician visit notes for various projects and the challenges of retrieving specific data and finally present practical methods that can run on a standard personal computer as well as high-end state-of-the-art funded processes run by leading NLP informatics researchers. PMID:26148107

  20. Using natural language processing to improve efficiency of manual chart abstraction in research: the case of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Carrell, David S; Halgrim, Scott; Tran, Diem-Thy; Buist, Diana S M; Chubak, Jessica; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana

    2014-03-15

    The increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) creates opportunities for automated extraction of information from clinical text. We hypothesized that natural language processing (NLP) could substantially reduce the burden of manual abstraction in studies examining outcomes, like cancer recurrence, that are documented in unstructured clinical text, such as progress notes, radiology reports, and pathology reports. We developed an NLP-based system using open-source software to process electronic clinical notes from 1995 to 2012 for women with early-stage incident breast cancers to identify whether and when recurrences were diagnosed. We developed and evaluated the system using clinical notes from 1,472 patients receiving EHR-documented care in an integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A separate study provided the patient-level reference standard for recurrence status and date. The NLP-based system correctly identified 92% of recurrences and estimated diagnosis dates within 30 days for 88% of these. Specificity was 96%. The NLP-based system overlooked 5 of 65 recurrences, 4 because electronic documents were unavailable. The NLP-based system identified 5 other recurrences incorrectly classified as nonrecurrent in the reference standard. If used in similar cohorts, NLP could reduce by 90% the number of EHR charts abstracted to identify confirmed breast cancer recurrence cases at a rate comparable to traditional abstraction. PMID:24488511

  1. Informatics in radiology: RADTF: a semantic search-enabled, natural language processor-generated radiology teaching file.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew; Biswal, Sandip; Kamaya, Aya; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-11-01

    Storing and retrieving radiology cases is an important activity for education and clinical research, but this process can be time-consuming. In the process of structuring reports and images into organized teaching files, incidental pathologic conditions not pertinent to the primary teaching point can be omitted, as when a user saves images of an aortic dissection case but disregards the incidental osteoid osteoma. An alternate strategy for identifying teaching cases is text search of reports in radiology information systems (RIS), but retrieved reports are unstructured, teaching-related content is not highlighted, and patient identifying information is not removed. Furthermore, searching unstructured reports requires sophisticated retrieval methods to achieve useful results. An open-source, RadLex(®)-compatible teaching file solution called RADTF, which uses natural language processing (NLP) methods to process radiology reports, was developed to create a searchable teaching resource from the RIS and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The NLP system extracts and de-identifies teaching-relevant statements from full reports to generate a stand-alone database, thus converting existing RIS archives into an on-demand source of teaching material. Using RADTF, the authors generated a semantic search-enabled, Web-based radiology archive containing over 700,000 cases with millions of images. RADTF combines a compact representation of the teaching-relevant content in radiology reports and a versatile search engine with the scale of the entire RIS-PACS collection of case material. PMID:20801868

  2. Combining Speech Recognition/Natural Language Processing with 3D Online Learning Environments to Create Distributed Authentic and Situated Spoken Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Greg; Squires, Todd; Hicks, Jeramie

    2008-01-01

    This article will describe research done at the National Institute of Multimedia in Education, Japan and the University of North Texas on the creation of a distributed Internet-based spoken language learning system that would provide more interactive and motivating learning than current multimedia and audiotape-based systems. The project combined…

  3. Longitudinal analysis of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer using natural language processing of medical record text

    PubMed Central

    Heintzelman, Norris H; Taylor, Robert J; Simonsen, Lone; Lustig, Roger; Anderko, Doug; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Childs, Lois C; Bova, George Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the feasibility of using text mining to depict meaningfully the experience of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, to identify novel pain phenotypes, and to propose methods for longitudinal visualization of pain status. Materials and methods Text from 4409 clinical encounters for 33 men enrolled in a 15-year longitudinal clinical/molecular autopsy study of metastatic prostate cancer (Project to ELIminate lethal CANcer) was subjected to natural language processing (NLP) using Unified Medical Language System-based terms. A four-tiered pain scale was developed, and logistic regression analysis identified factors that correlated with experience of severe pain during each month. Results NLP identified 6387 pain and 13 827 drug mentions in the text. Graphical displays revealed the pain ‘landscape’ described in the textual records and confirmed dramatically increasing levels of pain in the last years of life in all but two patients, all of whom died from metastatic cancer. Severe pain was associated with receipt of opioids (OR=6.6, p<0.0001) and palliative radiation (OR=3.4, p=0.0002). Surprisingly, no severe or controlled pain was detected in two of 33 subjects’ clinical records. Additionally, the NLP algorithm proved generalizable in an evaluation using a separate data source (889 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) discharge summaries). Discussion Patterns in the pain experience, undetectable without the use of NLP to mine the longitudinal clinical record, were consistent with clinical expectations, suggesting that meaningful NLP-based pain status monitoring is feasible. Findings in this initial cohort suggest that ‘outlier’ pain phenotypes useful for probing the molecular basis of cancer pain may exist. Limitations The results are limited by a small cohort size and use of proprietary NLP software. Conclusions We have established the feasibility of tracking longitudinal patterns of pain by text mining

  4. Following Native Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiburg, Michael S.

    Native language acquisition is a natural and non-natural stage-by-stage process. The natural first stage is development of speech and listening skills. In this stage, competency is gained in the home environment. The next, non-natural stage is development of literacy, a cultural skill taught in school. Since oral-aural native language development…

  5. The Importance of Natural Change in Planning School-Based Intervention for Children with Developmental Language Impairment (DLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botting, Nicola; Gaynor, Marguerite; Tucker, Katie; Orchard-Lisle, Ginnie

    2016-01-01

    Some reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of children identified as having developmental language impairment (Bercow, 2008). yet resource issues have meant that many speech and language therapy services have compromised provision in some way. Thus, efficient ways of identifying need and prioritizing intervention are required.…

  6. The Acquisition of Written Language: Response and Revision. Writing Research: Multidisciplinary Inquiries into the Nature of Writing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Sarah Warshauer, Ed.

    Viewing writing as both a form of language learning and an intellectual skill, this book presents essays on how writers acquire trusted inner voices and the roles schools and teachers can play in helping student writers in the learning process. The essays in the book focus on one of three topics: the language of instruction and how response and…

  7. Integrating Learner Corpora and Natural Language Processing: A Crucial Step towards Reconciling Technological Sophistication and Pedagogical Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Sylviane; Kraif, Olivier; Ponton, Claude; Antoniadis, Georges; Zampa, Virginie

    2007-01-01

    Learner corpora, electronic collections of spoken or written data from foreign language learners, offer unparalleled access to many hitherto uncovered aspects of learner language, particularly in their error-tagged format. This article aims to demonstrate the role that the learner corpus can play in CALL, particularly when used in conjunction with…

  8. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  9. Common data model for natural language processing based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D

    2012-08-01

    An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a common data model and a common terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a common standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This common data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. PMID:22197801

  10. Improving performance of natural language processing part-of-speech tagging on clinical narratives through domain adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Jeffrey P; Daumé, Hal; DuVall, Scott L; Chapman, Wendy W; Harkema, Henk; Haug, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Natural language processing (NLP) tasks are commonly decomposed into subtasks, chained together to form processing pipelines. The residual error produced in these subtasks propagates, adversely affecting the end objectives. Limited availability of annotated clinical data remains a barrier to reaching state-of-the-art operating characteristics using statistically based NLP tools in the clinical domain. Here we explore the unique linguistic constructions of clinical texts and demonstrate the loss in operating characteristics when out-of-the-box part-of-speech (POS) tagging tools are applied to the clinical domain. We test a domain adaptation approach integrating a novel lexical-generation probability rule used in a transformation-based learner to boost POS performance on clinical narratives. Methods Two target corpora from independent healthcare institutions were constructed from high frequency clinical narratives. Four leading POS taggers with their out-of-the-box models trained from general English and biomedical abstracts were evaluated against these clinical corpora. A high performing domain adaptation method, Easy Adapt, was compared to our newly proposed method ClinAdapt. Results The evaluated POS taggers drop in accuracy by 8.5–15% when tested on clinical narratives. The highest performing tagger reports an accuracy of 88.6%. Domain adaptation with Easy Adapt reports accuracies of 88.3–91.0% on clinical texts. ClinAdapt reports 93.2–93.9%. Conclusions ClinAdapt successfully boosts POS tagging performance through domain adaptation requiring a modest amount of annotated clinical data. Improving the performance of critical NLP subtasks is expected to reduce pipeline error propagation leading to better overall results on complex processing tasks. PMID:23486109

  11. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  12. A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Results Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance on the CRAFT corpus when tested with the publicly available models or rule sets. Trainable systems differed widely with respect to their ability to build high-performing models based on this data. Conclusions The finding that some systems were able to train high-performing models based on this corpus is additional evidence, beyond high inter-annotator agreement, that the quality of the CRAFT corpus is high. The overall poor performance of various systems indicates that considerable work needs to be done to enable natural language processing systems to work well when the input is full-text journal articles. The CRAFT corpus provides a valuable resource to the biomedical natural language processing community for evaluation and training of new models for biomedical full text publications. PMID:22901054

  13. Variation in the application of natural processes: language-dependent constraints in the phonological acquisition of bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Faingold, E D

    1996-09-01

    This paper studies phonological processes and constraints on early phonological and lexical development, as well as the strategies employed by a young Spanish-, Portuguese-, and Hebrew-speaking child-Nurit (the author's niece)-in the construction of her early lexicon. Nurit's linguistic development is compared to that of another Spanish-, Portuguese-, and Hebrew-speaking child-Noam (the author's son). Noam and Nurit's linguistic development is contrasted to that of Berman's (1977) English- and Hebrew-speaking daughter (Shelli). The simultaneous acquisition of similar (closely related languages) such as Spanish and Portuguese versus that of nonrelated languages such as English and Hebrew yields different results: Children acquiring similar languages seem to prefer maintenance as a strategy for the construction of their early lexicon, while children exposed to nonrelated languages appear to prefer reduction to a large extent (Faingold, 1990). The Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking children's high accuracy stems from a wider choice of target words, where the diachronic development of two closely related languages provides a simplified model lexicon to the child. PMID:8865623

  14. Introducing a gender-neutral pronoun in a natural gender language: the influence of time on attitudes and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Bäck, Emma A.; Lindqvist, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of gender fair language is often associated with negative reactions and hostile attacks on people who propose a change. This was also the case in Sweden in 2012 when a third gender-neutral pronoun hen was proposed as an addition to the already existing Swedish pronouns for she (hon) and he (han). The pronoun hen can be used both generically, when gender is unknown or irrelevant, and as a transgender pronoun for people who categorize themselves outside the gender dichotomy. In this article we review the process from 2012 to 2015. No other language has so far added a third gender-neutral pronoun, existing parallel with two gendered pronouns, that actually have reached the broader population of language users. This makes the situation in Sweden unique. We present data on attitudes toward hen during the past 4 years and analyze how time is associated with the attitudes in the process of introducing hen to the Swedish language. In 2012 the majority of the Swedish population was negative to the word, but already in 2014 there was a significant shift to more positive attitudes. Time was one of the strongest predictors for attitudes also when other relevant factors were controlled for. The actual use of the word also increased, although to a lesser extent than the attitudes shifted. We conclude that new words challenging the binary gender system evoke hostile and negative reactions, but also that attitudes can normalize rather quickly. We see this finding very positive and hope it could motivate language amendments and initiatives for gender-fair language, although the first responses may be negative. PMID:26191016

  15. Film Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudlin, Edward W.

    1979-01-01

    The author briefly surveys some of the claims made about the presumed nature of film as language and some of the problems that arise. He considers the views of two influential schools of film criticism: the Russian formalists (Pudovkin and Eisenstein) and the British semiologist (Peter Wollen). (Author/SJL)

  16. Language, the Forgotten Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia P., Ed.; Small, Robert C., Jr., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The ways that students can learn about the nature of the English language and develop a sense of excitement about their language are explored in this focused journal issue. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "Language, the Forgotten Content" (R. Small and P. P. Kelly); (2) "What Should English Teachers Know about…

  17. Language, Gesture, and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

    A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American Sign Language"…

  18. Language-Dependent Pitch Encoding Advantage in the Brainstem Is Not Limited to Acceleration Rates that Occur in Natural Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Smalt, Christopher J.; Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2010-01-01

    Experience-dependent enhancement of neural encoding of pitch in the auditory brainstem has been observed for only specific portions of native pitch contours exhibiting high rates of pitch acceleration, irrespective of speech or nonspeech contexts. This experiment allows us to determine whether this language-dependent advantage transfers to…

  19. Understanding Why Things Happen: Case-Studies of Pupils Using an Abstract Picture Language to Represent the Nature of Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianidou, Fani; Boohan, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Six 12-year-old students were followed during an eight-month course using "Energy and Change" curricular materials, which introduce ideas related to the Second Law of Thermodynamics through an abstract picture language. Concludes that students had higher levels of generalization in their explanations of physical, chemical, and biological change.…

  20. The Nature and Impact of Changes in Home Learning Environment on Development of Language and Academic Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development…

  1. Individual Biases, Cultural Evolution, and the Statistical Nature of Language Universals: The Case of Colour Naming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio; Puglisi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Language universals have long been attributed to an innate Universal Grammar. An alternative explanation states that linguistic universals emerged independently in every language in response to shared cognitive or perceptual biases. A computational model has recently shown how this could be the case, focusing on the paradigmatic example of the universal properties of colour naming patterns, and producing results in quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Here we investigate the role of an individual perceptual bias in the framework of the model. We study how, and to what extent, the structure of the bias influences the corresponding linguistic universal patterns. We show that the cultural history of a group of speakers introduces population-specific constraints that act against the pressure for uniformity arising from the individual bias, and we clarify the interplay between these two forces. PMID:26018391

  2. An English language interface for constrained domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Brenda J.

    1989-01-01

    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  3. Language as a Liberal Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jack M.

    Language, considered as a liberal art, is examined in the light of other philosophical viewpoints concerning the nature of language in relation to second language instruction in this paper. Critical of an earlier mechanistic audio-lingual learning theory, translation approaches to language learning, vocabulary list-oriented courses, graduate…

  4. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.; Leith, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in "Language and social identity." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp…

  5. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  6. The Tao of Whole Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, Meguido

    1989-01-01

    Uses the philosophy of Taoism as a metaphor in describing the whole language approach to language arts instruction. The discussion covers the key principles that inform the whole language approach, the resulting holistic nature of language programs, and the role of the teacher in this approach. (16 references) (CLB)

  7. Simultaneous natural speech and AAC interventions for children with childhood apraxia of speech: lessons from a speech-language pathologist focus group.

    PubMed

    Oommen, Elizabeth R; McCarthy, John W

    2015-03-01

    In childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), children exhibit varying levels of speech intelligibility depending on the nature of errors in articulation and prosody. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strategies are beneficial, and commonly adopted with children with CAS. This study focused on the decision-making process and strategies adopted by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) when simultaneously implementing interventions that focused on natural speech and AAC. Eight SLPs, with significant clinical experience in CAS and AAC interventions, participated in an online focus group. Thematic analysis revealed eight themes: key decision-making factors; treatment history and rationale; benefits; challenges; therapy strategies and activities; collaboration with team members; recommendations; and other comments. Results are discussed along with clinical implications and directions for future research. PMID:25664542

  8. Social Network Development, Language Use, and Language Acquisition during Study Abroad: Arabic Language Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Dan P.; Belnap, R. Kirk; Hillstrom, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Language learners and educators have subscribed to the belief that those who go abroad will have many opportunities to use the target language and will naturally become proficient. They also assume that language learners will develop relationships with native speakers allowing them to use the language and become more fluent, an assumption…

  9. Linguistic Unification and Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the tension between linguistic unification and language rights in Nigeria and assesses the nature, causes, and implications of the tension against the backgrounds of the country's history, political development, and language situation. (Contains 116 references.) (MDM)

  10. A SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MICHEL, JOSEPH

    DESIGNED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS AND PERSONS PREPARING TO BECOME FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1892 AND 1966 CONTAINS SECTIONS OF--(1) THE NATURE AND FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE, (2) LINGUISTICS, INCLUDING APPLIED LINGUISTICS FOR SPECIFIC LANGUAGES, (3) PSYCHOLOGY OF LANGUAGE, (4) PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH, (5)…

  11. A Collective Case Study of the Nature of Form-Focused Instruction among Secondary English as a Second Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    The nature of teaching expertise for form-focused instruction (FFI) in secondary schools has received little research attention. FFI research that has been carried out so far has devoted time in exploring the classification of one form of FFI, or the effectiveness of one form of FFI over another. Given that exploring teaching expertise for FFI in…

  12. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  13. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  14. SOL - SIZING AND OPTIMIZATION LANGUAGE COMPILER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    each variable was used. The listings summarize all optimizations, listing the objective functions, design variables, and constraints. The compiler offers error-checking specific to optimization problems, so that simple mistakes will not cost hours of debugging time. The optimization engine used by and included with the SOL compiler is a version of Vanderplatt's ADS system (Version 1.1) modified specifically to work with the SOL compiler. SOL allows the use of the over 100 ADS optimization choices such as Sequential Quadratic Programming, Modified Feasible Directions, interior and exterior penalty function and variable metric methods. Default choices of the many control parameters of ADS are made for the user, however, the user can override any of the ADS control parameters desired for each individual optimization. The SOL language and compiler were developed with an advanced compiler-generation system to ensure correctness and simplify program maintenance. Thus, SOL's syntax was defined precisely by a LALR(1) grammar and the SOL compiler's parser was generated automatically from the LALR(1) grammar with a parser-generator. Hence unlike ad hoc, manually coded interfaces, the SOL compiler's lexical analysis insures that the SOL compiler recognizes all legal SOL programs, can recover from and correct for many errors and report the location of errors to the user. This version of the SOL compiler has been implemented on VAX/VMS computer systems and requires 204 KB of virtual memory to execute. Since the SOL compiler produces FORTRAN code, it requires the VAX FORTRAN compiler to produce an executable program. The SOL compiler consists of 13,000 lines of Pascal code. It was developed in 1986 and last updated in 1988. The ADS and other utility subroutines amount to 14,000 lines of FORTRAN code and were also updated in 1988.

  15. Language Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  16. Imaginative Language: What Event-Related Potentials have Revealed about the Nature and Source of Concreteness Effects*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological evidence suggest that abstract and concrete concepts may be represented, retrieved, and processed differently in the human brain. As reviewed in this paper, data using event-related potential measures, some in combination with visual half-field presentation methods, have offered a detailed picture of the nature and source of concreteness effects. In particular, the results provide strong evidence for multiple mechanisms underlying the behavioral processing differences that have long been noted for concrete and abstract words and, further, suggest an intriguing, unique role for the right hemisphere in associating words with sensory imagery. PMID:27559305

  17. Developmental Changes in the Nature of Language Proficiency and Reading Fluency Paint a More Complex View of Reading Comprehension in ELL and EL1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, Esther; Farnia, Fataneh

    2012-01-01

    We examined theoretical issues concerning the development of reading fluency and language proficiency in 390 English Language Learners (ELLs,) and 149 monolingual, English-as-a-first language (EL1) students. The extent to which performance on these constructs in Grade 5 (i.e., concurrent predictors) contributes to reading comprehension in the…

  18. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  19. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  20. Language: Mosaic or Special Faculty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Describes the "special destiny-special faculty" paradigm that has dominated western thinking about the nature and origins of language and argues instead that language systems are like technologies and that language acquisition and use involves a range of capacities and skills, a view that could be called the "mosaic development paradigm." (15…

  1. Liuds'ka vdacha: uchnivs'kyi zoshyt (Human Nature: Student Activity Book) [and] Liuds'ka vdacha: vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (Human Nature: Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 2: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.; And Others

    One of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series, this student workbook offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. It is intended for use in the instruction of native speakers, heritage language learners, or second language learners of Ukrainian. Also…

  2. Conceptual Complexity and Apparent Contradictions in Mathematics Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2007-01-01

    Mathematics is like a language, although technically it is not a natural or informal human language, but a formal, that is, artificially constructed language. Importantly, educators use their natural everyday language to teach the formal language of mathematics. At times, however, instructors encounter problems when the technical words they use,…

  3. Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n = 366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

  4. An AdaBoost Using a Weak-Learner Generating Several Weak-Hypotheses for Large Training Data of Natural Language Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakura, Tomoya; Okamoto, Seishi; Asakawa, Kazuo

    AdaBoost is a method to create a final hypothesis by repeatedly generating a weak hypothesis in each training iteration with a given weak learner. AdaBoost-based algorithms are successfully applied to several tasks such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), OCR, and so on. However, learning on the training data consisting of large number of samples and features requires long training time. We propose a fast AdaBoost-based algorithm for learning rules represented by combination of features. Our algorithm constructs a final hypothesis by learning several weak-hypotheses at each iteration. We assign a confidence-rated value to each weak-hypothesis while ensuring a reduction in the theoretical upper bound of the training error of AdaBoost. We evaluate our methods with English POS tagging and text chunking. The experimental results show that the training speed of our algorithm are about 25 times faster than an AdaBoost-based learner, and about 50 times faster than Support Vector Machines with polynomial kernel on the average while maintaining state-of-the-art accuracy.

  5. Comparison of a semi-automatic annotation tool and a natural language processing application for the generation of clinical statement entries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Heng; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Lai, Wei-Shao; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Electronic medical records with encoded entries should enhance the semantic interoperability of document exchange. However, it remains a challenge to encode the narrative concept and to transform the coded concepts into a standard entry-level document. This study aimed to use a novel approach for the generation of entry-level interoperable clinical documents. Methods Using HL7 clinical document architecture (CDA) as the example, we developed three pipelines to generate entry-level CDA documents. The first approach was a semi-automatic annotation pipeline (SAAP), the second was a natural language processing (NLP) pipeline, and the third merged the above two pipelines. We randomly selected 50 test documents from the i2b2 corpora to evaluate the performance of the three pipelines. Results The 50 randomly selected test documents contained 9365 words, including 588 Observation terms and 123 Procedure terms. For the Observation terms, the merged pipeline had a significantly higher F-measure than the NLP pipeline (0.89 vs 0.80, p<0.0001), but a similar F-measure to that of the SAAP (0.89 vs 0.87). For the Procedure terms, the F-measure was not significantly different among the three pipelines. Conclusions The combination of a semi-automatic annotation approach and the NLP application seems to be a solution for generating entry-level interoperable clinical documents. PMID:25332357

  6. Description of a rule-based system for the i2b2 challenge in natural language processing for clinical data.

    PubMed

    Childs, Lois C; Enelow, Robert; Simonsen, Lone; Heintzelman, Norris H; Kowalski, Kimberly M; Taylor, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    The Obesity Challenge, sponsored by Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2), a National Center for Biomedical Computing, asked participants to build software systems that could "read" a patient's clinical discharge summary and replicate the judgments of physicians in evaluating presence or absence of obesity and 15 comorbidities. The authors describe their methodology and discuss the results of applying Lockheed Martin's rule-based natural language processing (NLP) capability, ClinREAD. We tailored ClinREAD with medical domain expertise to create assigned default judgments based on the most probable results as defined in the ground truth. It then used rules to collect evidence similar to the evidence that the human judges likely relied upon, and applied a logic module to weigh the strength of all evidence collected to arrive at final judgments. The Challenge results suggest that rule-based systems guided by human medical expertise are capable of solving complex problems in machine processing of medical text. PMID:19390103

  7. Description of a Rule-based System for the i2b2 Challenge in Natural Language Processing for Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Lois C.; Enelow, Robert; Simonsen, Lone; Heintzelman, Norris H.; Kowalski, Kimberly M.; Taylor, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The Obesity Challenge, sponsored by Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2), a National Center for Biomedical Computing, asked participants to build software systems that could “read” a patient's clinical discharge summary and replicate the judgments of physicians in evaluating presence or absence of obesity and 15 comorbidities. The authors describe their methodology and discuss the results of applying Lockheed Martin's rule-based natural language processing (NLP) capability, ClinREAD. We tailored ClinREAD with medical domain expertise to create assigned default judgments based on the most probable results as defined in the ground truth. It then used rules to collect evidence similar to the evidence that the human judges likely relied upon, and applied a logic module to weigh the strength of all evidence collected to arrive at final judgments. The Challenge results suggest that rule-based systems guided by human medical expertise are capable of solving complex problems in machine processing of medical text. PMID:19390103

  8. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  9. Using Natural Language Processing to Enable In-depth Analysis of Clinical Messages Posted to an Internet Mailing List: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kreinacke, Marcos; Spallek, Heiko; Song, Mei; O'Donnell, Jean A

    2011-01-01

    Background An Internet mailing list may be characterized as a virtual community of practice that serves as an information hub with easy access to expert advice and opportunities for social networking. We are interested in mining messages posted to a list for dental practitioners to identify clinical topics. Once we understand the topical domain, we can study dentists’ real information needs and the nature of their shared expertise, and can avoid delivering useless content at the point of care in future informatics applications. However, a necessary first step involves developing procedures to identify messages that are worth studying given our resources for planned, labor-intensive research. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to develop a workflow for finding a manageable number of clinically relevant messages from a much larger corpus of messages posted to an Internet mailing list, and to demonstrate the potential usefulness of our procedures for investigators by retrieving a set of messages tailored to the research question of a qualitative research team. Methods We mined 14,576 messages posted to an Internet mailing list from April 2008 to May 2009. The list has about 450 subscribers, mostly dentists from North America interested in clinical practice. After extensive preprocessing, we used the Natural Language Toolkit to identify clinical phrases and keywords in the messages. Two academic dentists classified collocated phrases in an iterative, consensus-based process to describe the topics discussed by dental practitioners who subscribe to the list. We then consulted with qualitative researchers regarding their research question to develop a plan for targeted retrieval. We used selected phrases and keywords as search strings to identify clinically relevant messages and delivered the messages in a reusable database. Results About half of the subscribers (245/450, 54.4%) posted messages. Natural language processing (NLP) yielded 279

  10. Teaching Language Arts to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet K.

    Suggestions are made for teaching language arts to mentally retarded children. The nature of language arts, the effect of mental retardation on the learning of language arts, and the need for home-school cooperation are treated. Also described are language arts areas, the school program, methods of beginning instruction, speech training,…

  11. Why Johnny Should Learn Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebener, Theodore

    A case for the study of foreign languages by pupils in the United States is presented in this book. The polyglot nature of America and the history of its language education is described, and language programs in foreign countries and in the United States are compared. Also discussed are the need for adequate language education for international…

  12. On Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    How to acquire a second language is a question of obvious importance to teachers and language learners, and how to teach a second language has also become a matter of concern to the linguists' interest in the nature of primary linguistic data. Starting with the development stages of second language acquisition and Stephen Krashen's theory, this…

  13. English Only Movement: Confrontation with Language Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovando, Carlos J.

    A discussion of the movement to make English the only official language in the United States' multilingual society examines the nature and scope of the movement and draws instructional and language policy implications for teaching situations involving language-minority populations. It draws a relationship between the politics of language diversity…

  14. Language Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the concept of language awareness and its use in language teaching, which refers to the development in learners of an enhanced consciousness of and sensitivity to the forms and functions of language. The approach has been developed in the contexts of both second and foreign language learning, as well as in mother tongue education.…

  15. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  16. Performance of a Natural Language Processing (NLP) Tool to Extract Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) Reports from Structured and Semistructured Veteran Affairs (VA) Data

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Brian C.; Jones, Barbara E.; Globe, Gary; Leng, Jianwei; Lu, Chao-Chin; He, Tao; Teng, Chia-Chen; Sullivan, Patrick; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction/Objective: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are objective estimates of lung function, but are not reliably stored within the Veteran Health Affairs data systems as structured data. The aim of this study was to validate the natural language processing (NLP) tool we developed—which extracts spirometric values and responses to bronchodilator administration—against expert review, and to estimate the number of additional spirometric tests identified beyond the structured data. Methods: All patients at seven Veteran Affairs Medical Centers with a diagnostic code for asthma Jan 1, 2006–Dec 31, 2012 were included. Evidence of spirometry with a bronchodilator challenge (BDC) was extracted from structured data as well as clinical documents. NLP’s performance was compared against a human reference standard using a random sample of 1,001 documents. Results: In the validation set NLP demonstrated a precision of 98.9 percent (95 percent confidence intervals (CI): 93.9 percent, 99.7 percent), recall of 97.8 percent (95 percent CI: 92.2 percent, 99.7 percent), and an F-measure of 98.3 percent for the forced vital capacity pre- and post pairs and precision of 100 percent (95 percent CI: 96.6 percent, 100 percent), recall of 100 percent (95 percent CI: 96.6 percent, 100 percent), and an F-measure of 100 percent for the forced expiratory volume in one second pre- and post pairs for bronchodilator administration. Application of the NLP increased the proportion identified with complete bronchodilator challenge by 25 percent. Discussion/Conclusion: This technology can improve identification of PFTs for epidemiologic research. Caution must be taken in assuming that a single domain of clinical data can completely capture the scope of a disease, treatment, or clinical test. PMID:27376095

  17. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  18. Professional Language in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of 3-5 languages where professional language is one of them is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. The Aim of the Study. To identify and analyze professional language on the pedagogical discourse in language education. Materials and Methods. The search for…

  19. A Case of Language Revitalisation in "Settled" Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case of language revitalisation in "settled" Australia, considers the nature of the language ecology in indigenous Australia, and advances some of the reasons for the success of this case of language revitalization. (Author/VWL)

  20. Is DNA a language?

    PubMed

    Tsonis, A A; Elsner, J B; Tsonis, P A

    1997-01-01

    DNA sequences usually involve local construction rules that affect different scales. As such their "dictionary" may not follow Zipf's law (a power law) which is followed in every natural language. Indeed, analysis of many DNA sequences suggests that no linguistics connections to DNA exist and that even though it has structure DNA is not a language. Computer simulations and a biological approach to this problem further support these results. PMID:9039397

  1. Evolutionary biology of language.

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, M A

    2000-01-01

    Language is the most important evolutionary invention of the last few million years. It was an adaptation that helped our species to exchange information, make plans, express new ideas and totally change the appearance of the planet. How human language evolved from animal communication is one of the most challenging questions for evolutionary biology The aim of this paper is to outline the major principles that guided language evolution in terms of mathematical models of evolutionary dynamics and game theory. I will discuss how natural selection can lead to the emergence of arbitrary signs, the formation of words and syntactic communication. PMID:11127907

  2. Language time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmidis, Kosmas; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Argyrakis, Panos

    2006-10-01

    We use the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the Grassberger-Proccacia analysis (GP) methods in order to study language characteristics. Despite that we construct our signals using only word lengths or word frequencies, excluding in this way huge amount of information from language, the application of GP analysis indicates that linguistic signals may be considered as the manifestation of a complex system of high dimensionality, different from random signals or systems of low dimensionality such as the Earth climate. The DFA method is additionally able to distinguish a natural language signal from a computer code signal. This last result may be useful in the field of cryptography.

  3. Light at Night Markup Language (LANML): XML Technology for Light at Night Monitoring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Craine, E. M.; Crawford, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Light at Night Markup Language (LANML) is a standard, based upon XML, useful in acquiring, validating, transporting, archiving and analyzing multi-dimensional light at night (LAN) datasets of any size. The LANML standard can accommodate a variety of measurement scenarios including single spot measures, static time-series, web based monitoring networks, mobile measurements, and airborne measurements. LANML is human-readable, machine-readable, and does not require a dedicated parser. In addition LANML is flexible; ensuring future extensions of the format will remain backward compatible with analysis software. The XML technology is at the heart of communicating over the internet and can be equally useful at the desktop level, making this standard particularly attractive for web based applications, educational outreach and efficient collaboration between research groups.

  4. Approaches to the Teaching of Idiomatic Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Examines the nature and structure of idioms and idiomatic language and offers suggestions for teaching them. Topics addressed include the relationship between idioms and erroneous language, idioms' appropriateness in context, proverbs, and metaphors. Some exercises are included. (Author/MSE)

  5. Ethological Approach to Delayed Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald J.

    1975-01-01

    The ethological approach to language acquisition (which focuses on the nature of the child's interaction with the environment) is described, and implications for the language development of mentally retarded and autistic children are discussed. (CL)

  6. The Exploring Nature of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and Their Relationship with Various Variables with Focus on Personality Traits in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Since Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) have the potential to be "an extremely powerful learning tool" (O'Malley, Chamot, Stewner-Manzanares, Russo & Kupper, 1985a, p.43), the use of LLSs helps the learners retrieve and store material, and facilitate their learning (Grander & Maclntyre, 1992), they are sensitive to the learning context and to…

  7. Sentence Repetition in Deaf Children with Specific Language Impairment in British Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë; Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Herman, Rosalind; Atkinson, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering…

  8. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  9. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  10. Using Data Mining and Natural Language Processing to Reveal Institutional Water Management Structures in Four Urban Areas in the US Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J.; Ozik, J.; Altaweel, M.; Lammers, R. B.; Collier, N. T.; Kliskey, A.; Alessa, L.; Williams, P.; Cason, D.

    2013-12-01

    Water management in urban settings is often under the control of multiple entities and institutions that may exist at different scales, have varying aims and capabilities, and serve different ends. The impact of water management structure on a given area's ability to respond to short- and long-term water challenges is an open question. Public perception is an important aspect of this response: public knowledge of both water management structure and water issues is key to motivating and shaping individual and institutional adaptive responses to challenges of water supply or shortage, water quality, and other problems. Our study asks how public perception and discourse captures and reflects local water management institutional structure. We examine four study areas in the Colorado Basin for which several years of newspaper articles (100,000+ documents) are available for data mining and where water management is an important issue: Las Vegas, NV; Tucson, AZ; Flagstaff, AZ; and the cities in the Grand Valley, CO. These four areas experienced different historical trajectories that have influenced different water management structures, both in terms of physical infrastructure and social and institutional arrangements. We present a method and software for performing Natural Language Processing to extract the names of water management entities from readily available sources. Standard techniques for discovering proper nouns are used, then specific internal and contextual criteria are applied that identify likely names of institutions. Documents in the corpus are scored based on the frequency of occurrence of water keywords. Institutions are then scored according to their association with water-related documents. The result is a list of highly-water related regional and local institutions. The resulting list is used to create a network, with edges between any two institutions established and weighted by the count of the documents in which both institutions are discussed

  11. Restrictions on biological adaptation in language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chater, Nick; Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2009-01-01

    Language acquisition and processing are governed by genetic constraints. A crucial unresolved question is how far these genetic constraints have coevolved with language, perhaps resulting in a highly specialized and species-specific language “module,” and how much language acquisition and processing redeploy preexisting cognitive machinery. In the present work, we explored the circumstances under which genes encoding language-specific properties could have coevolved with language itself. We present a theoretical model, implemented in computer simulations, of key aspects of the interaction of genes and language. Our results show that genes for language could have coevolved only with highly stable aspects of the linguistic environment; a rapidly changing linguistic environment does not provide a stable target for natural selection. Thus, a biological endowment could not coevolve with properties of language that began as learned cultural conventions, because cultural conventions change much more rapidly than genes. We argue that this rules out the possibility that arbitrary properties of language, including abstract syntactic principles governing phrase structure, case marking, and agreement, have been built into a “language module” by natural selection. The genetic basis of human language acquisition and processing did not coevolve with language, but primarily predates the emergence of language. As suggested by Darwin, the fit between language and its underlying mechanisms arose because language has evolved to fit the human brain, rather than the reverse. PMID:19164588

  12. An Examination of Western Influences on Indigenous Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellow, J. Dean

    To examine the influence of Western perspectives on indigenous language teaching, a two-dimensional framework of approaches to language teaching is presented. A horizontal continuum concerning the nature of language ranges between form and function, and a vertical continuum concerning the nature of language learning ranges between construction and…

  13. Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

  14. Endangered Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  15. How could language have evolved?

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C

    2014-08-01

    The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language "phenotype." According to the "Strong Minimalist Thesis," the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain) is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000-100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}. PMID:25157536

  16. Language evolution in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Kirby, Simon

    2010-09-01

    The historical origins of natural language cannot be observed directly. We can, however, study systems that support language and we can also develop models that explore the plausibility of different hypotheses about how language emerged. More recently, evolutionary linguists have begun to conduct language evolution experiments in the laboratory, where the emergence of new languages used by human participants can be observed directly. This enables researchers to study both the cognitive capacities necessary for language and the ways in which languages themselves emerge. One theme that runs through this work is how individual-level behaviours result in population-level linguistic phenomena. A central challenge for the future will be to explore how different forms of information transmission affect this process. PMID:20675183

  17. Language Development and Early Encounters with Written Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    The language development of one child was examined from birth to three years of age in order to map the similarities and differences in the acquisition of oral language, reading, and writing skills. The study also sought to provide insight into why learning to read and write are not as naturally easy as learning to talk. Data were collected by…

  18. Second Language Acquisition, Teacher Education and Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Various positions regarding the Second Language Acquisition (SLA)-Language Pedagogy (LP) nexus have been advanced. Taking these as a starting point, this article will examine the nature of the SLA/LP relationship both more generally and more concretely. First, it will place the debates evident in the different positions regarding the relationship…

  19. Second Language Learning and Second Language Learners: Growth and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1989-01-01

    An exploration of second language acquisition research's traditionally separate focus on learners or learning, covering the development-as-sequence model, the development-as-growth model, learning style, cognitive orientation, and affective orientation, argues that a "whole" approach to language teaching must consider both the structural nature of…

  20. Genotype Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren

    2016-06-17

    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility. PMID:26886161

  1. The language of quality.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, M

    1996-05-01

    Management theorists have developed a language which, they claim, can be used to evaluate many diverse practices, including practices in health care. This language embodies conceptualizations of practice and an approach to evaluation which treat the concept of quality as foundational and which have links with free market ideology. Despite an extensive literature which attempts to apply this language to various areas of life, its fundamental conceptual assumptions remain largely unexamined. Without adequate philosophical arguments in support of these assumptions, the value of this language and the validity of the approach to practice that it embodies are unproven. Its imposition in the absence of such arguments therefore represents a form of intellectual imperialism. To understand and develop adequate responses to this situation, it is necessary to look at the broad political picture which affects the nature of debates in specific areas of practice, such as the health service, and to question the dominant paradigm governing practical debate in contemporary society. PMID:9238579

  2. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-12-12

    'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission. PMID:21041210

  3. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  4. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  5. [Language gene].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  6. The Language of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecham, Rod

    2008-01-01

    Rhetoric, or persuasion, was recognised in classical times both as central to education and as dangerous when misused. Since the time of Kant, a feature of western thinking has been the creation of a special language to accompany a special idea. Making language prior to or separate from its referents is of its nature an authoritarian activity. The…

  7. Adapting and Writing Language Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Earl W.

    The dual purpose of this book is to set forth guidelines for appreciating the kinds of instructional materials available for the uncommonly taught languages and to suggest an approach to writing new materials which will be as adaptable as possible. Of principal concern are considerations relating to: (1) the nature of language teaching, (2) the…

  8. Neural Network Processing of Natural Language: II. Towards a Unified Model of Corticostriatal Function in Learning Sentence Comprehension and Non-Linguistic Sequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominey, Peter Ford; Inui, Toshio; Hoen, Michel

    2009-01-01

    A central issue in cognitive neuroscience today concerns how distributed neural networks in the brain that are used in language learning and processing can be involved in non-linguistic cognitive sequence learning. This issue is informed by a wealth of functional neurophysiology studies of sentence comprehension, along with a number of recent…

  9. Bedtime Stories in English: Field-Testing Comprehensible Input Materials for Natural Second-Language Acquisition in Japanese Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prototype of a new type of bilingual picture book was field-tested with two sets of mother-son subject pairs. This picture book was designed as a possible tool for providing children with comprehensible input during their critical period for second language acquisition. Context is provided by visual cues and both Japanese and…

  10. Calculating Non-Completion Rates for Modules on Institution-Wide Language Programmes: Some Observations on the Nature of Seemingly Objective Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the issues and problems which typically arise in the process of compiling non-completion statistics, using the example of an empirical investigation of student non-continuation on an institution-wide language programme. The research highlights the fact that the validity of seemingly neutral dropout figures depends on the…

  11. Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Keith Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

  12. The Relationship between Mathematics and Language: Academic Implications for Children with Specific Language Impairment and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D.; Beal, Carole R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). Method: School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native…

  13. Reaching English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In the authors' science classroom, students who are English Language Learners (ELL) seem to struggle less than they do with other content areas. She believes the "handson" nature of science motivates and encourages students to interact with others. This interaction spurs conversation among the students involved in the activity. If a child is…

  14. Language & Literature. Curriculum Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livonia Public Schools, MI.

    The global education curriculum presented in this booklet is offered as a model, of integrated, interdisciplinary English studies, that involves participants in cultural, scientific, ecological, and economic issues while promoting student awareness of the nature and development of world literature, languages, the arts, and their…

  15. Human Language Rights: An Islamic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdussalam, Ahmad Shehu

    1998-01-01

    Argues that Islam considers language a human right that must be guaranteed for all people due to language's advantageous effect on sociocultural relations. Denotes "right" as any action whose fulfillment might cause advantage or prevent damage to individuals or societies; and emphasizes that it is natural for individuals to use the language of…

  16. Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The mirror system provided a natural platform for the subsequent evolution of language. In nonhuman primates, the system provides for the understanding of biological action, and possibly for imitation, both prerequisites for language. I argue that language evolved from manual gestures, initially as a system of pantomime, but with gestures…

  17. Rank and Sparsity in Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Language modeling is one of many problems in language processing that have to grapple with naturally high ambient dimensions. Even in large datasets, the number of unseen sequences is overwhelmingly larger than the number of observed ones, posing clear challenges for estimation. Although existing methods for building smooth language models tend to…

  18. Demands of Being Professional in Language Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need for a strong ethical foundation in the social sciences, which include language testing. Proposes the need for a professional morality and explains the importance of such morality to individuals and other stakeholders. It is argued that the intrusive nature of language testing and the normative role of language tests raises…

  19. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  20. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented. PMID:22132053