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1

Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

James, Mark

2009-01-01

2

Improved Identification of Noun Phrases in Clinical Radiology Reports Using a High-Performance Statistical Natural Language Parser Augmented with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method of extracting noun phrases with full phrase structures from a set of clinical radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and to investigate the effects of using the UMLS® Specialist Lexicon to improve noun phrase identification within clinical radiology documents. Design: The noun phrase identification (NPI) module is composed of a sentence boundary detector, a statistical natural language parser trained on a nonmedical domain, and a noun phrase (NP) tagger. The NPI module processed a set of 100 XML-represented clinical radiology reports in Health Level 7 (HL7)® Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)–compatible format. Computed output was compared with manual markups made by four physicians and one author for maximal (longest) NP and those made by one author for base (simple) NP, respectively. An extended lexicon of biomedical terms was created from the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and used to improve NPI performance. Results: The test set was 50 randomly selected reports. The sentence boundary detector achieved 99.0% precision and 98.6% recall. The overall maximal NPI precision and recall were 78.9% and 81.5% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 82.1% and 84.6% after. The overall base NPI precision and recall were 88.2% and 86.8% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 93.1% and 92.6% after, reducing false-positives by 31.1% and false-negatives by 34.3%. Conclusion: The sentence boundary detector performs excellently. After the adaptation using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, the statistical parser's NPI performance on radiology reports increased to levels comparable to the parser's native performance in its newswire training domain and to that reported by other researchers in the general nonmedical domain.

Huang, Yang; Lowe, Henry J.; Klein, Dan; Cucina, Russell J.

2005-01-01

3

The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

Sagan, David; Forster, M.; Bates, D.; Wolski, A.; Schmidt, F.; Walker, N.J.; Larrieu, Theodore; Roblin, Yves; Pelaia, T.; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; Reiche, S.

2006-07-01

4

The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally, this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

Sagan, D.; Forster, M.; /Cornell U., LNS; Bates, D.A.; /LBL, Berkeley; Wolski, A.; /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Schmidt, F.; /CERN; Walker, N.J.; /DESY; Larrieu, T.; Roblin, Y.; /Jefferson Lab; Pelaia, T.; /Oak Ridge; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Reiche, S.; /UCLA

2006-10-06

5

Integration of Speech and Natural Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents our work on integrating speech and natural language processing for speech understanding. It describes the components of the system: the unification grammar and corresponding parser, the higher order intensional logic and the type of s...

D. Ayuso Y. Chow A. Haas R. Ingria S. Roucos

1988-01-01

6

GEMINI: A Natural Language System for Spoken-Language Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gemini is a natural language understanding system developed for spoken language applications. The paper describes the architecture of Gemini, paying particular attention to resolving the tension between robustness and overgeneration. Gemini features a broad-coverage unification-based grammar of English, fully interleaved syntactic and semantic processing in an all-paths, bottom-up parser, and an utterance-level parser to find interpretations of sentences that might

John Dowding; Jean Mark Gawron; Doug Appelt; John Bear; Lynn Cherny; Robert Moore; Douglas Moran

1994-01-01

7

Natural-Language Parser for PBEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called "Hunter" accepts, as input, a colloquial-English description of a set of policy-based-management rules, and parses that description into a form useable by policy-based enterprise management (PBEM) software. PBEM is a rules-based approach suitable for automating some management tasks. PBEM simplifies the management of a given enterprise through establishment of policies addressing situations that are likely to occur. Hunter was developed to have a unique capability to extract the intended meaning instead of focusing on parsing the exact ways in which individual words are used.

James, Mark

2010-01-01

8

An Introductory Lisp Parser.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a short grammar of the Lisp computer language. Presents an introductory English parser (Simparse) as an example of how to write a parser in Lisp. Lists references for further explanation. Intended as preparation for teachers who may use computer-assisted language instruction in the future. (LMO)

Loritz, Donald

1987-01-01

9

A natural language interface to databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a Natural Language Interface which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation is presented. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine. A key point is that the parser handles morphological analysis, which expands its capabilities of understanding more words.

Ford, D. R.

1988-01-01

10

An Annotation System for Enhancing Quality of Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language processing (NLP) programs are confronted with various difficulties in processing HTML and XML documents, and have the potential to produce better results if linguistic information is annotated in the source texts. We have therefore developed the (or LAL), which is an XML-compliant tag set for assisting natural language processing programs, and NLP tools such as parsers and machine

Hideo Watanabe; Katashi Nagao; Michael C. McCord; Arendse Bernth

2002-01-01

11

Experimental Parser for Systemic Grammars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a general parsing method for systematic grammars. Systematic grammars contain a paradigmatic analysis of language in addition to structural information, so a parser must assign a set of grammatical features and functions to each cons...

R. T. Kasper

1988-01-01

12

NEWCAT: Parsing natural language using left-associative grammar  

SciTech Connect

This book shows that constituent structure analysis induces an irregular order of linear composition which is the direct cause of extreme computational inefficiency. It proposes an alternative left-associative grammar which operates with a regular order of linear compositions. Left-associative grammar is based on building up and cancelling valencies. Left-associative parsers differ from all other systems in that the history of the parse doubles as the linguistic analysis. Left-associative grammar is illustrated with two left-associative natural language parsers: one for German and one for English.

Hausser, R.

1986-01-01

13

Fast parsers for Entrez Gene.  

PubMed

NCBI completed the transition of its main genome annotation database from Locuslink to Entrez Gene in Spring 2005. However, to this date few parsers exist for the Entrez Gene annotation file. Owing to the widespread use of Locuslink and the popularity of Perl programming language in bioinformatics, a publicly available high performance Entrez Gene parser in Perl is urgently needed. We present four such parsers that were developed using several parsing approaches (Parse::RecDescent, Parse::Yapp, Perl-byacc and Perl 5 regular expressions) and provide the first in-depth comparison of these sophisticated Perl tools. Our fastest parser processes the entire human Entrez Gene annotation file in under 12 min on one Intel Xeon 2.4 GHz CPU and can be of help to the bioinformatics community during and after the transition from Locuslink to Entrez Gene. PMID:15879451

Liu, Mingyi; Grigoriev, Andrei

2005-07-15

14

Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

Rieger, C.; Small, S.

1981-01-01

15

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

2003-01-01

16

A Prolog-Based Natural Language Front-End System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Prolog-based natural language front-end system is described with the following major issues of discussion: Domain independence\\u000a of the syntax analyser was achieved by the ‘generate-and-test’ notion and the domain independent semantic representation;\\u000a Determiners were treated as higher order predicates; A technique called ‘syntactic feature’ was employed to write a readable\\u000a parser in Prolog.

Hiroshi Maruyama; Akinori Yonezawa

1984-01-01

17

Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

2012-01-01

18

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in research in natural language processing and discusses some applications of this research to the solution of information management problems. The article emphasizes that the importance of natural language processing systems is reflected in their frequent use in support of other computer programs. (71 references) (CK)

Rindflesch, Thomas C.

1996-01-01

19

Natural language processing.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP) is the study of mathematical and computational modeling of various aspects of language and the development of a wide range of systems. These include spoken language systems that integrate speech and natural language; cooperative interfaces to databases and knowledge bases that model aspects of human-human interaction; multilingual interfaces; machine translation; and message-understanding systems, among others. Research in NLP is highly interdisciplinary, involving concepts in computer science, linguistics, logic, and psychology. NLP has a special role in computer science because many aspects of the field deal with linguistic features of computation and NLP seeks to model language computationally. PMID:17831443

Joshi, A K

1991-09-13

20

Natural Language Interface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study, by David M. Lane of Rice University, assesses the question, "Is it easier to learn to use computer software that uses natural language commands?" Main concepts are analysis of covariance, adjusted means, and boxplots. The experimental design, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and raw data are all given.

Lane, David M.

2009-02-05

21

A Concept-Centric Framework for Building Natural Language Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural language interfaces are expected to come into practical use in many situations. It is, however, not practical to expect to achieve a universal interface because language use is so diverse. To that end, not only advancements in speech and language technologies but also well-designed development frameworks are required so that developers can build domain-specific interfaces rapidly and easily. This paper proposes KNOLU, a framework for building natural language interfaces of a broad range of applications. Developers using this framework can easily build an interface capable of understanding subsets of natural language expressions just by providing an ontology (a concept hierarchy with semantic frames and a lexicon), an onomasticon (a set of instances and their names) and API functions that provide procedural knowledge required to connect the interface to a target application. To develop an interface using KNOLU, first developers define a concept hierarchy for a target domain. Then they provide other declarative and procedural knowledge components with these knowledge components asscicated to the hierarchy. This developmental flow affords an unobstructed view both for development and maintanance. KNOLU uses an existing general-purpose parser and requires neither grammar rules nor expression patterns. It does not require rules to generate semantic interpretations from parsing results, either. Therefore, developers can build an interface without deep knowledge and experience of natural language processing. We applied KNOLU to two applications and confirmed the effectiveness.

Funakoshi, Kotaro; Nakano, Mikio; Hasegawa, Yuji; Tsujino, Hiroshi

22

La Description des langues naturelles en vue d'applications linguistiques: Actes du colloque (The Description of Natural Languages with a View to Linguistic Applications: Conference Papers). Publication K-10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations from a colloquium on applications of research on natural languages to computer science address the following topics: (1) analysis of complex adverbs; (2) parser use in computerized text analysis; (3) French language utilities; (4) lexicographic mapping of official language notices; (5) phonographic codification of Spanish; (6)…

Ouellon, Conrad, Comp.

23

BUP: A Bottom-Up Parser Embedded in Prolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parser based on logic programming language (DCG) has very useful features; perspicuity, power, generality and so on. However,\\u000a it does have some drawbacks in which it cannot deal with CFG with left recursive rules, for example. To overcome these drawbacks,\\u000a a Bottom-Up parser embedded in Prolog (BUP) has been developed. In BUP, CFG rules are translated into Prolog clauses

Yuji Matsumoto; Hozumi Tanaka; Hideki Hirakawa; Hideo Miyoshi; Hideki Yasukawa

1983-01-01

24

The parser generator as a general purpose tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parser generator has proven to be an extremely useful, general purpose tool. It can be used effectively by programmers having only a knowledge of grammars and no training at all in the theory of formal parsing. Some of the application areas for which a table-driven parser can be used include interactive, query languages, menu systems, translators, and programming support tools. Each of these is illustrated by an example grammar.

Noonan, R. E.; Collins, W. R.

1985-01-01

25

Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

Naur, Peter

1975-01-01

26

Java Mathematical Expression Parser  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Java Mathematical Expression Parser (JEP) is a handy tool "for parsing and evaluating mathematical expressions." It is a no-frills package that incorporates several important features, including user-definable functions and implicit multiplication for easy use. JEP can be downloaded as a complete application, or a couple of its features can be used online as applets. There is a separate page of documentation and installation instructions. Also available on this Web site is the AutoAbacus, which allows users to input a system of equations and obtain the solutions instantaneously.

Funk, Nathan.

27

Natural Language Comes of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses natural language retrieval systems, focusing on West Publishing Company's WIN (Westlaw Is Natural) system used with its case law database. Information retrieval models, the advantages and disadvantages of natural language retrieval, and the use of the approach by Congressional Quarterly's Washington Alert, Personal Librarian, and other…

Pritchard-Schoch, Patricia

1993-01-01

28

Prolog implementation of lexical functional grammar as a base for a natural language processing system  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a system which constructs a database out of a narrative natural language text. Firstly they give a detailed description of the PROLOG implementation of the parser which is based on the theory of lexical functional grammar (LFG). They show that PROLOG provides an efficient tool for LFG implementation. Secondly, they postulate some requirements a semantic representation has to fulfil in order to be able to analyse whole texts. They show how kamps theory meets these requirements by analysing sample discourses involving anaphoric nps. 4 references.

Frey, W.; Reyle, U.

1983-01-01

29

SRI International: Natural Language Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes the Natural Language Program that is part of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center. The center's research focuses on natural language theory and applications, with emphasis on three subgroups of study. The subprogram on Multimedia / Multimodal Interfaces seeks to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces. The subprogram on Spoken Language Systems integrates linguistic processing with speech recognition for use in ATIS, a system for retrieving airline schedules, fares, and related information from a relational database. The subprogram on Written Language Systems researches the problems involved in interpreting and extracting information from written text, such as on-line newspaper articles. Additional information on these projects, related publications, and software are available from this website.

30

New Trends in Natural Language Processing. Statistical Natural Language Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field of natural language processing (NLP) has seen a dramatic shift in both research direction and methodology in the past several years. In the past, most work in computational linguistics tended to focus on purely symbolic methods. Recently, more a...

M. Marcus

1994-01-01

31

Multilingual Dependency Analysis with a Two-Stage Discriminative Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a two-stage multilingual de- pendency parser and evaluate it on 13 diverse languages. The first stage is based on the unlabeled dependency pars- ing models described by McDonald and Pereira (2006) augmented with morpho- logical features for a subset of the lan- guages. The second stage takes the out- put from the first and labels all the edges

Ryan McDonald; Kevin Lerman; Fernando Pereira

2006-01-01

32

Research in Natural Language Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains an annual summary of BBN's ARPA-sponsored natural language understanding project and two Technical Notes: 'KLONE's Progress,' by R.J. Brachman, and 'Generalizations of ATN Grammars,' by W.A. Woods. The Annual summary includes a list o...

W. A. Woods R. J. Brachman

1978-01-01

33

New trends in natural language processing: statistical natural language processing.  

PubMed

The field of natural language processing (NLP) has seen a dramatic shift in both research direction and methodology in the past several years. In the past, most work in computational linguistics tended to focus on purely symbolic methods. Recently, more and more work is shifting toward hybrid methods that combine new empirical corpus-based methods, including the use of probabilistic and information-theoretic techniques, with traditional symbolic methods. This work is made possible by the recent availability of linguistic databases that add rich linguistic annotation to corpora of natural language text. Already, these methods have led to a dramatic improvement in the performance of a variety of NLP systems with similar improvement likely in the coming years. This paper focuses on these trends, surveying in particular three areas of recent progress: part-of-speech tagging, stochastic parsing, and lexical semantics. PMID:7479725

Marcus, M

1995-10-24

34

Natural Language Parsing as Statistical Pattern Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors proposes an automatic method for acquiring a statistical parser from a set of parsed sentences which takes advantage of some initial linguistic input, but avoids the pitfalls of the iterative and seemingly endless grammar development process. ...

D. M. Magerman

1994-01-01

35

Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: this paperas "the first clear demonstration of a probabilistic parser outperforming a trigram model" (pg. 457), itdoes not discuss what features of the algorithm lead to its superior results

Christopher D. Manning; Hinrich Schiitze

1999-01-01

36

Theoretical Studies in Natural Language Understanding (Language Understanding).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes progress made during the first year of an ongoing project, the goal of which is the creation of an effective representational framework for dealing with natural language information. By 'natural language information,' we mean data th...

R. J. Brachman W. A. Woods

1978-01-01

37

ParSyC: An Efficient SystemC Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Due to the ever increasing complexity of circuits and systems new methodologies for system design are mandatory. Languages that enable modeling at higher levels of abstraction but also allow for a concise hardware description offer a promising way into this direction. One such language is SystemC. In this paper we propose the SystemC parser ParSyC, that allows to convert

G. Fey; T. Cassens; C. Genz; T. Warode; R. Drechsler

2004-01-01

38

GEMINI: A Natural Language System for Spoken-Language Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gemini is a natural language understanding system developed for spoken language applications. This paper describes the details of the system, and includes relevant measurements of size, efficiency, and performance of each of its sub-components in detail.

John Dowding; Jean Mark Gawron; Douglas E. Appelt; John Bear; Lynn Cherny; Robert C. Moore; Douglas B. Moran

1993-01-01

39

Natural Language Sourcebook Status Report (Briefing Charts).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These briefing charts provide a summary overview of the Natural Language Sourcebook which was developed as part of the natural language understanding portion of the Artificial Intelligence Measurement System (AIMS). The Sourcebook is a compilation of lang...

F. A. Butler E. L. Baker

1990-01-01

40

Natural language processing: an introduction  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide an overview and tutorial of natural language processing (NLP) and modern NLP-system design. Target audience This tutorial targets the medical informatics generalist who has limited acquaintance with the principles behind NLP and/or limited knowledge of the current state of the art. Scope We describe the historical evolution of NLP, and summarize common NLP sub-problems in this extensive field. We then provide a synopsis of selected highlights of medical NLP efforts. After providing a brief description of common machine-learning approaches that are being used for diverse NLP sub-problems, we discuss how modern NLP architectures are designed, with a summary of the Apache Foundation's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We finally consider possible future directions for NLP, and reflect on the possible impact of IBM Watson on the medical field.

Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Chapman, Wendy W

2011-01-01

41

ParSyC: An Efficient SystemC Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ever increasing complexity of circuits and systems new methodologies for system design are mandatory. Lan- guages that enable modeling at higher levels of abstraction but also allow for a concise hardware description offer a promising way into this direction. One such language is SystemC. In this paper we propose the SystemC parser ParSyC, that allows to convert

Görschwin Fey; Daniel Große; Tim Cassens; Christian Genz; Tim Warode; Rolf Drechsler

2004-01-01

42

A system for natural language sentence generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a natural language generation system known as VINCI, which accepts as input a formal description of some subset of a natural language, and generates strings in the language. With the help of an attribute grammar formalism, the system can be used to simulate on a computer components of several current linguistic theories. The program, implemented in C,

Michael Levison; Gregory Lessard

1992-01-01

43

Bilateral brain processes for comprehending natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehension of natural language - stories, conversa- tions, text - is very simple for those doing the comprehending and very complex for cognitive neuros- cientists. It also presents a paradox: the advantage of the left hemisphere (LH) for most language tasks is one of the best-established facts about the brain; yet, when it comes to comprehending complex, natural language, the

Mark Jung-Beeman

2005-01-01

44

Computational models of natural language processing  

SciTech Connect

The main concern in this work is the illustration of models for natural language processing, and the discussion of their role in the development of computational studies of language. Topics covered include the following: competence and performance in the design of natural language systems; planning and understanding speech acts by interpersonal games; a framework for integrating syntax and semantics; knowledge representation and natural language: extending the expressive power of proposition nodes; viewing parsing as word sense discrimination: a connectionist approach; a propositional language for text representation; from topic and focus of a sentence to linking in a text; language generation by computer; understanding the Chinese language; semantic primitives or meaning postulates: mental models of propositional representations; narrative complexity based on summarization algorithms; using focus to constrain language generation; and towards an integral model of language competence.

Bara, B.G.; Guida, G.

1984-01-01

45

Parser for signomial and geometric programs  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and apparatus for parsing signomial and geometric programs, referred to herein as "the Parser". Signomial and Geometric programming is a unique class of mathematical problems that is useful in the study of optimization problems. The Parser is a program designed to recognize and parse both signomial and geometric programs such that they may be accepted and solved by signomial and geometric program solvers. The Parser accepts an optimization problem from a user in the form of algebraic expressions. The Parser can then identify the problem as a signomial program and can further determine if it reduces to a geometric program. If either a signomial or geometric program exists, the Parser converts the algebraic expressions to a compact numeric format that can be accepted by a computer-aided solver. In the case of a geometric program, the solver may find a global solution to the optimization problem. However, in the case of signomial program, the solver may only find a local solution. The solution found by the solver is routed back to the Parser which reports it in a user-readable format.

2007-11-20

46

Prolog for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

hrough all the way to a working solution.Chapter 1 offers a brief overview of NLE Chapter 2 introduces Prolog. This ranksas one of the most accessible whistle-stop tours of the language that I have yet seen. Itis therefore particularly regrettable that the answer to the very first exercise includesan egregious error (;eml, an atom, is identified as a variable). Each

Annie Gal; Guy Lapalme; Patrick Saint-dizier

1991-01-01

47

Case Systems for Natural Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many languages (e.g. Latin, Greek, Russian, Turkish, German) the relationship of a noun phrase to the rest of a sentence is indicated by altered forms of the noun. The possible relationships are called (surface) "cases." Because (1) it is difficult to specify semantic-free selection rules for the cases, and (2) related phenomena based on…

Bruce, Bertram C.

48

Theoretical Studies in Natural Language Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives a brief overview of the ONR project in natural language understanding at BBN, and a detailed presentation of a language, JARGON, which was developed under that project. JARGON is a formalized and somewhat stylized subset of natural Engli...

W. A. Woods

1979-01-01

49

Natural language processing: a prolog perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language processing (NLP) is a vibrant field of interdisciplinary Computer Science research. Ultimately, NLP seeks\\u000a to build intelligence into software so that software will be able to process a natural language as skillfully and artfully\\u000a as humans. Prolog, a general purpose logic programming language, has been used extensively to develop NLP applications or\\u000a components thereof. This report is concerned

Christian Bitter; David A. Elizondo; Yingjie Yang

2010-01-01

50

Natural language interface for command and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A working prototype of a flexible 'natural language' interface for command and control situations is presented. This prototype is analyzed from two standpoints. First is the role of natural language for command and control, its realistic requirements, and how well the role can be filled with current practical technology. Second, technical concepts for implementation are discussed and illustrated by their application in the prototype system. It is also shown how adaptive or 'learning' features can greatly ease the task of encoding language knowledge in the language processor.

Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

1986-01-01

51

Some Grammar Formalisms for Natural Language Processing,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report an overview of some existing formalisms of grammar for natural language processing is given. Each formalism is described and evaluated and some systems using the formalism are mentioned. First the Augmented Transition Network (ATN) and the D...

A. van Rijn

1988-01-01

52

Syntax Directed Interpretation of Natural Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissertation presents a method called syntax directed interpretation which permits the use of semantic information in a syntactic analysis of sentences taken from a restricted domain of natural language. This method is used in the resolution of syntac...

L. S. Coles

1967-01-01

53

Portability in the Janus Natural Language Interface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although natural language technology has achieved a high degree of domain independence through separating domain-independent modules from domain- dependent knowledge bases, portability, as measured by effort to move from one application to another, is sti...

R. M. Weischedel R. J. Bobrow D. Ayuso L. Ramshaw

1989-01-01

54

A Natural Language Interface to Databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a Natural Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

Ford, D. R.

1990-01-01

55

A Simple, Natural Notation for Applicative Languages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many non-specialists are intimidated by the mathematical appearance of most applicative, functional, and very-high-level languages. This report presents a simple notation that has an unintimidating, natural-language appearance and that can be adapted to a...

B. J. MacLennan

1982-01-01

56

Linguistic Aspects of Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we stated at the beginning of our paper, systems using natural language as a means of human\\/machine communication exhibit varying degrees of complexity; closely related to it there is the degree of complexity of the NLP module. In any case, however, NLP is both a practically necessary and a theoretically stimulative task. A command of language is an inherent

Eva Hajicová

1992-01-01

57

Acquiring Correct Knowledge for Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language generation (nlg) systems are computer software systems that pro- duce texts in English and other human languages, often from non-linguistic input data. nlg systems, like most ai systems, need substantial amounts of knowledge. However, our experience in two nlg projects suggests that it is dicult to acquire correct knowledge for nlg systems; indeed, every knowledge acquisition (ka) technique

Ehud Reiter; Somayajulu Sripada; Roma Robertson

2003-01-01

58

Natural Language Restatement of Queries Expressed in a Graphical Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various works have been proposed to simplify the interaction between casual users and databases. Too powerful tools, however, can cause the user to lose control of the many operations performed. A natural language restatement of the query has seemed the best way to assure the user about the accuracy of the formulation of his\\/her intents. The result of this work

Gabriella Bono; Paolo Ficorilli

1992-01-01

59

Controlling Bottom-Up Chart Parsers through Text Chunking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose to use text chunking for controlling a bottom-up parser. As it is well known, duringanalysis such parsers produce many constituents not contributing to the final solution(s). Most of these constituentsare introduced due to the parser inability of checking the input context around them. Preliminary text chunkingallows to focus directly on the constituents that seem more

Fabio Ciravegna

60

Evolution, brain, and the nature of language.  

PubMed

Language serves as a cornerstone for human cognition, yet much about its evolution remains puzzling. Recent research on this question parallels Darwin's attempt to explain both the unity of all species and their diversity. What has emerged from this research is that the unified nature of human language arises from a shared, species-specific computational ability. This ability has identifiable correlates in the brain and has remained fixed since the origin of language approximately 100 thousand years ago. Although songbirds share with humans a vocal imitation learning ability, with a similar underlying neural organization, language is uniquely human. PMID:23313359

Berwick, Robert C; Friederici, Angela D; Chomsky, Noam; Bolhuis, Johan J

2013-02-01

61

Skeletons in the Parser: Using a Shallow Parser to Improve Deep Parsing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe a simple approach for integrating shallow and deep parsing. We use phrase structure bracketing obtained from the Collins parser as filters to guide deep parsing. Our experiments demonstrate that our technique yields substantial gains in speed ...

M. Swift J. Allen D. Gildea

2004-01-01

62

From NLP (Natural Language Processing) to MLP (Machine Language Processing)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Natural Language Processing (NLP) in combination with Machine Learning techniques plays an important role in the field of\\u000a automatic text analysis. Motivated by the successful use of NLP in solving text classification problems in the area of e-Participation\\u000a and inspired by our prior work in the field of polymorphic shellcode detection we gave classical NLP-processes a trial in\\u000a the special

Peter Teufl; Udo Payer; Guenter Lackner

2010-01-01

63

Knowledge engineering approach to natural language understanding  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the results of a preliminary study of a knowledge engineering approach to natural language understanding. A computer system is being developed to handle the acquisition, representation, and use of linguistic knowledge. The computer system is rule-based and utilizes a semantic network for knowledge storage and representation. In order to facilitate the interaction between user and system, input of linguistic knowledge and computer responses are in natural language. Knowledge of various types can be entered and utilized: syntactic and semantic; assertions and rules. The inference tracing facility is also being developed as a part of the rule-based system with output in natural language. A detailed example is presented to illustrate the current capabilities and features of the system. 12 references.

Shapiro, S.C.; Neal, J.G.

1982-01-01

64

A Testbed for Portuguese Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a data-text aligned corpus for Brazilian Portuguese Natural Language Generation (NLG) called SINotas, which we believe to be the first of its kind. SINotas provides a testbed for research on various aspects of trainable, corpus-based NLG, and it is the basis of a simple NLG application under development in the education domain.

Eder Miranda de Novais; Rafael Lage de Oliveira; Daniel Bastos Pereira; Thiago Dias Tadeu; Ivandre Paraboni

2009-01-01

65

Influential Words: Natural Language in Interactive Storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the use of Natural Language as a paradigm for influence of plans that are used to drive the behaviour of characters in Interactive Storytelling. We briefly introduce our character-centered approach to Interactive Story system is briefly introduced, and the knowledge representation of stories. Using an example based upon a fully implement first prototype, we discuss

Steven Mead; Marc Cavazza; Fred Charles

2003-01-01

66

Diversity Writing: Natural Languages, Authentic Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though diversity serves as a valuable source for rhetorical inquiry, expressivist instructors who privilege diversity writing may also overemphasize the essential authenticity of their students' vernaculars. This romantic and salvationist impulse reveals the troubling implications of eighteenth-century Natural Language Theory and may,…

Marzluf, Phillip P.

2006-01-01

67

NATURAL LANGUAGE SYNTAX: TRANSPARENCY AND BINARY BRANCHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an attempt to develop a parsimonious, psychologically realistic and computationally efficient model of syntactic-semantic 'tactics' in natural language from a 'generative' perspective. By 'generative', I mean 'explicit' and 'formal' in the sense in which such terms were originally used in Chomsky (1955). The overall inspiration, thus, is ultimately Chomskian, and the modular-interactive design of the grammar is

J. L. G. Escribano

1991-01-01

68

The Rhetorical Parsing of Natural Language Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the rhetorical structures of texts by means of two new, surface-form-based algorithms: one that identifies discourse usages of cue phrases and breaks sentences into clauses, and one that produces valid rhetorical structure trees for unrestricted natural languages texts. The algorithms use information that was derived from a corpus analysis of cue phrases.

Daniel Marcu

1997-01-01

69

Natural Language Information Retrieval: Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the progress of the natural language information retrieval project, a joint effort led by GE (General Electric) Research, and its evaluation at the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). Discusses stream-based information retrieval, which uses alternative methods of document indexing; advanced linguistic streams; weighting; and query…

Perez-Carballo, Jose; Strzalkowski, Tomek

2000-01-01

70

Transition network grammars for natural language analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of augmented transition network grammars for the analysis of natural language sentences is described. Structure-building actions associated with the arcs of the grammar network allow for the reordering, restructuring, and copying of constituents necessary to produce deep-structure representations of the type normally obtained from a transformational analysis, and conditions on the arcs allow for a powerful selectivity which

William A. Woods

1970-01-01

71

Enhanced Text Retrieval Using Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines natural language processing (NLP); describes the use of NLP in information retrieval (IR); provides seven levels of linguistic analysis: phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and pragmatic. Discusses the commercial use of NLP in IR with the example of DR-LINK (Document Retrieval using LINguistic Knowledge)…

Liddy, Elizabeth D.

1998-01-01

72

Language training in natural and clinical environments.  

PubMed

A persistent problem in programs designed to help children acquire language skills is how to promote generalization so that the child can use communication skills in the widest variety of appropriate situations. One solution is to embed the teaching in the natural environment and, perhaps, to use the parent as the teacher. For some families, however, this may not be a feasible arrangement, because of the nature of the child's problem, the characteristics of the environment, or some interaction. It may then be most appropriate to teach the child in a clinical or laboratory environment and to use a formal language training program. When such programs are implemented, there is often a problem in extending or generalizing the child's newly acquired skills. Careful consideration of the manner in which stimuli are presented, the kinds of responses that are required, and the way in which reinforcement is dispensed may help to solve the difficulty in moving from laboratory to natural settings. PMID:7176571

Spradlin, J E; Siegel, G M

1982-02-01

73

Natural language processing, pragmatics, and verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is that part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with endowing computers with verbal and listener repertoires, so that people can interact with them more easily. Most attention has been given to accurately parsing and generating syntactic structures, although NLP researchers are finding ways of handling the semantic content of language as well. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the pragmatic (contextual and consequential) dimension of natural language is critical for producing effective NLP systems. While there are some techniques for applying pragmatics in computer systems, they are piecemeal, crude, and lack an integrated theoretical foundation. Unfortunately, there is little awareness that Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior provides an extensive, principled pragmatic analysis of language. The implications of Skinner's functional analysis for NLP and for verbal aspects of epistemology lead to a proposal for a “user expert”—a computer system whose area of expertise is the long-term computer user. The evolutionary nature of behavior suggests an AI technology known as genetic algorithms/programming for implementing such a system. ImagesFig. 1

Cherpas, Chris

1992-01-01

74

Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

1994-01-01

75

Large vocabulary natural language continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is presented of the authors' current research on automatic speech recognition of continuously read sentences from a naturally-occurring corpus: office correspondence. The recognition system combines features from their current isolated-word recognition system and from their previously developed continuous-speech recognition system. It consists of an acoustic processor, an acoustic channel model, a language model, and a linguistic decoder. Some

L. R. Bahl; R. Bakis; J. Bellegarda; P. F. Brown; D. Burshtein; S. K. Das; P. V. de Souza; P. S. Gopalakrishnan; F. Jelinek; D. Kanevsky; R. L. Mercer; A. J. Nadas; D. Nahamoo; M. A. Picheny

1989-01-01

76

An expert system for natural language processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

Hennessy, John F.

1988-01-01

77

Natural language understanding and logic programming  

SciTech Connect

Logic programming has been used in many natural language understanding applications, mainly in the areas of analysis, metagrammatical formalisms, logical treatment of linguistic problems, and meaning representations for naturla language. The particular methods and formal systems developed in this context usually exhibit attractive features of logic while remaining in the more pragmatic area of programming: conciseness, modularity, a declarative meaning that is independent from machine behaviour, and logical inference. All of these features, common to logic programming and to logic metagrammars, have been made possible through a chaining of various fundamental ideas. Outstanding among these are the resolution principle. Prolog itself; and interpretation of logic as a programming language. The machines of a relatively near future are likely to incorporate many related capabilities while increasing their speed manyfold. The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer project has triggered efforts towards future generations of computer systems based on these concepts. The potential in understanding natural language through logic programming is growing rapidly, and it might be wise to integrate the various theoretical and practical aspects involved, rather than yielding to the temptation of using all the extra power for programming ad-hoc systems. This conference is an effort toward such an integration.

Dahl, V.; Saint-Dizier, P.

1985-01-01

78

Naturally Speaking: A Systems Biology Tool With Natural Language Interfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This short paper describes a systems biology software tool that can engage in a dialogue with a biologist by responding to questions posed to it in English (or another natural language) regarding the behavior of a complex biological system, and by suggest...

M. Antoniotti I. T. Lau B. Mishra

2004-01-01

79

A Statistical Parser for Czech  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers statistical parsing of Czech, which differs radically from English in at least two respects: (1) it is a highly infl ected language, and (2) it has relatively free word order. These dif- ferences are likely to pose new problems for tech- niques that have been developed on English. We describe our experience in building on the parsing

Michael Collins; Jan Hajic; Lance A. Ramshaw; Christoph Tillmann

1999-01-01

80

Interactive image retrieval by natural language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of building an image data retrieval system that can accept Japanese sentences and handle subjective expressions. A naive user who has little knowledge about objects in the database is likely to use subjective words to explain what he or she wants, for instance 'show me a cute one,' or 'I would like to have a simpler one.' Objective interpretation of those expressions is difficult but is indispensable to retrieval systems. In this paper we propose a technique for matching subjective expressions with color feature and discuss usability of our natural language interface.

Harada, Shouji; Itoh, Yukihiro; Nakatani, Hiromasa

1997-12-01

81

Inducing Deterministic Prolog Parsers from Treebanks: A Machine Learning Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for constructing deterministicProlog parsers from corpora of parsedsentences. Our approach uses recent machinelearning methods for inducing Prolog rules fromexamples (inductive logic programming). We discussseveral advantages of this method comparedto recent statistical methods and present resultson learning complete parsers from portions of theATIS corpus.IntroductionRecent approaches to constructing robust parsersfrom corpora primarily use statistical ...

John M. Zelle; Raymond J. Mooney

1994-01-01

82

Event Extraction from Biomedical Papers Using a Full Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and implemented an information extraction system using a full parser to investigate the plausibility of full analysis of text using general-purpose parser and grammar applied to biomedical domain. We partially solved the prob- lems of full parsing of inefficiency, ambiguity, and low coverage by introducing the preprocessors, and proposed the use of modules that handles partial results

Akane Yakushiji; Yuka Tateisi; Yusuke Miyao; Jun-ichi Tsujii

2001-01-01

83

Using Decision Trees to Construct a Practical Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes novel and practical Japanese parsers that uses decision trees. First, we construct a single decision tree to estimate modification probabilities; how one phrase tends to modify another. Next, we introduce a boosting algorithm in which several decision trees are constructed and then combined for probability estimation. The two constructed parsers are evaluated by using the EDR Japanese

Masahiko Haruno; Satoshi Shirai; Yoshifumi Ooyama

1998-01-01

84

Using Decision Trees to Construct a Practical Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel and practical Japanese parser that uses decision trees. First, we construct a single decision tree to estimate modification probabilities; how one phrase tends to modify another. Next, we introduce a boosting algorithm in which several decision trees are constructed and then combined for probability estimation. The constructed parsers are evaluated using the EDR Japanese annotated

Masahiko Haruno; Satoshi Shirai; Yoshifumi Ooyama

1999-01-01

85

Natural language processing and advanced information management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

Hoard, James E.

1989-01-01

86

Role of PROLOG (PROgramming and LOGic) in Natural Language Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field of Artificial Intelligence strives to produce computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. One of the areas of interest is the processing of natural language. This report will discuss the role of the computer language PROLOG in Natural L...

M. L. McHale

1988-01-01

87

Understanding and representing natural language meaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (4) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (5) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (6) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (7) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

Waltz, D. L.; Maran, L. R.; Dorfman, M. H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

1982-12-01

88

Analog Language Teaching versus Natural Language Teaching: Generalization and Retention of Language Learning for Adults with Autism and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of analog language teaching and natural language teaching on language generalization and long-term retention in 23 adults with autism and severe/profound mental retardation were examined. Natural language teaching was found to have many strengths and few drawbacks and to produce equal generalization and retention under conditions…

Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

1991-01-01

89

Attribute Grammar Specification for a Natural Language Understanding Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates key issues pertaining to Natural Language Interface [NLI] development. The notion of natural language understanding interfaces (NLUIs) is introduced. Special attention is devoted to problems related to the specification of natural language static semantics. The points we raise involve the applicability of attribute grammars to NLUI design. The considerations to be developed stem from the insight gained

Zoltán Alexin; Tibor Gyimóthy; Tamás Horváth; Károly Fábricz

1990-01-01

90

Natural Language Processing: Toward Large-Scale, Robust Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural language processing (NLP) is concerned with getting computers to do useful things with natural language. Major applications include machine translation, text generation, information retrieval, and natural language interfaces. Reviews important developments since 1987 that have led to advances in NLP; current NLP applications; and problems…

Haas, Stephanie W.

1996-01-01

91

Porting a lexicalized-grammar parser to the biomedical domain.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a state-of-the-art, linguistically motivated statistical parser to the biomedical text mining community, and proposes a method of adapting it to the biomedical domain requiring only limited resources for data annotation. The parser was originally developed using the Penn Treebank and is therefore tuned to newspaper text. Our approach takes advantage of a lexicalized grammar formalism, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (ccg), to train the parser at a lower level of representation than full syntactic derivations. The ccg parser uses three levels of representation: a first level consisting of part-of-speech (pos) tags; a second level consisting of more fine-grained ccg lexical categories; and a third, hierarchical level consisting of ccg derivations. We find that simply retraining the pos tagger on biomedical data leads to a large improvement in parsing performance, and that using annotated data at the intermediate lexical category level of representation improves parsing accuracy further. We describe the procedure involved in evaluating the parser, and obtain accuracies for biomedical data in the same range as those reported for newspaper text, and higher than those previously reported for the biomedical resource on which we evaluate. Our conclusion is that porting newspaper parsers to the biomedical domain, at least for parsers which use lexicalized grammars, may not be as difficult as first thought. PMID:19141332

Rimell, Laura; Clark, Stephen

2009-10-01

92

Towards more natural functional programming languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programming languages are the way for a person to express a mental plan in a way that the computer can understand. Therefore, it is appropriate to consider properties of people when designing new programming languages. In our research, we are investigating how people think about algorithms, and how programming languages can be made easier to learn and more effective for

Brad A. Myers

2002-01-01

93

NATURAL LANGUAGE AS PROGRAMMING PARADIGM IN DATA EXPLORATION DOMAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the progress of the natural language usage as the programming paradigm for information extraction in distributed database environments. Personal assistants form an environment where distributed knowledge is explored with the JMining interlingua language to support communication between the mobile agents, natural language queries and the mobile agents working environment servers. The Aglets framework is used

Algirdas Laukaitis; Olegas Vasilecas

94

Intelligent CAI: An Author Aid for a Natural Language Interface.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses the problems of using natural language (English) as the communication language for advanced computer-based instructional systems. The instructional environment places requirements on a natural language understanding system that exceed the capabilities of all existing systems, including: (1) efficiency, (2) habitability, (3)…

Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

95

An Overview of Computer-Based Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines using natural languages (English, Japanese, German, etc.) rather than formal computer languages. NLP is a major research area in the fields of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Commercial…

Gevarter, William B.

96

ON THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ings, and because we are extraordinarily socialanimals who value communication above everythingelse. Is language innate? Is it learned? Or, alternatively,does language emerge anew in every generation,because it is the best solution to the problems that wecare about, problems that only humans can solve?These are the debates that have raged for centuries in thevarious sciences that study language. They are alsovariants

Elizabeth Bates

97

Parameterization of the Input in Training the HVS Semantic Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present an extension of the hidden vector state semantic parser. First, we describe the statistical\\u000a semantic parsing and its decomposition into the semantic and the lexical model. Subsequently, we present the original hidden\\u000a vector state parser. Then, we modify its lexical model so that it supports the use of the input sequence of

Jan Svec; Filip Jurcícek; Ludek Müller

2007-01-01

98

An Evolutionary History of the Natural Language English and the Artificial Language FORTRAN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes similarities between certain aspects of the development of the natural language English and the artificial language FORTRAN. Discusses evolutionary history, grammar, style, syntax, varieties, and attempts at standardization. Emphasizes modifications which natural and artificial languages have undergone. Suggests that some modifications were…

Koman, Joseph J., III

1988-01-01

99

Evidence Against the Context-Freeness of Natural Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In searching for universal constraints on the class of natural languages, linguists have investigated a number of formal properties, including that of context-freeness. Soon after Chomsky's categorization of languages into his well-known hierarchy Chomsky...

S. M. Shieber

1984-01-01

100

Written Language Is as Natural as Spoken language: A Biolinguistic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commonly held belief is that language is an aspect of the biological system since the capacity to acquire language is innate and evolved along Darwinian lines. Written language, on the other hand, is thought to be an artifact and a surrogate of speech; it is, therefore, neither natural nor biological. This disparaging view of written language, even though propounded

P. G. Aaron; R. Malatesha Joshi

2006-01-01

101

Written Language Is as Natural as Spoken Language: A Biolinguistic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commonly held belief is that language is an aspect of the biological system since the capacity to acquire language is innate and evolved along Darwinian lines. Written language, on the other hand, is thought to be an artifact and a surrogate of speech; it is, therefore, neither natural nor biological. This disparaging view of written language,…

Aaron, P. G.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

2006-01-01

102

ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE  

PubMed Central

Background ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE) is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis) and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data). ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. Findings We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein–ligand complexes from the PDB. Conclusions ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

2012-01-01

103

A Natural Interface for Sign Language Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general goal of our research is the creation of a natu- ral and intuitive interface for input and recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) math signs. The specific objective of this work is the development of two new interfaces for the Mathsignertm application. Mathsignertm is an interactive, 3D animation-based game designed to increase the mathematical skills of deaf children.

Nicoletta Adamo-villani; Bedrich Benes; Matt Brisbin; Bryce Hyland

2006-01-01

104

Towards a theory of natural language interfaces to databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for Natural Language Interfaces to databases (NLIs) has become increasingly acute as more and more people access information through their web browsers, PDAs, and cell phones. Yet NLIs are only usable if they map natural language questions to SQL queries correctly. As Schneiderman and Norman have argued, people are unwilling to trade reliable and predictable user interfaces for

Ana-Maria Popescu; Oren Etzioni; Henry A. Kautz

2003-01-01

105

Natural Language Dialog with a Tutor System for Mathematical Proofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language interaction between a student and a tutor- ing or an assistance system for mathematics is a new multi-disciplinary challenge that requires the interaction of (i) advanced natural language processing, (ii) flexible tutorial dialog strategies including hints, and (iii) mathematical domain reasoning. This paper provides an overview on the current research in the multi-disciplinary research project Dialog, whose goal

Christoph Benzmüller; Helmut Horacek; Ivana Kruijff-korbayová; Manfred Pinkal; Jörg H. Siekmann; Magdalena Wolska

2005-01-01

106

Grammar and Semantics of Natural Languages: Research Workshop Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains the papers presented at a workshop which brought together authorities from several different disciplines, each working in the area of natural language analysis, to participate in intensive, technical discussions of the issues involved in developing adequate grammars and semantics of natural languages. The disciplines…

Gammon, Elizabeth, Ed.

107

MENELAS: an access system for medical records using natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of Menelas is to provide better access to the information contained in natural language patient discharge summaries, through the design and implementation of a pilot system able to access medical reports through natural languages. A first, experimental version of the Menelas indexing prototype for French has been assembled. Its function is to encode free text PDSs into

Pierre Zweigenbaum

1994-01-01

108

Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

2012-01-01

109

Natural Language Processing for Prolog Programmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ase-structure rules and gives a simple presentation of ID\\/LP rules andtransformational grammar. Chapter 5 introduces a unification-based grammar formalismand an extension to Prolog for this. Chapter 6 describes and compares top-down,bottom-up, left-corner, and chart parsing as well as Earley's algorithm. Chapter 7 offerstechniques for representing, in Prolog, knowledge from English sentences. Chap-137Computational Linguistics Volume 22, Number 1ter 8 discusses language

Michael A. Covington; Ken Barker; Stan Szpakowicz

1994-01-01

110

An Effective Application of Natural Language Processing in Second Language Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an intelligent computer-assisted language instruction (CALI) system called "Nihongo-CALI" (Japanese Computer Assisted Language Instruction), which employs natural language processing to provide immediate, grammatically sophisticated feedback to students in an interactive environment. The study compares the efficacy of this type of…

Nagata, Noriko

1995-01-01

111

Natuerlicher Zweitsprachenerwerb im Fremdsprachenunterricht? (Natural Acquisition of a Second Language versus Foreign Language Instruction).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "natural" acquisition of a second language is compared to learning from instruction, including aspects of learning such as sequence of items learned (e.g., syntactic) for both children and adults. It is concluded that suggestions offered hitherto for applying findings from research in natural acquisition to the field of foreign language

Knapp, Karlfried

1979-01-01

112

Loosely Coupling Java Algorithms and XML Parsers: a Performance-Oriented Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of XML to represent any kind of data and documents, even complex and huge, is becoming a matter of fact. However, interfacing algorithms and applications with XML Parsers requires to adapt algorithms and appli- cations: event-based SAX Parsers need algorithms that re- act to events generated by the parser. But parsing\\/loading XML documents provides poor per- formance (if

Giuseppe Psaila; Viale Marconi

2006-01-01

113

Analyzing Learner Language: Towards a Flexible Natural Language Processing Architecture for Intelligent Language Tutors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligent language tutoring systems (ILTS) typically analyze learner input to diagnose learner language properties and provide individualized feedback. Despite a long history of ILTS research, such systems are virtually absent from real-life foreign language teaching (FLT). Taking a step toward more closely linking ILTS research to real-life…

Amaral, Luiz; Meurers, Detmar; Ziai, Ramon

2011-01-01

114

Using Decision Trees to Construct a Practical Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This l)al)er describes novel and,practical .lal)anesc parsers that uses decision trees, l'irst, we COl> struct a single, decision tree to estimate modifica-- lion probabilities; how,one phrase,tends t.o modify another. Next, we introduce a boosting algorithm in which,several decision t.rees are COllst.ructed and then combined,for probalfility estiinat.ion. 'lThe two constructed,parsers are evalua.ted I)y using the El)t{ .Japanese annotated,corpus. The single-tree

Masahiko Haruno; Satoshi Shirai; Yoshifumi Ooyama

1999-01-01

115

Metaphor: An Inescapable Phenomenon in Natural Language Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interpreting metaphors is an integral and inescapable process in human understanding of natural language. Part I of this paper discusses a method of analyzing metaphors based on the existence of a small number of generalized metaphor mappings. Each genera...

J. G. Carbonell

1981-01-01

116

Metaphor: An Inescapable Phenomenon in Natural Language Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interpreting metaphors is an integral and inescapable process in human understanding of natural language. This paper discusses a method of analyzing metaphors based on the existence of a small number of generalized metaphor mappings. Each generalized meta...

J. G. Carbonell

1981-01-01

117

Natural language watermarking: challenges in building a practical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of the research and implementation challenges we encountered in building an end-to-end natural language processing based watermarking system. With natural language watermarking, we mean embedding the watermark into a text document, using the natural language components as the carrier, in such a way that the modifications are imperceptible to the readers and the embedded information is robust against possible attacks. Of particular interest is using the structure of the sentences in natural language text in order to insert the watermark. We evaluated the quality of the watermarked text using an objective evaluation metric, the BLEU score. BLEU scoring is commonly used in the statistical machine translation community. Our current system prototype achieves 0.45 BLEU score on a scale [0,1].

Topkara, Mercan; Riccardi, Giuseppe; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek; Atallah, Mikhail J.

2006-02-01

118

Implementation of a Natural Language Processor Using Functional Grammar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents the design and implementation of a natural language processor using Functional Grammar. Traditionally, grammars have consisted of a set of words and a set of semantic and syntactic rules which combine the words to form sentences. Thus...

F. G. Orchard

1985-01-01

119

Natural Language Processing Neural Network Considering Deep Cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel neural network considering deep cases. It can learn knowledge from natural language documents and can perform recall and inference. Various techniques of natural language processing using Neural Network have been proposed. However, natural language sentences used in these techniques consist of about a few words, and they cannot handle complicated sentences. In order to solve these problems, the proposed network divides natural language sentences into a sentence layer, a knowledge layer, ten kinds of deep case layers and a dictionary layer. It can learn the relations among sentences and among words by dividing sentences. The advantages of the method are as follows: (1) ability to handle complicated sentences; (2) ability to restructure sentences; (3) usage of the conceptual dictionary, Goi-Taikei, as the long term memory in a brain. Two kinds of experiments were carried out by using goo dictionary and Wikipedia as knowledge sources. Superior performance of the proposed neural network has been confirmed.

Sagara, Tsukasa; Hagiwara, Masafumi

120

Plan-Based Integration of Natural Language and Graphics Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

W. Wahlster, E. André, W. Finkler, H.-J. Profitlich and T. Rist, Plan-based integration of natural language and graphics generation, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 387-427. Multimodal interfaces combining natural language and graphics take advantage of both the individual strength of each communication mode and the fact that several modes can be employed in parallel. The central claim of this paper is

Wolfgang Wahlster; Elisabeth André; Wolfgang Finkler; Hans-jürgen Profitlich; Thomas Rist

1993-01-01

121

An Evaluation of LOLITA and Related Natural Language Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Evaluation of LOLITA and related Natural Language Processing SystemsPaul CallaghanSubmitted to the University of Durham for the degree of Ph.D., August 1997---------------------This research addresses the question, "how do we evaluate systems like LOLITA?" LOLITA isthe Natural Language Processing (NLP) system under development at the University of Durham.It is intended as a platform for building NL applications. We are therefore

Paul Callaghan

1998-01-01

122

A General Natural-language Text Processor for Clinical Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDevelopment of a general natural-language processor that identifies clinical information in narrative reports and maps that information into a structured representation containing clinical terms.DesignThe natural-language processor provides three phases of processing, all of which are driven by different knowledge sources. The first phase performs the parsing. It identifies the structure of the text through use of a grammar that defines

Carol Friedman; Philip O Alderson; John H M Austin; James J Cimino; Stephen B Johnson

1994-01-01

123

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

124

The Nature of Written Language Deficits in Children with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have associated difficulties in reading decoding and reading comprehension. To date, few research studies have examined the children's written language. The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the nature and extent of the children's difficulties with writing and (b) investigate the…

Mackie, Clare; Dockrell, Julie E.

2004-01-01

125

Machine Learning and the Cognitive Basis of Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning and statistical methods have yielded impressive results in a wide variety of natural language processing tasks. These advances have generally been regarded as en- gineering achievements. In fact it is possible to argue that the success of machine learning methods is significant for our understanding of the cognitive basis of language acquisition and processing. Recent work in unsupervised

Shalom Lappin

2004-01-01

126

A natural language teaching paradigm for nonverbal autistic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to attempt to improve verbal language acquisition for nonverbal autistic children by manipulating traditional teaching techniques so they incorporated parameters of natural language interactions and motivational techniques. Within a multiple baseline design, treatment was conducted in a baseline condition with trials presented serially in a traditional analogue clinical format where the therapist presented instructions,

Robert L. Koegel; Mary C. O'Dell; Lynn Kern Koegel

1987-01-01

127

NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

Feldman, Susan

1999-01-01

128

A Pragmatic Treatment of Quantification in Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification in natural language is an important phenomena that seems to touch on some pragmatic and inferential aspects of language understanding. In t his paper we focus on quantifier scope ambiguity and suggest a cognitively plausible model that resolves a number of problems that have traditionally been addressed in isolation. Our claim here is that the problem of quantifier sc

Walid S. Saba; Jean-pierre Corriveau

1997-01-01

129

FromTo-CLIR: Web-Based Natural Language Interface for Cross-Language Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the implementation of FromTo-CLIR, a Web-based natural-language interface for cross-language information retrieval that was tested with Korean and Japanese. Proposes a method that uses a semantic category tree and collocation to resolve the ambiguity of query translation. (Author/LRW)

Kim, Taewan; Sim, Chul-Min; Yuh, Sanghwa; Jung, Hanmin; Kim, Young-Kil; Choi, Sung-Kwon; Park, Dong-In; Choi, Key Sun

1999-01-01

130

MyProLang - My Programming Language A Template-Driven Automatic Natural Programming Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern computer programming languages are governed by complex syntactic rules. They are unlike natural languages; they require extensive manual work and a significant amount of learning and practicing for an individual to become skilled at and to write correct programs. Computer programming is a difficult, complicated, unfamiliar, non- automated, and a challenging discipline for everyone; especially, for students, new programmers

Youssef Bassil; Aziz M. Barbar

2008-01-01

131

Natural Language Processing Techniques in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Status and Instructional Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of natural language processing (NLP) techniques, such as parsing and semantic analysis, within current language tutoring systems. Examines trends, design issues and tradeoffs, and potential contributions of NLP techniques with respect to instructional theory and educational practice. Addresses limitations and problems in using…

Holland, V. Melissa; Kaplan, Jonathan D.

1995-01-01

132

Parent-Implemented Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Language and Play in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three parents of children with autism were taught to implement the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP). Data were collected on parent implementation, multiple measures of child language, and play. The parents were able to learn to implement the NLP procedures quickly and accurately with beneficial results for their children. Increases in the overall…

Gillett, Jill N.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

2007-01-01

133

The Parser Doesn't Ignore Intransitivity, after All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several previous studies (B. C. Adams, C. Clifton, & D. C. Mitchell, 1998; D. C. Mitchell, 1987; R. P. G. van Gompel & M. J. Pickering, 2001) have explored the question of whether the parser initially analyzes a noun phrase that follows an intransitive verb as the verb's direct object. Three eye-tracking experiments examined this issue in more…

Staub, Adrian

2007-01-01

134

Detection of Duplicate Defect Reports Using Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defect reports are generated from various testing and development activities in software engineering. Sometimes two reports are submitted that describe the same problem, leading to duplicate reports. These reports are mostly written in structured natural language, and as such, it is hard to compare two reports for similarity with formal methods. In order to identify duplicates, we investigate using natural

Per Runeson; Magnus Alexandersson; Oskar Nyholm

2007-01-01

135

The nature of written language deficits in children with SLI.  

PubMed

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have associated difficulties in reading decoding and reading comprehension. To date, few research studies have examined the children's written language. The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the nature and extent of the children's difficulties with writing and (b) investigate the relationship between oral and written language. Eleven children with SLI were identified (mean age = 11 years) and were compared with a group of children matched for chronological age (CA; mean age = 11;2 [years;months]) and language age (LA; mean CA = 7;3). All groups completed standardized measures of language production, writing, and reading decoding. The writing assessment revealed that the SLI group wrote fewer words and produced proportionately more syntax errors than the CA group, but they did not differ on a measure of content of written language or on the proportion of spelling errors. The SLI group also produced proportionately more syntax errors than the LA group. The relationships among oral language, reading, and writing differed for the 3 groups. The nature and extent of the children's written language problems are considered in the context of difficulties with spoken language. PMID:15842023

Mackie, Clare; Dockrell, Julie E

2004-12-01

136

A Kernel-based Approach to Learning Semantic Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic parsing involves deep semantic analysis that maps natural language sentences to their for- mal executable meaning representations. This is a challenging problem and is critical for developing user-friendly natural language interfaces to computing systems. Most of the research in natural lan- guage understanding, however, has mainly focused on shallow semantic analysis like case-role analysis or word sense disambiguation. The

Rohit J. Kate

2005-01-01

137

The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages.  

PubMed

How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis. PMID:24936195

Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo

2014-01-01

138

The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages  

PubMed Central

How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis.

Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C.; Okanoya, Kazuo

2014-01-01

139

Learning from a Computer Tutor with Natural Language Capabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…

Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha

2003-01-01

140

Natural language generation of biomedical argumentation for lay audiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an architecture for natural language generation of biomedical argumentation. The goal is to reconstruct the normative arguments that a domain expert would provide, in a manner that is transparent to a lay audience. Transparency means that an argument's structure and functional components are accessible to its audience. Transparency is necessary before an audience can fully comprehend, evaluate

Nancy Green; Rachael Dwight; Kanyamas Navoraphan; Brian Stadler

2011-01-01

141

Under the influence: using natural language in interactives storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interacting in natural language with virtual actors is an important aspect of the development of future Interactive Storytelling systems. We describe a paradigm for speech interfaces in interactive storytelling based on the notion of influence. In this paradigm, the user is mainly a spectator who is however able to interfere with the course of action by issuing advice to the

Marc Cavazza; Fred Charles; Steven J. Mead

2002-01-01

142

Eucalyptus: Integrating Natural Language Input with a Graphical User Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes Eucalyptus, a natural language (NL) interface that has been integrated with thegraphical user interface of the KOALAS Test Planning Tool, a simulated Naval air combat command system.The multimodal, multimedia interface handles both imperative commands and database queries (either typedor spoken into a microphone) while still allowing full use of the original graphical interface. In this way theprecision

KENNETH WAUCHOPE

1994-01-01

143

From Web Directories to Ontologies: Natural Language Processing Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical classiflcations are used pervasively by humans as a means to organize their data and knowledge about the world. One of their main advantages is that natural language labels, used to describe their contents, are easily understood by human users. However, at the same time, this is also one of their main disadvantages as these same labels are ambiguous and

Ilya Zaihrayeu; Lei Sun; Fausto Giunchiglia; Wei Pan; Qi Ju; Mingmin Chi; Xuanjing Huang

2007-01-01

144

Principles of Organization in Young Children's Natural Language Hierarchies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When preschool children think of objects as organized into collections (e.g., forest, army) they solve certain problems better than when they think of the same objects as organized into classes (e.g., trees, soldiers). Present studies indicate preschool children occasionally distort natural language inclusion hierarchies (e.g., oak, tree) into the…

Callanan, Maureen A.; Markman, Ellen M.

1982-01-01

145

Design of Lexicons in Some Natural Language Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an investigation of certain problems concerning the structural design of lexicons used in computational approaches to natural language understanding. Emphasizes three aspects of design: retrieval of relevant portions of lexicals items, storage requirements, and representation of meaning in the lexicon. (Available from ALLC, Dr. Rex Last,…

Cercone, Nick; Mercer, Robert

1980-01-01

146

PORTABILITY IN THE JANUS NATURAL LANGUAGE INTERFACE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although natural language technology has achieved a high degree of domain independence through separating domain-independent modules from domain-dependent knowledge bases, portability, as measured by effort to move from one application to another, is still a problem. Here we describe a knowledge acquisition tool (KNACQ) that has sharply decreased our effort in building knowledge bases. The knowledge bases acquired with KNACQ

Ralph M. Weischedel; Robert J. Bobrow; Damaris Ayuso; Lance Ramshaw

1989-01-01

147

Natural language acquisition in large scale neural semantic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis puts forward the view that a purely signal- based approach to natural language processing is both plausible and desirable. By questioning the veracity of symbolic representations of meaning, it argues for a unified, non-symbolic model of knowledge representation that is both biologically plausible and, potentially, highly efficient. Processes to generate a grounded, neural form of this model-dubbed the

Douglas Ealey

1999-01-01

148

Building Natural Language Interfaces for Rule-based Expert Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a semantics for translating natural language statements into facts of an underlying expert system, replacing the more conventional menu interface for gathering data from the user. We describe two issues that must be considered when building such an interface for an expert system. These issues are semantic processing of the user statements and the design

Galina Datskovsky Moerdler; Kathleen Mckeown; J. Robert Ensor

1987-01-01

149

Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks and Finite State Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that pessimistic assessments of the adequacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for natural language processing (NLP) on the grounds that they have a finite state architecture are unjustified, and that their adequacy in this regard is an empirical issue. First, arguments that counter standard objections to finite state NLP on the…

Moisl, Hermann

150

Information retrieval using a transportable natural language interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work in progress to develop a facility for natural language access to a variety of computer databases and database systems. This facility, called IRUS for Information Retrieval using the RUS parsing system, allows users who are unfamiliar with the technical characteristics of the underlying database system to query databases using typed English input. This system can be

Madeleine Bates; Robert J. Bobrow

1983-01-01

151

Enhancing Subject Access to OPACs: Controlled Vocabulary vs. Natural Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigation of retrieval performance of controlled vocabulary derived from natural language terms in tables of contents and book indexes assumed that controlled vocabulary representative of users' queries should adequately represent documents' contents. Queries were indexed using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LSCH), Dewey Decimal…

Cousins, Shirley Anne

1992-01-01

152

Text Mining: Natural Language techniques and Text Mining applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the general framework of knowledge discovery, Data Mining techniques areusually dedicated to information extraction from structured databases. TextMining techniques, on the other hand, are dedicated to information extractionfrom unstructured textual data and Natural Language Processing (NLP)can then be seen as an interesting tool for the enhancement of informationextraction procedures. In this paper, we present two examples of Text Miningtasks,

Martin Rajman; Romaric Besançon

1997-01-01

153

Orwell's 1984: Natural Language Searching and the Contemporary Metaphor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a natural language searching strategy for retrieving current material which has bearing on George Orwell's "1984," and identifies four main themes (technology, authoritarianism, press and psychological/linguistic implications of surveillance, political oppression) which have emerged from cross-database searches of the "Big Brother"…

Dadlez, Eva M.

1984-01-01

154

What can natural language processing do for clinical decision support?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized clinical decision support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. natural language processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative

Dina Demner-fushman; Wendy Webber Chapman; Clement J. Mcdonald

2009-01-01

155

Time, Tense and Aspect in Natural Language Database Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Most existing natural language database interfaces (nldbs) were designed to be used with database systems that provide very limited facilities for manipulating time-dependent data, and they do not support adequately temporal linguistic mechanisms (verb tenses, temporal adverbials, temporal subordinate clauses, etc.). The database community is becoming increasingly interested in temporal database systems, that are intended to store and manipulate

Ion Androutsopoulos; Graeme D. Ritchie; Peter Thanisch

1998-01-01

156

Feature Engineering in Maximum Spanning Tree Dependency Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of our experiments with modifications of the feature set used in the Czech mutation of\\u000a the Maximum Spanning Tree parser. First we show how new feature templates improve the parsing accuracy and second we decrease\\u000a the dimensionality of the feature space to make the parsing process more effective without sacrificing accuracy.

Václav Novák; Zdenek Zabokrtský

2007-01-01

157

Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

2007-01-01

158

Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

Jarman, Jay

2011-01-01

159

Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

Nikora, Allen P.

2006-01-01

160

Regular right part grammars and their parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an alternative to context-free grammars called regular right part (RRP) grammars, which resemble PASCAL syntax diagrams. Formally, RRP grammars have production right parts, which are nondeterministic finite state machines (FSMs), and, as a special case, regular expression, since these can be converted to FSMs. RRP grammars describe the syntax of programming languages more concisely and more understandably

Wilf R. LaLonde

1977-01-01

161

Conclusiveness of natural languages and recognition of images  

SciTech Connect

The conclusiveness is investigated using recognition processes and one-one correspondence between expressions of a natural language and graphs representing events. The graphs, as conceived in psycholinguistics, are obtained as a result of perception processes. It is possible to generate and process the graphs automatically, using computers and then to convert the resulting graphs into expressions of a natural language. Correctness and conclusiveness of the graphs and sentences are investigated using the fundamental condition for events representation processes. Some consequences of the conclusiveness are discussed, e.g. undecidability of arithmetic, human brain assymetry, correctness of statistical calculations and operations research. It is suggested that the group theory should be imposed on mathematical models of any real system. Proof of the fundamental condition is also presented. 14 references.

Wojcik, Z.M.

1983-01-01

162

Web-based models for natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work demonstrated that Web counts can be used to approximate bigram counts, suggesting that Web-based frequencies should be useful for a wide variety of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, only a limited number of tasks have so far been tested using Web-scale data sets. The present article overcomes this limitation by systematically investigating the performance of Web-based models

Mirella Lapata; Frank Keller

2005-01-01

163

NLUS - A Prolog-Based Natural Language Understanding System  

Microsoft Academic Search

NLUS is a Prolog-based natural language understanding system, which exploits multi-knowledge representation formalisms. Sentences input from the user are converted into semantic networks and\\/or production rules; whereas the grammar rules are represented in predicate logic. After processing a sentence, the software may initiate its inference engine to deduce a response. A question would also be parsed and converted into a

Moon-chuen Lee; Hong Va Leong

1992-01-01

164

Natural language interface for information management on mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural language interface (NLI) enables the ease-of-use of information systems in performing sophisticated human – computer interaction. To address the challenges of mobile devices to user interaction in information management, we propose an NLI as a promising solution. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art NLI technologies and analyse user requirements for managing notable information on mobile devices. To minimize any technical

L. Zhou

2007-01-01

165

Head-Driven Statistical Models for Natural Language Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes three statistical models for natural language parsing. The models extend methods from probabilistic context-free grammars to lexicalized grammars, leading to approaches in which a parse tree is represented as the sequence of decisions corresponding to a head-centered, top-down derivation of the tree. Independence assumptions then lead to parameters that encode the X-bar schema, subcategorization, ordering of complements,

Michael Collins

2003-01-01

166

Towards a natural language semantics without functors and operands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper sets out to offer an alternative to the function\\/argument approach to the most essential aspects of natural language\\u000a meanings. That is, we question the assumption that semantic completeness (of, e.g., propositions) or incompleteness (of, e.g.,\\u000a predicates) exactly replicate the corresponding grammatical concepts (of, e.g., sentences and verbs, respectively). We argue\\u000a that even if one gives up this assumption,

Miklós Erdélyi-szabó; László Kálmán; Agi Kurucz

2008-01-01

167

Applications of Natural Language Processing in Biodiversity Science  

PubMed Central

Centuries of biological knowledge are contained in the massive body of scientific literature, written for human-readability but too big for any one person to consume. Large-scale mining of information from the literature is necessary if biology is to transform into a data-driven science. A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP) and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters), but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science.

Thessen, Anne E.; Cui, Hong; Mozzherin, Dmitry

2012-01-01

168

Restricted natural language processing for case simulation tools.  

PubMed Central

For Interactive Patient II, a multimedia case simulation designed to improve history-taking skills, we created a new natural language interface called GRASP (General Recognition and Analysis of Sentences and Phrases) that allows students to interact with the program at a higher level of realism. Requirements included the ability to handle ambiguous word senses and to match user questions/queries to unique Canonical Phrases, which are used to identify case findings in our knowledge database. In a simulation of fifty user queries, some of which contained ambiguous words, this tool was 96% accurate in identifying concepts.

Lehmann, C. U.; Nguyen, B.; Kim, G. R.; Johnson, K. B.; Lehmann, H. P.

1999-01-01

169

A general natural-language text processor for clinical radiology.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Development of a general natural-language processor that identifies clinical information in narrative reports and maps that information into a structured representation containing clinical terms. DESIGN: The natural-language processor provides three phases of processing, all of which are driven by different knowledge sources. The first phase performs the parsing. It identifies the structure of the text through use of a grammar that defines semantic patterns and a target form. The second phase, regularization, standardizes the terms in the initial target structure via a compositional mapping of multi-word phrases. The third phase, encoding, maps the terms to a controlled vocabulary. Radiology is the test domain for the processor and the target structure is a formal model for representing clinical information in that domain. MEASUREMENTS: The impression sections of 230 radiology reports were encoded by the processor. Results of an automated query of the resultant database for the occurrences of four diseases were compared with the analysis of a panel of three physicians to determine recall and precision. RESULTS: Without training specific to the four diseases, recall and precision of the system (combined effect of the processor and query generator) were 70% and 87%. Training of the query component increased recall to 85% without changing precision.

Friedman, C; Alderson, P O; Austin, J H; Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B

1994-01-01

170

Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis  

PubMed Central

Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

Pestian, John; Nasrallah, Henry; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bennett, Aurora; Leenaars, Antoon

2010-01-01

171

Natural language acquisition in large scale neural semantic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis puts forward the view that a purely signal- based approach to natural language processing is both plausible and desirable. By questioning the veracity of symbolic representations of meaning, it argues for a unified, non-symbolic model of knowledge representation that is both biologically plausible and, potentially, highly efficient. Processes to generate a grounded, neural form of this model-dubbed the semantic filter-are discussed. The combined effects of local neural organisation, coincident with perceptual maturation, are used to hypothesise its nature. This theoretical model is then validated in light of a number of fundamental neurological constraints and milestones. The mechanisms of semantic and episodic development that the model predicts are then used to explain linguistic properties, such as propositions and verbs, syntax and scripting. To mimic the growth of locally densely connected structures upon an unbounded neural substrate, a system is developed that can grow arbitrarily large, data- dependant structures composed of individual self- organising neural networks. The maturational nature of the data used results in a structure in which the perception of concepts is refined by the networks, but demarcated by subsequent structure. As a consequence, the overall structure shows significant memory and computational benefits, as predicted by the cognitive and neural models. Furthermore, the localised nature of the neural architecture also avoids the increasing error sensitivity and redundancy of traditional systems as the training domain grows. The semantic and episodic filters have been demonstrated to perform as well, or better, than more specialist networks, whilst using significantly larger vocabularies, more complex sentence forms and more natural corpora.

Ealey, Douglas

172

Automatically assigning medical codes using natural language processing  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A programmed implementation for automatically assigning medical codes (including diagnosis, procedure, and level of service--i.e., evaluation and management (EM)--codes) to computer readable physician notes using natural language processing. A system allows hospitals, physician management groups, and medical billing companies to automatically determine and assign the medical codes that are the basis of reimbursement for medical services. The proposed implementation can be in place of human medical coders who otherwise would be employed to determine and assign these codes. Implementation requires only minor modifications to the traditional data-flow and allows for major improvements in throughput and timeliness of billing. Further, the present scheme enables the collection of other demographic and clinical information that resides in physician notes, but that are currently too expensive and time consuming to extract by means of a human workforce.

2005-07-05

173

Natural Language Processing Methods and Systems for Biomedical Ontology Learning  

PubMed Central

While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of natural language processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies.

Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

2010-01-01

174

Excess entropy in natural language: Present state and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent progress in understanding the meaning of mutual information in natural language. Let us define words in a text as strings that occur sufficiently often. In a few previous papers, we have shown that a power-law distribution for so defined words (a.k.a. Herdan's law) is obeyed if there is a similar power-law growth of (algorithmic) mutual information between adjacent portions of texts of increasing length. Moreover, the power-law growth of information holds if texts describe a complicated infinite (algorithmically) random object in a highly repetitive way, according to an analogous power-law distribution. The described object may be immutable (like a mathematical or physical constant) or may evolve slowly in time (like cultural heritage). Here, we reflect on the respective mathematical results in a less technical way. We also discuss feasibility of deciding to what extent these results apply to the actual human communication.

Debowski, ?ukasz

2011-09-01

175

Tasking and sharing sensing assets using controlled natural language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an approach to representing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) tasks at a relatively high level in controlled natural language. We demonstrate that this facilitates both human interpretation and machine processing of tasks. More specically, it allows the automatic assignment of sensing assets to tasks, and the informed sharing of tasks between collaborating users in a coalition environment. To enable automatic matching of sensor types to tasks, we created a machine-processable knowledge representation based on the Military Missions and Means Framework (MMF), and implemented a semantic reasoner to match task types to sensor types. We combined this mechanism with a sensor-task assignment procedure based on a well-known distributed protocol for resource allocation. In this paper, we re-formulate the MMF ontology in Controlled English (CE), a type of controlled natural language designed to be readable by a native English speaker whilst representing information in a structured, unambiguous form to facilitate machine processing. We show how CE can be used to describe both ISR tasks (for example, detection, localization, or identication of particular kinds of object) and sensing assets (for example, acoustic, visual, or seismic sensors, mounted on motes or unmanned vehicles). We show how these representations enable an automatic sensor-task assignment process. Where a group of users are cooperating in a coalition, we show how CE task summaries give users in the eld a high-level picture of ISR coverage of an area of interest. This allows them to make ecient use of sensing resources by sharing tasks.

Preece, Alun; Pizzocaro, Diego; Braines, David; Mott, David

2012-05-01

176

Controlled natural language interfaces (extended abstract): the best of three worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss the problem of designing user-friendly interfaces for computer applications. In particular, we will describe an interface that is based on mapping formal into natural languages in a controlled and structured way.The basic approaches for designing interfaces range from formal or natural language to menu driven ones. Formal language interfaces such as query or programming languages are

Eva-Martin Mueckstein

1985-01-01

177

Automatic Item Generation via Frame Semantics: Natural Language Generation of Math Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an exploration of the conceptual issues that have arisen in the course of building a natural language generation (NLG) system for automatic test item generation. While natural language processing techniques are applicable to general verbal items, mathematics word problems are particularly tractable targets for natural language

Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen

178

Batch Blast Extractor: an automated blastx parser application  

PubMed Central

Motivation BLAST programs are very efficient in finding similarities for sequences. However for large datasets such as ESTs, manual extraction of the information from the batch BLAST output is needed. This can be time consuming, insufficient, and inaccurate. Therefore implementation of a parser application would be extremely useful in extracting information from BLAST outputs. Results We have developed a java application, Batch Blast Extractor, with a user friendly graphical interface to extract information from BLAST output. The application generates a tab delimited text file that can be easily imported into any statistical package such as Excel or SPSS for further analysis. For each BLAST hit, the program obtains and saves the essential features from the BLAST output file that would allow further analysis. The program was written in Java and therefore is OS independent. It works on both Windows and Linux OS with java 1.4 and higher. It is freely available from:

Pirooznia, Mehdi; Perkins, Edward J; Deng, Youping

2008-01-01

179

Dependency Parser-based Negation Detection in Clinical Narratives  

PubMed Central

Negation of clinical named entities is common in clinical documents and is a crucial factor to accurately compile patients’ clinical conditions and to further support complex phenotype detection. In 2009, Mayo Clinic released the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES), which includes a negation annotator that identifies negation status of a named entity by searching for negation words within a fixed word distance. However, this negation strategy is not sophisticated enough to correctly identify complicated patterns of negation. This paper aims to investigate whether the dependency structure from the cTAKES dependency parser can improve the negation detection performance. Manually compiled negation rules, derived from dependency paths were tested. Dependency negation rules do not limit the negation scope to word distance; instead, they are based on syntactic context. We found that using a dependency-based negation proved a superior alternative to the current cTAKES negation annotator.

Sohn, Sunghwan; Wu, Stephen; Chute, Christopher G.

2012-01-01

180

Extracting Biochemical Interactions from MEDLINE Using a Link Grammar Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many natural language processing approaches at vari- ous complexity levels have been reported for extracting biochemical interactions from MEDLINE. While some algorithms using simple template matching are unable to deal with the complex syntactic structures, others exploit- ing sophisticated parsing techniques are hindered by greater computational cost. This study investigates link grammar parsing for extracting biochemical interactions. Link grammar parsing

Jing Ding; Daniel Berleant; Jun Xu; Andy W. Fulmer

2003-01-01

181

Semi-automatic syntactic and semantic corpus annotation with a deep parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a semi-automatic method for linguistically rich corpus annotation using a broad-coverage deep parser to generate syntactic structure, semantic representation and discourse information for task-oriented dialogs. The parser-generated analyses are checked by trained annotators. Incomplete coverage and incorrect analyses are addressed through lexicon and grammar development, after which the dialogs undergo another cycle of parsing and checking. Currently we

Mary D. Swift; Myroslava O. Dzikovska; Joel R. Tetreault; James F. Allen

2004-01-01

182

Natural Language Processing Framework to Assess Clinical Conditions  

PubMed Central

Objective The authors developed a natural language processing (NLP) framework that could be used to extract clinical findings and diagnoses from dictated physician documentation. Design De-identified documentation was made available by i2b2 Bio-informatics research group as a part of their NLP challenge focusing on obesity and its co-morbidities. The authors describe their approach, which used a combination of concept detection, context validation, and the application of a variety of rules to conclude patient diagnoses. Results The framework was successful at correctly identifying diagnoses as judged by NLP challenge organizers when compared with a gold standard of physician annotations. The authors overall kappa values for agreement with the gold standard were 0.92 for explicit textual results and 0.91 for intuited results. The NLP framework compared favorably with those of the other entrants, placing third in textual results and fourth in intuited results in the i2b2 competition. Conclusions The framework and approach used to detect clinical conditions was reasonably successful at extracting 16 diagnoses related to obesity. The system and methodology merits further development, targeting clinically useful applications.

Ware, Henry; Mullett, Charles J.; Jagannathan, V.

2009-01-01

183

A Cache-Based Natural Language Model for Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech-recognition systems must often decide between competing ways of breaking up the acoustic input into strings of words. Since the possible strings may be acoustically similar, a language model is required; given a word string, the model returns its linguistic probability. Several Markov language models are discussed. A novel kind of language model which reflects short-term patterns of word use

Roland Kuhn; Renato De Mori

1990-01-01

184

Integration of speech recognition and natural language processing in the MIT VOYAGER system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MIT VOYAGER speech understanding system is an urban exploration and navigation system that interacts with the user through spoken dialogue, text, and graphics. The authors describe recent attempts at improving the integration between the speech recognition and natural language components. They used the generation capability of the natural language component to produce a word-pair language model to constrain the

Victor Zue; James Glass; David Goodine; Hong Leung; Michael Phillips; Joseph Polifroni; S. Seneff

1991-01-01

185

Nature and Nurture in School-Based Second Language Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variability in achievement across learners is a hallmark of second language (L2) learning, especially in academic-based learning. The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), based on a large, population-representative sample in the United Kingdom, provides the first opportunity to examine individual differences in second language achievement in a…

Dale, Philip S.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

2012-01-01

186

Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D.…

Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

2009-01-01

187

Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

de Jong, Jan

2010-01-01

188

Neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics as a basis for computer acquisition of natural language  

SciTech Connect

Research into natural language understanding systems for computers has concentrated on implementing particular grammars and grammatical models of the language concerned. This paper presents a rationale for research into natural language understanding systems based on neurological and psychological principles. Important features of the approach are that it seeks to place the onus of learning the language on the computer, and that it seeks to make use of the vast wealth of relevant psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic theory. 22 references.

Powers, D.M.W.

1983-04-01

189

Dialogic: A Core Natural-Language Processing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DIALOGIC system translates English sentences into representations of their literal meaning in the context of an utterance These representations or 'logical forms, are intended to be a purely formal language that is as close as possible to the structur...

B. Grosz G. Hendrix J. Hobbs N. Haas P. Martin

1982-01-01

190

Natural Constraints in Sign Language Phonology: Data from Anatomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three sets of data (signs from the "Dictionary of ASL," 1976; loan signs; and case histories of specific signs) that demonstrate the involvement of the "knuckle-wrist connection" with American Sign Language phonology. (AM)

Mandel, Mark A.

1979-01-01

191

Natural language modeling for phoneme-to-text transcription  

SciTech Connect

This paper relates different kinds of language modeling methods that can be applied to the linguistic decoding part of a speech recognition system with a very large vocabulary. These models are studied experimentally on a pseudophonetic input arising from French stenotypy. The authors propose a model which combines the advantages of a statistical modeling with information theoretic tools, and those of a grammatical approach.

Derouault, A.M.; Merialdo, B.

1986-11-01

192

Integrating Corpus-Based Resources and Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys computational linguistic tools presently available, but whose potential has neither been fully considered nor exploited to its full in modern computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses the rationale of DDL to engage learning, presenting typical data-driven learning (DDL)-activities, DDL-software, and potential extensions of…

Cantos, Pascual

2002-01-01

193

Image Browsing and Natural Language Paraphrases of Semantic Web Annotations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, there has been interest in marking up digital images with annotations describing the content of the images using Web-based ontologies encoded in the W3C's Web Ontology Language (OWL). The annotations are subsequently exploited to improve the use...

C. Halaschek-Wiener J. Golbeck B. Parsia V. Kolovski J. Hendler

2006-01-01

194

The Bermuda Triangle: Natural Language Semantics Between Linguistics, Knowledge Representation, and Knowledge Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linguistic parameters alone cannot determine the interpretation of natural language utterances. They can only constrain their interpretation and must leave the rest to other knowledge sources and other processes: language understanding is not just a matter of knowing the language, but also to a considerable degree a matter of logical inference and world knowledge. This is no news as far

Peter Bosch

1991-01-01

195

Success story in software engineering using NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology)  

SciTech Connect

To create an information system, we employ NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology). NIAM supports the goals of both the customer and the analyst completely understanding the information. We use the customer`s own unique vocabulary, collect real examples, and validate the information in natural language sentences. Examples are discussed from a successfully implemented information system.

Eaton, S.M.; Eaton, D.S.

1995-10-01

196

Natural language processing for transparent communication between public administration and citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two projects concerned with the application of natural language processing technology for improving communication between Public Administration and citizens. The first project, GIST,is concerned with automatic multilingual generation of instructional texts for form-filling. The second project, TAMIC, aims at providing an interface for interactive access to information, centered on natural language processing and supposed to be used

Bernardo Magnini; Oliviero Stock; Carlo Strapparava

2000-01-01

197

An Evaluation of Interactive Boolean and Natural Language Searching with an Online Medical Textbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have compared the interactive use of Boolean and natural language searching systems. We studied the use of three retrieval systems by senior medical students searching on queries generated by actual physicians in a clinical setting. The searchers were randomized to search on two of three different retrieval systems: a Boolean sys- tem, a word-based natural language system, and

William R. Hersh; David H. Hickam

1995-01-01

198

A New Frontier in Computation-Computation with Information Described in Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computation with information described in natural language is closely related to Computing with Words. NL-Computation is of intrinsic importance because much of human knowledge is described in natural language. This is particularly true in such fields as economics, data mining, systems engineering, risk assessment and emergency management. It is safe to predict that as we move further into the age

L. A. Zadeh

2007-01-01

199

Natural Language Dialogue about Moving Objects in an Automatically Analyzed Traffic Scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution is concerned with natural language dialogue about scenes with moving objects. Two systems are connected, a natural language dialogue system originally conceived for static scenes and an emerging scene analysis system for real-world TV-frame sequences. The latter produces time dependent object descriptions which serve as a referential database for inquiries. The time intervals relevant for answering the questions

Heinz Marburger; Bernd Neumann; Hans-joachim Novak

1981-01-01

200

Preservice elementary teachers constructing the nature and language of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on a longitudinal, two-year study of efforts to assess and affect the conception of the nature of science held by preservice, elementary teachers. The first year of the study examined the change in ways twenty seven students defined and described science following a series of tasks designed to have them 1) explore explicit and tacit conceptions of

John A. Craven

201

The Importance of Discourse Context for Statistical Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface realization in statistical natural lan- guage generation is based on the idea that when there are many ways to say the same thing, the most frequent option based on corpus counts is the best. Based on data from English and Finnish, we argue instead that all options are not equivalent, and the most frequent one can be unacceptable in

Cassandre Creswell; Elsi Kaiser

202

A Goal-Oriented Model of Natural Language Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes a research program in modeling human communication ability. The methodology involved selecting a single, naturally occurring dialogue, instructing a human observer to extract certain aspects relative to its comprehension, and then using these aspects to guide the construction and verification of the model. The model assumes…

Moore, James A.; And Others

203

Spatial and Numerical Abilities without a Complete Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations…

Hyde, Daniel C.; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2011-01-01

204

A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

2014-01-01

205

THE AUTOMATED BUILDING AND UPDATING OF A KNOWLEDGE BASE THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE TEXT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is concerned with the development of tools needed to provide a system such asan expert system with the ability to automatically build and update its knowledge basethrough the analysis of technical material that is in natural language (and machine-readable)form. These tools include both those that are needed to perform the natural languageprocessing tasks that are required (the natural

Julia E. Hodges; Lois M. Boggess; Jose L. Cordova; Rajeev Agarwal; Ronald Davis

206

Learning to understand-General aspects of using Self-Organizing Maps in natural language processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is an artificial neural network model based on unsupervised learning. In this paper, the use of the SOM in natural language processing is considered. The main emphasis is on natural features of natural language including contextuality of interpretation, and the communicative and social aspects of natural language learning and usage. The SOM is introduced as a general method for the analysis and visualization of complex, multidimensional input data. The approach of how to process natural language input is presented. Some epistemological underpinnings are outlined, including the creation of emergent and implicit categories by SOM, intersubjectivity and relativity of interpretation, and the relation between discrete symbols and continuous variables. Finally, the use of SOM as a component in an anticipatory system is presented, and the relation between anticipation and self-organization is discussed.

Honkela, Timo

1998-07-01

207

Learning and comprehension of BASIC and natural language computer programming by novices  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effectiveness of teaching novices to program in Natural Language as a prerequisite for learning BASIC, and the learning and comprehension processes for Natural Language and BASIC computer-programming languages. Three groups of computer-naive subjects participated in five self-paced learning sessions; in each sessions, subjects solved a series of programming problems with immediate feedback. Twenty-four subjects learned to solve BASIC programming problems (BASIC group) for all five sessions, 23 subjects learned to solve corresponding Natural Language programming problems for all five sessions (Natural Language group), and 23 subjects learned to solve Natural Language programming problems for three sessions and then transferred to BASIC for the two sessions (Transfer group). At the end of the fifth session, all subjects completed a post-test which required the subjects to use their programming knowledge in a new way. Results indicated that the Natural Language trained subjects had complete transfer to BASIC, as indicated by no overall difference in comprehension time or accuracy for final BASIC sessions (i.e., sessions four and five) for the Transfer and BASIC groups. In addition, there was an interaction between group and session on accuracy, in which the Transfer group increased its accuracy at a faster rate than the BASIC group.

Dyck, J.L.

1987-01-01

208

Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

2013-04-01

209

GE FRST Evaluation Report: How Well Does a Statistically-Based Natural Language Processing System Score Natural Language Constructed-Responses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a considerable interest at Educational Testing Service (ETS) to include performance-based, natural language constructed-response items on standardized tests. Such items can be developed, but the projected time and costs required to have these items scored by human graders would be prohibitive. In order for ETS to include these types of…

Burstein, Jill C.; Kaplan, Randy M.

210

Enhanced PIELG: A Protein Interaction Extraction System using a Link Grammar Parser from biomedical abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ever growing amount of publications about protein-protein interactions, information extraction from text is increasingly recognized as one of crucial technologies in bioinformatics. This paper investigates the effect of adding a new module - Complex Sentence Processor (CSP) - to the PIELG system. PIELG is a Protein Interaction Extraction System using a Link Grammar Parser from biomedical abstracts

R. A. Abul Seoud; Y. M. Kadah

2008-01-01

211

MASCOT HTML and XML parser: an implementation of a novel object model for protein identification data.  

PubMed

Protein identification using MS is an important technique in proteomics as well as a major generator of proteomics data. We have designed the protein identification data object model (PDOM) and developed a parser based on this model to facilitate the analysis and storage of these data. The parser works with HTML or XML files saved or exported from MASCOT MS/MS ions search in peptide summary report or MASCOT PMF search in protein summary report. The program creates PDOM objects, eliminates redundancy in the input file, and has the capability to output any PDOM object to a relational database. This program facilitates additional analysis of MASCOT search results and aids the storage of protein identification information. The implementation is extensible and can serve as a template to develop parsers for other search engines. The parser can be used as a stand-alone application or can be driven by other Java programs. It is currently being used as the front end for a system that loads HTML and XML result files of MASCOT searches into a relational database. The source code is freely available at http://www.ccbm.jhu.edu and the program uses only free and open-source Java libraries. PMID:17006878

Yang, Chunguang G; Granite, Stephen J; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Winslow, Raimond L

2006-11-01

212

Prior of the Lexical model in the Hidden Vector State Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an implementation of a statistical seman- tic parser for a closed domain with limited amount of training data. We implemented the hidden vector state model, which we present as a structure discrimination of a flat-concept model. The model was implemented in the graphical modeling toolkit. We introduced into the hidden vector state model a concept in- sertion

Filip Jurcicek

2006-01-01

213

PEAS, the first instantiation of a comparative framework for evaluating parsers of French  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents PEAS, the first comparative evaluation framework for parsers of French whose annotation formalism allows the annotation of both constituents and functional relations. A test corpus containing an assortment of different text types has been built and part of it has been manually annotated. Precision\\/Recall and crossing brackets metrics will be adapted to our formalism and applied to

Véronique Gendner; Gabriel Illouz; Michèle Jardino; Laura Monceaux; Patrick Paroubek; Isabelle Robba; Anne Vilnat

2003-01-01

214

On the Problem of Coupling Java Algorithms and XML Parsers (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint use of Java and XML is a matter of fact for new developments, even in hard contexts. A recent research area is trying to address how to improve techniques for coupling Java programs and XML parsers and API. This paper briefly show the current state of the art of this young research area. Two perspectives are considered: efficiency

Giuseppe Psaila; Viale Marconi

2006-01-01

215

Out of the Laboratory: A Case Study with the IRUS Natural Language Interface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DARPA's Strategic Computing Program in the application area of Navy Battle Management has provided us several challenges and opportunities in natural language processing research and development. At the beginning of the effort, a set of domain-independent...

D. Ayuso E. Walker J. Bruin K. Koile R. M. Weischedel

1986-01-01

216

Representation and Reasoning for Deeper Natural Language Understanding in a Physics Tutoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Students' natural language (NL) explanations in the domain of qualitative mechanics lie in-between unrestricted NL and the constrained NL of 'proper' domain statements. Analyzing such input and providing appropriate tutorial feedback requires extracting i...

K. VanLehn M. Makatchev P. W. Jordan U. Pappuswamy

2006-01-01

217

Logic-Based Rhetorical Structuring for Natural Language Generation in Human-Computer Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhetorical structuring is field approached mostly by research in natu- ral language (pragmatic) interpretation. However, in natural language generation (NLG) the rhetorical structure plays an important part, in monologues and dia- logues as well. Hence, several approaches in this direction exist. In most of these, the rhetorical structure is calculated and built in the framework of Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST),

Vladimir Popescu; Jean Caelen; Corneliu Burileanu

2007-01-01

218

Nine-Month-Olds Extract Structural Principles Required for Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants' ability to rapidly extract properties of language-like systems during brief laboratory exposures has been taken as evidence about the innate linguistic state of humans. However, previous studies have focused on structural properties that are not central to descriptions of natural language. In the current study, infants were exposed to 3-…

Gerken, LouAnn

2004-01-01

219

Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

2007-01-01

220

Development and Evaluation of a Thai Learning System on the Web Using Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Thai Learning System, which is designed to help learners acquire the Thai word order system. The system facilitates the lessons on the Web using HyperText Markup Language and Perl programming, which interfaces with natural language processing by means of Prolog. (Author/VWL)

Dansuwan, Suyada; Nishina, Kikuko; Akahori, Kanji; Shimizu, Yasutaka

2001-01-01

221

Towards an American Sign Language Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present two major parts of an interface for American Sign Language (ASL) to computer applications currently under work; a hand tracker and an ASL-parser. The hand tracker extracts information about handshape, position and motion from image sequences. As an aid in this process, the signer wears a pair of gloves with colour-coded markers on joints and

Brigitte Dorner; Eli Hagen

1994-01-01

222

Grammatical Morphology and Perception of Synthetic and Natural Speech in Children with Specific Language Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The speech perception abilities of 27 children (ages 6-8, 15 with specific language impairment (SLI)) were compared using natural and synthetic versions of speech stimuli. Previously reported findings were replicated for the synthetic speech but not natural speech. Use of inflectional morphology in obligatory contexts by children with SLI was not…

Evans, Julia L.; Viele, Kert; Kass, Robert E.; Tang, Feng

2002-01-01

223

Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

2012-01-01

224

Rimac: A Natural-Language Dialogue System that Engages Students in Deep Reasoning Dialogues about Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The natural-language tutorial dialogue system that the authors are developing will allow them to focus on the nature of interactivity during tutoring as a malleable factor. Specifically, it will serve as a research platform for studies that manipulate the frequency and types of verbal alignment processes that take place during tutoring, such as…

Katz, Sandra; Jordan, Pamela; Litman, Diane

2011-01-01

225

Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.  

PubMed

The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key. PMID:22371983

Clody, Michael C

2011-01-01

226

Talking about what we think we see: natural language processing for a real-time virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss some aspects of our development of a natural language (NL) processing system to be used in a virtual reality (VR) environment. Our group is pursuing two lines of work: the Natural Language and Virtual Reality (NLVR) project and the natural language research program. The latter addresses basic research problems in NL processing and the former

John Gurney; Elizabeth Klipple; Clare Voss

1996-01-01

227

Transformation-Based Error-Driven Learning and Natural Language Processing: A Case Study in Part-of-Speech Tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a rebirth of empiricism in the field of natural language processing. Manual encoding of linguistic information is being challenged by automated corpus-based learning as a method of providing a natural language processing system with linguistic knowledge. Although corpus-based approaches have been successful in many different areas of natural language processing, it is often the case that

Eric Brill

1995-01-01

228

The feasibility of using natural language processing to extract clinical information from breast pathology reports  

PubMed Central

Objective: The opportunity to integrate clinical decision support systems into clinical practice is limited due to the lack of structured, machine readable data in the current format of the electronic health record. Natural language processing has been designed to convert free text into machine readable data. The aim of the current study was to ascertain the feasibility of using natural language processing to extract clinical information from >76,000 breast pathology reports. Approach and Procedure: Breast pathology reports from three institutions were analyzed using natural language processing software (Clearforest, Waltham, MA) to extract information on a variety of pathologic diagnoses of interest. Data tables were created from the extracted information according to date of surgery, side of surgery, and medical record number. The variety of ways in which each diagnosis could be represented was recorded, as a means of demonstrating the complexity of machine interpretation of free text. Results: There was widespread variation in how pathologists reported common pathologic diagnoses. We report, for example, 124 ways of saying invasive ductal carcinoma and 95 ways of saying invasive lobular carcinoma. There were >4000 ways of saying invasive ductal carcinoma was not present. Natural language processor sensitivity and specificity were 99.1% and 96.5% when compared to expert human coders. Conclusion: We have demonstrated how a large body of free text medical information such as seen in breast pathology reports, can be converted to a machine readable format using natural language processing, and described the inherent complexities of the task.

Buckley, Julliette M.; Coopey, Suzanne B.; Sharko, John; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Drohan, Brian; Belli, Ahmet K.; Kim, Elizabeth M. H.; Garber, Judy E.; Smith, Barbara L.; Gadd, Michele A.; Specht, Michelle C.; Roche, Constance A.; Gudewicz, Thomas M.; Hughes, Kevin S.

2012-01-01

229

IGES/RIM Parser/Converter users guide. [Initial Graphics Exchange Specification/Relational Information Manager  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has been assigned Lead Lab responsibility by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integrating the communications among computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) activities throughout DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). A primary objective is to provide a capability for the exchange of digital data between dissimilar CAD systems within the NWC. A subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) will be the data exchange format. The IGES/RIM Parser/Converter is the first in a series of programs being developed within the NWC to carry out this automated exchange. The Parser/Converter program converts an IGES file into a file of input commands to a Relational Information Manager (RIM) database.

Isler, R.E.

1985-05-01

230

n-Gram Statistics for Natural Language Understanding and Text Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

n-gram (n = 1 to 5) statistics and other properties of the English language were derived for applications in natural language understanding and text processing. They were computed from a well-known corpus composed of 1 million word samples. Similar properties were also derived from the most frequent 1000 words of three other corpuses. The positional distributions of n-grams obtained in

Ching Y. Suen

1979-01-01

231

Selecting the Best Mobile Information Service with Natural Language User Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information services accessed via mobile phones provide information directly relevant to subscribers’ daily lives and are an area of dynamic market growth worldwide. Although many information services are currently offered by mobile operators, many of the existing solutions require a unique gateway for each service, and it is inconvenient for users to have to remember a large number of such gateways. Furthermore, the Short Message Service (SMS) is very popular in China and Chinese users would prefer to access these services in natural language via SMS. This chapter describes a Natural Language Based Service Selection System (NL3S) for use with a large number of mobile information services. The system can accept user queries in natural language and navigate it to the required service. Since it is difficult for existing methods to achieve high accuracy and high coverage and anticipate which other services a user might want to query, the NL3S is developed based on a Multi-service Ontology (MO) and Multi-service Query Language (MQL). The MO and MQL provide semantic and linguistic knowledge, respectively, to facilitate service selection for a user query and to provide adaptive service recommendations. Experiments show that the NL3S can achieve 75-95% accuracies and 85-95% satisfactions for processing various styles of natural language queries. A trial involving navigation of 30 different mobile services shows that the NL3S can provide a viable commercial solution for mobile operators.

Feng, Qiangze; Qi, Hongwei; Fukushima, Toshikazu

232

SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

Simmons, Robert M.

1987-01-01

233

QATT: a Natural Language Interface for QPE. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

QATT, a natural language interface developed for the Qualitative Process Engine (QPE) system is presented. The major goal was to evaluate the use of a preexisting natural language understanding system designed to be tailored for query processing in multiple domains of application. The other goal of QATT is to provide a comfortable environment in which to query envisionments in order to gain insight into the qualitative behavior of physical systems. It is shown that the use of the preexisting system made possible the development of a reasonably useful interface in a few months.

White, Douglas Robert-Graham

1989-01-01

234

Role of PROLOG (Programming and Logic) in natural-language processing. Report for September-December 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of artificial Intelligence strives to produce computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. One of the areas of interest is the processing of natural language. This report discusses the role of the computer language PROLOG in Natural Language Processing (NLP) both from theoretic and pragmatic viewpoints. The reasons for using PROLOG for NLP are numerous. First, linguists can write

McHale

1988-01-01

235

Parsing, word associations and typical predicate-argument relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of collocational constraints in natural languages that ought to play a more important role in natural language parsers. Thus, for example, it is hard for most parsers to take advantage of the fact that ).

Kenneth Church; William Gale; Patrick Hanks; Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

236

Cheap and Fast - But is it Good? Evaluating Non-Expert Annotations for Natural Language Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human linguistic annotation is crucial for many natural language processing tasks but can be expensive and time-consuming. We ex- plore the use of Amazon's Mechanical Turk system, a significantly cheaper and faster method for collecting annotations from a broad base of paid non-expert contributors over the Web. We investigate five tasks: af- fect recognition, word similarity, recognizing textual entailment, event

Rion Snow; Brendan O'connor; Daniel Jurafsky; Andrew Y. Ng

2008-01-01

237

Generalized Probabilistic LR Parsing of Natural Language (Corpora) with Unification-Based Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe work toward the construction of a very wide-coverage probabilistic parsing system for natural language (NL), based on LR parsing techniques. The system is intended to rank the large number of syntactic analyses produced by NL grammars according to the frequency of occurrence of the individual rules deployed in each analysis. We discuss a fully automatic procedure for constructing

Ted Briscoe; John Carroll

1993-01-01

238

Plagiarism in natural and programming languages: an overview of current tools and technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses in detail methods of plagiarism and its detection in both natural and programming languages. The increase of material now available in electronic form and improved access to this via the Internet is allowing, with greater ease than ever before, plagiarism that is either intentional or unintentional. Due to increased availability of On-line material, people checking for plagiarism

Paul Clough

2000-01-01

239

The Nature of Auditory Discrimination Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: An MMN Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) show impairments in discriminating auditorily presented stimuli. The present study investigates whether these discrimination problems are speech specific or of a general auditory nature. This was studied using a linguistic and nonlinguistic contrast that were matched for acoustic complexity in…

Davids, Nina; Segers, Eliane; van den Brink, Danielle; Mitterer, Holger; van Balkom, Hans; Hagoort, Peter; Verhoeven, Ludo

2011-01-01

240

Use of Urban Adolescent Natural Language to Access Sexual Health Information and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual health information could be more accessible to urban adolescents. Many of the sexual health information Web sites are indexed using medical terms instead of slang terms that are typically used by teenagers. Many Americans have poor health literacy; sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV\\/AIDS, are affecting more and more young people. Actively indexing and mapping natural language terms to the

Nicola J. Cecchino; Susan E. Morgan

2009-01-01

241

An Analysis of Methods for Preparing a Large Natural Language Data Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative cost and effectiveness of techniques for preparing a computer compatible data base consisting of approximately one million words of natural language are outlined. Considered are dollar cost, ease of editing, and time consumption. Facility for insertion of identifying information within the text, and updating of a text by merging with…

Porch, Ann

242

Dimensions of Difficulty in Translating Natural Language into First Order Logic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we present a study of a large corpus of student logic exercises in which we explore the relationship between two distinct measures of difficulty: the proportion of students whose initial attempt at a given natural language to first-order logic translation is incorrect, and the average number of attempts that are required in order to…

Barker-Plummer, Dave; Cox, Richard; Dale, Robert

2009-01-01

243

Self-Regulated Learning in Learning Environments with Pedagogical Agents that Interact in Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the occurrence and measurement of self-regulated learning (SRL) both in human tutoring and in computer tutors with agents that hold conversations with students in natural language and help them learn at deeper levels. One challenge in building these computer tutors is to accommodate, encourage, and scaffold SRL because these…

Graesser, Arthur; McNamara, Danielle

2010-01-01

244

An empirical study of junior secondary students' expression of algorithms in natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formulation and interpretation of written procedures should be of central interest to many subject areas in education, especially those involving computing. This paper concerns the significance of students' written solutions to problems. It will describe an experiment with 12 to 13 year old (Year 8) students involving the description in natural language (English) of the construction of simple geometric

John S. Murnane; John W. Warner

2002-01-01

245

Limitations of Co-Training for Natural Language Learning from Large Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-Training is a weakly supervised learning paradigm in which the redundancy of the learn- ing task is captured by training two classifiers using separate views of the same data. This enables bootstrapping from a small set of la- beled training data via a large set of unlabeled data. This study examines the learning behav- ior of co-training on natural language

David Pierce; Claire Cardie

2001-01-01

246

Automatic recognition and understanding of spoken language - a first step toward natural human-machine communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of a powerful computing device to help people in productivity as well as in recreation can only be realized with proper human-machine communication. Automatic recognition and understanding of spoken language is the first step toward natural human-machine interaction. Research in this field has produced remarkable results, leading to many exciting expectations and new challenges. We summarize the development

BIING-HWANG JUANG; SADAOKI FURUI

2000-01-01

247

Speech perception and reading: two parallel modes of understanding language and implications for acquiring literacy naturally.  

PubMed

I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally. PMID:22953690

Massaro, Dominic W

2012-01-01

248

ELIZA — a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ELIZA is a program operating within the MAC time-sharing system of MIT which makes certain kinds of natural language conversation between man and computer possible. Input sentences are analyzed on the basis of decomposition rules which are triggered by key words appearing in the input text. Responses are generated by reassembly rules associated with selected decomposition rules. The fundamental technical

Joseph Weizenbaum

1983-01-01

249

Natural Vs. Precise Concise Languages for Human Operation of Computers: Research Issues and Experimental Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper raises concerns that natural language front ends for computer systems can limit a researcher's scope of thinking, yield inappropriately complex systems, and exaggerate public fear of computers. Alternative modes of computer use are suggested and the role of psychologically oriented controlled experimentation is emphasized. Research methods and recent experimental results are briefly reviewed.

Ben Shneiderman

1980-01-01

250

The Linguistic Correlates of Conversational Deception: Comparing Natural Language Processing Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The words people use and the way they use them can reveal a great deal about their mental states when they attempt to deceive. The challenge for researchers is how to reliably distinguish the linguistic features that characterize these hidden states. In this study, we use a natural language processing tool called Coh-Metrix to evaluate deceptive…

Duran, Nicholas D.; Hall, Charles; McCarthy, Philip M.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2010-01-01

251

A Natural Language Intelligent Tutoring System for Training Pathologists: Implementation and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: We developed and evaluated a Natural Language Interface (NLI) for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) in Diagnostic Pathology. The system teaches residents to examine pathologic slides and write accurate pathology reports while providing immediate feedback on errors they make in their slide review and diagnostic reports. Residents…

El Saadawi, Gilan M.; Tseytlin, Eugene; Legowski, Elizabeth; Jukic, Drazen; Castine, Melissa; Fine, Jeffrey; Gormley, Robert; Crowley, Rebecca S.

2008-01-01

252

Using HTML Formatting to Aid in Natural Language Processing on the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its magnitude and the fact that it is not computer understandable, the WorldWide Web has become a prime candidate for automatic natural language tasks. This thesisargues that there is information in the layout of a web page, and that by looking at theHTML formatting in addition to the text on a page, one can improve performance in taskssuch

Dan Dipasquo

1998-01-01

253

A corpus analysis of discourse relatio ns for Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a Natural Language Generation (NLG) system that generates texts tailored for the reading ability of individual readers. As part of building the system, GIRL (Generator for Individual Reading Levels), we carried out an analysis of the RST Discourse Treebank Corpus to find out how human writers linguistically realise discourse relations. The goal of the analysis was (a)

Sandra Williams; Ehud Reiter

2003-01-01

254

NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

2003-01-01

255

BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…

Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi

2008-01-01

256

An Evaluation of Help Mechanisms in Natural Language Information Retrieval Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the current state of natural language processing information retrieval systems from the user's point of view, focusing on the structure and components of the systems' help mechanisms. Topics include user/system interaction; semantic parsing; syntactic parsing; semantic mapping; and concept matching. (Author/LRW)

Kreymer, Oleg

2002-01-01

257

Knowledge-Based Machine Indexing from Natural Language Text: Knowledge Base Design, Development, and Maintenance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a...

M. T. Genuardi

1993-01-01

258

A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

Tierney, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

259

GENIES: a natural-language processing system for the extraction of molecular pathways from journal articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems that extract structured information from natural language passages have been highly successful in specialized domains. The time is opportune for devel- oping analogous applications for molecular biology and genomics. We present a system, GENIES, that extracts and structures information about cellular pathways from the biological literature in accordance with a knowledge model that we developed earlier. We implemented GENIES

Carol Friedman; Pauline Kra; Hong Yu; Michael Krauthammer; Andrey Rzhetsky

2001-01-01

260

The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): Its Nature and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature and development of the recently released International English Language Testing System (IELTS) instrument are described. The test is the result of a joint Australian-British project to develop a new test for use with foreign students planning to study in English-speaking countries. It is expected that the modular instrument will become…

Ingram, D. E.

261

Language.  

PubMed

Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

Cattaneo, Luigi

2013-01-01

262

Natural language processing with dynamic classification improves P300 speller accuracy and bit rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The P300 speller is an example of a brain-computer interface that can restore functionality to victims of neuromuscular disorders. Although the most common application of this system has been communicating language, the properties and constraints of the linguistic domain have not to date been exploited when decoding brain signals that pertain to language. We hypothesized that combining the standard stepwise linear discriminant analysis with a Naive Bayes classifier and a trigram language model would increase the speed and accuracy of typing with the P300 speller. With integration of natural language processing, we observed significant improvements in accuracy and 40-60% increases in bit rate for all six subjects in a pilot study. This study suggests that integrating information about the linguistic domain can significantly improve signal classification.

Speier, William; Arnold, Corey; Lu, Jessica; Taira, Ricky K.; Pouratian, Nader

2012-02-01

263

The Exploring Nature of Definitions and Classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the nature of definitions and classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the current studies of second/foreign language learning in order to show the current problems regarding such definitions and classifications. The present study shows that there is not a universal agreeable definition and…

Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

2011-01-01

264

New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

Dubois, Daniel M.

2008-10-01

265

Intelligent Software Development Environments: Integrating Natural Language Processing with the Eclipse Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Software engineers need to be able to create, modify, and analyze knowledge stored in software artifacts. A significant amount\\u000a of these artifacts contain natural language, like version control commit messages, source code comments, or bug reports. Integrated\\u000a software development environments (IDEs) are widely used, but they are only concerned with structured software artifacts –\\u000a they do not offer support for

René Witte; Bahar Sateli; Ninus Khamis; Juergen Rilling

266

Web engineering meets natural language processing: a vocal interface generation practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's trend towards ever more compact devices such as PDAs and mobile phones demands a more pervasive access manner. This paper describes an innovative mediator service architecture based on up-to-date web engineering standards to enable voice-based access to Web applications by means of voice portals and VoiceXML technologies. The core of the architecture is a Natural Language Generator that implements

Hendrik T. Macedo; Jacques Robin; Roberto Souto Maior de Barros

2006-01-01

267

Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

1989-01-01

268

Problem Localization Strategies For Pramatics Processing In Natural-Language Front Ends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem localization is the identification of the most significant failures in the AND-OR tree resulting from an unsuccessful attempt to achieve a goal, for instance, in planning, backward-chaining inference, or top-down parsing. We examine heuristics and strategies for problem localization in the context of using a planner to check for pragmatic failures in natural language input to computer systems, such

Lance A. Ramshaw; Ralph M. Weischedel

1984-01-01

269

Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.  

SciTech Connect

Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

2003-09-01

270

PADS\\/ML: a functional data description language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive amounts of useful data are stored and processed in ad hoc formats for which common tools like parsers, printers, query en- gines and format converters are not readily available. In this paper, we explain the design, implementation and theory of PADS\\/ML, a new language and system that facilitates the generation of data processing tools for ad hoc formats. The

Yitzhak Mandelbaum; Kathleen Fisher; David Walker; Mary F. Fernández; Artem Gleyzer

2007-01-01

271

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

272

The Esterel Synchronous Programming Language: Design, Semantics, Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we shall mostly be concerned by reactive kernels that constitute the central andmost difficult part of reactive systems. In fact, ESTEREL is not a full-fledged programming language, butrather a program generator used to program reactive kernels in the same way as YACC [32] is used toprogram parsers from grammars. The interface and data handling must be specified in

Gérard Berry; Georges Gonthier

1992-01-01

273

Thermo-msf-parser: an open source Java library to parse and visualize Thermo Proteome Discoverer msf files.  

PubMed

The Thermo Proteome Discoverer program integrates both peptide identification and quantification into a single workflow for peptide-centric proteomics. Furthermore, its close integration with Thermo mass spectrometers has made it increasingly popular in the field. Here, we present a Java library to parse the msf files that constitute the output of Proteome Discoverer. The parser is also implemented as a graphical user interface allowing convenient access to the information found in the msf files, and in Rover, a program to analyze and validate quantitative proteomics information. All code, binaries, and documentation is freely available at http://thermo-msf-parser.googlecode.com. PMID:21714566

Colaert, Niklaas; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc; Helsens, Kenny; Timmerman, Evy; Sickmann, Albert; Gevaert, Kris; Martens, Lennart

2011-08-01

274

Formalizing natural-language spatial relations descriptions with fuzzy decision tree algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People usually use qualitative terms to express spatial relations, while current geographic information systems (GIS) all use quantitative approaches to store spatial information. The abilities of current GIS to represent and query spatial information about geographic space are limited. In order to incorporate the concepts and methods people use to infer information about geographic space into GIS, research on the formal model of common sense geography becomes increasingly important. Previous research on the formalizations of natural-language descriptions of spatial relations are all based on crisp classification algorithms. But the human languages about spatial relations are ambiguous. There is no clear boundary between "yes" or "no" if a spatial relation predicate can express the spatial relations between objects. So the results of crisp classification algorithms can not formalize natural-language terms well. This paper uses a fuzzy decision tree method to formalize the spatial relations between two linear objects. Topologic and metric indices are used as variables, and the results of a human-subject test are used as training data. The formalization result of the fuzzy decision tree is compared with the result of a crisp decision tree.

Xu, Jun; Yao, Changqing

2006-10-01

275

Validation of the "Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environment Inventory" for Investigating the Nature of Chinese Language Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory (CLCEI) is a bilingual instrument developed for use in measuring students' and teachers' perceptions toward their Chinese Language classroom learning environments in Singapore secondary schools. The English version of the CLCEI was customised from the English version of the "What is happening in…

Lian, Chua Siew; Wong, Angela F. L.; Der-Thanq, Victor Chen

2006-01-01

276

Neural Network Processing of Natural Language: I. Sensitivity to Serial, Temporal, and Abstract Structure of Language in the Infant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates how innate representational capabilities for serial and temporal structure of language could arise from a common neural architecture, distinct from that required for the representation of abstract structure, and provides a predictive testable model of the initial computational state of the language learner. (Author/VWL)

Dominey, Peter Ford; Ramus, Franck

2000-01-01

277

Discovering novel causal patterns from biomedical natural-language texts using Bayesian nets.  

PubMed

Most of the biomedicine text mining approaches do not deal with specific cause--effect patterns that may explain the discoveries. In order to fill this gap, this paper proposes an effective new model for text mining from biomedicine literature that helps to discover cause--effect hypotheses related to diseases, drugs, etc. The supervised approach combines Bayesian inference methods with natural-language processing techniques in order to generate simple and interesting patterns. The results of applying the model to biomedicine text databases and its comparison with other state-of-the-art methods are also discussed. PMID:19000950

Atkinson, John; Rivas, Alejandro

2008-11-01

278

Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.  

PubMed

The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks. PMID:16956103

Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

2006-05-01

279

Ambiguity Detection for Programming Language Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context-free grammars are the most suitable and most widely used method for describing the syntax of programming languages.\\u000aThey can be used to generate parsers, which transform a piece of source code into a tree-shaped representation of the code's syntactic structure.\\u000aThese parse trees can then be used for further processing or analysis of the source text.\\u000aIn this sense,

H. J. S. Basten

2011-01-01

280

Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

Genuardi, Michael T.

1993-01-01

281

IR, NLP, AI and UFOS: or IRrelevance, natural language problems, artful intelligence and user-friendly online systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

User Friendly Online Searching is examined in the context of Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval and Artificial Intelligence. Opportunities for synergetic R & D are identified as the basis for Intelligent Information Retrieval and Artificial Retrieval Intelligence.

Tamas E. Doszkocs

1986-01-01

282

Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) ? and an input formula F are given, and the goal is to construct a formula with certain properties which is equivalent to F, given ? and a set of permitted assumptions. If the LDT is of a certain specified type, whose formulas are either conditional equivalences or Horn-clauses, we show that the AET problem can be reduced to a goal-directed inference method. We present an abstract description of this method, and sketch its realization in Prolog. The relationship between AET and several problems previously discussed in the literature is discussed. In particular, we show how AET can provide a simple and elegant solution to the so-called ``Doctor on Board'' problem, and in effect allows a ``relativization'' of the Closed World Assumption. The ideas in the thesis have all been implemented concretely within the SRI CLARE project, using a real projects and payments database. The LDT for the example database is described in detail, and examples of the types of functionality that can be achieved within the example domain are presented.

Rayner, Manny

1994-05-01

283

Neural network processing of natural language: I. Sensitivity to serial, temporal and abstract structure of language in the infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well before their érst birthday, babies can acquire knowledge of serial order relations (Saffran et al., 1996a), as well as knowledge of more abstract rule- based structural relations (Marcus et al., 1999) between neighbouringspeech sounds within 2 minutes of exposure. These early learners can likewise acquire knowledge of rhythmic or temporal structure of a new language within 5-10 minutes of

Peter Ford Dominey; Franck Ramus

2000-01-01

284

De-Centering English: Highlighting the Dynamic Nature of the English Language to Promote the Teaching of Code-Switching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embracing the dynamic nature of English language can help students learn more about all forms of English. To fully engage students, teachers should not adhere to an anachronistic and static view of English. Instead, they must acknowledge, accept, and even use different language forms within the classroom to make that classroom dynamic, inclusive,…

White, John W.

2011-01-01

285

Conceptual Dissonance: Evaluating the Efficacy of Natural Language Processing Techniques for Validating Translational Knowledge Constructs  

PubMed Central

The conduct of large-scale translational studies presents significant challenges related to the storage, management and analysis of integrative data sets. Ideally, the application of methodologies such as conceptual knowledge discovery in databases (CKDD) provides a means for moving beyond intuitive hypothesis discovery and testing in such data sets, and towards the high-throughput generation and evaluation of knowledge-anchored relationships between complex bio-molecular and phenotypic variables. However, the induction of such high-throughput hypotheses is non-trivial, and requires correspondingly high-throughput validation methodologies. In this manuscript, we describe an evaluation of the efficacy of a natural language processing-based approach to validating such hypotheses. As part of this evaluation, we will examine a phenomenon that we have labeled as “Conceptual Dissonance” in which conceptual knowledge derived from two or more sources of comparable scope and granularity cannot be readily integrated or compared using conventional methods and automated tools.

Payne, Philip R.O.; Kwok, Alan; Dhaval, Rakesh; Borlawsky, Tara B.

2009-01-01

286

Disclosure Control of Natural Language Information to Enable Secure and Enjoyable Communication over the Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.

Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

287

On application of image analysis and natural language processing for music search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I investigate a problem of finding most similar music tracks using, popular in Natural Language Processing, techniques like: TF-IDF and LDA. I de ned document as music track. Each music track is transformed to spectrogram, thanks that, I can use well known techniques to get words from images. I used SURF operation to detect characteristic points and novel approach for their description. The standard kmeans was used for clusterization. Clusterization is here identical with dictionary making, so after that I can transform spectrograms to text documents and perform TF-IDF and LDA. At the final, I can make a query in an obtained vector space. The research was done on 16 music tracks for training and 336 for testing, that are splitted in four categories: Hiphop, Jazz, Metal and Pop. Although used technique is completely unsupervised, results are satisfactory and encouraging to further research.

Gwardys, Grzegorz

2013-10-01

288

Interset: A natural language interface for teleoperated robotic assembly of the EASE space structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A teleoperated robot was used to assemble the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extra-vehicular activity (EASE) space structure under neutral buoyancy conditions, simulating a telerobot performing structural assembly in the zero gravity of space. This previous work used a manually controlled teleoperator as a test bed for system performance evaluations. From these results several Artificial Intelligence options were proposed. One of these was further developed into a real time assembly planner. The interface for this system is effective in assembling EASE structures using windowed graphics and a set of networked menus. As the problem space becomes more complex and hence the set of control options increases, a natural language interface may prove to be beneficial to supplement the menu based control strategy. This strategy can be beneficial in situations such as: describing the local environment, maintaining a data base of task event histories, modifying a plan or a heuristic dynamically, summarizing a task in English, or operating in a novel situation.

Boorsma, Daniel K.

1989-01-01

289

Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.  

PubMed

Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score. PMID:24486562

Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

2014-04-01

290

Extracting drug indication information from structured product labels using natural language processing  

PubMed Central

Objective To extract drug indications from structured drug labels and represent the information using codes from standard medical terminologies. Materials and methods We used MetaMap and other publicly available resources to extract information from the indications section of drug labels. Drugs and indications were encoded by RxNorm and UMLS identifiers respectively. A sample was manually reviewed. We also compared the results with two independent information sources: National Drug File-Reference Terminology and the Semantic Medline project. Results A total of 6797 drug labels were processed, resulting in 19?473 unique drug–indication pairs. Manual review of 298 most frequently prescribed drugs by seven physicians showed a recall of 0.95 and precision of 0.77. Inter-rater agreement (Fleiss ?) was 0.713. The precision of the subset of results corroborated by Semantic Medline extractions increased to 0.93. Discussion Correlation of a patient's medical problems and drugs in an electronic health record has been used to improve data quality and reduce medication errors. Authoritative drug indication information is available from drug labels, but not in a format readily usable by computer applications. Our study shows that it is feasible to use publicly available natural language processing resources to extract drug indications from drug labels. The same method can be applied to other sections of the drug label—for example, adverse effects, contraindications. Conclusions It is feasible to use publicly available natural language processing tools to extract indication information from freely available drug labels. Named entity recognition sources (eg, MetaMap) provide reasonable recall. Combination with other data sources provides higher precision.

Fung, Kin Wah; Jao, Chiang S; Demner-Fushman, Dina

2013-01-01

291

LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

Will, H.

1994-01-01

292

A Natural Language Intelligent Tutoring System for Training Pathologists - Implementation and Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Introduction We developed and evaluated a Natural Language Interface (NLI) for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) in Diagnostic Pathology. The system teaches residents to examine pathologic slides and write accurate pathology reports while providing immediate feedback on errors they make in their slide review and diagnostic reports. Residents can ask for help at any point in the case, and will receive context-specific feedback. Research Questions We evaluated (1) the performance of our natural language system, (2) the effect of the system on learning (3) the effect of feedback timing on learning gains and (4) the effect of ReportTutor on performance to self-assessment correlations. Methods The study uses a crossover 2×2 factorial design. We recruited 20 subjects from 4 academic programs. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions - two conditions for the immediate interface, and two for the delayed interface. An expert dermatopathologist created a reference standard and 2 board certified AP/CP pathology fellows manually coded the residents' assessment reports. Subjects were given the opportunity to self grade their performance and we used a survey to determine student response to both interfaces. Results Our results show a highly significant improvement in report writing after one tutoring session with 4-fold increase in the learning gains with both interfaces but no effect of feedback timing on performance gains. Residents who used the immediate feedback interface first experienced a feature learning gain that is correlated with the number of cases they viewed. There was no correlation between performance and self-assessment in either condition.

El Saadawi, Gilan M.; Tseytlin, Eugene; Legowski, Elizabeth; Jukic, Drazen; Castine, Melissa; Fine, Jeffrey; Gormley, Robert; Crowley, Rebecca S.

2009-01-01

293

Natural Language Query in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Domains Based on Cognition Search(TM)  

PubMed Central

Motivation: With the increasing volume of scientific papers and heterogeneous nomenclature in the biomedical literature, it is apparent that an improvement over standard pattern matching available in existing search engines is required. Cognition Search Information Retrieval (CSIR) is a natural language processing (NLP) technology that possesses a large dictionary (lexicon) and large semantic databases, such that search can be based on meaning. Encoded synonymy, ontological relationships, phrases, and seeds for word sense disambiguation offer significant improvement over pattern matching. Thus, the CSIR has the right architecture to form the basis for a scientific search engine. Result: Here we have augmented CSIR to improve access to the MEDLINE database of scientific abstracts. New biochemical, molecular biological and medical language and acronyms were introduced from curated web-based sources. The resulting system was used to interpret MEDLINE abstracts. Meaning-based search of MEDLINE abstracts yields high precision (estimated at >90%), and high recall (estimated at >90%), where synonym, ontology, phrases and sense seeds have been encoded. The present implementation can be found at http://MEDLINE.cognition.com. Contact: Elizabeth.goldsmith@UTsouthwestern.edu Kathleen.dahlgren@cognition.com

Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Mendiratta, Saurabh; Akella, Radha; Dahlgren, Kathleen

2009-01-01

294

Neural substrates of figurative language during natural speech perception: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g., “He smokes like a chimney!”) occurring in a short story. Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences (CS). The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility, and comprehensibility. Similes contrasted with CS resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG) and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete CS as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG). Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions.

Nagels, Arne; Kauschke, Christina; Schrauf, Judith; Whitney, Carin; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo

2013-01-01

295

Role of PROLOG (Programming and Logic) in natural-language processing. Report for September-December 1987  

SciTech Connect

The field of artificial Intelligence strives to produce computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. One of the areas of interest is the processing of natural language. This report discusses the role of the computer language PROLOG in Natural Language Processing (NLP) both from theoretic and pragmatic viewpoints. The reasons for using PROLOG for NLP are numerous. First, linguists can write natural-language grammars almost directly as PROLOG programs; this allows fast-prototyping of NLP systems and facilitates analysis of NLP theories. Second, semantic representations of natural-language texts that use logic formalisms are readily produced in PROLOG because of PROLOG's logical foundations. Third, PROLOG's built-in inferencing mechanisms are often sufficient for inferences on the logical forms produced by NLPs. Fourth, the logical, declarative nature of PROLOG may make it the language of choice for parallel computing systems. Finally, the fact that PROLOG has a de facto standard (Edinburgh) makes the porting of code from one computer system to another virtually trouble free. Perhaps the strongest tie one could make between NLP and PROLOG was stated by John Stuart Mill in his inaugural Address at St. Andrews: The structure of every sentence is a lesson in logic.

McHale, M.L.

1988-03-01

296

Using English as a High-Level Robot Command Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate expedient communication with robots, a very high-level hierarchical robot command language (Hirob) has been designed and implemented. Hirob uses the full and comprehensive syntax of the English imperative, allowing users to control a robot without the need of learning an esoteric programming language. A Parser\\/Scanner\\/Recognizer (PSR) performs a lexical analysis of a Hirob command stream, and identifies which

Peter Bock

1983-01-01

297

Building Languages  

MedlinePLUS

... National Center Homepage Hearing Loss Share Compartir Building Languages How can I start communicating with my baby ... English (MCE), Natural Gestures, Speech (Lip) Reading, Speech "Language" When most people hear the word "language" they ...

298

A comparative study of current clinical natural language processing systems on handling abbreviations in discharge summaries  

PubMed Central

Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems extract clinical information from narrative clinical texts in many settings. Previous research mentions the challenges of handling abbreviations in clinical texts, but provides little insight into how well current NLP systems correctly recognize and interpret abbreviations. In this paper, we compared performance of three existing clinical NLP systems in handling abbreviations: MetaMap, MedLEE, and cTAKES. The evaluation used an expert-annotated gold standard set of clinical documents (derived from from 32 de-identified patient discharge summaries) containing 1,112 abbreviations. The existing NLP systems achieved suboptimal performance in abbreviation identification, with F-scores ranging from 0.165 to 0.601. MedLEE achieved the best F-score of 0.601 for all abbreviations and 0.705 for clinically relevant abbreviations. This study suggested that accurate identification of clinical abbreviations is a challenging task and that more advanced abbreviation recognition modules might improve existing clinical NLP systems.

Wu, Yonghui; Denny, Joshua C.; Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Dario A.; Xu, Hua

2012-01-01

299

Bringing Chatbots into education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an extensive body of work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: computer environments for education, teaching and training that adapt to the needs of the individual learner. Work on personalisation and adaptivity has included research into allowing the student user to enhance the system's adaptivity by improving the accuracy of the underlying learner model. Open Learner Modelling, where the system's model of the user's knowledge is revealed to the user, has been proposed to support student reflection on their learning. Increased accuracy of the learner model can be obtained by the student and system jointly negotiating the learner model. We present the initial investigations into a system to allow people to negotiate the model of their understanding of a topic in natural language. This paper discusses the development and capabilities of both conversational agents (or chatbots) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular Open Learner Modelling. We describe a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to investigate the feasibility of using a chatbot to support negotiation, and conclude that a fusion of the two fields can lead to developing negotiation techniques for chatbots and the enhancement of the Open Learner Model. This technology, if successful, could have widespread application in schools, universities and other training scenarios.

Kerlyl, Alice; Hall, Phil; Bull, Susan

300

Identifying Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Cases and Controls using Natural Language Processing of Radiology Reports  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is increasing due to longer life expectancy and implementation of screening programs. Patient-specific longitudinal measurements of AAA are important to understand pathophysiology of disease development and modifiers of abdominal aortic size. In this paper, we applied natural language processing (NLP) techniques to process radiology reports and developed a rule-based algorithm to identify AAA patients and also extract the corresponding aneurysm size with the examination date. AAA patient cohorts were determined by a hierarchical approach that: 1) selected potential AAA reports using keywords; 2) classified reports into AAA-case vs. non-case using rules; and 3) determined the AAA patient cohort based on a report-level classification. Our system was built in an Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework that allows efficient use of existing NLP components. Our system produced an F-score of 0.961 for AAA-case report classification with an accuracy of 0.984 for aneurysm size extraction.

Sohn, Sunghwan; Ye, Zi; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

301

Rethinking information delivery: using a natural language processing application for point-of-care data discovery*†  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper examines the use of Semantic MEDLINE, a natural language processing application enhanced with a statistical algorithm known as Combo, as a potential decision support tool for clinicians. Semantic MEDLINE summarizes text in PubMed citations, transforming it into compact declarations that are filtered according to a user's information need that can be displayed in a graphic interface. Integration of the Combo algorithm enables Semantic MEDLINE to deliver information salient to many diverse needs. Methods: The authors selected three disease topics and crafted PubMed search queries to retrieve citations addressing the prevention of these diseases. They then processed the citations with Semantic MEDLINE, with the Combo algorithm enhancement. To evaluate the results, they constructed a reference standard for each disease topic consisting of preventive interventions recommended by a commercial decision support tool. Results: Semantic MEDLINE with Combo produced an average recall of 79% in primary and secondary analyses, an average precision of 45%, and a final average F-score of 0.57. Conclusion: This new approach to point-of-care information delivery holds promise as a decision support tool for clinicians. Health sciences libraries could implement such technologies to deliver tailored information to their users.

Workman, T. Elizabeth; Stoddart, Joan M

2012-01-01

302

Generating executable knowledge for evidence-based medicine using natural language and semantic processing.  

PubMed

With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the "gold standard" for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%. PMID:17238302

Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A

2006-01-01

303

Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management  

PubMed Central

Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design.

Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

304

Automated extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from radiology reports with natural language processing.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm that determines American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment categories from radiology reports. This HIPAA-compliant study was granted institutional review board approval with waiver of informed consent. This cross-sectional study involved 1,165 breast imaging reports in the electronic medical record (EMR) from a tertiary care academic breast imaging center from 2009. Reports included screening mammography, diagnostic mammography, breast ultrasound, combined diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging studies. Over 220 reports were included from each study type. The recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of a NLP algorithm to collect BI-RADS final assessment categories stated in the report final text was evaluated against a manual human review standard reference. For all breast imaging reports, the NLP algorithm demonstrated a recall of 100.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 99.7, 100.0 %) and a precision of 96.6 % (95 % CI, 95.4, 97.5 %) for correct identification of BI-RADS final assessment categories. The NLP algorithm demonstrated high recall and precision for extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from the free text of breast imaging reports. NLP may provide an accurate, scalable data extraction mechanism from reports within EMRs to create databases to track breast imaging performance measures and facilitate optimal breast cancer population management strategies. PMID:23868515

Sippo, Dorothy A; Warden, Graham I; Andriole, Katherine P; Lacson, Ronilda; Ikuta, Ichiro; Birdwell, Robyn L; Khorasani, Ramin

2013-10-01

305

ReportTutor - An Intelligent Tutoring System that Uses a Natural Language Interface  

PubMed Central

ReportTutor is an extension to our work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems for visual diagnosis. ReportTutor combines a virtual microscope and a natural language interface to allow students to visually inspect a virtual slide as they type a diagnostic report on the case. The system monitors both actions in the virtual microscope interface as well as text created by the student in the reporting interface. It provides feedback about the correctness, completeness, and style of the report. ReportTutor uses MMTx with a custom data-source created with the NCI Metathesaurus. A separate ontology of cancer specific concepts is used to structure the domain knowledge needed for evaluation of the student’s input including co-reference resolution. As part of the early evaluation of the system, we collected data from 4 pathology residents who typed in their reports without the tutoring aspects of the system, and compared responses to an expert dermatopathologist. We analyzed the resulting reports to (1) identify the error rates and distribution among student reports, (2) determine the performance of the system in identifying features within student reports, and (3) measure the accuracy of the system in distinguishing between correct and incorrect report elements.

Crowley, Rebecca S.; Tseytlin, Eugene; Jukic, Drazen

2005-01-01

306

Searching for Cancer Information on the Internet: Analyzing Natural Language Search Queries  

PubMed Central

Background Searching for health information is one of the most-common tasks performed by Internet users. Many users begin searching on popular search engines rather than on prominent health information sites. We know that many visitors to our (National Cancer Institute) Web site, cancer.gov, arrive via links in search engine result. Objective To learn more about the specific needs of our general-public users, we wanted to understand what lay users really wanted to know about cancer, how they phrased their questions, and how much detail they used. Methods The National Cancer Institute partnered with AskJeeves, Inc to develop a methodology to capture, sample, and analyze 3 months of cancer-related queries on the Ask.com Web site, a prominent United States consumer search engine, which receives over 35 million queries per week. Using a benchmark set of 500 terms and word roots supplied by the National Cancer Institute, AskJeeves identified a test sample of cancer queries for 1 week in August 2001. From these 500 terms only 37 appeared ? 5 times/day over the trial test week in 17208 queries. Using these 37 terms, 204165 instances of cancer queries were found in the Ask.com query logs for the actual test period of June-August 2001. Of these, 7500 individual user questions were randomly selected for detailed analysis and assigned to appropriate categories. The exact language of sample queries is presented. Results Considering multiples of the same questions, the sample of 7500 individual user queries represented 76077 queries (37% of the total 3-month pool). Overall 78.37% of sampled Cancer queries asked about 14 specific cancer types. Within each cancer type, queries were sorted into appropriate subcategories including at least the following: General Information, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Testing, Treatment, Statistics, Definition, and Cause/Risk/Link. The most-common specific cancer types mentioned in queries were Digestive/Gastrointestinal/Bowel (15.0%), Breast (11.7%), Skin (11.3%), and Genitourinary (10.5%). Additional subcategories of queries about specific cancer types varied, depending on user input. Queries that were not specific to a cancer type were also tracked and categorized. Conclusions Natural-language searching affords users the opportunity to fully express their information needs and can aid users naïve to the content and vocabulary. The specific queries analyzed for this study reflect news and research studies reported during the study dates and would surely change with different study dates. Analyzing queries from search engines represents one way of knowing what kinds of content to provide to users of a given Web site. Users ask questions using whole sentences and keywords, often misspelling words. Providing the option for natural-language searching does not obviate the need for good information architecture, usability engineering, and user testing in order to optimize user experience.

Theofanos, Mary Frances

2003-01-01

307

Using rule-based natural language processing to improve disease normalization in biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background and objective In order for computers to extract useful information from unstructured text, a concept normalization system is needed to link relevant concepts in a text to sources that contain further information about the concept. Popular concept normalization tools in the biomedical field are dictionary-based. In this study we investigate the usefulness of natural language processing (NLP) as an adjunct to dictionary-based concept normalization. Methods We compared the performance of two biomedical concept normalization systems, MetaMap and Peregrine, on the Arizona Disease Corpus, with and without the use of a rule-based NLP module. Performance was assessed for exact and inexact boundary matching of the system annotations with those of the gold standard and for concept identifier matching. Results Without the NLP module, MetaMap and Peregrine attained F-scores of 61.0% and 63.9%, respectively, for exact boundary matching, and 55.1% and 56.9% for concept identifier matching. With the aid of the NLP module, the F-scores of MetaMap and Peregrine improved to 73.3% and 78.0% for boundary matching, and to 66.2% and 69.8% for concept identifier matching. For inexact boundary matching, performances further increased to 85.5% and 85.4%, and to 73.6% and 73.3% for concept identifier matching. Conclusions We have shown the added value of NLP for the recognition and normalization of diseases with MetaMap and Peregrine. The NLP module is general and can be applied in combination with any concept normalization system. Whether its use for concept types other than disease is equally advantageous remains to be investigated.

Kang, Ning; Singh, Bharat; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

2013-01-01

308

Developing a natural language processing application for measuring the quality of colonoscopy procedures  

PubMed Central

Objective The quality of colonoscopy procedures for colorectal cancer screening is often inadequate and varies widely among physicians. Routine measurement of quality is limited by the costs of manual review of free-text patient charts. Our goal was to develop a natural language processing (NLP) application to measure colonoscopy quality. Materials and methods Using a set of quality measures published by physician specialty societies, we implemented an NLP engine that extracts 21 variables for 19 quality measures from free-text colonoscopy and pathology reports. We evaluated the performance of the NLP engine on a test set of 453 colonoscopy reports and 226 pathology reports, considering accuracy in extracting the values of the target variables from text, and the reliability of the outcomes of the quality measures as computed from the NLP-extracted information. Results The average accuracy of the NLP engine over all variables was 0.89 (range: 0.62–1.0) and the average F measure over all variables was 0.74 (range: 0.49–0.89). The average agreement score, measured as Cohen's ?, between the manually established and NLP-derived outcomes of the quality measures was 0.62 (range: 0.09–0.86). Discussion For nine of the 19 colonoscopy quality measures, the agreement score was 0.70 or above, which we consider a sufficient score for the NLP-derived outcomes of these measures to be practically useful for quality measurement. Conclusion The use of NLP for information extraction from free-text colonoscopy and pathology reports creates opportunities for large scale, routine quality measurement, which can support quality improvement in colonoscopy care.

Chapman, Wendy W; Saul, Melissa; Dellon, Evan S; Schoen, Robert E; Mehrotra, Ateev

2011-01-01

309

Measuring Information Acquisition from Sensory Input Using Automated Scoring of Natural-Language Descriptions  

PubMed Central

Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a “wisdom of crowds” approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N?=?15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled.

Saunders, Daniel R.; Bex, Peter J.; Rose, Dylan J.; Woods, Russell L.

2014-01-01

310

An Examination of Natural Language as a Query Formation Tool for Retrieving Information on E-Health from Pub Med.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of Internet use for information searches on health-related topics focuses on a study that examined complexity and variability of natural language in using search terms that express the concept of electronic health (e-health). Highlights include precision of retrieved information; shift in terminology; and queries using the Pub Med…

Peterson, Gabriel M.; Su, Kuichun; Ries, James E.; Sievert, Mary Ellen C.

2002-01-01

311

AbstFinder, a prototype abstraction finder for natural language text for use in requirements elicitation: design, methodology, and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to help solve the problems of requirements elicitation, this paper motivates and describes a new approach, based on traditional signal processing methods, for finding abstractions in natural language text. The design of AbstFinder, an implementation of the approach, and the evaluation of its effectiveness on an industrial-strength example are described

Leah Goldin; Daniel M. Berry

1994-01-01

312

Comparing human and machine performance for natural language information extraction: results for English microelectronics from the MUC5 evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evaluating the state of technology for extracting information from natural language text by machine, it is valuable to compare the performance of machine extraction systems with that achieved by humans performing the same task. The purpose of this paper is to present some results from a comparative study of human and machine performance for one of the information extraction

Craig A. Will

1993-01-01

313

Does It Really Matter whether Students' Contributions Are Spoken versus Typed in an Intelligent Tutoring System with Natural Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The "speech facilitation" hypothesis predicts that spoken input will "increase" learning, whereas the "text…

D'Mello, Sidney K.; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur

2011-01-01

314

A Compositional Natural Semantics and Hoare Logic for Low-Level Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of proof-carrying code has generated significant interest in reasoning about low-level languages. It is widely believed that low-level languages with jumps must be dicult to reason about by being inherently non-modular. We argue that this is untrue. We take it seriously that, dierently from statements of a high-level language, pieces of low-level code are multiple-entry and multiple-exit. And

Ando Saabas; Tarmo Uustalu

2006-01-01

315

Natural language processing pipelines to annotate BioC collections with an application to the NCBI disease corpus  

PubMed Central

BioC is a new format and associated code libraries for sharing text and annotations. We have implemented BioC natural language preprocessing pipelines in two popular programming languages: C++ and Java. The current implementations interface with the well-known MedPost and Stanford natural language processing tool sets. The pipeline functionality includes sentence segmentation, tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatization and sentence parsing. These pipelines can be easily integrated along with other BioC programs into any BioC compliant text mining systems. As an application, we converted the NCBI disease corpus to BioC format, and the pipelines have successfully run on this corpus to demonstrate their functionality. Code and data can be downloaded from http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net

Comeau, Donald C.; Liu, Haibin; Islamaj Dogan, Rezarta; Wilbur, W. John

2014-01-01

316

Natural language processing pipelines to annotate BioC collections with an application to the NCBI disease corpus.  

PubMed

BioC is a new format and associated code libraries for sharing text and annotations. We have implemented BioC natural language preprocessing pipelines in two popular programming languages: C++ and Java. The current implementations interface with the well-known MedPost and Stanford natural language processing tool sets. The pipeline functionality includes sentence segmentation, tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatization and sentence parsing. These pipelines can be easily integrated along with other BioC programs into any BioC compliant text mining systems. As an application, we converted the NCBI disease corpus to BioC format, and the pipelines have successfully run on this corpus to demonstrate their functionality. Code and data can be downloaded from http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. PMID:24935050

Comeau, Donald C; Liu, Haibin; Islamaj Do?an, Rezarta; Wilbur, W John

2014-01-01

317

Natural and constrained language production as a function of age and cognitive abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is often claimed that verbal abilities are relatively well maintained across the adult lifespan, certain aspects of language production have been found to exhibit cross-sectional differences and longitudinal declines. In the current project age-related differences in controlled and naturalistic elicited language production tasks were examined within the context of a reference battery of cognitive abilities in a moderately

Cristina D. Rabaglia; Timothy A. Salthouse

2010-01-01

318

Natural and constrained language production as a function of age and cognitive abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is often claimed that verbal abilities are relatively well maintained across the adult lifespan, certain aspects of language production have been found to exhibit cross-sectional differences and longitudinal declines. In the current project age-related differences in controlled and naturalistic elicited language production tasks were examined within the context of a reference battery of cognitive abilities in a moderately

Cristina D. Rabaglia; Timothy A. Salthouse

2011-01-01

319

Single Finger Extension: For a Theory of Naturalness in Sign Language Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Handshapes with single finger extension are examined in data from 10 sign languages: American, Australian, British, Finnish, French, Japanese, Providence Island, Rennell Island, Indian, and Swedish. It is concluded that a theory of marking can be developed along the same lines as for spoken language, with only the physiology differing. (Author/MSE)

Woodward, James

1982-01-01

320

Conceptual Memory: A Theory and Computer Program for Processing the Meaning Content of Natural Language Utterances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humans perform vast quantities of spontaneous, subconscious computation in order to understand even the simplest language utterances. The computation is principally meaning-based. With syntax and traditional semantics playing insignificant roles. This the...

C. J. Rieger

1974-01-01

321

Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.  

PubMed Central

Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching.

Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.

1984-01-01

322

Language assessment of Swedish 3-year-olds using a protocol of natural speech: PLUS-3--productive language USe at 3.  

PubMed

PLUS-3 is a new Swedish protocol of natural speech in 3-year-old children. Two studies are reported with 27 (11 girls and 16 boys) and 12 children (4 girls and 8 boys), respectively. The children were tape-recorded by their parents in dialogues based on picture books. The reliability of PLUS-3 was satisfactory (88%; inter-rater agreement), as was the concurrent validity measured by correlation with a grammar scale (rs = 0.53; p < 0.01). PLUS-3 correlated significantly with slightly modified mean length of utterance (MLU) measures (rs = 0.80; p < 0.01) and with lexical diversity (rs = 0.68; p < 0.02). In total, 30 two-morpheme utterances were sufficient to capture the language level of a child. PLUS-3 was significantly associated with communicative measures collected 14 months earlier (5 out of 8 measures, p < 0.05). PMID:10955313

Berglund, E

2000-01-01

323

Mirror neurons and the social nature of language: the neural exploitation hypothesis.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the relevance of the discovery of mirror neurons in monkeys and of the mirror neuron system in humans to a neuroscientific account of primates' social cognition and its evolution. It is proposed that mirror neurons and the functional mechanism they underpin, embodied simulation, can ground within a unitary neurophysiological explanatory framework important aspects of human social cognition. In particular, the main focus is on language, here conceived according to a neurophenomenological perspective, grounding meaning on the social experience of action. A neurophysiological hypothesis--the "neural exploitation hypothesis"--is introduced to explain how key aspects of human social cognition are underpinned by brain mechanisms originally evolved for sensorimotor integration. It is proposed that these mechanisms were later on adapted as new neurofunctional architecture for thought and language, while retaining their original functions as well. By neural exploitation, social cognition and language can be linked to the experiential domain of action. PMID:18979384

Gallese, Vittorio

2008-01-01

324

The Fragile Nature of Phonological Awareness in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have suggested that children with specific language impairment (SLI) risk encountering subsequent literacy difficulties, due to difficulties in phonological awareness (PA). This longitudinal study provides evidence in support of this view based on a group of 20 French-speaking children with SLI examined at the start of learning to…

Zourou, Filio; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie; Sanchez, Monique

2010-01-01

325

Objective measurement of fluency in natural language production: A dynamic systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language research is dominated by the concept of modularity. The basic assumptions involve neural localization of function, and adoption of tasks that tap into specialized functions, involving words or phonemes for example. The tasks that emerge to support this research are generally de-contextualized. Recent work in neuroscience has identified large-scale self organizing neural networks. It is our contention that the

Kathryn Hird; Kim Kirsner

2010-01-01

326

Coconstructing Learning: The Dynamic Nature of Foreign Language Pedagogy in a CMC Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent innovations in technology allow foreign language learners and their in- structors to interact both inside and beyond the classroom using a variety of communicative tools. As a consequence, the classroom has been transformed into an extended learning environment which has had a profound effect on both student and teacher roles. However, the theoretical and pedagogical issues emerging from these

NELLEKE VAN DEUSEN-SCHOLL; CHRISTINA FREI; EDWARD DIXON

327

The Effectiveness of Stemming for Natural-Language Access to Slovene Textual Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the use of stemming for Slovene language documents and queries in free-text retrieval systems and demonstrates that an appropriate stemming algorithm results in an increase in retrieval effectiveness when compared with nonstemming processing. A comparison is made with stemming of English versions of the same documents and queries. (24…

Popovic, Mirko; Willett, Peter

1992-01-01

328

LSA as a Measure of Coherence in Second Language Natural Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores Latent Semantic Analysis as a model of coherence relations in spoken discourse. Two studies were conducted on language data from six adult learners of English observed longitudinally for one year. The studies investigated whether LSA values increase as a function of time spent learning English and if there were links between negotiations for meaning and LSA values.

Scott A. Crossley; Philip M. McCarthy; Danielle S. McNamara

329

Guiding a Reinforcement Learner with Natural Language Advice: Initial Results in RoboCup Soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our current efforts towards creating a reinforc e- ment learner that learns both from reinforcements provided by its environment and from human-generated advice. Our research involves two complementary components: (a) map- ping advice expressed in English to a formal advice language and (b) using advice expressed in a formal notation in a re- inforcement learner. We use a

Gregory Kuhlmann; Peter Stone; Raymond Mooney; Jude Shavlik

2004-01-01

330

Coconstructing Learning: The Dynamic Nature of Foreign Language Pedagogy in a CMC Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent innovations in technology allow foreign language learners and their instructors to interact both inside and beyond the classroom using a variety of communicative tools. As a consequence, the classroom has been transformed into an extended learning environment which has had a profound effect on both student and teacher roles. However, the…

Van Deusen-Scholl, Nelleka; Frei, Christina; Dixon, Edward

2005-01-01

331

The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

2008-01-01

332

School Meaning Systems: The Symbiotic Nature of Culture and "Language-In-Use"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has produced evidence to suggest a strong reciprocal link between school context-specific language constructions that reflect a school's vision and schoolwide pedagogy, and the way that meaning making occurs, and a school's culture is characterized. This research was conducted within three diverse settings: one school in…

Abawi, Lindy

2013-01-01

333

Toward a Theory-Based Natural Language Capability in Robots and Other Embodied Agents: Evaluating Hausser's SLIM Theory and Database Semantics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computational natural language understanding and generation have been a goal of artificial intelligence since McCarthy, Minsky, Rochester and Shannon first proposed to spend the summer of 1956 studying this and related problems. Although statistical approaches dominate current natural language applications, two current research trends bring…

Burk, Robin K.

2010-01-01

334

DBPQL: A view-oriented query language for the Intel Data Base Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive query language (BDPQL) for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. DBPQL includes a parser generator package which permits the analyst to easily create and manipulate the query statement syntax and semantics. The prototype language, DBPQL, includes trace and performance commands to aid the analyst when implementing new commands and analyzing the execution characteristics of the DBP. The DBPQL grammar file and associated key procedures are included as an appendix to this report.

Fishwick, P. A.

1983-01-01

335

Controlling robots with an english-like high-level hierarchical command language (HIROB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate expedient communication with robots, a very-high level hierarchical robot command language (HIROB) has been designed and implemented. HIROB uses the full and comprehensive syntax of the English imperative, allowing users to control a robot without the need of learning an esoteric programming language. A Parser\\/Scanner\\/Recognizer (PSR) performs a lexical analysis of a HIROB command stream, and identifies which

Peter Bock

1984-01-01

336

Natural and constrained language production as a function of age and cognitive abilities  

PubMed Central

Although it is often claimed that verbal abilities are relatively well maintained across the adult lifespan, certain aspects of language production have been found to exhibit cross-sectional differences and longitudinal declines. In the current project age-related differences in controlled and naturalistic elicited language production tasks were examined within the context of a reference battery of cognitive abilities in a moderately large sample of individuals aged 18–90. The results provide support for age-related increases in lexical sophistication and diversity at the discourse level, and declines in grammatical complexity in controlled and naturalistic contexts. Further, age-related decreases in facility with complex grammatical constructions in controlled sentence production were statistically independent of the cognitive abilities assessed in this project.

Rabaglia, Cristina D.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

2013-01-01

337

A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

1987-01-01

338

New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain

Daniel M. Dubois

2008-01-01

339

Ontology based Algorithms for Indexing and Search of semantically close Natural Language phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free text constitutes a overwhelming fraction of information available on the World Wide Web. Specifically, consider small chunks of natural lan- guage phrases frequently used by Web users to de- scribe stuff relevant to them. For example, consider the following two posts on a classifieds site (which serves a small locality, say, a university campus) - \\

Srikanth Kamath U

340

Pupils Reasoning about the Nature of Change Using an Abstract Picture Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research is concerned with investigating children's understanding of physical, chemical, and biological changes while using an approach developed by the project Energy and Change. This project aimed to provide novel ways of teaching about the nature and direction of changes, in particular introducing ideas related to the Second Law of…

Stylianidou, Fani; Boohan, Richard

341

On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on the brains of human beings and other species provides insight into the evolution of the brain bases of human language. The neural substrate that regulated motor control in the common ancestor of apes and humans most likely was modified to enhance cognitive and linguistic ability. Speech communication played a central role in this process. However, the process that ultimately resulted in the human brain may have started when our earliest hominid ancestors began to walk.

Lieberman, Philip

2002-01-01

342

Crowdsourcing a Normative Natural Language Dataset: A Comparison of Amazon Mechanical Turk and In-Lab Data Collection  

PubMed Central

Background Crowdsourcing has become a valuable method for collecting medical research data. This approach, recruiting through open calls on the Web, is particularly useful for assembling large normative datasets. However, it is not known how natural language datasets collected over the Web differ from those collected under controlled laboratory conditions. Objective To compare the natural language responses obtained from a crowdsourced sample of participants with responses collected in a conventional laboratory setting from participants recruited according to specific age and gender criteria. Methods We collected natural language descriptions of 200 half-minute movie clips, from Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (crowdsourced) and 60 participants recruited from the community (lab-sourced). Crowdsourced participants responded to as many clips as they wanted and typed their responses, whereas lab-sourced participants gave spoken responses to 40 clips, and their responses were transcribed. The content of the responses was evaluated using a take-one-out procedure, which compared responses to other responses to the same clip and to other clips, with a comparison of the average number of shared words. Results In contrast to the 13 months of recruiting that was required to collect normative data from 60 lab-sourced participants (with specific demographic characteristics), only 34 days were needed to collect normative data from 99 crowdsourced participants (contributing a median of 22 responses). The majority of crowdsourced workers were female, and the median age was 35 years, lower than the lab-sourced median of 62 years but similar to the median age of the US population. The responses contributed by the crowdsourced participants were longer on average, that is, 33 words compared to 28 words (P<.001), and they used a less varied vocabulary. However, there was strong similarity in the words used to describe a particular clip between the two datasets, as a cross-dataset count of shared words showed (P<.001). Within both datasets, responses contained substantial relevant content, with more words in common with responses to the same clip than to other clips (P<.001). There was evidence that responses from female and older crowdsourced participants had more shared words (P=.004 and .01 respectively), whereas younger participants had higher numbers of shared words in the lab-sourced population (P=.01). Conclusions Crowdsourcing is an effective approach to quickly and economically collect a large reliable dataset of normative natural language responses.

Bex, Peter J; Woods, Russell L

2013-01-01

343

The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

1993-01-01

344

Programming Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

Tesler, Lawrence G.

1984-01-01

345

Language Fairs and Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature and function of language fairs are explored in this article. Seen as a source of student motivation toward second language learning and as a means of improving public relations with the community, the language fair is described as being a miniature carnival in the planning and operation of which students, parents, and teachers…

Kaplan, David

346

Requirements for natural language understanding in a system with graphic displays  

SciTech Connect

The particular task we explored was that of a decision maker examining and modifying a database using a graphics display. The decision maker is expected to manipulate both the context of the database and the form of the display. This paper presents three aspects of our research on a system that can provide graphically represented information and can talk naturally with a user about that information: description of the methodology that we used in developing and analyzing an extended prototypical dialogue between a user and such a system; portions of our analysis of that dialogue that present both the information obtained and the method of obtaining it; and conclusions about the necessary linguistic and non-linguistic capacities of an intelligent conversational partner, as drawn from the full analysis.

Sidner, C.L.; Bates, M.

1983-03-01

347

Salience: the key to the selection problem in natural language generation  

SciTech Connect

The authors argue that in domains where a strong notion of salience can be defined, it can be used to provide: (1) an elegant solution to the selection problem, i.e. the problem of how to decide whether a given fact should or should not be mentioned in the text; and (2) a simple and direct control framework for the entire deep generation process, coordinating proposing, planning, and realization. (Deep generation involves reasoning about conceptual and rhetorical facts, as opposed to the narrowly linguistic reasoning that takes place during realization.) The authors report on an empirical study of salience in pictures of natural scenes, and its use in a computer program that generates descriptive paragraphs comparable to those produced by people. 13 references.

Conklin, E.J.; McDonald, D.D.

1982-01-01

348

Tamacola --- a meta language kit for the web: a report on creating a self-hosting lisp compiler on the Tamarin VM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamacola is a dynamic, self-sustaining meta-language system grounded upon the Tamarin VM. Tamacola compiles a Scheme-like S-expression language into ActionScript bytecodes, and contains meta-linguistic features, such as a PEG parser generator and macro system, which make it useful for defining new languages. In fact, Tamacola is written in itself, using its meta-linguistic features. Since the Tamarin VM can load ActionScript

Takashi Yamamiya; Yoshiki Ohshima

2010-01-01

349

Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

2009-01-01

350

Writing in science: Exploring teachers' and students' views of the nature of science in language enriched environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an influence on meaning construction and understanding in science. Finally, this study concluded that the relationship between students' views of the nature of science and writing in science is complex and is dependent on several factors including the teachers' influence and attitude towards student writing in science.

Decoito, Isha

351

On the Dual Nature of the Functional Discourse Grammar Model: Context, the Language System/Language Use Distinction, and Indexical Reference in Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Functional Discourse Grammar model has a twofold objective: on the one hand, to provide a descriptively, psychologically and pragmatically adequate account of the forms made available by a typologically diverse range of languages; and on the other, to provide a model of language which is set up to reflect, at one remove, certain of the stages…

Cornish, Francis

2013-01-01

352

C-C1-01: A Strategic Plan for Developing Natural Language Processing Capacity at HMORN Sites  

PubMed Central

For the specific purpose of crafting a strategic plan for developing scientific and technical capacity for applying natural language processing (NLP) techniques to clinical text in HMO Research Network (HMORN) sites we convened a working conference in Seattle, December 17–18, 2008. Expert consultation in the strategic planning process was provided by six NLP experts from three institutions considered national leaders in the development and application of NLP technologies: the Mayo Clinic, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and Vanderbilt University. Conference participants included representatives of five HMORN sites, Northwestern University, and the University of Washington. Specific aims of the conference were: To develop a strategic plan for acquiring natural language processing capacity including, potentially, development of in-house capacity, subcontracting NLP tasks to one or more external collaborators/contractors, some combination of these approaches, or none at all; and To educate investigators and technical staff about the processes of developing, testing, and applying NLP algorithms for extracting data from clinical text in the context of typical HMORN-style research programs. Traditional conference presentations addressed ”What is natural language processing,” “Illustrations of potential NLP projects,” “Considerations when developing and applying NLP algorithms,” and “Comprehensive, large-scale information extraction systems.” A round-table-style discussion sessions focused on issues of human capital requirements for NLP projects, subcontracting NLP tasks to outside entities, multi-site collaboration on NLP projects, and a strategic plan for developing NLP capacity. This presentation summarizes the strategic planning products of the conference, currently in draft form and undergoing edits by a working group of the expert consultants and conference participants. Preliminarily, the strategic plan recommends incremental development of NLP capacity in HMORN-like sites through sequential execution of thoughtfully-selected small-scale NLP and NLP-like projects that represent key technical aspects of what can become a mature program of NLP capacity within 3–5 years. Initially, small-scale projects would be conducted in close collaboration with outside informatics experts to provide scientific and technical guidance to the immediate project and to assure fidelity with a longer-term locally-adapted strategic plan.

Carrell, David; Immanuel, Virginia

2010-01-01

353

Computer-Aided TRIZ Ideality and Level of Invention Estimation Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patent textual descriptions provide a wealth of information that can be used to understand the underlying design approaches that result in the generation of novel and innovative technology. This article will discuss a new approach for estimating Degree of Ideality and Level of Invention metrics from the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) using patent textual information. Patent text includes information that can be used to model both the functions performed by a design and the associated costs and problems that affect a design’s value. The motivation of this research is to use patent data with calculation of TRIZ metrics to help designers understand which combinations of system components and functions result in creative and innovative design solutions. This article will discuss in detail methods to estimate these TRIZ metrics using natural language processing and machine learning with the use of neural networks.

Adams, Christopher; Tate, Derrick

354

Using Natural Language Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

7.0 Acknowledgments .......................30 8.0 References ....................................30 1.0 Introduction Agoal,of human ,factors research with com- puter systems is to develop human-computer communication,modes ,that are both error tol- erant and easily learned. Since people already

William C. Ogden; Philip Bernick

1988-01-01

355

Are we waves or are we particles? A new insight into deep semantics in natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings conceptually new, empirically based scientific approach to a deeper understanding of human mind cognition, language acquisition, modularity of language and language origin itself. The research presented provides an interactive multilingual associative experiment as an attempt to map the Cognitive Semantic Space: (CSSES) and its basic frames of the Essential Self in the Czech language, collects and compares

S. Machova; J. Kleckova

2010-01-01

356

SIMD-parallel understanding of natural language with application to magnitude-only optical parsing of text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel parallel model of natural language (NL) understanding is presented which can realize high levels of semantic abstraction, and is designed for implementation on synchronous SIMD architectures and optical processors. Theory is expressed in terms of the Image Algebra (IA), a rigorous, concise, inherently parallel notation which unifies the design, analysis, and implementation of image processing algorithms. The IA has been implemented on numerous parallel architectures, and IA preprocessors and interpreters are available for the FORTRAN and Ada languages. In a previous study, we demonstrated the utility of IA for mapping MEA- conformable (Multiple Execution Array) algorithms to optical architectures. In this study, we extend our previous theory to map serial parsing algorithms to the synchronous SIMD paradigm. We initially derive a two-dimensional image that is based upon the adjacency matrix of a semantic graph. Via IA template mappings, the operations of bottom-up parsing, semantic disambiguation, and referential resolution are implemented as image-processing operations upon the adjacency matrix. Pixel-level operations are constrained to Hadamard addition and multiplication, thresholding, and row/column summation, which are available in magnitude-only optics. Assuming high parallelism in the parse rule base, the parsing of n input symbols with a grammar consisting of M rules of arity H, on an N-processor architecture, could exhibit time complexity of T(n)

Schmalz, Mark S.

1992-08-01

357

Longitudinal analysis of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer using natural language processing of medical record text  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the feasibility of using text mining to depict meaningfully the experience of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, to identify novel pain phenotypes, and to propose methods for longitudinal visualization of pain status. Materials and methods Text from 4409 clinical encounters for 33 men enrolled in a 15-year longitudinal clinical/molecular autopsy study of metastatic prostate cancer (Project to ELIminate lethal CANcer) was subjected to natural language processing (NLP) using Unified Medical Language System-based terms. A four-tiered pain scale was developed, and logistic regression analysis identified factors that correlated with experience of severe pain during each month. Results NLP identified 6387 pain and 13?827 drug mentions in the text. Graphical displays revealed the pain ‘landscape’ described in the textual records and confirmed dramatically increasing levels of pain in the last years of life in all but two patients, all of whom died from metastatic cancer. Severe pain was associated with receipt of opioids (OR=6.6, p<0.0001) and palliative radiation (OR=3.4, p=0.0002). Surprisingly, no severe or controlled pain was detected in two of 33 subjects’ clinical records. Additionally, the NLP algorithm proved generalizable in an evaluation using a separate data source (889 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) discharge summaries). Discussion Patterns in the pain experience, undetectable without the use of NLP to mine the longitudinal clinical record, were consistent with clinical expectations, suggesting that meaningful NLP-based pain status monitoring is feasible. Findings in this initial cohort suggest that ‘outlier’ pain phenotypes useful for probing the molecular basis of cancer pain may exist. Limitations The results are limited by a small cohort size and use of proprietary NLP software. Conclusions We have established the feasibility of tracking longitudinal patterns of pain by text mining of free text clinical records. These methods may be useful for monitoring pain management and identifying novel cancer phenotypes.

Heintzelman, Norris H; Taylor, Robert J; Simonsen, Lone; Lustig, Roger; Anderko, Doug; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Childs, Lois C; Bova, George Steven

2013-01-01

358

The nature and prevalence of disability in a Ghanaian community as measured by the Language Independent Functional Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Introduction The current study uses the Language Independent Functional Evaluation (L.I.F.E.) to evaluate disability in a smaller Ghanaian coastal town to characterize the extent and nature of disability. The L.I.F.E. is a video animated, language free equivalent of the standard 10-item verbal/written Barthel Index functional assessment. Methods Over a four-month period, the L.I.F.E. survey was given to members of the village of Anomabo in a preliminary survey which consisted of recruitment in an un-controlled manner, followed by a systematic, comprehensive survey of three neighborhood clusters. Basic demographics were also collected, along with the observer's assessment of disability. Results 541 inhabitants (264 in the preliminary survey and 277 in systematic survey) completed the L.I.F.E. Participants ranged from 7-100 years old (mean age 32.88, s.d. 20.64) and were 55.9% female. In the systematic study, 16.6% of participants had a less than perfect score on the L.I.F.E., indicating some degree of impairment. Significant differences were found between age groups, but not between sexes, the preliminary and systematic survey, and study location (a=.05). Conclusion The L.I.F.E. and this study methodology can be used to measure the prevalence of disability in African communities. Disability in this community was higher than the frequently cited estimate of 10%. African policymakers can use the L.I.F.E. to measure disability and thus more rationally allocate resources for medical rehabilitation.

Kelemen, Benjamin William; Haig, Andrew John; Goodnight, Siera; Nyante, Gifty

2013-01-01

359

Combining Speech Recognition/Natural Language Processing with 3D Online Learning Environments to Create Distributed Authentic and Situated Spoken Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will describe research done at the National Institute of Multimedia in Education, Japan and the University of North Texas on the creation of a distributed Internet-based spoken language learning system that would provide more interactive and motivating learning than current multimedia and audiotape-based systems. The project combined…

Jones, Greg; Squires, Todd; Hicks, Jeramie

2008-01-01

360

Using Natural Language Processing on the Free Text of Clinical Documents to Screen for Evidence of Homelessness Among US Veterans  

PubMed Central

Information retrieval algorithms based on natural language processing (NLP) of the free text of medical records have been used to find documents of interest from databases. Homelessness is a high priority non-medical diagnosis that is noted in electronic medical records of Veterans in Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Using a human-reviewed reference standard corpus of clinical documents of Veterans with evidence of homelessness and those without, an open-source NLP tool (Automated Retrieval Console v2.0, ARC) was trained to classify documents. The best performing model based on document level work-flow performed well on a test set (Precision 94%, Recall 97%, F-Measure 96). Processing of a naïve set of 10,000 randomly selected documents from the VA using this best performing model yielded 463 documents flagged as positive, indicating a 4.7% prevalence of homelessness. Human review noted a precision of 70% for these flags resulting in an adjusted prevalence of homelessness of 3.3% which matches current VA estimates. Further refinements are underway to improve the performance. We demonstrate an effective and rapid lifecycle of using an off-the-shelf NLP tool for screening targets of interest from medical records.

Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Carter, Marjorie E.; Palmer, Miland; Ginter, Thomas; Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steven; Shen, Shuying; South, Brett; Divita, Guy; Duvall, Scott; Nguyen, Thien M.; D'Avolio, Leonard W.; Samore, Matthew

2013-01-01

361

A Logic-Based Government-Bindi ng Parser for Mandarin Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandarin Chinese is a highly flexible and context-sensitive language. It is difficult to do the case marking and index assignment during the parsing of Chinese sentences. This paper proposes a logic-based Government-Binding approach to treat this problem. The grammar formalism is specified in a formal way. Uniform treatments of movements, arbitrary number of movement non-terminals, automatic detection of grammar errors

R. O. C. NTUTO

362

Finding Language in the Language Arts: Towards "Cognitive Language Arts."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language arts are constructed like a doughnut or a bagel, so that at their center where there might be something, there is instead a hole--emptiness. The dominant approach to understanding the nature of language--generative grammar--does not suggest a center for the language arts. An alternative approach to language and mind is "cognitive…

Chametzky, Robert A.

363

Integrating Learner Corpora and Natural Language Processing: A Crucial Step towards Reconciling Technological Sophistication and Pedagogical Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learner corpora, electronic collections of spoken or written data from foreign language learners, offer unparalleled access to many hitherto uncovered aspects of learner language, particularly in their error-tagged format. This article aims to demonstrate the role that the learner corpus can play in CALL, particularly when used in conjunction with…

Granger, Sylviane; Kraif, Olivier; Ponton, Claude; Antoniadis, Georges; Zampa, Virginie

2007-01-01

364

Web 2.0-Based Crowdsourcing for High-Quality Gold Standard Development in Clinical Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

Background A high-quality gold standard is vital for supervised, machine learning-based, clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. In clinical NLP projects, expert annotators traditionally create the gold standard. However, traditional annotation is expensive and time-consuming. To reduce the cost of annotation, general NLP projects have turned to crowdsourcing based on Web 2.0 technology, which involves submitting smaller subtasks to a coordinated marketplace of workers on the Internet. Many studies have been conducted in the area of crowdsourcing, but only a few have focused on tasks in the general NLP field and only a handful in the biomedical domain, usually based upon very small pilot sample sizes. In addition, the quality of the crowdsourced biomedical NLP corpora were never exceptional when compared to traditionally-developed gold standards. The previously reported results on medical named entity annotation task showed a 0.68 F-measure based agreement between crowdsourced and traditionally-developed corpora. Objective Building upon previous work from the general crowdsourcing research, this study investigated the usability of crowdsourcing in the clinical NLP domain with special emphasis on achieving high agreement between crowdsourced and traditionally-developed corpora. Methods To build the gold standard for evaluating the crowdsourcing workers’ performance, 1042 clinical trial announcements (CTAs) from the ClinicalTrials.gov website were randomly selected and double annotated for medication names, medication types, and linked attributes. For the experiments, we used CrowdFlower, an Amazon Mechanical Turk-based crowdsourcing platform. We calculated sensitivity, precision, and F-measure to evaluate the quality of the crowd’s work and tested the statistical significance (P<.001, chi-square test) to detect differences between the crowdsourced and traditionally-developed annotations. Results The agreement between the crowd’s annotations and the traditionally-generated corpora was high for: (1) annotations (0.87, F-measure for medication names; 0.73, medication types), (2) correction of previous annotations (0.90, medication names; 0.76, medication types), and excellent for (3) linking medications with their attributes (0.96). Simple voting provided the best judgment aggregation approach. There was no statistically significant difference between the crowd and traditionally-generated corpora. Our results showed a 27.9% improvement over previously reported results on medication named entity annotation task. Conclusions This study offers three contributions. First, we proved that crowdsourcing is a feasible, inexpensive, fast, and practical approach to collect high-quality annotations for clinical text (when protected health information was excluded). We believe that well-designed user interfaces and rigorous quality control strategy for entity annotation and linking were critical to the success of this work. Second, as a further contribution to the Internet-based crowdsourcing field, we will publicly release the JavaScript and CrowdFlower Markup Language infrastructure code that is necessary to utilize CrowdFlower’s quality control and crowdsourcing interfaces for named entity annotations. Finally, to spur future research, we will release the CTA annotations that were generated by traditional and crowdsourced approaches.

Deleger, Louise; Li, Qi; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura

2013-01-01

365

Auditory processing in dyslexia and specific language impairment: is there a deficit? What is its nature? Does it explain anything?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much controversy about the extent to which auditory processing deficits are important in the genesis of language disorders, particularly specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia (or specific reading disability—SRD). A review of the available literature reveals that some but not all auditory skills are impaired, on average, in groups of SLI\\/SRD listeners. Typically only a minority of SLI\\/SRD

Stuart Rosen

2003-01-01

366

Language Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collaborative project started by a language enthusiast that not only aims to help language learners, but also to "provide a window into the culture of the people who speak those languages." So how does the site accomplish this feat? It provides interactive language lessons, quizzes, and texts that allow the language learner to hear the word or text pronounced by fluent, often native, speakers. The sound quality is high, and by simply scrolling over any of the pictures in categories as diverse as the alphabet, weather, insects, and money, visitors will hear the word read pronounced. Thirteen languages are offered, including "Vietnamese", "Arabic", "German", "Hindi" and "Hebrew", with the most fully realized lessons for "English", "French" and "Spanish". However, the collaborative nature of the site should soon fill out the lessons of the other languages, because the "Collaborate/Volunteer" section of the site shows the many contributions volunteers can make, such as "Translating", "Suggesting Words/Phrases" or Contribute Your Voice". As the content of the site continues to expand, visitors can sign up for the "Newsletter" to be notified when major new content for a specific language has been added.

367

What Is a Programming Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of programing languages is discussed, focusing on machine/assembly language and high-level languages. The latter includes systems (such as "Basic") in which an entire set of low-level instructions (in assembly/machine language) are combined. Also discusses the nature of other languages such as "Lisp" and list-processing languages. (JN)

Wold, Allen L.

1983-01-01

368

Coh-metrix: analysis of text on cohesion and language.  

PubMed

Advances in computational linguistics and discourse processing have made it possible to automate many language- and text-processing mechanisms. We have developed a computer tool called Coh-Metrix, which analyzes texts on over 200 measures of cohesion, language, and readability. Its modules use lexicons, part-of-speech classifiers, syntactic parsers, templates, corpora, latent semantic analysis, and other components that are widely used in computational linguistics. After the user enters an English text, CohMetrix returns measures requested by the user. In addition, a facility allows the user to store the results of these analyses in data files (such as Text, Excel, and SPSS). Standard text readability formulas scale texts on difficulty by relying on word length and sentence length, whereas Coh-Metrix is sensitive to cohesion relations, world knowledge, and language and discourse characteristics. PMID:15354684

Graesser, Arthur C; McNamara, Danielle S; Louwerse, Max M; Cai, Zhiqiang

2004-05-01

369

Understanding Why Things Happen: Case-Studies of Pupils Using an Abstract Picture Language to Represent the Nature of Changes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six 12-year-old students were followed during an eight-month course using "Energy and Change" curricular materials, which introduce ideas related to the Second Law of Thermodynamics through an abstract picture language. Concludes that students had higher levels of generalization in their explanations of physical, chemical, and biological change.…

Stylianidou, Fani; Boohan, Richard

1998-01-01

370

The Nature and Impact of Changes in Home Learning Environment on Development of Language and Academic Skills in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development…

Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J.

2010-01-01

371

A Natural Language Like Description Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer programs for the analysis of human behaviour captured in multimedia data format commonly provide mechanisms to describe the behaviour recorded. Yet these programs do not satisfactorily fulfil the need for a description mechanism which allows the production of rich descriptions of behaviour in a flexible way and which facilitates the correct and complete retrieval of descriptions according to their

Eva Heinrich; Elizabeth Kemp; Jon D. Patrick

1999-01-01

372

Young Children, Language and English Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide, through the study of young children and the nature of language, a real insight into the effective way the young children in Taiwan are supposed to acquire the English language. To begin with, the innate capacities of young children, the principles and needs of their development are examined to discover the nature of early childhood

Wen-Hsiung Lien

373

Programming Language Description Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the middle of the twentieth century, hundreds of programming languages have been designed and implemented – and new\\u000a ones are continually emerging. The syntax of a programming language can usually be described quite precisely and efficiently\\u000a using formal grammars. However, the formal description of its semantics is much more challenging. Language designers, implementers\\u000a and programmers commonly regard formal semantic

Peter D. Mosses

374

Proceedings of the Conference on Language and Language Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains the papers read at the Conference on Language and Language Behavior held at the University of Michigan's Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior in October 1966. Papers are ordered under the following topics: First Language Acquisition in Natural Setting, Controlled Acquisition of First Language Skills, Second…

Zale, Eric M., Ed.

375

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature.

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

376

Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature is a weekly international journal publishing the finest peer-reviewed research in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality, importance, interdisciplinary interest, timeliness, accessibility, elegance, and surprising conclusions. Nature also provides rapid, authoritative, insightful and arresting news and interpretation of topical and coming trends affecting science, scientists and the wider public. Nature publishes more articles than any other multidisciplinary journal, and retains its position as the most cited weekly science journal. The site provides free access to news stories in the latest issue; access to research articles, and to the Nature archive, is by subscription.

377

Language Design, Computers and Brains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The processing of natural languages by computers and the programming of computers to simulate some aspects of language learning offer insights into those aspects of language design which allow successful processing to take place as well as those propertie...

H. Kucera

1985-01-01

378

An English language interface for constrained domains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

Page, Brenda J.

1989-01-01

379

Observing the Language Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers and others having responsibility for shaping language policy in the schools, this collection of invited, original articles is based on the belief that a teacher's task is not to "teach" children language but, rather, to create an environment that will allow language learning to occur naturally. The book is divided into four…

Jaggar, Angela, Ed.; Smith-Burke, M. Trika, Ed.

380

Language, the Forgotten Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ways that students can learn about the nature of the English language and develop a sense of excitement about their language are explored in this focused journal issue. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "Language, the Forgotten Content" (R. Small and P. P. Kelly); (2) "What Should English Teachers Know about…

Kelly, Patricia P., Ed.; Small, Robert C., Jr., Ed.

1987-01-01

381

Neural network processing of natural language: II. Towards a unified model of corticostriatal function in learning sentence comprehension and non-linguistic sequencing.  

PubMed

A central issue in cognitive neuroscience today concerns how distributed neural networks in the brain that are used in language learning and processing can be involved in non-linguistic cognitive sequence learning. This issue is informed by a wealth of functional neurophysiology studies of sentence comprehension, along with a number of recent studies that examined the brain processes involved in learning non-linguistic sequences, or artificial grammar learning (AGL). The current research attempts to reconcile these data with several current neurophysiologically based models of sentence processing, through the specification of a neural network model whose architecture is constrained by the known cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) neuroanatomy of the human language system. The challenge is to develop simulation models that take into account constraints both from neuranatomical connectivity, and from functional imaging data, and that can actually learn and perform the same kind of language and artificial syntax tasks. In our proposed model, structural cues encoded in a recurrent cortical network in BA47 activate a CSTC circuit to modulate the flow of lexical semantic information from BA45 to an integrated representation of meaning at the sentence level in BA44/6. During language acquisition, corticostriatal plasticity is employed to allow closed class structure to drive thematic role assignment. From the AGL perspective, repetitive internal structure in the AGL strings is encoded in BA47, and activates the CSTC circuit to predict the next element in the sequence. Simulation results from Caplan's [Caplan, D., Baker, C., & Dehaut, F. (1985). Syntactic determinants of sentence comprehension in aphasia. Cognition, 21, 117-175] test of syntactic comprehension, and from Gomez and Schvaneveldts' [Gomez, R. L., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1994). What is learned from artificial grammars?. Transfer tests of simple association. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 396-410] artificial grammar learning experiments are presented. These results are discussed in the context of a brain architecture for learning grammatical structure for multiple natural languages, and non-linguistic sequences. PMID:18835637

Dominey, Peter Ford; Inui, Toshio; Hoen, Michel

2009-01-01

382

Language Arts Guide; Composition and Language Study. Junior High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Junior high school (grades 7, 8 and 9). SUBJECT MATTER: Language arts; composition and language study. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide has three main sections: 1) oral composition--individual preservations and group activities; 2) language study--the nature of language, varieties of language, history of the English…

Dade County Board of Public Instruction, Miami, FL.

383

First Language Acquisition and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

2011-01-01

384

HDF5 Tools in the Interactive Data Language (IDL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interactive Data Language, from Research Systems, Inc. (A Kodak subsidiary), now supports tools for querying and reading HDF5 files. The HDF5 module is included as part of the standard IDL application, available from http://www.ResearchSystems.com. The IDL HDF5 interface consists of a dynamically loadable module that provides a set of IDL software routines to directly access the NCSA HDF5 C library. In addition, the IDL HDF5 module has the ability to parse entire HDF5 files into IDL structures, and contains an HDF5 Browser which lets users interactively explore files and import data into IDL. We will demonstrate the use of the HDF5 routines, as well as the parser and the HDF5 Browser.

Torrence, C.

2002-12-01

385

Natural Language and Exact Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In considering the problems foreign students have with the determiners "the,""a/an,""some," and "all" (for which zero-determiner may be substituted), the author observes: (1) The semantic classifications of nouns often seem quite arbitrary to the foreigner. (2) There is always some minimal linguistic or situational context which must be specified…

Fargo, Nancy L.

386

Connectionism and Natural Language Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Representation of Spoken Words in a Self-Organizing Neural Net; Modeling the Human Mental Lexicon with Self-Organizing Feature Maps; Speech Synthesis with Artificial Neural Networks; Generalization Performance of Backpropagation Learning on a Sy...

M. F. J. Drossaers A. Nijholt

1992-01-01

387

jmzReader: A Java parser library to process and visualize multiple text and XML-based mass spectrometry data formats.  

PubMed

We here present the jmzReader library: a collection of Java application programming interfaces (APIs) to parse the most commonly used peak list and XML-based mass spectrometry (MS) data formats: DTA, MS2, MGF, PKL, mzXML, mzData, and mzML (based on the already existing API jmzML). The library is optimized to be used in conjunction with mzIdentML, the recently released standard data format for reporting protein and peptide identifications, developed by the HUPO proteomics standards initiative (PSI). mzIdentML files do not contain spectra data but contain references to different kinds of external MS data files. As a key functionality, all parsers implement a common interface that supports the various methods used by mzIdentML to reference external spectra. Thus, when developing software for mzIdentML, programmers no longer have to support multiple MS data file formats but only this one interface. The library (which includes a viewer) is open source and, together with detailed documentation, can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/jmzreader/. PMID:22539430

Griss, Johannes; Reisinger, Florian; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

2012-03-01

388

Description of a rule-based system for the i2b2 challenge in natural language processing for clinical data.  

PubMed

The Obesity Challenge, sponsored by Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2), a National Center for Biomedical Computing, asked participants to build software systems that could "read" a patient's clinical discharge summary and replicate the judgments of physicians in evaluating presence or absence of obesity and 15 comorbidities. The authors describe their methodology and discuss the results of applying Lockheed Martin's rule-based natural language processing (NLP) capability, ClinREAD. We tailored ClinREAD with medical domain expertise to create assigned default judgments based on the most probable results as defined in the ground truth. It then used rules to collect evidence similar to the evidence that the human judges likely relied upon, and applied a logic module to weigh the strength of all evidence collected to arrive at final judgments. The Challenge results suggest that rule-based systems guided by human medical expertise are capable of solving complex problems in machine processing of medical text. PMID:19390103

Childs, Lois C; Enelow, Robert; Simonsen, Lone; Heintzelman, Norris H; Kowalski, Kimberly M; Taylor, Robert J

2009-01-01

389

Variations in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) mapping: from the natural language of patron terms to the controlled vocabulary of mapped lists*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study compared the mapping of natural language patron terms to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) across six MeSH interfaces for the MEDLINE database. Methods: Test data were obtained from search requests submitted by patrons to the Library of the Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, over a nine-month period. Search request statements were parsed into separate terms or phrases. Using print sources from the National Library of Medicine, Each parsed patron term was assigned corresponding MeSH terms. Each patron term was entered into each of the selected interfaces to determine how effectively they mapped to MeSH. Data were collected for mapping success, accessibility of MeSH term within mapped list, and total number of MeSH choices within each list. Results: The selected MEDLINE interfaces do not map the same patron term in the same way, nor do they consistently lead to what is considered the appropriate MeSH term. Conclusions: If searchers utilize the MEDLINE database to its fullest potential by mapping to MeSH, the results of the mapping will vary between interfaces. This variance may ultimately impact the search results. These differences should be considered when choosing a MEDLINE interface and when instructing end users.

Gault, Lora V.; Shultz, Mary; Davies, Kathy J.

2002-01-01

390

Language Acquisition, Language Learning and the School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the constraints of time and environment under which most language learning is done mean that a natural language situation can never be reproduced in school, many of the findings from first language acquisition studies apply to second language (L2) learning. This would mean therefore that instead of stressing speaking in a beginning L2…

Davies, Norman F.

391

Using Natural Language Processing to Enable In-depth Analysis of Clinical Messages Posted to an Internet Mailing List: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Background An Internet mailing list may be characterized as a virtual community of practice that serves as an information hub with easy access to expert advice and opportunities for social networking. We are interested in mining messages posted to a list for dental practitioners to identify clinical topics. Once we understand the topical domain, we can study dentists’ real information needs and the nature of their shared expertise, and can avoid delivering useless content at the point of care in future informatics applications. However, a necessary first step involves developing procedures to identify messages that are worth studying given our resources for planned, labor-intensive research. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to develop a workflow for finding a manageable number of clinically relevant messages from a much larger corpus of messages posted to an Internet mailing list, and to demonstrate the potential usefulness of our procedures for investigators by retrieving a set of messages tailored to the research question of a qualitative research team. Methods We mined 14,576 messages posted to an Internet mailing list from April 2008 to May 2009. The list has about 450 subscribers, mostly dentists from North America interested in clinical practice. After extensive preprocessing, we used the Natural Language Toolkit to identify clinical phrases and keywords in the messages. Two academic dentists classified collocated phrases in an iterative, consensus-based process to describe the topics discussed by dental practitioners who subscribe to the list. We then consulted with qualitative researchers regarding their research question to develop a plan for targeted retrieval. We used selected phrases and keywords as search strings to identify clinically relevant messages and delivered the messages in a reusable database. Results About half of the subscribers (245/450, 54.4%) posted messages. Natural language processing (NLP) yielded 279,193 clinically relevant tokens or processed words (19% of all tokens). Of these, 2.02% (5634 unique tokens) represent the vocabulary for dental practitioners. Based on pointwise mutual information score and clinical relevance, 325 collocated phrases (eg, fistula filled obturation and herpes zoster) with 108 keywords (eg, mercury) were classified into 13 broad categories with subcategories. In the demonstration, we identified 305 relevant messages (2.1% of all messages) over 10 selected categories with instances of collocated phrases, and 299 messages (2.1%) with instances of phrases or keywords for the category systemic disease. Conclusions A workflow with a sequence of machine-based steps and human classification of NLP-discovered phrases can support researchers who need to identify relevant messages in a much larger corpus. Discovered phrases and keywords are useful search strings to aid targeted retrieval. We demonstrate the potential value of our procedures for qualitative researchers by retrieving a manageable set of messages concerning systemic and oral disease.

Kreinacke, Marcos; Spallek, Heiko; Song, Mei; O'Donnell, Jean A

2011-01-01

392

Language Endangerment and Language Revival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

Muhlhausler, Peter

2003-01-01

393

Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

Lin, Li-Li

2008-01-01

394

Language Acquisition and Connectionism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of connectionist research on language acquisition is to identify the nature of the mechanisms that support learning of phonological, semantic, and grammatical processes. A review of literature on language acquisition and connectionism looks at a range of assumptions, general approaches, and their implications. (MSE)

Plunkett, Kim

1998-01-01

395

VHDL - The Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VHSIC hardware description language (or VHDL) provides a standard textual means of description for hardware components at abstraction levels ranging from the logic gate level to the digital system level. It provides precise syntax and semantics for these hardware components, enabling design transfer both within and among organizations. The language is designed to be efficiently simulated and natural for

Roger Lipsett; Erich Marschner; Moe Shahdad

1986-01-01

396

Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

397

Text-mining of PubMed abstracts by natural language processing to create a public knowledge base on molecular mechanisms of bacterial enteropathogens  

PubMed Central

Background The Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC; ) has a goal of providing bioinformatics support for the scientific community researching enteropathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Rapid and accurate identification of experimental conclusions from the scientific literature is critical to support research in this field. Natural Language Processing (NLP), and in particular Information Extraction (IE) technology, can be a significant aid to this process. Description We have trained a powerful, state-of-the-art IE technology on a corpus of abstracts from the microbial literature in PubMed to automatically identify and categorize biologically relevant entities and predicative relations. These relations include: Genes/Gene Products and their Roles; Gene Mutations and the resulting Phenotypes; and Organisms and their associated Pathogenicity. Evaluations on blind datasets show an F-measure average of greater than 90% for entities (genes, operons, etc.) and over 70% for relations (gene/gene product to role, etc). This IE capability, combined with text indexing and relational database technologies, constitute the core of our recently deployed text mining application. Conclusion Our Text Mining application is available online on the ERIC website . The information retrieval interface displays a list of recently published enteropathogen literature abstracts, and also provides a search interface to execute custom queries by keyword, date range, etc. Upon selection, processed abstracts and the entities and relations extracted from them are retrieved from a relational database and marked up to highlight the entities and relations. The abstract also provides links from extracted genes and gene products to the ERIC Annotations database, thus providing access to comprehensive genomic annotations and adding value to both the text-mining and annotations systems.

Zaremba, Sam; Ramos-Santacruz, Mila; Hampton, Thomas; Shetty, Panna; Fedorko, Joel; Whitmore, Jon; Greene, John M; Perna, Nicole T; Glasner, Jeremy D; Plunkett, Guy; Shaker, Matthew; Pot, David

2009-01-01

398

Professional Language in Language Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction. The use of 3-5 languages where professional language is one of them is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. The Aim of the Study. To identify and analyze professional language on the pedagogical discourse in language education. Materials and Methods. The search for…

Zascerinska, Jelena

2010-01-01

399

Integrating Language Study With Literature and Composition Toward an Integrated Language Arts Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Grades 3, 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Language, Literature, and Composition. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is organized under six general language concepts: Nature of Language, Language and Communication, Structure of Language, Changes in Language, Relationship Between Speaking and Writing, Language and…

Baltimore County Board of Education, Towson, MD.

400

Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

1985-01-01

401

Language Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

Dulay, Heidi; And Others

402

Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You need to identify figurative language in books, poetry, and in the lyrics of music. Use the knowledge you have already obtained in class concerning figurative language to help you complete this activity. Follow each step carefully to complete this assignment. Step 1: Books, poetry and music contain figurative language. Click on the video below to learn about figurative language: simile, metephore, personification explanation Step 2: Listen to these examples of figurative language in music. Click on on the video to watch and listen. examples of simile and metephor in music Step 3: These are two songs that ...

Whittier, Mrs.

2010-01-28

403

Language Switching and Language Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

2012-01-01

404

Wold Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be exposed to a number of different languages through the viewing of the following websites. HELLO! BONJOUR! SABAAI-DII! HOLA! DZIEN DOBRY! BUON GIORNO! KONNICHI WA! ZDRAVSTVUITE! At the following website look up words and find their translation into other languages. The New Logos Dictionary Browse though this next website and see how to express some things in American Sign Language. ASL Explore how to say ...

Schroeder, M.

2007-10-12

405

Fuzzy Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ?-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

Rahonis, George

406

BBC: Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Learning Zone of BBC Education Online (first discussed in the {May 5, 1995 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1995/scout-950505.html}) offers an excellent resource for learning languages online. The multimedia BBC Education - Languages site provides an interactive learning experience, combining audio clips, video clips, Shockwave games, transcripts, and glossaries for beginning and intermediate level autodidacts studying French, German, Italian, or Spanish. The site also includes a collection of annotated language learning links and an online brochure listing resources that support BBC language learning programs. Users running Windows 95 may download a variety of multimedia lessons (self-extracting executables) for French, German, and Spanish.

407

Principles of instructed language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on meaning and on form, the need to

Rod Ellis

2005-01-01

408

Principles of Instructed Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

Ellis, Rod

2005-01-01

409

Programmed Instruction and Language Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first takes some characteristics of language and suggests that the nature of language makes it, intrinsically, unsuitable to treatment by a fully programmed course. Second, it takes programming and suggests what aspects of language might be assigned to programmed instruction. (Author/LG)

Littlewood, W. T.

1974-01-01

410

Curriculum Trends in Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of language instruction on the national level and specifically in Nevada during the late 1950's and the early 1960's reveals five major factors which contributed to the changing trends. The author discusses: (1) the new understanding of the nature of language, (2) changing philosophies and objectives, (3) modern foreign language and…

Smith, Philip D., Jr.

411

Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses pre-linguistic and linguistic stages of language acquisition that are part of a continuum of receptivity and communication every child experiences in the first 3 years of life. Suggests parents assist language development by being sympathetic to each developmental turning point, providing the right emotional climate for expression, and…

Montanaro, Silvana

2001-01-01

412

LANGUAGE LABORATORIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY HAS GIVEN MANY THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS GOOD LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE AND HAS BECOME AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL. THE BASIC PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS THE TAPE RECORDER-AND-PLAYBACK, DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH AUDIOPASSIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE-COMPARATIVE STUDY, AND…

BRUBAKER, CHARLES WILLIAM

413

Programming Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

Berman, David

2003-04-21

414

Space languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

Hays, Dan

1987-01-01

415

Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue about the Nature of Oral and Written Language Problems in the Context of Developmental, Academic, and Phenotypic Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professionals across disciplines who assess and teach students with language problems should develop their own standards for best professional practices to improve the diagnostic and treatment (instructional) services in schools and nonschool settings rather than assessing only for eligibility for categories of special education services according…

Silliman, Elaine R.; Berninger, Virginia W.

2011-01-01

416

Neural Network Processing of Natural Language: II. Towards a Unified Model of Corticostriatal Function in Learning Sentence Comprehension and Non-Linguistic Sequencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central issue in cognitive neuroscience today concerns how distributed neural networks in the brain that are used in language learning and processing can be involved in non-linguistic cognitive sequence learning. This issue is informed by a wealth of functional neurophysiology studies of sentence comprehension, along with a number of recent…

Dominey, Peter Ford; Inui, Toshio; Hoen, Michel

2009-01-01

417

Calculating Non-Completion Rates for Modules on Institution-Wide Language Programmes: Some Observations on the Nature of Seemingly Objective Figures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the issues and problems which typically arise in the process of compiling non-completion statistics, using the example of an empirical investigation of student non-continuation on an institution-wide language programme. The research highlights the fact that the validity of seemingly neutral dropout figures depends on the…

Reimann, Nicola

2004-01-01

418

Consistency and Predictive Nature of Vertically Moderated Standards for South Carolina's 1999 Palmetto Achievement Challenge Tests of Language Arts and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the consistency of the achievement-level classifications (below basic, basic, proficient, and advanced) established in 1999 for the South Carolina Palmetto Achievement Challenge Tests (PACT; Huynh, Meyer, & Barton, 2000) of English language arts and mathematics. It also utilizes the PACT longitudinal data files of student…

Huynh, Huynh; Barton, Karen E.; Meyer, J. Patrick; Porchea, Sameano; Gallant, Dorinda

2005-01-01

419

Language, games and language games  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do social values come about and gain legitimacy? Starting from the premise that discourses of social analysis affect the ways in which social norms develop and proliferate, this article models the evolution of professional codes and dialects using Wittgenstein’s idea of a language game. A language game is formalized as a repeated game of tacit coordination played among participants

Mihnea Moldoveanu

2002-01-01

420

Language Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On his journey to discover the human spark, Alan Alda speaks with Dr. Elizabeth Spelke from Harvard University and Professor Neville from the University of Oregon about the development of language in this video from The Human Spark.

Wnet

2011-08-08

421

SIMUFORT Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SIMUFORT language is especially useful in writing programs for discrete event simulation applications, although it is also useful, more generally, for writing programs for applications that involve mathematical computations and other manipulation of n...

G. V. Fulscher N. R. Nielsen

1973-01-01

422

Shakespeare's Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Use these sites to answer the following questions: Shakepeare s Language, Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. Describe ...

Flowers, Ms.

2009-10-21

423

Languaging: A Composition Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide reviews current theories on the teaching of writing, focuses on the nature of composition, and enumerates sequences of writing exercises for seventh and eighth grade teachers to consider for assigning to their students. Contents include "Rhetoric in the 1960's," which defines composition and explains what languaging is about;…

Mount Diablo Unified School District, Concord, CA.

424

The Language Complexity Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

roundvarious aspects of the problem of determining which anaphoric elements in a givensentence can refer to which potential antecedents. Ristad takes the reader through fiverounds of what he calls a "complexity game," which is a contest between a maximizer,who tries to make natural languages as complex as possible, and a minimizer, whoseeks to reduce the complexity to a bare minimum.In

Eric Sven Ristad Princeton

1993-01-01

425

Language & Literature. Curriculum Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global education curriculum presented in this booklet is offered as a model, of integrated, interdisciplinary English studies, that involves participants in cultural, scientific, ecological, and economic issues while promoting student awareness of the nature and development of world literature, languages, the arts, and their…

Livonia Public Schools, MI.

426

Positivity of the English Language  

PubMed Central

Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use.

Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

2012-01-01

427

Language barriers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Design Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Setting Canada. Participants In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Main outcome measures Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD’s services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. Results After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Conclusion Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs.

Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Quan, Hude

2012-01-01

428

Modern Language Association Language map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on information from the United States Census 2000 long form, the Modern Language Association has crated this important interactive map that allows users to see where the speakers of thirty-seven languages reside throughout the country. The map allows visitors the option to toggle certain themes (such as rivers, lakes, and highways) and to look through the numbers of speakers by zip code, town, city, or county. Visitors can also look at data at the state level, and they can also print out their own customized maps as well. Users of the site can also generate interactive maps for two languages in the same state, or compare the concentration of the same language in two states. If all of this seems a bit overwhelming, visitors can also take an online tour of the site's features. This site will be of great interest both to linguists and to those interested in learning about the spatial distribution of the languages spoken across the United States.

429

Purposeful Language Assessment Selecting the Right Alternative Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In choosing language testing alternatives appropriate for their language education contexts, language teachers need to keep in mind the purposeful nature of language assessment. Purposeful language assessment involves focusing what is to be accomplished by language assessment, specifying intended uses of language tests, selecting appropriate…

Norris, John M.

2000-01-01

430

Language evolution and human-computer interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

1991-01-01

431

Specific Language Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... Voice, Speech and Language Specific Language Impairment Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

432

Conceptualizing ‘Communication’ in Second Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overviewing how the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) conceptualizes ‘communication’ is a complex task. First, researchers differ in their interpretations of the nature of the object of inquiry and the goals of their research, based on different philosophical assumptions about the nature of language and the processes involved in language learning. Second, the concept ‘communication’ is generally taken as

Susana A. Eisenchlas

2009-01-01

433

Evaluating the impact of pre-annotation on annotation speed and potential bias: natural language processing gold standard development for clinical named entity recognition in clinical trial announcements  

PubMed Central

Objective To present a series of experiments: (1) to evaluate the impact of pre-annotation on the speed of manual annotation of clinical trial announcements; and (2) to test for potential bias, if pre-annotation is utilized. Methods To build the gold standard, 1400 clinical trial announcements from the clinicaltrials.gov website were randomly selected and double annotated for diagnoses, signs, symptoms, Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Concept Unique Identifiers, and SNOMED CT codes. We used two dictionary-based methods to pre-annotate the text. We evaluated the annotation time and potential bias through F-measures and ANOVA tests and implemented Bonferroni correction. Results Time savings ranged from 13.85% to 21.5% per entity. Inter-annotator agreement (IAA) ranged from 93.4% to 95.5%. There was no statistically significant difference for IAA and annotator performance in pre-annotations. Conclusions On every experiment pair, the annotator with the pre-annotated text needed less time to annotate than the annotator with non-labeled text. The time savings were statistically significant. Moreover, the pre-annotation did not reduce the IAA or annotator performance. Dictionary-based pre-annotation is a feasible and practical method to reduce the cost of annotation of clinical named entity recognition in the eligibility sections of clinical trial announcements without introducing bias in the annotation process.

Lingren, Todd; Deleger, Louise; Molnar, Katalin; Zhai, Haijun; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura; Li, Qi; Solti, Imre

2014-01-01

434

FIRST LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, different measures derived from 41 3- to 4-year-old children's self- generated picture-book narratives and their performance on a general measure of language development (TELD-2, Hresko, Reid & Hammill, 1991) were evaluated with respect to their possible predictive relation two years later with 5 areas of academic achievement (General information, Reading recognition, Reading comprehension, Math, Spelling) assessed using

Daniela K. O'Neill; Michelle J. Pearce; Jennifer L. Pick

435

English Only Movement: Confrontation with Language Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the movement to make English the only official language in the United States' multilingual society examines the nature and scope of the movement and draws instructional and language policy implications for teaching situations involving language-minority populations. It draws a relationship between the politics of language diversity…

Ovando, Carlos J.

436

The Language of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhetoric, or persuasion, was recognised in classical times both as central to education and as dangerous when misused. Since the time of Kant, a feature of western thinking has been the creation of a special language to accompany a special idea. Making language prior to or separate from its referents is of its nature an authoritarian activity. The…

Beecham, Rod

2008-01-01

437

Psychological Constraints on the Teachability of Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the influence of formal instruction on natural second language acquisition processes by an experiment in which investigators tried to force other than "natural" learning processes in learners' natural acquisition of a second language. The informants in the experiment were ten Italian children attending elementary school in Munich.…

Pienemann, Manfred

1984-01-01

438

Conceptual Complexity and Apparent Contradictions in Mathematics Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics is like a language, although technically it is not a natural or informal human language, but a formal, that is, artificially constructed language. Importantly, educators use their natural everyday language to teach the formal language of mathematics. At times, however, instructors encounter problems when the technical words they use,…

Gough, John

2007-01-01

439

Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

440

ROSS language manual  

SciTech Connect

This Note summarizes the commands of the ROSS language. ROSS is an object-oriented programming language currently being developed at Rand. The goal of ROSS is to provide a programming environment in which users can conveniently design, test and change large knowledge-based simulations of complex mechanisms. Object-oriented programming languages, and ROSS in particular, enforce a 'message-passing' style of programming in which the system to be modeled is represented as a set of actors and their behaviors (rules for actor interaction). This style is especially suited to simulation, since the mechanism or process to be simulated may have a part-whole decomposition that maps naturally onto actors. The first section of this Note gives an overall view of the language and the philosophy behind object-oriented programming. The next eleven sections give detailed descriptions of the basic commands or behaviors of the language. The final two sections give advice on how to write English-like code in ROSS and how to optimize code, once debugged.

McArthur, D.; Klahr, P.

1982-09-01

441

Documenting Endangered Languages  

NSF Publications Database

... Documenting Endangered Languages Documenting endangered languages. Credit and Larger Version ... preserve key languages before they become extinct. More than 70 at-risk languages will be digitally ...

442

Method and apparatus for automated language translation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Language translation is accomplished by representing natural-language sentences in accordance with a constrained grammar and vocabulary structured to permit direct substitution of linguistic units in one language for corresponding linguistic units in another language. Preferably, the vocabulary is represented in a series of physically or logically distinct databases, each containing entries representing a form class as defined in the grammar. Translation involves direct lookup between the entries of a reference sentence and the corresponding entries in one or more target languages.

1999-03-16

443

How Much Language Is Enough? Some Immigrant Language Lessons from Canada and Germany. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Germany and Canada are at opposite ends of the debate over language integration and ascension to citizenship. German naturalization contains an explicit language criterion for naturalization. The first German immigration act will not only concentrate on control aspects but also focus on language as a criterion for legal immigration. Canada does…

DeVoretz, Don J.; Hinte, Holger; Werner, Christiane

444

Programming languages for synthetic biology.  

PubMed

In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented. PMID:22132053

Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

2010-12-01

445

The Learning Theory behind the Rosetta Stone Language Library from Fairfield Language Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief report describes the Rosetta Stone Language Library, a set of multimedia second language instructional materials. These materials emphasize comprehension of spoken language as the first step to acquiring fluency, sometimes referred to as the "comprehension approach" or "natural approach." The materials are designed to develop language

Stoltzfus, Allen

446

Counteracting the Threat of Language Death: The Case of Minority Languages in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Botswana gained independence from the British in 1966, a political decision was taken to designate English as an official language and Setswana, one of the indigenous languages, as a national language. This move disregarded the multilingual nature of Botswana society. Furthermore, although not explicitly stated, the use of other languages

Mooko, Theophilus

2006-01-01

447

American Sign Language  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections, and Deafness American Sign Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

448

Preschool Language Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Preschool Language Disorders What are preschool language disorders ? What are some signs or symptoms of preschool language disorders ? What ... individuals with preschool language disorders ? What are preschool language disorders? Preschool children (3 to 5 years old) ...

449

Foreign language teachers’ language proficiency and their language teaching practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers’ subject knowledge is recognised as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers’ subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling, prompting a demand for more foreign language teachers. A nationwide professional development programme

Heather Richards; Clare Conway; Annelies Roskvist; Sharon Harvey

2012-01-01

450

Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

Cagle, Keith Martin

2010-01-01

451

Action languages: Dimensions, effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

1989-01-01

452

Grocery Product Recommendations from Natural Language Inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shopping lists play a central role in grocery shopping. Among other things, shopping lists serve as memory aids and as a tool\\u000a for budgeting. More interestingly, shopping lists serve as an expression and indication of customer needs and interests. Accordingly,\\u000a shopping lists can be used as an input for recommendation techniques. In this paper we describe a methodology for making

Petteri Nurmi; Andreas Forsblom; Patrik Floréen

2009-01-01

453

Supporting developers with natural language queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feature list of modern IDEs is steadily growing and mastering these tools becomes more and more demanding, especially for novice programmers. Despite their remarkable capabilities, IDEs often still cannot directly answer the questions that arise during program comprehension tasks. Instead developers have to map their questions to multiple concrete queries that can be answered only by combining several tools

Michael Würsch; Giacomo Ghezzi; Gerald Reif; Harald C. Gall

2010-01-01

454

Experiments in Unsupervised Learning of Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the body of the paper, we present ongoing experiments which aim to evaluate different choices of algorithm and metric, and extend the paradigm in directions which are designed to overcome the present limitations. These are presented in the rather unglamorous context of the first stage of classification or as an intuitive multidimensionally scaled map, and later in dendrograms under

David Powers

455

What Science Underlies Natural Language Engineering?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most thought-provoking proposals I have heard recently came from Lori Levin during the discussion that concluded the EACL 2009 Workshop on the Interaction between Linguistics and Computational Linguistics. Lori proposed that we should form an ACL Special Interest Group on Linguistics. At first blush, I found the idea weird: Isn’t it a little like the American Academy

Shuly Wintner

2009-01-01

456

Learning ontologies from natural language texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on ontology is becoming increasingly widespread in the computer science community. The major problems in building ontologies are the bottleneck of knowledge acquisition and time-consuming construction of various ontologies for various domains\\/applications. Meanwhile moving toward automation of ontology construction is a solution. We proposed an automatic ontology building approach. In this approach the system starts form a small ontology

Mehrnoush Shamsfard; Ahmad Abdollahzadeh Barforoush

2004-01-01

457

Mining natural language answers from the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

$EVWUDFW We present a novel method for mining textual answers in Web pages using semi-structured NL questions and Google for initial document retrieval. We exploit the redundancy on the Web by weighting all identified named entities (NEs) found in the relevant document set based on their occurrences and distributions. The ranked NEs are used as our primary anchors for document

Günter Neumann; Feiyu Xu

2004-01-01

458

Automated Database Design from Natural Language Input.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Users and programmers of small systems typically do not have the skills needed to design a database schema from an English description of a problem. This paper describes a system that automatically designs databases for such small applications from Englis...

F. Gomez C. Segami C. Delaune

1995-01-01

459

Towards Ontology-Based Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptualising a domain has long been recognised as a prerequisite for understanding that domain and processing information about it. Ontologies are explicit specifications of conceptualisations which are now recognised as important components of information systems and information processing. In this paper, we describe a project in which ontologies are part of the reasoning process used for information management and for

Dominique Estival; Chris Nowak; Andrew Zschorn

2004-01-01

460

Understanding and representing natural language meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and

D. L. Waltz; L. R. Maran; M. H. Dorfman; R. Dinitz; D. Farwell

1982-01-01

461

Knowledge Acquisition for Natural Language.Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the knowledge acquisition (KA) tech- niques used to build the STOP system, especially sorting and think-aloud protocols. That is, we de- scribe the ways in which we interacted with domain experts to determine appropriate user categories, schemas, detailed content rules, and so forth for STOP. Informal evaluations of these techniques sug- gest that they had some benefit, but

Ehud Reiter; Roma Robertson; Liesl Osman

2000-01-01

462

Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

Bae, Su-Young

2006-01-01

463

Spoken Language Dialogue: From Theory To Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spoken language dialogue system is composed of many parts: speech recognition, speech synthesis, natural language understanding, dialogue manager, database, etc. Building a spoken language system for a new application requires in general a big effort for integrating all these parts, in addition to the effort required for designing, testing and tuning the dialogue behavior. This is especially true when

Esther Levin; Roberto Pieraccini; Wieland Eckert; Giuseppe DiFabbrizio; Shrikanth Narayanan

1999-01-01

464

Explaining ambiguity in a formal query language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of generating reasonable natural language-like responses to queries formulated in nonnavigational query languages with logical data independence is addressed. An extended ER model, the Entity-Relationship-Involvement model, is defined which assists in providing a greater degree of logical data independence and the generation of natural language explanations of a query processor's interpretation of a query. These are accomplished with

Joseph A. Wald; Paul G. Sorenson

1990-01-01

465

Language, cognition, and second language grammaticality judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In first language research, there appear to be two predominant positions relating metalinguistic awareness to language development. One suggests that since metalinguistic awareness is related to primary language acquisition (comprehension and production), general cognitive processes perform a limited role in metalinguistic awareness. The other suggests that since metalinguistic awareness is more closely related to secondary language acquisition (reading and writing),

Diana Masny; Alison d'Anglejan

1985-01-01

466

Language Testing in "The Modern Language Journal."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses coverage of language testing issues in the "Modern Language Journal" over the last 80 years. Suggests that overall the articles devoted to language testing show a valuable concern with the use rather than the form of language tests. (Author/VWL)

Spolsky, Bernard

2000-01-01

467

Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

1991-01-01

468

Language growth and genetics of specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Behavioural studies of children with specific language impairment (SLI) have reported long term growth outcomes across different dimensions of language. Genetic studies of children with SLI have identified candidate genes and putative associations of gene variants with SLI. The aims of this review are to summarize these two lines of investigation and to highlight the possible role of underlying growth timing mechanisms that influence the trajectory of language outcomes throughout childhood and into adolescence. Behavioural growth trajectories demonstrate that children with SLI have notable strengths in language acquisition, as well as limitations, across different dimensions of language. Language onset appears delayed, although the rate and pattern of change over time is similar to unaffected children. Growth rate decelerates early in adolescence for some dimensions of language. Genetic investigations reveal candidate genes that are known to influence neuronal development, and reveal possible gene interactions along a causal pathway. Epigenetic studies reveal other genetic influences implicated in the cognitive decline associated with aging. This review highlights possible parallels between underlying genetic mechanisms and characteristics of linguistic growth trajectories. The conclusion is that new developmental perspectives are needed to inform language intervention in ways that align nurture with nature.

RICE, MABEL L.

2013-01-01

469

Learning About Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distinguishes between language study which implies a critical scrutiny of the language, and language learning directed at language fluency only. Suggests that a more effective approach would be a combination of the two methods. (DS)

Haile, H. G.

1970-01-01

470

Speech and Language Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... 11] Back to top Development of Speech and Language Skills in Childhood Speech and language skills develop ... story. Back to top Characteristics of Speech or Language Impairments The characteristics of speech or language impairments ...

471

Expressive language disorder - developmental  

MedlinePLUS

Language disorder - expressive ... 10% of all school-age children have expressive language disorder. It is a pretty common issue in ... Standardized expressive language and nonverbal intellectual tests ... language disorder is suspected. Testing for other learning ...

472

Clay VLSI layout language  

SciTech Connect

Clay is a procedural language based on C for nMOS VLSI layout. The primitive objects in Clay are wires and symbols. Wires are line segments of a given mask layer. Symbols are small rigid pieces of a layout, such as contact cuts or transistors. Wires and symbols are created and placed in a layout using programming language constructs. Composite structures, such as routing networks, inverters, registers, and PLAs can be written as functions that call lower-level functions or place the necessary wires and symbols directly. The programming language nature of Clay make it convenient to parameterize local and global features of a design, such as the size of a certain pullup transistor or the number of registers in an array. A key property of Clay layouts is that they are flexible. A section of a layout may be stretched as necessary to satisfy constraints on interface wires (those that have connections outside the cell's boundary.) This simplifies cell assembly by eliminating the need for exact pitch matching. All layout in Clay takes place within ordered contexts. Objects placed inside ordered contexts are separated horizontally or vertically, according to the sequential execution of program. There are two steps in the translation of a Clay program. The execution of the user's code wires a system of constraints as a side-effect. The layout constraint solver reads these constraints and outputs a rigid layout mask.

North, S.C.

1986-01-01

473

The Dynamics of Second Language Emergence: Cycles of Language Use, Language Change, and Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an emergentist account whereby the limited end-state typical of adult second language learners results from dynamic cycles of language use, language change, language perception, and language learning in the interactions of members of language communities. In summary, the major processes are: 1. "Usage leads to change": High…

Ellis, Nick C.

2008-01-01

474

Standard Specifications for Language Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specifications are presented covering the components of electronic and electro-mechanical equipment, non-electrical materials for the teacher-student positions, and other items of a miscellaneous nature to provide for a complete, workable language laboratory facility. Instructions for the use of specifications are included for the purchaser,…

North Carolina State Dept. of Administration, Raleigh.

475

Alignment in second language dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of second language dialogues, involving at least one non-native (L2) speaker. We assume that dialogue is characterised by a process in which interlocutors develop similar mental states to each other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). We first consider various means in which interlocutors align their mental states, and suggest why such alignment may be different in

Albert Costa; Martin J. Pickering; Antonella Sorace

2008-01-01

476

PERSPECTIVES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESPITE THE GENERAL ACCEPTANCE OF THE IDEA THAT LINGUISTIC BEHAVIOR AND COMMUNICATION ARE FIRST OF ALL SPOKEN, LANGUAGES ARE NOT ALWAYS TAUGHT ON THAT BASIS, AND CONFUSION STILL EXISTS ABOUT THE NATURE OF SPEECH AND WRITING. THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD WAS THE BASIC SYSTEM UNTIL WORLD WAR II, WHEN IT BECAME NECESSARY TO TRAIN MANY PEOPLE TO…

FELDMAN, DAVID M.

477

Focus Constraints on Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer generation of natural language requires the ability to make reasoned choices from a large number of possible things to say as well as from a large number of expressive possibilities. This paper examines in detail how one influence on a generated text, focus of attention, can be used to constrain the many possibilities that a generation system must consider.

Kathleen Mckeown

1983-01-01

478

Triggered Codeswitching between Cognate Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study shows further evidence for triggered codeswitching. In natural speech from a Dutch-English bilingual, codeswitches occurred more often directly next to a cognate (or "trigger word") than elsewhere. This evidence from typologically related, cognate languages extends previous evidence for triggering between typologically unrelated…

Broersma, Mirjam

2009-01-01

479

Is American Sign Language a "Foreign" Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores some of the complexities of the question as to whether or not American Sign Language (ASL) is a foreign language. It reviews the historical oppression of the deaf, the development of ASL and its defining value to proponents of deaf culture, mentions other language systems (including foreign sign systems) used by the…

Belka, Robert W.

480

Infant artificial language learning and language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidity with which children acquire language is one of the mysteries of human cognition. A view held widely for the past 30 years is that children master language by means of a language-specific learning device. An earlier proposal, which has generated renewed interest, is that children make use of domain-general, associative learning mechanisms. However, our current lack of knowledge

Rebecca L. Gómez; LouAnn Gerken

2000-01-01

481

Language Flowering, Language Empowering for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based upon the view that parents, home visitors, and teachers in early childhood settings need tools for empowering young children to develop language, this paper examines what adults need to know to guide young children's language development and presents 20 suggestions for enhancing language growth. The paper maintains that adults need to know…

Honig, Alice Sterling

482

Language policy and language planning in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this monograph is to provide a detailed account of language policy and language planning in Cyprus. Using both historical and synchronic data and adopting a mixed-methods approach (archival research, ethnographic tools and insights from sociolinguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis), this study attempts to trace the origins and the trajectories of language polices in Cyprus and to relate

Xenia Hadjioannou; Stavroula Tsiplakou; Matthias Kappler

2011-01-01

483

Language and Language Policy in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

Baxter, William H., III

1985-01-01

484

How Optional Is the Language Component? The Language Component as the Chairman Sees It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harold Allen states that language study will become an integral component of the college English curriculum when English departments recognize that a professional knowledge of the nature and function of language, of current theoretical studies in it, and of the geographical, historical, and social variations in language is vital to understanding…

Allen, Harold B.; Worth, George J.

485

Autistic Symptomatology and Language Ability in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are common developmental disorders characterised by deficits in language and communication. The nature of the relationship between them continues to be a matter of debate. This study investigates whether the co-occurrence of ASD and language impairment is associated…

Loucas, Tom; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Meldrum, David; Baird, Gillian

2008-01-01

486

The Two-Way Language Bridge: Co-Constructing Bilingual Language Learning Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sociocultural theoretical lens, this study examines the nature of student interactions in a dual immersion school to analyze affordances for bilingual language learning, language exchange, and co-construction of language expertise. This article focuses on data from audio- and video-recorded interactions of fifth-grade students engaged in…

Martin-Beltran, Melinda

2010-01-01

487

The Relation of Birth Order and Socioeconomic Status to Children's Language Experience and Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variation in mothers' child-directed speech and in their children's rates of language development are examined as a function of childbirth order and family socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that language experience plays a non-trivial role in language development, and that the nature of that role is different for different components of…

Hoff-Ginsburg, Erika

1998-01-01

488

Language Development and Mild-to-Moderate Hearing Loss: Does Language Normalize with Age?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors' purpose was to explore the nature of the link between hearing loss (HL) and language impairment in adolescents with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (MMHL). Does language performance (generally or in certain areas) normalize at adolescence? Method: The language skills of 19 French-speaking adolescents (ages 11-15) with moderate…

Delage, Helene; Tuller, Laurice

2007-01-01

489

Barriers to Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis will explore the acquisition of a second language by normal adults and children, and first language acquisition by children with learning disabilities, more precisely specific language impairment (SLI). It will investigate the striking similarities and the differences between these language groups. Special attention will be paid to morphological and phonological processes that are particularly problematic for both language

Sabina R. Neugebauer

2002-01-01

490

Language Trends 2010 Secondary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

2010-01-01

491

Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

492

Language discrimination without language: Experiments on tamarin monkeys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human newborns can discriminate spoken languages differing on prosodic characteristics such as the timing of rhythmic units [T. Nazzi et al., JEP:HPP 24, 756-766 (1998)]. Cotton-top tamarins have also demonstrated a similar ability to discriminate a morae- (Japanese) vs a stress-timed (Dutch) language [F. Ramus et al., Science 288, 349-351 (2000)]. The finding that tamarins succeed in this task when either natural or synthesized utterances are played in a forward direction, but fail on backward utterances which disrupt the rhythmic cues, suggests that sensitivity to language rhythm may rely on general processes of the primate auditory system. However, the rhythm hypothesis also predicts that tamarins would fail to discriminate languages from the same rhythm class, such as English and Dutch. To assess the robustness of this ability, tamarins were tested on a different-rhythm-class distinction, Polish vs Japanese, and a new same-rhythm-class distinction, English vs Dutch. The stimuli were natural forward utterances produced by multiple speakers. As predicted by the rhythm hypothesis, tamarins discriminated between Polish and Japanese, but not English and Dutch. These findings strengthen the claim that discriminating the rhythmic cues of language does not require mechanisms specialized for human speech. [Work supported by NSF.

Tincoff, Ruth; Hauser, Marc; Spaepen, Geertrui; Tsao, Fritz; Mehler, Jacques

2002-05-01

493

Mirror neurons, language, and embodied cognition.  

PubMed

Basic mechanisms of the mind, cognition, language, its semantic and emotional mechanisms are modeled using dynamic logic (DL). This cognitively and mathematically motivated model leads to a dual-model hypothesis of language and cognition. The paper emphasizes that abstract cognition cannot evolve without language. The developed model is consistent with a joint emergence of language and cognition from a mirror neuron system. The dual language-cognition model leads to the dual mental hierarchy. The nature of cognition embodiment in the hierarchy is analyzed. Future theoretical and experimental research is discussed. PMID:23403367

Perlovsky, Leonid I; Ilin, Roman

2013-05-01

494

Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy  

PubMed Central

The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

Jager, Gerhard; Rogers, James

2012-01-01

495

Red Language Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RED is a programmed language designed, in accordance with the DOD Steelman requirements, for DoD embedded computer applications. The language combines features common to most existing high level languages with new capabilities for abstract data types, exc...

J. Nestor M. V. Deusen

1979-01-01

496

ASPEN Language Specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ASPEN is a 'toy' language that can be used as a sample source language in the teaching of compiler construction. As such, its design incorporates language constructs that can be handled by fundamental compiler construction techniques and yet are expressiv...

T. R. Wilcox

1976-01-01

497

Speech and Language Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Speech and language disorders More information on speech and language disorders ... Return to top More information on Speech and language disorders Explore other publications and websites Aphasia - This ...

498

Revisiting Plain Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

Mazur, Beth

2000-01-01

499

MUMPS Language Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This NBS Handbook contains a three-part description of various aspects of the MUMPS computer programming language. Part I, the MUMPS Language Specification, consists of a stylized English narrative definition of the MUMPS language which was adopted and ap...

J. T. O'Neill

1976-01-01

500

Using Language Learning Conditions in Mathematics. PEN 68.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet reports on a project in Tasmania exploring whether the "natural learning conditions" approach to language learning could be adapted for mathematics. The connections between language and mathematics, as well as the natural learning processes of language learning are described in the pamphlet. The project itself is described--small…

Stoessiger, Rex