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1

Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

James, Mark

2009-01-01

2

Are Efficient Natural Language Parsers Robust?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the robustness of four efficient syntactic error-correcting parsing algorithms that are based on chart parsing with a context-free grammar. In this context, by robust we mean able to correct detectable syntactic errors. We implemented four versions of a bottom-up error-correcting chart parser: a basic bottom-up chart parser, and chart parsers employing selectivity, top-down filtering, and a combination

Kyongho Min; William H. Wilson

1995-01-01

3

Flexible natural language parser based on a two-level representation of syntax  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors present a parser which allows to make explicit the interconnections between syntax and semantics, to analyze the sentences in a quasi-deterministic fashion and, in many cases, to identify the roles of the various constituents even if the sentence is ill-formed. The main feature of the approach on which the parser is based consists in a two-level representation of the syntactic knowledge: a first set of rules emits hypotheses about the constituents of the sentence and their functional role and another set of rules verifies whether a hypothesis satisfies the constraints about the well-formedness of sentences. However, the application of the second set of rules is delayed until the semantic knowledge confirms the acceptability of the hypothesis. If the semantics reject it, a new hypothesis is obtained by applying a simple and relatively inexpensive natural modification; a set of these modifications is predefined and only when none of them is applicable a real backup is performed: in most cases this situation corresponds to a case where people would normally garden path. 19 references.

Lesmo, L.; Torasso, P.

1983-01-01

4

UNL Based Bangla Natural Text Conversion - Predicate Preserving Parser Approach  

E-print Network

Universal Networking Language (UNL) is a declarative formal language that is used to represent semantic data extracted from natural language texts. This paper presents a novel approach to converting Bangla natural language text into UNL using a method known as Predicate Preserving Parser (PPP) technique. PPP performs morphological, syntactic and semantic, and lexical analysis of text synchronously. This analysis produces a semantic-net like structure represented using UNL. We demonstrate how Bangla texts are analyzed following the PPP technique to produce UNL documents which can then be translated into any other suitable natural language facilitating the opportunity to develop a universal language translation method via UNL.

Ali, Md Nawab Yousuf; Allayear, Shaikh Muhammad

2012-01-01

5

Fence - An Efficient Parser with Ambiguity Support for Model-Driven Language Specification  

E-print Network

Model-based language specification has applications in the implementation of language processors, the design of domain-specific languages, model-driven software development, data integration, text mining, natural language processing, and corpus-based induction of models. Model-based language specification decouples language design from language processing and, unlike traditional grammar-driven approaches, which constrain language designers to specific kinds of grammars, it needs general parser generators able to deal with ambiguities. In this paper, we propose Fence, an efficient bottom-up parsing algorithm with lexical and syntactic ambiguity support that enables the use of model-based language specification in practice.

Quesada, Luis; Cortijo, Francisco J

2011-01-01

6

Application of Information Technology: Improved Identification of Noun Phrases in Clinical Radiology Reports Using a High-Performance Statistical Natural Language Parser Augmented with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method of extracting noun phrases with full phrase structures from a set of clinical radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and to investigate the effects of using the UMLS® Specialist Lexicon to improve noun phrase identification within clinical radiology documents.DesignThe noun phrase identification (NPI) module is composed of

Yang Huang; Henry J. Lowe; Dan Klein; Russell J. Cucina

2005-01-01

7

Natural-Language Parser for PBEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called "Hunter" accepts, as input, a colloquial-English description of a set of policy-based-management rules, and parses that description into a form useable by policy-based enterprise management (PBEM) software. PBEM is a rules-based approach suitable for automating some management tasks. PBEM simplifies the management of a given enterprise through establishment of policies addressing situations that are likely to occur. Hunter was developed to have a unique capability to extract the intended meaning instead of focusing on parsing the exact ways in which individual words are used.

James, Mark

2010-01-01

8

Wait-and-See Strategies for Parsing Natural Language  

E-print Network

The intent of this paper is to convey one idea central to the structure of a natural language parser currently under development, the notion of wait-and-see strategies. This notion will hopefully allow the recognition of ...

Marcus, Mitchell P.

9

CS 585: Natural Language Processing James Allen, Natural Language Understanding, Second Edition. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, 1995.  

E-print Network

CS 585: Natural Language Processing Texts James Allen, Natural Language Understanding, Second hours Edited March 2006 (html, css checks) CS 585: Natural Language Processing - CS Dept, Illinois ... 1 generator. Locate and evaluate available parsers and generators. Build a natural language interface. Locate

Heller, Barbara

10

Speed up of XML parsers with PHP language implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, authors introduce PHP5's XML implementation and show how to read, parse, and write a short and uncomplicated XML file using Simple XML in a PHP environment. The possibilities for mutual work of PHP5 language and XML standard are described. The details of parsing process with Simple XML are also cleared. A practical project PHP-XML-MySQL presents the advantages of XML implementation in PHP modules. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of PHP software tools. The proposed project includes database, which can be extended with new data and new XML parsing functions.

Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

2012-11-01

11

A natural language interface to databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a Natural Language Interface which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation is presented. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine. A key point is that the parser handles morphological analysis, which expands its capabilities of understanding more words.

Ford, D. R.

1988-01-01

12

MaltParser: A Data-Driven Parser-Generator for Dependency Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce MaltParser, a data-driven parser generator for dependency parsing. Given a treebank in dependency format, MaltParser can be used to induce a parser for the language of the treebank. MaltParser supports several parsing algorithms and learning algorithms, and allows user-defined feature models, consisting of arbit rary combinations of lexical features, part-of-speech fea tures and dependency features. MaltParser is freely

Joakim Nivre; Johan Hall; Jens Nilsson

13

Natural Language Processing with Thought Treasure  

Microsoft Academic Search

ThoughtTreasure is a comprehensive platform for natural language processing and commonsense reasoning. It includes: (1) an ontology of 25,000 concepts, (2) a lexicon of 55,000 English and French words and phrases, (3) 50,000 commonsense assertions, (4) a syntactic and semantic parser, (5) agents for understanding particular domains, and (6) an English and French generator. This book describes the features and

Erik T. Mueller

1998-01-01

14

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

2003-01-01

15

An Efficient Natural Language Processing System Specially Designed for the Chinese Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an efficient natural language processing system specially designed for the Chinese language is presented. The center of the present system is a bottom-up chart parser with head-driven operation; i.e., phrases are built up by starting with their heads and adjoining constituents to the left or right of the heads instead of strictly from left to right. In

Lin-Shan Lee; Lee-Feng Chien; Long Ji Lin; James Huang; Keh-Jiann Chen

1991-01-01

16

Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

Rieger, C.; Small, S.

1981-01-01

17

Processing Natural Language without Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can still create computer programs displaying only the most rudimentary natural language processing capabilities. One of\\u000a the greatest barriers to advanced natural language processing is our inability to overcome the linguistic knowledge acquisition\\u000a bottleneck. In this paper, we describe recent work in a number of areas, including grammar checker development, automatic\\u000a question answering, and language modeling, where state of

Eric Brill

2003-01-01

18

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in research in natural language processing and discusses some applications of this research to the solution of information management problems. The article emphasizes that the importance of natural language processing systems is reflected in their frequent use in support of other computer programs. (71 references) (CK)

Rindflesch, Thomas C.

1996-01-01

19

Natural language parsing in a hybrid connectionist-symbolic architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most connectionist parsers either cannot guarantee the correctness of their derivations or have to simulate a serial flow of control. In the first case, users have to restrict the tasks (e.g. parse less complex or shorter sentences) of the parser or they need to believe in the soundness of the result. In the second case, the resulting network has lost most of its attractivity because seriality needs to be hard-coded into the structure of the net. We here present a hybrid symbolic connectionist parser, which was designed to fulfill the following goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free grammar, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network. Our hybrid architecture consists of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. BrainC (Backtracking and Backpropagation in C) combines the well known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent the typical properties of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN- Workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. We discuss how BrainC reached its design goals and what results we observed.

Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

1991-03-01

20

NLP (Natural Language Processing) for NLP (Natural Language Programming)  

E-print Network

NLP (Natural Language Processing) for NLP (Natural Language Programming) Rada Mihalcea1 , Hugo Liu2 this assumption. We believe that modern Natural Language Processing techniques can make possible the use Introduction Natural Language Processing and Programming Languages are both established areas in the field

Lieberman, Henry

21

Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

2012-01-01

22

Natural Language Introduction to NLP  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing Introduction to NLP #12;Speech and Language Processing - Jurafsky and Martin 2 Natural Language Processing We're going to study what goes into getting computers to perform for CSI 5386 @ uOttawa #12;Natural Language Processing 1/11/2014 Speech and Language Processing - Jurafsky

Inkpen, Diana

23

IDL-Expressions: A Formalism for Representing and Parsing Finite Languages in Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

We propose a formalism for representation of finite languages, referred to as the class of IDL-expressions, which combines concepts that were only considered in isolation in existing formalisms. The suggested applications are in natural language processing, more specifically in surface natural language generation and in machine translation, where a sentence is obtained by first generating a large set of candidate sentences, represented in a compact way, and then by filtering such a set through a parser. We study several formal properties of IDL-expressions and compare this new formalism with more standard ones. We also present a novel parsing algorithm for IDL-expressions and prove a non-trivial upper bound on its time complexity.

Nederhof, M J; 10.1613/jair.1309

2011-01-01

24

Multi-Source Transfer of Delexicalized Dependency Parsers Ryan McDonald  

E-print Network

parsers can be di- rectly transferred between languages, produc- ing significantly higher accuracies than for English newswire text. Subse- quently, researchers have begun to look at both port- ing these parsers to new domains (Gildea, 2001; Mc- Closky et al., 2006; Petrov et al., 2010) and con- structing parsers

Tomkins, Andrew

25

La Description des langues naturelles en vue d'applications linguistiques: Actes du colloque (The Description of Natural Languages with a View to Linguistic Applications: Conference Papers). Publication K-10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations from a colloquium on applications of research on natural languages to computer science address the following topics: (1) analysis of complex adverbs; (2) parser use in computerized text analysis; (3) French language utilities; (4) lexicographic mapping of official language notices; (5) phonographic codification of Spanish; (6)…

Ouellon, Conrad, Comp.

26

Convolution Kernels for Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the application of kernel methods to Natural Language Pro- cessing (NLP) problems. In many NLP tasks the objects being modeled are strings, trees, graphs or other discrete structures whi ch require some mechanism to convert them into feature vectors. We describe kernels for various natural language structures, allowing rich, high d imensional rep- resentations of these structures. We

Michael Collins; Nigel Duffy

2001-01-01

27

Natural Language Processing P@trik Haslum  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing P@trik Haslum COMP3620/6320 #12;Introduction Linguistics & Natural & Historical Linguistics. * Semiotics. #12;Introduction Linguistics & Natural Language Processing Natural Language Processing Linguistics: The Study of Language Grammar * Morphology: Formation of words. * Syntax

Haslum, Patrik

28

SRI International: Natural Language Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes the Natural Language Program that is part of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center. The center's research focuses on natural language theory and applications, with emphasis on three subgroups of study. The subprogram on Multimedia / Multimodal Interfaces seeks to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces. The subprogram on Spoken Language Systems integrates linguistic processing with speech recognition for use in ATIS, a system for retrieving airline schedules, fares, and related information from a relational database. The subprogram on Written Language Systems researches the problems involved in interpreting and extracting information from written text, such as on-line newspaper articles. Additional information on these projects, related publications, and software are available from this website.

29

Toward understanding natural language directions  

E-print Network

Speaking using unconstrained natural language is an intuitive and flexible way for humans to interact with robots. Understanding this kind of linguistic input is challenging because diverse words and phrases must be mapped ...

Kollar, Thomas Fleming

30

Natural Language Processing: Challenges and Opportunities  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing: Challenges and Opportunities in Intelligent Transportation Barbara Di Eugenio Computer Science University of Illinois at Chicago #12;Di Eugenio NLP Natural Language Processing Natural Language Processing (NLP) encompasses all computational aspects regarding the interpretation

Illinois at Chicago, University of

31

Similarities and Differences between Spoken Languages and Natural Sign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the study of natural sign languages can enhance understanding of what language really is. The aspects of sign language that are similar and dissimilar to the characteristics of spoken language are described. (Author/CB)

Swisher, M. Virginia

1988-01-01

32

Prolog implementation of lexical functional grammar as a base for a natural language processing system  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a system which constructs a database out of a narrative natural language text. Firstly they give a detailed description of the PROLOG implementation of the parser which is based on the theory of lexical functional grammar (LFG). They show that PROLOG provides an efficient tool for LFG implementation. Secondly, they postulate some requirements a semantic representation has to fulfil in order to be able to analyse whole texts. They show how kamps theory meets these requirements by analysing sample discourses involving anaphoric nps. 4 references.

Frey, W.; Reyle, U.

1983-01-01

33

Lightweight Natural Language Text Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants of Hufiman codes where words are taken as the source symbols are currently the most attractive choices to compress natural language text databases. In particular, Tagged Hufiman Code by Moura et al. ofiers fast direct searching on the compressed text and random access capabilities, in exchange for producing around 11% larger compressed flles. This work describes End-Tagged Dense Code

Nieves R. Brisaboa; Antonio Fari; Gonzalo Navarro; Jose R. Parama

34

Lightweight natural language text compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants of Huffman codes where words are taken as the source symbols are currently the most attractive choices to compress natural language text databases. In particular, Tagged Huffman Code by Moura et al. offers fast direct searching on the compressed text and random access capabilities, in exchange for producing around 11% larger compressed files. This work describes End-Tagged Dense Code

Nieves R. Brisaboa; Antonio Fariña; Gonzalo Navarro; Jose R. Parama

2007-01-01

35

Natural language processing information retrieval  

E-print Network

Natural language processing for information retrieval David D. Lewis AT&T Bell Laboratories Karen with `end' text. We will however use information retrieval (IR), sometimes taken to mean document retrieval the essential properties of document retrieval and reviews both conventional practice and research findings

Haddadi, Hamed

36

Genomics and natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Genome and MEDLINE are both the foci of intense data-mining efforts worldwide. The biomedical literature has much to say about sequence, but it also seems that sequence can tell us much about the biomedical literature. Biological natural language processing is an emerging field of research that seeks to explore systematically the relationships between genes, sequences and the biomedical

William H. Majoros; Mark D. Yandell

2002-01-01

37

Natural language processing of lyrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report experiments on the use of standard natural language processing (NLP) tools for the analysis of music lyrics. A significant amount of music audio has lyrics. Lyrics encode an important part of the semantics of a song, therefore their analysis complements that of acoustic and cultural metadata and is fundamental for the development of complete music information retrieval systems.

Jose P. G. Mahedero; Álvaro MartÍnez; Pedro Cano; Markus Koppenberger; Fabien Gouyon

2005-01-01

38

Knowledge and natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

KBNL is a knowledge-based natural language processing system that is novel in several ways, including the clean separation it enforces between linguistic knowledge and world knowledge, and its use of knowledge to aid in lexical acquisition. Applications of KBNL include intelligent interfaces, text retrieval, and machine translation.

Jim Barnett; Kevin Knight; Inderjeet Mani; Elaine Rich

1990-01-01

39

Inheritance in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this introduction to the special issues, we begin by outlining a concrete example that indicates some of the motivations leading to the widespread use of inheritance networks in computational linguistics. This example allows us to illustrate some of the formal choices that have to be made by those who seek network solutions to natural language processing (NLP) problems. We

Walter Daelemans; Koenraad De Smedt; Gerald Gazdar

1992-01-01

40

Natural Language of Application Domains versus Domain Specific Programming Languages  

E-print Network

as high-school algebra and natural language processing. To prevent the reader from being trappedNatural Language of Application Domains versus Domain Specific Programming Languages Cuong Bui problem-solving algorithms and express them in the natural language of the domain while IT experts develop

Rus, Teodor

41

Discriminative Reranking for Natural Language Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers approaches which rerank the output of an existing probabilistic parser. The base parser produces a set of candidate parses for each input sentence, with associated probabilities that define an initial ranking of these parses. A second model then attempts to improve upon this initial ranking, using additional features of the tree as evidence. We describe and compare

Michael Collins

2000-01-01

42

The parser generator as a general purpose tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parser generator has proven to be an extremely useful, general purpose tool. It can be used effectively by programmers having only a knowledge of grammars and no training at all in the theory of formal parsing. Some of the application areas for which a table-driven parser can be used include interactive, query languages, menu systems, translators, and programming support tools. Each of these is illustrated by an example grammar.

Noonan, R. E.; Collins, W. R.

1985-01-01

43

Connectionist natural language parsing with BrainC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A close examination of pure neural parsers shows that they either could not guarantee the correctness of their derivations or had to hard-code seriality into the structure of the net. The authors therefore decided to use a hybrid architecture, consisting of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. The system fulfills the following design goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free language, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network to increase the efficiency of the whole system. BrainC (backtracktacking and backpropagation in C) combines the well- known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent typical structures of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. The design of the system and then the results are discussed.

Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

1991-08-01

44

Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: this paperas "the first clear demonstration of a probabilistic parser outperforming a trigram model" (pg. 457), itdoes not discuss what features of the algorithm lead to its superior results

Christopher D. Manning; Hinrich Schiitze

1999-01-01

45

Java Mathematical Expression Parser  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Java Mathematical Expression Parser (JEP) is a handy tool "for parsing and evaluating mathematical expressions." It is a no-frills package that incorporates several important features, including user-definable functions and implicit multiplication for easy use. JEP can be downloaded as a complete application, or a couple of its features can be used online as applets. There is a separate page of documentation and installation instructions. Also available on this Web site is the AutoAbacus, which allows users to input a system of equations and obtain the solutions instantaneously.

Funk, Nathan.

46

Parser Evaluation and the BNC: Evaluating 4 constituency parsers with 3 metrics  

E-print Network

Parser Evaluation and the BNC: Evaluating 4 constituency parsers with 3 metrics Jennifer Foster,josef@computing.dcu.ie Abstract We evaluate discriminative parse reranking and parser self-training on a new English test set using four versions of the Charniak parser and a variety of parser evaluation metrics. The new test set

van Genabith, Josef

47

GEMINI: A Natural Language System for Spoken-Language Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gemini is a natural language understanding system developed for spoken language applications. This paper describes the details of the system, and includes relevant measurements of size, efficiency, and performance of each of its sub-components in detail.

John Dowding; Jean Mark Gawron; Douglas E. Appelt; John Bear; Lynn Cherny; Robert C. Moore; Douglas B. Moran

1993-01-01

48

Designing a Constraint Based Parser for Sanskrit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verbal understanding (?? bdabodha) of any utterance requires the knowledge of how words in that utterance are related to each other. Such knowledge is usually available in the form of cognition of grammatical relations. Generative grammars describe how a language codes these relations. Thus the knowledge of what information various grammatical relations convey is available from the generation point of view and not the analysis point of view. In order to develop a parser based on any grammar one should then know precisely the semantic content of the grammatical relations expressed in a language string, the clues for extracting these relations and finally whether these relations are expressed explicitly or implicitly. Based on the design principles that emerge from this knowledge, we model the parser as finding a directed Tree, given a graph with nodes representing the words and edges representing the possible relations between them. Further, we also use the M?m? ?s? constraint of ?k? ?k?? (expectancy) to rule out non-solutions and sannidhi (proximity) to prioritize the solutions. We have implemented a parser based on these principles and its performance was found to be satisfactory giving us a confidence to extend its functionality to handle the complex sentences.

Kulkarni, Amba; Pokar, Sheetal; Shukl, Devanand

49

ALGORITHMIC ASPECTS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING  

E-print Network

ALGORITHMIC ASPECTS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING Mark-Jan Nederhof, University of St Andrews, but it is also an essential feature of poetry and puns. 1 #12;The field of natural language processing (NLP) studies algorithms, tools and techniques for automatic processing of natural languages. A re- lated

Nederhof, Mark-Jan

50

Natural Language Processing, Instructor: Diana Inkpen  

E-print Network

CSI 5386 Natural Language Processing, Instructor: Diana Inkpen e-mail: diana@eecs.uottawa.ca Preliminaries #12;Why study Natural Language Processing (NLP)? NLP is a very important current area to the world #12;NLP and related terms Natural language processing (NLP) = manipulation, processing

Inkpen, Diana

51

Bilateral brain processes for comprehending natural language  

E-print Network

Bilateral brain processes for comprehending natural language Mark Jung-Beeman Department 60208-2710, USA Comprehension of natural language ­ stories, conversa- tions, text ­ is very simple-established facts about the brain; yet, when it comes to comprehending complex, natural language, the right

Jung-Beeman, Mark

52

Natural language processing: an introduction  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide an overview and tutorial of natural language processing (NLP) and modern NLP-system design. Target audience This tutorial targets the medical informatics generalist who has limited acquaintance with the principles behind NLP and/or limited knowledge of the current state of the art. Scope We describe the historical evolution of NLP, and summarize common NLP sub-problems in this extensive field. We then provide a synopsis of selected highlights of medical NLP efforts. After providing a brief description of common machine-learning approaches that are being used for diverse NLP sub-problems, we discuss how modern NLP architectures are designed, with a summary of the Apache Foundation's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We finally consider possible future directions for NLP, and reflect on the possible impact of IBM Watson on the medical field. PMID:21846786

Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Chapman, Wendy W

2011-01-01

53

Natural language and spatial reasoning  

E-print Network

Making systems that understand language has long been a dream of artificial intelligence. This thesis develops a model for understanding language about space and movement in realistic situations. The system understands ...

Tellex, Stefanie, 1980-

2010-01-01

54

Knowledge representation and natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In principle, natural language and knowledge representation are closely related. This paper investigates this by demonstrating how several natural language phenomena, such as definite reference, ambiguity, ellipsis, ill-formed input, figures of speech, and vagueness, require diverse knowledge sources and reasoning. The breadth of kinds of knowledge needed to represent morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is surveyed. Furthermore, several current issues

R. M. Weischedel

1986-01-01

55

Information Retrieval Using Robust Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a prototype information retrieval system which uses advanced natural language processing techniques to enhance the effectiveness of traditional key-word based document retrieval. The backbone of our system is a statistical retrieval engine which performs automated indexing of documents, then search and ranking in response to user queries. This core architecture is augmented with advanced natural language processing tools

Tomek Strzalkowski; Barbara Vauthey

1992-01-01

56

A lex-based mad parser and its applications  

SciTech Connect

An embeddable and portable Lex-based MAD language parser has been developed. The parser consists of a front-end which reads a MAD file and keeps beam elements, beam line data and algebraic expressions in tree-like structures, and a back-end, which processes the front-end data to generate an input file or data structures compatible with user applications. Three working programs are described, namely, a MAD to C++ converter, a dynamic C++ object factory and a MAD-MARS beam line builder. Design and implementation issues are discussed.

Oleg Krivosheev et al.

2001-07-03

57

A Probabilistic Earley Parser as a Psycholinguistic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human sentence processing, cognitive load can be defined many ways. This report considers a definition of cognitive load in terms of the total probability of structural options that have been disconfirmed at some point in a sentence: the surprisal of word on a phrase-structural language model. These loads can be efficiently calculated using a probabilistic Earley parser (Stolcke, 1995)

John Hale

2001-01-01

58

Comparing Italian parsers on a common treebank: the Evalita experience  

E-print Network

Comparing Italian parsers on a common treebank: the Evalita experience C. Bosco , A. Mazzei , V contest among parsing systems for Italian. It is the first attempt to compare the approaches and the results of the existing parsing systems specific for this language using a common treebank annotated using

Mazzei, Alessandro

59

Comparing Italian parsers on a common treebank: the Evalita experience  

E-print Network

Comparing Italian parsers on a common treebank: the Evalita experience C. Bosco , A. Mazzei , V been the first contest among parsing systems for Italian. It is the first attempt to compare the approaches and the results of the existing parsing systems specific for this language using a common treebank

Mazzei, Alessandro

60

Multilingual Dependency Analysis with a Two-Stage Discriminative Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a two-stage multilingual de- pendency parser and evaluate it on 13 diverse languages. The first stage is based on the unlabeled dependency pars- ing models described by McDonald and Pereira (2006) augmented with morpho- logical features for a subset of the lan- guages. The second stage takes the out- put from the first and labels all the edges

Ryan McDonald; Kevin Lerman; Fernando Pereira

2006-01-01

61

A Table Look-Up Parser in Online ILTS Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple table look-up parser (TLUP) has been developed for parsing and consequently diagnosing syntactic errors in semi-free formatted learners' input sentences of an intelligent language tutoring system (ILTS). The TLUP finds a parse tree for a correct version of an input sentence, diagnoses syntactic errors of the learner by tracing and…

Chen, Liang; Tokuda, Naoyuki; Hou, Pingkui

2005-01-01

62

Talking with computers in natural language  

SciTech Connect

Great efforts have been made to find a solution to the problem of communication with computers. Two approaches can be distinguished: (1) making the computer language similar to the natural language; (2) making the user's language resemble that of computers through formalisation of the former. This book deals with the first approach: those systems are considered which make it possible to ''talk'' with the user in limited natural language. Contents: Theories and Principles of Designing the Model of Conversation. - Principles of Construction and General Organization of the Model of a Participant in the Conversation. - The Structure of Knowledge and Methods of Representing Reality: Knowledge About the Surrounding Environment. - The System's Knowledge About the Language and the Participants in the Conversation. - Input Sentence Analysis. - Connected-Text (Discourse) Processing. - Synthesis of Statements in Natural Language. - Work to Date on Designing Systems of Conservation. - Afterword. - References. - Subject Index.

Werner, T.R.

1986-01-01

63

Natural languages as collections of resources Robin Cooper  

E-print Network

and disadvantages of regarding natural languages as formal languages (section 1.1). We will then (section 1 on general resources for natural languages and we will give a brief characterization of the system in section (section 3). 1.1 Are natural languages formal languages? The view of natural languages as formal languages

Cooper, Robin

64

A Natural Language Interface to Databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a Natural Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

Ford, D. R.

1990-01-01

65

Learning Semantic Maps from Natural Language Descriptions  

E-print Network

This paper proposes an algorithm that enables robots to efficiently learn human-centric models of their environment from natural language descriptions. Typical semantic mapping approaches augment metric maps with higher-level ...

Walter, Matthew R.

66

Natural Language Processing and Systems Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter outlines the basic families of applications of natural language processing techniques to questions of interest\\u000a to systems biologists and describes publicly available resources for such applications.

K. Bretonnel Cohen; Lawrence Hunter

67

Natural Language Processing on the Web  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing on the Web Guy Lapalme RALI-DIRO, Université de Montréal ! http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~lapalme #12;Overview · What is Natural Language Processing (NLP) · NLP for the Web · The Web for NLP 2 #12 recognition 5 #12;http://rali.iro.umontreal.ca #12;NLP for the syntactic Web search engines · NLP saved

68

Incremental natural language processing for HRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots that interact with humans face-to-face using natu- ral language need to be responsive to the way humans use language in those situations. We propose a psychologically- inspired natural language processing system for robots which performs incremental semantic interpretation of spoken ut- terances, integrating tightly with the robot's perceptual and motor systems. Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.2.7 (Computing Methodologies): Artificial

Timothy Brick; Matthias Scheutz

2007-01-01

69

Facilitating Oral Language Competence: The Natural Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that by focusing on natural strategies to facilitate language interaction, adults can become instrumental in expanding the foundations of literacy of young children. Strategies include planning stimulating learning experiences utilizing contextual cues; encouraging personalized development of child language events; anticipating and…

Wishon, Phillip M.; And Others

1986-01-01

70

Natural Language Interfaces to Databases - An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an introduction to natural language interfaces to databases (Nlidbs). A brief overview of the history of Nlidbs is first given. Some advantages and disad- vantages of Nlidbs are then discussed, comparing Nlidbs to formal query languages, form-based interfaces, and graphical interfaces. An introduction to some of the linguistic problems Nlidbs have to confront follows, for the benefit

Ion Androutsopoulos; Graeme D. Ritchie; Peter Thanisch

1995-01-01

71

Neural Network Computing and Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the application of neural network concepts to traditional natural language processing and demonstrates that neural network computing architecture can: (1) learn from actual spoken language; (2) observe rules of pronunciation; and (3) reproduce sounds from the patterns derived by its own processes. (Author/CB)

Borchardt, Frank

1988-01-01

72

TSNLP - Test Suites for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing language technology industry needs measurement tools to allow researchers, engineers, managers, and customers to track development, evaluate and assure quality, and assess suitability for a variety of applications.The TSNLP (Test Suites for Natural Language Processing) project has investigated various aspects of the construction, maintenance and application of systematic test suites as diagnostic and evaluation tools for NLP applications.

Sabine Lehmann; Stephan Oepen; Sylvie Regnier-Prost; Klaus Netter; Veronika Lux; Judith Klein; Kirsten Falkedal; Frederik Fouvry; Dominique Estival; Eva Dauphin; Herve Compagnion; Judith Baur; Lorna Balkan; Doug Arnold

1996-01-01

73

Language and the Multisemiotic Nature of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how language and the multisemiotic nature of mathematics can present potential challenges for English language learners (ELLs). Based on two qualitative studies of the discourse of mathematics, we discuss some of the linguistic challenges of mathematics for ELLs in order to highlight the potential difficulties they may have…

de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Cheng, Dazhi

2011-01-01

74

Language engineering: the real bottle neck of natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bottle neck in building a practical natural language processing system is not those problems which have been often discussed in research papers, but in ilandling much more dirty, exceptional (for theoreticians, but we frequently encounter) expressions. This panel will focus on the problem which has been rarely written but has been argued informally among researchers who have tried to

Makoto Nagao

1988-01-01

75

Arabic natural language processing A. Belad, Loria  

E-print Network

1 Arabic natural language processing A. Belaïd, Loria Introduction The automatic recognition. The last part of the paper addresses the linguistics aspect. The natural Arab processing could provide close disciplines, Latin writing recognition, speech recognition and Vision processing, in current

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Evolution, brain, and the nature of language.  

PubMed

Language serves as a cornerstone for human cognition, yet much about its evolution remains puzzling. Recent research on this question parallels Darwin's attempt to explain both the unity of all species and their diversity. What has emerged from this research is that the unified nature of human language arises from a shared, species-specific computational ability. This ability has identifiable correlates in the brain and has remained fixed since the origin of language approximately 100 thousand years ago. Although songbirds share with humans a vocal imitation learning ability, with a similar underlying neural organization, language is uniquely human. PMID:23313359

Berwick, Robert C; Friederici, Angela D; Chomsky, Noam; Bolhuis, Johan J

2013-02-01

77

Knowledge engineering approach to natural language understanding  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the results of a preliminary study of a knowledge engineering approach to natural language understanding. A computer system is being developed to handle the acquisition, representation, and use of linguistic knowledge. The computer system is rule-based and utilizes a semantic network for knowledge storage and representation. In order to facilitate the interaction between user and system, input of linguistic knowledge and computer responses are in natural language. Knowledge of various types can be entered and utilized: syntactic and semantic; assertions and rules. The inference tracing facility is also being developed as a part of the rule-based system with output in natural language. A detailed example is presented to illustrate the current capabilities and features of the system. 12 references.

Shapiro, S.C.; Neal, J.G.

1982-01-01

78

Combining Semantic Wikis and Controlled Natural Language  

E-print Network

We demonstrate AceWiki that is a semantic wiki using the controlled natural language Attempto Controlled English (ACE). The goal is to enable easy creation and modification of ontologies through the web. Texts in ACE can automatically be translated into first-order logic and other languages, for example OWL. Previous evaluation showed that ordinary people are able to use AceWiki without being instructed.

Kuhn, Tobias

2008-01-01

79

INTERFACING ACOUSTIC MODELS WITH NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

INTERFACING ACOUSTIC MODELS WITH NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING SYSTEMS Michael T. Johnson, Mary P recognition systems with natural language processing systems. The effectiveness of various pruning meth- ods systems with language models [2, 8]. Many systems integrate stochastic language models directly

Johnson, Michael T.

80

Literature Research into Natural Language Generation for the Virtual Storyteller  

E-print Network

literature that describes the architecture of Natural Language Generation (NLG) system. In section 5 ILiterature Research into Natural Language Generation for the Virtual Storyteller Marissa Hoek natural language generation, virtual storytelling, Dutch, emergent narrative ABSTRACT This paper presents

Theune, Mariët

81

Parser Evaluation and the BNC: Evaluating 4 constituency parsers with 3 metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate discriminative parse reranking and parser self-training on a new English test set using four versions of the Charniak parser and a variety of parser evaluation metrics. The new test set consists of 1,000 hand-corrected British National Corpus parse trees. We directly evaluate parser output using both the Parseval and the Leaf Ancestor metrics. We also convert the hand-corrected

Jennifer Foster; Josef van Genabith

2008-01-01

82

Type Parser 1.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy utility helps users who want to get more information on the usage of their drives. With Type Parser, users can discover wasted drive space, the types of files responsible, and where they reside. The options menu allows users to specify whether they wish to calculate cluster size or directory data and what size files they wish to analyze. A good way to discover long forgotten files and recover some of that seemingly ever-elusive disk space.

2000-01-01

83

Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web Boris Katz1 , Jimmy Lin1 , and Dennis Quan2 1 MIT. Because the ultimate purpose of the Semantic Web is to help users locate, organize, and process of the Semantic Web, was designed to be easily processed by computers, not humans. To render RDF friendlier

Lin, Jimmy

84

Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Natural Language Annotations for the Semantic Web Boris Katz 1 , Jimmy Lin 1 , and Dennis Quan 2 1. Because the ultimate purpose of the Semantic Web is to help users locate, organize, and process of the Semantic Web, was designed to be easily processed by computers, not humans. To render RDF friendlier

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, InfoLab

85

Natural Language Information Retrieval: Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the progress of the natural language information retrieval project, a joint effort led by GE (General Electric) Research, and its evaluation at the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). Discusses stream-based information retrieval, which uses alternative methods of document indexing; advanced linguistic streams; weighting; and query…

Perez-Carballo, Jose; Strzalkowski, Tomek

2000-01-01

86

Transition network grammars for natural language analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of augmented transition network grammars for the analysis of natural language sentences is described. Structure-building actions associated with the arcs of the grammar network allow for the reordering, restructuring, and copying of constituents necessary to produce deep-structure representations of the type normally obtained from a transformational analysis, and conditions on the arcs allow for a powerful selectivity which

William A. Woods

1970-01-01

87

Commercial Applications of Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

Commercial Applications of Natural Language Processing Kenneth W. Church AT&T Bell Laboratories and Lisa F. Rau \\Lambda Systems Research and Applications (SRA) Corporation 2000 15th Street North) also had to be omitted. 2 Word Processing and Desktop Publishing The commercial importance of word

Church, Kenneth W.

88

Enhanced Text Retrieval Using Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines natural language processing (NLP); describes the use of NLP in information retrieval (IR); provides seven levels of linguistic analysis: phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and pragmatic. Discusses the commercial use of NLP in IR with the example of DR-LINK (Document Retrieval using LINguistic Knowledge)…

Liddy, Elizabeth D.

1998-01-01

89

Lexical Knowledge Representation and Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pustejovsky, J. and B. Boguraev, Lexical knowledge representation and natural language processing, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 193-223. Traditionally, semantic information in computational lexicons is limited to notions such as selectional restrictions or domain-specific constraints, encoded in a \\

James Pustejovsky; Branimir Boguraev

1993-01-01

90

Decomposable Modeling in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a framework for developing probabilistic classifiers in natural language processing. Our focus is on formulating models that capture the most important interdependencies among features, to avoid overfitting the data while also characterizing the data well. The class of probability models and the associated inference techniques described here were developed in mathematical statistics, and are widely

Rebecca F. Bruce; Janyce M. Wiebe

1999-01-01

91

The natural language processing of medical databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consideration of natural language as a domain for computer processing has has been one of the long-term projects in the history of data processing. Computers were developed in the late 40's and early 50's in the United States and from the very beginning there was a desire and intent that someday the computer would handle speech and be able

Ralph R. Grams; Z. Ming Jin

1989-01-01

92

Test Suites for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the topic of evaluation of Natural LanguageProcessing systems, and discusses the role of test suitesin the linguistic evaluation of a system. The work on test suitesthat is being carried out within the framework of the TSNLPproject is described in detail and the relevance of the project tothe evaluation of machine translation systems considered.INTRODUCTIONEvaluation is a topic that

Lorna Balkan; Doug Arnold; Siety Meijer

1994-01-01

93

Semantic Classification for Practical Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural language processing (NLP) there is now a consensus that all NLPsystems that seek to represent and manipulate meanings of texts need an ontology, that is ataxonomic classification of concepts in the world to be used as semantic primitives. In ourcontinued efforts to build a multilingual knowledge-based machine translation (KBMT) systemusing an interlingual meaning representation, we

Kavi Mahesh; Sergei Nirenburg

1995-01-01

94

Conditioned Unification for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents what we call a conditional unification a new method of unification for processing natural languages. The key idea is to annotate the patterns with a certain sort of conditions, so that they carry abundant information. This method transmits information from one pattern to another more efficiently than procedure attachments, in which information contained in the procedure is

Kôiti Hasida

1986-01-01

95

Segmentation Standard for Chinese Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a segmentation standard for Chinese natural language processing. The standard is proposed to achieve linguistic felicity, computational feasibility, and data uniformity. Linguistic felicity is maintained by defining a segmentation unit to be equivalent to the theoretical definition of word, and by providing a set of segmentation principles that are equivalent to a functional definition of a word.

Chu-Ren Huang; Keh-Jiann Chen; Li-Li Chang

1996-01-01

96

Convolution Kernels for Natural Language Michael Collins  

E-print Network

Convolution Kernels for Natural Language Michael Collins AT&T Labs--Research 180 Park Avenue, New vectors in R d into a new space R n , and applying the original algorithm in this new feature space NLP tasks the input domain cannot be neatly formulated as a sub­ set of R d . Instead, the objects

Collins, Michael

97

Natural Language Control of Agent Systems, or \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we outline a general framework and architecture for the development of natural language interfaces to agent systems. We consider agent systems, which perform actions and thus achieve a certain world state or change of world state, acting in a virtual or a physical world. The aim of this research is to allow a control of and communication

Christel Kemke

98

Natural Language Processing: Data, Algorithms, and Knowledge  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing: Data, Algorithms, and Knowledge BEARS 2011 Dan Klein Computer Science return the troubled starlet to jail rather than the big screen. Saying it appeared that Lohan had early. [Berg-Kirkpatrick, Gillick, and Klein 11] #12;More Data: Machine Translation Cela constituerait

Hellerstein, Joseph M.

99

Natural language processing, pragmatics, and verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is that part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with endowing computers with verbal and listener repertoires, so that people can interact with them more easily. Most attention has been given to accurately parsing and generating syntactic structures, although NLP researchers are finding ways of handling the semantic content of language as well. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the pragmatic (contextual and consequential) dimension of natural language is critical for producing effective NLP systems. While there are some techniques for applying pragmatics in computer systems, they are piecemeal, crude, and lack an integrated theoretical foundation. Unfortunately, there is little awareness that Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior provides an extensive, principled pragmatic analysis of language. The implications of Skinner's functional analysis for NLP and for verbal aspects of epistemology lead to a proposal for a “user expert”—a computer system whose area of expertise is the long-term computer user. The evolutionary nature of behavior suggests an AI technology known as genetic algorithms/programming for implementing such a system. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:22477052

Cherpas, Chris

1992-01-01

100

Multilingual Natural Language Generation (Experience from AGILE Project)1  

E-print Network

Language Generation is an interesting and challenging field of Natural Language Processing. Automatic generation of texts in natural language could be viewed as a final part of automated translation process from Language Processing technologies, which concentratethe researchers atten- tion on Natural Language

Borissova, Daniela

101

A Controlled Natural Language Layer for the Semantic Web  

E-print Network

- ural language. In Section 4, I will introduce the controlled natural language by exampleA Controlled Natural Language Layer for the Semantic Web Rolf Schwitter Centre for Language, I will show how a controlled natural language can be used to describe knowledge for the Semantic Web

Schwitter, Rolf

102

Natural Language Processing with Distributional Compositional Models Jean Maillard  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing with Distributional Compositional Models Jean Maillard Supervised by: Dr Stephen Clark, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge Natural Language Processing language. Tradi- tionally, the field has been divided into two "camps": compositional and distri- butional

103

Automated database design from natural language input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Users and programmers of small systems typically do not have the skills needed to design a database schema from an English description of a problem. This paper describes a system that automatically designs databases for such small applications from English descriptions provided by end-users. Although the system has been motivated by the space applications at Kennedy Space Center, and portions of it have been designed with that idea in mind, it can be applied to different situations. The system consists of two major components: a natural language understander and a problem-solver. The paper describes briefly the knowledge representation structures constructed by the natural language understander, and, then, explains the problem-solver in detail.

Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos; Delaune, Carl

1995-01-01

104

Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

1994-01-01

105

Substitutional Semantics and Natural Language Quantification  

E-print Network

sharpening of certain points came out of discussion of these issues with Noam Chomsky and Norbert Hornstein. Finally, I would like to thank the MIT Department of Linguistics and Philosophy for making their facilities available to me during my tenure as a... Visiting Scholar. 'For example. Dale Gottlieb, Ontoloqical Economy; Substitutional Quantification and Mathematics, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, I960). 'Noam Chomsky has suggested to me that it is ille­ gitimate to suppose that natural language...

Ludlow, Peter

106

An expert system for natural language processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

Hennessy, John F.

1988-01-01

107

Current trends with natural language processing.  

PubMed

Natural Language Processing in the medical domain becomes more and more powerful, efficient, and ready to be used in daily practice. The needs for such tools are enormous in the medical field, due to the vast amount of written texts for medical records. In the authors' point of view, the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) is achieved neither with Information Systems of all kinds nor with commercially available word processing systems. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is one dimension of the EPR, as well as Image Processing and Decision Support Systems. Analysis of medical texts to facilitate indexing and retrieval is well known. The need for a generation tool is to produce progress notes from menu driven systems. The computer systems of tomorrow cannot miss any single dimension. Since 1988, we've been developing an NLP system; it is supported by the European program AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine) within the GALEN and HELIOS consortium and the CERS (Commission d'Encouragement á la Recherche Scientifique) in Switzerland. The main directions of development are: a medical language analyzer, a language generator, a query processor, and dictionary building tools to support the Medical Linguistic Knowledge Base (MLKB). The knowledge representation schema is essentially based on Sowa's conceptual graphs, and the MLKB is multilingual from its design phase; it currently incorporates the English and the French languages; it will also continue using German. The goal of this demonstration is to provide evidence of what exists today, what will be soon available, and what is planned for the long term. Complete sentences will be processed in real time, and the browsing capabilities of the MLKB will be exercised. In particular, the following features will be presented: Analysis of complete sentences with verbs and relatives, as extracted from clinical narratives, with special attention to the method of "proximity processing" as developed in our group and the rule based approach to language description to resolve the specific surface language problems as well as the language independent semantic situations. Comparison of results for English, French, and German sentences, showing the commonalities between these languages and, therefore, the re-usable features and the language specific aspects. Generation of noun phrases in English and French, showing the opportunities for translation between these two languages. Application of the analyzer to build a knowledge representation of ICD under the form of conceptual graphs and presentation of the possibilities of a natural language encoding of diagnosis. Strategies for query processing through a sample of abdominal ultrasonography reports, which have been analyzed and stored under the form of conceptual graphs. Feeding in and browsing of the Medical Linguistic Knowledge Base and other Dictionary Building Tools, using the perspective of an international initiative to converge towards a multilingual universal solution, valid for the medical domain. The demonstration platform is Microsoft Windows 4 on a PC, with Microsoft Visual Basic as the GUI and Quintus Prolog as NLP tools language. The same programs were originally developed for Unix-based workstations and are available on multiple platforms under Motif and X11. . PMID:8591530

Rassinoux, A M; Michel, P A; Wagner, J; Baud, R

1995-01-01

108

Understanding requirements via natural language information modeling  

SciTech Connect

Information system requirements that are expressed as simple English sentences provide a clear understanding of what is needed between system specifiers, administrators, users, and developers of information systems. The approach used to develop the requirements is the Natural-language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM). NIAM allows the processes, events, and business rules to be modeled using natural language. The natural language presentation enables the people who deal with the business issues that are to be supported by the information system to describe exactly the system requirements that designers and developers will implement. Computer prattle is completely eliminated from the requirements discussion. An example is presented that is based upon a section of a DOE Order involving nuclear materials management. Where possible, the section is analyzed to specify the process(es) to be done, the event(s) that start the process, and the business rules that are to be followed during the process. Examples, including constraints, are developed. The presentation steps through the modeling process and shows where the section of the DOE Order needs clarification, extensions or interpretations that could provide a more complete and accurate specification.

Sharp, J.K.; Becker, S.D.

1993-07-01

109

Language processing in the natural world Michael K. Tanenhaus  

E-print Network

Language processing in the natural world Michael K. Tanenhaus Department of Brain and Cognitive and comprehend language will require investigating real-time spoken language processing in natural tasks language processing in relatively natural tasks that combine perception and action (Tanenhaus, Spivey

DeAngelis, Gregory

110

CROWDSOURCING THE ACQUISITION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE CORPORA: METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

to acquire language corpora for use in natural language processing systems. Specifically, we empirically and directions in applying these methods to acquire corpora for natural language processing applications. IndexCROWDSOURCING THE ACQUISITION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE CORPORA: METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS William Yang

Horvitz, Eric

111

Representing the Semantics of Natural Language as Constraint Expressions  

E-print Network

The issue of how to represent the "meaning" of an utterance is central to the problem of computer understanding of natural language. Rather than relying on ad-hoc structures or forcing the complexities of natural language ...

Grossman, Richard W.

112

The (Non)Necessity of Recursion in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prima facie unbounded nature of natural language, contrasted with the finite character of our memory and computational resources, is often taken to warrant a recursive language processing mechanism. The widely held distinction between an idealized infinite grammatical competence and the actual finite natural language performance pro- vides further support for a recursive processor. In this paper, I argue that

Morten H. Christiansen

1992-01-01

113

Natural Language Processing and User Modeling: Synergies and Limitations  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing and User Modeling: Synergies and Limitations INGRID ZUKERMAN School@research.att.com Abstract. The fields of user modeling and natural language processing have been closely linked since of natural language processing is to endow a computer with the ability to interact with people the way people

Zukerman, Ingrid

114

Towards a Bio-computational Model of Natural Language Learning  

E-print Network

models can also help in the understanding of natural language acquisition/processing. The simulationTowards a Bio-computational Model of Natural Language Learning Leonor Becerra-Bonache Laboratoire together the theory of Grammatical Inference and the studies of natural language acquisition. We discuss

Boyer, Edmond

115

Towards Large Scale Open Domain Natural Language Gourab Kundu  

E-print Network

Colloquium Towards Large Scale Open Domain Natural Language Processing Gourab Kundu University of the large amounts of data we have. Research in Natural Language Processing has both benefited complicated, for natural language processing and other disciplines, making appli- cation of these tools to big

Garibaldi, Skip

116

From Natural Language to RDF Graphs with Pregroups Antonin Delpeuch  

E-print Network

Introduction There is a general agreement that Natural Language Processing has two aspects. One is syntaxFrom Natural Language to RDF Graphs with Pregroups Antonin Delpeuch �cole Normale Supérieure 45 rue Cedex 5, France preller@lirmm.fr Abstract We define an algorithm translating natural language sentences

117

Towards robustness in natural language processing by Jordi Atserias  

E-print Network

Towards robustness in natural language processing by Jordi Atserias Yahoo! Research Barcelona & UPF in a compact and elegant manner by means of constraints. On the other hand, many natural language processes of integration of their data. We present in this talk an integrated architecture for robust Natural Language

Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

118

Symbolic Natural Language 3.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155  

E-print Network

155 CHAPTER 3 Symbolic Natural Language Processing 3.0 Introduction Combinatorics on Words, Lothaire (Ed.) (2005) 164-209" #12;156 Symbolic Natural Language Processing some . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 3.0. Introduction Fundamental notions of combinatorics on words underlie natural language pro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

119

Embedded Machine Learning Systems for Natural Language Processing: A General  

E-print Network

Embedded Machine Learning Systems for Natural Language Processing: A General Framework Claire for Natural Language Processing, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 315­328, Springer, 1996. Abstract. This paper presents Kenmore, a general framework for knowl­ edge acquisition for natural language processing

Cardie, Claire

120

Natural Language Processing and User Modeling: Synergies and Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fields of user modeling and natural language processing h ave been closely linked since the early days of user modeling. Natural language systems consult user models in order to improve their understanding of users' requirements and to generate appropriate and relevant resp onses. At the same time, the information natural language systems obtain from their users is expected to

Ingrid Zukerman; Diane J. Litman

2001-01-01

121

MAXIMUM ENTROPY MODELS FOR NATURAL LANGUAGE AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION  

E-print Network

the intellectual freedom to pursue what I believed to be the best way to approach natural language processing modeling technology, and also to statistical natural language processing in general. My employmentMAXIMUM ENTROPY MODELS FOR NATURAL LANGUAGE AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION Adwait Ratnaparkhi A DISSERTATION

Rodriguez, Carlos

122

Understanding natural language for spacecraft sequencing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes a natural language understanding system, START, that translates English text into a knowledge base. The understanding and the generating modules of START share a Grammar which is built upon reversible transformations. Users can retrieve information by querying the knowledge base in English; the system then produces an English response. START can be easily adapted to many different domains. One such domain is spacecraft sequencing. A high-level overview of sequencing as it is practiced at JPL is presented in the paper, and three areas within this activity are identified for potential application of the START system. Examples are given of an actual dialog with START based on simulated data for the Mars Observer mission.

Katz, Boris; Brooks, Robert N., Jr.

1987-01-01

123

Understanding and representing natural language meaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (4) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (5) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (6) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (7) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

Waltz, D. L.; Maran, L. R.; Dorfman, M. H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

1982-12-01

124

Interference and Natural Language Processing in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of English speakers' acquisition of relative clauses in Chinese, Japanese, Persian, German, and Portugese is reported. Various structures were tested to separate interlanguage features attributable to first language interference from those universal to second language acquisition. Application of an accessibility hierarchy theory and…

Tarallo, Fernando; Myhill, John

1983-01-01

125

Natural Language Metaphors Covertly Influence Reasoning  

PubMed Central

Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city’s crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people’s reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents. PMID:23301009

Thibodeau, Paul H.; Boroditsky, Lera

2013-01-01

126

A Survey on Statistical Approaches to Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey attempts to catch up with the recent increasing interests in statisticalapproach to natural language processing based on large corpora. First of all, a historicaloverview traces back to 1950s when Noam Chomsky proposed his phrase structuretransformation grammar and rejected the Markov process natural language modeling.With the development of large corpora and language modeling in recent years, thestatistical approach to

Zhi Biao Wu; Loke Soo Hsu; Chew Lim Tan

1992-01-01

127

Current Issues in Software Engineering for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Natural Language Processing (NLP), research re- sults from software engineering and software tech- nology have often been neglected. This paper describes some factors that add complex- ity to the task of engineering reusable NLP systems (beyond conventional software systems). Current work in the area of design patterns and composi- tion languages is described and claimed relevant for natural language

Jochen L. Leidner

2003-01-01

128

Language Determination: Natural Language Processing from Scanned Document Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many documents are available to a computer only as images from paper. However, most nat- ural language processing systems expect their input as character-coded text, which may be difficult or expensive to extract accurately from the page. We describe a method for con- verting a document image into character shape codes and word shape tokens. We believe that this representation,

Penelope Sibun; A. Lawrence Spitz

1994-01-01

129

An Experimental Comparison of Deductive and Inductive Feedback Generated by a Simple Parser.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a parser-driven Japanese tutor, "BANZAI," designed for second-language instruction and presents an empirical study of the program. Results indicate that ongoing rule-driven deductive feedback is more effective than example-driven inductive feedback for learning relatively complex structures whose grammatical rules are not salient in…

Nagata, Noriko

1997-01-01

130

6.881 Natural Language Processing, Fall 2004  

E-print Network

This course is a graduate level introduction to natural language processing, the primary concern of which is the study of human language from a computational perspective. The class will cover models at the level of syntactic, ...

Barzilay, Regina

131

Implementation Issues in the Development of the PARSEC Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper describes the implementation of a constraint-based parser, PARSEC (Parallel ARchitecture SEntence Constrainer), which has the required flexibility that a user may easily construct a custom gram- mar and test it. Once the user designs grammar parameters, constraints, and a lexicon, our system checks them for consistency and creates a parser for the grammar. The parser has an

Randall A. Helzerman; Carla B. Zoltowski; Boon-lock Yeo; Yin Chan; Todd Stewart; Bryan L. Pellom

1995-01-01

132

MICA: A Probabilistic Dependency Parser Based on Tree Insertion Grammars  

E-print Network

MICA: A Probabilistic Dependency Parser Based on Tree Insertion Grammars Application Note Srinivas.nasr@lif.univ-mrs.fr rambow@ccls.columbia.edu benoit.sagot@inria.fr Abstract MICA is a dependency parser which returns deep This application note presents a freely avail- able parser, MICA (Marseille-INRIA-Columbia- AT&T).1 MICA has

Boyer, Edmond

133

Lexical Semantic Relatedness and Its Application in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical Semantic Relatedness and Its Application in Natural Language ProcessingAlexander BudanitskyDepartment of Computer ScienceUniversity of TorontoAugust 1999A great variety of Natural Language Processing tasks, from word sense disambiguation totext summarization to speech recognition, rely heavily on the ability to measure semanticrelatedness or distance between words of a natural language. This report is a comprehensivestudy of recent computational methods of measuring

Alexander Budanitsky

1999-01-01

134

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN A CHINESE LANGUAGE LEARNING GAME  

E-print Network

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN A CHINESE LANGUAGE LEARNING GAME ................................................................................................................. 26 #12;3 ABSTRACT Mandarin has been classified among the most difficult languages for foreigners to learn as a second language. Not only is the vocabulary considerably different from that of English

Miles, Will

135

Written Language Is as Natural as Spoken Language: A Biolinguistic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commonly held belief is that language is an aspect of the biological system since the capacity to acquire language is innate and evolved along Darwinian lines. Written language, on the other hand, is thought to be an artifact and a surrogate of speech; it is, therefore, neither natural nor biological. This disparaging view of written language,…

Aaron, P. G.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

2006-01-01

136

INMED/TINS special issue Nature and nurture in language  

E-print Network

INMED/TINS special issue Nature and nurture in language acquisition: anatomical and functional/TINS special issue Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders, based on presentations

Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

137

FORMAL SPECIFICATIONS BUILDING FROM SPECIFICATIONS WRITTEN IN NATURAL LANGUAGE  

E-print Network

- 1 - FORMAL SPECIFICATIONS BUILDING FROM SPECIFICATIONS WRITTEN IN NATURAL LANGUAGE Alain on an intermediary representation of the specifications with the formalism of conceptual graphs before arriving at a formal description in Z of the initial specification. Keywords: knowledge representation, natural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Transportable natural-language interfaces: problems and techniques  

SciTech Connect

The author considers the question of natural language database access within the context of a project at SRI, TEAM, that is developing techniques for transportable natural-language interfaces. The goal of transportability is to enable nonspecialists to adapt a natural-language processing system for access to an existing conventional database. TEAM is designed to interact with two different kinds of users. During an acquisition dialogue, a database expert (DBE) provides TAEM with information about the files and fields in the conventional database for which a natural-language interface is desired. (Typically this database already exists and is populated, but TAEM also provides facilities for creating small local databases.) This dialogue results in extension of the language-processing and data access components that make it possible for an end user to query the new database in natural language. 13 references.

Grosz, B.J.

1982-01-01

139

Constraints, Linguistic Theories and Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe notion of constraints is generally used in modern linguistics (in particularin syntax and phonology) for representing properties that an object must satisfy(see [Borsley96], [Sag99]). Constraints can be general (or universal), valid fordifferent languages, or at the opposite very specific, representing for examplethe variability of a given language. In all cases, the idea consists of stipulatingproperties ruling out structures which

Philippe Blache; Robert Schuman

2000-01-01

140

Machine Learning in Natural Language Georgios P. Petasis  

E-print Network

Machine Learning in Natural Language Processing Georgios P. Petasis Software and Knowledge@iit.demokritos.gr Abstract. This thesis examines the use of machine learning techniques in various tasks of natural language-entity recog- nition, and b) the creation of a new machine learning algorithm and its assessment on synthetic

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

141

Adaptive natural language interfaces to FAQ knowledge bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a natural language interface architecture, which is used for accessing FAQ knowledge bases. Since one of the main obstacles to the efficient use of natural language interfaces is the high amount of required manual knowledge engineering, we provide an adaptive architecture to automate the acquisition of linguistic knowledge. We apply a machine learning module based

Werner Winiwarter

2000-01-01

142

Natural Language Text Generation in the Oz Interactive Fiction Project  

E-print Network

" the natural language generation to engender subtle emotional reactions in and influences on the human playerGLINDA: Natural Language Text Generation in the Oz Interactive Fiction Project Mark Kantrowitz July 1990 CMU­CS­90­158 School of Computer Science Cargnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213

143

WORKSHOP ON THE EVALUATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

constitute valid training sets and test sets? · How does all of this relate to measuring progress with the problem of how to evaluate its progress in developing natural language processing systems. With the exception of natural language interfaces, there are few working systems in existence, and they tend to focus

Finin, Tim

144

Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

1993-01-01

145

Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

2012-01-01

146

High Performance Natural Language Processing on Semantic Network Array Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a natural language processing system developed for the Semantic Network Ar­ ray Processor (SNAP). The goal of our work is to develop a scalable and high-performance natural language processing system which utilizes the high degree of parallelism provided by the SNAP ma­ chine. We have implemented an experimental ma­ chine translation system as a central part of

Hiroaki Kitano; Dan I. Moldovan; Seungho Cha

1991-01-01

147

Maurice Gross' grammar lexicon and Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maurice Gross' grammar lexicon contains an extremly rich and exhaustive information about the morphosyntactic and semantic proper- ties of French syntactic functors (verbs, adjectives, nouns). Yet its use within natural language processing systems is still restricted. In this paper, we first argue that the information contained in the grammar lexicon is potentially useful for Natural Language Processing (NLP). We then

Claire Gardent; Bruno Guillaume; Guy Perrier; Ingrid Falk

148

NLP and Linguistics Introduction to Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

NLP and Linguistics Introduction to Natural Language Processing Computer Science 585--Fall 2009;Engineering vs. Science? · One story · NLP took formal language theory and generative linguistics (same source tell us about natural intelligence? · Are all NLP models lousy linguistics? 2 #12;Learning in the Limit

Smith, David A.

149

Overview of computer-based Natural Language Processing  

SciTech Connect

Computer-based Natural Language processing and understanding is the key to enabling humans and their creations to interact with machines in natural language (in contrast to computer language). The doors that such an achievement can open has made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural languages interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and the future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state-of-the-art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants, and finally, future trends and expectations.

Gevarter, W.B.

1983-04-01

150

Natural Language Generation with Vocabulary Constraints Ben Swanson  

E-print Network

of a specific word somewhere in the sentence. These constraints are natural in the construction of language- pear in the generated sentence, motivated by the possibility for automatic genera- tion of language for these constraints and compare various sentence level generative language models. Our best systems produce output

151

An Empirical Symbolic Approach to Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical methods in the field of natural language processing (NLP) are usually based on a probabilistic model of language. These methods recently gained popularity because of the claim that they provide a better coverage of language phenomena. Though this claim is not entirely proved, empirical methods certainly outperform in this regard rationalist, or symbolic, methods. However, empirical methods provide a

Roberto Basili; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Paola Velardi

1996-01-01

152

Two Types of Definites in Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis is concerned with the description and analysis of two semantically different types of definite articles in German. While the existence of distinct article paradigms in various Germanic dialects and other languages has been acknowledged in the descriptive literature for quite some time, the theoretical implications of their existence…

Schwarz, Florian

2009-01-01

153

On Natural Language Processing and Plan Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research areas of plan recognition and natu- ral language parsing share many common features and even algorithms. However, the dialog between these two disciplines has not been effective. Specif- ically, significant recent results in parsing mildly context sensitive grammars have not been lever- aged in the state of the art plan recognition sys- tems. This paper will outline the

Christopher W. Geib; Mark Steedman

2007-01-01

154

Modes of Transcription in Natural Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to define the relationship between speech and writing as two separate media within language, and suggests the use of the term translation to describe moving from one medium to another. Such a view acknowledges the independence of speech and writing, the possibility of translation in either direction, the possible untranslatability…

Taylor, C. V.

155

An Effective Application of Natural Language Processing in Second Language Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an intelligent computer-assisted language instruction (CALI) system called "Nihongo-CALI" (Japanese Computer Assisted Language Instruction), which employs natural language processing to provide immediate, grammatically sophisticated feedback to students in an interactive environment. The study compares the efficacy of this type of…

Nagata, Noriko

1995-01-01

156

Automatic Induction of N-Gram Language Models from a Natural Language Grammar1  

E-print Network

Automatic Induction of N-Gram Language Models from a Natural Language Grammar1 Stephanie Seneff work in developing a technique which can automatically generate class n-gram language models from the standard class n-gram framework for compu- tational efficiency. Moreover, both the n-gram classes and train

157

Understanding Mental States in Natural Language Language Technologies Institute, Carnegie Mellon University  

E-print Network

Understanding Mental States in Natural Language Wei Chen Language Technologies Institute, Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA weichen@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Understanding mental states in narratives is an important aspect of human language comprehension. By "mental states" we refer to beliefs

Mostow, Jack

158

Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding  

SciTech Connect

This ARPA project in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding is aimed at developing techniques for computer assistance to a decision maker in understanding a complex system or situation using natural language control of an intelligent graphics display. The work in progress falls into three classes: fluent natural language understanding in a graphics context - including helpful systems that go beyond mere passive execution of literal instructions, fundamental problems of knowledge representation and use, and abstract parallel algorithms for knowledge base inferential operations. This report gives a brief summary of the activities of this research project during the past year. In addition, publications and presentations during the past year are documented.

Woods, W.A.; Bates, M.; Bobrow, R.; Goodman, B.; Israel, D.

1982-09-01

159

Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

1984-01-01

160

Nature of language impairment in motor neurone disease   

E-print Network

Background: Language impairment associated with Motor Neurone Disease (MND) has been documented since the late 19th century, yet little is understood about the pervasiveness or nature of these deficits. The common clinical ...

Rewaj, Phillipa Jane

2014-07-01

161

Information extraction to facilitate translation of natural language legislation  

E-print Network

There is a large body of existing legislation and policies that govern how government organizations and corporations can share information. Since these rules are generally expressed in natural language, it is difficult and ...

Wang, Samuel (Samuel Siyue)

2011-01-01

162

Tasking and Sharing Sensing Assets Using Controlled Natural Language  

E-print Network

bEmerging Technology Services, IBM United Kingdom Ltd, Hursley Park, Winchester, UK ABSTRACT We-formulate the MMF ontology in Controlled English (CE), a type of controlled natural language designed to be readable

Preece, Alun

163

Natural language processing for unmanned aerial vehicle guidance interfaces  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the opportunities and challenges involved in applying natural language processing techniques to the control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are addressed. The problem of controlling an unmanned aircraft ...

Craparo, Emily M. (Emily Marie), 1980-

2004-01-01

164

A discriminative model for understanding natural language route directions  

E-print Network

To be useful teammates to human partners, robots must be able to follow spoken instructions given in natural language. However, determining the correct sequence of actions in response to a set of spoken instructions is a ...

Kollar, Thomas

2010-01-01

165

The Use of Transfer in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many NLP researchers have noted that a parser trained on one domain (e.g. WSJ articles) may not perform as well on another domain (e.g. New Yorker articles). Experiments have shown that replacing in-domain (tar- get) training data with out-of-domain (reference) training data degrades parsing accuracy (Rat99). Also, adding reference data to a set of target training data improves performance minimally

Jason Rennie

166

An Evaluation of LOLITA and Related Natural Language Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Evaluation of LOLITA and related Natural Language Processing SystemsPaul CallaghanSubmitted to the University of Durham for the degree of Ph.D., August 1997---------------------This research addresses the question, "how do we evaluate systems like LOLITA?" LOLITA isthe Natural Language Processing (NLP) system under development at the University of Durham.It is intended as a platform for building NL applications. We are therefore

Paul Callaghan

1998-01-01

167

Plan-Based Integration of Natural Language and Graphics Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

W. Wahlster, E. André, W. Finkler, H.-J. Profitlich and T. Rist, Plan-based integration of natural language and graphics generation, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 387-427. Multimodal interfaces combining natural language and graphics take advantage of both the individual strength of each communication mode and the fact that several modes can be employed in parallel. The central claim of this paper is

Wolfgang Wahlster; Elisabeth André; Wolfgang Finkler; Hans-jürgen Profitlich; Thomas Rist

1993-01-01

168

A General Natural-language Text Processor for Clinical Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDevelopment of a general natural-language processor that identifies clinical information in narrative reports and maps that information into a structured representation containing clinical terms.DesignThe natural-language processor provides three phases of processing, all of which are driven by different knowledge sources. The first phase performs the parsing. It identifies the structure of the text through use of a grammar that defines

Carol Friedman; Philip O Alderson; John H M Austin; James J Cimino; Stephen B Johnson

1994-01-01

169

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

170

Logicism in Formalizing Common Sense and in Natural Language Semantics  

E-print Network

Logicism in Formalizing Common Sense and in Natural Language Semantics Richmond H. Thomason language semantics that I claim is very rele­ vant to common sense logicism, I describe a logi­ cist­ tics that turns out to be closely related to problems in the formalization of common sense; and (3) pro

Thomason, Richmond H.

171

An Overview of Probabilistic Tree Transducers for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic finite-state string transducers (FSTs) are extremely pop- ular in natural language processing, due to powerful generic methods for ap- plying, composing, and learning them. Unfortunately, FSTs are not a good fit for much of the current work on probabilistic modeling for machine translation, summarization, paraphrasing, and language modeling. These methods operate di- rectly on trees, rather than strings. We

Kevin Knight; Jonathan Graehl

2005-01-01

172

NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

Feldman, Susan

1999-01-01

173

Analyzing Learner Language: Towards a Flexible Natural Language Processing Architecture for Intelligent Language Tutors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligent language tutoring systems (ILTS) typically analyze learner input to diagnose learner language properties and provide individualized feedback. Despite a long history of ILTS research, such systems are virtually absent from real-life foreign language teaching (FLT). Taking a step toward more closely linking ILTS research to real-life…

Amaral, Luiz; Meurers, Detmar; Ziai, Ramon

2011-01-01

174

Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL-X), pages 149164, New York City, June 2006. c 2006 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

has focused on English. Dur- ing the last few years, however, treebanks for other languages have- tween different dependency parsers on exactly the same data sets (other than for English). One of the reasons is the lack of a de-facto standard for an eval- uation metric (labeled or unlabeled, separate root

175

Detection of Duplicate Defect Reports Using Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defect reports are generated from various testing and development activities in software engineering. Sometimes two reports are submitted that describe the same problem, leading to duplicate reports. These reports are mostly written in structured natural language, and as such, it is hard to compare two reports for similarity with formal methods. In order to identify duplicates, we investigate using natural

Per Runeson; Magnus Alexandersson; Oskar Nyholm

2007-01-01

176

Searching for Non-linearities in Natural Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by wide range of applicability of what is commonly referred to as chaos theories, we explore the nature of energy series of a signal of human speech in the light of nonlinear dynamics. Using the TISEAN software package, analyses on various recordings of the language energy series were carried out (single speaker — different speeches; single speech - different speakers; dialogues; talkshows). Also correlated to other tenths of experiments conveyed on different linguistic inputs as written and morphologically analyzed texts, the presented experiment outputs (up to our knowledge, similar experiments have not been performed yet) reveal the complex and tricky nature of the language and are in favor of certain linguistic hypotheses. However, without further research, they do not encourage us to make explicit claims about the language signal such as dimension estimations (although probably possible) or attractor reconstruction. Our main considerations include: (a) a look into the stochastic nature of the language aiming towards reduction of the currently very large number of parameters present in language models based on Hidden Markov Models on language n-grams; (b) visualization of the behavior of the language and revelation of what could possibly be behind the `noisy' stream of sounds/letters/word-classes observed in our experiments; and last but not least (c) presentation of a new type of signal to the community exploring natural non-linear phenomena.

Ribarov, Kiril; Smrz, Otakar

2003-08-01

177

The redundancy of recursion and infinity for natural language.  

PubMed

An influential line of thought claims that natural language and arithmetic processing require recursion, a putative hallmark of human cognitive processing (Chomsky in Evolution of human language: biolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45-61, 2010; Fitch et al. in Cognition 97(2):179-210, 2005; Hauser et al. in Science 298(5598):1569-1579, 2002). First, we question the need for recursion in human cognitive processing by arguing that a generally simpler and less resource demanding process--iteration--is sufficient to account for human natural language and arithmetic performance. We argue that the only motivation for recursion, the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence, is equally approachable by iteration and recursion. Second, we submit that the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence reduces to imagining infinite embedding or concatenation, which is completely independent from the ability to implement infinite processing, and thus, independent from both recursion and iteration. Furthermore, we claim that a property of natural language is physically uncountable finity and not discrete infinity. PMID:20652723

Luuk, Erkki; Luuk, Hendrik

2011-02-01

178

Overview of Computer-based Natural Language Processing  

SciTech Connect

Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

Gevarter, W.B.

1983-04-01

179

Overview of computer-based natural language processing  

SciTech Connect

Computer-based Natural Language-Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc. in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and the future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state-of-the-art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants, and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and other who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

Gevarter, W.B.

1983-04-01

180

FromTo-CLIR: Web-Based Natural Language Interface for Cross-Language Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the implementation of FromTo-CLIR, a Web-based natural-language interface for cross-language information retrieval that was tested with Korean and Japanese. Proposes a method that uses a semantic category tree and collocation to resolve the ambiguity of query translation. (Author/LRW)

Kim, Taewan; Sim, Chul-Min; Yuh, Sanghwa; Jung, Hanmin; Kim, Young-Kil; Choi, Sung-Kwon; Park, Dong-In; Choi, Key Sun

1999-01-01

181

Natural language processing techniques in computer-assisted language learning: Status and instructional issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of natural language processing (NLP) techniques, such as parsing and semantic analysis, is described within current language tutoring systems. Significant trends are distinguished in the exploitation of these techniques, design issues and tradeoffs are examined, and current and potential contributions of NLP technology are discussed with respect to instructional theory and educational practice. Limitations and problems are addressed

V. Melissa Holland; Jonathan D. Kaplan

1995-01-01

182

Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguists seek to understand the nature of the human language  

E-print Network

of the human language faculty by examining the formal properties of natural- language grammars and the process speech communities (bilingualism). The study of natural- language processing involvesLinguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguists seek to understand the nature

Saldin, Dilano

183

The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages.  

PubMed

How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis. PMID:24936195

Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo

2014-01-01

184

The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages  

PubMed Central

How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis. PMID:24936195

Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C.; Okanoya, Kazuo

2014-01-01

185

Information Access and Natural Language Processing: A Stimulating Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the interplay between the requirements of information seekers to access information in large digital\\u000a text collections and the techniques developed by natural language processing researchers to support this access. In particular\\u000a we examine how language processing technologies such as question answering, single and multidocument summarisation, and ontology-guided\\u000a similar event searching can assist journalists in gathering

Robert Gaizauskas; Horacio Saggion; Emma Barker

186

Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

Gevarter, W. B.

1984-01-01

187

The redundancy of recursion and infinity for natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

An influential line of thought claims that natural language and arithmetic processing require recursion, a putative hallmark\\u000a of human cognitive processing (Chomsky in Evolution of human language: biolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press,\\u000a Cambridge, pp 45–61, 2010; Fitch et al. in Cognition 97(2):179–210, 2005; Hauser et al. in Science 298(5598):1569–1579, 2002). First, we question the need for recursion in human cognitive

Erkki LuukHendrik Luuk; Hendrik Luuk

2011-01-01

188

Quicky location determination based on geographic keywords of natural language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In location determination based on natural language, it is common to find the location by describing relationship between the undetermined position and one or several determined position. That indicates that the uncertainty of location determination processing is derived from the one of natural language procedure, the one of spatial position description and the one of spatial relationship description. Most of current researches and regular GIS software take certainty as prerequisite and try to avoid uncertainty and its influence. The research reported in this paper is an attempt to create a new combing method of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Fuzzy set theory and spatial information science named Quickly Location Determination based on Geographic Keywords (QLDGK) to rise to the challenge of location searching technique based on natural language. QLDGK have two technical gists. The first one is geographic-keywords-library and special natural-language-separation-model-library that increases the language processing efficiency. The second one is fuzzy theory based definition of spatial relationship, spatial metric and spatial orientation that extends the searching scope and defines variant confidences on variant searching outcome. QLDGK takes consideration on both higher query efficiency and the lower omission rate. The above method has been proved workable and efficient by QLDGK prototype system which was tested by about 12000 emergency call reports from K-city, Southwest of China, and achieved the test result with 78% accuracy in highest confidence and 8% omitting ration.

Guo, Danhuai; Cui, Weihong

2007-06-01

189

Natural language dialogue in an integrated computational model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational system presented here, Psli3, uses the uniform framework of a production-system architecture to carry out natural language understanding and generation in a well-integrated way. This is demonstrated primarily using intersentential ellipsis resolution, in addition to examples of definite reference resolution, in addition to examples of definite reference resolution and interactive error correction. The system's conversational context arises naturally

R. E. Frederking

1986-01-01

190

CITE NLM: Natural-Language Searching in an Online Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Library of Medicine's Current Information Transfer in English public access online catalog offers unique subject search capabilities--natural-language query input, automatic medical subject headings display, closest match search strategy, ranked document output, dynamic end user feedback for search refinement. References, description…

Doszkocs, Tamas E.

1983-01-01

191

Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks and Finite State Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that pessimistic assessments of the adequacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for natural language processing (NLP) on the grounds that they have a finite state architecture are unjustified, and that their adequacy in this regard is an empirical issue. First, arguments that counter standard objections to finite state NLP on the…

Moisl, Hermann

192

Semantic web and natural language in online discussion forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal weg pages, blogging services and discussion forums have gained widespread acceptance among casual Internet users to communicate their views and preferences across diverse areas of topics. Unfortunately, since these contributions are written in free-form natural language it is difficult and error-prone to automatically extract much more than a classification of postings into subject categories; the statements contained in the

Johann Mitlöhner

2008-01-01

193

Sentiment Mining for Natural Language Documents Alexander O'Neill  

E-print Network

Sentiment Mining for Natural Language Documents Alexander O'Neill COMP3006 PROJECT REPORT of possible applications for sentiment mining has made it the focus of considerable research in recent years are heavily reliant on machine learning. At its core, sentiment mining involves correct interpretation

Sanner, Scott

194

Integrating a Natural Language Message PreProcessor with UIMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) to integrate a set of natural language processing (NLP) tools in the RADAR system. The challenge was to define a common data model and a set of component interfaces for these tools, so that they could be integrated into a single system. The integrated system is used to

Eric Nyberg; Eric Riebling; Richard C. Wang; Robert Frederking

2008-01-01

195

Natural Language Processing: A HumanComputer Interaction Perspective  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing: A Human­Computer Interaction Perspective BILL MANARIS Computer Science to the field of human-computer interaction in terms of theoretical results and practical applications in human-human interaction, its significance and potential in human-computer interaction should

Manaris, Bill

196

Natural-language access to databases-theoretical/technical issues  

SciTech Connect

Although there have been many experimental systems for natural-language access to databases, with some now going into actual use, many problems in this area remain to be solved. The author presents descriptions of five problem areas that seem to me not to be adequately handled by any existing system.

Moore, R.C.

1982-01-01

197

NATURAL LANGUAGE CALL ROUTING: A Robust, SelfOrganizing Approach  

E-print Network

NATURAL LANGUAGE CALL ROUTING: A Robust, Self­Organizing Approach Bob Carpenter Jennifer Chu and unambiguous calls when given either accurate transcriptions or fairly noisy real­time speech recognizer output of Caller Requests 2. RELATED WORK Call routing is similar to topic identification (see McDonough et al

Carpenter, Bob

198

Wikipedia-based Semantic Interpretation for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate representation of natural language semantics requires access to vast amounts of common sense and domain-speciflc world knowledge. Prior work in the fleld was based on purely statistical techniques that did not make use of background knowledge, on limited lexicographic knowledge bases such as WordNet, or on huge manual efiorts such as the CYC project. Here we propose a novel

Evgeniy Gabrilovich; Shaul Markovitch

2009-01-01

199

Natural Language Processing With Modular PDP Networks and Distributed Lexicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to cannectionist natural language processing is proposed, which is based on hierarchically organized modular parallel distributed processing (PDP) networks and a central lexican of distributed input\\/output representations. The modules communicate using these representations, which are global and publicly available in the system. The representations are developed automatically by all networks while they are learning their processing tasks. The

Risto Miikkulainen; Michael G. Dyer

1991-01-01

200

Applications of Finite-State Transducers in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of some of the major applications of nite-state transducers in Natural Language Processing ranging from morphological analysis to nite-state parsing. The analysis and gener- ation of inflected word forms can be performed eciently by means of lexical transducers. Such transducers can be compiled using an extended regular expression calculus with restriction and replacement operators. These

Lauri Karttunen

2000-01-01

201

Analyzing Discourse Processing Using a Simple Natural Language Processing Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural language processing (NLP) provides a powerful approach for discourse processing researchers. However, there remains a notable degree of hesitation by some researchers to consider using NLP, at least on their own. The purpose of this article is to introduce and make available a "simple" NLP (SiNLP) tool. The overarching goal of…

Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S.

2014-01-01

202

Natural language processing using spreading activation and lateral inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge needed to process natural language comes from many sources. While the knowledge itself may be broken up modularly, into knowledge of syntax, semantics, etc., the actual processing should be completely integrated. This form of processing is not easily amenable to the type of processing done by serial von Neumann computers. This work in progress is an investigation of

J. B. Pollack; D. L. Waltz

1982-01-01

203

Extracting Phenotypic Information from the Literature via Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the amount of biomedical knowledge has been increasing exponentially. Several Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems have been developed to help researchers extract, encode and organize new information automatically from textual literature or narrative reports. Some of these systems focus on extracting biological entities or molecular interactions while others retrieve and encode clinical information. To exploit gene functions

Lifeng Chen; Carol Friedman

2004-01-01

204

Upper Modeling: organizing knowledge for natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general, reusable computational resource has been de- veloped within the Penman text generation project for organizing domain knowledge appropriately for linguis- tic realization. This resource, called the upper model, provides a domain- and task-independent classification system' that supports sophisticated natural language processing while significantly simplifying the interface between domain-specific knowledge and general linguis- tic resources. This paper presents the

John A. Bateman

1990-01-01

205

Convolution Kernels with Feature Selection for Natural Language Processing Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convolution kernels, such as sequence and tree ker- nels, are advantageous for both the concept and ac- curacy of many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Experiments have, however, shown that the over-fitting problem often arises when these ker- nels are used in NLP tasks. This paper discusses this issue of convolution kernels, and then proposes a new approach based on

Jun Suzuki; Hideki Isozaki; Eisaku Maeda

2004-01-01

206

Adaptive Parsing: Self-extending Natural Language Interfaces  

E-print Network

," said Humpty Dumpty, "which is to be master--that's all." Lewis Carroll Alice's Adventures in WonderlandAdaptive Parsing: Self-extending Natural Language Interfaces Jill Fain Lehman 28 August 1989 CMU family #12;#12;"1 don' t know what you mean by 'glory,' " Alice said. Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously

Carbonell, Jaime

207

Research at Yale in Natural Language Processing. Research Report #84.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the capabilities of five computer programs at Yale that do automatic natural language processing as of the end of 1976. For each program an introduction to its overall intent is given, followed by the input/output, a short discussion of the research underlying the program, and a prognosis for future development. The programs…

Schank, Roger C.

208

Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

2007-01-01

209

Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

Jarman, Jay

2011-01-01

210

Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

Nikora, Allen P.

2006-01-01

211

GenI: Natural language generation in Haskell INRIA/LORIA/UHP  

E-print Network

, Monads, Profiling. 1. Natural Language Generation Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the field that deals with the automatic processing of natural, human, languages like English, French, Spanish, etcGenI: Natural language generation in Haskell Eric Kow INRIA/LORIA/UHP eric.kow@loria.fr Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

Natural language dialogue in an integrated computational model  

SciTech Connect

The computational system presented here, Psli3, uses the uniform framework of a production-system architecture to carry out natural language understanding and generation in a well-integrated way. This is demonstrated primarily using intersentential ellipsis resolution, in addition to examples of definite reference resolution, in addition to examples of definite reference resolution and interactive error correction. The system's conversational context arises naturally as the result of the persistence of the internal representations of previous utterances in working memory. Natural language input is interpreted within this framework using a modification of the syntactic technique of chart parsing, extended to include semantics, and adapted to the production-system architecture. It provides a graceful way of handling ambiguity within this architecture, and allows separate knowledge sources to interact smoothly across different utterances in a highly integrated fashion. The design of this system demonstrates how flexible and natural-user interactions can be carried out using a system with a naturally flexible control structure. A processing-based taxonomy for ellipsis resolution developed is used to analyze the coverage of intersentential ellipsis.

Frederking, R.E.

1986-01-01

213

Conclusiveness of natural languages and recognition of images  

SciTech Connect

The conclusiveness is investigated using recognition processes and one-one correspondence between expressions of a natural language and graphs representing events. The graphs, as conceived in psycholinguistics, are obtained as a result of perception processes. It is possible to generate and process the graphs automatically, using computers and then to convert the resulting graphs into expressions of a natural language. Correctness and conclusiveness of the graphs and sentences are investigated using the fundamental condition for events representation processes. Some consequences of the conclusiveness are discussed, e.g. undecidability of arithmetic, human brain assymetry, correctness of statistical calculations and operations research. It is suggested that the group theory should be imposed on mathematical models of any real system. Proof of the fundamental condition is also presented. 14 references.

Wojcik, Z.M.

1983-01-01

214

Automated Encoding of Clinical Documents Based on Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to develop a method based on natural language processing (NLP) that automatically maps an entire clinical document to codes with modifiers and to quantitatively evaluate the method.MethodsAn existing NLP system, MedLEE, was adapted to automatically generate codes. The method involves matching of structured output generated by MedLEE consisting of findings and modifiers to obtain

Carol Friedman; Lyudmila Shagina; Yves Lussier; George Hripcsak

2004-01-01

215

Web-based models for natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work demonstrated that Web counts can be used to approximate bigram counts, suggesting that Web-based frequencies should be useful for a wide variety of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, only a limited number of tasks have so far been tested using Web-scale data sets. The present article overcomes this limitation by systematically investigating the performance of Web-based models

Mirella Lapata; Frank Keller

2005-01-01

216

The Theoretical Status of Ontologies in Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of `ontologies' in Natural Language Processing.\\u000aIt classifies various kinds of ontologies that have been employed in NLP and\\u000adiscusses various benefits and problems with those designs. Particular focus is\\u000athen placed on experiences gained in the use of the Upper Model, a\\u000alinguistically-motivated `ontology' originally designed for use with the Penman\\u000atext generation system.

John A. Bateman

1997-01-01

217

The E-framework: a formalism for natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the most important characteristic of the new formalism used in Eurotra, the E-Framework. It is a formalism for natural language processing within a stratificational model.In the E-Framework, mapping between levels of representation is performed on the basis of transitions between trees and partial descriptions of objects, called descriptors. These descriptors are completed using the definition of the

Annelise Bech; Anders Nygaard

1988-01-01

218

Narrowness, pathwidth, and their application in natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the syntactic theory of Tesniere (1959) the structural description of sentences are given as graphs. We discuss how the graph-theoretic concept of path-width is relevant in this approach. In particular, we point out the importance of graphs with path-width 6 in connection with natural language processing, and give a short proof of the characterization theorem of trees with path-width

András Kornai; Zsolt Tuza

1992-01-01

219

Research Paper: Natural Language Processing Framework to Assess Clinical Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe authors developed a natural language processing (NLP) framework that could be used to extract clinical findings and diagnoses from dictated physician documentation.DesignDe-identified documentation was made available by i2b2 Bio-informatics research group as a part of their NLP challenge focusing on obesity and its co-morbidities. The authors describe their approach, which used a combination of concept detection, context validation, and

Henry Ware; Charles J. Mullett; V. Jagannathan

2009-01-01

220

Natural Language Generation for Nature Conservation: Automating Feedback to help Volunteers identify  

E-print Network

Natural Language Generation for Nature Conservation: Automating Feedback to help Volunteers Science, University of Aberdeen, U.K. (2) Aberdeen Centre for Environmental Sustainability (ACES), University of Aberdeen, U.K. (3) Bumblebee Conservation Trust, University of Stirling, U.K. (*) Corresponding

Siddharthan, Advaith

221

ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE  

E-print Network

AbstractBackgroundACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE) is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like...

Sousa da Silva, Alan W; Vranken, Wim F

2012-07-23

222

Applications of Natural Language Processing in Biodiversity Science  

PubMed Central

Centuries of biological knowledge are contained in the massive body of scientific literature, written for human-readability but too big for any one person to consume. Large-scale mining of information from the literature is necessary if biology is to transform into a data-driven science. A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP) and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters), but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science. PMID:22685456

Thessen, Anne E.; Cui, Hong; Mozzherin, Dmitry

2012-01-01

223

Natural Language Processing in the Undergraduate Curriculum Robert Dale Diego Moll a-Aliod Rolf Schwitter  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing in the Undergraduate Curriculum Robert Dale Diego Moll a-Aliod Rolf observations for the future on the basis of our experiences so far. Keywords: Natural language processing, computa- tional linguistics, language technology. 1 Introduction Natural language processing NLP

Dale, Robert

224

NaturalLanguage Interpretation in Prolog Bjorn Gamback Jussi Karlgren Christer Samuelsson  

E-print Network

@sics.se Natural Language Processing Group SICS --- Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Box 1263, S--164 28 KISTA, Sweden #12; ii #12; ABSTRACT iii Abstract This booklet introduces natural­language processing­ language processing system is to translate an input utterance stated in a natural language (such as English

Gambäck, Björn

225

The Quantum Challenge in Concept Theory and Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has been successfully used in human cognition to model decision processes and to deliver representations of human knowledge. As such, quantum cognition inspired tools have improved technologies for Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval. In this paper, we overview the quantum cognition approach developed in our Brussels team during the last two decades, specifically our identification of quantum structures in human concepts and language, and the modeling of data from psychological and corpus-text-based experiments. We discuss our quantum-theoretic framework for concepts and their conjunctions/disjunctions in a Fock-Hilbert space structure, adequately modeling a large amount of data collected on concept combinations. Inspired by this modeling, we put forward elements for a quantum contextual and meaning-based approach to information technologies in which 'entities of meaning' are inversely reconstructed from texts, which are considered as traces of these entities' states.

Diederik Aerts; Jan Broekaert; Sandro Sozzo; Tomas Veloz

2013-06-12

226

Human task animation from performance models and natural language input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

1989-01-01

227

Natural Language Processing Using a Propositional Semantic Network with Structured Variables \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing Using a Propositional Semantic Network with Structured Variables important consequences for natural language processing. First, this leads to an extended, more ``natural for natural language processing tasks is illustrated. 1 Introduction This work is based on the assumption

Shapiro, Stuart C.

228

Augmenting a database knowledge representation for natural language generation  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge representation is an important factor in natural language generation since it limits the semantic capabilities of the generation system. This paper identifies several information types in a knowledge representation that can be used to generate meaningful responses to questions about database structure. Creating such a knowledge representation, however, is a long and tedious process. A system is presented which uses the contents of the database to form part of this knowledge representation automatically. It employs three types of world knowledge axioms to ensure that the representation formed is meaningful and contains salient information. 7 references.

McCoy, K.F.

1982-01-01

229

Natural Language Processing as a Discipline at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is described as it applies to the needs of LLNL in handling free-text. The state of the practice is outlined with the emphasis placed on two specific aspects of NLP: Information Extraction and Discourse Integration. A brief description is included of the NLP applications currently being used at LLNL. A gap analysis provides a look at where the technology needs work in order to meet the needs of LLNL. Finally, recommendations are made to meet these needs.

Firpo, M A

2005-02-04

230

Discriminative Reranking for Natural Language Parsing Michael Collins MCOLLINS@RESEARCH.ATT.COM  

E-print Network

applied to reranking output of the parser of Collins (1999) on the Wall Street Journal corpus, with a 13 to parsing the Wall Street Journal treebank (Marcus, Santorini & Marcinkiewicz 1993). The baseline model

Collins, Michael

231

Natural language acquisition in large scale neural semantic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis puts forward the view that a purely signal- based approach to natural language processing is both plausible and desirable. By questioning the veracity of symbolic representations of meaning, it argues for a unified, non-symbolic model of knowledge representation that is both biologically plausible and, potentially, highly efficient. Processes to generate a grounded, neural form of this model-dubbed the semantic filter-are discussed. The combined effects of local neural organisation, coincident with perceptual maturation, are used to hypothesise its nature. This theoretical model is then validated in light of a number of fundamental neurological constraints and milestones. The mechanisms of semantic and episodic development that the model predicts are then used to explain linguistic properties, such as propositions and verbs, syntax and scripting. To mimic the growth of locally densely connected structures upon an unbounded neural substrate, a system is developed that can grow arbitrarily large, data- dependant structures composed of individual self- organising neural networks. The maturational nature of the data used results in a structure in which the perception of concepts is refined by the networks, but demarcated by subsequent structure. As a consequence, the overall structure shows significant memory and computational benefits, as predicted by the cognitive and neural models. Furthermore, the localised nature of the neural architecture also avoids the increasing error sensitivity and redundancy of traditional systems as the training domain grows. The semantic and episodic filters have been demonstrated to perform as well, or better, than more specialist networks, whilst using significantly larger vocabularies, more complex sentence forms and more natural corpora.

Ealey, Douglas

232

A Comparative Study of Bing Web N-gram Language Models for Web Search and Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

A Comparative Study of Bing Web N-gram Language Models for Web Search and Natural Language}@microsoft.com ABSTRACT This paper presents a comparative study of the recently re- leased Microsoft Web N-gram Language web services, called Microsoft Web N-gram Services, are much more accessible and easier to use than

Rajamani, Sriram K.

233

An approach for natural language understanding in GIS based on ontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natural language interface can make a geographic information system (GIS) easy to use. It allows one to use the natural language quickly and conveniently to operate in such as digital city management system or traffic guidance system. This paper discusses the method of nature language understanding in GIS based on ontology. Natural language understanding is general apply in computer or artificial intelligence research area, yet in GIS the natural language understanding is mainly concerned about spatial information. In order to implement the natural language understanding for spatial information perfectly we use the ontology model. First we put forward a generally process of natural language understanding in GIS, defined the conception of the ontology, next set up the ontology structure, ontology-based understanding model, also indicate the mechanism of natural language understanding based on ontology. Finally are a case study and a prototype, a discussion about the research deficiency and the development forecast of my research.

Zhou, Liguo; Feng, Xuezhi; She, Jiangfeng; Xie, Shunping

2007-06-01

234

Automatic Item Generation via Frame Semantics: Natural Language Generation of Math Word Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an exploration of the conceptual issues that have arisen in the course of building a natural language generation (NLG) system for automatic test item generation. While natural language processing techniques are applicable to general verbal items, mathematics word problems are particularly tractable targets for natural language

Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen

235

Machine Learning and the Cognitive Basis of Natural Language Shalom Lappin  

E-print Network

in a wide variety of natural language processing tasks. These advances have generally been regarded as en in the application of informa- tion theoretic and machine learning (ML) methods to natural language processingMachine Learning and the Cognitive Basis of Natural Language Shalom Lappin Department of Philosophy

Lappin, Shalom

236

From natural language to NEXI, an interface for INEX 2005 queries  

E-print Network

a system if the query was analysed correctly. However, at present, Natural Language Processing (NLPFrom natural language to NEXI, an interface for INEX 2005 queries Xavier Tannier ´Ecole Nationale@emse.fr Abstract. Offering the possibility to query any XML retrieval system in natural language would be very

Tannier, Xavier

237

A Cross-Domain Application of Natural Language Processing In Biology Ivey Chiu Lily H. Shu  

E-print Network

A Cross-Domain Application of Natural Language Processing In Biology Ivey Chiu Lily H. Shu. To overcome this limitation, we perform keyword searches on existing natural-language knowledge sources natural-language format. Other current approaches to biomimetic design include compiling a database

Shu, Lily H.

238

The Role of Natural Language in Advanced Knowledge-Based Systems  

E-print Network

: Natural language processing is a prerequisite for advanced knowledge-based systems since the ability performance in face-to- face communication. 1. Introduction Natural language processing is a prerequisite-based processes. Consequently, the existing natural language systems belong to the class of knowledge-based AI

Wahlster, Wolfgang - Deutsche Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & FR 6.2

239

Langutils: A Natural Language Toolkit for Common Lisp MIT Media Laboratory  

E-print Network

, Natural Language Processing (NLP) has emerged as an important capability in many applications and areas. INTRODUCTION Natural Language Processing is becoming an important capability for many modern applications. From to its user. Major forms of natural language processing in use today include: - Dialog or speech systems

240

From natural language to NEXI, an interface for INEX 2005 queries  

E-print Network

a system if the query was analysed correctly. However, at present, Natural Language Processing (NLPFrom natural language to NEXI, an interface for INEX 2005 queries Xavier Tannier â?? Ecole Nationale@emse.fr Abstract. O#ering the possibility to query any XML retrieval system in natural language would be very

Tannier, Xavier

241

SEVENTH ILPS 95 WORKSHOP ON LOGIC PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS, PORTLAND, OREGON, DECEMBER 1995 Controlled Natural Language for  

E-print Network

as follows: in section 2 we define our version of controlled natural language; in section 3 we give controlled natural language to Prolog; finally, in section 6 we conclude and outline further research. 2 Attempto Controlled Natural Language for Requirements Specifications Norbert E. Fuchs, Rolf Schwitter

Schwitter, Rolf

242

Natural Language Processing Methods and Systems for Biomedical Ontology Learning  

PubMed Central

While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of natural language processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies. PMID:20647054

Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

2010-01-01

243

What can Natural Language Processing do for Clinical Decision Support?  

PubMed Central

Computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative NLP research of clinical narrative was followed by a period of stable research conducted at the major clinical centers and a shift of mainstream interest to biomedical NLP. This review primarily focuses on the recently renewed interest in development of fundamental NLP methods and advances in the NLP systems for CDS. The current solutions to challenges posed by distinct sublanguages, intended user groups, and support goals are discussed. PMID:19683066

Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chapman, Wendy W.; McDonald, Clement J.

2009-01-01

244

Towards a semantic lexicon for clinical natural language processing  

PubMed Central

A semantic lexicon which associates words and phrases in text to concepts is critical for extracting and encoding clinical information in free text and therefore achieving semantic interoperability between structured and unstructured data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Directly using existing standard terminologies may have limited coverage with respect to concepts and their corresponding mentions in text. In this paper, we analyze how tokens and phrases in a large corpus distribute and how well the UMLS captures the semantics. A corpus-driven semantic lexicon, MedLex, has been constructed where the semantics is based on the UMLS assisted with variants mined and usage information gathered from clinical text. The detailed corpus analysis of tokens, chunks, and concept mentions shows the UMLS is an invaluable source for natural language processing. Increasing the semantic coverage of tokens provides a good foundation in capturing clinical information comprehensively. The study also yields some insights in developing practical NLP systems. PMID:23304329

Liu, Hongfang; Wu, Stephen T.; Li, Dingcheng; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Haug, Peter J.; Huff, Stanley M.; Chute, Christopher G

2012-01-01

245

Real-world natural language interfaces to expert systems  

SciTech Connect

ACE (academic counseling experiment) is a natural-language text processing system currently under development at the University of Connecticut as a testbed for work in real-world conversational interaction with rule-based expert systems. ACE is designed to perform the tasks of a faculty advisor of undergraduate engineering students who intend to be computer science majors at the university. The key problem for a conversational system of this sort is robust understanding, the ability to cope with ungrammatical, ellipsed, and otherwise variant, but responsive, input. The paper outlines ACE's current status and the progress toward testing it with real users. The authors believe it represents a technology which can be applied to a wide variety of rule-based expert systems. 22 references.

Cullingford, R.E.; Selfridge, M.

1983-01-01

246

Literature-Based Knowledge Discovery using Natural Language Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature-based discovery (LBD) is an emerging methodology for uncovering nonovert relationships in the online research literature. Making such relationships explicit supports hypothesis generation and discovery. Currently LBD systems depend exclusively on co-occurrence of words or concepts in target documents, regardless of whether relations actually exist between the words or concepts. We describe a method to enhance LBD through capture of semantic relations from the literature via use of natural language processing (NLP). This paper reports on an application of LBD that combines two NLP systems: BioMedLEE and SemRep, which are coupled with an LBD system called BITOLA. The two NLP systems complement each other to increase the types of information utilized by BITOLA. We also discuss issues associated with combining heterogeneous systems. Initial experiments suggest this approach can uncover new associations that were not possible using previous methods.

Hristovski, D.; Friedman, C.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Peterlin, B.

247

Loosely Coupling Java Algorithms and XML Parsers: a Performance-Oriented Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of XML to represent any kind of data and documents, even complex and huge, is becoming a matter of fact. However, interfacing algorithms and applications with XML Parsers requires to adapt algorithms and appli- cations: event-based SAX Parsers need algorithms that re- act to events generated by the parser. But parsing\\/loading XML documents provides poor per- formance (if

Giuseppe Psaila; Viale Marconi

2006-01-01

248

Constructing Concept Schemes From Astronomical Telegrams Via Natural Language Clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using hierarchical clustering of processed natural language. This allows us to automatically organize ATELs based on the vocabulary used. We conclude that we can use simple algorithms to process and extract meaning from astronomical textual data.

Graham, Matthew; Zhang, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A. J.; Mahabal, A.

2012-01-01

249

Breaking the Molds: Signed Languages and the Nature of Human Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammars of signed languages tend to be based on grammars established for written languages, particularly the written language in use in the surrounding hearing community of a sign language. Such grammars presuppose categories of discrete elements which are combined into various sorts of structures. Recent analyses of signed languages go beyond…

Slobin, Dan I.

2008-01-01

250

The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages  

E-print Network

How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language ...

Miyagawa, Shigeru

251

Towards a continuous population model for natural language vowel shift.  

PubMed

The Great English Vowel Shift of 16th-19th centuries and the current Northern Cities Vowel Shift are two examples of collective language processes characterized by regular phonetic changes, that is, gradual changes in vowel pronunciation over time. Here we develop a structured population approach to modeling such regular changes in the vowel systems of natural languages, taking into account learning patterns and effects such as social trends. We treat vowel pronunciation as a continuous variable in vowel space and allow for a continuous dependence of vowel pronunciation in time and age of the speaker. The theory of mixtures with continuous diversity provides a framework for the model, which extends the McKendrick-von Foerster equation to populations with age and phonetic structures. We develop the general balance equations for such populations and propose explicit expressions for the factors that impact the evolution of the vowel pronunciation distribution. For illustration, we present two examples of numerical simulations. In the first one we study a stationary solution corresponding to a state of phonetic equilibrium, in which speakers of all ages share a similar phonetic profile. We characterize the variance of the phonetic distribution in terms of a parameter measuring a ratio of phonetic attraction to dispersion. In the second example we show how vowel shift occurs upon starting with an initial condition consisting of a majority pronunciation that is affected by an immigrant minority with a different vowel pronunciation distribution. The approach developed here for vowel systems may be applied also to other learning situations and other time-dependent processes of cognition in self-interacting populations, like opinions or perceptions. PMID:23624180

Shipman, Patrick D; Faria, Sérgio H; Strickland, Christopher

2013-09-01

252

Parsing spoken input introduces serious problems not present in parsing typed natural language. In particular, indeterminacies and  

E-print Network

, therefore, natural to apply the techniques already developed in processing typed language to determining simply between different word choices, this could be handled by the natural language processing natural language. · probability measures: Speech processing systems typically provide a relative

Hauptmann, Alexander G.

253

A common type system for clinical natural language processing  

PubMed Central

Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types. PMID:23286462

2013-01-01

254

Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time. PMID:23053906

Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

2013-08-01

255

Integration of speech recognition and natural language processing in the MIT VOYAGER system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MIT VOYAGER speech understanding system is an urban exploration and navigation system that interacts with the user through spoken dialogue, text, and graphics. The authors describe recent attempts at improving the integration between the speech recognition and natural language components. They used the generation capability of the natural language component to produce a word-pair language model to constrain the

Victor Zue; James Glass; David Goodine; Hong Leung; Michael Phillips; Joseph Polifroni; S. Seneff

1991-01-01

256

The Parser Doesn't Ignore Intransitivity, after All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several previous studies (B. C. Adams, C. Clifton, & D. C. Mitchell, 1998; D. C. Mitchell, 1987; R. P. G. van Gompel & M. J. Pickering, 2001) have explored the question of whether the parser initially analyzes a noun phrase that follows an intransitive verb as the verb's direct object. Three eye-tracking experiments examined this issue in more…

Staub, Adrian

2007-01-01

257

A New Statistical Parser Based on Bigram Lexical Dependencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new statistical parser which is based on probabilities of dependencies between head-words in the parse tree. Standard bigram probability estimation techniques are extended to calculate probabilities of dependencies between pairs of words. Tests using Wall Street Journal data show that the method performs at least as well as SPATTER (Magerman 95; Jelinek et al. 94), which

Michael John Collins

1996-01-01

258

SEMANTIC UNDERSTANDING BY COMBINING EXTENDED CFG PARSER WITH HMM MODEL  

E-print Network

in conjunction with an HMM model, which handles unknown words and partially known words, to yield a complete unknown words in noun classes. However, some words are known to the parser, but not known under, "talking to him was a big win" would not parse. However, if we allow both known and unknown words

259

Evolutionary Explanations for Natural Language -Criteria from Evolutionary Biology  

E-print Network

Institute for Logic, Language and Computation, University of Amsterdam Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV") and the cultural evolution of language(s) respectively. Corresponding author. Phone: +31 20 5255360, Fax: +31 20 talking (Dunbar, 1998, and refer- ences therein), verbal abilities play a significant role in social

Zuidema, Jelle

260

Review Lecture: The Algorithmic Description of Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human language is a uniquely rewarding subject of psychological investigation because of the richness of its structure and its wide expressive power; and the ability to communicate in language is a skill which is possessed by almost all adult human beings. But the scientific study of language calls for appropriate modes of description; and the concept of an algorithm enables

H. C. Longuet-Higgins

1972-01-01

261

One grammar or two? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language  

PubMed Central

Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages—such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality but also in the form of sign languages has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language—in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. PMID:25013534

Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

2014-01-01

262

An Evaluation of Strategies for Selective Utterance Verification for Spoken Natural Language Dialog  

E-print Network

An Evaluation of Strategies for Selective Utterance Verification for Spoken Natural Language Dialog Selective Verification of Questionable User Inputs Every system that uses natural language under­ standing­ ferent users, 141 problem­solving dialogs, and 2840 user utterances, the Circuit Fix­It Shop natural

Smith, Ronnie W.

263

Natural Language Processing at the School of Information Studies for Africa Bjorn Gamback  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing at the School of Information Studies for Africa Bj¨orn Gamb processing resources. To this end, the authors were invited to conduct a course in Natural Language an introductory course in Natural Lan- guage Processing to graduate computer science students at Addis Ababa

Gambäck, Björn

264

Natural language processing using a propositional semantic network with structured variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a knowledge representation and inference formalism, based on an intensional propositional semantic network, in which variables are structures terms consisting of quantifier, type, and other information. This has three important consequences for natural language processing. First, this leads to an extended, more “natural” formalism whose use and representations are consistent with the use of variables in natural language

Syed S. Ali; Stuart C. Shapiro

1993-01-01

265

Natural Language Processing to Identify Pneumonia from Radiology Reports  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop Natural Language Processing (NLP) approaches to supplement manual outcome validation, specifically to validate pneumonia cases from chest radiograph reports. Methods We trained one NLP system, ONYX, using radiograph reports from children and adults that were previously manually reviewed. We then assessed its validity on a test set of 5,000 reports. We aimed to substantially decrease manual review, not replace it entirely, and so we classified reports as 1) consistent or 2) not consistent with pneumonia or 3) requiring manual review due to complex features. We developed processes tailored either to optimize accuracy or to minimize manual review. Using logistic regression, we jointly modeled sensitivity and specificity of ONYX in relation to patient age, comorbidity, and care setting. We estimated positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) assuming pneumonia prevalence in the source data. Results Tailored for accuracy, ONYX identified 25% of reports as requiring manual review (34% of true pneumonias and 18% of non-pneumonias). For the remainder, ONYX’s sensitivity was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90–93%), specificity 87% (86–88%), PPV 74% (72– 76%), and NPV 96% (96–97%). Tailored to minimize manual review, ONYX classified 12% as needing manual review and for the remainder had sensitivity 75% (72-77%), specificity 95% (94-96%), PPV 86% (83-88%), and NPV 91% (90-91%). Conclusions For pneumonia validation, ONYX can replace almost 90% of manual review while maintaining low to moderate misclassification rates. It can be tailored for different outcomes and study needs and thus warrants exploration in other settings. PMID:23554109

Dublin, Sascha; Baldwin, Eric; Walker, Rod L.; Christensen, Lee M.; Haug, Peter J.; Jackson, Michael L.; Nelson, Jennifer C.; Ferraro, Jeffrey; Carrell, David; Chapman, Wendy W.

2013-01-01

266

Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.  

PubMed

The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system. PMID:23055164

McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

2013-06-01

267

9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History University of Oklahoma Elder Voices, Youth Choices from the Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair! We are pleased

Oklahoma, University of

268

Neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics as a basis for computer acquisition of natural language  

SciTech Connect

Research into natural language understanding systems for computers has concentrated on implementing particular grammars and grammatical models of the language concerned. This paper presents a rationale for research into natural language understanding systems based on neurological and psychological principles. Important features of the approach are that it seeks to place the onus of learning the language on the computer, and that it seeks to make use of the vast wealth of relevant psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic theory. 22 references.

Powers, D.M.W.

1983-04-01

269

Combining Linguistic and Statistical Knowledge Sources in Natural-Language Processing for ATIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year, significant improvements have been made in the natural-language processing technology used in the SRI ATIS spoken-language understanding system. The principal developments have been (1) the incorporation of information from the natural-language grammar and lexicon into a statistical language model that is used in both recognition and understanding, (2) implementation of a robust interpretation component that constructs

Robert Moore; Douglas Appelt; John Dowding; J. Mark Gawron; Douglas Moran

1995-01-01

270

Natural Language Processing in the FAQ Finder System: Results and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some recent results regardingthe employment of natural language processingtechniques in the FAQ Finder system. FAQFinder is a natural language question-answeringsystem that uses files of frequently-asked questionsas its knowledge base. Unlike AI questionansweringsystems that focus on the generationof new answers, FAQ Finder retrieves existingones found in frequently-asked question files.FAQ Finder uses a combination of statisticaland natural language...

Robin Burke

1997-01-01

271

Emerging Approach of Natural Language Processing in Opinion Mining: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer Based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

Kim, Tai-Hoon

272

MATHEMATICS, RHYTHM, AND NATURAL LANGUAGE IN CHINESE AND EUROPEAN CULTURE  

E-print Network

of continuity and specific units such as its writing system, not alphabetic character, but consisting imitated nature, but in Chinese culture, the musician does not emulate anything because the music is nature

Spagnolo, Filippo

273

Nature and Nurture in School-Based Second Language Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variability in achievement across learners is a hallmark of second language (L2) learning, especially in academic-based learning. The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), based on a large, population-representative sample in the United Kingdom, provides the first opportunity to examine individual differences in second language achievement in a…

Dale, Philip S.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

2012-01-01

274

Natural Language Understanding by Computer The Next Step  

E-print Network

of Aristotle's observations about thought and language seem to hit the mark precisely today. after more than two millenia. (See [Aristotle].) And the study of language. which is inexUicably intertwined to be re-di.scovered in our new setting. It is one achievement (and a great one) for Aristotle to have

Michalski, Ryszard S.

275

Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D.…

Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

2009-01-01

276

Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

de Jong, Jan

2010-01-01

277

Heavy NP shift is the parser’s last resort: Evidence from eye movements ?  

PubMed Central

Two eye movement experiments explored the roles of verbal subcategorization possibilities and transitivity biases in the processing of heavy NP shift sentences in which the verb’s direct object appears to the right of a post-verbal phrase. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences in which a prepositional phrase immediately followed the verb, which was either obligatorily transitive or had a high transitivity bias (e.g., Jack praised/watched from the stands his daughter’s attempt to shoot a basket). Experiment 2 compared unshifted sentences to sentences in which an adverb intervened between the verb and its object, and obligatorily transitive verbs to optionally transitive verbs with widely varying transitivity biases. In both experiments, evidence of processing difficulty appeared on the material that intervened between the verb and its object when the verb was obligatorily transitive, and on the shifted direct object when the verb was optionally transitive, regardless of transitivity bias. We conclude that the parser adopts the heavy NP shift analysis only when it is forced to by the grammar, which we interpret in terms of a preference for immediate incremental interpretation. PMID:17047731

Staub, Adrian; Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

2006-01-01

278

A taxonomy of situated language in natural contexts  

E-print Network

This thesis develops a multi-modal dataset consisting of transcribed speech along with the locations in which that speech took place. Speech with location attached is called situated language, and is represented here as ...

Shaw, George Macaulay

2011-01-01

279

Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal  

PubMed Central

Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind (whisk; Imai and Gentner, 1997). Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin-speakers and English-speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's (1999) hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object-kind rather than substance-kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind. PMID:19230873

Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

2009-01-01

280

Computational Nonlinear Morphology with Emphasis on Semitic Languages. Studies in Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a tractable computational model that can cope with complex morphological operations, especially in Semitic languages, and less complex morphological systems present in Western languages. It outlines a new generalized regular rewrite rule system that uses multiple finite-state automata to cater to root-and-pattern morphology,…

Kiraz, George Anton

281

Storing files in a parallel computing system based on user-specified parser function  

DOEpatents

Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system based on a user-specified parser function. A plurality of files generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system are stored by obtaining a parser from the distributed application for processing the plurality of files prior to storage; and storing one or more of the plurality of files in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system based on the processing by the parser. The plurality of files comprise one or more of a plurality of complete files and a plurality of sub-files. The parser can optionally store only those files that satisfy one or more semantic requirements of the parser. The parser can also extract metadata from one or more of the files and the extracted metadata can be stored with one or more of the plurality of files and used for searching for files.

Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Manzanares, Adam; Torres, Aaron

2014-10-21

282

Natural language vs. Boolean query evaluation: a comparison of retrieval performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experiments comparing the relative performance of natural language and Boolean query formulations are presented. The experiments show that on average a current generation natural language system provides better retrieval performance than expert searchers using a Boolean retrieval system when searching full-text legal materials. Methodological issues are reviewed and the effect of database size on query formulation strategy

Howard R. Turtle

1994-01-01

283

Generating Affective Natural Language for Parents of Neonatal Infants Saad Mahamood and Ehud Reiter  

E-print Network

with the affective strategies, regardless of predicted stress level. 1 Introduction In recent years there has been, whereas medical staff can express affect through voice-tone and body language, the affect-limited natureGenerating Affective Natural Language for Parents of Neonatal Infants Saad Mahamood and Ehud Reiter

Reiter, Ehud

284

On some applications of finite-state automata theory to natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe new applications of the theory of automata to natural language processing: the representation of very large scale dictionaries and the indexation of natural language texts. They are based on new algorithms that we introduce and describe in detail. In particular, we give pseudocodes for the determinization of string to string transducers, the deterministic union of p-subsequential string to

MEHRYAR MOHRI

1996-01-01

285

Large Lexicons for Natural Language Processing: Utilising the Grammar Coding System of LDOCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focusses on the derivation of large lexicons for natural language processing. We describe the development of a dictionary support environment linking a restructured version of the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English to natural language processing systems. The process of restructuring the information in the machine readable version of the dictionary is discussed. The Longman grammar code system is

Branimir Boguraev; Ted Briscoe

1987-01-01

286

Success story in software engineering using NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology)  

SciTech Connect

To create an information system, we employ NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology). NIAM supports the goals of both the customer and the analyst completely understanding the information. We use the customer`s own unique vocabulary, collect real examples, and validate the information in natural language sentences. Examples are discussed from a successfully implemented information system.

Eaton, S.M.; Eaton, D.S.

1995-10-01

287

Testing of a Natural Language Retrieval System for a Full Text Knowledge Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hepatitis Knowledge Base (text of prototype information system) was used for modifying and testing "A Navigator of Natural Language Organized (Textual) Data" (ANNOD), a retrieval system which combines probabilistic, linguistic, and empirical means to rank individual paragraphs of full text for similarity to natural language queries proposed by…

Bernstein, Lionel M.; Williamson, Robert E.

1984-01-01

288

NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING FOR REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING: APPLICABILITY TO LARGE REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a case study on application of natural language processing in very early stages of software development. At this early stage it is very important for the domain expert (who is, most probably, the future user) and the software expert to define a common language, understood by both of them. To define such a common language, we extract

Leonid Kof

289

Neural network processing of natural language: I. Sensitivity to serial, temporal and abstract structure  

E-print Network

Neural network processing of natural language: I. Sensitivity to serial, temporal and abstract PROCESSES, 2000, 15 (1), 87­127 #12;88 DOMINEY AND RAMUS INTRODUCTION An important part of language structure of language in the infant Peter Ford Dominey Institut des Sciences Cognitives, Bron, France Franck

Dominey, Peter F.

290

Selectional restrictions in natural language sentence generation Raymond Kozlowski, Kathleen F. McCoy, and K. VijayShanker  

E-print Network

Selectional restrictions in natural language sentence generation Raymond Kozlowski, Kathleen F. Mc selectional restrictions can be naturally incorporated into our generation architecture and our notion of a lexico­ grammatical resource. Keywords: Natural language generation, Selectional restrictions, Lexical

McCoy, Kathleen F.

291

Selectional restrictions in natural language sentence generation Raymond Kozlowski, Kathleen F. McCoy, and K. Vijay-Shanker  

E-print Network

Selectional restrictions in natural language sentence generation Raymond Kozlowski, Kathleen F. Mc selectional restrictions can be naturally incorporated into our generation architecture and our notion of a lexico- grammatical resource. Keywords: Natural language generation, Selectional restrictions, Lexical

McCoy, Kathleen F.

292

Moving Toward a Unified Effort to Understand the Nature and Causes of Language Disorders  

E-print Network

Applied Psycholinguistics 26 (2005), 3–6 Printed in the United States of America DOI: 10.1017.S0142716405050022 EDITORIAL Moving toward a unified effort to understand the nature and causes of language disorders MABEL L. RICE and STEVEN F. WARREN... University of Kansas ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Mabel L. Rice, University of Kansas, Child Language Doctoral Program, 1000 Sunnyside Avenue, 3031 Dole Center, Lawrence, KS 66045-7555. E-mail: mabel@ku.edu The nature and causes of language disorders...

Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

2005-01-01

293

The Effect of Natural Language Processing in Bioinspired Design  

E-print Network

Bioinspired design methods are a new and evolving collection of techniques used to extract biological principles from nature to solve engineering problems. The application of bioinspired design methods is typically confined to existing problems...

Burns, Madison Suzann 1987-

2012-10-23

294

Integrating Corpus-Based Resources and Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys computational linguistic tools presently available, but whose potential has neither been fully considered nor exploited to its full in modern computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses the rationale of DDL to engage learning, presenting typical data-driven learning (DDL)-activities, DDL-software, and potential extensions of…

Cantos, Pascual

2002-01-01

295

Transportable natural language processing through simplicity—the PRE system  

Microsoft Academic Search

PRE (Purposefully Restricted English) is a restricted English database query language whose implementation has addressed engineering goals, namely, habitability, interapplication transportability, performance, and use with a reliable database management system that supports large numbers of concurrent users and large databases. Habitability has not been demonstrated, but initial indications are encouraging. The other goals have clearly been achieved. The existence of

Samuel S. Epstein

1985-01-01

296

Inferring Speaker Affect in Spoken Natural Language Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of spoken language processing is concerned with creating computer programs that can understand human speech and produce human-like speech. Regarding the problem of understanding human speech, there is currently growing interest in moving beyond speech recognition (the task of transcribing the words in an audio stream) and towards…

Pon-Barry, Heather Roberta

2013-01-01

297

Evolutionary Developmental Linguistics: Naturalization of the Faculty of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since language is a biological trait, it is necessary to investigate its evolution, development, and functions, along with the mechanisms that have been set aside, and are now recruited, for its acquisition and use. It is argued here that progress toward each of these goals can be facilitated by new programs of research, carried out within a new…

Locke, John L.

2009-01-01

298

Regular right part grammars and their parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an alternative to context-free grammars called regular right part (RRP) grammars, which resemble PASCAL syntax diagrams. Formally, RRP grammars have production right parts, which are nondeterministic finite state machines (FSMs), and, as a special case, regular expression, since these can be converted to FSMs. RRP grammars describe the syntax of programming languages more concisely and more understandably

Wilf R. LaLonde

1977-01-01

299

A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

2014-01-01

300

Controlled Natural Language in a Game for Legal Assistance  

E-print Network

of legal expert in question (e.g. a barrister; a notary; a solicitor), the client (e.g. another lawyer; the victim of a crime; a multi-national company), and the nature of the law in question (criminal; civil; international). A barrister, for example, being a lawyer qualified to present cases in court, must be familiar

Pace, Gordon J.

301

Preservice elementary teachers constructing the nature and language of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on a longitudinal, two-year study of efforts to assess and affect the conception of the nature of science held by preservice, elementary teachers. The first year of the study examined the change in ways twenty seven students defined and described science following a series of tasks designed to have them 1) explore explicit and tacit conceptions of

John A. Craven

302

Spatial and Numerical Abilities without a Complete Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations…

Hyde, Daniel C.; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2011-01-01

303

Applying Light Natural Language Processing to Ad-Hoc Cross Language Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

Lioma,C. Macdonald,C. Plachouras,V. He,B. Ounis,I. In Accessing Multilingual Information Repositories: 6th Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2005, Vienna, Austria, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4022 LNCS, Springer

Lioma, C.

304

BANZAI: An Application of Natural Language Processing to Web based Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents BANZAI, a new intelligent language tutor program developed by the author over the past two years. BANZAI is programmed in Java and runs on the user's web browser over the Internet. It is designed to develop learners' grammatical and sentence production skills in Japanese as well as to instill cultural knowledge about Japan. It handles Japanese characters,

Noriko Nagata

2002-01-01

305

BANZAI: An Application of Natural Language Processing to Web-Based Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents BANZAI, a new intelligent language tutor program that is designed to develop learners' grammatical and sentence production skills in Japanese as well as to instill cultural knowledge about Japan. Illustrates actual lesson plans and sample exercises provided by BANZAI. (Author/VWL)

Nagata, Noriko

2002-01-01

306

Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

1985-01-01

307

GE FRST Evaluation Report: How Well Does a Statistically-Based Natural Language Processing System Score Natural Language Constructed-Responses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a considerable interest at Educational Testing Service (ETS) to include performance-based, natural language constructed-response items on standardized tests. Such items can be developed, but the projected time and costs required to have these items scored by human graders would be prohibitive. In order for ETS to include these types of…

Burstein, Jill C.; Kaplan, Randy M.

308

IR-NLI: an expert natural language interface to online data bases  

SciTech Connect

Constructing natural language interfaces to computer systems often requires achievement of advanced reasoning and expert capabilities in addition to basic natural language understanding. In this paper the above issues are faced in the context of an actual application concerning the design of a natural language interface for access to online information retrieval systems. After a short discussion of the peculiarities of this application, which requires both natural language understanding and reasoning capabilities, the general architecture and fundamental design criteria of IR-NLI, a system presently being developed at the University of Udine, are presented. Attention is then focused on the basic functions of IR-NLI, namely, understanding and dialogue, strategy generation, and reasoning. Knowledge representation methods and algorithms adopted are also illustrated. A short example of interaction with IR-NLI is presented. Perspectives and directions for future research are also discussed. 15 references.

Guida, G.; Tasso, C.

1983-01-01

309

Resolution of linear entity and path geometries expressed via partially-geospatial natural language  

E-print Network

When conveying geospatial information via natural language, people typically combine implicit, commonsense knowledge with explicitly-stated information. Usually, much of this is contextual and relies on establishing locations ...

Marrero, John Javier

2010-01-01

310

Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

2013-04-01

311

Mining Natural Language Answers from the Web Gnter Neumann and Feiyu Xu1  

E-print Network

anchors for document indexing, paragraph selection, and answer identification. The latter is dependent answer is selected. The system has been evaluated using question-answer pairs extracted from a popularMining Natural Language Answers from the Web Günter Neumann and Feiyu Xu1 Language Technology Lab

Neumann, Günter

312

Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to increase vocalizations of older adults with cognitive impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated in a multiple baseline design across participants. Data were collected on appropriate

Linda A. LeBlanc; Kaneen B. Geiger; Rachael A. Sautter; Tina M. Sidener

2007-01-01

313

Nine-month-olds extract structural principles required for natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants' ability to rapidly extract properties of language-like systems during brief laboratory exposures has been taken as evidence about the innate linguistic state of humans. However, previous studies have focused on structural properties that are not central to descriptions of natural language. In the current study, infants were exposed to 3- and 5-syllable words from one of the two artificial

LouAnn Gerken

2004-01-01

314

A Fuzzy Set Approach to Modifiers and Vagueness in Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposition that natural language concepts are represented as fuzzy sets, a generalization of the traditional theory of sets, of meaning components and that language operators--adverbs, negative markers, and adjectives--can be considered as operators on fuzzy sets was assessed empirically. (Editor/RK)

Hersh, Harry M.; Caramazza, Alfonso

1976-01-01

315

Chinese Whispers - an Efficient Graph Clustering Algorithm and its Application to Natural Language Processing Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce Chinese Whispers, a randomized graph-clustering algorithm, which is time-linear in the number of edges. After a detailed definition of the algorithm and a discussion of its strengths and weaknesses, the performance of Chinese Whispers is measured on Natural Language Processing (NLP) problems as diverse as language separation, acquisition of syntactic word classes and word sense disambiguation. At this,

Chris Biemann

2006-01-01

316

Paradigms of Evaluation in Natural Language Processing: Field Linguistics for Glass Box Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although software testing has been well-studied in computer science, it has received little attention in natural language processing. Nonetheless, a fully developed methodology for glass box evaluation and testing of language processing applications already exists in the field methods of descriptive linguistics. This work lays out a number of…

Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

2010-01-01

317

Development and Evaluation of a Thai Learning System on the Web Using Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Thai Learning System, which is designed to help learners acquire the Thai word order system. The system facilitates the lessons on the Web using HyperText Markup Language and Perl programming, which interfaces with natural language processing by means of Prolog. (Author/VWL)

Dansuwan, Suyada; Nishina, Kikuko; Akahori, Kanji; Shimizu, Yasutaka

2001-01-01

318

MOUNTAIN: A Translation-based Approach to Natural Language Generation for Dialog  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN: A Translation-based Approach to Natural Language Generation for Dialog Systems Brian, USA {blangner,awb}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract. This paper describes the Mountain language generation system a corpus of in-domain human responses, and show typical output of the Mountain system. The results of our

Black, Alan W

319

Structured Natural-Language Descriptions for Semantic Content Retrieval of Visual Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a structure for natural language descriptions of the semantic content of visual materials that requires descriptions to be (modified) keywords, phrases, or simple sentences, with components that are grammatical relations common to many languages. This structure makes it easy to implement a collection's descriptions as a relational…

Tam, A. M.; Leung, C. H. C.

2001-01-01

320

A Natural Language for AdS/CFT Correlators  

SciTech Connect

We provide dramatic evidence that 'Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into 'left' and 'right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. By analyzing the recursive structure of our factorization formula we obtain simple diagrammatic rules for the construction of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to tree-level Witten diagrams in any bulk scalar theory. We prove the diagrammatic rules using our finite difference equations. Finally, we show that our factorization formula and our diagrammatic rules morph into the flat space S-Matrix of the bulk theory, reproducing the usual Feynman rules, when we take the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. Throughout we emphasize a deep analogy with the properties of flat space scattering amplitudes in momentum space, which suggests that the Mellin amplitude may provide a holographic definition of the flat space S-Matrix.

Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC; Penedones, Joao; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Raju, Suvrat; /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst.; van Rees, Balt C.; /YITP, Stony Brook

2012-02-14

321

A natural language for AdS/CFT correlators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide dramatic evidence that `Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into `left' and `right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. By analyzing the recursive structure of our factorization formula we obtain simple diagrammatic rules for the construction of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to tree-level Witten diagrams in any bulk scalar theory. We prove the diagrammatic rules using our finite difference equations. Finally, we show that our factorization formula and our diagrammatic rules morph into the flat space S-Matrix of the bulk theory, reproducing the usual Feynman rules, when we take the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. Throughout we emphasize a deep analogy with the properties of flat space scattering amplitudes in momentum space, which suggests that the Mellin amplitude may provide a holographic definition of the flat space S-Matrix.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Penedones, Joao; Raju, Suvrat; van Rees, Balt C.

2011-11-01

322

Children as Models for Computers: Natural Language Acquisition for Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Children as Models for Computers: Natural Language Acquisition for Machine Learning Leonor Becerra Tarragona, Spain mariadolores.jimenez@urv.cat Abstract. This paper focuses on a subfield of machine learning. Nevertheless, what has not been achieved yet is that machines learn to speak. It is a truism that natural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

For the People...Citizenship Education and Naturalization Information. An English as a Second Language Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A textbook for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students presents lessons on U.S. citizenship education and naturalization information. The nine lessons cover the following topics: the U.S. system of government; the Bill of Rights; responsibilities and rights of citizens; voting; requirements for naturalization; the application process; the…

Short, Deborah J.; And Others

324

Natural language processing for information assurance and security: an overview and implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores a promising interface between natural language processing (NLP) and informationassurance and security (IAS). More specifically, it is devoted to possible applications ofthe accumulated considerable resources in NLP to IAS. The paper is of a mixed theoretical andempirical nature. Of the four possible venues of applications, (i) memorizing randomly generatedpasswords with the help of automatically generated funny jingles,

Mikhail J. Atallah; Craig J. Mcdonough; Victor Raskin; Sergei Nirenburg

2001-01-01

325

Cross-Fertilization Between Human Computer Interaction and Natural Language Processing: Why and How  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the central notions and ultimate goals of both human-computer interaction (HCI) and natural language processing (NLP) are common to both disciplines. Both are concerned with communication as a core concept, and both attempt to maximize the naturalness of this communication for the end-user. A central challenge to both disciplines is the issue of the choice and adaptation of

Nadine Ozkan; Cécile Paris

2002-01-01

326

Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

2012-01-01

327

Transformation-Based Error-Driven Learning and Natural Language Processing: A Case Study in Part-of-Speech Tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a rebirth of empiricism in the field of natural language processing. Manual encoding of linguistic information is being challenged by automated corpus-based learning as a method of providing a natural language processing system with linguistic knowledge. Although corpus-based approaches have been successful in many different areas of natural language processing, it is often the case that

Eric Brill

1995-01-01

328

Applications and Discovery of Granularity Structures in Natural Language Rutu Mulkar-Mehta, Jerry Hobbs and Eduard Hovy  

E-print Network

to discover and extract granularity structures in natural language discourse (Section 3). We finally describe of question answering and text summarization (Section 4). 2 Theory of Granularity in Natural Language HumansApplications and Discovery of Granularity Structures in Natural Language Discourse Rutu Mulkar

Hobbs, Jerry R.

329

Identification of findings suspicious for breast cancer based on natural language processing of mammogram reports.  

PubMed Central

There is need for encoded data for computerized clinical decision support, but most such data are unavailable as they are in free-text reports. Natural language processing offers one alternative for encoding such data. MedLEE is a natural language processing system which is in routine use for encoding chest radiograph and mammogram reports. In this paper, we study MedLEE's ability to identify mammogram findings suspicious for breast cancer by comparing MedLEE's encoding with a logbook of all suspicious findings maintained by the mammography center. While MedLEE was able to identify all the suspicious findings, it varied in the level of granularity, particularly about the location of the suspicious finding. Thus, natural language processing is a useful technique for encoding mammogram reports in order to detect suspicious findings. PMID:9357741

Jain, N. L.; Friedman, C.

1997-01-01

330

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 766776, Jeju Island, Korea, 1214 July 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 766­776, Jeju Island, Korea, 12­14 July 2012. c 2012 Association remarkable success in speech and language processing (Clarkson and Rosenfeld, 1997; Stolcke, 2002). However

331

n-Gram Statistics for Natural Language Understanding and Text Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

n-gram (n = 1 to 5) statistics and other properties of the English language were derived for applications in natural language understanding and text processing. They were computed from a well-known corpus composed of 1 million word samples. Similar properties were also derived from the most frequent 1000 words of three other corpuses. The positional distributions of n-grams obtained in

Ching Y. Suen

1979-01-01

332

SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

Simmons, Robert M.

1987-01-01

333

QATT: a Natural Language Interface for QPE. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

QATT, a natural language interface developed for the Qualitative Process Engine (QPE) system is presented. The major goal was to evaluate the use of a preexisting natural language understanding system designed to be tailored for query processing in multiple domains of application. The other goal of QATT is to provide a comfortable environment in which to query envisionments in order to gain insight into the qualitative behavior of physical systems. It is shown that the use of the preexisting system made possible the development of a reasonably useful interface in a few months.

White, Douglas Robert-Graham

1989-01-01

334

2 Evolution in Language and Elsewhere It is a natural principle that the script and the sounds  

E-print Network

of the evolution of language in the human species, or the study of the biological evolution of the language organ21 2 Evolution in Language and Elsewhere It is a natural principle that the script and the sounds of language differ according to time and place. Chén Dì (1541-1617) Darwin's (1859) theory of the evolution

335

Episodic Logic Meets Little Red Riding Hood : A Comprehensive, Natural Representation for Language Understanding  

E-print Network

Episodic Logic Meets Little Red Riding Hood : A Comprehensive, Natural Representation for Language from the story of Little Red Riding Hood.1 1In our later discussion of test scenarios, the wording, 1961). 1 #12;The wolf would have very much liked to eat her, but dared not do so on account of some

336

A Comprehensive Neural-Based Approach for Text Recognition in Videos using Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

A Comprehensive Neural-Based Approach for Text Recognition in Videos using Natural Language videos. For this, we developed a complete video Optical Character Recognition system (OCR), specifically adapted to detect and recognize embedded texts in videos. Based on a neural approach, this new method

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Self-Regulated Learning in Learning Environments with Pedagogical Agents that Interact in Natural Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the occurrence and measurement of self-regulated learning (SRL) both in human tutoring and in computer tutors with agents that hold conversations with students in natural language and help them learn at deeper levels. One challenge in building these computer tutors is to accommodate, encourage, and scaffold SRL because these…

Graesser, Arthur; McNamara, Danielle

2010-01-01

338

AutoTutor and Family: A Review of 17 Years of Natural Language Tutoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…

Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

2014-01-01

339

Introduction to Special Issue: Understanding the Nature-Nurture Interactions in Language and Learning Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction to this special issue on nature-nurture interactions notes that the following articles represent five biologically oriented research approaches which each provide a tutorial on the investigator's major research tool, a summary of current research understandings regarding language and learning differences, and a discussion of…

Berninger, Virginia Wise

2001-01-01

340

THEORETICAL REVIEW Zipf's word frequency law in natural language: A critical review  

E-print Network

THEORETICAL REVIEW Zipf's word frequency law in natural language: A critical review and future approximately follows a simple mathemati- cal form known as Zipf 's law. This article first shows that human law, al- though prior data visualization methods have obscured this fact. A number of empirical

Makous, Walter

341

Natural Language Processing for computer-supported instruction Barbara Di Eugenio  

E-print Network

that execute instructions to intelligent tutoring systems, from systems that produce instructional manuals. Instructions in a technical manual, on-line help or home repair manual such as those under A in Figure 1 DelinNatural Language Processing for computer-supported instruction Barbara Di Eugenio Computer Science

Di Eugenio, Barbara

342

Sentiment Analyzer: Extracting Sentiments about a Given Topic using Natural Language Processing Techniques  

E-print Network

Sentiment Analyzer: Extracting Sentiments about a Given Topic using Natural Language Processing, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA razvan@cs.utexas.edu Abstract We present Sentiment Analyzer (SA the sentiment of an entire doc- ument about a subject, SA detects all references to the given subject

Bunescu, Razvan C.

343

Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…

Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe

2012-01-01

344

Natural Language Engineering 1 (1): 132. Printed in the United Kingdom c 1998 Cambridge University Press  

E-print Network

Natural Language Engineering 1 (1): 1­32. Printed in the United Kingdom c 1998 Cambridge University readability. First, for determining content and structure (docu- ment planning), we did not explicitly model readability, but rather followed a pragmatic approach of repeatedly revising content and structure following

Reiter, Ehud

345

Natural Language Engineering 1 (1): 000000. Printed in the United Kingdom c 1998 Cambridge University Press  

E-print Network

Natural Language Engineering 1 (1): 000­000. Printed in the United Kingdom c 1998 Cambridge University Press 1 Using the Crowd for Readability Prediction Orph´ee De Clercq 1,3 V´eronique Hoste 1,2 Bart experts for a machine learning approach to automatic readability prediction. In order to do so, we

De Cock, Martine

346

Discovering Novel Adverse Drug Events Using Natural Language Processing and Mining of the Electronic Health Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talk presents an overview of our research in use of medical knowledge, natural language processing, the electronic health\\u000a record, and statistical methods to automatically discover novel adverse drug events, which are serious problems world-wide.

Carol Friedman

2009-01-01

347

The Utility of Affect Expression in Natural Language Interactions in Joint Human-Robot Tasks  

E-print Network

The Utility of Affect Expression in Natural Language Interactions in Joint Human-Robot Tasks Matthias Scheutz A.I. & Robotics Lab University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA mscheutz@cse.nd.edu Paul Schermerhorn A.I. & Robotics Lab University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA pscherm1@cse

Treuille, Adrien

348

Proceedings of ICON-2008: 6th International Conference on Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

Proceedings of ICON-2008: 6th International Conference on Natural Language Processing Macmillan Publishers, India. Also accessible from http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/proceedings/ICON-2008 A System for Compound Noun Multiword Expression Extraction for Hindi Abstract Identifying compound noun multiword expressions

Damani, Om P.

349

POS Tagging of Dialectal Arabic: A Minimally Supervised Approach Natural language processing technology  

E-print Network

small amounts of written dialectal material in e.g. plays, novels, chat rooms, etc., data can onlyPOS Tagging of Dialectal Arabic: A Minimally Supervised Approach Abstract Natural language processing technology for the dialects of Arabic is still in its infancy, due to the problem of obtaining

Kirchhoff, Katrin

350

Speech perception and reading: two parallel modes of understanding language and implications for acquiring literacy naturally.  

PubMed

I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally. PMID:22953690

Massaro, Dominic W

2012-01-01

351

Some Applications of Natural Language Processing to the Field of Augmentative and Alternative Communication 1  

E-print Network

@cis.udel.edu, demasco@asel.udel.edu Introduction Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is the field of studySome Applications of Natural Language Processing to the Field of Augmentative and Alternative concerned with providing devices or techniques to augment the communicative ability of a person whose

McCoy, Kathleen F.

352

Some Applications of Natural Language Processing to the Field of Augmentative and Alternative Communication1  

E-print Network

@cis.udel.edu, demasco@asel.udel.edu Introduction Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is the field of studySome Applications of Natural Language Processing to the Field of Augmentative and Alternative concerned with providing devices or techniques to augment the communicative ability of a person whose

McCoy, Kathleen F.

353

LUKE: An Experiment In The Early Integration Of Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luke is a knowledge editor designed to support two tasks; the first is editing the classes and relations in a knowledge base. The second is editing and maintaining the semantic mapping knowledge neccesary to allow a natural language interface to understand sentences with respect to that knowledge base. In order to emphasize design decisions shared between the two tasks, Luke

David A. Wroblewski; Elaine A. Rich

1988-01-01

354

i2b2 Workshop on Natural Language Processing Challenges for Clinical Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop aims to bring together computational linguists and medical informaticians interested in automatic linguistic processing of clinical records such as medical discharge summaries and radiology reports. Lack of a publicly available and standardized data set has been one of the biggest barriers to systematic progress of Natural Language Processing techniques for clinical data. Within the framework of the i2b2

Ozlem Uzuner; Peter Szolovits; Isaac Kohane

355

The ROBOT System: Natural language processing applied to data base query  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1970's the natural language processing techniques developed within the field of artificial intelligence (AI) made important progress. Within certain restricted micro worlds of discourse it became possible to process a reasonably large class of English. These techniques have now been applied to the real micro world of data base query, allowing for information to be extracted from

Larry R. Harris

1978-01-01

356

Classifying free-text triage chief complaints into syndromic categories with natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Develop and evaluate a natural language processing application for classifying chief complaints into syndromic categories for syndromic surveillance. Introduction: Much of the input data for artificial intelligence applications in the medical field are free-text patient medical records, including dictated medical reports and triage chief complaints. To be useful for automated systems, the free-text must be translated into encoded form.

Wendy Webber Chapman; Lee M. Christensen; Michael M. Wagner; Peter J. Haug; Oleg Ivanov; John N. Dowling; Robert T. Olszewski

2005-01-01

357

Extracting information on pneumonia in infants using natural language processing of radiology reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language processing (NLP) is critical for improvement of the healthcare process because it can encode clinical data in patient documents. Many clinical applications such as decision support require coded data to function appropriately. However, in order to be applicable for healthcare, performance must be adequate. A valuable automated application is the detection of infectious diseases, such as surveillance of

Eneida A. Mendonc ca; Janet Haas; Lyudmila Shagina; Elaine Larson; Carol Friedman

2005-01-01

358

The Linguistic Correlates of Conversational Deception: Comparing Natural Language Processing Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The words people use and the way they use them can reveal a great deal about their mental states when they attempt to deceive. The challenge for researchers is how to reliably distinguish the linguistic features that characterize these hidden states. In this study, we use a natural language processing tool called Coh-Metrix to evaluate deceptive…

Duran, Nicholas D.; Hall, Charles; McCarthy, Philip M.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2010-01-01

359

NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

2003-01-01

360

A Question Answering System Developed as a Project in a Natural Language Processing Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Question Answering Sys- tem constructed during a one semester graduate- level course on Natural Language Processing (NLP). We hypothesized that by using a combination of syn- tactic and semantic features and machine learning techniques, we could improve the accuracy of ques- tion answering on the test set of the Remedia corpus over the reported levels. The

W. Wang; J. Auer; R. Parasuraman; I. Zubarev; D. Brandyberry; M. P. Harpm

2000-01-01

361

Natural language processing and information extraction: qualitative analysis of financial news articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative financial data are today largely analyzed by automatic computer programs based on traditional or artificial intelligence techniques. Differently, qualitative data and, in particular, articles from on-line news agencies or from financial newspapers are not yet successfully processed. As a result, financial operators suffer from qualitative data-overload. The paper addresses the issue of the use of natural language processing and,

M. Costantino; R. G. Morgan; R. J. Collingham; R. Carigliano

1997-01-01

362

BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…

Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi

2008-01-01

363

An Evaluation of Help Mechanisms in Natural Language Information Retrieval Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the current state of natural language processing information retrieval systems from the user's point of view, focusing on the structure and components of the systems' help mechanisms. Topics include user/system interaction; semantic parsing; syntactic parsing; semantic mapping; and concept matching. (Author/LRW)

Kreymer, Oleg

2002-01-01

364

Applying natural language processing (NLP) based metadata extraction to automatically acquire user preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a metadata extraction technique based on natural language processing (NLP) which extracts personalized information from email communications between financial analysts and their clients. Personalized means connecting users with content in a personally meaningful way to create, grow, and retain online relationships. Personalization often results in the creation of user profiles that store individuals' preferences regarding goods or

Woojin Paik; Sibel Yilmazel; Eric Brown; Maryjane Poulin; Stephane Dubon; Christophe Amice

2001-01-01

365

The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

2012-01-01

366

A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

Tierney, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

367

Machine tractable dictionaries as tools and resources for natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses three different but related large-scale computational methods for the transformation of machine readable dictionaries (MRDs) into machine tractable dictionaries, i.e., MRDs converted into a format usable for natural language processing tasks. The MRD used is .

Yorick Wilks; Dan Fass; Cheng-ming Guo; James E. Mcdonald; Tony Plate; Brian M. Slator

1988-01-01

368

Temporal reasoning with medical data—A review with emphasis on medical natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal information is crucial in electronic medical records and biomedical information systems. Processing temporal information in medical narrative data is a very challenging area. It lies at the intersection of temporal representation and reasoning (TRR) in artificial intelligence and medical natural language processing (MLP). Some fundamental concepts and important issues in relation to TRR have previously been discussed, mainly in

Li Zhou; George Hripcsak

2007-01-01

369

Sentiment Analyzer: Extracting Sentiments about a Given Topic using Natural Language Processing Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Sentiment Analyzer (SA) that extracts senti- ment (or opinion) about a subject from online text docu- ments. Instead of classifying the sentiment of an entire doc- ument about a subject, SA detects all references to the given subject, and determines sentiment in each of the references using natural language processing (NLP) techniques. Our sentiment analysis consists of 1)

Jeonghee Yi; Tetsuya Nasukawa; Razvan C. Bunescu; Wayne Niblack

2003-01-01

370

Natural language processing to extract medical problems from electronic clinical documents: Performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluate the performance of a Natural Language Processing (NLP) application designed to extract medical problems from narrative text clinical documents. The documents come from a patients electronic medical record and medical problems are pro- posed for inclusion in the patients electronic problem list. This application has been developed to help maintain the problem list and make

Stéphane Meystre; Peter J. Haug

2006-01-01

371

GENIES: a natural-language processing system for the extraction of molecular pathways from journal articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems that extract structured information from natural language passages have been highly successful in specialized domains. The time is opportune for devel- oping analogous applications for molecular biology and genomics. We present a system, GENIES, that extracts and structures information about cellular pathways from the biological literature in accordance with a knowledge model that we developed earlier. We implemented GENIES

Carol Friedman; Pauline Kra; Hong Yu; Michael Krauthammer; Andrey Rzhetsky

2001-01-01

372

A Web-based Integrated Knowledge Mining Aid System Using Term-oriented Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a web -based integrated knowledge mining aid system in which information extraction and intelligent database access are combined using term-oriented natural language tools. Our domain is molecular biology and our aim is to provide efficient access to heterogeneous biological and genomic databases, enabling users to use a wide range of textual and non textual resources

Hideki MIMA; Sophia ANANIADOU; Junichi TSUJII

1999-01-01

373

Natural Language Processing for Lines and Devices in Portable Chest X-Rays  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing for Lines and Devices in Portable Chest X-Rays Journal: AMIA 2010 in Portable Chest X-Rays Daniel Rubin, MD, MS,1,2 Dan Wang, PhD,1 Dallas A. Chambers,1 Justin G. Chambers,1 exploration based on mining radiology reports. Introduction Portable chest X-ray (CXR) imaging is a prevalent

Rubin, Daniel L.

374

Discrimination of Coronal Stops by Bilingual Adults: The Timing and Nature of Language Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was designed to investigate the timing and nature of interaction between the two languages of bilinguals. For this purpose, we compared discrimination of Canadian French and Canadian English coronal stops by simultaneous bilingual, monolingual and advanced early L2 learners of French and English. French /d/ is phonetically…

Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda

2008-01-01

375

Mapping the Natural Language Processing Domain: Experiments using the ACL Anthology  

E-print Network

Mapping the Natural Language Processing Domain: Experiments using the ACL Anthology Elisa Omodei linguistics domain through a quantitative analysis of the ACL Anthology (containing around 12,000 papers to a socio-semantic co-evolutionary system. Keywords: ACL Anthology, semantic network, social network 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

FASTUS: A Cascaded Finite-State Transducer for Extracting Information from Natural-Language Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract FASTUS is a system for extracting information from natural language text for entry into a database and for other applications. It works essentially as a cascaded, nondeterministic finite-state automaton. There are five stages in the operation of FASTUS. In Stage 1, names and other fixed form expressions are recognized. In Stage 2, basic noun groups, verb groups, and prepositions

Jerry R. Hobbs; Douglas E. Appelt; John Bear; David J. Israel; Megumi Kameyama; Mark E. Stickel; Mabry Tyson

1997-01-01

377

The Contemporary Thesaurus of Social Science Terms and Synonyms: A Guide for Natural Language Computer Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed primarily to help users find meaningful words for natural language, or free-text, computer searching of bibliographic and textual databases in the social and behavioral sciences. Additionally, it covers many socially relevant and technical topics not covered by the usual literary thesaurus, therefore it may also be useful for…

Knapp, Sara D., Comp.

378

Teaching the Tacit Knowledge of Programming to Novices with Natural Language Tutoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For beginning programmers, inadequate problem solving and planning skills are among the most salient of their weaknesses. In this paper, we test the efficacy of natural language tutoring to teach and scaffold acquisition of these skills. We describe ProPL (Pro-PELL), a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system that elicits goal decompositions and…

Lane, H. Chad; VanLehn, Kurt

2005-01-01

379

Natural language processing with dynamic classification improves P300 speller accuracy and bit rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The P300 speller is an example of a brain-computer interface that can restore functionality to victims of neuromuscular disorders. Although the most common application of this system has been communicating language, the properties and constraints of the linguistic domain have not to date been exploited when decoding brain signals that pertain to language. We hypothesized that combining the standard stepwise linear discriminant analysis with a Naive Bayes classifier and a trigram language model would increase the speed and accuracy of typing with the P300 speller. With integration of natural language processing, we observed significant improvements in accuracy and 40-60% increases in bit rate for all six subjects in a pilot study. This study suggests that integrating information about the linguistic domain can significantly improve signal classification.

Speier, William; Arnold, Corey; Lu, Jessica; Taira, Ricky K.; Pouratian, Nader

2012-02-01

380

Naturalism and Ideological Work: How Is Family Language Policy Renegotiated as Both Parents and Children Learn a Threatened Minority Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents who enroll their children to be educated through a threatened minority language frequently do not speak that language themselves and classes in the language are sometimes offered to parents in the expectation that this will help them to support their children's education and to use the minority language in the home. Providing…

Armstrong, Timothy Currie

2014-01-01

381

The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the “narrow language faculty”) consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication.,We argue that their characterization of the narrow

Ray Jackendoff; Steven Pinker

2005-01-01

382

The Nature of the Language Faculty and Its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the ''narrow language faculty'') consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We…

Jackendoff, Ray; Pinker, Steven

2005-01-01

383

Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pp. 496505, Prague, June 2007. c 2007 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

are definite, but not anaphoric) with the antecedent selection proper, which implies that the gain obtainedProceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pp. 496­505, Prague, June 2007. c 2007 Association for Computational

384

Service Composition based on Natural Language Requests Marcel Cremene, Jean-Yves Tigli, Stephane Lavirotte, Florin-Claudiu Pop, Michel Riveill and Gaetan Rey  

E-print Network

different domains: Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Service Composition. A NLP problemService Composition based on Natural Language Requests Marcel Cremene, Jean-Yves Tigli, St is to use natural language. The main issues come from the fact that the natural language is incomplete

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

385

An on-line question-answering systems with natural language and pictorial input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various approaches have been employed in the design of question-answering systems with natural language input. An excellent survey of such systems can be found in Simmons.1 A more recent and critical survey of data-retrieval systems prepared by Kasher points out what he considers to be some of the major weaknesses of previous work. One of the problems cited by Kasher

L. Stephen Coles

1968-01-01

386

Probabilistic Tree-Adjoining Grammar As A Framework For Statistical Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue for the use of a probabilistic form of tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) in statistical natural language processing. I first discuss two previous statistical approaches --- one that concentrates on the probabilities of structural operations, and another that emphasizes co-occurrence relationships between words. I argue that a purely structural apprach, exemplified by probabilistic context-free grammar, lacks sufficient

Philip Resnik

1992-01-01

387

Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.  

SciTech Connect

Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

2003-09-01

388

An Overview of Corpus-Based Statistics-Oriented (CBSO) Techniques for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Corpus-Based Statistics-Oriented (CBSO) methodology, which is an attempt to avoid the drawbacks of traditional rule-based approaches and purely statistical approaches, is introduced in this paper. Rule-based approaches, with rules induced by human experts, had been the dominant paradigm in the natural language processing community. Such approaches, however, suffer from serious difficulties in knowledge acquisition in terms of cost and

Keh-Yih Su; Tung-Hui Chiang; Jing-Shin Chang

1996-01-01

389

Automatic reconstruction of a bacterial regulatory network using Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Manual curation of biological databases, an expensive and labor-intensive process, is essential for high quality integrated data. In this paper we report the implementation of a state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing system that creates computer-readable networks of regulatory interactions directly from different collections of abstracts and full-text papers. Our major aim is to understand how automatic annotation using Text-Mining techniques

Carlos Rodríguez Penagos; Heladia Salgado; Irma Martínez-flores; Julio Collado-vides

2007-01-01

390

Agile sensor tasking for CoIST using natural language knowledge representation and reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a system architecture aimed at supporting Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities in a Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) using natural language-based knowledge representation and reasoning, and semantic matching of mission tasks to ISR assets. We illustrate an application of the architecture using a High Value Target (HVT) surveillance scenario which demonstrates semi-automated matching and assignment of appropriate ISR assets based on information coming in from existing sensors and human patrols operating in an area of interest and encountering a potential HVT vehicle. We highlight a number of key components of the system but focus mainly on the human/machine conversational interaction involving soldiers on the field providing input in natural language via spoken voice to a mobile device, which is then processed to machine-processable Controlled Natural Language (CNL) and confirmed with the soldier. The system also supports CoIST analysts obtaining real-time situation awareness on the unfolding events through fused CNL information via tools available at the Command and Control (C2). The system demonstrates various modes of operation including: automatic task assignment following inference of new high-importance information, as well as semi-automatic processing, providing the CoIST analyst with situation awareness information relevant to the area of operation.

Braines, David; de Mel, Geeth; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bergamaschi, Flavio; Preece, Alun

2014-06-01

391

The Past and 3 Futures of NLP Natural Language text and speech processing (Computational Linguistics) is just over 50  

E-print Network

The Past and 3½ Futures of NLP Natural Language text and speech processing (Computational creators focus on language and the representations required for language processing;the learning.As unification followed finite-state technology in the 1980s,statistical processing followed that in the 1990s

Chen, Sheng-Wei

392

Adapting WSJ-Trained Parsers to the British National Corpus Using In-Domain Self-Training  

E-print Network

Adapting WSJ-Trained Parsers to the British National Corpus Using In-Domain Self-Training Jennifer National Corpus (BNC) and perform a series of self-training experiments with Charniak and Johnson BNC parse trees (produced by the same parser) and the orig- inal WSJ training data yields improvements

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

Gomez, Fernando

1989-01-01

394

Natural Language Based Reformulation Resource and Web Exploitation For Question Answering  

E-print Network

We describe and evaluate how a generalized natural language based reformulation resource in our TextMap question answering system improves web exploitation and answer pinpointing. The reformulation resource, which can be viewed as a clausal extension of WordNet, supports high-precision syntactic and semantic reformulations of questions and other sentences, as well as inferencing and answer generation. The paper shows in some detail how these reformulations can be used to overcome challenges and benefit from the advantages of using the Web.

Ulf Hermjakob; Abdessamad Echihabi; Daniel Marcu

2002-01-01

395

Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

Genuardi, Michael T.

1993-01-01

396

Teaching the tacit knowledge of programming to noviceswith natural language tutoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For beginning programmers, inadequate problem solving and planning skills are among the most salient of their weaknesses. In this paper, we test the efficacy of natural language tutoring to teach and scaffold acquisition of these skills. We describe ProPL (Pro-PELL), a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system that elicits goal decompositions and program plans from students in natural language. The system uses a variety of tutoring tactics that leverage students' intuitive understandings of the problem, how it might be solved, and the underlying concepts of programming. We report the results of a small-scale evaluation comparing students who used ProPL with a control group who read the same content. Our primary findings are that students who received tutoring from ProPL seem to have developed an improved ability to solve the composition problem and displayed behaviors that suggest they were able to think at greater levels of abstraction than students in the read-only group.

Lane, H. Chad; Vanlehn, Kurt

2005-09-01

397

IR, NLP, AI and UFOS: or IRrelevance, natural language problems, artful intelligence and user-friendly online systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

User Friendly Online Searching is examined in the context of Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval and Artificial Intelligence. Opportunities for synergetic R & D are identified as the basis for Intelligent Information Retrieval and Artificial Retrieval Intelligence.

Tamas E. Doszkocs

1986-01-01

398

De-Centering English: Highlighting the Dynamic Nature of the English Language to Promote the Teaching of Code-Switching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embracing the dynamic nature of English language can help students learn more about all forms of English. To fully engage students, teachers should not adhere to an anachronistic and static view of English. Instead, they must acknowledge, accept, and even use different language forms within the classroom to make that classroom dynamic, inclusive,…

White, John W.

2011-01-01

399

Integrating Graph-Based and Transition-Based Dependency Parsers Joakim Nivre  

E-print Network

for scoring transitions from one parser state to the next, conditioned on the parse history, and perform. The graph-based models are globally trained and use exact inference algorithms, but define features over a limited history of parsing decisions. The transition- based models are essentially the opposite. They use

Tomkins, Andrew

400

On the Problem of Coupling Java Algorithms and XML Parsers (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint use of Java and XML is a matter of fact for new developments, even in hard contexts. A recent research area is trying to address how to improve techniques for coupling Java programs and XML parsers and API. This paper briefly show the current state of the art of this young research area. Two perspectives are considered: efficiency

Giuseppe Psaila; Viale Marconi

2006-01-01

401

Boosting a Chatterbot Understanding with a Weighted Filtered-Popping Network Parser  

E-print Network

network (RTN) with output recognizing and tagging a significant variety of requests in Spanish, implemented an automatic RTN weighting procedure for ambiguity resolution and adapted the FPN parser for the automatic translation of the RTN sentences into command requests. Keywords: AIML, chatterbot, local grammar

Boyer, Edmond

402

Improving the Efficiency of a Wide-Coverage CCG Parser Bojan Djordjevic and James R. Curran  

E-print Network

is achieved using a tightly-integrated supertagger, which assigns CCG lexical cat- egories to words in a sentence. The integra- tion allows the parser to request more cat- egories if it cannot find a spanning propose partial beam search to fur- ther reduce the search space. Overall, the parsing speed is improved

Curran, James R.

403

Analyzing modal and enunciative discursive heterogeneity: how to combine semantic resources and a syntactic parser analysis  

E-print Network

Analyzing modal and enunciative discursive heterogeneity: how to combine semantic resources and a syntactic parser analysis Delphine Battistelli Marine Damiani Université Paris Sorbonne, STIH, EA 4509 variations in enunciative and modal commitment in a text. We first present the theoretical background

Boyer, Edmond

404

Neural network processing of natural language: I. Sensitivity to serial, temporal and abstract structure of language in the infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well before their érst birthday, babies can acquire knowledge of serial order relations (Saffran et al., 1996a), as well as knowledge of more abstract rule- based structural relations (Marcus et al., 1999) between neighbouringspeech sounds within 2 minutes of exposure. These early learners can likewise acquire knowledge of rhythmic or temporal structure of a new language within 5-10 minutes of

Peter Ford Dominey; Franck Ramus

2000-01-01

405

Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 400409, Singapore, 6-7 August 2009. c 2009 ACL and AFNLP  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 400 and natural language generation within the same process. Second, the generative process pro- ceeds­409, Singapore, 6-7 August 2009. c 2009 ACL and AFNLP Natural Language Generation with Tree Conditional Random

Lee, Wee Sun

406

Software Engineering, Testing, and Quality Assurance for Natural Language Processing, pages 513, Columbus, Ohio, USA, June 2008. c 2008 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Software Engineering, Testing, and Quality Assurance for Natural Language Processing, pages 5 workflow system for machine learning and natural language processing Eric Breck Department of Computer in natural language process- ing and machine learning typically involves a com- plicated network of programs

Breck, Eric

407

Current and future applications of natural language processing in the field of digestive diseases.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP) is a technology that uses computer-based linguistics and artificial intelligence to identify and extract information from free-text data sources such as progress notes, procedure and pathology reports, and laboratory and radiologic test results. With the creation of large databases and the trajectory of health care reform, NLP holds the promise of enhancing the availability, quality, and utility of clinical information with the goal of improving documentation, quality, and efficiency of health care in the United States. To date, NLP has shown promise in automatically determining appropriate colonoscopy intervals and identifying cases of inflammatory bowel disease from electronic health records. The objectives of this review are to provide background on NLP and its associated terminology, to describe how NLP has been used thus far in the field of digestive diseases, and to identify its potential future uses. PMID:24858706

Hou, Jason K; Imler, Timothy D; Imperiale, Thomas F

2014-08-01

408

A Study of Entanglement in a Categorical Framework of Natural Language  

E-print Network

In both quantum mechanics and corpus linguistics based on vector spaces, the notion of entanglement provides a means for the various subsystems to communicate with each other. In this paper we examine a number of implementations of the categorical framework of Coecke, Sadrzadeh and Clark (2010) for natural language, from an entanglement perspective. Specifically, our goal is to better understand in what way the level of entanglement of the relational tensors (or the lack of it) affects the compositional structures in practical situations. Our findings reveal that a number of proposals for verb construction lead to almost separable tensors, a fact that considerably simplifies the interactions between the words. We examine the ramifications of this fact, and we show that the use of Frobenius algebras mitigates the potential problems to a great extent. Finally, we briefly examine a machine learning method that creates verb tensors exhibiting a sufficient level of entanglement.

Dimitri Kartsaklis; Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

2014-12-30

409

Interset: A natural language interface for teleoperated robotic assembly of the EASE space structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A teleoperated robot was used to assemble the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extra-vehicular activity (EASE) space structure under neutral buoyancy conditions, simulating a telerobot performing structural assembly in the zero gravity of space. This previous work used a manually controlled teleoperator as a test bed for system performance evaluations. From these results several Artificial Intelligence options were proposed. One of these was further developed into a real time assembly planner. The interface for this system is effective in assembling EASE structures using windowed graphics and a set of networked menus. As the problem space becomes more complex and hence the set of control options increases, a natural language interface may prove to be beneficial to supplement the menu based control strategy. This strategy can be beneficial in situations such as: describing the local environment, maintaining a data base of task event histories, modifying a plan or a heuristic dynamically, summarizing a task in English, or operating in a novel situation.

Boorsma, Daniel K.

1989-01-01

410

On application of image analysis and natural language processing for music search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I investigate a problem of finding most similar music tracks using, popular in Natural Language Processing, techniques like: TF-IDF and LDA. I de ned document as music track. Each music track is transformed to spectrogram, thanks that, I can use well known techniques to get words from images. I used SURF operation to detect characteristic points and novel approach for their description. The standard kmeans was used for clusterization. Clusterization is here identical with dictionary making, so after that I can transform spectrograms to text documents and perform TF-IDF and LDA. At the final, I can make a query in an obtained vector space. The research was done on 16 music tracks for training and 336 for testing, that are splitted in four categories: Hiphop, Jazz, Metal and Pop. Although used technique is completely unsupervised, results are satisfactory and encouraging to further research.

Gwardys, Grzegorz

2013-10-01

411

Disclosure Control of Natural Language Information to Enable Secure and Enjoyable Communication over the Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.

Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

412

Natural Language Processing and the Oncologic History: Is There a Match?  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is creating rich databases documenting the cancer patient's care continuum. However, much of this data, especially narrative “oncologic histories,” are “locked” within free text (unstructured) portions of notes. Nationwide incentives, ranging from certification (Quality Oncology Practice Initiative) to monetary reimbursement (the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act), increasingly require the translation of these histories into treatment summaries for patient use and into tools to assist in transitions of care. Unfortunately, formulation of treatment summaries from these data is difficult and time-consuming. The rapidly developing field of automated natural language processing may offer a solution to this communication problem. Methods: We surveyed a cross section of providers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center regarding the importance of treatment summaries and whether these were being formulated on a regular basis. We also developed a program for the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside challenge, which was designed to extract meaningful information from EHRs. The program was then applied to a sample of narrative oncologic histories. Results: The majority of providers (86%) felt that treatment summaries were important, but only 11% actually implemented them. The most common obstacles identified were lack of time and lack of EHR tools. We demonstrated that relevant medical concepts can be automatically extracted from oncologic histories with reasonable accuracy and precision. Conclusion: Natural language processing technology offers a promising method for structuring a free-text oncologic history into a compact treatment summary, creating a robust and accurate means of communication between providers and between provider and patient. PMID:22043196

Warner, Jeremy L.; Anick, Peter; Hong, Pengyu; Xue, Nianwen

2011-01-01

413

Extracting drug indication information from structured product labels using natural language processing  

PubMed Central

Objective To extract drug indications from structured drug labels and represent the information using codes from standard medical terminologies. Materials and methods We used MetaMap and other publicly available resources to extract information from the indications section of drug labels. Drugs and indications were encoded by RxNorm and UMLS identifiers respectively. A sample was manually reviewed. We also compared the results with two independent information sources: National Drug File-Reference Terminology and the Semantic Medline project. Results A total of 6797 drug labels were processed, resulting in 19?473 unique drug–indication pairs. Manual review of 298 most frequently prescribed drugs by seven physicians showed a recall of 0.95 and precision of 0.77. Inter-rater agreement (Fleiss ?) was 0.713. The precision of the subset of results corroborated by Semantic Medline extractions increased to 0.93. Discussion Correlation of a patient's medical problems and drugs in an electronic health record has been used to improve data quality and reduce medication errors. Authoritative drug indication information is available from drug labels, but not in a format readily usable by computer applications. Our study shows that it is feasible to use publicly available natural language processing resources to extract drug indications from drug labels. The same method can be applied to other sections of the drug label—for example, adverse effects, contraindications. Conclusions It is feasible to use publicly available natural language processing tools to extract indication information from freely available drug labels. Named entity recognition sources (eg, MetaMap) provide reasonable recall. Combination with other data sources provides higher precision. PMID:23475786

Fung, Kin Wah; Jao, Chiang S; Demner-Fushman, Dina

2013-01-01

414

The nature of the visual environment induces implicit biases during language-mediated visual search.  

PubMed

Four eyetracking experiments examined whether semantic and visual-shape representations are routinely retrieved from printed word displays and used during language-mediated visual search. Participants listened to sentences containing target words that were similar semantically or in shape to concepts invoked by concurrently displayed printed words. In Experiment 1, the displays contained semantic and shape competitors of the targets along with two unrelated words. There were significant shifts in eye gaze as targets were heard toward semantic but not toward shape competitors. In Experiments 2-4, semantic competitors were replaced with unrelated words, semantically richer sentences were presented to encourage visual imagery, or participants rated the shape similarity of the stimuli before doing the eyetracking task. In all cases, there were no immediate shifts in eye gaze to shape competitors, even though, in response to the Experiment 1 spoken materials, participants looked to these competitors when they were presented as pictures (Huettig & McQueen, 2007). There was a late shape-competitor bias (more than 2,500 ms after target onset) in all experiments. These data show that shape information is not used in online search of printed word displays (whereas it is used with picture displays). The nature of the visual environment appears to induce implicit biases toward particular modes of processing during language-mediated visual search. PMID:21461784

Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M

2011-08-01

415

How many kinds of reasoning? Inference, probability, and natural language semantics.  

PubMed

The "new paradigm" unifying deductive and inductive reasoning in a Bayesian framework (Oaksford & Chater, 2007; Over, 2009) has been claimed to be falsified by results which show sharp differences between reasoning about necessity vs. plausibility (Heit & Rotello, 2010; Rips, 2001; Rotello & Heit, 2009). We provide a probabilistic model of reasoning with modal expressions such as "necessary" and "plausible" informed by recent work in formal semantics of natural language, and show that it predicts the possibility of non-linear response patterns which have been claimed to be problematic. Our model also makes a strong monotonicity prediction, while two-dimensional theories predict the possibility of reversals in argument strength depending on the modal word chosen. Predictions were tested using a novel experimental paradigm that replicates the previously-reported response patterns with a minimal manipulation, changing only one word of the stimulus between conditions. We found a spectrum of reasoning "modes" corresponding to different modal words, and strong support for our model's monotonicity prediction. This indicates that probabilistic approaches to reasoning can account in a clear and parsimonious way for data previously argued to falsify them, as well as new, more fine-grained, data. It also illustrates the importance of careful attention to the semantics of language employed in reasoning experiments. PMID:25497521

Lassiter, Daniel; Goodman, Noah D

2015-03-01

416

Neural substrates of figurative language during natural speech perception: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g., “He smokes like a chimney!”) occurring in a short story. Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences (CS). The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility, and comprehensibility. Similes contrasted with CS resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG) and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete CS as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG). Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions. PMID:24065897

Nagels, Arne; Kauschke, Christina; Schrauf, Judith; Whitney, Carin; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo

2013-01-01

417

Abstract--This paper describes a new approach for the development of systems that requires natural language parsing or generation. This method is based on the use of Descriptive Grammars in particular, the descriptive grammar for Spanish is used as  

E-print Network

web applications. Index Terms--Natural Language Processing (NLP); information extraction; language language, deriving in the area of natural language processing. The main components in Natural Language, but they are not sufficient in the process of creating computable grammars for natural languages possibly due to insufficient

Cardeñosa, Jesús

418

Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2006), pages 399407, Sydney, July 2006. c 2006 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2006 language processing (NLP) systems for an in- creasingly wider range of languages, including those languages-of-speech (POS) lexicon for a resource-poor language, dialectal Arabic. Developing a high-quality lexicon

Kirchhoff, Katrin

419

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

420

Visual language recognition with a feed-forward network of spiking neurons  

SciTech Connect

An analogy is made and exploited between the recognition of visual objects and language parsing. A subset of regular languages is used to define a one-dimensional 'visual' language, in which the words are translational and scale invariant. This allows an exploration of the viewpoint invariant languages that can be solved by a network of concurrent, hierarchically connected processors. A language family is defined that is hierarchically tiling system recognizable (HREC). As inspired by nature, an algorithm is presented that constructs a cellular automaton that recognizes strings from a language in the HREC family. It is demonstrated how a language recognizer can be implemented from the cellular automaton using a feed-forward network of spiking neurons. This parser recognizes fixed-length strings from the language in parallel and as the computation is pipelined, a new string can be parsed in each new interval of time. The analogy with formal language theory allows inferences to be drawn regarding what class of objects can be recognized by visual cortex operating in purely feed-forward fashion and what class of objects requires a more complicated network architecture.

Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garrett, Kenyan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sottile, Matthew [GALOIS; Shreyas, Ns [INDIANA UNIV.

2010-01-01

421

A Robust Parser-Interpreter for Jazz Chord Sequences Mark Granroth-Wilding1 and Mark Steedman2  

E-print Network

in practical computational tasks such as key identification and score transcription. These tasks in generalA Robust Parser-Interpreter for Jazz Chord Sequences Mark Granroth-Wilding1 and Mark Steedman2 1

Steedman, Mark

422

PATRIXA: a unification-based parser for Basque and its  

E-print Network

on the application of automatic methods to the analysis of Basque. Comparing to other languages (English, German, there is no system capable of syntactically analyzing any sentence in real texts, such as newspapers. At the moment

Boyer, Edmond

423

Negation’s Not Solved: Generalizability Versus Optimizability in Clinical Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

A review of published work in clinical natural language processing (NLP) may suggest that the negation detection task has been “solved.” This work proposes that an optimizable solution does not equal a generalizable solution. We introduce a new machine learning-based Polarity Module for detecting negation in clinical text, and extensively compare its performance across domains. Using four manually annotated corpora of clinical text, we show that negation detection performance suffers when there is no in-domain development (for manual methods) or training data (for machine learning-based methods). Various factors (e.g., annotation guidelines, named entity characteristics, the amount of data, and lexical and syntactic context) play a role in making generalizability difficult, but none completely explains the phenomenon. Furthermore, generalizability remains challenging because it is unclear whether to use a single source for accurate data, combine all sources into a single model, or apply domain adaptation methods. The most reliable means to improve negation detection is to manually annotate in-domain training data (or, perhaps, manually modify rules); this is a strategy for optimizing performance, rather than generalizing it. These results suggest a direction for future work in domain-adaptive and task-adaptive methods for clinical NLP. PMID:25393544

Wu, Stephen; Miller, Timothy; Masanz, James; Coarr, Matt; Halgrim, Scott; Carrell, David; Clark, Cheryl

2014-01-01

424

Semi-supervised learning of statistical models for natural language understanding.  

PubMed

Natural language understanding is to specify a computational model that maps sentences to their semantic mean representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to train the statistical models without using expensive fully annotated data. In particular, the input of our framework is a set of sentences labeled with abstract semantic annotations. These annotations encode the underlying embedded semantic structural relations without explicit word/semantic tag alignment. The proposed framework can automatically induce derivation rules that map sentences to their semantic meaning representations. The learning framework is applied on two statistical models, the conditional random fields (CRFs) and the hidden Markov support vector machines (HM-SVMs). Our experimental results on the DARPA communicator data show that both CRFs and HM-SVMs outperform the baseline approach, previously proposed hidden vector state (HVS) model which is also trained on abstract semantic annotations. In addition, the proposed framework shows superior performance than two other baseline approaches, a hybrid framework combining HVS and HM-SVMs and discriminative training of HVS, with a relative error reduction rate of about 25% and 15% being achieved in F-measure. PMID:25152899

Zhou, Deyu; He, Yulan

2014-01-01

425

A framework for the natural-language-perception-based creative control of unmanned ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. That is why mobile robotics problems are complex with many unanswered questions. To reach a high degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. On the one hand, promising learning theories such as the adaptive critic and creative control have been proposed, while on other hand the human brain"s processing ability has amazed and inspired researchers in the area of Unmanned Ground Vehicles but has been difficult to emulate in practice. A new direction in the fuzzy theory tries to develop a theory to deal with the perceptions conveyed by the natural language. This paper tries to combine these two fields and present a framework for autonomous robot navigation. The proposed creative controller like the adaptive critic controller has information stored in a dynamic database (DB), plus a dynamic task control center (TCC) that functions as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and multi-criteria functions. The TCC module utilizes computational theory of perceptions to deal with the high levels of task planning. The authors are currently trying to implement the model on a real mobile robot and the preliminary results have been described in this paper.

Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

2004-09-01

426

Semi-Supervised Learning of Statistical Models for Natural Language Understanding  

PubMed Central

Natural language understanding is to specify a computational model that maps sentences to their semantic mean representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to train the statistical models without using expensive fully annotated data. In particular, the input of our framework is a set of sentences labeled with abstract semantic annotations. These annotations encode the underlying embedded semantic structural relations without explicit word/semantic tag alignment. The proposed framework can automatically induce derivation rules that map sentences to their semantic meaning representations. The learning framework is applied on two statistical models, the conditional random fields (CRFs) and the hidden Markov support vector machines (HM-SVMs). Our experimental results on the DARPA communicator data show that both CRFs and HM-SVMs outperform the baseline approach, previously proposed hidden vector state (HVS) model which is also trained on abstract semantic annotations. In addition, the proposed framework shows superior performance than two other baseline approaches, a hybrid framework combining HVS and HM-SVMs and discriminative training of HVS, with a relative error reduction rate of about 25% and 15% being achieved in F-measure. PMID:25152899

He, Yulan

2014-01-01

427

Automated extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from radiology reports with natural language processing.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm that determines American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment categories from radiology reports. This HIPAA-compliant study was granted institutional review board approval with waiver of informed consent. This cross-sectional study involved 1,165 breast imaging reports in the electronic medical record (EMR) from a tertiary care academic breast imaging center from 2009. Reports included screening mammography, diagnostic mammography, breast ultrasound, combined diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging studies. Over 220 reports were included from each study type. The recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of a NLP algorithm to collect BI-RADS final assessment categories stated in the report final text was evaluated against a manual human review standard reference. For all breast imaging reports, the NLP algorithm demonstrated a recall of 100.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 99.7, 100.0 %) and a precision of 96.6 % (95 % CI, 95.4, 97.5 %) for correct identification of BI-RADS final assessment categories. The NLP algorithm demonstrated high recall and precision for extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from the free text of breast imaging reports. NLP may provide an accurate, scalable data extraction mechanism from reports within EMRs to create databases to track breast imaging performance measures and facilitate optimal breast cancer population management strategies. PMID:23868515

Sippo, Dorothy A; Warden, Graham I; Andriole, Katherine P; Lacson, Ronilda; Ikuta, Ichiro; Birdwell, Robyn L; Khorasani, Ramin

2013-10-01

428

Identifying Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Cases and Controls using Natural Language Processing of Radiology Reports  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is increasing due to longer life expectancy and implementation of screening programs. Patient-specific longitudinal measurements of AAA are important to understand pathophysiology of disease development and modifiers of abdominal aortic size. In this paper, we applied natural language processing (NLP) techniques to process radiology reports and developed a rule-based algorithm to identify AAA patients and also extract the corresponding aneurysm size with the examination date. AAA patient cohorts were determined by a hierarchical approach that: 1) selected potential AAA reports using keywords; 2) classified reports into AAA-case vs. non-case using rules; and 3) determined the AAA patient cohort based on a report-level classification. Our system was built in an Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework that allows efficient use of existing NLP components. Our system produced an F-score of 0.961 for AAA-case report classification with an accuracy of 0.984 for aneurysm size extraction. PMID:24303276

Sohn, Sunghwan; Ye, Zi; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

429

Towards symbiosis in knowledge representation and natural language processing for structuring clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

The successful adoption by clinicians of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contained in clinical information systems requires efficient translation of free-text guidelines into computable formats. Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to improve the efficiency of such translation. However, it is laborious to develop NLP to structure free-text CPGs using existing formal knowledge representations (KR). In response to this challenge, this vision paper discusses the value and feasibility of supporting symbiosis in text-based knowledge acquisition (KA) and KR. We compare two ontologies: (1) an ontology manually created by domain experts for CPG eligibility criteria and (2) an upper-level ontology derived from a semantic pattern-based approach for automatic KA from CPG eligibility criteria text. Then we discuss the strengths and limitations of interweaving KA and NLP for KR purposes and important considerations for achieving the symbiosis of KR and NLP for structuring CPGs to achieve evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:24943582

Weng, Chunhua; Payne, Philip R O; Velez, Mark; Johnson, Stephen B; Bakken, Suzanne

2014-01-01

430

Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management  

PubMed Central

Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

431

Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, pp. 10841092, Prague, June 2007. c 2007 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Linguistics Determining Case in Arabic: Learning Complex Linguistic Behavior Requires Complex Linguistic of one of the Arabic dialects, all of which have lost case (Holes, 2004). They learn MSA in school and Computational Natural Language Learning, pp. 1084­1092, Prague, June 2007. c 2007 Association for Computational

432

Natural Language as a Tool for Analyzing the Proving Process: The Case of Plane Geometry Proof  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the field of human cognition, language plays a special role that is connected directly to thinking and mental development (e.g., Vygotsky, "1938"). Thanks to "verbal thought", language allows humans to go beyond the limits of immediately perceived information, to form concepts and solve complex problems (Luria, "1975"). So, it appears language

Robotti, Elisabetta

2012-01-01

433

The Preservation and Use of Our Languages: Respecting the Natural Order of the Creator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of language as an expression of culture, of who we are as a people, must be upheld by each individual, each family, each community, and each nation. As Fishman (1996) states, language is the mind, spirit, and soul of a people. Every effort must be made to protect, preserve, promote, and practice our Indigenous\\/Aboriginal languages. We must gather

Verna J. Kirkness

434

Pythagoras and the Language of Nature Walking past the village blacksmith's shop, the pleasant ring of hammers striking an  

E-print Network

Pythagoras and the Language of Nature Walking past the village blacksmith's shop, the pleasant ring by a universal and all pervading mathematics, numbers in balance and harmony. You are Pythagoras (580-497 B of space and mathematics leads you, Pythagoras, to a critical discovery. * * * * * Let us replicate in our

O'Laughlin, Jay

435

CoNLL 2008: Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 135142 Manchester, August 2008  

E-print Network

exploit the Arabic morphology-English alignment to learn a model removing nonaligned Arabic mor- phemesCoNLL 2008: Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 135­142 Manchester, August 2008 Context-based Arabic Morphological Analysis for Machine Translation

436

Coding Neuroradiology Reports for the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study: A Comparison of Natural Language Processing and Manual Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated systems using natural language processing may greatly speed chart review tasks for clinical research, but their accuracy in this setting is unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of automated and manual coding in the data acquisition tasks of an ongoing clinical research study, the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study(NOMASS). We identified 471 neuroradiology reports of

Jacob S. Elkins; Carol Friedman; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Ralph L. Sacco; George Hripcsak

2000-01-01

437

Does It Really Matter whether Students' Contributions Are Spoken versus Typed in an Intelligent Tutoring System with Natural Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The "speech facilitation" hypothesis predicts that spoken input will "increase" learning, whereas the "text…

D'Mello, Sidney K.; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur

2011-01-01

438

Natural language processing pipelines to annotate BioC collections with an application to the NCBI disease corpus.  

PubMed

BioC is a new format and associated code libraries for sharing text and annotations. We have implemented BioC natural language preprocessing pipelines in two popular programming languages: C++ and Java. The current implementations interface with the well-known MedPost and Stanford natural language processing tool sets. The pipeline functionality includes sentence segmentation, tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatization and sentence parsing. These pipelines can be easily integrated along with other BioC programs into any BioC compliant text mining systems. As an application, we converted the NCBI disease corpus to BioC format, and the pipelines have successfully run on this corpus to demonstrate their functionality. Code and data can be downloaded from http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. PMID:24935050

Comeau, Donald C; Liu, Haibin; Islamaj Do?an, Rezarta; Wilbur, W John

2014-01-01

439

Natural language processing pipelines to annotate BioC collections with an application to the NCBI disease corpus  

PubMed Central

BioC is a new format and associated code libraries for sharing text and annotations. We have implemented BioC natural language preprocessing pipelines in two popular programming languages: C++ and Java. The current implementations interface with the well-known MedPost and Stanford natural language processing tool sets. The pipeline functionality includes sentence segmentation, tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatization and sentence parsing. These pipelines can be easily integrated along with other BioC programs into any BioC compliant text mining systems. As an application, we converted the NCBI disease corpus to BioC format, and the pipelines have successfully run on this corpus to demonstrate their functionality. Code and data can be downloaded from http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net PMID:24935050

Comeau, Donald C.; Liu, Haibin; Islamaj Do?an, Rezarta; Wilbur, W. John

2014-01-01

440

Treebank Annotation Schemes and Parser Evaluation for {G}erman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies focussed on the question whether less-conguration al languages like German are harder to parse than English, or whether the lower parsing scores are an artefact of treebank encoding schemes and data structures, as claimed by K¤ ubler et al. (2006). This claim is based on the as- sumption that PARSEVAL metrics fully re- ect parse quality across treebank

Ines Rehbein; Josef van Genabith

2007-01-01

441

Research Report AI{1990{01 A Dependency Parser for  

E-print Network

/Prolog implementation of GULP was developed while visiting the Seminar fur natfurlich-sprachliche Systeme, University the cat. has six equally grammatical Russian translations: Sobaka vidit koshku. Sobaka koshku vidit. Vidit cat sees the dog" without changing the word order: Sobaku vidit koshka. (etc.) 2 #12;The languages

Covington, Michael A.

442

Measuring Information Acquisition from Sensory Input Using Automated Scoring of Natural-Language Descriptions  

PubMed Central

Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a “wisdom of crowds” approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N?=?15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled. PMID:24695546

Saunders, Daniel R.; Bex, Peter J.; Rose, Dylan J.; Woods, Russell L.

2014-01-01

443

Automated chart review for asthma cohort identification using natural language processing: an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Background A significant proportion of children with asthma have delayed diagnosis of asthma by health care providers. Manual chart review according to established criteria is more accurate than directly using diagnosis codes, which tend to under-identify asthmatics, but chart reviews are more costly and less timely. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of a computational approach to asthma ascertainment, characterizing its utility and feasibility toward large-scale deployment in electronic medical records. Methods A natural language processing (NLP) system was developed for extracting predetermined criteria for asthma from unstructured text in electronic medical records and then inferring asthma status based on these criteria. Using manual chart reviews as a gold standard, asthma status (yes vs no) and identification date (first date of a “yes” asthma status) were determined by the NLP system. Results Patients were a group of children (n =112, 84% Caucasian, 49% girls) younger than 4 years (mean 2.0 years, standard deviation 1.03 years) who participated in previous studies. The NLP approach to asthma ascertainment showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and median delay in diagnosis of 84.6%, 96.5%, 88.0%, 95.4%, and 0 months, respectively; this compared favorably with diagnosis codes, at 30.8%, 93.2%, 57.1%, 82.2%, and 2.3 months, respectively. Conclusions Automated asthma ascertainment from electronic medical records using NLP is feasible and more accurate than traditional approaches such as diagnosis codes. Considering the difficulty of labor-intensive manual record review, NLP approaches for asthma ascertainment should be considered for improving clinical care and research, especially in large-scale efforts. PMID:24125142

Wu, Stephen T.; Sohn, Sunghwan; Ravikumar, K.E.; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.; Liu, Hongfang; Juhn, Young J.

2013-01-01

444

Figurative Language: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the field of natural language processing has made considerable strides in the automated processing of standard language, figurative (i.e., non-literal) language still causes great difficulty. Normally, when we understand human language we combine the meaning of individual words into larger units in a compositional manner. However, understanding figurative language often involves an interpretive adjustment to individual words. A complete

Les Sikos; Susan Windisch Brown; Albert E. Kim; Laura A. Michaelis; Martha Palmer

445

Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP), pages 9951002, Vancouver, October 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Impairments Jeff A. Bilmes , Xiao Li , Jonathan Malkin , Kelley Kilanski , Richard Wright , Katrin KirchhoffProceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural control tasks. Natural spoken language is often regarded as the obvious choice for a human-computer inter

446

Natural and Constrained Language Production as a Function of Age and Cognitive Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is often claimed that verbal abilities are relatively well maintained across the adult lifespan, certain aspects of language production have been found to exhibit cross-sectional differences and longitudinal declines. In the current project age-related differences in controlled and naturalistic elicited language production tasks were…

Rabaglia, Cristina D.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

447

Applications of Finite-State Transducers in Natural-Language Processing  

E-print Network

inadequate. Noam Chomsky's seminal 1957 work, Syntactic Structures 3], includes a short chapter devoted. In this section Chomsky demonstrates in a few paragraphs that English is not a nite state language. (p. 21) In any

Karttunen, Lauri

448

Natural Language Engineering 1 (1): 000000. Printed in the United Kingdom c 2000 Cambridge University Press  

E-print Network

University Press 1 Architectural Elements of Language Engineering Robustness Diana Maynard and Valentin Dept. of Computer Science University of Sheffield Regent Court, 211 Portobello St Sheffield, S1 4DP, UK

Maynard, Diana

449

The Natural History of Human Language: Bridging the Gaps without Magic  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human languages are quintessentially historical phenomena. Every known aspect of linguistic form and content is subject to\\u000a change in historical time (Lehmann, 1995; Bybee, 2004). Many facts of language, syntactic no less than semantic, find their\\u000a explanation in the historical processes that generated them. If adpositions were once verbs, then the fact that they tend\\u000a to occur on the same

Bjorn Merker; Kazuo Okanoya

2007-01-01

450

HPARSER: extracting formal patient data from free text history and physical reports using natural language processing software.  

PubMed Central

A prototype, HPARSER, processes a patient history and physical report such that specific data are obtained and stored in a patient data record. HPARSER is a recursive transition network (RTN) parser, and includes English and medical grammar rules, lexicon, and database constraints. Medical grammar rules augment the grammar rule base and specify common phrases seen in patient reports (e.g., "pupils are equal and reactive"). Each database constraint associates a grammar rule with a database table and attribute. Constraint behavior is such that if a rule is satisfied, data is extracted from the parse tree and stored into the database. Control reports guided construction of grammar and constraint rules. Test reports were processed with the control rules. 85% of test report sentences parsed and a 60% data capture rate, compared to controls, was achieved. HPARSER demonstrates use of an RTN to parse patient reports, and database constraints to transfer formal data from parse trees into a database. PMID:11825263

Sponsler, J. L.

2001-01-01

451

Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP), pages 18341839, October 25-29, 2014, Doha, Qatar. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

-DT). In their method, DEP-DTs are automatically transformed from (auto-parsed) RST-discourse trees (RST-DTs) by heuristic rules. Instead, we develop a DEP-DT parser, that di- rectly provides DEP-DTs for their state scores to almost the same level as those generated by gold DEP-DTs. We also inves- tigate the way

452

Why\\/AutoTutor: A Test of Learning Gains from a Physics Tutor with Natural Language Dialog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why\\/AutoTutor is a tutoring system that helps students construct answers to qualitative physics problems by holding a conversation in natural language. Why\\/AutoTutor provides feedback to the student on what the student types in (positive, neutral, negative feedback), pumps the student for more information, prompts the student to fill in missing words, gives hints, fills in missing information with assertions, identifies

E. C. Mathews; H. H. Mitchell; A. Olney; M. Ventura; P. Chipman; M. M. Louwerse

453

Engineering natural language processing solutions for structured information from clinical text: extracting sentinel events from palliative care consult letters.  

PubMed

Despite a trend to formalize and codify medical information, natural language communications still play a prominent role in health care workflows, in particular when it comes to hand-overs between providers. Natural language processing (NLP) attempts to bridge the gap between informal, natural language information and coded, machine-interpretable data. This paper reports on a study that applies an advanced NLP method for the extraction of sentinel events in palliative care consult letters. Sentinel events are of interest to predict survival and trajectory for patients with acute palliative conditions. Our NLP method combines several novel characteristics, e.g., the consideration of topological knowledge structures sourced from an ontological terminology system (SNOMED CT). The method has been applied to the extraction of different types of sentinel events, including simple facts, temporal conditions, quantities, and degrees. A random selection of 215 anonymized consult letters was used for the study. The results of the NLP extraction were evaluated by comparison with coded sentinel event data captured independently by clinicians. The average accuracy of the automated extraction was 73.6%. PMID:23920625

Barrett, Neil; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H; Thai, Vincent

2013-01-01

454

Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 982991, Honolulu, October 2008. c 2008 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 982 applications in natural language processing. Manually-created lexi- cons have limited coverage and do are strongly antonymous (hot­cold, good­ bad, friend­enemy), just semantically contrasting (enemy­fan, cold

Stevenson, Suzanne

455

Zipf's word frequency law in natural language: a critical review and future directions.  

PubMed

The frequency distribution of words has been a key object of study in statistical linguistics for the past 70 years. This distribution approximately follows a simple mathematical form known as Zipf's law. This article first shows that human language has a highly complex, reliable structure in the frequency distribution over and above this classic law, although prior data visualization methods have obscured this fact. A number of empirical phenomena related to word frequencies are then reviewed. These facts are chosen to be informative about the mechanisms giving rise to Zipf's law and are then used to evaluate many of the theoretical explanations of Zipf's law in language. No prior account straightforwardly explains all the basic facts or is supported with independent evaluation of its underlying assumptions. To make progress at understanding why language obeys Zipf's law, studies must seek evidence beyond the law itself, testing assumptions and evaluating novel predictions with new, independent data. PMID:24664880

Piantadosi, Steven T

2014-10-01

456

In silico Evolutionary Developmental Neurobiology and the Origin of Natural Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is justified to assume that part of our genetic endowment contributes to our language skills, yet it is impossible to tell at this moment exactly how genes affect the language faculty. We complement experimental biological studies by an in silico approach in that we simulate the evolution of neuronal networks under selection for language-related skills. At the heart of this project is the Evolutionary Neurogenetic Algorithm (ENGA) that is deliberately biomimetic. The design of the system was inspired by important biological phenomena such as brain ontogenesis, neuron morphologies, and indirect genetic encoding. Neuronal networks were selected and were allowed to reproduce as a function of their performance in the given task. The selected neuronal networks in all scenarios were able to solve the communication problem they had to face. The most striking feature of the model is that it works with highly indirect genetic encoding--just as brains do.

Szathmáry, Eörs; Szathmáry, Zoltán; Ittzés, Péter; Orbaán, Gero?; Zachár, István; Huszár, Ferenc; Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Számadó, Szabolcs

457

Jordan Boyd-Graber and Philip Resnik. Holistic Sentiment Analysis Across Languages: Multilingual Super-vised Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 2010.  

E-print Network

Jordan Boyd-Graber and Philip Resnik. Holistic Sentiment Analysis Across Languages: Multilingual Sentiment Analysis Across Languages: Multilingual Supervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation}, } 1 #12;Holistic Sentiment Analysis Across Languages: Multilingual Supervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation Jordan Boyd

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

458

Formal Issues in Natural Language Generation Kees van Deemter *, Ehud Reiter *, and Helmut Horacek  

E-print Network

(*) Dept. of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen, UK () Universit¨at des Saarlandes, Saarbr Hermes Science Publishing LTD #12;2 Language and Computation, Vol. ? ­ No. ?, 2004 1 Introduction To some- lations are included (e.g., `the bowl on the table'), or negations and disjunctions (e.g., `the porcelain

Reiter, Ehud

459

Nature and nurture in language acquisition: anatomical and functional brain-imaging studies in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech processing in adult sr elies on precise and specialized networks, located primarily in the left hemi- sphere. Behavioral studies in infants indicate that a considerable amount of language learning already takes place in the first year of life in the domains of phonology, prosody and word segmentation. Thanks to neuroima- ging, we can move beyond behavioral methods and examine

Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Lucie Hertz-Pannier; Jessica Dubois

2006-01-01

460

More than Just Jargon--The Nature and Role of Specialist Language in Learning Disciplinary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and academic language and learning advisors have long recognised the importance of developing students' academic vocabulary for successful writing and learning at university. There is little, however, in the EAP literature on the place of teaching and learning discipline specific vocabulary, despite…

Woodward-Kron, Robyn

2008-01-01

461

A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

1987-01-01

462

Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP), pages 515522, Vancouver, October 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

. This heuristic is not always successful, however. The word Reisende e.g. is analyzed as the compound of Reis Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP), pages 515­522, Vancouver, October 2005. c 2005 Association for Natural Language Processing (IMS) University of Stuttgart Germany schmid@ims.uni-stuttgart.de Abstract

463

Natural Language Generation and Discourse Context: Computing Distractor Sets from the Focus Stack  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human-human conversation, people use linguistic expres- sions that are e xibly tailored to context as a matter of course, and they expect their conversational partners to do likewise. Towards our goal of helping computers achieve natural lin- guistic interactions with human users, we have developed an application-independent dialogue system integrating the COLLAGEN collaboration manager with the SPUD natu- ral

David Devault; Charles Rich; Candace L. Sidner

2004-01-01

464

FASTUS: A Cascaded Finite-State Transducer for Extracting Information from Natural-Language Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

FASTUS is a system for extracting information from natural lan- guage text for entry into a database and for other applications. It works essentially as a cascaded, nondeterministic finite-state automa- ton. There are five stages in the operation of FASTUS. In Stage 1, names and other fixed form expressions are recognized. In Stage 2, basic noun groups, verb groups, and

Jerry R. Hobbs; Douglas Appelt; John Bear

1996-01-01

465

GazeParser: an open-source and multiplatform library for low-cost eye tracking and analysis.  

PubMed

Eye movement analysis is an effective method for research on visual perception and cognition. However, recordings of eye movements present practical difficulties related to the cost of the recording devices and the programming of device controls for use in experiments. GazeParser is an open-source library for low-cost eye tracking and data analysis; it consists of a video-based eyetracker and libraries for data recording and analysis. The libraries are written in Python and can be used in conjunction with PsychoPy and VisionEgg experimental control libraries. Three eye movement experiments are reported on performance tests of GazeParser. These showed that the means and standard deviations for errors in sampling intervals were less than 1 ms. Spatial accuracy ranged from 0.7° to 1.2°, depending on participant. In gap/overlap tasks and antisaccade tasks, the latency and amplitude of the saccades detected by GazeParser agreed with those detected by a commercial eyetracker. These results showed that the GazeParser demonstrates adequate performance for use in psychological experiments. PMID:23239074

Sogo, Hiroyuki

2013-09-01

466

A JavaCC Parser for the UML-Based CDIF Transfer Format Patrick Pag Rudolf K. Keller Reinhard Schauer  

E-print Network

-Party Tools UML-CDIF Parser Repository Visitor Source Code & Design Repository (POET, UML 1.1) External Tool represented as UML-based CDIF in our POET object repository [8]. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the parsing technology we are using for the CDIF Transfer Format. Section 2 details the Java

Keller, Rudolf K.

467

On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on the brains of human beings and other species provides insight into the evolution of the brain bases of human language. The neural substrate that regulated motor control in the common ancestor of apes and humans most likely was modified to enhance cognitive and linguistic ability. Speech communication played a central role in this process. However, the process that ultimately resulted in the human brain may have started when our earliest hominid ancestors began to walk.

Lieberman, Philip

2002-01-01

468

A comparison of speech versus keyboard input and scrolling versus nonscrolling menus on a menu-based natural language interface  

E-print Network

-based natural language interi'ace. It ivas predicted that speech input would result in faster entry times and feiver errors than kevboard input f' or menu selection. The study also compared the use of non-scrolling menus, ivhere the required selections a, re..., speaker identification, and quality control ('iye. 1980). For a. text editing task, speech input ivas found to be inferior to keyboard input (Bierschivale, 198 r. ' Xifurray, Van Praag, and Gilfoil, 1983). There is very little literature on the use...

Armstrong, Mark Edward

2012-06-07

469

Crowdsourcing a Normative Natural Language Dataset: A Comparison of Amazon Mechanical Turk and In-Lab Data Collection  

PubMed Central

Background Crowdsourcing has become a valuable method for collecting medical research data. This approach, recruiting through open calls on the Web, is particularly useful for assembling large normative datasets. However, it is not known how natural language datasets collected over the Web differ from those collected under controlled laboratory conditions. Objective To compare the natural language responses obtained from a crowdsourced sample of participants with responses collected in a conventional laboratory setting from participants recruited according to specific age and gender criteria. Methods We collected natural language descriptions of 200 half-minute movie clips, from Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (crowdsourced) and 60 participants recruited from the community (lab-sourced). Crowdsourced participants responded to as many clips as they wanted and typed their responses, whereas lab-sourced participants gave spoken responses to 40 clips, and their responses were transcribed. The content of the responses was evaluated using a take-one-out procedure, which compared responses to other responses to the same clip and to other clips, with a comparison of the average number of shared words. Results In contrast to the 13 months of recruiting that was required to collect normative data from 60 lab-sourced participants (with specific demographic characteristics), only 34 days were needed to collect normative data from 99 crowdsourced participants (contributing a median of 22 responses). The majority of crowdsourced workers were female, and the median age was 35 years, lower than the lab-sourced median of 62 years but similar to the median age of the US population. The responses contributed by the crowdsourced participants were longer on average, that is, 33 words compared to 28 words (P<.001), and they used a less varied vocabulary. However, there was strong similarity in the words used to describe a particular clip between the two datasets, as a cross-dataset count of shared words showed (P<.001). Within both datasets, responses contained substantial relevant content, with more words in common with responses to the same clip than to other clips (P<.001). There was evidence that responses from female and older crowdsourced participants had more shared words (P=.004 and .01 respectively), whereas younger participants had higher numbers of shared words in the lab-sourced population (P=.01). Conclusions Crowdsourcing is an effective approach to quickly and economically collect a large reliable dataset of normative natural language responses. PMID:23689038

Bex, Peter J; Woods, Russell L

2013-01-01

470

The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

1993-01-01

471

A Proposal of 3-dimensional Self-organizing Memory and Its Application to Knowledge Extraction from Natural Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a 3-dimensional self-organizing memory and describe its application to knowledge extraction from natural language. First, the proposed system extracts a relation between words by JUMAN (morpheme analysis system) and KNP (syntax analysis system), and stores it in short-term memory. In the short-term memory, the relations are attenuated with the passage of processing. However, the relations with high frequency of appearance are stored in the long-term memory without attenuation. The relations in the long-term memory are placed to the proposed 3-dimensional self-organizing memory. We used a new learning algorithm called ``Potential Firing'' in the learning phase. In the recall phase, the proposed system recalls relational knowledge from the learned knowledge based on the input sentence. We used a new recall algorithm called ``Waterfall Recall'' in the recall phase. We added a function to respond to questions in natural language with ``yes/no'' in order to confirm the validity of proposed system by evaluating the quantity of correct answers.

Sakakibara, Kai; Hagiwara, Masafumi

472

Paradata for 'The A. L. I. C. E. Artificial Intelligence Foundation - chatbot - chat bot - chatterbots - verbots - natural language - chatterbot - bot - chat robot - chat bots - AIML'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'The A. L. I. C. E. Artificial Intelligence Foundation - chatbot - chat bot - chatterbots - verbots - natural language - chatterbot - bot - chat robot - chat bots - AIML'

473

Salience: the key to the selection problem in natural language generation  

SciTech Connect

The authors argue that in domains where a strong notion of salience can be defined, it can be used to provide: (1) an elegant solution to the selection problem, i.e. the problem of how to decide whether a given fact should or should not be mentioned in the text; and (2) a simple and direct control framework for the entire deep generation process, coordinating proposing, planning, and realization. (Deep generation involves reasoning about conceptual and rhetorical facts, as opposed to the narrowly linguistic reasoning that takes place during realization.) The authors report on an empirical study of salience in pictures of natural scenes, and its use in a computer program that generates descriptive paragraphs comparable to those produced by people. 13 references.

Conklin, E.J.; McDonald, D.D.

1982-01-01

474

Object-oriented knowledge representation in a natural language understanding system of economic surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HIRONDELLE research project of the Banque de France intends to summarize economic surveys giving statements about a specific economic domain. The principal goal is the detection of causal relations between economic events appearing in the texts. We will focus on knowledge representation, based on three distinct hierarchical structures. The first one concerns the lexical items and allows inheritance of syntactic properties. Descriptions of the applications domains are achieved by a taxonomy based on attribute-value models and case relations, adapted to the economic sectors. The summarization goal of this system defines a set of primitives representing statements and causality meta-language. The semantic analysis of the texts is based on two phases. The first one leads to a propositional representation of the sentences through conceptual graphs formalization, taking into account the syntactic transformations of sentences. The second one is dedicated to the summarizing role of the system, detecting paraphrastic sentences by processing syntactic and semantic transformations like negation or metonymious constructions.

Planes, Jean-Christophe; Trigano, Philippe

1992-03-01

475

Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

2009-01-01

476

Why is combinatorial communication rare in the natural world, and why is language an exception to this trend?  

PubMed Central

In a combinatorial communication system, some signals consist of the combinations of other signals. Such systems are more efficient than equivalent, non-combinatorial systems, yet despite this they are rare in nature. Why? Previous explanations have focused on the adaptive limits of combinatorial communication, or on its purported cognitive difficulties, but neither of these explains the full distribution of combinatorial communication in the natural world. Here, we present a nonlinear dynamical model of the emergence of combinatorial communication that, unlike previous models, considers how initially non-communicative behaviour evolves to take on a communicative function. We derive three basic principles about the emergence of combinatorial communication. We hence show that the interdependence of signals and responses places significant constraints on the historical pathways by which combinatorial signals might emerge, to the extent that anything other than the most simple form of combinatorial communication is extremely unlikely. We also argue that these constraints can be bypassed if individuals have the socio-cognitive capacity to engage in ostensive communication. Humans, but probably no other species, have this ability. This may explain why language, which is massively combinatorial, is such an extreme exception to nature's general trend for non-combinatorial communication. PMID:24047871

Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.

2013-01-01

477

A Requirements-Based Exploration of Open-Source Software Development Projects--Towards a Natural Language Processing Software Analysis Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open source projects do have requirements; they are, however, mostly informal, text descriptions found in requests, forums, and other correspondence. Understanding such requirements provides insight into the nature of open source projects. Unfortunately, manual analysis of natural language requirements is time-consuming, and for large projects,…

Vlas, Radu Eduard

2012-01-01

478

Classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports by presence, chronicity, and location of pulmonary embolism with natural language processing.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe an efficient tool based on natural language processing for classifying the detail state of pulmonary embolism (PE) recorded in CT pulmonary angiography reports. The classification tasks include: PE present vs. absent, acute PE vs. others, central PE vs. others, and subsegmental PE vs. others. Statistical learning algorithms were trained with features extracted using the NLP tool and gold standard labels obtained via chart review from two radiologists. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for the four tasks were 0.998, 0.945, 0.987, and 0.986, respectively. We compared our classifiers with bag-of-words Naive Bayes classifiers, a standard text mining technology, which gave AUC 0.942, 0.765, 0.766, and 0.712, respectively. PMID:25117751

Yu, Sheng; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Dunne, Ruth M; Bedayat, Arash; Neykov, Matey; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Dill, Karin E; Cai, Tianxi; Rybicki, Frank J

2014-12-01

479

A perspective on the advancement of natural language processing tasks via topological analysis of complex networks. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts and methods of complex networks have been applied to probe the properties of a myriad of real systems [1]. The finding that written texts modeled as graphs share several properties of other completely different real systems has inspired the study of language as a complex system [2]. Actually, language can be represented as a complex network in its several levels of complexity. As a consequence, morphological, syntactical and semantical properties have been employed in the construction of linguistic networks [3]. Even the character level has been useful to unfold particular patterns [4,5]. In the review by Cong and Liu [6], the authors emphasize the need to use the topological information of complex networks modeling the various spheres of the language to better understand its origins, evolution and organization. In addition, the authors cite the use of networks in applications aiming at holistic typology and stylistic variations. In this context, I will discuss some possible directions that could be followed in future research directed towards the understanding of language via topological characterization of complex linguistic networks. In addition, I will comment the use of network models for language processing applications. Additional prospects for future practical research lines will also be discussed in this comment.

Amancio, Diego Raphael

2014-12-01

480

SIMD-parallel understanding of natural language with application to magnitude-only optical parsing of text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel parallel model of natural language (NL) understanding is presented which can realize high levels of semantic abstraction, and is designed for implementation on synchronous SIMD architectures and optical processors. Theory is expressed in terms of the Image Algebra (IA), a rigorous, concise, inherently parallel notation which unifies the design, analysis, and implementation of image processing algorithms. The IA has been implemented on numerous parallel architectures, and IA preprocessors and interpreters are available for the FORTRAN and Ada languages. In a previous study, we demonstrated the utility of IA for mapping MEA- conformable (Multiple Execution Array) algorithms to optical architectures. In this study, we extend our previous theory to map serial parsing algorithms to the synchronous SIMD paradigm. We initially derive a two-dimensional image that is based upon the adjacency matrix of a semantic graph. Via IA template mappings, the operations of bottom-up parsing, semantic disambiguation, and referential resolution are implemented as image-processing operations upon the adjacency matrix. Pixel-level operations are constrained to Hadamard addition and multiplication, thresholding, and row/column summation, which are available in magnitude-only optics. Assuming high parallelism in the parse rule base, the parsing of n input symbols with a grammar consisting of M rules of arity H, on an N-processor architecture, could exhibit time complexity of T(n)

Schmalz, Mark S.

1992-08-01

481

Building and Acquiring Resources for Biomedical Language Processing  

E-print Network

of Biomedical Natural Language Processing Biomedical Natural Language Processing processes language material (e Tasks of Biomedical Natural Language Processing Biomedical Natural Language Processing processesBuilding and Acquiring Resources for Biomedical Language Processing Pierre Zweigenbaum LIMSI, CNRS

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

482

Automatic Extraction of Nanoparticle Properties Using Natural Language Processing: NanoSifter an Application to Acquire PAMAM Dendrimer Properties  

PubMed Central

In this study, we demonstrate the use of natural language processing methods to extract, from nanomedicine literature, numeric values of biomedical property terms of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. We have developed a method for extracting these values for properties taken from the NanoParticle Ontology, using the General Architecture for Text Engineering and a Nearly-New Information Extraction System. We also created a method for associating the identified numeric values with their corresponding dendrimer properties, called NanoSifter. We demonstrate that our system can correctly extract numeric values of dendrimer properties reported in the cancer treatment literature with high recall, precision, and f-measure. The micro-averaged recall was 0.99, precision was 0.84, and f-measure was 0.91. Similarly, the macro-averaged recall was 0.99, precision was 0.87, and f-measure was 0.92. To our knowledge, these results are the first application of text mining to extract and associate dendrimer property terms and their corresponding numeric values. PMID:24392101

Jones, David E.; Igo, Sean; Hurdle, John; Facelli, Julio C.

2014-01-01

483

Using natural language processing on the free text of clinical documents to screen for evidence of homelessness among US veterans.  

PubMed

Information retrieval algorithms based on natural language processing (NLP) of the free text of medical records have been used to find documents of interest from databases. Homelessness is a high priority non-medical diagnosis that is noted in electronic medical records of Veterans in Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Using a human-reviewed reference standard corpus of clinical documents of Veterans with evidence of homelessness and those without, an open-source NLP tool (Automated Retrieval Console v2.0, ARC) was trained to classify documents. The best performing model based on document level work-flow performed well on a test set (Precision 94%, Recall 97%, F-Measure 96). Processing of a naïve set of 10,000 randomly selected documents from the VA using this best performing model yielded 463 documents flagged as positive, indicating a 4.7% prevalence of homelessness. Human review noted a precision of 70% for these flags resulting in an adjusted prevalence of homelessness of 3.3% which matches current VA estimates. Further refinements are underway to improve the performance. We demonstrate an effective and rapid lifecycle of using an off-the-shelf NLP tool for screening targets of interest from medical records. PMID:24551356

Gundlapalli, Adi V; Carter, Marjorie E; Palmer, Miland; Ginter, Thomas; Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steven; Shen, Shuying; South, Brett; Divita, Guy; Duvall, Scott; Nguyen, Thien M; D'Avolio, Leonard W; Samore, Matthew

2013-01-01

484

Informatics in radiology: RADTF: a semantic search-enabled, natural language processor-generated radiology teaching file.  

PubMed

Storing and retrieving radiology cases is an important activity for education and clinical research, but this process can be time-consuming. In the process of structuring reports and images into organized teaching files, incidental pathologic conditions not pertinent to the primary teaching point can be omitted, as when a user saves images of an aortic dissection case but disregards the incidental osteoid osteoma. An alternate strategy for identifying teaching cases is text search of reports in radiology information systems (RIS), but retrieved reports are unstructured, teaching-related content is not highlighted, and patient identifying information is not removed. Furthermore, searching unstructured reports requires sophisticated retrieval methods to achieve useful results. An open-source, RadLex(®)-compatible teaching file solution called RADTF, which uses natural language processing (NLP) methods to process radiology reports, was developed to create a searchable teaching resource from the RIS and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The NLP system extracts and de-identifies teaching-relevant statements from full reports to generate a stand-alone database, thus converting existing RIS archives into an on-demand source of teaching material. Using RADTF, the authors generated a semantic search-enabled, Web-based radiology archive containing over 700,000 cases with millions of images. RADTF combines a compact representation of the teaching-relevant content in radiology reports and a versatile search engine with the scale of the entire RIS-PACS collection of case material. PMID:20801868

Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew; Biswal, Sandip; Kamaya, Aya; Rubin, Daniel L

2010-11-01

485

Using natural language processing to improve efficiency of manual chart abstraction in research: the case of breast cancer recurrence.  

PubMed

The increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) creates opportunities for automated extraction of information from clinical text. We hypothesized that natural language processing (NLP) could substantially reduce the burden of manual abstraction in studies examining outcomes, like cancer recurrence, that are documented in unstructured clinical text, such as progress notes, radiology reports, and pathology reports. We developed an NLP-based system using open-source software to process electronic clinical notes from 1995 to 2012 for women with early-stage incident breast cancers to identify whether and when recurrences were diagnosed. We developed and evaluated the system using clinical notes from 1,472 patients receiving EHR-documented care in an integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A separate study provided the patient-level reference standard for recurrence status and date. The NLP-based system correctly identified 92% of recurrences and estimated diagnosis dates within 30 days for 88% of these. Specificity was 96%. The NLP-based system overlooked 5 of 65 recurrences, 4 because electronic documents were unavailable. The NLP-based system identified 5 other recurrences incorrectly classified as nonrecurrent in the reference standard. If used in similar cohorts, NLP could reduce by 90% the number of EHR charts abstracted to identify confirmed breast cancer recurrence cases at a rate comparable to traditional abstraction. PMID:24488511

Carrell, David S; Halgrim, Scott; Tran, Diem-Thy; Buist, Diana S M; Chubak, Jessica; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana

2014-03-15

486

The nature of the working memory system underlying language processing and its relationship to the long-term memory system  

E-print Network

This thesis examines two questions concerning the working memory system underlying language processing: (1) To what extent is the working memory system underlying language processing domain-specific? and (2) What is the ...

Fedorenko, Evelina Georgievna

2007-01-01

487

Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL-X), pages 3744, New York City, June 2006. c 2006 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

. In order to explain the antecedent selection task for definite anaphora clearly, we provide the follow- ingProceedings of the 10th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL-X), pages 37 Definite Anaphora by Modeling Hypernymy using Unlabeled Corpora Nikesh Garera and David Yarowsky Department

488

Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP), pages 17131723, October 25-29, 2014, Doha, Qatar. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP spaces are intuitive, mathematically well-defined frameworks to represent and process such infor- mation vectors in a vector space is often represented by a matrix MmÃ?n. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a famil

489

Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 238246, Portland, Oregon, USA, 2324 June 2011. c 2011 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 238 with Lookahead: Can History-Based Models Rival Globally Optimized Models? Yoshimasa Tsuruoka Yusuke Miyao Jun, we determine the best action by looking into possible se- quences of future actions and evaluating

490

Natural language query system design for interactive information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-17.

Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

1985-01-01

491

Report on Workshop on High Performance Computing and Communications for Grand Challenge Applications: Computer Vision, Speech and Natural Language Processing, and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings of a workshop, the goals of which were to identify applications, research problems, and designs of high performance computing and communications (HPCC) systems for supporting applications are discussed. In computer vision, the main scientific issues are machine learning, surface reconstruction, inverse optics and integration, model acquisition, and perception and action. In speech and natural language processing (SNLP), issues

Benjamin W. Wah; Thomas S. Huang; Aravind K. Joshi; Dan I. Moldovan; Yiannis Aloimonos; Ruzena Bajcsy; Dana H. Ballard; Doug Degroot; Kenneth Dejong; Charles R. Dyer; Scott E. Fahlman; Ralph Grishman; Lynette Hirschman; Richard E. Korf; Stephen E. Levinson; Daniel P. Miranker; N. H. Morgan; Sergei Nirenburg; Tomaso Poggio; Edward M. Riseman; Craig Stanfil; Salvatore J. Stolfo; Steven L. Tanimoto; Charles C. Weems

1993-01-01

492

Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning: Shared Task, pages 144147, Uppsala, Sweden, 15-16 July 2010. c 2010 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning: Shared Task on the phrase level. Sentences containing at least one cue are considered as uncertain, while sentences, pages 144­147, Uppsala, Sweden, 15-16 July 2010. c 2010 Association for Computational Linguistics

493

Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing, ACL 2010, pages 144152, Uppsala, Sweden, 15 July 2010. c 2010 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing, ACL 2010, pages 144 not be annotated as named entities (NEs) but that are still highly relevant for biomedical information extraction" and "transcription starts". These two terms provide more detailed information on the regulation event. Thus

Gent, Universiteit

494

Improving performance of natural language processing part-of-speech tagging on clinical narratives through domain adaptation  

PubMed Central

Objective Natural language processing (NLP) tasks are commonly decomposed into subtasks, chained together to form processing pipelines. The residual error produced in these subtasks propagates, adversely affecting the end objectives. Limited availability of annotated clinical data remains a barrier to reaching state-of-the-art operating characteristics using statistically based NLP tools in the clinical domain. Here we explore the unique linguistic constructions of clinical texts and demonstrate the loss in operating characteristics when out-of-the-box part-of-speech (POS) tagging tools are applied to the clinical domain. We test a domain adaptation approach integrating a novel lexical-generation probability rule used in a transformation-based learner to boost POS performance on clinical narratives. Methods Two target corpora from independent healthcare institutions were constructed from high frequency clinical narratives. Four leading POS taggers with their out-of-the-box models trained from general English and biomedical abstracts were evaluated against these clinical corpora. A high performing domain adaptation method, Easy Adapt, was compared to our newly proposed method ClinAdapt. Results The evaluated POS taggers drop in accuracy by 8.5–15% when tested on clinical narratives. The highest performing tagger reports an accuracy of 88.6%. Domain adaptation with Easy Adapt reports accuracies of 88.3–91.0% on clinical texts. ClinAdapt reports 93.2–93.9%. Conclusions ClinAdapt successfully boosts POS tagging performance through domain adaptation requiring a modest amount of annotated clinical data. Improving the performance of critical NLP subtasks is expected to reduce pipeline error propagation leading to better overall results on complex processing tasks. PMID:23486109

Ferraro, Jeffrey P; Daumé, Hal; DuVall, Scott L; Chapman, Wendy W; Harkema, Henk; Haug, Peter J

2013-01-01

495

The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

2010-05-01

496

Text mining and network analysis of molecular interaction in non-small cell lung cancer by using natural language processing.  

PubMed

Lung cancer including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer is one of the most aggressive tumors with high incidence and low survival rate. The typical NSCLC patients account for 80-85 % of the total lung cancer patients. To systemically explore the molecular mechanisms of NSCLC, we performed a molecular network analysis between human and mouse to identify key genes (pathways) involved in the occurrence of NSCLC. We automatically extracted the human-to-mouse orthologous interactions using the GeneWays system by natural language processing and further constructed molecular (gene and its products) networks by mapping the human-to-mouse interactions to NSCLC-related mammalian phenotypes, followed by module analysis using ClusterONE of Cytoscape and pathway enrichment analysis using the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID) successively. A total of 70 genes were proven to be related to the mammalian phenotypes of NSCLC, and seven genes (ATAD5, BECN1, CDKN2A, FNTB, E2F1, KRAS and PTEN) were found to have a bearing on more than one mammalian phenotype (MP) each. Four network clusters centered by four genes thyroglobulin (TG), neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1 ), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 ) and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) were generated. Genes in the four network modules were enriched in eight KEGG pathways (p value < 0.05), including pathways in cancer, small cell lung cancer, cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway. Genes p53 and E2F1 may play important roles in NSCLC occurrence, and thus can be considered as therapeutic targets for NSCLC. PMID:25205120

Li, Jun; Bi, Lintao; Sun, Yanxia; Lu, Zhenxia; Lin, Yumei; Bai, Ou; Shao, Hui

2014-12-01

497

Tamacola --- a meta language kit for the web: a report on creating a self-hosting lisp compiler on the Tamarin VM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamacola is a dynamic, self-sustaining meta-language system grounded upon the Tamarin VM. Tamacola compiles a Scheme-like S-expression language into ActionScript bytecodes, and contains meta-linguistic features, such as a PEG parser generator and macro system, which make it useful for defining new languages. In fact, Tamacola is written in itself, using its meta-linguistic features. Since the Tamarin VM can load ActionScript

Takashi Yamamiya; Yoshiki Ohshima

2010-01-01

498

Quantitative Languages KRISHNENDU CHATTERJEE  

E-print Network

Quantitative Languages KRISHNENDU CHATTERJEE IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology of Science and Technology Austria) and EPFL, Switzerland Quantitative generalizations of classical languages) to define several natural classes of quantitative languages over finite and infinite words; in particular

Doyen, Laurent

499

Integrating Learner Corpora and Natural Language Processing: A Crucial Step towards Reconciling Technological Sophistication and Pedagogical Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learner corpora, electronic collections of spoken or written data from foreign language learners, offer unparalleled access to many hitherto uncovered aspects of learner language, particularly in their error-tagged format. This article aims to demonstrate the role that the learner corpus can play in CALL, particularly when used in conjunction with…

Granger, Sylviane; Kraif, Olivier; Ponton, Claude; Antoniadis, Georges; Zampa, Virginie

2007-01-01

500

Web 2.0-Based Crowdsourcing for High-Quality Gold Standard Development in Clinical Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

Background A high-quality gold standard is vital for supervised, machine learning-based, clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. In clinical NLP projects, expert annotators traditionally create the gold standard. However, traditional annotation is expensive and time-consuming. To reduce the cost of annotation, general NLP projects have turned to crowdsourcing based on Web 2.0 technology, which involves submitting smaller subtasks to a coordinated marketplace of workers on the Internet. Many studies have been conducted in the area of crowdsourcing, but only a few have focused on tasks in the general NLP field and only a handful in the biomedical domain, usually based upon very small pilot sample sizes. In addition, the quality of the crowdsourced biomedical NLP corpora were never exceptional when compared to traditionally-developed gold standards. The previously reported results on medical named entity annotation task showed a 0.68 F-measure based agreement between crowdsourced and traditionally-developed corpora. Objective Building upon previous work from the general crowdsourcing research, this study investigated the usability of crowdsourcing in the clinical NLP domain with special emphasis on achieving high agreement between crowdsourced and traditionally-developed corpora. Methods To build the gold standard for evaluating the crowdsourcing workers’ performance, 1042 clinical trial announcements (CTAs) from the ClinicalTrials.gov website were randomly selected and double annotated for medication names, medication types, and linked attributes. For the experiments, we used CrowdFlower, an Amazon Mechanical Turk-based crowdsourcing platform. We calculated sensitivity, precision, and F-measure to evaluate the quality of the crowd’s work and tested the statistical significance (P<.001, chi-square test) to detect differences between the crowdsourced and traditionally-developed annotations. Results The agreement between the crowd’s annotations and the traditionally-generated corpora was high for: (1) annotations (0.87, F-measure for medication names; 0.73, medication types), (2) correction of previous annotations (0.90, medication names; 0.76, medication types), and excellent for (3) linking medications with their attributes (0.96). Simple voting provided the best judgment aggregation approach. There was no statistically significant difference between the crowd and traditionally-generated corpora. Our results showed a 27.9% improvement over previously reported results on medication named entity annotation task. Conclusions This study offers three contributions. First, we proved that crowdsourcing is a feasible, inexpensive, fast, and practical approach to collect high-quality annotations for clinical text (when protected health information was excluded). We believe that well-designed user interfaces and rigorous quality control strategy for entity annotation and linking were critical to the success of this work. Second, as a further contribution to the Internet-based crowdsourcing field, we will publicly release the JavaScript and CrowdFlower Markup Language infrastructure code that is necessary to utilize CrowdFlower’s quality control and crowdsourcing interfaces for named entity annotations. Finally, to spur future research, we will release the CTA annotations that were generated by traditional and crowdsourced approaches. PMID:23548263

Deleger, Louise; Li, Qi; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura

2013-01-01