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Sample records for natural spring mineral

  1. Hydrogeology of the mineral springs at Manitou Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Maslyn, R.M.; Blomquist, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Manitou Springs, a small resort community located at the base of 14,110 foot Pikes Peak, is situated at the south end of the southward plunging Williams Canyon Anticline. This is truncated south of town by the Ute Pass Reverse Fault, with over 30,000 feet of displacement. Paleozoic limestones are exposed north of Manitou Springs in north-south trending Williams Canyon. The Mississippian age Leadville Limestone and underlying Ordovician age Manitou Limestone contain over 40 caves, including the 8500-foot long Cave of the Winds system. These limestones continue under Manitou Springs, where cave forming processes have resulted in water-filled caverns. The 28 natural springs and flowing wells in Manitou Springs source in the limestone caverns. This carbonate aquifer is bounded by the Ute Pass Fault on the west and southwest, the Rampart Range Fault to the east, and open to recharge from exposed limestone to the north. Areal extent of the aquifer is approximately 3.5 spare miles, containing an estimated 10 billion gallons. In the past 100 years, spring development has lowered the potentiometric surface 50 feet. Contemporary and historical chemical analyses of the mineral water show high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and carbon dioxide gas. This suggests prolonged exposure of the water to limestone, as confirmed by Carbon 14 age-dating values of up to 30,000 years.

  2. Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1976-01-01

    The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

  3. Radionuclides in hot mineral spring waters in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Saqan, S A; Kullab, M K; Ismail, A M

    2001-01-01

    Hot mineral springs in Jordan are very attractive to people who seek physical healing but they are unaware of natural radioactive elements that may be contained in the hot mineral water. The activities of the natural radioactive isotopes were measured and the concentrations of the parents of their natural radioactive series were calculated. The measured radionuclides were 234Th, 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 228Th, 212Pb, 212Bi and 208Tl. In addition the activities of 235U and 40K were measured. The activities ranged from 0.14 to 34.8 Bq/l, while the concentrations of parent uranium and thorium isotopes ranged from 3.0 x 10(-3) to 0.59 mg/l. The results were compared with those for drinking water. PMID:11202689

  4. Nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, southern Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, J. V.; Noble, D. C.; Hsu, L. C.; Hutsinpiller, A.; Spatz, D.

    1986-01-01

    Surface coatings on volcanic rock assemblages that occur at select tertiary volcanic centers in southern Nevada were investigated using LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper imagery. Three project sites comprise the subject of this study: the Kane Springs Wash, Black Mountain, and Stonewall Mountain volcanic centers. LANDSAT 5 TM work scenes selected for each area are outlined along with local area geology. The nature and composition of surface coatings on the rock types within the subproject areas are determined, along with the origin of the coatings and their genetic link to host rocks, geologic interpretations are related to remote sensing units discriminated on TM imagery. Image processing was done using an ESL VAX/IDIMS image processing system, field sampling, and observation. Aerial photographs were acquired to facilitate location on the ground and to aid stratigraphic differentiation.

  5. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  6. Nature and origin of secondary mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain, and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, southern, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, James V.; Hsu, Liang C.; Spatz, David M.; Chenevey, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) genetic, spectral, and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery relationship between desert varnish and tertiary volcanic host rocks, southern Nevada; (2) reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Kane Springs Wash Volcanic Center, Lincoln County, Nevada, using multispectral thermal infrared imagery; (3) interregional comparisons of desert varnish; and (4) airborne scanner (GERIS) imagery of the Kane Springs Wash Volcanic Center, Lincoln County, Nevada.

  7. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  8. Nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain and Kane Springs wash volcanic centers, southern Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, James V.; Noble, Donald C.; Hsu, Liang C.; Spatz, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Mineral coatings, including desert varnish on volcanic rocks of the semi-arid Basin and Range province are composted of amorphous, translucent films of Fe, Mn, Si, and Al rich compounds. Coatings are chiefly thin films that impregnate intergranularly to depths of about 0.1 to 0.3 mm, rarely deeper. Sixteen coating sections and subsurface interiors were probed by SEM; 20 samples were scanned by infrated spectrometry; 10 samples were scanned for visible-near IR spectra; inductin coupling plasma analyses were collected on 34 samples; 2 desert varnish surgaces were investigated by optical density slice imagery; a few XRD analyses were conducted in addition to the 50 reported in the last period; thin section observation continued; and imagery processing focused on classification techniques. In late May, approximately 10 field days were spent at the Stonewall and Black Mountain study sited conducting more detailed mapping and observation base on imagery results and collecting spectra with the Collins Field Spectrometer. Approximately 100 spectral analyses were collected and are currently being processed.

  9. [Biomineralization at hot springs and mineral springs, and their significance in relation to the Earth's history].

    PubMed

    Akai, J

    2000-12-01

    Recently, there is strong interest on microbe-mineral interactions. This is related also to recent expanded knowledges on extremely severe environments in which microbes live. Interaction between microbes and minerals contains biomineralization processes. Varieties of biomineralization products are found not only in various geologic materials and processes in the earth's history but also in present surface environments. Some hot springs represent such environments similar to those of unique and extremely severe environments for life. In this short review, the author briefly shows some examples of biomineralizations at some hot springs and mineral springs, Japan. In such environments, iron ore was formed and some varieties of growing stromatolites were found. The varieties of stromatolite are siliceous, calcic and manganese types. Cyanobacteria and the other bacteria are related to form the stromatolite structure. In the Gunma iron ore, sedimentary iron ores were mineralogically described in order to evaluate the role of microorganisms and plants in ore formation. The iron ore is composed of nanocrystalline goethite. Algal fossils are clearly preserved in some ores. Various products of biomineralization are found in the present pH 2-3, Fe2(+)- and SO4(2-)-rich streams. Bacterial precipitation had variations from amorphous Fe-P-(S) precipitates near the outlet of mineral spring, to Fe-P-S precipitates and to Fe-S-(P) precipitates. Mosses and green algae are also collecting Fe precipitates in and around the living and dead cells. The Gunma Iron Ore can be said as Biologically Induced Iron Ore. At Onikobe and Akakura hot springs, growing stromatolites of siliceous and calcareous types, were found, respectively. At Onikobe, The stromatolites grow especially near the geyser. Cyanobacterial filaments in stromatolite were well preserved in the siliceous and calcic stromatolites. The filaments oriented in two directions which form the layered structures were found. At

  10. Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,189,000 South boundary: approximately 4,170,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 351,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs at Wagon Wheel Gap have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 4. Power lines 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  11. Killer clays! Natural antibacterial clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, L.B.; Holland, M.; Eberl, D.D.; Brunet, T.; De Courrsou, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The clay chemical properties that may be important in medicine were investigated. It was found that natural clay minerals can have striking and very specific effects on microbial populations. The effects can range from potentially enhanced microbial growth to complete sterilization. This paper presents evidence that natural clay minerals can be effective antimicrobial agents.

  12. Hydrogeochemistry and Geothermometry of Ramsar Thermal and Mineral springs, North of Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Reza; Abedsotan, Farnaz; Vosoghi Abedini, Mansour; Khosro Thehrani, Khosro

    2010-05-01

    The Ramsar thermal springs are situated in northen mountainous of Alborze structural zone, this area have NW-SE trend and created by density of folding and faulting systems. The climate in this area is wet and hot in summer, and cold in winter. The annual precipitations are more than 976mm, mainly of precipitation in winter are snowy and cause established natural and permanent glacial at highlands. Several thermal and mineral springs are situated in the south and southeastern flank, Electrical Conductivity and PH of these springs range from 1050 to 21600 and from more than 5.5 to 6, respectively. The temperature of these springs has range from about 20 to 650c. Most of the thermal springs are of sodium -chloride type (piper diagram), Besides, they are mature and full equilibrium according to Gigeenbach triangular diagram (Na/1000-K/100-√Mg), The only exception is sample H5 (Safaroud spa) that is close to immaturity field, maturity of thermal springs water and low pressure of Co2 supported deep circulation for these water and because of long contact time equilibrium between crustal rocks and thermal waters. Positive correlation between Cl and Mg shows that mixing of surface water in the thermal system is insignificant. The So4-Cl-HCo3 triangular diagram confirms mature and deep origin. Thermal water of Ramsar in study area is supersaturated in respect to Quartz, Clay minerals, Barite, Alunite and Aragonite and under saturated in respect to chalcedony, carbonate, SiO2 (a) and gypsum phase. Saturation index is calculated using PHEERQCI software. XRD analyses reveal the Montmorilonite, illite, Alunite and quartz in Ramsar Spring sinters. The geothermometric studies results are reliable because some of the water samples are mature water and depended full equilibrium water- rock interaction zone. The reservoir temperatures of Ramsar Springs evaluated with equal Na-K and Na-K-Ca geothrmometer and have range between 90 to 280°c, and comparison with argillic alteration

  13. Origin of Mineral Springs on the East Coast, North Island, NZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.M.; Glover, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Strongly mineralized waters emerge as warm and cold springs from parts of a Cenozoic accretionary prism which extends along the East Coast of the North Island. The chemistry of these waters is consistent with them having been derived from connate sea water in deeply-buried marine sediments and is distinct from springs in other parts of the prism and elsewhere in New Zealand. Most of these mineral springs are associated with three, long-wavelength, magnetic anomalies which modeling suggests are caused by deeply-buried ophiolite bodies within the prism or by seamounts on the top of the subducted Pacific Plate underlying the prism. It is postulated that these deep-seated bodies have facilitated the dewatering of marine sediments from deep within the prism or from the subducted plate. This ''devolved sea water'' has then risen, been modified by contact with overlying sediments and mixed with near-surface meteoric waters, before emerging at the mineral springs.

  14. Mineralogy and autoradiography of selected mineral-spring precipitates in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana; Felmlee, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diffaction analysis of 236 precipitate or sediment samples from 97 mineral-spring sites in nine Western States showed the presence of 25 minerals, some precipitated and some detrital. Calcite and (or) aragonite are the most common of all the precipitated minerals. Gypsum and (or) anhydrite, as well as barite and native sulfur, are less common but are also believed to be precipitated minerals. Precipitated manganese and iron oxides, including romanechite, manganite, pyrolusite, goethite, and hematite, were found in some of the samples. Various salts of sodium, including halite and thenardite, were also identified. Dolomite and an unknown type of siliceous material are present in some of the samples and were possibly precipitated at the spring sites. Quartz, feldspar, and mica are present in many of the samples and are believed to be detrital contaminants. An autoradiographic and thin section study of 11 samples from nine of the most radioactive spring sites showed the radioactivity, which is due primarily to radium, to be directly associated with mineral phases containing barium, manganese, iron, and (or) calcium as major constituents. Furthermore, the radioactivity has an exclusive affinity for the manganese-bearing minerals, which in these samples contain a substantial amount of barium, even if calcite or iron oxides are present. Where calcite predominates and manganese- and barium-bearing minerals are absent, the radioactivity shows a close association with the iron oxides present, especially hematite, but also shows a moderate association with the calcite and (or) aragonite cementing phases. In other samples composed predominantly of calcite but lacking iron oxides, the radioactivity is preferentially associated with an early stage of calcite development and is considerably lower in the later cementing stages. The radioactivity observed in all these samples is believed to be caused by radium substituting for barium in mineral lattices, filling

  15. Natural mineral waters, curative-medical waters and their protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, M.

    1993-10-01

    In Europe different types of water are marketed, each strictly defined by EC Directive 80/777 (Natural Mineral Water, Spring and Table Water) or 80/778 (Drinking Water). In Germany, an additional type of water is common in the market: curative/medical water. Product quality and safety, registration as medicine, and pharmaceutical control are defined by the German Federal Medicine Act. A medical water is treated as any other medicine and may be sold only in pharmacies. The use of any water in Germany is controlled and strictly regulated by the Federal Water Act (Fricke 1981). The following requirements are set by the act: (1) No water use without a permit, which is limited in time and quantity. (2) No single or juristic person may own water. (3) Water resources of public interest and their recharge areas are to be protected by the definition of water protection zones. (Natural mineral water is not of public interest and therefore is not required to be protected by the definition of water protection zones, although it represents a market value of more than US2 billion. Medical water is of public interest). The definition of water protection zones impacts private property rights and has to be handled carefully. In order to protect water resources, sometimes the economic basis of a traditional industrial and/or agricultural infrastructure is destroyed. The concerns and needs all citizens, including industry, must be considered in analyzing the adequacy of water protection zones.

  16. Radioactive mineral spring precipitates, their analytical and statistical data and the uranium connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, R.A.; Felmlee, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Major radioactive mineral springs are probably related to deep zones of active metamorphism in areas of orogenic tectonism. The most common precipitate is travertine, a chemically precipitated rock composed chiefly of calcium carbonate, but also containing other minerals. The mineral springs are surface manifestations of hydrothermal conduit systems which extend downward many kilometers to hot source rocks. Conduits are kept open by fluid pressure exerted by carbon dioxide-charged waters rising to the surface propelled by heat and gas (CO2 and steam) pressure. On reaching the surface, the dissolved carbon dioxide is released from solution, and calcium carbonate is precipitated. Springs also contain sulfur species (for example, H2S and HS-), and radon, helium and methane as entrained or dissolved gases. The HS- ion can react to form hydrogen sulfide gas, sulfate salts, and native sulfur. Chemical salts and native sulfur precipitate at the surface. The sulfur may partly oxidize to produce detectable sulfur dioxide gas. Radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, radon-222, radium-228, and radon-220, and other daughter products of uranium-238 and thorium-232. Uranium and thorium are not present in economically significant amounts in most radioactive spring precipitates. Most radium is coprecipitated at the surface with barite. Barite (barium sulfate) forms in the barium-containing spring water as a product of the oxidation of sulfur species to sulfate ions. The relatively insoluble barium sulfate precipitates and removes much of the radium from solution. Radium coprecipitates to a lesser extent with manganese-barium- and iron-oxy hydroxides. R-mode factor analysis of abundances of elements suggests that 65 percent of the variance of the different elements is affected by seven factors interpreted as follows: (1) Silica and silicate contamination and precipitation; (2) Carbonate travertine precipitation; (3) Radium coprecipitation; (4) Evaporite precipitation

  17. Mineral resources of the Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Iron County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loenen, R.E.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; Sable, E.G.; Lee, G.K.; Cook, K.L.; Zelten, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    In 1986 and 1987 the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines appraised the mineral resources and the mineral resource potential of the Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area in southwestern Utah. This study area contains principally Mesozoic sedimentary rocks exposed along the Hurricane Fault and in canyons adjacent to Zion National Park. Inferred subeconomic resources of common variety sand, sandstone, and limestone occur in this study area. The Spring Creek Canyon Wilderness Study Area has a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of oil and gas in small fields. This study area has a low potential for all metals (including copper, silver, and uranium) and geothermal resources. There is no potential for coal or gypsum.

  18. Radium and uranium data for mineral springs in eight Western States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J. Karen; Cadigan, Robert Allen

    1978-01-01

    Data for 116 mineral springs in eight Western States show a wide range of values. Specific conductance, temperature, and pH were measured at the sites between 1975 and 1977, and samples for radium and uranium analysis were collected. Correlation and regression analyses among the five measured parameters indicate that a positive correlation exists between radium and specific conductance and that negative correlations exist between radium and pH, specific conductance and pH, and uranium and temperature.

  19. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Little Sand Spring Wilderness Study Area, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Werschky, R.S.; Raines, G.L.; Blakely, R.I.; Hoover, D.B.; Miller, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Little Sand Spring Wilderness Study Area, located in relatively subdued mountainous terrain that borders the east side of the north end of Death Valley, was studied using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical techniques and mine and prospect surveys to evaluate the potential for mineral resources. The area has a moderate potential for silver in vein deposits, a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and a low potential for the occurrence of molybdenum in a molybdenum stockwork deposit. Lithium and nonmetallic commodities consisting of carbonate rock, clay, nitrate, perlite, and pumicite were identified in the wilderness study area, but no evidence of a resource potential for them or for oil and gas was identified. Large quantities of sand and gravel are available for local use. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Mineral resources of the Lost Spring Canyon wilderness study area, Grand County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Soulliere, S.J.; Lee, G.K.; Case, J.E.; Gese, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses the Lost Spring Canyon Wilderness Study Area which is about 15 miles north of Moab, Utah, and covers 3,880 acres adjacent to Arches National Park. Investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Mines conclude that the study area has no identified economic mineral resources, but has inferred subeconomic resources of sandstone and sand and gravel. There is a moderate energy resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas, potash, and halite, and a low resource potential for undiscovered geothermal resources and all metals, including uranium and manganese.

  1. Influence of Seasonal and Geochemical Changes on the Geomicrobiology of an Iron Carbonate Mineral Water Spring

    PubMed Central

    Hegler, Florian; Lösekann-Behrens, Tina; Hanselmann, Kurt; Behrens, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Fuschna Spring in the Swiss Alps (Engadin region) is a bicarbonate iron(II)-rich, pH-neutral mineral water spring that is dominated visually by dark green microbial mats at the side of the flow channel and orange iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in the flow channel. Gradients of O2, dissolved iron(II), and bicarbonate establish in the water. Our goals were to identify the dominating biogeochemical processes and to determine to which extent changing geochemical conditions along the flow path and seasonal changes influence mineral identity, crystallinity, and microbial diversity. Geochemical analysis showed microoxic water at the spring outlet which became fully oxygenated within 2.3 m downstream. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed calcite (CaCO3) and ferrihydrite [Fe(OH)3] to be the dominant minerals which increased in crystallinity with increasing distance from the spring outlet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding pattern cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community composition shifted mainly with seasons and to a lesser extent along the flow path. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that microbial communities differ between the flow channel and the flanking microbial mat. Microbial community analysis in combination with most-probable-number analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the mat was dominated by cyanobacteria and the channel was dominated by microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers (1.97 × 107 ± 4.36 × 106 16S rRNA gene copies g−1 using Gallionella-specific qPCR primers), while high numbers of Fe(III) reducers (109 cells/g) were identified in both the mat and the flow channel. Phototrophic and nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers were present as well, although in lower numbers (103 to 104 cells/g). In summary, our data suggest that mainly seasonal changes caused microbial community shifts, while geochemical gradients along the flow path influenced mineral crystallinity. PMID:22865064

  2. Fracture-lining minerals in the lower Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fracture-lining minerals in the lower Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being examined to characterize potential flow paths within and away from the candidate repository horizon. Fracture coatings within this interval can be divided into five categories based on rock matrix and type of fracture. Fracture coatings in the densely welded tuff above the basal vitrophyre, near the candidate repository horizon, include (1) those related to lithophysal cavities; (2) mordenite and manganese oxides on nearly planar fractures; (3) later fracture coatings consisting of zeolites, smectite, and calcite. Fracture-coating minerals in the vitrophyre are fine-grained and consist of smectite and a variety of zeolites. The non- to partially-welded vitric and/or zeolitic stuff below the vitrophyre contains fractures mostly lined by cristobalite and clinoptilolite. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. F.

    2003-12-01

    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  4. Large uraniferous springs and associated uranium minerals, Shirley Mountains, Carbon County, Wyoming -- A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.D.

    1963-01-01

    Ten springs along the southeast flank of the Shirley Mountains, Carbon County, Wyoming, have water containing from 12 to 27 parts per billion uranium, have a total estimated flow of 3 million gallons of clear fresh water per day, and have a combined annual output that may be as much as 166 pounds of uranium. These springs emerge from Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Triassic rocks on the east flank of a faulted anticlinal fold. In the vicinity of several springs, metatyuyamunite occurs locally in crystalline calcite veins averaging 3 feet in width but reaching a maximum of 24 feet. The veins are as much as several hundred feet long-and cut vertically through sandstones of Pennsylvanian age overlying the Madison Limestone (Mississippian). This limestone is believed to be the source of the calcite. A 3-foot channel sample cross one calcite vein contains 0.089 percent uranium. Lesser amounts of uranium were obtained from other channel samples. Selected samples contain from 0.39 to 2.2 percent uranium and from 0.25 to 0.86 percent vanadium. Three possible sources of the uranium are: (1) Precambrian rocks, (2) Paleozoic rocks, (3) Pliocene(?) tuffaceous strata that were deposited unconformably across older .rocks in both the graphically high and low parts of the area, but were subsequently removed by erosion except for a few small remnants, one of which contains carnotite. There is apparently a close genetic relation between the uraniferous springs and uranium mineralization in the calcite veins. Data from this locality illustrate how uraniferous ground water can be used as a guide in the exploration for areas where uranium deposits may occur. Also demonstrated is the fact that significant quantities of uranium are present in water of some large flowing springs.

  5. Dissolved gas composition of groundwater in the natural spa complex "Choygan mineral waters" (East Tuva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Y.; Guseva, N.; Shestakova, A.; Khvaschevskaya, A.; Arakchaa, K.

    2014-08-01

    The natural spa complex "Choygan mineral waters", a unique deposit of natural carbon dioxide mineral waters in Siberia, is located in the Eastern Sayan Mountains. There are 33 springs discharge in this area. Spring waters are mainly HCO3-Na-Ca type. TDS varies from 300 mg/L to 2600 mg/L and temperature ranges from 7 °C (in spring 33) to 39 °C (in spring 12), pH varies from 5.9 to 8.3, and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential is from - 170 mV to 236 mV. All studied waters were divided into two groups according to their temperature and geochemical conditions: cold fresh water with oxidizing conditions and warm slightly brackish water with reductive conditions. The gas composition of the studied waters is represented by nitrogen (28-75 vol.%), carbon dioxide (6-65 vol.%), oxygen (7-19 vol.%), radon (4-948 Bq/l). The studied gases differ not only by the content but by the different sources.

  6. Straczekite, a new calcium barium potassium vanadate mineral from Wilson Springs, Arkansas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Nord, G.; Marinenko, J.; Milton, C.

    1984-01-01

    Straczekite occurs as a rare secondary mineral in fibrous seams, along with other V minerals (A.M. 64-713), in ore from the vanadium mine in Wilson Springs (formerly Potash Sulfur Springs), Garland County, Arkansas. It forms soft, thin laths of dark greenish black crystals up to 0.5 mm in length. Indexed XRD data are tabulated; strongest lines 3.486(100), 10.449(50), 1.8306(50), 1.9437(15) A; a 11.679, b 3.6608, c 10.636 A, beta 100.53o; space group C2/m, C2 or Cm. Chemical analysis gave V2O5 66.4, V2O4 15.3, Fe2O3 0.9, Na2O 0.4, K2O 1.8, CaO 2.5, BaO 5.5, H2O 7.2, = 100.0, leading to the formula (Ca0.39Ba0.31K0.33Na0.11)- 196(V4+1.59V5+6.31Fe3+0.10)O20.02(H2O)2.9; Dcalc. 3.21 g/cm3. A possible layer structure is discussed. The name is for J. A. Straczek, Chief Geologist at Union Carbide Corp.-R.A.H.

  7. Utilization of geothermal energy-feasibility study, Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Company, Ojo Caliente, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of a geothermal heating system at the Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Co. The geothermal energy will be used to preheat hot water for the laundry facilities and to heat the water for a two-pipe fan coil heating system in the hotel. Present annual heating fuel costs of $11,218 for propane will be replaced by electricity to operate fans and pump at an annual cost of $2547, resulting in a net savings of $8671. Installation costs include $10,100 for a well system, $1400 for a laundry system, and $41,100 for a heating system. With the addition of a 10% design fee the total installation cost is $57,860. Ignoring escalating propane fuel prices, tax credits for energy conservation equipment, and potential funding from the State of New Mexico for a geothermal demonstration project, the simple economic payback period for this project is 6.7 years.

  8. Transient nature of Arctic spring systems driven by subglacial meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidegger, J. M.; Bense, V. F.; Grasby, S. E.

    2012-06-01

    In the High Arctic, supra- and proglacial springs occur at Borup Fiord Pass, Ellesmere Island. Spring waters are sulfur bearing and isotope analysis suggests springs are fed by deeply circulating glacial meltwater. However, the mechanism maintaining spring flow is unclear in these areas of thick permafrost which would hamper the discharge of deep groundwater to the surface. It has been hypothesized that fracture zones along faults focus groundwater which discharges initially underneath wet-based parts of the ice. With thinning ice, the spring head is exposed to surface temperatures, tens of degrees lower than temperatures of pressure melting, and permafrost starts to develop. Numerical modeling of coupled heat and fluid flow suggest that focused groundwater discharge should eventually be cut off by permafrost encroaching into the feeding channel of the spring. Nevertheless, our model simulations show that these springs can remain flowing for millennia depending on the initial flow rate and ambient surface temperature. These systems might provide a terrestrial analog for the possible occurrence of Martian springs recharged by polar ice caps.

  9. Effect of maturity stages for winter- and spring-sown chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) on seed mineral content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-year field experiments were conducted to study the effect of two planting dates and seed maturity on mineral content of chickpea seeds. In 2003 and 2004, chickpea "Jubiha-2" seeds were planted in late December (winter-sown) and early March (spring-sown). For both planting dates, pods were harv...

  10. Structural fabrics, mineralization and Lamaride kinematics of the Idaho Springs-Ralston shear zone, Colorado mineral belt and central Front Range uplift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, J.S.; Nelson, E.P.; Beach, S.T.; Layer, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    The Idaho Springs and Central City mining districts form the central portion of a structurally controlled hydrothermal precious- and base-metal vein system in the Front Range of the northeast-trending Colorado Mineral Belt. Three new 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages on hydrothermal sericite indicate the veins formed during the Laramide orogeny between 65.4??1.5 - 61.9??1.3 Ma. We compile structural geologic data from surface geological maps, subsurface mine maps, and theses for analysis using modern graphical methods and integration into models of formation of economic mineral deposits. Structural data sets, produced in the 1950s and 1960s by the U.S. Geological Survey, are compiled for fabric elements, including metamorphic foliations, fold axial trends, major brittle fault zones, quartz and precious- and base-metal veins and fault veins, Tertiary dikes, and joints. These fabric elements are plotted on equal-area projections and analyzed for mean fabric orientations. Strike-slip fault-vein sets are mostly parallel or sub-parallel, and not conjugate as interpreted by previous work; late-stage, normal-slip fault veins possibly show a pattern indicative of triaxial strain. Fault-slip kinematic analysis was used to model the trend of the Laramide maximum horizontal stress axis, or compression direction, and to determine compatibility of opening and shear motions within a single stress field. The combined-model maximum compression direction for all strike slip fault veins is ???068??, which is consistent with published Laramide compression directions of ???064?? (mean of 23 regional models) and ???072?? for the Front Range uplift. The orientations of fabric elements were analyzed for mechanical and kinematic compatibility with opening, and thus permeability enhancement, in the modeled regional east-northeast, Laramide compression direction. The fabric orientation analysis and paleostress modeling show that structural permeability during mineralization was enhanced along pre

  11. Investigation of the mineral potential of the Clipper Gap, Lone Mountain-Weepah, and Pipe Spring plutons, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tingley, J.V.; Maldonado, F.

    1983-09-15

    The Clipper Gap pluton, composed mostly of quartz monzonite with minor granite, granodiorite, and crosscutting alaskite dikes, intrudes Paleozoic western facies strata. A narrow zone of contact metamorphism is present at the intrusive-sediment contact. No mineral production has been recorded from Clipper Gap, but quartz veins containing gold-silver-copper mineral occurrences have been prospected there from the late 1800's to the present. Areas of the Lone Mountain-Weepah plutons that were studied are located in Esmeralda County about 14 km west of Tonopah, Nevada. At Lone Mountain, a Cretaceous intrusive cuts folded Precambrian and Cambrian sediments. Lead-zinc ores have been mined from small replacement ore bodies in the Alpine district, west of Lone Mountain. Copper and molybdenum occurrences have been found along the east flank of Lone Mountain, and altered areas were noted in intrusive outcrops around the south end of Lone Mountain. Mineral occurrences are widespread and varied with mining activity dating back to the 1860's. The Pipe Spring pluton study area is flanked by two important mining districts, Manhattan to the north and Belmont to the northeast. Mining activity at Belmont dates from 1865. Activity at Manhattan was mainly between 1907 and 1947, but the district is active at the present time (1979). Four smaller mining areas, Monarch, Spanish Springs, Baxter Spring, and Willow Springs, are within the general boundary of the area. The Pipe Spring pluton study area contains numerous prospects along the northern contact zone of the pluton. Tungsten-bearing veins occur within the pluton near Spanish Springs, with potential for gold-tungsten placer in the Ralston Valley. Nickel and associated metals occur at Willow Spring and Monarch Ranch, where prospects may be associated with the margin of the Big Ten Peak Caldera.

  12. Mineral Expert Discusses Global Scramble for Natural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-11-01

    With the global population boom and more people growing into affluence, there is increasing demand, desire, and competition for minerals, said Vince Mathews during a talk about the global scramble for natural resources on 30 October at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Denver, Colo.

  13. [The use of the natural mineral saponite for water decontamination].

    PubMed

    Hyrin, V M; Boĭko, I I; Rudychenko, V F

    1999-01-01

    Sorption properties were studied of natural and activated specimens of saponite with respect to poliomyelitis virus, Coxsackie B 1 and B 6 viruses as well as to Enterobacteriaceae group bacteria. With the purpose of comparing the processes of sorption of microorganisms, other minerals were also used, such as bentonite, alunite, glauconite, ceolite. The natural saponite adsorptive properties were found out to undergo changes during the process of thermoactivation. Mechanisms are discussed of a decontaminating effect of thermoactivated saponite in water. PMID:10423991

  14. Geologic and aeromagnetic maps and mineral resource potential survey of the Blackjack Springs Wilderness, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Blackjack Springs Wilderness in the Nicolet National Forest, Vilas County, Wisc., was evaluated in 1982.  No bedrock exposures are known in or near the wilderness.  Geophysical data and regional geologic relations suggest that the area consists mostly of recrystallized and deformed mafic volcanic rocks and associated mafic intrusives of Early Proterozoic age.  The only identified mineral resources in the Blackjack Springs Wilderness are sand and gravel, but these commodities are abundant regionally.  While the occurrence of stratabound massive-sulfide (cooper-zinc-lead) and (or) magmatic sulfide (copper and (or) nickel)-type deposits are possible in the wilderness, their occurrence is not probable.

  15. Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

  16. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  17. Hydrogeochemical overview and natural arsenic occurrence in groundwater from alpine springs (upper Valtellina, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Reyes, Fredy Alexander; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano; Della Pergola, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations (up to 230 μg/L) have been historically observed (since 1999) in the upper Valtellina valley groundwater (UVV, central Italian Alps), and measured in samples collected during four campaigns of one full hydrological year (summer 2012-summer 2013). During these campaigns, water has been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by Ca-Mg and SO4-HCO3 main ions, with seasonal variations for the second end members; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) dominant oxidizing conditions have been observed for most of the cold and for the thermal springs; (5) anthropogenic contamination is absent, while natural contamination of arsenic affects most of the springs, with a natural background level for the entire UVV of 33 μg/L; (6) both As (V) and As (III) are present in all the springs analyzed, with a marked prevalence of As (V) among the cold ones. These conditions suggest that the latter belong to recent hydrochemical immature aquifers, where the presence of arsenic is mostly related to alkali desorption and sulfide oxidation, while the thermal springs derive from the rapid uprising of deep-circulation water, with a high concentration of geothermal arsenic.

  18. Petrifaction of wood by calcium carbonate mineralization: Examples from spring-associated limestones of the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Ha; Ostermann, Marc; Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    The petrifaction of tissues such as wood can unveil much information on fossil assemblages. Wood most commonly is petrified by silicification, in settings ranging from hot springs to shallow burial. In contrast, we herein characterize wood petrified by calcium carbonate mineralization from spring limestone deposits of the Eastern Alps. The spring-associated limestone (SAL) deposits with calcified wood are post-Glacial (highest 234U/230Th errorchron age: 13.4 ± 0.2 ka) and inactive, and scatter from 800-2200 m a.s.l. Individual deposits range in mineralogy from aragonite plus magnesian calcite to primary low-magnesian calcite. The springs most probably had shed 'cool' waters at or near the ambient mean temperature of their recharge areas. In the Eastern Alps, cool springs with Mg/Ca ratios of 3-5 that actively precipitate aragonite and magnesian calcite are known from a location with a mean annual temperature of 8° C. Wood petrifaction by calcification affected branches to tree logs up to a few decimeters in diameter. Thicker branches and logs, however, are calcified only in a peripheral fringe up to ~10 cm in width, whereas the inner part is a phytomould or filled with other types of spring limestone. The preservation of cells, tracheids and vessels ranges from good to poor and patchy, and commonly allows for distinction of wood of conifers (gymnosperms) from woody angiosperms. Before petrifaction the wood was subject to partial physical disintegration, as recorded by desiccation cracks and local rotting/decomposition of cell walls. In addition, some degree of biological decomposition is indicated by tunnels and patches with calcified pellets (probably of arthropods), and by diffuse patches of micrite perhaps recording fungal and/or microbial infestation. The partial decomposition, in turn, favoured percolation of CaCO3 supersaturated water through the wood, and consequent mineralization. Silicification of wood within a few years was documented by other authors

  19. [Parks and hydro-mineral springs in the classical world and in the contemporary era. Place in therapeutics].

    PubMed

    Grossi, F

    1997-11-01

    Are briefly remembered the healing significances of woods and springs--together and separately--in ancient times. At first there were religions cults of them (health Goods, water and woods deities, temples, etc.). Subsequently there were their medicinal, lay uses especially of water. The Spas and Thermae of ancient Rome are well known. Importance in therapeutics of parks and gardens around Spas begins in XVIII century, in Europe. Greater care of parks close mineral waters springs was taken in XIX century, in North America (U.S.A., Canada). Here their importance in Ecology and Medical Hydrology was stressed. Today the use and diffusion of thermal parks can be proposed in order to environmental Psychology and to environmental Therapeutics. PMID:9494258

  20. Michigan Natural History. A Spring Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the natural history of…

  1. Excess nitrogen in selected thermal and mineral springs of the Cascade Range in northern California, Oregon, and Washington: sedimentary or volcanic in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariner, R. H.; Evans, W. C.; Presser, T. S.; White, L. D.

    2003-02-01

    Anomalous N 2/Ar values occur in many thermal springs and mineral springs, some volcanic fumaroles, and at least one acid-sulfate spring of the Cascade Range. Our data show that N 2/Ar values are as high as 300 in gas from some of the hot springs, as high as 1650 in gas from some of the mineral springs, and as high as 2400 in gas from the acid-sulfate spring on Mt. Shasta. In contrast, gas discharging from hot springs that contain nitrogen and argon solely of atmospheric origin typically exhibits N 2/Ar values of 40-80, depending on the spring temperature. If the excess nitrogen in the thermal and mineral springs is of sedimentary origin then the geothermal potential of the area must be small, but if the nitrogen is of volcanic origin then the geothermal potential must be very large. End-member excess nitrogen (δ 15N) is +5.3‰ for the thermal waters of the Oregon Cascades but is only about +1‰ for fumaroles on Mt. Hood and the acid-sulfate spring on Mt. Shasta. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations are highest for thermal springs associated with aquifers between 120 and 140°C. Chloride is the major anion in most of the nitrogen-rich springs of the Cascade Range, and N 2/Ar values generally increase as chloride concentrations increase. Chloride and excess nitrogen in the thermal waters of the Oregon Cascades probably originate in an early Tertiary marine formation that has been buried by the late Tertiary and Quaternary lava flows of the High Cascades. The widespread distribution of excess nitrogen that has been generated in low to moderate-temperature sedimentary environments is further proof of the restricted geothermal potential of the Cascade Range.

  2. Trace elements in mineral separates of the Pena Blanca Spring aubrite - Implications for the evolution of the aubrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.; Palme, H.; Wlotzka, F.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed chemical study is conducted of the Pena Blanca Spring aubrite in order to clarify both the origin of the aubrite parent body (APB) and its relation to the enstatite chondrites. The distribution of REE among aubritic minerals cannot be the result of fractional distillation, which would occur if high degrees of partial melting had occurred on the APB. The REE distributions instead indicate a complete equilibrium of oldhamite and other phases, so that a brief nonequilibrium melting episode must have led to the segregation of metal and sulfides.

  3. Genotype × Environment interactions for mineral concentration in grain of organically grown spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotype × environment (G×E) interactions among multiple mineral nutrients are not well understood, particularly in the context of diverse and inherently variable organic farming systems. The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate G×E interactions for grain yield and mineral nutrient con...

  4. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  5. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; natural graphite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, U.H.; Schmidt, H.W.; Taylor, H.A., Jr.; Sutphin, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Natural graphite is a crystalline mineral of pure carbon which normally occurs in the form of platelet-shaped crystals. It has important properties, such as chemical inertness, low thermal expansion, and lubricity, that make it almost irreplaceable for certain uses such as refractories and steelmaking. Graphite ore types are crystalline (flake and lump} or 'amorphous' (cryptocrystalline}. Refractory applications use the largest total amount of natural graphite, while the most important use of crystalline graphite is in crucibles for handling molten metals. All graphite deposits being mined today are found in the following metamorphic environments: (1) contact metamorphosed coal generally is a source of amorphous graphite; (2)disseminated crystalline flake graphite comes from syngenetic metasediments; and (3) crystalline lump graphite is found in epigenetic veins in high-grade metamorphic regions. Graphite may also occur as a trace mineral in ultrabasic rocks and pegmatites, but these are economically insignificant. The world's identified economically exploitable resources of crystalline graphite in major deposits are estimated to be about 9.7 million metric tons of concentrate. In-place resources of amorphous graphite are about 11.5 million metric tons. Of these, less than 2 percent of the crystalline ore and less than 1 percent of the amorphous ore are in western industrial countries. World mining production of natural graphite rose from 347,000 metric tons in 1973 to 659,000 metric tons in 1986, while the proportion produced by central economy countries increased from about 50 percent for the period from 1973 to 1978 to more than 64 percent in 1979 to 1986. It is estimated that crystalline flake graphite accounts for at least 180,000 metric tons of total annual world mining production of natural graphite, and amorphous graphite makes up the rest.

  6. Crop Mineral Nutrient and Yield Responses to Aphids or BYDV in Spring Wheat and Oats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information available that describes how changes in root system biomass caused by aphid feeding or aphid-transmitted viral disease affect root system function in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or oat (Avena sativa L.). This 2-yr field experiment was conducted to determine how l...

  7. Mineral resources of the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area, Mohave County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, F.; Jackens, R.C.; Miller, R.J.; Turner, R.L.; Knepper, D.H. Jr.; Pitkin, J.A.; Keith, W.J.; Mariano, J.; Jones, S.L. ); Korzeb, S.L. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on the Warm Springs Wilderness Study Area underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks overlying Proterozoic basement The northwestern part of the study area has high potential for gold and silver, other parts have moderate to low potential for gold and silver, sand low potential for perlite, zeolite, kaolinite, and geothermal resources.

  8. Surface restoration induced by lubricant additive of natural minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Gu, Jialin; Kang, Feiyu; Kong, Xianqing; Mo, Wei

    2007-07-01

    The effect of a new-fashioned lubricant additive is studied. The additive is prepared out of natural minerals containing flaky silicate, schungite and some other catalyzers. Applications of the additive obviously improve the surface mechanics properties of steel-steel friction pairs, and the nanohardness and the modulus of the friction surface are increased by 67 and 90%, respectively. The friction surface is especially examined with the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and an amorphous restoration film mostly made up of C with some Si or Si-O amorphous structure doped was found. Considering all research results about the restoration film, this study suggests the film is a sort of diamond-like carbon film (DLC film).

  9. Radioactivity and geochemistry of selected mineral-spring waters in the Western United States; basic data and multivariate statistical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J.K.; Cadigan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were performed on data from 156 mineral-spring sites in nine Western States to analyze relationships among the various parameters measured in the spring waters. Correlation analysis and R-mode factor analysis indicate that three major factors affect water composition in the spring systems studied: (1) duration of water circulation, (2) depth of water circulation, and (3) partial pressure of carbon dioxide. An examination of factor scores indicates that several types of hydrogeologic systems were sampled. Most of the samples are (1) older water from deeper circulating systems having relatively high salinity, high temperature, and low Eh or (2) younger water from shallower circulating systems having relatively low salinity, low temperature, and high Eh. The rest of the samples are from more complex systems. Any of the systems can have a relatively high or low content of dissolved carbonate species, resulting in a low or high pH, respectively. Uranium concentrations are commonly higher in waters of relatively low temperature and high Eh, and radium concentrations are commonly higher in waters having a relatively high carbonate content (low pH) and, secondarily, relatively high salinity. Water samples were collected and (or) measurements were taken at 156 of the 171 mineral-spring sites visited. Various samples were analyzed for radium, uranium, radon, helium, and radium-228 as well as major ions and numerous trace elements. On-site measurements for physical properties including temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, and dissolved oxygen were made. All constituents and properties show a wide range of values. Radium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 300 picocuries per liter; they average 1.48 picocuries per liter and have an anomaly threshold value of 171 picocuries per liter for the samples studied. Uranium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 120 micrograms per liter and average 0.26 micrograms per liter; they

  10. Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Changchun; Xu, Xiaofeng; Sun, Xiaoxin; Tian, Hanqin; Sun, Li; Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Xianwei; Guo, Yuedong

    2012-01-01

    The permafrost carbon climate feedback is one of the major mechanisms in controlling the climate ecosystem interactions in northern high latitudes. Of this feedback, methane (CH4) emission from natural wetlands is critically important due to its high warming potential. The freeze thaw transition has been confirmed to play an important role in annual CH4 budget, yet the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. An intensive field campaign was carried out in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China to estimate the CH4 emission in the spring freeze thaw transition period. The observation concluded that a large CH4 source was caused by spring thaw; the maximum hourly emission rate was 48.6 g C m 2 h 1, more than three orders of the regularly observed CH4 emission rate in the growing season. In some sporadically observed 'hot spots', the spring thawing effect contributed to a large CH4 source of 31.3 10.1 g C m 2, which is approximately 80% of the previously calculated annual CH4 emission in the same study area. If our results are typical for natural wetlands in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region, we estimate a global CH4 source strength of 0.5 1.0 Tg C (1 Tg =1012 g) caused by spring thaw in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region in the year 2011. Combining with available satellite and flask data, a regional extrapolation reaches a temporal pattern of CH4 emission during 2003 2009 which is consistent with recently observed changes in atmospheric CH4 concentration in the high latitudes. This suggests that the CH4 emission upon spring thaw in the high latitudes might be enhanced by the projected climate warming. These findings indicate that the spring thawing effect is an important mechanism in the permafrost carbon climate feedback and needs to be incorporated in Earth system models.

  11. Surface mineral mapping at Virginia City and Steamboat Springs, Nevada with multi-wavelength infrared remote sensing image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg

    The purpose of this study was to use a combination of high spatial resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data to remotely identify and map exposed alteration minerals around both active and ancient hydrothermal systems, and the mineral by-products of weathered mine tailings. Three case study areas were evaluated: (1) Steamboat Springs, as an active geothermal system; (2) Geiger Grade and Virginia City, as ancient hydrothermal systems; and (3) Virginia City, as a historic mining district. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), as well as data from newly developed airborne imaging spectrometers: SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopic methods. In all of the case study areas the minerals mapped included sinter, quartz/chalcedony, albite, calcite, dolomite, hydrous sulfate minerals (tamarugite, alunogen, gypsum and hexahydrite), jarosite, hematite, goethite, alunite, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. The results were synthesized into single thematic mineral maps and indicate that the combination of multi-channel infrared remote sensing data is an effective technique for the unique identification and mapping of weathering and alteration minerals that are characteristic of active and fossil hydrothermal systems, as well as acid mine drainage potential. This study provides many examples of the advantages of high spatial and

  12. Trap spectroscopy and dosimetric aspects of natural kyanite mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2015-06-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of X-ray irradiate natural kyanite (Al2SiO5) mineral annealed at 473, 573, 673 and 773 K was studied within 300-520 K. For all types of samples, TL glow curves revealed a stable peak at around 405 K. Analyzing the glow curves by computerized glow curve deconvolution process, one electron trap center had been estimated at depth around 1.01 eV from the conduction band. Investigation of TL emission spectra recorded within 300-520 K showed two intense peaks centered at around 366 and 688 nm, which confirmed the presence of two recombination centers at depth around 3.39 and 1.81 eV from the conduction band. Based on the analysis, a band diagram for kyanite crystal had been proposed showing the possible trap and recombination centers. Dose response, fading analysis and reproducibility measurement were carried out for all type of samples. For the highest annealed sample (773 K), linear dose response was observed within 15-1000 mGy. The rate of fading was very high just after irradiation but slowed after 5 days. The reproducibility of 773 K annealed sample was excellent. After ten recycle, the coefficient of variation was found to be only 0.75 %. These analyses demand the potential use of 773 K annealed kyanite as a natural X-ray dosimeter.

  13. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen and chlorine isotope compositions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and View the MathML source values range from +0.2‰ to +1.9‰ (average=+1.0±0.4‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004 and Leeman et al., 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. View the MathML source values of the lavas range from −0.1 to +0.8‰ (average = +0.4±0.3‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive View the MathML source values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with View the MathML source values >+1.0‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor–liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid–rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through

  14. The nature and formation of aeolian mineral dust material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Ian; O'hara-Dhand, Ken; McLaren, Sue

    2013-04-01

    Aeolian dust affects climate and records past climates. It has become a much studied material but there has been a certain lack of emphasis on the actual nature of the dust, and an even greater neglect of actual production mechanisms for dust particles. Huge amounts of dust may be raised from the Bodele depression and other parts of North Africa, and much of it may be carried across the North Atlantic to aid in soil formation in Brazil. But what does it consist of? We know that much of the Bodele dust is diatoms from old Lake Chad, but what of the lithological inorganic mineral content? A very crude division of aeolian dust into large dust(say around 20-50um) and small dust (2-5um)has been proposed. Much of the study of loess has been confused by the failure to make this distinction, and similar problems may arise in the study of the finer fractions of aeolian dust. Much aeolian material is clay-mineral based- formed from clay mineral aggregates(CMA), from lake bottom sediments. This can form large dust particles, as in parna in Australia, but also contributes largely to small long travel aerosolic dust. Another major contributor is the quartz fragment. The large dust for classic loess deposits is mostly quartz silt- and there is considerable discussion about the controls that affect quartz silt. There are some interesting modalities in the world of quartz particle sedimentology which need to be examined. Quartz sand (say 200-500um) is the key initiating material and the formation processes for quartz sand have a down-the-line effect on the formation of smaller particles. The central observation is the action of two processes- a eutectic-like reaction in the proto-rock granite which defines the essential nature of sand particles, and the high-low displacive crystallographic transformation which introduces tensile stresses into the quartz particle systems. The limited range of eutectic particle size means a limited range of tensile stresses. A neat combination of

  15. Uranium and thorium behavior in groundwater of the natural spa area “Choygan mineral water” (East Tuva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Y.; Guseva, N.; Shestakova, A.; Khvaschevskaya, A.; Arakchaa, K.

    2015-11-01

    The natural spa area “Choygan mineral waters”, a unique deposit of natural carbon dioxide mineral waters in Siberia, is located in the Eastern Sayan Mountains. There are 33 spring discharges in this area. Spring waters are mainly of HCO3-Na-Ca type. TDS varies from 300 mg/L to 2600 mg/L, the temperature ranges from 7 °C (in spring 33) to 39 °C (in spring 12), pH varies from 5.9 to 8.3, and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential is from -170 mV to 236 mV. All studied waters were divided into two groups according to their temperature and geochemical conditions: cold fresh water in oxidizing environment and warm slightly brackish water in reducing environment. The uranium concentration varies from 0.7 to 14 μg/l and the thorium concentration varies from 0.001 to 0.33 μg/l in the studied waters. The predominant uranium complexes are (UO2(CO3)3)4-, (UO2(CO3)2)2-, UO2CO3, (UO2(PO4)2)4- in the waters in oxidizing and reducing environments. It was found that acid-alkaline and oxidizing-reducing conditions were the determining factors for uranium behavior and speciation in the studied waters. The pH conditions are determining factors for thorium behavior and speciation in the studied waters. In slightly acidic water the predominant thorium species is negatively charge complex (ThCO3(OH)3)- (more than 95%).

  16. Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    At the request of the US Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and laboratory studies were conducted by the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A search of US Bureau of Land Management, State, and County records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of this study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of this area precludes much usage of this material. About two-thirds of this study area is under lease for oil and gas. This entire study area has a moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and a low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

  17. Mineral resources of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, D.J.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 710 acres of the Owl Creek Wilderness Study Area were studied for mineral endowment. Field and labortory studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. A search of U.S. Bureau of Land Management, State, and county records showed no current or previous mining claim activity and, other than common-variety sand and gravel, no mineral resources were identified during field examination of the study area. Sand and gravel is classified as an inferred subeconomic resource; however, the remoteness of the area precludes much usage of the material. About two-thirds of the study area is under lease for oil and gas. The entire study area has moderate resource potential for undiscovered oil and gas and low resource potential for undiscovered metals, coal, zeolites, and geothermal energy.

  18. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis. PMID:27373890

  19. Effects of simulated spring thaw of permafrost from mineral cryosol on CO2 emissions and atmospheric CH4 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, Brandon T.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Layton, Alice; Chauhan, Archana; Pfiffner, Susan; Mykytczuk, Nadia C.; Sanders, Rebecca; Whyte, Lyle G.; Hedin, Lars; Saad, Nabil; Myneni, Satish; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies investigating organic-rich tundra have reported that increasing biodegradation of Arctic tundra soil organic carbon (SOC) under warming climate regimes will cause increasing CO2 and CH4 emissions. Organic-poor, mineral cryosols, which comprise 87% of Arctic tundra, are not as well characterized. This study examined biogeochemical processes of 1 m long intact mineral cryosol cores (1-6% SOC) collected in the Canadian high Arctic. Vertical profiles of gaseous and aqueous chemistry and microbial composition were related to surface CO2 and CH4 fluxes during a simulated spring/summer thaw under light versus dark and in situ versus water saturated treatments. CO2 fluxes attained 0.8 ± 0.4 mmol CO2 m-2 h-1 for in situ treatments, of which 85 ± 11% was produced by aerobic SOC oxidation, consistent with field observations and metagenomic analyses indicating aerobic heterotrophs were the dominant phylotypes. The Q10 values of CO2 emissions ranged from 2 to 4 over the course of thawing. CH4 degassing occurred during initial thaw; however, all cores were CH4 sinks at atmospheric concentration CH4. Atmospheric CH4 uptake rates ranged from -126 ± 77 to -207 ± 7 nmol CH4 m-2 h-1 with CH4 consumed between 0 and 35 cm depth. Metagenomic and gas chemistry analyses revealed that high-affinity Type II methanotrophic sequence abundance and activity were highest between 0 and 35 cm depth. Microbial sulfate reduction dominated the anaerobic processes, outcompeting methanogenesis for H2 and acetate. Fluxes, microbial community composition, and biogeochemical rates indicate that mineral cryosols of Axel Heiberg Island act as net CO2 sources and atmospheric CH4 sinks during summertime thaw under both in situ and water saturated states.

  20. Groundwater flow and heat flow in an area of mineral springs

    SciTech Connect

    Vasseur, G. )

    1991-01-01

    As part of the project Geologie Profonde de la France, two boreholes have been drilled in the active hydrothermal area of Chassole, an area of metamorphic Variscan basement characterized by the occurrence of sodium-bicarbonate waters that have undergone high temperatures during their underground cycle. The underground water flow system, as revealed from various hydraulic and chemical observations, appears very complex: it is characterized by the simultaneous presence of meteoric water flowing downwards and mineralized water of deep origin flowing upwards. Geothermal measurements performed in the borehole are presented in detail and a semi-quantitative interpretation is given. A vertical profile of heat flow down to 1400 m depth indicates important variations, which are interpreted as the result of upward vertical movement of water. The quantitative interpretation of the data is based on simple models of steady state and transient temperature disturbances associated with water flow.

  1. A Natural View of Microbial Biodiversity within Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David M.; Ferris, Michael J.; Nold, Stephen C.; Bateson, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats. PMID:9841675

  2. A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. M.; Ferris, M. J.; Nold, S. C.; Bateson, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats.

  3. Mofettes - Investigation of Natural CO2 Springs - Insights and Methods applied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübben, A.; Leven, C.

    2014-12-01

    The quantification of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes leaking from the subsurface into the atmosphere is highly relevant in several research fields such as climate change, CCS, volcanic activity, or earthquake monitoring. Many of the areas with elevated carbon dioxide degassing pose the problem that under the given situation a systematic investigation of the relevant processes is only possible to a limited extent (e.g. in terms of spatial extent, accessibility, hazardous conditions). The upper Neckar valley in Southwest Germany is a region of enhanced natural subsurface CO2 concentrations and mass fluxes of Tertiary volcanic origin. At the beginning of the twentieth century several companies started industrial mining of CO2. The decreasing productivity of the CO2 springs led to the complete shutdown of the industry in 1995 and the existing boreholes were sealed. However, there are evidences that the reservoir, located in the deposits of the Lower Triassic, started to refill during the last 20 years. The CO2 springs replenished and a variety of different phenomena (e.g. mofettes and perished flora and fauna) indicate the active process of large scale CO2 exhalation. This easy-to-access site serves as a perfect example for a natural analog to a leaky CCS site, including abandoned boreholes and a suitable porous rock reservoir in the subsurface. During extensive field campaigns we applied several monitoring techniques like measurements of soil gas concentrations, mass fluxes, electrical resistivity, as well as soil and atmospheric parameters. The aim was to investigate and quantify mass fluxes and the effect of variations in e.g. temperature, soil moisture on the mass flux intensity. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the vicinity to a mofette on soil parameters like electrical conductivity and soil CO2 concentrations. In times of a changing climate due to greenhouse gases, regions featuring natural CO2 springs demand to be intensively investigated

  4. Relationships of anion-exchange sorption of boron from natural thermal-spring water

    SciTech Connect

    Meichik, N.R.; Leikin, Yu.A.; Antipov, M.A.; Goryacheva, N.V.; Klimenko, I.S.; Medvedev, S.A.; Galitskaya, N.B.

    1988-02-20

    Boric acid is one of the characteristic components of Kamchatka waters. Extraction of boron from thermal waters for production of potable water is closely linked with current problems of multiproduct utilization of resources and protection of the environment. The authors have investigated the possibilities of using ion exchange for extraction of boron from natural waters, and studied the sorption relationships by a dynamic method. They synthesized a macroporous anion-exchanger based on a copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene, containing N-methylglucamine groups (ANB-11 resin). ANB-11 resin had high sorption capacity for boron anions during sorption from thermal-spring water. The experimental data were described by Elkins equation.

  5. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  6. Assessing vulnerability mapping and protection zones of karst spring waters and validating by the joint use of natural and artificial tracers. The case of Auta Spring (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, Ana Isabel; Mudarra, Matías; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Delineation of protection zones for water supply and implementation of proper land-use practices in surrounding areas are crucial aspects for a sustainable use of valuable drinking water resources. This is even more important in karst aquifers, which are particularly sensitive to contamination, having a very low self-cleaning capacity due to their structure and hydrological behavior. Consequently, specific methodologies adapted to the particular characteristics of karst media are necessary. In this work, an approach for protection zoning of the pilot site of Auta karst spring (southern Spain) is proposed, based on the application of COP+K method for contamination vulnerability and validation of results by natural (organic) tracers of infiltration (NO3-, TOC, intrinsic fluorescence) and by a dye tracer test conducted on June, 2011 (injecting 500 mg uranine). The aquifer drained by Auta spring (8.5 km2) presents a complex geological structure, formed by Jurassic dolostones and limestones highly folded and fractured. Recharge takes place by the infiltration of rainfall through karst landforms and also by losses in an adjacent river when it flows over the carbonate outcrops (dye injection point). Drainage is mainly through several springs located at the southwest, including Auta spring and 5 overflow springs. The source vulnerability map obtained by applying COP+K method can be adopted as the baseline to delineate the protection zones, through the conversion from vulnerability classes to degrees of protection. Dye tracer test and natural tracers of infiltration corroborate that aquifer sectors influenced by the river can be extremely vulnerable to pollution, but also well-developed exokarst features. In fact, slight evidences of pollution have been detected during the study period, with relatively-high NO3- contents and high fluorescence linked to bacteriological activity in Auta spring water. The jointly use of natural and artificial tracers constitute a reliable and

  7. The nature and tropospheric formation of iberulites: Pinkish mineral microspherulites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Hernández, José L.; Párraga, Jesús

    2008-08-01

    The circum-Mediterranean area has one of the highest dust accretion rates in the world. We have found pinkish mineral microspherulites (here referred to as iberulites), a new type of aerosol particle formed under special atmospheric conditions in periods corresponding to the highest levels of solid additions (summer). Because these particles are labile, they have gone unnoticed until now. Image analysis shows that these particles are spherical in shape, most commonly 60-90 μm in diameter, and show a typical depression (vortex). Iberulites are considered complex mineral assemblages with different hygroscopic characteristics and also contain biological remains (plants, silica shells, plankton and probably viruses). Their bulk mineralogy includes silicates, carbonates, sulfates, halides, oxides and phosphate-vanadates. This mineralogical composition indicates that likely source areas are the Sahara and Sahel for primary minerals (inherited), while other minerals are the result of atmospheric neoformation (gypsum and alunite-jarosite). We thus define an iberulite as a coassociation with axial geometry, constituted by well-defined mineral grains together with non-crystalline compounds, structured on a coarse-grained core and a smectite rind, with only one vortex and pinkish color, formed in the troposphere by complex aerosol-water-gas interactions. We suggest the aqueous interphase hypothesis as the mechanism for tropospheric formation of iberulites, mainly in summer: interactions between water droplets and aerosols create complex hydrodynamic conditions, causing possible collisions (wake and front capture) that produce the "precursor water droplets" of iberulites. Atmospheric processing is required from this stage to iberulite maturation. To date, we do not know to what extent these iberulites are present in time and space or whether they can serve as markers for environmental or paleoclimatic analyses or even lead to uncertainty in radiative transfer models.

  8. [Mineral springs on the north-east of Caucasus and its role in the treatment of soldiers of the Russian army in XIX--beginning XX c].

    PubMed

    Akhmadov, T Z; Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2013-07-01

    The article is concerned to the history of formation of sanitary-treatment stations on the North Caucasus, in Chechnya (Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs) till 1917 year. The basis of the article are archive documents, scientific papers of contemporaries and official documents. Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs were more than 70 years the one the best recreative base of the Caucasian standing army including the caucasian cossack troop. The sanitary-treatment stations were of great importance during the active military actions with Hill people within the territory of Chechnya and Dagestan, during the Crimean War (1853-1856), The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and the First World War (1914-1918), when the amount of the wounded and ill soldiers increased. PMID:24341013

  9. Precipitation of iron minerals by a natural microbial consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.A.; Sherriff, B.L.; Sparling, R.; Sawicki, J.A.

    1999-08-01

    A microbial biofilm consortium enriched from Shield surface water is able to mediate geochemical cycling of iron within a biofilm. Iron can be leached from Fe(II) containing minerals such as magnetite, biotite and ilmenite to generate a colloidal Fe(III) suspension. The Fe(III) can then be reduced back to Fe(II) by iron-reducing bacteria that utilize it as an electron acceptor. On precipitation, different iron compounds are formed depending on the ratio of iron to carbon in the media and upon the local environment. Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy show these compounds to include ferrous hydroxide, vivianite, ferrihydrite and hematite. These minerals may then become incorporated into stratifer iron deposits such as Banded Iron Formations.

  10. Analysis of natural mineral earthquake and blast based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuelong; Li, Zhonghui; Wang, Enyuan; Feng, Junjun; Kong, Xiangguo; Chen, Liang; Li, Baolin; Li, Nan

    2016-05-01

    There are important theoretical and scientific benefits to identify natural mineral earthquake and blast accurately to ensure the safety of mining. In the paper, we studied the wave characteristics of natural mineral earthquake and blast in a coal mine based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method. Results show that the dominant frequency of natural mineral earthquake wave is 20 Hz, which is lower than the other frequency bands. The blast wave frequency is relatively complex and its dominant frequency is 140 Hz, which is higher than the other frequency bands. The natural mineral earthquake wave amplitude is 50 mV and the blast signal amplitude reaches up to 250 mV. However, the decay rate of natural mineral earthquake wave is slower than the blast wave. Both of them could be decomposed into 9 intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). c2, c3, c4 and c5 are the main part of the natural mineral earthquake wave; while c2, c3, and c4 are the main part of the blast wave. These IMFs contain most of the signal energy and belong to the advantage part of the original signal. Besides, the instantaneous energy duration of natural mineral earthquake wave is longer, its peak energy arrival time is earlier and decay rate is slower, while the value is lower. The natural mineral earthquake wave Hilbert energy distributes in the sampling points 600-1200, frequency less than 50 Hz, and the energy peak 100 is at 25 Hz. By contrast, the blast wave Hilbert energy is concentrated on the sampling points 600-800, frequency around 50 Hz and 140 Hz, and the energy peak 170 is at 140 Hz.

  11. Natural and mining-related sources of dissolved minerals during low flow in the Upper Animas River Basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Winfield G.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Clean Water Act of 1972 (Public Law 92-500), all States are required to establish water-quality standards for every river basin in the State. During 1994, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment proposed to the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) an aquatic-life standard of 225 µg/L (micrograms per liter) for the dissolved-zinc concentration in the Animas River downstream from Silverton (fig.1). The CWQCC delayed implementation of this water-quality standard until further information was collected and a plan for the cleanup of abandoned mines was developed. Dissolved-zinc concentrations in this section of the river ranged from about 270 µg/L during high flow, when rainfall and snowmelt runoff dilute the dissolved minerals in the river (U.S. Geological Survey, 1996, p. 431), to 960 µg/L (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, written commun., 1996) during low flow (such as late summer and middle winter when natural springs and drainage from mines are the main sources for the streams). Mining sites in the basin were developed between about 1872 and the 1940's, with only a few mines operated until the early 1990's. For local governments, mining sites represent part of the Nation's heritage, tourists are attracted to the historic mining sites, and governments are obligated to protect the historic mining sites according to the National Historic Preservation Act (Public Law 89-665). In the context of this fact sheet, the term "natural sources of dissolved minerals" refers to springs and streams where no effect from mining were determined. "Mining-related sources of dissolved minerals" are assumed to be: (1 ) Water draining from mines , and (2) water seeping from mine-waste dump pile where the waste piles were saturated by water draining from mines. Although rainfall and snowmelt runoff from mine-waste piles might affect water quality in streams, work described in this fact sheet was done during low

  12. Oceanic minerals: their origin, nature of their environment, and significance.

    PubMed

    Kastner, M

    1999-03-30

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of oceanic biogenic and authigenic minerals contain invaluable information on the evolution of seawater, hence on the history of interaction between tectonics, climate, ocean circulation, and the evolution of life. Important advances and greater understanding of (a) key minor and trace element cycles with various residence times, (b) isotopic sources and sinks and fractionation behaviors, and (c) potential diagenetic problems, as well as developments in high-precision instrumentation, recently have been achieved. These advances provided new compelling evidence that neither gradualism nor uniformitarianism can explain many of the new important discoveries obtained from the chemistry and isotopic compositions of oceanic minerals. Presently, the best-developed geochemical proxies in biogenic carbonates are 18O/16O and Sr/Ca ratios (possibly Mg/Ca) for temperature; 87Sr/86Sr for input sources, Cd/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios for phosphate and alkalinity concentrations, respectively, thus also for ocean circulation; 13C/12C for ocean productivity; B isotopes for seawater pH;, U, Th isotopes, and 14C for dating; and Sr and Mn concentrations for diagenesis. The oceanic authigenic minerals most widely used for chemical paleoceanography are barite, evaporite sulfates, and hydrogenous ferromanganese nodules. Marine barite is an effective alternative monitor of seawater 87Sr/86Sr, especially where carbonates are diagenetically altered or absent. It also provides a high-resolution record of seawater sulfate S isotopes, (evaporite sulfates only carry an episodic record), with new insights on factors affecting the S and C cycles and atmospheric oxygen. High-resolution studies of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of well-dated ferromanganese nodules contain invaluable records on climate driven changes in oceanic circulation. PMID:10097047

  13. Oceanic minerals: Their origin, nature of their environment, and significance

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, Miriam

    1999-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of oceanic biogenic and authigenic minerals contain invaluable information on the evolution of seawater, hence on the history of interaction between tectonics, climate, ocean circulation, and the evolution of life. Important advances and greater understanding of (a) key minor and trace element cycles with various residence times, (b) isotopic sources and sinks and fractionation behaviors, and (c) potential diagenetic problems, as well as developments in high-precision instrumentation, recently have been achieved. These advances provided new compelling evidence that neither gradualism nor uniformitarianism can explain many of the new important discoveries obtained from the chemistry and isotopic compositions of oceanic minerals. Presently, the best-developed geochemical proxies in biogenic carbonates are 18O/16O and Sr/Ca ratios (possibly Mg/Ca) for temperature; 87Sr/86Sr for input sources, Cd/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios for phosphate and alkalinity concentrations, respectively, thus also for ocean circulation; 13C/12C for ocean productivity; B isotopes for seawater pH;, U, Th isotopes, and 14C for dating; and Sr and Mn concentrations for diagenesis. The oceanic authigenic minerals most widely used for chemical paleoceanography are barite, evaporite sulfates, and hydrogenous ferromanganese nodules. Marine barite is an effective alternative monitor of seawater 87Sr/86Sr, especially where carbonates are diagenetically altered or absent. It also provides a high-resolution record of seawater sulfate S isotopes, (evaporite sulfates only carry an episodic record), with new insights on factors affecting the S and C cycles and atmospheric oxygen. High-resolution studies of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of well-dated ferromanganese nodules contain invaluable records on climate driven changes in oceanic circulation. PMID:10097047

  14. Application of Decision Tree Algorithm for classification and identification of natural minerals using SEM-EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş, Efe; Akin, Lutfiye; Evren Çubukçu, H.; Artuner, Harun

    2015-07-01

    A mineral is a natural, homogeneous solid with a definite chemical composition and a highly ordered atomic arrangement. Recently, fast and accurate mineral identification/classification became a necessity. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometers integrated with Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) are used to obtain rapid and reliable elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a solid. However, mineral identification is challenging since there is wide range of spectral dataset for natural minerals. The more mineralogical data acquired, time required for classification procedures increases. Moreover, applied instrumental conditions on a SEM-EDS differ for various applications, affecting the produced X-ray patterns even for the same mineral. This study aims to test whether C5.0 Decision Tree is a rapid and reliable method algorithm for classification and identification of various natural magmatic minerals. Ten distinct mineral groups (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, apatite, amphibole, plagioclase, K-feldspar, zircon, magnetite, biotite) from different igneous rocks have been analyzed on SEM-EDS. 4601 elemental X-ray intensity data have been collected under various instrumental conditions. 2400 elemental data have been used to train and the remaining 2201 data have been tested to identify the minerals. The vast majority of the test data have been classified accurately. Additionally, high accuracy has been reached on the minerals with similar chemical composition, such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2[SiO4]) and orthopyroxene ((Mg,Fe)2[SiO6]). Furthermore, two members from amphibole group (magnesiohastingsite, tschermakite) and two from clinopyroxene group (diopside, hedenbergite) have been accurately identified by the Decision Tree Algorithm. These results demonstrate that C5.0 Decision Tree Algorithm is an efficient method for mineral group classification and the identification of mineral members.

  15. pH-Dependent Metal Ion Toxicity Influences the Antibacterial Activity of Two Natural Mineral Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Tanya M.; Koehl, Jennifer L.; Summers, Jack S.; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that several mineral products sold for medicinal purposes demonstrate antimicrobial activity, but little is known about the physicochemical properties involved in antibacterial activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vitro mineral suspension testing, we have identified two natural mineral mixtures, arbitrarily designated BY07 and CB07, with antibacterial activity against a broad-spectrum of bacterial pathogens. Mineral-derived aqueous leachates also exhibited antibacterial activity, revealing that chemical, not physical, mineral characteristics were responsible for the observed activity. The chemical properties essential for bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli were probed by testing antibacterial activity in the presence of metal chelators, the hydroxyl radical scavenger, thiourea, and varying pH levels. Chelation of the BY07 minerals with EDTA or desferrioxamine eliminated or reduced BY07 toxicity, respectively, suggesting a role of an acid-soluble metal species, particularly Fe3+ or other sequestered metal cations, in mineral toxicity. This conclusion was supported by NMR relaxation data, which indicated that BY07 and CB07 leachates contained higher concentrations of chemically accessible metal ions than leachates from non-bactericidal mineral samples. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the acidic environment of the hydrated minerals significantly contributes to antibacterial activity by increasing the availability and toxicity of metal ions. These findings provide impetus for further investigation of the physiological effects of mineral products and their applications in complementary antibacterial therapies. PMID:20209160

  16. Sulfur Isotope Analysis of Minerals and Fluids in a Natural CO2 Reservoir, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Busch, A.; Turchyn, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting the security of geological CO2 storage sites requires an understanding of the geochemical behavior of the stored CO2, especially of fluid-rock reactions in reservoirs, caprocks and fault zones. Factors that may influence geochemical behavior include co-injection of sulfur gases along with the CO2, either in acid-gas disposal or as contaminants in CO2 storage sites, and microbial activity, such as bacterial sulfate reduction. The latter may play an important role in buffering the redox chemistry of subsurface fluids, which could affect toxic trace metal mobilization and transport in acidic CO2-rich fluids. These processes involving sulfur are poorly understood. Natural CO2-reservoirs provide natural laboratories, where the flow and reactions of the CO2-charged fluids and the activity of microbial communities are integrated over sufficient time-scales to aid prediction of long-term CO2 storage. This study reports on sulfur isotope analyses of sulfate and sulfide minerals in rock core and in CO2-charged fluids collected from a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoirs at Green River, Utah. Scientific drilling adjacent to a CO2-degassing normal fault to a depth of 325m retrieved core and fluid samples from two CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation caprock. Fluid samples were collected from CO2-charged springs that discharge through the faults. Sulfur exists as sulfate in the fluids, as sedimentary gypsum beds in the Carmel Formation, as remobilized gypsum veins within a fault damage zone in the Carmel Fm. and in the Entrada Sandstone, and as disseminated pyrite and pyrite-mineralized open fractures throughout the cored interval. We use the stable sulfur (δ34S) and oxygen (δ18OSO4) isotopes of the sulfate, gypsum, and pyrite to understand the source of sulfur in the reservoir as well as the timing of gypsum vein and pyrite formation. The hydration water of the gypsum is also reported to explore the

  17. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. The best way to ...

  18. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  19. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioabailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  20. Natural occurrence of hexavalent chromium in serpentinite hosted spring waters from Western Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Agostini, Samuele; Baneschi, Ilaria; Guidi, Massimo; Natali, Claudio; Tonarini, Sonia

    2013-04-01

    Although many heavy metals acts as micro-nutrients playing essential roles for all living organisms, most of them, when bioavailable in high concentrations, have to be considered potentially toxic. Some of them, such as Cr, and Ni are generally highly concentrated in all ultramafic rocks as well as in serpentines and their weathering products (soils and sediments), that largely outcrop in ophiolite belts, such as those of Central Italy. High Cr (VI) concentrations have been found in some spring waters associated with serpentinite outcrops and in Cecina Valley (Western Tuscany) soils, sediments and ground waters. Thus, we set up a multidisciplinary research program (RESPIRA) financed by Tuscany Region and by European Union, aimed to enhance the understanding of the weathering processes of serpentinite rocks in order to assess the mobility and hence the bioavailability of heavy and toxic metals such Ni and Cr in soils and namely to study the release and mobility of Cr with in the "critical zone" where rocks, soils, meteoric waters and atmospheric gasses interact. Sr-Pb isotopes of serpentinites suggest an interaction with recent, low-T, waters. Three isotopic end-members are identified in soils and sediments: serpentinites, marine limestones and tertiary siliciclastic rocks. Sr isotopic values of ground waters match with the higher values (87Sr/86Sr ≈ 0.7089 - 0.7092) of soils and sediments compositional range. Cr (VI) free and Cr (VI) bearing spring waters, spilling out from the serpentinite outcrops (Santa Luce, Querceto, Montecastelli), display Mg-HCO3 chemical composition 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7074 to 0.7084 (in the serpentinite range). Petrographic and minero-chemical analyses of both rocks and soil samples from the same sites, highlight the occurrence of secondary minerals containing significant Cr contents, such as chlorites (Cr2O3 from 2 to 8 wt%) that can easily release Cr(III). Nerveless the absence of Mn-oxides, considered the more common electron acceptors

  1. New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters. PMID:19297533

  2. [Influence of the ozonation on the elimination of arsenic from natural mineral water intended for bottling].

    PubMed

    Drobnik, Michał; Latour, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Mineral water--hydrogen carbonat-calcium naturally sparkling water--containing arsenic in concentration above 0.01 mg/dm3 was ozonated. There was experimentally determined the optimal ozonation parameters: ozone dose, a duration of the process and of the contact between ozone and water, concentration of dissolved ozon in water. There was, moreover, determined an exceeding of ozone residual permissible in the obligatory regulations for bottled mineral waters. PMID:17193745

  3. Natural Analog CCS Site Characterization Soda Springs, Idaho Implications for the Long-term Fate of Carbon Dioxide Stored in Geologic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLing, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Podgorney, R. K.; Taylor, J.

    2009-12-01

    at the site suggest that a significant amount of mineralization occurs as CO2 charged fluids migrate upward and contact the basalt cap rock. Additional sampling of both waters and associated host rocks are ongoing. Studies at natural analog sites such as Soda Springs hold promise as an approach to asses at field relevant time and length scales the expression of hydrogeochemical process and mechanism for large-scale geologic CCS activities.

  4. Selective mineralization of microbes in Fe-rich precipitates (jarosite, hydrous ferric oxides) from acid hot springs in the Waiotapu geothermal area, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Renaut, Robin W.

    2007-01-01

    A group of small springs that are informally called "Orange Spring", located near Hakereteke Stream in the northern part of the Waiotapu geothermal area, feed hot (˜ 80 °C), acidic (pH: 2.1 - 2.4), As-rich sulfate waters into a discharge channel that is up to 25 cm deep. Submerged reddish-brown precipitates on the channel floor are formed largely of noncrystalline As-rich hydrous ferric oxide (HFO: mainly goethite), poorly crystalline lepidocrocite, and crystalline jarosite. Well-preserved coccoid and rod-shaped microbes are found in the As-rich HFO, but not in the lepidocrocite or jarosite. The jarosite was probably precipitated when the water had a low pH (< 3) and high SO 4 content, whereas the goethite and lepidocrocite were probably precipitated when the water had a slightly higher pH (> 4) and lower SO 4 content. The fluctuations in the pH and SO 4 content, which led to precipitation of the different mineral phases, may reflect mixing of the spring water with stream water that flowed through the channel when Hakereteke Stream was in flood stage. The goethite probably formed when coccoid and rod-shaped bacteria ( Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans?) mediated rapid oxidization of the Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ that was then immediately coprecipitated with the As. Such rapid precipitation promoted mineralization of the microbes. The lack of mineralized microbes and the lower As in the lepidocrocite and jarosite may reflect precipitation rates that were slower than the decay rates of the microbes, or ecological factors that limited their growth.

  5. Magnetic properties of iron minerals produced by natural iron- and manganese-reducing groundwater bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kondratyeva, Lubov M.; Golubeva, Evgeniya M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Hori, Rie S.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the contribution of biogenic magnetic particles into sedimentary assemblages is a current challenge in palaeomagnetism. It has been demonstrated recently that magnetic particles produced through biologically controlled mineralization processes, such as magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria, contribute to the recording of natural remanent magnetization in marine and lacustrian sediments. Contributions from other, biologically induced, mineralization types, which are known from multiple laboratory experiments to include magnetic minerals, remain largely unknown. Here, we report magnetic properties of iron minerals formed by a community of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria isolated from a natural groundwater deposit during a 2 yr long incubation experiment. The main iron phases of the biomineralized mass are lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite, each of which has environmental significance. Unlike the majority of the previous studies that reported superparamagnetic grain size, and thus no remanence carrying capacity of biologically induced magnetite, hysteresis and first-order reversal curves measurements in our study have not detected significant superparamagnetic contribution. The biomineralized mass, instead, contains a mixture of single-domain to pseudo-single-domain and multidomain magnetite particles that are capable of carrying a stable chemical remanent magnetization. Isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition parameters and first-order reversal curves signatures of the biomineralized samples deviate from previously proposed criteria for the distinction of extracellular (biologically induced) magnetic particles in mixtures. Given its potential significance as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization, environmental requirements, distribution in nature and the efficiency in the geomagnetic field recording by biologically induced mineralization need comprehensive investigation.

  6. Magnetic properties of iron minerals produced by natural iron- and manganese-reducing groundwater bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kondratyeva, Lubov M.; Golubeva, Evgeniya M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Hori, Rie S.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the contribution of biogenic magnetic particles into sedimentary assemblages is a current challenge in paleomagnetism. It has been demonstrated recently that magnetic particles produced through biologically controlled mineralization processes, such as magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria, contribute to the recording of natural remanent magnetization in marine and lacustrian sediments. Contributions from other, biologically induced, mineralization types, which are known from multiple laboratory experiments to include magnetic minerals, remain largely unknown. Here, we report magnetic properties of iron minerals formed by a community of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria isolated from a natural groundwater deposit during a two year long incubation experiment. The main iron phases of the biomineralized mass are lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite, each of which has environmental significance. Unlike the majority of the previous studies that reported superparamagnetic grain size, and thus no remanence carrying capacity of biologically induced magnetite, hysteresis and first order reversal curves measurements in our study have not detected significant superparamagnetic contribution. The biomineralized mass, instead, contains a mixture of single-domain to pseudo-single-domain and multi-domain magnetite particles that are capable of carrying a stable chemical remanent magnetization. Isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition parameters and first order reversal curves signatures of the biomineralized samples deviate from previously proposed criteria for the distinction of extracellular (biologically induced) magnetic particles in mixtures. Given its potential significance as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization, environmental requirements, distribution in nature and the efficiency in the geomagnetic field recording by biologically induced mineralization need comprehensive investigation.

  7. [Provision of residents of the city of Kiev with vitamins C and B1. Effectiveness of a complex vitamin-mineral preparation in preventing spring vitamin deficiencies].

    PubMed

    Donchenko, G V; Parkhomenko, Iu M; Petrova, G V; Pilipchuk, S Iu; Poskripko, Iu A; Bachinskaia, N Iu

    2000-01-01

    The investigation was conducted on provision with vitamins C and B1 of Kyiv inhabitants limited contingent at spring period and efficiency of complex vitamin-mineral preparations in normalisation of the vitamins level in blood of human-subjects. The deficit of vitamin C in 54% and vitamin B1 in 18.5% of the investigated people was revealed. Supradin gave the best results among rest preparations ("Centrum", "Vitrum", "Duovit", "Multi-Tabs") in the normalization of the level of vitamin C and biologically-active form of thiamine (thiamindiphosphate) in the blood of investigated people. PMID:11392790

  8. Natural Mineral-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Heterogeneous Nanocomposite Derived from Hematite and Rare-Earth Minerals.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chen; Cai, Yixiao; Ma, Yue; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhang, Wei; Karlsson, Mikael; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Bin

    2016-08-17

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention worldwide because of their potential for providing clean and reliable electric power. However, their commercialization is subject to the high operating temperatures and costs. To make SOFCs more competitive, here we report a novel and attractive nanocomposite hematite-LaCePrOx (hematite-LCP) synthesized from low-cost natural hematite and LaCePr-carbonate mineral as an electrolyte candidate. This heterogeneous composite exhibits a conductivity as high as 0.116 S cm(-1) at 600 °C with an activation energy of 0.50 eV at 400-600 °C. For the first time, a fuel cell using such a natural mineral-based composite demonstrates a maximum power density of 625 mW cm(-2) at 600 °C and notable power output of 386 mW cm(-2) at 450 °C. The extraordinary ionic conductivity and device performances are primarily attributed to the heterophasic interfacial conduction effect of the hematite-LCP composite. These superior properties, along with the merits of ultralow cost, abundant storage, and eco-friendliness, make the new composite a highly promising material for commercial SOFCs. PMID:27483426

  9. [Determination of natural radioactive nuclides in the travertine samples from Tamagawa hot spring].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, T; Masumura, S; Takahashi, K; Sotobayashi, T

    1982-07-01

    The determination of natural radioactive nuclides was carried out for 7 travertine samples collected from Tamagawa hot spring by means of the non-distructive gamma-ray spectrometry and of the alpha-ray spectrometry. From the former measurements, the relative activity strength, due to 223Ra, 226Ra, and 228Th, and their ratios was obtained in comparison with the photopeak strength due to respective daughters, 228Ac, 214Bi, and 212Pb, and with the results from a monazite sand standard. One travertine sample was engaged to the alpha-ray spectrometric determination of Th isotopes after the chemical purification using a 234Th-yield tracer. On the basis of the resultant absolute content of 228Th, the 228Ra and 228Th contents in the remainder samples were evaluated to be the range of 3 approximately 80 Bq (81 approximately 2160 pCi)/g and 2 approximately 20 Bq (54 approximately pCi)/g respectively. These radioactive nuclides were verified to exist almost within a Hokutolite small crystals up to 90% and there are apparently the radioactive disequilibrium relations between 228Ra and 228Th among freshly deposited travertines. The presence of 227Ac in Hokutolite was also suggested from the detection of 227Th owing to 215Po-alpha peak. PMID:7178540

  10. Hydrofluoride decomposition of natural materials including zirconium-containing minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptash, N.; Maslennikova, I.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, interest in ammonium hydrogen difluoride (NH4HF2) as a versatile fluorinating agent for the decomposition of natural materials resumed. It is considered to be a new and more efficient than hydrofluoric acid (HF) reagent in analytical chemistry. Thermodynamically possible fluorination reactions with NH4HF2 are exothermic and proceed even at room temperature with the entropy reserve. The fluorination products are of high symmetry phases (tetragonal or cubic) with partial substitution of fluoride ion for oxide (or hydroxide). The fluorination of refractory silicate zircon (ZrSiO4) is kinetically hindered, and its complete decomposition requires the use of a Teflon autoclave at 200oC. The fluorination products are cubic (NH4)3Zr(OH)xF7-x (x ≤ 0.3) and tetragonal double salt (NH4)3SiF7, which can be separated due to incongruent sublimation of (NH4)2SiF6. The mechanism of the latter process is proposed.

  11. Function of minerals in the natural radioactivity level of Vaigai River sediments, Tamilnadu, India - Spectroscopical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, V.; Paramasivam, K.; Suresh, G.; Jose, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Using Gamma ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, level of natural radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and mineralogical characterization of Vaigai River sediments have been analyzed with the view of evaluating the radiation risk and its relation to available minerals. Different radiological parameters are calculated to know the entire radiological characterization. The average of activity concentrations and all radiological parameters are lower than the recommended safety limit. However, some sites are having higher radioactivity values than the safety limit. From the FTIR spectroscopic technique, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, gibbsite, calcite, montmorillonite and organic carbon are identified and they are characterized. The extinction co-efficient values are calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz and the result indicates that the presence of ordered crystalline quartz in the present sediment. The role of minerals in the level of radioactivity is assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and Cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables such as absorbed dose rate and concentrations of 232Th and 238U.

  12. Chemical Reactivity Probes for Assessing Abiotic Natural Attenuation by Reducing Iron Minerals.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dimin; Bradley, Miranda J; Hinkle, Adrian W; Johnson, Richard L; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2016-02-16

    Increasing recognition that abiotic natural attenuation (NA) of chlorinated solvents can be important has created demand for improved methods to characterize the redox properties of the aquifer materials that are responsible for abiotic NA. This study explores one promising approach: using chemical reactivity probes (CRPs) to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of contaminant reduction by reducing iron minerals. Assays of thermodynamic CRPs were developed to determine the reduction potentials (ECRP) of suspended minerals by spectrophotometric determination of equilibrium CRP speciation and calculations using the Nernst equation. ECRP varied as expected with mineral type, mineral loading, and Fe(II) concentration. Comparison of ECRP with reduction potentials measured potentiometrically using a Pt electrode (EPt) showed that ECRP was 100-150 mV more negative than EPt. When EPt was measured with small additions of CRPs, the systematic difference between EPt and ECRP was eliminated, suggesting that these CRPs are effective mediators of electron transfer between mineral and electrode surfaces. Model contaminants (4-chloronitrobenzene, 2-chloroacetophenone, and carbon tetrachloride) were used as kinetic CRPs. The reduction rate constants of kinetic CRPs correlated well with the ECRP for mineral suspensions. Using the rate constants compiled from literature for contaminants and relative mineral reduction potentials based on ECRP measurements, qualitatively consistent trends were obtained, suggesting that CRP-based assays may be useful for estimating abiotic NA rates of contaminants in groundwater. PMID:26814150

  13. Mineral-wool industry: opportunities for natural gas technologies. Topical report, January-July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    To quantify the opportunities for natural gas and identify technological advances needed to capture such opportunities, the mineral-wool industry was analyzed with respect to the principal companies, their capabilities, and markets. The mineral-wool industry is stable with a slightly declining market. Of its market segments, only commercial acoustic insulation (which is currently dominant) is likely to be affected by growth in the next ten years. The principal process is based on treatment of blast-furnace slags in a cupola furnace using coke as the fuel and reducing agent. Expanded use of gas, as a substitute for coke, would eliminate environmental problems and expand the latitude of suitable raw materials. The study provides insights into the mineral-wool industry and identifies factors that may constitute bases for future usage of natural gas.

  14. [New Strains of an Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Porphyrobacter donghaensis Isolated from a Siberian Thermal Spring and a Low-Mineralization Lake].

    PubMed

    Nuyanzina-Boldareva, E N; Akimova, V N; Takaiche, S; Gorlenko, V M

    2016-01-01

    A strain of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) isolated from the surface of a cyano- bacterial mat of an Eastern Siberian thermal spring (40 C) and designated Se 4 was identified as Porphyro- bacter donghaensis according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. A DNA-DNA hybridization level of 95% was determined between strain Se-4 and the type strain of this species; SW-132@T. The isolate was an obligate aerobe,. forming orange round colonies on solid media, which turn red in the course of growth. The cells were motile rods capable of branching. The cells divided by uniform fission by constriction. Optimal growth was observed at pH 7.5 and NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1 g/L. The pigments present were carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Another Porphyrobacter donghaensis strain, Noj- 1, isolated from a purple mat developing on the surface of a coastal set-up in a steppe low-mineralization (1.5 g/L) soda lake Nozhii (Eastern Siberia) possessed similar characteristics. Thus, the AAPB species Porphyrobacter donghaensis was shown to-occur, apart from its known habitat, marine environments, in low-mineralization soda lakes and freshwater thermal springs. Description of the species Porphyrobacter donghaensis was amended. PMID:27301129

  15. E-Alerts: Natural resources and earth sciences (mineral industries). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discusses industries and their processes that exploit metallic and nonmetallic, fuel and nonfuel resources, including: Coal mining, mining wastes, and acid mine drainage; Coal preparation; Petroleum exploration, drilling, and production; Metals exploration and mining; Exploration geophysics and seismology; Reserves; Mine safety; Mineral economics; Underwater and continental shelf mining; Natural resources studies (excluding Earth Resource Satellite Surveys).

  16. Distribution of arsenic and other minerals in rice plants affected by natural straighthead

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, an outbreak of naturally-occurring (non-chemically-induced) straighthead occurred in some rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield tests in Stuttgart, Arkansas. This straighthead occurrence provided an opportunity to examine the role of minerals in the disorder. Arsenical herbicides are often used to...

  17. [Contribution of natural mineral water to the iodine supply of the population].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, S; Stelz, A; Muskat, E

    1996-10-01

    Most parts of Germany are iodine deficiency areas. Daily iodine intake may be increased by food with high iodine content. Therefore determination of iodine in different foodstuffs is of importance. Aim of our work was to develop a method for mineral waters. Besides, we wanted to find out to what extent natural mineral waters can contribute to the iodine supply of the population. The method is based on the reaction of the halogenids iodide and bromide with ethylene oxide in a sulfuric acid medium while converting into 2-iodo- and 2-bromoethanol. After extraction, the reaction products are determined by capillary gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The method was modified for mineral waters. Single results were confirmed by ICP-MS. For mineral waters the limits of determination are 3 micrograms/L for iodide and 42 micrograms/L for bromide. The investigation of mineral waters from Hessen showed, that only few sources contain iodide in remarkable amounts. Therefore a considerable improvement of iodide intake is possible only with single mineral waters. PMID:9123969

  18. Effect of a natural mineral-rich water on catechol-O-methyltransferase function.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria João; Ribeiro, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a magnesium-dependent, catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme, whose impaired activity has been positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters has been shown to exert protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors, eg. by decreasing arterial blood pressure and blood lipids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. So, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of natural mineral-rich water ingestion upon liver and adrenal glands COMT expression and activity in Wistar Han rats. Over a seven-week period, animals had access to one of the following three drinking solutions: 1) tap water (control group; TW), 2) tap water with added Na(+) (to make the same concentration as in the MW group (TWNaCl group), or 3) natural mineral-rich water [Pedras Salgadas(®), which is very rich in bicarbonate, and with higher sodium, calcium and magnesium content than control tap water (MW group)]. COMT expression and activity were determined by RT-PCR and HPLC-ED, respectively. A higher hepatic COMT activity was found in the MW group compared with the TW and TWNaCl groups. On the other hand, adrenal gland COMT mRNA expression decreased in the MW group compared to TW group. In conclusion, the ability of natural mineral-rich waters to increase hepatic COMT activity may eventually explain the positive cardiovascular effects associated with the consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters. PMID:25560240

  19. [Influence of natural minerals on growth of Azotobacter vinelandii IMV B-7076].

    PubMed

    Chobotar'ov, A Iu; Hodiienko, A S; Kurdysh, I K

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that the cultivation of Azotobacter vinelandii IMV B-7076 in the presence of natural minerals significantly increased the growth of bacteria activity. Adding in the medium glauconite and saponite in optimal concentration (10 g/l) conditioned the increase of cell growth six and four times compared with control, accordingly. The maximum stimulating effect was observed when the concentration of phosphates was 5.0 g/l, herewith the number of viable cells increased 5 times. The presence of contact interaction of bacterial cells with investigated particles minerals was shown. PMID:21117294

  20. Natural soil mineral nanoparticles are novel sorbents for pentachlorophenol and phenanthrene removal.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Zeng, Fanfeng; Lian, Zhenghua; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-10-01

    Natural soil montmorillonite and kaolinite nanoparticles (NPs) were tested as efficient sorbents for organic contaminant (OC) removal through mimicking their natural environmental dispersive states. Sorption of both mineral NPs decreased with increasing pH with ionizable pentachlorophenol (PCP), but increased with pH with non-ionizable phenanthrene (PHE), within the pH range of 4-10. In contrast, sorption decreased consistently for both PCP and PHE, as a function of increasing ion concentration (0.001-0.1 mol L(-1)). Sorption differences were likely caused by the electrolytic conditions dependent upon surface chemistry of OCs and mineral NPs. The results confirmed that the highly dispersive soil mineral NPs would prevail over both engineered NPs and their regular μm-sized colloids for OC removal, due to their ecological advantages and higher sorption properties. This finding provided a realistic assessment of the environmental function of soil natural minerals in water once they are released from soil into OC polluted aqueous systems. PMID:26005862

  1. Isotope geochemistry of mercury in source rocks, mineral deposits and spring deposits of the California Coast Ranges, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.N.; Kesler, S.E.; Blum, J.D.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present here the first study of the isotopic composition of mercury in rocks, ore deposits, and active spring deposits from the California Coast Ranges, a part of Earth's crust with unusually extensive evidence of mercury mobility and enrichment. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence, which form the bedrock in the California Coast Ranges, are intruded and overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks including the Clear Lake Volcanic Sequence. These rocks contain two types of mercury deposits, hot-spring deposits that form at shallow depths (< 300??m) and silica-carbonate deposits that extend to depths of 1000??m. Active springs and geothermal areas continue to precipitate Hg and Au and are modern analogues to the fossil hydrothermal systems preserved in the ore deposits. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence contain clastic sedimentary rocks with higher concentrations of mercury than volcanic rocks of the Clear Lake Volcanic Field. Mean mercury isotopic compositions (??202Hg) for all three rock units are similar, although the range of values in Franciscan Complex rocks is greater than in either Great Valley or Clear Lake rocks. Hot spring and silica-carbonate mercury deposits have similar average mercury isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from averages for the three rock units, although ??202Hg values for the mercury deposits have a greater variance than the country rocks. Precipitates from spring and geothermal waters in the area have similarly large variance and a mean ??202Hg value that is significantly lower than the ore deposits and rocks. These observations indicate that there is little or no isotopic fractionation (< ?? 0.5???) during release of mercury from its source rocks into hydrothermal solutions. Isotopic fractionation does appear to take place during transport and concentration of mercury in deposits, however, especially in their uppermost parts. Boiling of hydrothermal fluids, separation of a mercury-bearing CO2 vapor

  2. Mineral Carbonation Potential of CO2 from Natural and Industrial-based Alkalinity Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, J.; Kirchofer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a Carbon Capture and Storage (CSS) technology where gaseous CO2 is reacted with alkaline materials (such as silicate minerals and alkaline industrial wastes) and converted into stable and environmentally benign carbonate minerals (Metz et al., 2005). Here, we present a holistic, transparent life cycle assessment model of aqueous mineral carbonation built using a hybrid process model and economic input-output life cycle assessment approach. We compared the energy efficiency and the net CO2 storage potential of various mineral carbonation processes based on different feedstock material and process schemes on a consistent basis by determining the energy and material balance of each implementation (Kirchofer et al., 2011). In particular, we evaluated the net CO2 storage potential of aqueous mineral carbonation for serpentine, olivine, cement kiln dust, fly ash, and steel slag across a range of reaction conditions and process parameters. A preliminary systematic investigation of the tradeoffs inherent in mineral carbonation processes was conducted and guidelines for the optimization of the life-cycle energy efficiency are provided. The life-cycle assessment of aqueous mineral carbonation suggests that a variety of alkalinity sources and process configurations are capable of net CO2 reductions. The maximum carbonation efficiency, defined as mass percent of CO2 mitigated per CO2 input, was 83% for CKD at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. In order of decreasing efficiency, the maximum carbonation efficiencies for the other alkalinity sources investigated were: olivine, 66%; SS, 64%; FA, 36%; and serpentine, 13%. For natural alkalinity sources, availability is estimated based on U.S. production rates of a) lime (18 Mt/yr) or b) sand and gravel (760 Mt/yr) (USGS, 2011). The low estimate assumes the maximum sequestration efficiency of the alkalinity source obtained in the current work and the high estimate assumes a sequestration efficiency

  3. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible. PMID:22652567

  4. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  5. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen concentrations and chlorine isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and δ37Cl values range from + 0.2 ‰ to + 1.9 ‰ (average = + 1.0 ± 0.4 ‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004, 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. δ37Cl values of the lavas range from -0.1 to + 0.8 ‰ (average = + 0.4 ± 0.3 ‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive δ37Cl values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with δ37Cl values > + 1.0 ‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor-liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid-rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through subduction zones.

  6. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  7. 9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  8. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    PubMed Central

    Schubotz, Florence; Hays, Lindsay E.; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R.; Gillespie, Aimee; Shock, Everett L.; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75–88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and “Bison Pool,” using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus, and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10–30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C-bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at “Bison Pool” and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20, and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at “Bison Pool” and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C-uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C-acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being sustained

  9. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Florence; Hays, Lindsay E; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Gillespie, Aimee; Shock, Everett L; Summons, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and "Bison Pool," using various (13)C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest (13)C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus, and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. (13)C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10-30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. (13)C-bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at "Bison Pool" and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20, and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of (13)C-formate occurred only at very low rates at "Bison Pool" and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. (13)C-uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with (13)C-acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being sustained by

  10. The effect of the mineral dissolution and deformation of slope stability on nature terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Chae, B.

    2012-12-01

    A landslide on nature terrane is mainly occurred by rainfall, snowmelt, earthquakes and rock/soil weathering process. Especially, the role of rainfall and rock/soil weathering in slope stability is very important because it causes decreased in shear strength by reducing the soil cohesion. Quartz is the most abundant crust-forming mineral on earth. This mineral contributes to the formation of crystalline rocks such as granite, gneiss, and sandstone. Therefore, in case of the slope consisted by granite, gneiss, and sandstone, the slope stability can be affected by the mineral weathering process such as mineral dissolution and deformation because the shear strength, one of the key factors to calculate the slope stability, can be reduced by mineral weathering. That is, mineral weathering including dissolution and deformation between the minerals can reduce the soil cohesion on nature terrane. Many studies have found that quartz exhibits a notably slow rate of dissolution at room temperature. Therefore, to achieve rapid dissolution at room temperature, other methods should be considered, including 1) expanding the surface area of quartz to increase the reaction area and 2) applying high pressure to the contact area of crystals to increase the dissolution rate. However, dissolution of the surface of quartz is difficult to observe when using powdered quartz to maximize the surface area. Therefore, we used beads and single quartz crystals to observe and analyze the dissolution of the surface. The former can be used to maximize the surface area of quartz, and high-pressure conditions can be applied to the latter. A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was subsequently used to observe the dissolution patterns on the quartz surface. Numerical analyses using the finite element method (FEM) were also performed to quantify the deformation of the contact area. Quartz dissolution was observed in both experiments. This deformation was due to a concentrated compressive stress

  11. The utilization natural mineral in the process of palm oil glycerolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujdalipah, Siti

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of glycerolysis currently has weakness, which uses a catalyst with a high price and performed at a high temperature. Indonesia is rich in minerals that have the potential to be used as a catalyst. Besides that, the solvent allows the glycerolysis reaction done in a low temperature so that it can maintain the quality of product. The purpose of this research is to study the influence of a type of solvent and a type of natural mineral to the chemistry and physical characteristic of palm oil glycerolysis product. The research activity consists of four steps. The first is the analysis of chemistry characteristics of palm oil. The second is the process of palm oil as the effect of a type of solvent and a type of natural mineral factors. The third is the analysis of chemistry and physical characteristics of glycerolysis product. The last is the analysis of data. Based on the analysis variant at α=0.05, it shows that type of solvent and type of natural mineral doesnot influence significantly to the ability of glycerolysis product in decreasing the water surface tension and to the free glycerol content. The best product is able to decrease the water surface tension from 44.933 dyne/cm to 29.00 dyne/cm. It contains the free glycerol content of 1.30%, 1-monoglyceride content of 43.10%, acid number of 0.146 mg KOH/g sample, and it has simillar fatty acid composition with the raw material.

  12. Mineral resource potential map of the Natural Area Roadless Area, Baker County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.; Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    The Natural Area Roadless Area, which is in the Osceola National Forest in Baker County, Fla., is underlain by sedimentary rocks containing phosphate deposits that are not a potential mineral resource by todays standards. The region has a low potential for oil and gas and virtually no potential for other valuable minerals. The phosphate deposits are either slightly low in tonnage and P2O5 content, high in MgO and/or Fe2O3 + Al2O3, or the ratio of CaO to P2O5 is too high for deposits that can be mined profitably at the present time. A low potential for oil and gas is indicated by the numerous dry holes in the region and the absence of the formations that contain these hydrocarbons in southern and westernmost Florida. The only mineral material that has been produced in the study area is clayey sand, used in stabilizing Forest Service roads. This type of clayey sand has no particular value because there are virtually unlimited quantities in the surrounding region. The peaty material in the area is too high in ash content to be mined. Large quantities of limestone underlie the area but are too deeply buried to be quarried. Heavy-mineral and clay deposits, which are mined elsewhere in northern peninsular Florida, are not present in the study area.

  13. [Antibacterial nature of medicinal ointments, based on Georgian mineral waters in treatment of generalized periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Gasviani, E N; Chikviladze, D P; Iverieli, M V; Iavich, P A; Mikeladze, M L

    2007-04-01

    The goal of the work was to determine antibacterial nature of the medicinal ointments (N1 - "Achtala"; N2 - "Sairme", N3 - "Tschaltubo", N4 "Amagleba") based on Georgian mineral waters and containing bio-active extracts. The goal of the work was to determine antibacterial nature of the medicinal ointments (N1 - "Achtala"; N2 - "Sairme", N3 - "Tschaltubo", N4 "Amagleba") based on Georgian mineral waters and containing bio-active extracts. The investigation was done in purpose to determine microbial structure of oral cavity of the 80 patients with chronic generalized periodontitis, as a result was confirmed, that microbial structure of these patients was rather heterogeneous and is presented by different aerobe, microaerophil and anaerobe microbial flora. The sensitivity, resistance, of isolated microorganisms, was studied to modern groups of antibiotics. Results of investigations are: high antibacterial activities of ointments, prepared on mineral waters of Georgia. So, it can be recommended for usage in treatment schedule for patients with chronic generalized periodontitis. PMID:17525497

  14. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  15. The effect of natural sand grains and associated mineral changes on methane hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeschen, K. U.; Schicks, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The highest gas hydrate saturations and possible energy resource targets are bound to sandy sediments. However, investigations regarding the influence of natural sand particles on gas hydrate formation are rare and almost missing with regards to the particle size effect of different grain size ranges of sand on the gas hydrate kinetics. Comparative investigations commonly use arbitrary sized sands and clay minerals. In addition, sand grains are often represented using glass beads or pure quartz grains instead of natural samples where additional effects from mineral compositions and coatings might occur. However, understanding the kinetics of hydrate formation in sand forms yet another foundation for a successful scale-up model of the production of natural gas hydrate reservoirs, where reformation of hydrates may occur under non-equilibrium conditions. We investigated the particle size effect of sand on methane hydrate formation kinetics using five different grain size ranges of Ottawa sand, a rather pure quartz sand. Conditions of the static and small-volume experiments were far within the methane hydrate stability (7 MPa/1°C). Pressure and temperature recording as well as microscopic and Raman spectroscopic observations could verify methane hydrate formation and growth. For the chosen experimental setup there is a strong particle size effect on the kinetics of gas hydrate formation. A high concentration of the finest range (< 125μm) has led to an explicitly faster hydrate formation compared to coarser sand or a small fraction of fine particles diluted in coarse sand grains. This is in contrast to the decrease of thermodynamic driving forces in the presence of fine sized particles given equilibrium conditions. The promoting kinetic effect of the mineral surface properties might be related to the impact of the surface area as well as crystal structures, and/or electrical charge since small fractions of natural sands commonly encounter different mineral

  16. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  17. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  18. Gain high-quality colloidal quantum dots directly from natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Tian; Liu, Hui; Dong, Chao; Zheng, Wen-Jing; Han, Li-Li; Li, Lan; Qiao, Shi-Zhang; Yang, Jing; Du, Xi-Wen

    2015-03-01

    Green and simple synthesis of high-quality colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is of great importance and highly anticipated yet not fully implemented. Herein, we achieve the direct conversion of natural minerals to highly uniform, crystalline lead sulfide CQDs based on laser irradiation in liquid. The trivial fragmentation of mineral particles by an intense nanosecond laser was found to create a localized high degree of monomer supersaturation in oleic acid, initiating the LaMer growth of uniform CQDs. The photoconductive device made of these CQDs exhibits a competitive temporal response of photocurrent with those highly sensitive photodetectors based on PbS CQDs reported in the literature. Our synthesis strategy paves the way for the most environmentally friendly and convenient mass production of high-quality uniform CQDs. PMID:25689447

  19. Natural calcium isotonic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skulan, J.; Bullen, T.; Anbar, A.D.; Puzas, J.E.; Shackelford, L.; LeBlanc, A.; Smith, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether changes in the natural isotopic composition of calcium in human urine track changes in net bone mineral balance, as predicted by a model of calcium isotopic behavior in vertebrates. If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques. Methods: Calcium isotopic compositions are expressed as ??44Ca, or the difference in parts per thousand between the 44Ca/40Ca of a sample and the 44Ca/ 40Ca of a standard reference material. ??44Ca was measured in urine samples from 10 persons who participated in a study of the effectiveness of countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight, in which 17 weeks of bed rest was used to induce bone loss. Study participants were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: controls received no treatment, one treatment group received alendronate, and another group performed resistive exercise. Measurements were made on urine samples collected before, at 2 or 3 points during, and after bed rest. Results: Urine ??44Ca values during bed rest were lower in controls than in individuals treated with alendronate (P <0.05, ANOVA) or exercise (P <0.05), and lower than the control group baseline (P <0.05, Mest). Results were consistent with the model and with biochemical and bone mineral density data. Conclusion: Results confirm the predicted relationship between bone mineral balance and calcium isotopes, suggesting that calcium isotopic analysis of urine might be refined into a clinical and research tool. ?? 2007 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Forecasting for natural avalanches during spring opening of Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reardon, Blase; Lundy, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The annual spring opening of the Going-to-the-Sun Road in Glacier National Park presents a unique avalanche forecasting challenge. The highway traverses dozens of avalanche paths mid-track in a 23-kilometer section that crosses the Continental Divide. Workers removing seasonal snow and avalanche debris are exposed to paths that can produce avalanches of destructive class 4. The starting zones for most slide paths are within proposed Wilderness, and explosive testing or control are not currently used. Spring weather along the Divide is highly variable; rain-on-snow events are common, storms can bring several feet of new snow as late as June, and temperature swings can be dramatic. Natural avalanches - dry and wet slab, dry and wet loose, and glide avalanches - present a wide range of hazards and forecasting issues. This paper summarizes the forecasting program instituted in 2002 for the annual snow removal operations. It focuses on tools and techniques for forecasting natural wet snow avalanches by incorporating two case studies, including a widespread climax wet slab cycle in 2003. We examine weather and snowpack conditions conducive to wet snow avalanches, indicators for instability, and suggest a conceptual model for wet snow stability in a northern intermountain snow climate.

  1. Degradation and total mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls in natural sediment and mixed bacterial culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, H L; Sayler, G S

    1983-01-01

    Mixed bacterial cultures obtained from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river sediments are capable of degrading monohalogenated biphenyls under simulated natural conditions. Culture conditions include river water as supportive medium and mixed bacterial cultures obtained from river sediments. Degradation occurs when the substrates are supplied as the sole carbon source or when added together with glucose. The degradation rates of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, at 30 micrograms ml-1, were 1.1, 1.6, and 2.0 micrograms ml-1 day-1, respectively. Monobrominated biphenyls, including 2-, 3-, and 4-bromobiphenyl, were degraded at rates of 2.3, 4.2, and 1.4 micrograms ml-1 day-1, respectively. Metabolites, including halogenated benzoates, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. By using chlorophenyl ring-labeled monochlorobiphenyls as substrates, total mineralization (defined as CO2 production from the chlorophenyl ring) was observed for 4-chlorobiphenyl but not for 2-chlorobiphenyl. Rates of total mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl (at 39 to 385 micrograms ml-1 levels) were dependent on substrate concentration, whereas variation of cell number in the range of 10(5) to 10(7) cells ml-1 had no significant effects. Simulated sunlight enhanced the rate of mineralization by ca. 400%. PMID:6639021

  2. Natural Mineral Particles Are Cytotoxic to Rainbow Trout Gill Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Capitani, Christian; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Pietsch, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide increases in fluvial fine sediment are a threat to aquatic animal health. Fluvial fine sediment is always a mixture of particles whose mineralogical composition differs depending on the sediment source and catchment area geology. Nonetheless, whether particle impact in aquatic organisms differs between mineral species remains to be investigated. This study applied an in vitro approach to evaluate cytotoxicity and uptake of four common fluvial mineral particles (quartz, feldspar, mica, and kaolin; concentrations: 10, 50, 250 mg L−1) in the rainbow trout epithelial gill cell line RTgill-W1. Cells were exposed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cytotoxicity assays for cell membrane integrity (propidium iodide assay), oxidative stress (H2DCF-DA assay), and metabolic activity (MTT assay) were applied. These assays were complemented with cell counts and transmission electron microscopy. Regardless of mineral species, particles ≤2 µm in diameter were taken up by the cells, suggesting that particles of all mineral species came into contact and interacted with the cells. Not all particles, however, caused strong cytotoxicity: Among all assays the tectosilicates quartz and feldspar caused sporadic maximum changes of 0.8–1.2-fold compared to controls. In contrast, cytotoxicity of the clay particles was distinctly stronger and even differed between the two particle types: mica induced concentration-dependent increases in free radicals, with consistent 1.6–1.8-fold-changes at the 250 mg L−1 concentration, and a dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Kaolin caused concentration-dependent increases in cell membrane damage, with consistent 1.3–1.6-fold increases at the 250 mg L−1 concentration. All effects occurred in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell numbers per se were marginally affected. Results indicate that (i.) natural mineral particles can be cytotoxic to gill epithelial cells, (ii.) their cytotoxic potential differs between mineral species

  3. The prediction of borate mineral equilibria in natural waters: Application to Searles Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Weare, John H.

    1986-12-01

    The chemical equilibrium model of HARVIEet al. (1984) has been extended to include borate species. The model is based upon the semi-empirical equations of PITZER (1973) and coworkers and is valid to high ionic strength (≈14 m) and high borate concentration. Excellent agreement with the existing emf, isopiestic and solubility data in the system (Na-K-Ca-Mg-H-Cl-SO4-CO2-B(OH)4-H2O) is obtained. Calculated mineral solubilities are in general within 10% of their experimental values, even at high ionic strengths. The model was applied to the multicomponent, high ionic strength (I ~ 10) and high borate concentration (BT ~ 0.5 m) Searles Lake evaporite deposit. Utilizing the chemical composition of the interstitial brine, the model predicts equilibrium between the brine and only those minerals which are known to be in contact with the brine. These calculations clearly demonstrate the applicability of the model to high ionic strength, high borate concentration natural waters. The model was also utilized to calculate the mineral sequences which should result from evaporation of the major source of water for Searles Lake, the Owens River. The geochemical conditions necessary for the formation of the most recent mud and saline units are examined. The final results indicate that the mineral sequences found in the most recent saline unit in Searles Lake can be produced by evaporation of a water close in composition to present Owens River water, provided primary dolomite formation is delayed and back reaction between the Parting Mud and the Upper Salt is inhibited.

  4. Spring Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Veach, Eric R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1998-10-01

    For the fourth consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A screw trap was used to collect emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Uncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 25 to June 27, 1997. A total of 270 natural chinook salmon, 10,616 hatchery chinook salmon, 864 natural steelhead trout (and 13 natural steelhead parr), and 7,345 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during emigration studies on the Imnaha River. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low: 0.37% for natural chinook, 0.11% for hatchery chinook, 0.11% for natural steelhead, and 0.39% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Natural chinook salmon smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River from February 25 to June 10 and had a mean length of 108 mm, average weight of 13 g, and mean condition factor of 1.02. The peak period of natural chinook smolt emigration, based on number of fish collected, occurred between March 25 and April 30. Hatchery reared chinook salmon smolts were collected from April 9 to May 9, with 99% of the smolts being caught within 10 days after release. Hatchery chinook smolts mean length, weight, and condition factor were 131 mm, 25.4 g, and 1.12, respectively. Emigration of natural steelhead smolts in the Imnaha River occurred between March 14 and June 25. Peak emigration occurred from May 1 to May 15. Natural steelhead smolts averaged 175 mm in fork length, 55.8 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 1 .OO. Hatchery steelhead smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River between April 15 and June 27. Hatchery steelhead smolts averaged 210 mm in fork length, 88 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 0.93. Spring runoff water conditions in 1997 provided above average flows for emigrating anadromous salmonid smolts. Imnaha River mean daily discharge during spring emigration ranged from 7

  5. XAFS And Molecular Dynamics Study of Natural Minerals, Analogues of Ceramics for Nuclear Waste Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Harfouche, M.; Farges, F.; Crocombette, J.P.; Flank, A.M.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    Natural actinides (U and Th) are harmful for the crystalline structure of natural minerals, due to their irradiation. Natural minerals can then become amorphous to x-ray diffraction ('metamict') after being irradiated throughout a long period of time (10{sup 8} years). Then, they are used as natural analogues of ceramics for nuclear waste storage. XAFS studies were performed in zircon, monazite and titanite to understand the effect of radiation damage on the local structure around Th, U, Zr and P and compared to available molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In zircon, a local expansion around actinides (when substituting for Zr) is found. The radial expansion is a function of the metamictisation degree: up to {approx}4 {angstrom} in crystalline zircon and larger in the metamict counterparts. Ab-initio calculations (FEFF7) were performed around Zr ({approx}23000 sites) and around U (1000 to 3000 sites) in various crystalline and alpha-decay damaged zircon MD simulations. The calculated averaged EXAFS spectra confirms this expansion, which validates the use of the potentials used in the simulations as well as the alpha decay damage model considered in these MD simulations. Tetravalent actinides were found to be 8-coordinated in the undamaged structure, whereas their coordination drops to 7 in the damaged structures. In contrast to zircon, no local expansion around actinides in monazite was detected, despite some polymerization around P is measured (related to radiation damage). Finally, in some phases (such as titanite), actinides are found as oxyde-type clusters (ThO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}). Consequently, actinides do not 'systematically' substitute for major actions in these structure, in contrast to the common belief in mineralogy.

  6. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  7. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to <1 mg/L, SO4 increased from 162 to 314 mg/L, dissolved Fe increased from to 0.011 to 0.596 mg/L, and dissolved Zn increased from 0.056 to 0.607 mg/L. Compared to mine drainage in the same study areas, the chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to

  8. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status to date January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during the fifth year (1997) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role of the Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). Staffing issues this year have been a challenge with the resignation of an Environmental Specialist (ES) in June 1997, and the death of Robert Stovall, an Environmental Engineer (EE) II in August 1997. Progress made during this period includes securing a contract laboratory, participation in several workgroup meetings for activities at the site, oversight of the Feasibility Study/Proposed Plan (FS/PP), coordination between the US Department of Energy and the various State regulatory programs and interactions with the local public drinking water supply agency and health departments.

  9. Natural Radionuclides In Mineral Sand Products From A Processing Plant In Northeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Hazin, C. A.; Khoury, H. J.; Silveira, S. V.

    2008-08-07

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation carried out in a mineral sand processing plant located in the coastal region of Northeastern Brazil. The study aimed to determine the natural radionuclide content of the mineral products extracted from beach sands, with special emphasis on zircon. Measurements were performed through gamma spectrometry, by using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined by measuring some of the radon progeny activity concentrations ({sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ac and {sup 208}Tl for {sup 228}Ra) and assuming an equilibrium condition upstream of the radon progeny. The results of the measurements carried out for the zircon samples showed activity concentrations ranging from 18.09 to 48.51 kBq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra. The results for {sup 228}Ra, on the other hand, were consistently lower than those obtained for {sup 226}Ra, ranging from 2.72 to 18.31 kBq kg{sup -1}.

  10. Hydrochemical processes and metal composition of Ain Umm-Sabah natural spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Naeem, Ahmed A

    2008-01-15

    This study was carried out to determine the hydro-chemical processes and the metal concentration of spring water to evaluate its suitability for irrigation and other purposes. A total of 10 water samples were collected from Ain Umm Sabah at different times and from different locations from the spring basin. EC (dS m(-1)), pH, temperature, total cations (Na, Ca, Mg, K) and anions [Cl, CO3, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Fluoride (F)] were determined. Some trace and heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, B, Br, Mo, Ni, Si, Cd, Cu, V, Fe, I, Pb, Mn, Zn, Sr, Se, Sb, La and Se were determined. The Spring water is classified as C4S2 (high salinity with medium sodicity problem water). Chloride (Cl) and nitrate (NO3) concentrations were higher than the permissible limits according to World Health Organization Standards. The Ain Umm Sabah water is Na-Cl dominant water and can create soil sodicity problems and cause Na and Cl ion toxicity to plants if used for irrigation of sensitive crops. The spring water is under-saturated (negative SI) with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, fluorite and aragonite and oversaturated (positive SI) with respect to goethite, siderite and hematite minerals. The concentration of all the estimated trace metals was within the permissible limits for its use as drinking water and other purposes according to WHO. Since the spring water contains high concentration of NO3, hence can not be used for drinking purposes without prior treatment. The study findings suggest careful use and pumping of water from the spring. Further studies are required on regular basis to monitor the depletion in the spring water level and the temporal change in water salinity. PMID:18817197

  11. Valence band gaps and plasma energies for galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite natural minerals using differential optical reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoran, R.; Todoran, D.; Szakacs, Zs.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the determinations of the valence band gaps and plasma energies of the galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite natural minerals. The work was carried out using differential optical reflectance spectroscopy of the clean mineral surfaces. The determination of the optical properties such as refractive index, real part of the complex dielectric constant and the location of certain van Hove singularities, was carried out using the Kramers-Kronig formalism.

  12. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers for some natural minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, I.; Demir, L.; Şahin, M.

    2009-09-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ m) for SiO 2 {Quartz (1 1 0 1), Quartz (1 1 0 0) and Quartz (0 0 0 1)}, KAlSi 3O 8 {Orthoclase (0 1 0), Orthoclase (1 0 0)}, CaSO 4·2H 2O (gypsum), FeS 2 (pyrite) and Mg 2Si 2O 6 (pyroxene) natural minerals were measured at 22.1, 25.0, 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The γ- and X-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Atomic and electronic cross sections ( σ t and σ e), the effective atomic and electron numbers or electron densities ( Z eff and N eff) were determined using the obtained μ m values for investigated samples.

  13. Magnetic exchange bias of more than 1 Tesla in a natural mineral intergrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Carter-Stiglitz, Brian; Harrison, Richard J.; Robinson, Peter; Fabian, Karl; McCammon, Catherine

    2007-10-01

    Magnetic exchange bias is a phenomenon whereby the hysteresis loop of a `soft' magnetic phase is shifted by an amount HE along the applied field axis owing to its interaction with a `hard' magnetic phase. Since the discovery of exchange bias fifty years ago, the development of a general theory has been hampered by the uncertain nature of the interfaces between the hard and soft phases, commonly between an antiferromagnetic phase and a ferro- or ferrimagnetic phase. Exchange bias continues to be the subject of investigation because of its technological applications and because it is now possible to manipulate magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Here we present the first documented example of exchange bias of significant magnitude (>1 T) in a natural mineral. We demonstrate that exchange bias in this system is due to the interaction between coherently intergrown magnetic phases formed through a natural process of phase separation during slow cooling over millions of years. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that these intergrowths have a known crystallographic orientation with a known crystallographic structure and that the interfaces are coherent.

  14. Glass and mineral analyses from first deposits of Peach Spring Supereruption (SW USA) illuminate initial tapping of a zoned magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccracken, R. G.; Miller, C. F.; Buesch, D.; Gualda, G. A.; Covey, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Peach Spring supereruption (18.78±0.02 Ma) was sourced from Silver Creek caldera in the southern Black Mountains, Arizona (Ferguson et al. in press). The resulting ignimbrite, the Peach Spring Tuff (PST), blanketed >32,000 km2 of Arizona, California, and Nevada (Buesch, 1993). Underlying the ignimbrite is a thin (≤ 1m thick) basal layered deposit that consists of texturally distinct layers 1a-e (Valentine et al. 1989) and is present up to ~100 km from the source caldera. Basal layered deposits contain the first material erupted during the PST supereruption, preceding the main eruption event. Petrography and geochemistry of minerals and pumice clasts from basal layered deposits collected ~15-100 km from the caldera, combined with a survey of glass and crystal compositions from both outflow and basal deposits, permit (1) comparisons with the overlying ignimbrite, and (2) insights into the initial stages of the supereruption and extraction of magma from the chamber. Pumice clasts from a pumice-rich layer (1a2) of the basal deposit were characterized by LA-ICPMS and SEM. Unaltered glass has a uniform high-Si rhyolite composition (76.7% SiO2, 13.0% Al2O3, 3.6% Na2O, 5.3% K2O, 0.6% FeO, <0.1% MgO, 0.6% CaO, 0.1% TiO2). Mildly altered glass is similar but has lower Na2O and higher K2O. Pumice clasts are relatively crystal poor (<10% phenocrysts) with an assemblage dominated by sanidine (~Or55Ab43An2), with lesser plagioclase (~Ab73An19Or8), minor hornblende and biotite, and accessory magnetite, sphene, zircon, chevkinite, and apatite; no quartz was identified. Initial LA-ICPMS results for glass reveal REE patterns with large negative Gd (0.21: i.e. U-shaped REE pattern) and Eu (0.31) anomalies, very low Ba and Sr (≤10 ppm), and high Rb (~250 ppm). These compositions are essentially identical to those of the most common pumice from distal outflow ignimbrite, but very different from crystal-rich (>30%) trachyte pumice that dominates the intracaldera fill and is

  15. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu mineralized thermal springs, Krşehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünsal, N.; Afşin, M.

    1999-12-01

    The present study identifies the hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu mineralized thermal springs in Krşehir province, a geothermal field in central Anatolia, Turkey. Based on these properties, a hydrogeological regime is proposed in order to explain the Mahmutlu-Bağdatoğlu geothermal system. The relation between the concentrations of the environmental stable isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18 in the water is similar to the relationship in global meteoric water, indicating that the water is of meteoric origin. Evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the water reveals that these two thermal springs belong to the same hydrogeological system. The hydrogeological system comprises a fractured limestone member of the Çevirme Formation and the Kervansaray Formation as reservoir rocks, and the Delicermak Formation as an overlying aquitard. The waters of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu springs are mainly of the Na-Cl-SO4 type that originate from the Pohrenk evaporite. The thermal waters are undersaturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, halite, and gypsum. The δ18O and δ2H contents indicate a δ18O shift in the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu waters. The temperature range of the two reservoirs is estimated to be 98-158 °C, on the basis of Na+K+Ca and SiO2 geothermometers. RésuméCette étude présente les caractéristiques chimiques et isotopiques des sources thermales minéralisées de Mahmutlu et de Bağdatoğlu, dans la province de Krşehir, un champ géothermal d'Anatolie centrale (Turquie). Un fonctionnement hydrogéologique est proposéà partir de ces caractéristiques, permettant d'expliquer le système géothermal de Mahmatlu-Bağdatoğlu. La relation entre les teneurs en deutérium et celles en oxygène-18 des eaux est semblable à celle des eaux météoriques mondiales, ce qui indique que l'eau est d'origine météorique. Les caractéristiques géochimiques des eaux de ces deux sources montrent qu'elles appartiennent au

  16. Trends and Natural Variability of Spring Onset in the Coterminous United States as Evaluated by a New Gridded Dataset of Spring Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, T.; Schwartz, M. D.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Weltzin, J. F.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is expected to modify the timing of seasonal transitions this century, impacting wildlife migrations, ecosystem function, and agricultural activity. Tracking seasonal transitions in a consistent manner across space and through time requires indices that can be used for monitoring and managing biophysical and ecological systems during the coming decades. Here a new gridded dataset of spring indices is described and used to understand interannual, decadal, and secular trends across the coterminous US. This dataset is derived from daily interpolated meteorological data, and results are compared with historical station data to ensure the trends and variations are robust. Regional trends in the first leaf index range from -0.8 to -1.6 days per decade, while first bloom index trends are between -0.4 and -1.2 for most regions. However, these trends are modulated by interannual to multidecadal variations, which are substantial throughout the regions considered here. These findings emphasize the important role large-scale climate modes of variability play in modulating spring onset on interannual to multidecadal timescales. Finally, there is some potential for successful sub-seasonal forecasts of spring onset, as indices from most regions are significantly correlated with antecedent large-scale modes of variability.

  17. Mapping of natural and man-made groundwater mineralization by helicopter-borne electromagnetics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, A.; Siemon, B.; Meyer, U.

    2010-12-01

    Helicopter-borne electromagnetics (HEM) is an important tool for hydrogeological questions. HEM investigations enable the differentiation of sandy and clayey sediments as well as saltwater and freshwater saturated sediments down to about 150 meters depth. The frequency-domain HEM system operated at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) is the RESOLVE system manufactured by Fugro Airborne Surveys. In 2008 and 2009, BGR conducted airborne geophysical measurements for saltwater-freshwater investigation at several survey areas at the German North Sea coast. The surveys were carried out in cooperation with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (LIAG) in frame of the project D-AERO. One of these survey areas covers the estuary of the Elbe river to the north-west of the city of Hamburg. Parts of the results of this survey are involved in the project KLIMZUG-NORD, where the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg investigates the environmental effects of the climate change on the estuary of the Elbe river. The HEM measurements reveal both the course of the Geest ridge (high-lying hinterland consisting of pleistocenic moraine sediments) and the swamp belt due to their elevated resistivities, whereas the Marsch land (plain holocenic wet land, alluvium) occurred more conductive. Here, an electrical conductivity anomaly was detected witch could neither be related with seawater intrusion nor with anthropogenic sources. The significant low-resistivity zone of about three square kilometers was identified as a saltwater-rising zone by water analyses of surface water and is an example for natural groundwater mineralization. A man-made groundwater mineralization was investigated by HEM in the Werra river valley in central Germany. About 1000 million cubic meters saline waste water from potash mining have been stored in a karstic limestone and dolomite bed to reduce the amount of saline water emissions directly into the river. BGR conducted surveys in

  18. The effect of different extractants on lead desorption from a natural mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Đolić, Maja B.; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N.; Marković, Jelena P.; Janković-Mandić, Ljiljana J.; Mitrić, Miodrag N.; Onjia, Antonije E.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V.

    2015-01-01

    Natural minerals, such as quartz, clinoptilolite and calcite, are useful as sorbents for various applications, but their content of heavy metals ions is the most problematic obstacle to their application. Before their (re)use, the minerals must be purified. In this work, the subject was desorption of lead from a natural multi-component mineral sample consisting of a mixture of silicates (mainly quartz and clinoptilolite) and calcite formations. Besides deionized water, different extraction solutions were tested: NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, HCl, HNO3, EDTA, EDTA/HCl, EDTA/NaOAc-HOAc, HOAc, NaOAc and NaOAc-HOAc. Several parameters were varied in order to obtain the optimal conditions for the desorption process: the concentration of the extraction solution, the ratio of the mass of the sample and volume of the extractant, and the pH value of the suspension. The best purification effect in one desorption cycle was obtained when 0.1 M EDTA, at a pH value of 3.5 (0.2 M EDTA was mixed with 0.01 M acetic buffer, at pH value 3.0, in ratio 1:1) was applied. Sequential extraction (5 consecutive iterations) was performed to provide a more efficient purification process. The lead content (58.20 mg/kg) was decreased by: 20% (using HOAc), 21% (using EDTA) and by more than 50% (using EDTA/NaOAc-HOAc). The pH value and conductivity were measured at all critical points to clarify the mechanism of the desorption process. The formation of Pb-EDTA complex is the result of two parallel phenomena, complexing and ion-exchange. An enhanced adsorption capacity and an improved microelement profile for the purified samples were also attained. The mineralogical and radiochemical performances of the sample were determined by the X-ray diffraction and gamma spectrometry techniques. Microelement analyses of the native and purified samples were performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).

  19. The American Museum of Natural History Mineral Library for Spectroscopic Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissinboim, A.; Ebel, D. S.; Harlow, G. E.; Boesenberg, J. S.; Sherman, K. M.; Lewis, E. R.; Brusentsova, T. N.; Peale, R. E.; Lisse, C. M.; Hibbitts, C. A.

    2010-03-01

    Minerals from the AMNH collections are highly characterized (crystal XRD, EMPA), powdered <2 µm, reanalyzed (SEM, powder XRD), and transmission IR spectra analyzed for Herschel PACS. Library minerals will also serve reflectance spectra needs.

  20. Springs of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenau, Jack C.; Faulkner, Glen L.; Hendry, Charles W., Jr.; Hull, Robert W.

    1977-01-01

    The first comprehensive report of Florida's springs, which contains both a story of the springs and a collection of facts about them, was published thirty years ago (Ferguson and others, 1947). Since then, much additional data on springs have been gathered and the current report, Springs of Florida, makes a wealth of information on springs available to the public. Springs of Florida, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources, publishers, and the Bureau of Water Resources Management, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, is intended to provide sufficient background information for a lucid understanding of the nature and occurrence of the springs in the State.

  1. New time-resolved micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy of natural and synthetic analogue minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panczer, G.; Ollier, N.; Champagnon, B.; Gaft, M.

    2003-04-01

    Minerals as well as geomaterials often present light emissions under UV or visible excitations. This property called photoluminescence is due to low concentration impurities such as the rare earths, the transition elements and the lanthanides. The induced color is used for ore prospection but only spectroscopic analyses indicate the nature of the emitted centers. However natural samples contained numerous luminescent centers simultaneously and with regular steady-state measurements (such as in cathodoluminescence) all the emissions are often over lapping. In order to record the contributions of each separate center, it is possible to use time-resolved measurements based on the decay time of the emissions and using pulsed laser excitation. Some characteristic examples will be presented on apatites, zircons as well as gemstones. Geomaterials present as well micro scale heterogeneities (growth zoning, inclusions, devitrification, microphases...). Precise identification and optical effects of such heterogeneities have to be taken into account. To reach the microscale using photo luminescence studies, a microscope has be modified to allowed pulsed laser injection (from UV to visible), beam focus with micro scale resolution on the sample (<10 μm), as well as time resolved collection of micro fluorescence. Such equipment allows now undertaking time-resolved measurements of microphases. Applications on geomaterials will be presented.

  2. Function of minerals in the natural radioactivity level of Vaigai River sediments, Tamilnadu, India--spectroscopical approach.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Paramasivam, K; Suresh, G; Jose, M T

    2014-01-01

    Using Gamma ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, level of natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) and mineralogical characterization of Vaigai River sediments have been analyzed with the view of evaluating the radiation risk and its relation to available minerals. Different radiological parameters are calculated to know the entire radiological characterization. The average of activity concentrations and all radiological parameters are lower than the recommended safety limit. However, some sites are having higher radioactivity values than the safety limit. From the FTIR spectroscopic technique, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, gibbsite, calcite, montmorillonite and organic carbon are identified and they are characterized. The extinction co-efficient values are calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz and the result indicates that the presence of ordered crystalline quartz in the present sediment. The role of minerals in the level of radioactivity is assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and Cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables such as absorbed dose rate and concentrations of (232)Th and (238)U. PMID:24001975

  3. A natural mineral supplement provides relief from knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Frestedt, Joy L; Walsh, Melanie; Kuskowski, Michael A; Zenk, John L

    2008-01-01

    Background This small, pilot study evaluated the impact of treatment with a natural multi-mineral supplement from seaweed (Aquamin) on walking distance, pain and joint mobility in subjects with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Subjects (n = 70) with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to four double-blinded treatments for 12 weeks: (a) Glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg/d); (b) Aquamin (2400 mg/d); (c) Combined treatment composed of Glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg/d) plus Aquamin (2400 mg/d) and (d) Placebo. Primary outcome measures were WOMAC scores and 6 Minute Walking Distances (6 MWD). Laboratory based blood tests were used as safety measures. Results Fifty subjects completed the study and analysis of the data showed significant differences between the groups for changes in WOMAC pain scores over time (p = 0.009 ANCOVA); however, these data must be reviewed with caution since significant differences were found between the groups at baseline for WOMAC pain and stiffness scores (p = 0.0039 and p = 0.013, respectively, ANOVA). Only the Aquamin and Glucosamine groups demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms over the course of the study. The combination group (like the placebo group) did not show any significant improvements in OA symptoms in this trial. Within group analysis demonstrated significant improvements over time on treatment for the WOMAC pain, activity, composite and stiffness (Aquamin only) scores as well as the 6 minute walking distances for subjects in the Aquamin and Glucosamine treatment groups. The Aquamin and Glucosamine groups walked 101 feet (+7%) and 56 feet (+3.5%) extra respectively. All treatments were well tolerated and the adverse events profiles were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion This small preliminary study suggested that a multi mineral supplement (Aquamin) may reduce the pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis of the knee over 12 weeks of treatment and warrants

  4. Low pH Springs - A Natural Laboratory for Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derse, E.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Potts, D. C.; Paytan, A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide of 40% above pre-industrial levels has resulted in rising aqueous CO2 concentrations that lower the pH of the oceans. Currently, the surface ocean has an average pH between 8.1 and 8.2: it is estimated that over the next 100 years this value will decrease by ~0.4 pH units. Previous studies have highlighted the negative impacts that changes in pH (and the resulting CaCO3 saturation state) have on marine organisms; however, to date, very little is known about the long-term impacts of ocean acidification on ecosystems as a whole. The Yucatán Peninsula of Quintana Roo, Mexico, represents an ecosystem where naturally low pH groundwater (7.25-8.07) has been discharging offshore at highly localized points (called ojos) since the last deglaciation. We present preliminary chemical and biological data on a selection of ojos from lagoon sites in Puerto Morelos, Mexico. We address the potential long-term implications of low pH waters on marine ecosystems.

  5. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria’s natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Ige, O. A.; Mazzoli, C.; Ceccato, D.; Akintunde, J. A.; De Poli, M.; Moschini, G.

    2005-10-01

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  6. Natural longitudinal frequencies of a uniform rod with a tip mass or a spring [J. Sound Vib. 77(1) (1981) 147-148

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadıoğlu, Fethi; Tekin, Gülçin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this communication is to correct the equation which gives the condition for eigenvalues and present the corrected numerical solutions that give the natural longitudinal frequencies for a rod with a spring at the tip in a published letter [1].

  7. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city. PMID:26919836

  8. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S.

    2009-05-28

    We investigated differences in the statistical power to assign parentage between an artificially propagated and wild salmon population. The propagated fish were derived from the wild population, and are used to supplement its abundance. Levels of genetic variation were similar between the propagated and wild groups at 11 microsatellite loci, and exclusion probabilities were >0.999999 for both groups. The ability to unambiguously identify a pair of parents for each sampled progeny was much lower than expected, however. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of cases the most likely pair of parents were the true parents was lower for propagated parents than for wild parents. There was a clear relationship between parentage assignment ability and the degree of linkage disequilibrium, the estimated effective number of breeders that produced the parents, and the size of the largest family within the potential parents. If a stringent threshold for parentage assignment was used, estimates of relative fitness were biased downward for the propagated fish. The bias appeared to be largely eliminated by either fractionally assigning progeny among parents in proportion to their likelihood of parentage, or by assigning progeny to the most likely set of parents without using a statistical threshold. We used a DNA-based parentage analysis to measure the relative reproductive success of hatchery- and natural-origin spring Chinook salmon in the natural environment. Both male and female hatchery-origin fish produced far fewer juvenile progeny per parent when spawning naturally than did natural origin fish. Differences in age structure, spawning location, weight and run timing were responsible for some of the difference in fitness. Male size and age had a large influence on fitness, with larger and older males producing more offspring than smaller or younger individuals. Female size had a significant effect on fitness, but the effect was much smaller than the effect of size on

  9. The Rhynie hot-spring system: implications for the Devonian timescale, development of Devonian biota, gold mineralization, evolution of the atmosphere and Earth outgassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, D.; Rice, C.; Stuart, F.; Trewin, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Rhynie cherts are hot spring sinters that contain world-renowned plant and animal remains and anomalously high quantities of heavy metals, including gold. The biota in several beds is preserved undeformed with plants in life positions thus establishing that they and the indurating hydrothermal fluids were coeval. Despite the international importance of the Rhynie cherts their age has been poorly constrained for three reasons: (1) lack of a precise radio-isotopic age, (2) low resolution of spore biostratigraphic schemes for Devonian terrestrial deposits, with only one to a few zones per stage, and (3) poor resolution of the early Devonian timescale. Wellman (2004) assigned a Pragian-?earliest Emsian age to the Rhynie cherts on the basis of the spore assemblage. An 40Ar/39Ar dating study targeting Rhynie chert yielded an age of 395 ± 12 Ma (1σ) (Rice et al., 1995). This contribution discusses a new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age (407.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 2σ) for the Devonian hot-spring system at Rhynie (Mark et al., 2011) and demonstrates that a proposed U-Pb age (411.5 ± 1.1 Ma, 2σ) for the Rhynie cherts (Parry et al., 2011) is inconsistent with both field evidence and our interpretation of the U-Pb data. The 40Ar/39Ar age provides a robust marker for the polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone within the Pragian-?earliest Emsian. It also constrains the age of a wealth of flora and fauna preserved in life positions as well as dating gold mineralization. Furthermore, we have now determined the Ar isotope composition of pristine samples of the Rhynie chert using an ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer and a low blank laser extraction technique. 40Ar/36Ar are systematically lower than the modern air value (Lee et al., 2006), and are not accompanied by non-atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios. We conclude that the Rhynie chert captured and has preserved Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the 40Ar/36Ar of Devonian atmosphere was at least 3 % lower

  10. Microbial food web dynamics during spring phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christaki, U.; Lefèvre, D.; Georges, C.; Colombet, J.; Catala, P.; Courties, C.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Blain, S.; Obernosterer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial food web dynamics were determined during the onset of several spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2). The abundances of heterotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacterial heterotrophic production, bacterial respiration, and bacterial growth efficiency, were consistently higher in surface waters of the iron-fertilized sites than at the reference site in HNLC (high nutrient low chlorophyll) waters. The abundance of virus-like particles remained unchanged, but viral production increased by a factor of 6 in iron-fertilized waters. Bacterial heterotrophic production was significantly related to heterotrophic nanoflagellate abundance and viral production across all sites, with bacterial production explaining about 70 and 85%, respectively, of the variance of each in the mixed layer (ML). Estimated rates of grazing and viral lysis, however, indicated that heterotrophic nanoflagellates accounted for a substantially higher loss of bacterial production (50%) than viruses (11%). Combining these results with rates of primary production and export determined for the study area, a budget for the flow of carbon through the microbial food web and higher trophic levels during the early (KEOPS2) and the late phase (KEOPS1) of the Kerguelen bloom is provided.

  11. Microbial food web dynamics during spring phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christaki, U.; Lefèvre, D.; Georges, C.; Colombet, J.; Catala, P.; Courties, C.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Blain, S.; Obernosterer, I.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial food web dynamics were determined during the onset of several spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2). The abundances of heterotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacterial heterotrophic production, bacterial respiration, and bacterial growth efficiency, were consistently higher in surface waters of the iron-fertilized sites than at the reference site in HNLC (high nutrient low chlorophyll) waters. The abundance of viral like particles remained unchanged, but viral production increased by a factor of 6 in iron-fertilized waters. Bacterial heterotrophic production was significantly related to heterotrophic nanoflagellate abundance and viral production across all sites, with bacterial production explaining about 70 and 85%, respectively, of the variance of each in the mixed layer (ML). Estimated rates of grazing and viral lysis, however, indicated that heterotrophic nanoflagellates accounted for a substantially higher loss of bacterial production (50%) than viruses (11%). Combining these results with rates of primary production and export determined for the study area, a budget for the flow of carbon through the microbial food web and higher levels during the early (KEOPS2) and the late phase (KEOPS1) of the Kerguelen bloom is provided.

  12. Intensive sampling of iodine and nutrient speciation in naturally eutrophicated anchialine pond (Rogoznica Lake) during spring and summer seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žic, Vesna; Carić, Marina; Viollier, Eric; Ciglenečki, Irena

    2010-04-01

    A study of inorganic iodine speciation in the water column of a naturally eutrophicated anchialine pond (Rogoznica Lake, East Adriatic Coast) was conducted in a period between April and July 2004 to obtain information how close the inorganic iodine system is to that of inorganic nutrients during spring, when phytoplankton activity is at maximum, and how the system changes up to summer, when highly reducible redox-conditions prevail in deep water. Iodate and iodide concentrations were determined by differential pulse voltammetry and cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry, respectively. In addition, total iodine concentrations were determined by ICP-MS in May. The hydrographic and nutrient profiles indicate that the system was greatly affected by photosynthesis and demonstrate strong seasonal change in predominant phytoplankton assemblages. The hypolimnion depths were dominated by regeneration processes and benthic influence, with anoxic and sulphidic conditions at maximum sampling depth in July. The iodine profiles show no clear direct relationship between the iodine and nutrient system regarding to the phytoplankton production. Meanwhile, the results demonstrate temporal matching between high iodate and high regenerated nitrate concentrations in the surface layers, and close spatial matching of iodate production and nitrification at mid-depths of hypolimnion. The key role of nitrifers is discussed and the implication of these findings is explored.

  13. Phytoplankton responses to natural ultraviolet irradiance during early spring in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreyra, G.A.; Schloss, E.R.; Neale, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    In the last few years, antarctic stratospheric ozone thinning has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation incident on the southern ocean surface waters. Recent investigations have suggested that the enhanced UV-B can decrease areal primary production in the southern oceans, but the exact reduction remains controversial (6-12 percent, 0.12-0.33 percent). One factor that can reduce long-term exposure to UV radiation is vertical mixing of the water column. Furthermore, several internal mechanisms have been suggested as possible strategies to minimize cell damage. The synthesis of photoprotective substances could reduce deleterious effects on microalgae physiology. Most of the experimental research deployed until now has focused on short-term exposure effects and has not considered the influence of irradiance under mixing conditions of the water column. During the austral spring 1993 the long-term (days) effects of natural UV radiation on phytoplankton physiology was studied using fixed and variable UV filters. Primary productivity and synthesis of photoprotective substances were measured. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Flow cytometric determination of bacterial populations in bottled natural mineral waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisker, Wolfgang; Meier, H.

    1998-04-01

    In order to enhance the quality and safety of bottled natural mineral waters, new methodologies besides classical bacteriology have been evaluated. Multi laser flow cytometry has been used to identify bacterial populations based on their DNA content, physiological activity and phylogeny from in situ hybridization with rRNA targeted DNA probes. Due to the low content of organic material in these waters, the bacterial population are under conditions (low ribosome content, low activity, etc.) which makes it hard to detect them flow cytometrically. The numbers of bacteria are in the range between 1000 and 100,000 per ml (for uncarbonated waters). Filtration techniques to enrich the bacterial population have been developed in combination with specific staining and hybridization protocols. First results on some selected brands show, that most bacteria belong to the beta subclass of proteobacteria. If the DNA containing cells (DAPI staining) are counted as 100%, 84% could be stained with a eubacteria probe. From these 84% 68% belong to the beta subclass, 8.2% to the alpha and 0.3% to the gamma subclass of roteobacteria. 8.5% could be identified as cytophaga flexibacter. By optimizing DNA staining with cyanine dyes and enhancing the sensitivity of light scatter detection, the detection limit could be considerably lowered.

  15. Formulation and characterisation of beads prepared from natural cyclodextrins and vegetable, mineral or synthetic oils.

    PubMed

    Trichard, L; Fattal, E; Le Bas, G; Duchêne, D; Grossiord, J-L; Bochot, A

    2008-04-16

    A continuous external shaking for 2.5 days of a mixture composed of alpha-cyclodextrin (6%), soybean oil (19.6%) and water (74.4%) resulted in a calibrated lipid carrier namely bead with a high fabrication yield. The purpose of this work was to explore the possibility to substitute alpha-cyclodextrin by other natural cyclodextrins, i.e. beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin and then soybean oil by mineral (Primol) 352 and Marcol 82) or synthetic (Silicon 200) fluid 10, 50 or 100cSt) oils. Beads can be successfully prepared using Marcol 82 with alpha-cyclodextrin and Silicon 50 or 100cSt with gamma-cyclodextrin. The area inside oil/cyclodextrin/water ternary diagram corresponding to bead occurrence was superior for the Marcol 82/alpha-cyclodextrin couple compared to that observed with soybean oil/alpha-cyclodextrin couple. Only a few ratios of Silicon 50 and 100cSt/gamma-cyclodextrin/water led to beads. The combinations which did not induce bead occurrence gave either emulsions, two non-miscible liquids or a solid mixture. Whatever the materials used, beads exhibited similarities: presence of a crystalline organisation and viscoelastic properties. Manufacturing process of paraffin- and silicon-based beads need further optimisation to increase fabrication yield and later on, to take advantages from the high stability of both oils for the formulation of drugs with beads. PMID:18063325

  16. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (238)U and (234)U. The radium isotopes as well as (210)Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks) and (210)Po was determined by alpha-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by alpha-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF(3). From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from (228)Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from (226)Ra. PMID:18243442

  17. Microbial diversity and dynamics of a groundwater and a still bottled natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    França, Luís; Lopéz-Lopéz, Arantxa; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; da Costa, Milton S

    2015-03-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity at source, after bottling and through 6 months of storage of a commercial still natural mineral water were assessed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The results revealed clear shifts of the dominant communities present in the three different stages. The borehole waters displayed low cell densities that increased 1.5-fold upon bottling and storage, reaching a maximum (6.2 × 10(8)  cells l(-1) ) within 15 days after bottling, but experienced a significant decrease in diversity. In all cases, communities were largely dominated by Bacteria. The culturable heterotrophic community was characterized by recovering 3626 isolates, which were primarily affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. This study indicates that bottling and storage induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbial assemblages that seem to be similar as revealed by the two sample batches collected on 2 consecutive years. To our knowledge, this is the first study combining culture-independent with culture-dependent methods, and repeated tests to reveal the microbial dynamics occurring from source to stored bottled water. PMID:24612305

  18. Effect of Natural Mineral on Methane Production and Process Stability During Semi-Continuous Mono-Digestion of Maize Straw.

    PubMed

    González-Suárez, A; Pereda-Reyes, I; Pozzi, E; da Silva, A José; Oliva-Merencio, D; Zaiat, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of natural mineral on the mono-digestion of maize straw was evaluated in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 38 °C. Different strategies of mineral addition were studied. The organic loading rate (OLR) was varied from 0.5 to 2.5 g volatile solid (VS) L(-1) d(-1). A daily addition of 1 g mineral L(-1) in reactor 2 (R2) diminished the methane production by about 11 % with respect to the initial phase. However, after a gradual addition of mineral, an average methane yield of 257 NmL CH4 g VS(-1) was reached and the methane production was enhanced by 30 % with regard to R1. An increase in the frequency of mineral addition did not enhance the methane production. The archaeal community was more sensitive to the mineral than the bacterial population whose similarity stayed high between R1 and R2. Significant difference in methane yield was found for both reactors throughout the operation. PMID:26728653

  19. A multi-mineral natural product from red marine algae reduces colon polyp formation in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad N.; Bergin, Ingrid; Naik, Madhav; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hampton, Anna; Rehman, Muneeb; Dame, Michael K; Rush, Howard; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if a multi-mineral natural product derived from red marine algae, could reduce colon polyp formation in mice on a high fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 months either on a high-fat “Western-style” diet or on a low-fat diet (AIN 76A), with or without the multi-mineral-supplement. To summarize, colon polyps were detected in 22 of 70 mice (31%) on the high-fat diet, but in only 2 of 70 mice (3%) receiving the mineral-supplemented high-fat diet (p<0.0001). Colon polyps were detected in 16 of 70 mice (23%) in the low-fat group; not significantly different from high-fat group but significantly higher than the high-fat-supplemented group (p=0.0006). This was in spite of the fact that the calcium level in the low-fat diet was comparable to the level of calcium in the high-fat diet containing the multi-mineral-product. Supplementation of the low-fat diet reduced the incidence to 8 of 70 mice (11% incidence). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a multi-mineral natural product can protect mice on a high-fat diet against adenomatous polyp formation in the colon. These data suggest that increased calcium alone is insufficient to explain the lower incidence of colon polyps. PMID:23035966

  20. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2005-05-01

    In the spring of 2004 naturally produced smolts outmigrating from the Yakima River Basin were collected for the sixth year of pathogen screening. This component of the evaluation is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Since 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery has been releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. In 1998 and 2000 through 2004 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. Of these pathogens, only R. salmoninarum was detected in very low levels in the naturally produced smolts outmigrating in 2004. To date, only bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. There have been small variations each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuations in prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  1. Hypolipidemic Activity of a Natural Mineral Water Rich in Calcium, Magnesium, and Bicarbonate in Hyperlipidemic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Habibi Asl, Bohlool; Bakhshalizadeh, Babak; Ghaderi, Faranak; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the effects of a mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and sulfate and a marketed mineral water with a composition similar to that of urban water on the lipid profile of dyslipidemic adults. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 32 adults received one liter of "rich mineral water" daily for one month, and 37 adults drank the same amount of normal mineral water for the same period. Changes in lipid profiles were compared separately in each studied group at the end of one month. Results: Results showed that mean cholesterol and low density lipoprotein LDL levels were significantly decreased in both studied groups after one month of drinking mineral water (P<0.05); however, no significant differences in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were seen in either group one month after drinking. There were no statistically significant differences between the "rich mineral water" and the normal mineral water groups in any of the above-mentioned lipid levels ( P>0.05). Conclusion: A one-month intake of mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium bicarbonate, and sulfate decreased cholesterol and LDL levels but not TG or HDL levels in dyslipidemic adults. PMID:24754016

  2. Thermoelectricity Generation and Electron-Magnon Scattering in a Natural Chalcopyrite Mineral from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent.

    PubMed

    Ang, Ran; Khan, Atta Ullah; Tsujii, Naohito; Takai, Ken; Nakamura, Ryuhei; Mori, Takao

    2015-10-26

    Current high-performance thermoelectric materials require elaborate doping and synthesis procedures, particularly in regard to the artificial structure, and the underlying thermoelectric mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we report that a natural chalcopyrite mineral, Cu1+x Fe1-x S2 , obtained from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent can directly generate thermoelectricity. The resistivity displayed an excellent semiconducting character, and a large thermoelectric power and high power factor were found in the low x region. Notably, electron-magnon scattering and a large effective mass was detected in this region, thus suggesting that the strong coupling of doped carriers and antiferromagnetic spins resulted in the natural enhancement of thermoelectric properties during mineralization reactions. The present findings demonstrate the feasibility of thermoelectric energy generation and electron/hole carrier modulation with natural materials that are abundant in the Earth's crust. PMID:26332260

  3. ESEM Studies of Colloidal Sulfur Deposition in a Natural Microbial Community from a Cold Sulfide Spring Near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, S.; Douglas, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a relatively new microscopial technique, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light microscopy to investigate a unique microbial community from a temperate climate, cold sulfide spring near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada.

  4. Structure and chemical characteristics of natural mineral deposit Terbunskaya (Lipetsk region, Russia)

    SciTech Connect

    Motyleva, S. Mertvishcheva, M.; Shchuchka, R.; Gulidova, V.

    2015-07-22

    New knowledge about the mineralogical features Terbunsky mineral. Investigated 5 fractions isolated from the incision (2-2,5 m). Terbunskaya deposit belongs to minerals Santonian age. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of fractions isolated studied in detail. In the coarse fractions found ancient organic remains of algae and micro-organisms that have been sedimented together with the mineral component during geological periods. The share of organic inclusions does not exceed 1.5%. Chemical composition confirms the presence of silicon and carbonate organisms. Advantageously proportion of minerals having a layered structure with a plurality of micro and nano pore size 600 - 80-nm and an average chemical composition (wt%): Na (0,64), Mg (0,54), Al (13.48), Si (27 57), K (2.39) Ca (0.75)

  5. Structure and chemical characteristics of natural mineral deposit Terbunskaya (Lipetsk region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motyleva, S.; Shchuchka, R.; Gulidova, V.; Mertvishcheva, M.

    2015-07-01

    New knowledge about the mineralogical features Terbunsky mineral. Investigated 5 fractions isolated from the incision (2-2,5 m). Terbunskaya deposit belongs to minerals Santonian age. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of fractions isolated studied in detail. In the coarse fractions found ancient organic remains of algae and micro-organisms that have been sedimented together with the mineral component during geological periods. The share of organic inclusions does not exceed 1.5%. Chemical composition confirms the presence of silicon and carbonate organisms. Advantageously proportion of minerals having a layered structure with a plurality of micro and nano pore size 600 - 80-nm and an average chemical composition (wt%): Na (0,64), Mg (0,54), Al (13.48), Si (27 57), K (2.39) Ca (0.75).

  6. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status of project to date January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources during the third year (1995) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role at the Weldon Springs Site. The accomplishments this year include participation in several workgroup meetings, oversight of the two operable units (Groundwater and Quarry Residuals), coordination between the US DOE and the various regulatory programs, and continued independent analysis of the treated water discharges.

  7. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  8. Role of Rective Mineral Surface Area on the CO2 Mineralisation of CO2 Under Natural Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuddas, P.; Rillard, J.

    2011-12-01

    The understanding of complex reactions between CO2 rich fluids and rock is fundamental to secured, long-term CO2 storage in geological reservoirs. A natural hydrothermal field is considered to be a useful analogue of carbon dioxide mineralization because it integrates the long-term interaction signal. The hydrothermal field of Galicia (Spain) is characterized by co-genetic fluids resulting from a mostly homogeneous granite reservoir with pCO2 partial pressure ranging from 104 to105 Pa and pH from 10 to 6. Fluids are characterized by an increase of major elements (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and alkalinity, both correlated to pCO2. We evaluated the effects of deep CO2 perturbation on the fluid-rock interaction system. Mineral reactivity which produces changes in the fluid mineral composition is mainly dependent on the 'real' reactive surface area. The mineral surface area participating in reactions resulting from this pCO2 gradient was estimated by an inverse model approach. Input data was based on the chemical composition of the fluids we sampled. The rate of mineral dissolution was estimated by the observed pH and equilibrium conditions. Moreover, the major elemental concentrations allowed us to quantify the variation of the reactive surface area of minerals involved with the overall water-rock interaction. The irreversible mass transfer process, ruled by the continuum equilibrium condition, was defined by the overall degree of reaction advancement, using a set of polynomial equations solved independently of time scale. We found that reactive surface area of calcite, albite and K-feldspar increases by 2 orders of magnitude over the entire CO2 fluid-rock interaction process, while the reactive surface area of biotite increases by 4 orders of magnitude. This shows that fluid neutralisation and consequent CO2 mineralization under the form of carbonate species is greatly dependent on the behaviour of the reactive surface area of the mineral association in this geological

  9. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on <25 μg of Ca. Results from this new study show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density by X-ray measurements occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  10. Radiation Sensitivity of Natural Organic Matter: Clay Mineral Association Effects in the Callovo-Oxfordian Argillite

    SciTech Connect

    Schäfer, T.; Michel, P; Claret, F; Beetz, T; Wirick, S; Jacobsen, C

    2009-01-01

    Clay-rich low-organic carbon formations (e.g., Callovo-Oxfordian argillite in France and Opalinus Clay in Switzerland) are considered as host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. The clay-organic carbon has a strong impact on the chemical stability of the clays. For this reason, the nature of the clay-organic carbon, the release of hydrophilic organic compounds, namely, humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) and the radiation sensitivity of the undisturbed host rock organics was investigated. The clay sample originates from Oxfordian argillite (447 m depth, borehole EST 104). HA and FA were extracted following the standard International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) isolation procedure. Synchrotron based (C-, K-, Ca-, O- and Fe-edge XANES) scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to identify under high spatial resolution the distribution of clay-organic matter with different functionality using principal component and cluster analysis. The results show that in this old (Jurassic) geological formation, small parts of the organic inventory (1-5%) keeps the structure/functionality and can be mobilized as hydrophilic humic substance type material (HA and FA). Target spectra analysis shows best correlation for isolated humic acids with organics found in smectite-rich regions, whereas the extractable FA has better spectral similarities with the illite mixed layer minerals (MLM) regions. After radiation of 1.7 GGy under helium atmosphere the same rock sample area was investigated for radiation damage. Radiation damage in the smectite and illite-MLM associated organic matter is comparably low with 20-30% total oxygen mass loss and 13-18% total carbon mass loss. A critical dose dc of 2.5 GGy and a optical density after infinite radiation (OD?) of 54% was calculated under room temperature conditions. C(1s) XANES show a clear increase in Cdouble bond; length as m-dashC bonds especially in the illite-MLM associated organics. This results

  11. Aqueous and isotope geochemistry of mineral springs along the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau: Implications for fluid sources and regional degassing of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Dennis L.; Jessup, Micah J.; Cottle, John M.; Hilton, David R.; Sharp, Zachary D.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2008-08-01

    Springs issuing from different faults and shear zones along the crest of the Himalayas tap three different levels of crust beneath the Tibetan Plateau. From structurally highest to lowest these are the Tingri Graben, the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS), and the Ama Drime massif (ADM). The aqueous chemistry reflects water-rock interactions along faults and is consistent with mapped rock types. Major ion chemistry and calculated temperatures indicate that spring waters have circulated to greater depths along the N-S trending faults that bound the Tingri Graben and Ama Drime detachment (ADD) compared to the STDS, suggesting that these structures penetrate to greater depths. Springs have excess CO2, N2, He, and CH4 compared to meteoric water values, implying addition from crustal sources. The 3He/4He ratios range from 0.018 to 0.063 RA and are consistent with a crustal source for He. The δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CO2 gas range from -5.5 to +3.8‰ and -13.1 to -0.3‰ versus Peedee belemnite, respectively. Sources of carbon are evaluated by calculating isotopic trajectories associated with near-surface effervescence of CO2. Positive δ13C values of the Tingri graben and STDS springs are consistent with decarbonation of marine carbonates as the source of CO2. Negative values for the ADD springs overlap with mantle values but are best explained by metamorphic devolatilization of reduced sedimentary carbon. The δ15N values of N2 range from -2.2 to +2.1‰ (versus AIR) and are explained by mixtures of air-derived nitrogen, metamorphic devolatilization of sedimentary nitrogen, and nitrogen from near-surface biogenic processes. CO2 flux is estimated by scaling from individual springs (˜105 mol a-1 per spring) to extensional structures across the southern limit of the Tibetan Plateau and likely contributes between 108 and 1011 mol a-1 (up to 10%) to the global carbon budget.

  12. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  13. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Zhao, Chun; Li, Mengmeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) per year. SO₂ is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 μg m⁻³ in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 μg m⁻³ and 7.3 μg m⁻³, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO₂ oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO₂ was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO₂ reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  14. Bio-Templated Growth of Bone Minerals from Modified Simulated Body Fluid on Nanofibrous Decellularized Natural Tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingying; Wang, Jie; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-04-01

    Small intestine submucosal (SIS) membrane used in this study is a decellularized, naturally occurring nanofibrous scaffold derived from a submucosal layer of porcine small intestine. It is predominantly composed of type I collagen fibers. Here we studied the bio-templated growth of hydroxylapatite (HAP) bone minerals on the SIS membrane from a modified simulated body fluid (1.5 SBF) at the body temperature, namely, under a near-physiological condition, in order to evaluate its bone bioactivity, the capability of the membrane in bonding with bone tissue once implanted in vivo. Minute HAP crystals were successfully nucleated on the SIS membranes from 1.5 SBF at the body temperature. The crystals were preferentially nucleated along the collagen fibers constituting the SIS membranes. HAP was the major crystalline mineral phase formed during the whole period of time and a minor crystalline phase of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) appeared after the membranes were incubated for 96 h. We also found that the mineralization for 8 h most significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by evaluating the formation of osteogenic markers in MSCs including alkaline phosphatase (early stage marker) as well as osteocalcin and osteopontin (late stage markers). Hence, SIS membranes show excellent bone bioactivity and once mineralized, can significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. PMID:27301201

  15. Synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis of natural diamonds: First steps in identification of mineral inclusions in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Sitepu, Husin; Kopylova, Maya G.; Quirt, David H.; Cutler, Jeffrey N.; Kotzer, Thomas G.

    2008-06-09

    Diamond inclusions are of particular research interest in mantle petrology and diamond exploration as they provide direct information about the chemical composition of upper and lower mantle and about the petrogenetic sources of diamonds in a given deposit. The objective of the present work is to develop semi-quantitative analytical tools for non-destructive in situ identification and characterization of mineral inclusions in diamonds using synchrotron micro-X-ray Fluorescence ({mu}SXRF) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure ({mu}XANES) spectroscopy at a focused spot size of 4 to 5 micrometers. The data were collected at the Pacific Northwest Consortium (PNC-CAT) 20-ID microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, located at the Argonne National Laboratory, and yielded the first high-resolution maps of Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn for natural diamond grains, along with quantitative {mu}SXRF analysis of select chemical elements in exposed kimberlite indicator mineral grains. The distribution of diamond inclusions inside the natural diamond host, both visible and invisible using optical transmitted-light microscopy, can be mapped using synchrotron {mu}XRF analysis. Overall, the relative abundances of chemical elements determined by {mu}SXRF elemental analyses are broadly similar to their expected ratios in the mineral and therefore can be used to identify inclusions in diamonds in situ. Synchrotron {mu}XRF quantitative analysis provides accurate estimates of Cr contents of exposed polished minerals when calibrated using the concentration of Fe as a standard. Corresponding Cr K-edge {mu}XANES analyses on selected inclusions yield unique information regarding the formal oxidation state and local coordination of Cr.

  16. Delay of natural bone loss by higher intakes of specific minerals and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, A; de Vries, P J; Saris, W H

    2001-05-01

    For early prevention or inhibition of postmenopausal and age-related bone loss, nutritional interventions might be a first choice. For some vitamins and minerals an important role in bone metabolism is known or suggested. Calcium and vitamin D support bone mineral density and are basic components in most preventive strategies. Magnesium is involved in a number of activities supporting bone strength, preservation, and remodeling. Fluorine and strontium have bone-forming effects. However, high amounts of both elements may reduce bone strength. Boron is especially effective in case of vitamin D, magnesium, and potassium deficiency. Vitamin K is essential for the activation of osteocalcin. Vitamin C is an important stimulus for osteoblast-derived proteins. Increasing the recommended amounts (US RDA 1989), adequate intakes (US DRI 1997), or assumed normal intakes of mentioned food components may lead to a considerable reduction or even prevention of bone loss, especially in late postmenopausal women and the elderly. PMID:11401244

  17. Mahlmoodite, FeZr(PO4).4H2O, a new iron zirconium phosphate mineral from Wilson Springs, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, C.; McGee, J.J.; Evans, H.T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Small (<0.5 mm) cream white spheres observed in V ore have been identified as ferrous zirconium phosphate tetrahedrate, FeZr(PO4)2.4H2O. This new mineral, named mahlmoodite, occurs as spherules of radiating fibers usually perched on crystals of pyroxene in vugs. The optical and crystallographic properties of mahlmoodite are described. -after Authors

  18. Physiological status of naturally reared juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River: Seasonal dynamics and changes associated with smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Larsen, D.A.; Sharpe, C.; Lee-Pawlak, B.; Schreck, C.B.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    Two year-classes of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Yakima River, Washington, were sampled from July (3-4 months postemergence) through May (yearling smolt out-migration). Physiological characters measured included liver glycogen, body lipid, gill Na+-K+ ATPase, plasma thyroxine (T4), and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Distinct physiological changes were found that corresponded to season. Summer and fall were characterized by relatively high body lipid and condition factor. Winter was characterized by decreases in body lipid, condition factor, and plasma hormones. An increase in condition factor and body lipid was found in February and March. Finally, April and May were characterized by dramatic changes characteristic of smolting, including increased gill Na+-K+ ATPase activity, plasma T4, and IGF-I and decreased condition factor, body lipid, and liver glycogen. These results create a physiological template for juvenile spring chinook salmon in the drainage that provides a baseline for comparison with other years, populations, and life history types. In addition, this baseline provides a standard for controlled laboratory experiments and a target for fish culturists who rear juvenile spring chinook salmon for release from conservation hatcheries. The implications of these results for juvenile chinook salmon ecology and life history are discussed.

  19. Insights into the factors responsible for curative effects of Aab-E-Shifa Spring Hasan Abdal (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ur Rahman, Sami; Bilal, Salma

    2015-10-01

    Springs are the gifts of nature on the earth as they contribute about eighty essential nutrients that are involved in more than 7000 enzymatic processes in the human body. European balneologists have recommended spring mineral waters for different therapeutic applications. In the present investigation, Aab-e-Shifa (Punjab Pakistan) spring water was analyzed due to its therapeutic behavior in the healing of various skin diseases via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It was found that besides other important minerals (Ca, Mg, K, and Na), the spring water contains the most significant antioxidant, i.e., Zn which is probably one of the major features of the curative behavior of Aab-e-Shifa. Other trace elements (Cr, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Cu) were also found to be present in the spring water under the permissible limits of various national and international organizations.

  20. Sorption of cesium and strontium from mineralized aqueous solutions on natural aluminosilicates modified by ferrocyanides of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Panasyugin, A.S.; Trofimenko, N.E.; Masherova, N.P.; Rat`ko, A.I.; Golikova, N.I.

    1994-03-10

    The sorption behavior of natural aluminosilicates (bentonite and clinoptilolite) and aluminosilicates modified by ferrocyanides of heavy metals has been studied relative to radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the presence of various quantities of alkali and alkaline-earth ions (e.g. surface waters). It has been shown that the distribution coefficients of the modified samples may exceed 100 for Sr{sup 2+} and 10,000 for Cs{sup +}; however, with a concentration of mineral background over 1.0 g{center_dot}liter, the competing ions strongly depress the sorption properties of the aluminosilicates.

  1. Sorption Kinetics Of Selected Heavy Metals Adsorption To Natural And Fe(III) Modified Zeolite Tuff Containing Clinoptilolite Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotiak, Maroš; Lipovský, Marek; Bartošová, Alica

    2015-06-01

    In the research described in this paper, studied was sorption capacity of natural and ferric modification of zeolite tuff containing mineral clinoptilolite from the Nižný Hrabovec deposit to remove potentially toxic metals (ionic forms of chromium, nickel, copper and aluminium) from their water solutions. We reported that the Fe (III) zeolite has an enhanced ability to sorption of Cu (II), and a slight improvement occurs in the case of Cr (VI) and Ni (II). On the other hand, the deterioration was observed in the case of Al (III) adsorption.

  2. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  3. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Thomas, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    The change in pathogens prevalence to wild fish is probably the least studied ecological interaction associated with hatchery operations. In 1999, the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to evaluate whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and monitored for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition, the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2001. Not all testing has been completed for every year, but to date, there have only been minimal changes in levels of the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts. At this point, due to the limited testing so far, these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.

  4. BLACKJACK SPRINGS WILDERNESS, WISCONSIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Blackjack Springs Wilderness in northern Wisconsin was evaluated. The lack of bedrock exposures in or near the wilderness and the thick mantle of glacial sediments precludes a detailed assessment of the mineral potential of the wilderness. However, based on presently available data, the area is concluded to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. If mineral deposits exist in the area, they would be under thick glacial cover and probably be of the massive sulfide type in association with metavolcanic rocks or be magmatic copper-nickel in association with metamorphosed mafic intrusive rocks. Sand and gravel resources occur in the wilderness, but they are abundant regionally, outside the wilderness. No other metallic or energy resources were identified in this study.

  5. Near-infrared optical constants of naturally occurring olivine and synthetic pyroxene as a function of mineral composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, David; Lucey, Paul G.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Klima, Rachel L.; Isaacson, Peter J.

    2013-04-01

    Radiative transfer theory will assist in determining olivine and pyroxene proportions and compositions from the surface of a planetary body composed of intimately mixed minerals. In order to use radiative transfer techniques, the model requires the optical constants of olivine and pyroxene. Optical constants are parameters that describe the degree light absorbed (k) and refracted (n) in a medium. Here we only parameterize k in the near infrared from 0.6 to 2.5 µm of natural olivine as a function of forsterite number and synthetic pyroxene with respect to wollastonite and ferrosilite number. In contrast to previous work, this study is an improvement on previous work because we have a diverse and larger sample size leading to robust optical parameters. Additionally, we characterize each k-spectrum with the modified Gaussian model (MGM). MGM is a physically realistic model of near-infrared absorptions due to electronic transitions. In each spectrum, we model each absorption and continuum with Gaussians and an inverse of a linear function, respectively. We find that our fitting routine characterizes the olivine and pyroxene k-spectra in a robust and consistent manner. Then we use regression analysis to characterize each parameter of the Gaussians and the continuum as a function of mineral composition. The developed optical parameters from this work will allow calculations of mineral proportions and compositions on planetary surfaces with use of data from missions such as Dawn, MESSENGER, SELENE, and Chandrayaan-1.

  6. A hypersaline spring analogue in Manitoba, Canada for potential ancient spring deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berard, Genevieve; Applin, Daniel; Cloutis, Edward; Stromberg, Jessica; Sharma, Raven; Mann, Paul; Grasby, Stephen; Bezys, Ruth; Horgan, Briony; Londry, Kathleen; Rice, Melissa; Last, Bill; Last, Fawn; Badiou, Pascal; Goldsborough, Gordon; Bell, James

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the possible applications of a spring complex, East German Creek (EGC), Manitoba, Canada, as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. Potential ancient spring deposits have been identified by Allen and Oehler (Allen, C.C., Oehler, D.Z. [2008]. Astrobiology 8, 1093-1112) in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra, as well as in the intercrater plains of Terra Sirenum by Wray et al. (Wray et al. [2011]. J. Geophys. Res., 116, 1-41). EGC can provide guidance in the search for fossil spring deposits on Mars by using comparative mineralogy to contrast mineral identification from field studies to that available from remote sensing instruments such as the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The formation processes of EGC are also useful for finding spring-like environments on Mars. A variety of techniques were employed (X-ray diffractometry, reflectance spectra, water chemistry analysis) to analyze mineralogical changes in spring water precipitates with distance from the main springs at EGC, which were compared with concentrations of dissolved species in outflow water. Biosignatures in outflow stream sediments as well as the effect of surficial Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on the detection of underlying carbonate absorption features have also been spectrally characterized. Halite is the main mineral precipitated at EGC, followed by gypsum, and calcite. The presence of gypsum is readily detected in surficial precipitate spectra while halite does not have a diagnostic spectral signature in the 0.35-2.5 μm region. An absorption feature indicative of chlorophyll a is present in stream sediment spectra from most sampling stations and on outwash plain sediments. Carbonates appear to be spectrally detectable through a coating of ferric minerals, such as goethite by a characteristic absorption band near 2.3 μm. We attempted to detect significant spectral changes over an area of potential spring features in Vernal Crater on Mars using

  7. Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature

    PubMed Central

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  8. Mineral resource dilemma: how to balance the interests of government, local communities and abiotic nature.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-09-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  9. In Situ Remediation of {sup 137}Cs Contaminated Wetlands Using Naturally Occurring Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    1999-08-11

    Cesium-137 has contaminated a large area of the wetlands on the Savannah River Site. Remediation of the contaminated wetlands is problematic because current techniques destroy the sensitive ecosystem and generate a higher dose to workers. To address this problem, we proposed a non-trusive, in situ technology to sequester 137Cs in sediments. One intention of this study was to provide information regarding a go/no go decision for future work. Since the proof-of-concept was successful and several minerals were identified as potential candidates for this technology, a go decision was made.

  10. Development of synthetic and natural mineral based adsorptive and filter media containing cyclodextrin moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, E.; Rácz, I.; Erös, A.; Bánhegyi, Gy; Fenyvesi, É.; Takács, E.

    2013-12-01

    Adsorptive filter media were developed based on UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene), perlite mineral and sol-gel synthesized silica gel as support and various cyclodextrin oligomers and polymers as active adsorbents. Adsorptive capacity was characterized by dye adsorption before and after Soxhlet extraction in water to check the hydrolytic stability of the structures obtained. Morphological and in some cases spectroscopic studies were made to understand the differences in behaviour. At the present stage the development of such structures hardly exceeds the trial and error approach, nevertheless some promising formulations were found.

  11. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  12. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  13. Secondary metabolites produced by fungi derived from a microbial mat encountered in an iron-rich natural spring

    PubMed Central

    Gerea, Alexandra L.; Branscum, Katie M.; King, Jarrod B.; You, Jianlan; Powell, Douglas R.; Miller, Andrew N.; Spear, John R.; Cichewicz, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    A collection of fungal isolates was obtained from a complex microbial mat, which occupied an iron-rich freshwater spring that feeds into Clear Creek, Golden, Colorado, USA. Two of the fungal isolates, a Glomeromycete (possible Entrophospora sp.) and a Dothideomycete (possible Phaeosphaeria sp.), were investigated for bioactive secondary metabolites. In total, six new compounds consisting of clearanols A–E (5, 6, 10–12) and disulochrin (7) were purified and their structures were determined. Disulochrin exhibited modest antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, whereas clearanol C showed weak inhibitory activity against Candida albicans biofilm formation. PMID:22844162

  14. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Causes of Changes in Vegetation in the Vicinity of the Spring Bluff Nature Preserve, Lake County, Illinois, May 2007-August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Miner, James J.; Maurer, Debbie A.; Knight, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture and urbanization have altered the hydrology and water quality of the coastal wetland complex along the shore of Lake Michigan at the Spring Bluff Nature Preserve and Illinois Beach State Park in northeastern Lake County, Ill., and the adjacent Chiwaukee Prairie State Natural Area in southeastern Wisconsin. Culverts, roads, ditches, and berms installed within the wetland complex have altered the natural directions of surface-water flow and likely have increased the natural hydroperiod in the Spring Bluff Nature Preserve and decreased it in the northern part of the Illinois Beach State Park. Relative to presettlement conditions, surface-water runoff into the wetlands likely is greater in quantity and higher in concentrations of several constituents, including chloride, nitrate, phosphorous, and suspended sediment. These constituent concentrations are affected by a variety of factors, including the amount of agricultural and urban land use in the watersheds. Hydrologic, chemical, and biologic processes within the wetland communities reduce the concentrations of these constituents in surface water before the water discharges to Lake Michigan by as much as 75 percent for chloride, 85 percent for nitrate, 66 percent for phosphorous, and more than an order of magnitude for suspended sediment. However, concentrations of phosphorous and suspended sediment in surface water increased within parts of the wetland complex. Given these changes, the floristic quality of these wetlands has been altered from the historic condition. Specifically, Typha spp. and Phragmites australis occur in greater numbers and over a larger area than in the past. The spread of Typha spp. and Phragmites australis appears to be enhanced by anthropogenic alterations within the wetland complex, such as increased water levels and duration of inundation and, possibly, increases in the total concentration of dissolved constituents in water.

  15. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Joan B.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elem Hatchery began releasing spring chinook smolts into the upper Yakima River for restoration and supplementation. This project was designed to evaluate whether introduction of intensively reared hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Approximately 200 smolts were collected at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River during 1998, 2000 and 2001 and 130 smolts were collected in 2002 for monitoring for specific pathogens. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. In addition the fish were tested for Ceratomyxa shasta spores in 2000 and 2001 (a correction from the 2001 report). To date, the only changes have been in the levels the bacterial pathogens in the naturally produced smolts and they have been minimal. These changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence.

  16. Natural abundance measurements of 13C indicate increased deep soil carbon mineralization after forest disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochon, Amanda; Kellman, Lisa

    2008-07-01

    Northern forest soils represent globally important stores of carbon (C), yet there is no consensus about how they are altered by the widespread practice of harvesting that dominates many forested landscapes. Here we present the first study to systematically investigate the utility of δ 13C and C content depth profiles to infer temporal changes in belowground carbon cycling processes following disturbance in a pure C3 ecosystem. We document carbon concentration and δ 13C depth profile enrichment trends consistent with a kinetic fractionation arising from soil organic carbon (SOC) humification across a northern forest chronosequence (1, 15, 45, 80 and 125+ yrs). Reduced soil C storage that coincided with observed soil profile δ 13C-enrichment patterns which intensified following clearcut harvesting, pointed to losses of SOC in the deeper (>20 cm) mineral soil. This study suggests the δ 13C approach may assist in identifying mechanisms responsible for soil C storage changes in disturbed C3 forest ecosystems.

  17. Uranium mineral - groundwater equilibration at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Ahonen, L.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Ervanne, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1993-12-31

    The redox-potential, pH, chemical composition of fracture waters, and uraninite alteration associated with the Palmottu uranium mineralization, have been studied. The data have been interpreted by means of thermodynamic calculations. The results indicate equilibrium between uraninite, ferric hydroxide and groundwater in the bedrock of the study site. Partially oxidized uraninite (UO{sub 2.33}) and ferric hydroxide are in equilibrium with the fresh, slightly acidic and oxidized water type, while primary uraninite is stable with deeper waters that have a higher pH and lower Eh. Measured Eh-pH values of groundwater cluster within a relatively narrow range indicating buffering by heterogeneous redox-processes. A good consistency between measured Eh and analyzed uranium oxidation states was observed.

  18. Nature of graphitization and noble metal mineralization in metamorphic rocks of the northern Khanka Terrane, Primorye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanchuk, A. I.; Plyusnina, L. P.; Ruslan, A. V.; Likhoidov, G. G.; Barinov, N. N.

    2013-07-01

    Elevated contents of noble metals (NM) have been established in the Riphean-Cambrian graphite-bearing complexes of the northern Khanka Terrane, which metamorphosed under conditions of greenschist to granulite facies. At the previously known graphite deposits of the Turgenevo-Tamga group, NM comprise (ppm): Pt (0.04-62.13), Au (0.021-26), Ag (0.56-4.41), Pd (0.003-5.67), Ru (0.007-0.2), Rh (0.001-0.74), Ir (0.002-0.55), and Os (0.011-0.09). Analyses of graphitized rocks carried out with various methods (IMS, INAA, AAS, AES, fire assay) reveal a wide scatter of the results related to the specifics of sample preparation, in particular, due to a significant loss of NM by thermal oxidation decomposition. Analysis of a low-soluble graphite residue obtained by treatment of graphitized rocks allowed us to establish genetic links between NM mineralization and carbonic alteration of various igneous, granulite- and amphibolitefacies metamorphic rocks, which occur over a vast area. The nonuniform distribution of graphite and NM in rocks, their fine dispersivity, and compositional variability of NM indicate that their origin is related largely to endogenic processes with the participation of deep reduced fluids. In greenschist-facies rocks, fluorine, bromine, and iodine are associated both with ore minerals and graphite, providing evidence for transport of NM by halogene- and carbon-bearing fluids. The inhomogeneous distribution of metals in graphite, microglobular structure, and carbon isotopic composition are the guides for its gas-condensate crystallization. At the same time, thermal analysis and Raman spectroscopy show that graphite formed by metamorphism of carbonaceous matter contained in sedimentary rocks also occurs. It is concluded that the predominant mass of NM is of fluid-magmatic origin with the participation of exogenic and metamorphic sources of metals.

  19. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition. PMID:15865343

  20. Comparative Reactivity Study of Natural Silicate Minerals in Wet Supercritical CO2 By In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C.; Schaef, T.; Miller, Q. R.; Loring, J. S.; Wang, Z.; Johnson, K. T.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term storage of CO2 in deep geologic reservoirs is one of the strategies being developed and implemented for reducing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere. Reservoirs containing basalt or peridotite have the potential to permanently entrap the CO2 as silicate minerals react with the CO2 and formation waters to form stable carbonate minerals. Although the relevant reactions have been well studied in the aqueous phase, comparatively little work has focused on silicate mineral reactivity in the CO2-rich fluid containing dissolved water at conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. In this study, we used in situ infrared spectroscopy to investigate the carbonation of naturally occurring samples of San Carlos olivine (Mg2SiO4), Bramble enstatite (MgSiO3), and a Hawaiian picritic basalt rich in olivine. To enhance reactivity, subsamples were micronized to obtain higher surface area materials, in the range of 14 to 23 m2g-1. Experiments were carried out at 50 °C and 91 bar by circulating a stream of dry or wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) past a sample overlayer deposited on the window of a high-pressure infrared flow cell. Water concentrations ranged from 0% to 135% relative to saturation, and transmission-mode absorbance spectra were recorded as a function of time for 24 hours. In experiments with excess water, a controlled temperature gradient was used to intentionally condense a film of liquid water on the overlayers' surfaces. No discernible reaction was detected when the samples were exposed to dry scCO2. When water was added to the scCO2, a thin film of liquid-like water formed on the surfaces of each sample, followed by spectral evidence of carbonation. The extents of reaction were dependent on both the thickness of the water films and the materials being tested. The thinnest water film was associated with the Bramble enstatite, which also appeared minimally reactive. The Hawaiian picritic basalt was slightly more reactive but contained

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, A.; Ravisankar, R.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Eswaran, P.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-02-01

    Gamma Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques were used to evaluate the natural radioactivity due to natural radionuclides and mineralogical characterization in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India. Various radiological parameters were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the soil. The distribution pattern of activity due to natural radionuclides is explained by Kriging method of mapping. Using FTIR spectroscopic technique the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, and organic carbon were identified and characterized. The extinction coefficient values were calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index was calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz. The result indicates that the presence of disordered crystalline quartz in soils. The relation between minerals and radioactivity was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite and non-clay mineral quartz is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables and concentrations of uranium and thorium.

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, A; Ravisankar, R; Rajalakshmi, A; Eswaran, P; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2015-02-01

    Gamma Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques were used to evaluate the natural radioactivity due to natural radionuclides and mineralogical characterization in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India. Various radiological parameters were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the soil. The distribution pattern of activity due to natural radionuclides is explained by Kriging method of mapping. Using FTIR spectroscopic technique the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, and organic carbon were identified and characterized. The extinction coefficient values were calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index was calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz. The result indicates that the presence of disordered crystalline quartz in soils. The relation between minerals and radioactivity was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite and non-clay mineral quartz is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables and concentrations of uranium and thorium. PMID:25467664

  3. Effects of seasonal mineral oil applications on the pest and natural enemy complexes of apple.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Dario E; Beers, E H; Brunner, J F; Doerr, M D; Dunley, J E

    2005-10-01

    This 3-yr study examined the use of two different apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, pest management programs based on horticultural mineral oil. Whereas oil provided some additional control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), when targeting eggs of both generations (Oil/Direct Pest program, typically six applications per season), the additional benefit was difficult to detect when densities were high. With moderate densities, oil reduced the number of fruit infestations, but not stings (unsuccessful entries). There also were some measurable benefits to leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott control. Oil was most useful, however, in suppression of secondary pests. White apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, was the primary target of oil applications in the Oil/Indirect Pest program (typically three applications per season). However, leafhopper suppression in the Oil/Direct Pest program was generally greater because of the higher number of applications. Phytophagous tetranychid and eriophyid mites also were suppressed by more oil applications. Predatory mite populations were lower in both oil programs than in the check, but it is difficult to determine whether direct toxicity or reduction of prey was responsible for lower predator populations. There also was some evidence that oil suppressed woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausman. The six-spray oil program largely prevented a woolly apple aphid outbreak that occurred in July and August 1998 in the check, although the three-spray program seemed to provide some suppression despite the nonspecific spray timing. PMID:16334333

  4. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  5. Removal of cyanobacteria and microcystin by natural plant-mineral combinations in eutrophic waters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baik-Ho; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2013-02-01

    The removal or mitigation of cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins is a necessity to ensure safe drinking water and recreational water. As a feasible agent to control cyanobacterial bloom, a novel plant-mineral composite (PMC) was developed and optimized through laboratory and field testing over the past 3 years. Based on previous studies, we treated cyanobacterial bloom water (mainly Microcystis and Synechocystis) with 0.05 mg/L PMC at the small eutrophic reservoir; 2 h later, we collected samples and analyzed them in the laboratory. The intra-cellular (c-MC) and dissolved microcystin-LR (d-MC) were measured using an ELISA method. The PMC exhibited a remarkable removal of both c-MC (47.3 %) and d-MC (95.8 %) within 2 days. In addition, notable decreases (on average, 78 % of the control) in the chlorophyll-a, suspended solids, total phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand values, in zooplankton and in the phytoplankton density (83.9 %) were verified after 48 h. These results indicate that the PMC is more effective in controlling d-MC than c-MC, suggesting a possible method to mitigate such hazardous chemicals as agrochemicals and endocrine disrupters in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23196372

  6. A shift in microbial community composition as a result of a natural temporal change in in a hot spring ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Havig, J. R.; Boyd, E. S.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Shock, E.; Peters, J.

    2011-12-01

    Strong physical and geochemical gradients in geothermal springs generate a multiplicity of ecological niches capable of supporting a diverse array of microbial populations and their associated ecological functions. Combining geochemical data with thermodynamic calculations enables predictions of the most likely energy sources supporting these diverse communities. Recent results from spatially- and geochemically-distinct springs in Yellowstone National Park, WY suggest that the structure and composition of microbial communities in geothermal environments can be predicted on the basis of geochemical measurements and associated energetic calculations. Obsidian Pool, a high temperature chemotrophic thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park, WY, has undergone decrease in pH from 6.8 to 4.3 over the past 11 years, a likely result of increased vapor phase input. This documented decrease in pH was accompanied by extensive variation in other geochemical analytes, including numerous redox sensitive compounds. Many of these compounds can be used as a source of energy by microbial populations, although the energetics associated with their utilization vary widely as a function of pH. For example, the energetics associated with redox transformation of iron (e.g., Fe2+ and Fe3+) and sulfur (S2-, So) vary widely with pH, while the energetics associated with redox transformation of nitrogen compounds (e.g., NH4+, NO2-, and NO3-) do so to a much lesser degree. Given that spatial variation in the availability of inorganic sources of energy and the energetics associated with their utilization has been shown to influence the composition of communities in geothermal environments, we hypothesized that a temporal shift, such as that observed in Obsidian Pool, would select for microbial communities that reflect this change. We evaluated this hypothesis using pyrotag sequencing and qPCR of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The data reveal a shift in community structure and

  7. [The miraculous minerals of Michele Mercati. Natural history between medicine and the clergy in Rome in the second half of the Sixteenth century].

    PubMed

    Touber, Jetze

    2006-01-01

    Many Italian scholars in the sixteenth century studied minerals. This was not only for the sake of increasing geological knowledge. Minerals, like all other natural phenomena, reflected divine order. Minerals were thought of as a broader category than the lifeless substances found beneath the crust of the earth. Stones, generated in animal and human bodies, were included among minerals, as well. The appearance of kidney stones, gall stones and bladder stones in early modern mineral collections point to the religious motives of the scholars that studied them. In this article, I will examine the mineralogical collection brought together and described by Michele Mercati (1541-1593), the so-called Metallotheca. I will map the circles of physicians, scholars and ecclesiastics in which Mercati lived and functioned. I will then investigate Mercati's descriptions of stones, grown inside animals and men. The specific connections between Mercati and the members of the Oratory of Rome, an influential religious organisation of the Sixteenth century, direct us towards a proper understanding of the significance of Mercati's minerals. Certain minerals, including stones originating in animate bodies, were thought of as approaching the supernatural. The proper attitude for the scholar of nature would then be to turn from curiosity into awe and even veneration. PMID:17153168

  8. Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company

    SciTech Connect

    Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

  9. Public perception of risk and its consequences: the case of a natural fibrous mineral deposit.

    PubMed

    Major, G; Vardy, G F

    1989-01-01

    A public authority building a breakwater and other harbour facilities at a small seaport (population 3000) had short-term requirements for 261,000 tonnes of rock and ultimately for 1,000,000 tonnes. A suitable quarry was found about 11 km from the port but unfortunately the rock was found to be contaminated to a small extent with a fibrous mineral identified with the analytical transmission electron microscope as a non-commercial type of fine amphibole with many long fibres. Quarrying only was intended and there were no plans to crush the rock, but the projected work soon brought complaints from local residents, who expressed fears concerning risks to health from what soon became known as 'the asbestos mine'. These complaints posed a dilemma for both the construction and health authorities; they were forcefully expressed, and residents were supported by local newspapers, municipal authorities and regional politicians. The Land and Environment Court ordered (by consent) that the construction authority 'take all reasonable measures to ensure that no loose asbestos material and no rock with any asbestos material exposed on the surface (is) removed from the site'. Personal monitoring of quarry workmen by the membrane filter method and ambient air monitoring near residents' homes with analysis by electron microscope showed that only insignificant concentrations of airborne fibres were present. The breakwater was ultimately completed after much delay and extra expense. Other and greater risks to health and safety, such as the transport of liquid chlorine through the centre of the town to the fish processing plant and the storage, distribution and transport of petroleum products from the nearby regional facilities, were not perceived as such by the residents. PMID:2744844

  10. States in a free state of nature: aboriginal criteria for 21st-century marine minerals resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.W.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explores principles of international law for managing nonsovereign marine minerals under conditions of severe chronic global shortage - which herein is defined as existing whenever exploitation consistently exceeds natural rates of renewal restoration. The main data source lies in how man has managed shortage in the past, where the most fertile ground is found in the ways of the natural societies of pre-Neolithic man and contemporary hunter-gatherer bands. The result has a broader compass than the original goal namely the means (a) to restore ecological balance to man's relationship to his resource environment, and (b) to achieve universal fairness of individual access to the global patrimony. These goals may be realized without sudden disruption of the international community of sovereign States or its economic system of laissez-faire capitalism. The means to these ends posit the readoption of aboriginal Ethics to order the adaptive relationship of man to man and of man to Nature, including the revitalization of the original social compact of reciprocal rights and obligations among all individuals. The turn to aboriginal Ethics suggests a series of proposals for managing global shortage implemented by economic incentives and penalties which are compatible with the ways of contemporary international society.

  11. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Viglino, Liza; Di Gioia, Lodovico; Lachassagne, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng/L level, by

  12. Assessment of CO2 discharge in a spring using time-variant stable carbon isotope data as a natural analogue study of CO2 leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Chae, Gitak; Jo, Minki; Kim, Jeong-Chan; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2015-04-01

    CO2-rich springs have been studied as a natural analogue of CO2 leakage through shallow subsurface environment, as they provide information on the behaviors of CO2 during the leakage from geologic CO2 storage sites. For this study, we monitored the δ13C values as well as temperature, pH, EC, DO, and alkalinity for a CO2-rich spring for 48 hours. The water samples (N=47) were collected every hour in stopper bottles without headspace to avoid the interaction with air and the CO2 degassing. The δ13C values of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) in the water samples were analyzed using a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system (Picarro). The values of δ13CTDIC, temperature, pH, EC, DO, and alkalinity were in the range of -9.43 ~ -8.91 o 12.3 ~ 13.2oC, 4.86 ~ 5.02, 186 ~ 189 μS/cm, 1.8 ~ 3.4 mg/L, and 0.74 ~ 0.95 meq/L, respectively. The concentrations of TDIC calculated using pH and alkalinity values were between 22.5 and 34.8 mmol/L. The δ13CTDIC data imply that dissolved carbon in the spring was derived from a deep-seated source (i.e., magmatic) that was slightly intermixed with soil CO2. Careful examination of the time-series variation of measured parameters shows the following characteristics: 1) the δ13CTDIC values are negatively correlated with pH (r = -0.59) and positively correlated with TDIC (r = 0.58), and 2) delay times of the change of pH and alkalinity following the change of δ13CTDIC values are 0 and -3 hours, respectively; the pH change occurs simultaneously with the change of δ13CTDIC, while the alkalinity change happens before 3 hours. Our results indicate that the studied CO2-rich spring is influenced by the intermittent supply of deep-seated CO2. [Acknowledgment] This work was financially supported by the fundamental research project of KIGAM and partially by the "Geo-Advanced Innovative Action (GAIA) Project (2014000530003)" from Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE).

  13. FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L.S.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

  14. Sliding friction and wear behaviors of surface-coated natural serpentine mineral powders as lubricant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baosen; Xu, Yi; Gao, Fei; Shi, Peijing; Xu, Binshi; Wu, Yixiong

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the friction and wear properties of surface-coated natural serpentine powders (SP) suspended in diesel engine oil using an Optimal SRV oscillating friction and wear tester. The worn surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results indicated that the additives can improve the wear resistance and decrease friction coefficient of carbon steel friction couples. The 0.5 wt% content of serpentine powders is found most efficient in reducing friction and wear at the load of 50 N. The SEM and XPS analysis results demonstrate that a tribofilm forms on the worn surface, which is responsible for the decrease in friction and wear, mainly with iron oxides, silicon oxides, graphite and organic compounds.

  15. Quantitative radiochemical method for determination of major sources of natural radioactivity in ores and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    When an ore sample contains radioactivity other than that attributable to the uranium series in equilibrium, a quantitative analysis of the other emitters must be made in order to determine the source of this activity. Thorium-232, radon-222, and lead-210 have been determined by isolation and subsequent activity analysis of some of their short-lived daughter products. The sulfides of bismuth and polonium are precipitated out of solutions of thorium or uranium ores, and the ??-particle activity of polonium-214, polonium-212, and polonium-210 is determined by scintillation-counting techniques. Polonium-214 activity is used to determine radon-222, polonium-212 activity for thorium-232, and polonium-210 for lead-210. The development of these methods of radiochemical analysis will facilitate the rapid determination of some of the major sources of natural radioactivity.

  16. Natural alteration in the cooling Topopah Spring tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as an analog to a waste-repository hydrothermal regime

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.; Valentine, G.

    1993-11-01

    Studies of natural hydrothermal alteration in the cooling Topopah Spring tuff suggest a useful ``self-analog`` predictor of fluid-rock interactions within the thermal regime imposed by a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This tuff has the advantages of representative rock types and appropriate spatial distribution of lithologic features. The cooling history of the tuff spanned the temperature range for any proposed repository thermal load, and the unsaturated-zone hydrologic conditions of the natural alteration would have been similar to existing conditions. A site at northeastern Yucca Mountain, with a prominent vertical fracture zone, has been selected for natural analog studies. The cooling of the tuff and the movement of water in the fracture zone and adjacent matrix will be modeled with the finite element code FEHNM, capable of simulating flow through porous and fractured media using a dual porosity-dual permeability continuum model, with heat transfer and two-phase (vapor and liquid) processes fully accounted for.

  17. Effect of chemical environment on the dynamics of water confined in calcium silicate minerals: natural and synthetic tobermorite.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, Manuel; Gaitero, Juan J; Manzano, Hegoi; Dolado, Jorge S; Cerveny, Silvina

    2015-05-01

    Confined water in the slit mesopores of the mineral tobermorite provides an excellent model system for analyzing the dynamic properties of water confined in cement-like materials. In this work, we use broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) to analyze the dynamic of water entrapped in this crystalline material. Two samples, one natural and one synthetic, were analyzed, and despite their similar structure, the motion of confined water in their zeolitic cavity displays considerably different behavior. The water dynamics splits into two different behaviors depending on the chemical nature of the otherwise identical structural environment: water molecules located in areas where the primary building units are SiO4 relax slowly compared to water molecules located in cavities built with both AlO4 and SiO4. Compared to water confined in regular porous systems, water restricted in tobermorite is slower, indicating that the mesopore structure induces high disorder in the water structure. A comparison with water confined in the C-S-H gel is also discussed in this work. The strong dynamical changes in water due to the presence of aluminum might have important implications in the chemical transport of ions within hydrated calcium silicates, a process that governs the leaching and chemical degradation of cement. PMID:25867059

  18. Crystallization of urine mineral components may depend on the chemical nature of Proteus endotoxin polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Staczek, Paweł; Rózalski, Antoni

    2003-06-01

    Formation of infectious urinary calculi is the most common complication accompanying urinary tract infections by members of the genus Proteus. The major factor involved in stone formation is the urease produced by these bacteria, which causes local supersaturation and crystallization of magnesium and calcium phosphates as carbonate apatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6).CO(3)] and struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O), respectively. This effect may also be enhanced by bacterial polysaccharides. Macromolecules of such kind contain negatively charged residues that are able to bind Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), leading to the accumulation of these ions around bacterial cells and acceleration of the crystallization process. The levels of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions bound by whole Proteus cells were measured, as well as the chemical nature of isolated LPS polysaccharides, and the intensity of the in vitro crystallization process was compared in a synthetic urine. The results suggest that the sugar composition of Proteus LPS may either enhance or inhibit the crystallization of struvite and apatite, depending on its chemical structure and ability to bind cations. This points to the increased importance of endotoxin in urinary tract infections. PMID:12748265

  19. Sorption of americium in tuff and pure minerals using synthetic and natural groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Meijer, A.; Cisneros, M.R.; Miller, G.G.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Perrin, R.E.; Aguilar, R.D.

    1989-12-01

    The distribution of Am between selected solid and liquid phases has been studied using initial {sup 241}Am solutions with a molarity smaller than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}. The synthetic and natural groundwaters used have pH values in the 7--8 range and a total alkalinity of approximately 1 mN which is mainly due to bicarbonate. Mass spectrometric isotope dilution was utilized to determine the amount of Am in the solution phase initially and after equilibrium was attained. Using this sensitive technique, 7 {times} 10{sup 8} atoms of {sup 241}Am were accurately measured. Our results indicate that the percent of Am lost to the walls of the container in the absence of geologic material varies from 35 to 84. The Am sorption coefficient determined is on the order of 10{sup 3} ml/g for clinoptilolite, 10{sup 4} ml/g for tuff consisting mainly of alkali feldspar and cristobalite, and 10{sup 5} ml/g for romanechite. 12 refs.

  20. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  1. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The Kd values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The Kd values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  2. A natural seaweed derived mineral supplement (Aquamin F) for knee osteoarthritis: A randomised, placebo controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Frestedt, Joy L; Kuskowski, Michael A; Zenk, John L

    2009-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slowly destructive process that may be influenced by a nutritional mineral balance in the body. Methods This small, double blind, placebo controlled pilot study investigated the impact of treatment with a natural multi-mineral supplement from seaweed (Aquamin) on 6 minute walking distance (6 MWD), range of motion (ROM), and pain and joint mobility measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index in subjects with moderate to severe OA of the knee during gradual withdrawal of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that were being used daily for pain management. Subjects (n = 29) with moderate to severe OA of the knee were randomised to receive either Aquamin (2400 mg/d) or Placebo for up to 12 weeks. Results Of the 29 subjects initially randomized, only 22 subjects proceeded to treatment due to 7 subjects not meeting study selection criteria at baseline. Fourteen subjects completed the study and an ITT analysis (n = 22) of the data showed no significant differences in WOMAC scores however, the data did reveal significant improvements in passive and active extension ROM (0.83° ± 1.54 vs. -1.54° ± 2.43; difference, 5.2° ± 2.2, p = 0.028) and 6 MWD (150 ± 48 ft vs. 12.5 ± 31.5 ft; difference, 136 ± 57 ft, p = 0.03) in the Aquamin group compared to the placebo group; respectively, following a 50% reduction in NSAID use. The treatments were well tolerated and the adverse event profiles were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion This small preliminary study suggests Aquamin may increase range of motion and walking distances in subjects with OA of the knee and may allow partial withdrawal of NSAIDs over 12 weeks of treatment. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary observations. Trial registration NCT00755482 PMID:19187557

  3. The spectral reflectance of water-mineral mixtures at low temperatures. [observed on natural satellites and other solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance spectra in the 0.325-2.5 micron region of bound water, water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, and frost on minerals are presented. The materials used in this study are montmorillonite, kaolinite, beryl, Mauna Kea red cinder, and black charcoal. It is found that the wavelengths of bound water and bound OH absorptions do not shift appreciably with temperature and can be detected when large amounts of free water ice are present. The decrease in the visible reflectance seen in many planetary reflectance spectra containing strong water ice absorptions can be explained by water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, or frost on mineral grains. Mineral grains on frost are detectable in very small quantities (fractional areal coverage less than approximately 0.005) depending on the mineral reflectance features, while it takes a thick layer of frost (greater than approximately 1 mm) to mask a mineral below 1.4 microns, again depending on the mineral reflectance. Frost on a very dark surface (albedo about 6%) is easily seen; however, a dark mineral mixed with water could completely mask the water absorptions (shortward of 2.5 microns).

  4. Observation of the simultaneous transport of Asian mineral dust aerosols with anthropogenic pollutants using a POPC during a long-lasting dust event in late spring 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Shimohara, Takaaki; Wang, Zifa

    2015-03-01

    We observed a long-lasting dust event from 25 May to 2 June 2014, using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC). The transport of dust plumes over East Asia was verified on the basis of observations of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, a lidar network, and surface synoptic observation stations. Mixing of dust and anthropogenic pollutants was investigated according to the variation in the depolarization ratio as a function of particle size. The nonsphericity of dust particles varied due to the impact of anthropogenic pollutants on their pathway. In the coarse mode, dust particles always had a clear nonspherical configuration, although large amounts of nitrate were also present. Supermicron particles are occasionally present in a spherical configuration, possibly due to the complex mixing of natural dust and anthropogenic particles. Statistically, ~64% of the total nitrate mass was deemed to be transported from outside of Japan due to a trapping effect in the dust plume.

  5. Novel application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) for the non-destructive micro-elemental analysis of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects.

    PubMed

    Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S; Lenehan, Claire E; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; Walshe, Keryn; Pring, Allan

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript presents the first non-destructive synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence study of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects. Our results demonstrate the advantage of XFM (X-ray fluorescence microscopy) of Aboriginal Australian objects for optimum sensitivity, elemental analysis, micron-resolution mapping of pigment areas and the method also has the advantage of being non-destructive to the cultural heritage objects. Estimates of pigment thickness can be calculated. In addition, based on the elemental maps of the pigments, further conclusions can be drawn on the composition and mixtures and uses of natural mineral pigments and whether the objects were made using traditional or modern methods and materials. This manuscript highlights the results of this first application of XFM to investigate complex mineral pigments used on Aboriginal Australian objects. PMID:26999774

  6. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Heath, Jason E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert

    2013-09-01

    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, interfacial processes at the supercritical fluid-mineral interface will strongly affect core- and reservoir-scale hydrologic properties. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral surfaces in supercritical CO2, but will be thinner than those that form in vadose zone environments at any given matric potential. The theoretical model presented here allows assessment of water saturation as a function of matric potential, a critical step for evaluating relative permeabilities the CO2 sequestration environment. The experimental water adsorption studies, using Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods, confirm the major conclusions of the adsorption/condensation model. Additional data provided by the FTIR study is that CO2 intercalation into clays, if it occurs, does not involve carbonate or bicarbonate formation, or significant restriction of CO2 mobility. We have shown that the water film that forms in supercritical CO2 is reactive with common rock-forming minerals, including albite, orthoclase, labradorite, and muscovite. The experimental data indicate that reactivity is a function of water film thickness; at an activity of water of 0.9, the greatest extent of reaction in scCO2 occurred in areas (step edges, surface pits) where capillary condensation thickened the water films. This suggests that dissolution/precipitation reactions may occur preferentially in small pores and pore throats, where it may have a disproportionately large effect on rock hydrologic properties. Finally, a theoretical model is presented here that describes the formation and movement of CO2 ganglia in porous media, allowing assessment of the effect of pore size and structural heterogeneity on capillary trapping efficiency. The model results also suggest possible engineering approaches for optimizing trapping capacity and for

  7. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region. PMID:26307690

  8. Impact of Natural and Man-Made Factors on Mineral Composition of the Ardon River Water and Hydrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Elena, Korobova; Alexander, Degtyarev; Nina, Petrunina; Sergey, Tyutikov

    2013-04-01

    The Unal basin located in mountain region of Northern Ossetia (the Caucasus) belongs to Pb-Zn natural province with anthropogenic and natural transformation of the environment leading to risks of ecological damage. Activity of the Misursk Mining Combine and its Arkhon-Khosta tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn content in soils, water and biotic components relative to background values [1-5]. A catastrophic mud flow of 2002 and the later construction of a gas pipeline and a dam for hydroelectric power station changed local landscapes and biota (plants, algae, and amphibia). Biogeochemical studies performed in the area in 2001, 2003 and 2008 showed that in some cases the specified factors might change the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and the erosion of outcropping rocks which could be followed by corresponding transformation of the chemical composition of draining waters and flood plain soils, and could also change the character of species' invasion. Algae were proved to adapt and to indicate both natural and man-made transformation of the environment [3, 4]. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon river waters and water mineralization was discovered. However, heavy metals' concentration level in waters of the Ardon river appeared in general to be within the acceptable hygienic standards and therefore ecologically not critical. References 1. Degtyarev V.P., Ermakov V.V. Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geokhimiya, 1998, 1, 88-94. 2. Karpova E.A., Krechetova E.V., Degtyarev V.P. Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. Modern problems of soil contamination, Moscow State University, V. 1, 2007, 106-110. 3. Petrunina N.S., Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F., Karpova E.A., Levkina L.M., Gololobova M.A. Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic

  9. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Robert C.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  10. A Hypersaline Spring Analogue in Manitoba, Canada for Potential Ancient Spring Deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berard, G.; Applin, D.; Stromberg, J.; Sharma, R.; Mann, P.; Grasby, S.; Bezys, R.; Horgan, B.; Londry, K.; Rice, M.; Last, B.; Last, F.; Badiou, P.; Goldsborough, G.; Bell, J. F.

    2012-03-01

    This study explores the characteristics of a spring complex, East German Creek, Manitoba (EGC), as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. We focus on EGC's mineral precipitation patterns and potential for biosignature preservation.

  11. Pseudomonas gessardii sp. nov. and Pseudomonas migulae sp. nov., two new species isolated from natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Verhille, S; Baïda, N; Dabboussi, F; Hamze, M; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1999-10-01

    Twenty-five non-identified fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from natural mineral waters were previously clustered into three phenotypic subclusters, XIIIb, XVa and XVc. These strains were characterized genotypically in the present study. DNA-DNA hybridization results and DNA base composition analysis revealed that these strains were members of two new species, for which the names Pseudomonas gessardii sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105469T) and Pseudomonas migulae sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105470T) are proposed. P. gessardii included 13 strains from phenotypic subclusters XVa and XVc. P. migulae included 10 strains from phenotypic subcluster XIIIb. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness ranged from 71 to 100% for P. gessardii and from 74 to 100% for P. migulae. The G + C content of the DNA of each type strain was 58 mol%. DNA similarity levels, measured with 67 reference strains of Pseudomonas species, were below 55%, with delta Tm values of 13 degrees C or more. The two new species presented basic morphological characteristics common to all pseudomonads. Various phenotypic features were found to differentiate them: P. gessardii strains utilized L-arabitol, myo-inositol, adonitol, xylitol and meso-erythritol as carbon sources, whereas P. migulae strains assimilated L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-saccharate, meso-tartrate, tricarballylate, D-glucuronate, D-galacturonate, phenylacetate and histamine. The complete 16S rRNA sequences of each type strain were determined and compared with those of the type strains of Pseudomonas species. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was inferred from sequence analysis and demonstrated that the two new species fell into the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. To date, their clinical significance is unknown. PMID:10555337

  12. Plant tendrils: Nature's hygroscopic springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbode, Sharon; Puzey, Joshua; McCormick, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    Plant tendrils are specialized climbing organs that have fascinated biologists and physicists alike for centuries. Initially straight tendrils attach at the tip to an elevated rigid support and then winch the plant upward by coiling into a helical morphology characterized by two helices of opposite handedness connected by a helical perversion. In his renowned treatise on twining and tendril-bearing plants, Charles Darwin surmised that coiled tendrils serve as soft, springy attachments for the climbing plant. Yet, the true effect of the perverted helical shape of a coiled plant tendril has not been fully revealed. Using a combination of experiments on Cucurbitaceae tendrils, physical models constructed from strained rubber sheets, and numerical models of helical perversions, we have uncovered that tendril coiling occurs via anisotropic shrinkage of a strip of specialized cells in the interior of the tendril. Furthermore, variations in the mechanical behavior of tendrils as they become drier and ``woodier'' adds a new twist to the story of tendril coiling.

  13. Treatment of kidney diseases in the thermal springs of Pithecusa during the XVIII Century.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The island of Pithecusa (Ischia) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea in the north end of the Gulf of Naples at about 30 kilometers from the same city. Pithecusa is very popular for its hot springs which even the ancients used. This report aims to analyze the renal therapeutic benefits of the Pithacusa thermal mineral spring through a review of two different manuscripts: i) "Di Napoli il seno cratero"(The gulf of Naples) of Domenico Antonio Parrino (1642-1708) and ii) "De' rimedi naturali che sono nell'isola di Pithecusa oggi detta Ischia"(On the natural cures of the island of Pithecusa known today as Ischia)of Giulio Iasolino (1583-1622). These two manuscripts published during the 18th century and both manuscripts highlight the thermal virtues of the thermal springs of Pithecusa. In the past natural remedies were important in the treatment of different diseases including that of thermal springs dating back to ancient Rome. Thermal springs were used to treat spasms, skin diseases, hair loss and various renal ailments. Both manuscripts describe the thermal springs in Ischia and their therapeutic benefits in medical diseases. PMID:26913894

  14. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Services Provided by Two Mineral Extraction Sites Restored for Nature Conservation in an Agricultural Landscape in Eastern England

    PubMed Central

    Blaen, Phillip J.; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Field, Rob H.; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A.; Bradbury, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being. PMID:25894293

  15. Rapid assessment of ecosystem services provided by two mineral extraction sites restored for nature conservation in an agricultural landscape in eastern England.

    PubMed

    Blaen, Phillip J; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Field, Rob H; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A; Bradbury, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being. PMID:25894293

  16. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density changes in a natural occurring dog model of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M A; Gielen, Ingrid M V L; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  17. Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Bone Mineral Density Changes in a Natural Occurring Dog Model of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M. A.; Gielen, Ingrid M. V. L.; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  18. HRTEM investigations between minerals, fluids and lithobiontic communities during natural weathering. Progress report, September 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, J.F.; Barker, W.W.

    1994-02-01

    HRTEM and AEM analysis of riebeckite and acmite from the interiors of moderately weathered syenite reveals that interaction of these minerals with surficial fluids resulted in the almost complete removal of Na, Ca, and Si. Fe remained relatively immobile, forming arrays of semi-oriented nanocrystalline ferrihydrite and goethite at the primary mineral-secondary mineral interface. The goethite intimately contacts an irregularly corroded amphibole surface. Smectite occurs sporadically as isolated crystallites a few layers thick which are surrounded by goethite. No obvious structural alignment between clay and amphibole or pyroxene was seen. Data suggest that almost all Si is transported in solution to more open regions between islands of nanocrystalline goethite, where it crystallizes as an Fe - rich smectite. Alteration assemblages in wider channels are comprised of euhedral goethite crystals that, within a submicron-sized area, range in size from 5--40 manometers. Sub-grain boundary structures and the porosity distribution suggests evolution of particle size by coarsening. Optical microscopy demonstrates intimate contact between lichen thalli and mineral surfaces. Lichen thalli exploit cracks and open cleavages to extend several millimeters within mineral interiors. Preliminary TEM data suggest the alteration assemblage consists of a polymer-bound mass of chemically complex aluminosilicates.

  19. Raman efficiencies of natural rocks and minerals: performance of a remote Raman system for planetary exploration at a distance of 10 meters.

    PubMed

    Stopar, Julie D; Lucey, Paul G; Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Taylor, G Jeffrey; Hubble, Hugh W

    2005-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for materials analysis, and we are developing and analyzing a remote Raman system for use on a planetary lander or rover. We have acquired data at a distance of 10m from a variety of geologic materials using different instrument designs. We have employed a pulsed laser with both an ungated detector and a gated detector. A gated detector can reduce long-lived fluorescence while still collecting all Raman signal. In order to design a flight instrument, we need to quantify how natural surfaces will respond to laser stimulus. We define remote Raman efficiency of natural surfaces as the ratio of radiant exitance leaving a natural surface to the irradiance of the incident laser. The radiant exitance of a natural surface is the product of the sample radiance, the projected solid angle, and the full-width-half-maximum of the Raman signal. We have determined the remote Raman efficiency for a variety of rocks and minerals. The best efficiencies are achieved for large, clear, single crystals that produce the most radiant exitance, while darker fine-grained mineral mixtures produce lower efficiencies. By implementing a pulsed laser, gated detector system we have improved the signal detection and have generally decreased the integration time necessary to detect Raman signal from natural surfaces. PMID:16029852

  20. The nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers in southern Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, J. V.; Noble, D. D.; Hsu, L. C.; Hutsinpiller, A.

    1986-01-01

    Four LANDSAT thematic mapping scenes in southern Nevada were requested at two different acquisition times in order to assess the effect of vegetation on the signature of the volcanic units. The remote sensing data acquisition and analysis portion are nearly completed. The LANDSAT thematic mapping data is of good quality, and image analysis techniques are so far successful in delineating areas with distinct spectral characteristics. Spectrally distinct areas were correlated with variations in surface coating and lithologies of the volcanic rocks.

  1. Nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain, and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, Southern Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, James V.; Hsu, Liang C.; Spatz, David

    1988-01-01

    Comparative lab spectra and Thematic Mapper imagery investigations at 3 Tertiary calderas in southern Nevada indicate that desert varnish is absorbant relative to underlying host rocks below about 0.7 to 1.3 microns, depending on mafic affinity of the sample, but less absorbant than mafic host rocks at higher wavelengths. Desert varnish occurs chiefly as thin impregnating films. Distribution of significant varnish accumulations is sparse and localized, occurring chiefly in surface recesses. These relationships result in the longer wavelength bands and high 5/2 values over felsic units with extensive desert varnish coatings. These lithologic, petrochemical, and desert varnish controlled spectral responses lead to characteristic TM band relationships which tend to correlate with conventionally mappable geologic formations. The concept of a Rock-Varnish Index (RVI) is introduced to help distinguish rocks with a potentially detectable varnish. Felsic rocks have a high RVI, and those with extensive desert varnish behave differently, spectrally, from those without extensive varnish. The spectrally distinctive volcanic formations at Stonewall Mountain provide excellent statistical class segregation on supervised classification images. A binary decision rule flow-diagram is presented to aid TM imagery analysis over volcanic terrane in semi-arid environments.

  2. Nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain, and Kane Springs, Wash volcanic centers, Southern Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, James V.; Noble, Donald C.; Hsu, Liang C.; Spatz, David M.

    1987-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery was evaluated over 3 Tertiary calderas in southern Nevada. Each volcanic center derived from a highly evolved silici magmatic system represented today by well exposed diverse lithologies. Distinctive imagery contrast between some of the late ash flows and earlier units follows from the high relative reflectance in longer wavelength bands (bands 5 and 7) of the former. Enhancement techniques provide color composite images which highlight some of the units in remarkable color contrast. Inasmuch as coatings on the tuffs are incompletely developed and apparently largely dependent spectrally on rock properties independent of petrochemistry, it is felt that the distinctive imagery characteristics are more a function of primary lithologic or petrochemical properties. Any given outcrop is backdrop for a variety of cover types, of which coatings, at various stages of maturity, are one. Petrographic and X-ray diffraction analysis of the outer air-interface zone of coatings reveal they are composed chiefly of amorphous compounds, probably with varying proportions of iron and manganese. Observations support an origin for some outer (air-interface) coating constituents exogenous to the underlying host.

  3. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, Annual Reports 1993, 1994, 1995 : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Timothy R.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This reports on the second, third, and fourth years of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally produced spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulational and interannual variation in several early life history parameters of naturally produced spring and summer chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project will provide information to assist chinook salmon population recovery efforts. Specific populations included in the study are: (1) Catherine Creek; (2) Upper Grande Ronde River; (3) Lostine River; (4) Imnaha River; (5) Wenaha River; and (6) Minam River. In this document, the authors present findings and activities from research completed in 1993, 1994, and 1995.

  4. Spring Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    22 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dunes in the north polar region of Mars. In this scene, the dunes, and the plain on which the dunes reside, are at least in part covered by a bright carbon dioxide frost. Dark spots indicate areas where the frost has begun to change, either by subliming away to expose dark sand, changing to a coarser particle size, or both. The winds responsible for the formation of these dunes blew from the lower left (southwest) toward the upper right (northeast).

    Location near: 76.3oN, 261.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  5. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  6. Microbial mineralization of cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride as a component of natural attenuation of chloroethene contaminants under conditions identified in the field as anoxic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Chlororespiration is a key component of remediation at many chloroethene-contaminated sites. In some instances, limited accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products may suggest that natural attenuation is not adequate for site remediation. This conclusion is justified when evidence for parent compound (tetrachloroethene, PCE, or trichloroethene, TCE) degradation is lacking. For many chloroethene-contaminated shallow aquifer systems, however, non-conservative losses of the parent compounds are clear but the mass balance between parent compound attenuation and accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products is incomplete. Incomplete mass balance indicates a failure to account for important contaminant attenuation mechanisms, and is consistent with contaminant degradation to non-diagnostic mineralization products. An ongoing technical debate over the potential for mineralization of dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) to CO2 in the complete absence of diatomic oxygen has largely obscured the importance of microbial DCE/VC mineralization at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations below the current field standard (DO < 0.1-0.5 milligrams per liter) for nominally anoxic conditions. This study demonstrates that oxygen-based microbial mineralization of DCE and VC can be substantial under field conditions that are frequently characterized as "anoxic." Because mischaracterization of operant contaminant biodegradation processes can lead to expensive and ineffective remedial actions, a modified framework for assessing the potential importance of oxygen during chloroethene biodegradation was developed.

  7. Nature and genesis of clay minerals of the Rustler Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sewards, T.; Brearley, A.; Glenn, R. ); MacKinnon, I.D.R. ); Siegel, M.D. )

    1992-08-01

    Detailed mineralogical studies of the matrix and fracture-fill materials of a large number of samples from the Rustler Formation have been carried out using x-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, x-ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These analyses indicate the presence of four clay minerals: interstratified chlorite/saponite, illite, chlorite, and serpentine. Corrensite (regularly stratified chlorite/saponite) is the dominant clay mineral in samples from the Culebra dolomite and two shale layers of the lower unnamed member of the Rustler Formation. Within other layers of the Rustler Formation, disordered mixed chlorite/saponite is usually the most abundant clay mineral. Studies of the morphology and composition of clay crystallites suggest that the corrensite was formed by the alteration of detrital dioctahedral smectite in magnesium-rich pore fluids during early diagenesis of the Rustler Formation. This study provides initial estimates of the abundance and nature of the clay minerals in the Culebra dolomite in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

  8. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats. PMID:25369743

  9. Mineralization of Alvinella polychaete tubes at hydrothermal vents

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, M N; Little, C T S; Ball, A D; Glover, A G

    2015-01-01

    Alvinellid polychaete worms form multilayered organic tubes in the hottest and most rapidly growing areas of deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. Over short periods of time, these tubes can become entirely mineralized within this environment. Documenting the nature of this process in terms of the stages of mineralization, as well as the mineral textures and end products that result, is essential for our understanding of the fossilization of polychaetes at hydrothermal vents. Here, we report in detail the full mineralization of Alvinella spp. tubes collected from the East Pacific Rise, determined through the use of a wide range of imaging and analytical techniques. We propose a new model for tube mineralization, whereby mineralization begins as templating of tube layer and sublayer surfaces and results in fully mineralized tubes comprised of multiple concentric, colloform, pyrite bands. Silica appeared to preserve organic tube layers in some samples. Fine-scale features such as protein fibres, extracellular polymeric substances and two types of filamentous microbial colonies were also found to be well preserved within a subset of the tubes. The fully mineralized Alvinella spp. tubes do not closely resemble known ancient hydrothermal vent tube fossils, corroborating molecular evidence suggesting that the alvinellids are a relatively recent polychaete lineage. We also compare pyrite and silica preservation of organic tissues within hydrothermal vents to soft tissue preservation in sediments and hot springs. PMID:25556400

  10. Mineralization of Alvinella polychaete tubes at hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, M N; Little, C T S; Ball, A D; Glover, A G

    2015-03-01

    Alvinellid polychaete worms form multilayered organic tubes in the hottest and most rapidly growing areas of deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. Over short periods of time, these tubes can become entirely mineralized within this environment. Documenting the nature of this process in terms of the stages of mineralization, as well as the mineral textures and end products that result, is essential for our understanding of the fossilization of polychaetes at hydrothermal vents. Here, we report in detail the full mineralization of Alvinella spp. tubes collected from the East Pacific Rise, determined through the use of a wide range of imaging and analytical techniques. We propose a new model for tube mineralization, whereby mineralization begins as templating of tube layer and sublayer surfaces and results in fully mineralized tubes comprised of multiple concentric, colloform, pyrite bands. Silica appeared to preserve organic tube layers in some samples. Fine-scale features such as protein fibres, extracellular polymeric substances and two types of filamentous microbial colonies were also found to be well preserved within a subset of the tubes. The fully mineralized Alvinella spp. tubes do not closely resemble known ancient hydrothermal vent tube fossils, corroborating molecular evidence suggesting that the alvinellids are a relatively recent polychaete lineage. We also compare pyrite and silica preservation of organic tissues within hydrothermal vents to soft tissue preservation in sediments and hot springs. PMID:25556400

  11. Environmental Studies, Section IV: Natural Resources. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.10: Minerals. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individualized learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on minerals. A public hearing is…

  12. Nature and distribution of potential heavy-mineral resources offshore of the Atlantic Coast of the United States.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The US is dependent on foreign imports of placer heavy minerals for a majority of its ilmenite and rutile, and virtually all of its monazite requirements. Although sand deposits in the SE US are important domestic sources of these heavy minerals (HM) and a number of other less well-known heavy-mineral species, global onshore reserves of placer minerals may fall short of demand in as few as 20 years. Insofar as they are important commodities for the future, offshore HM placers will become more important, but much research on them remains to be done. Results of recent offshore studies, based on surficial grab samples, indicate an average of about 2 weight percent HM in surficial Atlantic Continental Shelf (ACS) sediments, in strong contrast with previous estimates of an average of 0.16% HM. Although provocative, the information from these grab samples does not include the thickness of the HM deposits and thus their volume and tonnage cannot be estimated.-from Author

  13. Infrared spectroscopy of OD vibrators in minerals at natural dilution: hydroxyl groups in talc and kaolinite, and structural water in beryl and emerald.

    PubMed

    de Donato, Philippe; Cheilletz, Alain; Barres, Odile; Yvon, Jacques

    2004-05-01

    An infrared (IR) study of natural deuteration is conducted on minerals containing hydroxyl groups (talc and kaolinite) and channel-water-bearing minerals (beryl and emerald). In talc, the OD valence vibration is located at 2710 cm(-1), corresponding to OD groups surrounded by 3 Mg atoms. In kaolinite, the OD valence vibrations are located at 2671 cm(-1) (inner OD group), 2712, 2706, and 2700 cm(-1) (three inner-surface OD groups). In beryl and emerald, natural deuteration of channel water is observed for the first time by infrared microspectroscopy. In beryl from Minas Gerais (Brazil), the OD profiles are characterized by four bands at 2735, 2686, 2672, and 2641 cm(-1). In emeralds from Colombia and Brazil, the OD profiles are characterized by five or four bands, respectively, at 2816, 2737, 2685, 2673, and 2641 cm(-1) (Colombia) and 2730, 2684, 2672, and 2640 cm(-1) (Brazil). The band at 2816 cm(-1) can be assigned to -OD or OD(-), and bands at 2686-2684, 2673-2672, and 2641-2640 cm(-1) can be assigned to type-I and type-II HOD molecules. The band at 2737-2730 cm(-1) is partially disturbed by combination bands of the mineral. Such OD profiles are different from those obtained by artificial deuteration at higher OD dilution. PMID:15165327

  14. Nature of organo-mineral particles across density fractions in a volcanic-ash soil: air-drying and sonication effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagai, R.; Kajiura, M.; Shirato, Y.; Uchida, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions of plant- and microbially-derived organic matter with mineral phases exert significant controls on the stabilization of organic matter (OM) as well as other biogeochemical processes in soil. Density fractionation techniques have been successful in distinguishing soil organo-mineral particles of different degrees of microbial alteration, turnover rate of C, mineral associations. A major methodological difference among the density fractionation studies is the choice of sample pre-treatment. Presence or absence of sonication to disrupt and disperse soil particles and aggregates is a particularly important choice which could significantly alter the nature and distribution of organo-mineral particle and thus the resultant elemental concentration in each density fraction. Soil moisture condition (air-dry vs. field-moist) may also have strong impact especially for soils rich in Fe oxides/hydroxides and/or poorly-crystalline minerals that are prone for (possibly irreversible) aggregation. We thus tested these two effects on the concentration and distribution of C, N, and extractable phases of Fe and Al (by pyrophosphate and acid oxalate) across six density fractions (from <1.6 to >2.5 g/cm^3) using a surface-horizon of volcanic-ash soil which contained large amounts of poorly-crystalline minerals and organo-metal complexes. Compared to field-moist sample, air-drying had little effects on the elemental concentration or distribution across the fractions. In contrast, sonication on air-dried sample at each density cutoff during fractionation process caused significant changes. In addition to well-known increase in low-density material due to the liberation of plant detritus upon aggregate disruption, we found clear increase in C, N, and metals in 2.0-2.3 g/cm^3 fraction, which was largely compensated by the reduction in 1.8-2.0 g/cm^3 and, to a less extent, 2.3-2.5 g/cm^3 particles. Overall, sonication led to the redistribution of C and N by 15-20% and that of

  15. Identification and Characterization Methods for Reactive Minerals Responsible for Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Organic Compounds in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing awareness of the contribution of abiotic processes to the natural degradation of chlorinated organic contaminants in aquifer material. These abiotic processes contribute to risk management of the contaminants through monitored natur...

  16. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  17. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  18. Antagonistic perception of a rock-mass as geomorphosite and/or mineral resource with specific concern of natural stone for heritage conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Prior to industrial era, the quarrying of natural stone was primarily local (the stone has been used very close to its extraction in most of the cases), small scale, occasional (the stone has been extracted only when needed for specific construction, permanent operations were much rarer than nowadays) but long-term (the quarrying activity at one site persisted over centuries very often). The landscape affected by such quarrying (as we can observe it at present) gained numerous new values (e.g., increased morphological contrast, succession of wildlife habitat, etc.) that are often appreciated more than the presence of valuable mineral resource - natural stone. If these site were claimed natural monuments or gained another type of environmental protection, any further extraction of natural stone is prohibited. However, if the specific site was used for extraction of natural stone that has been used for construction which later became cultural heritage object, the antagonistic perception of the site might appear - the site might be protected as a geomorphosite but, at the same time, it can be a source of unique natural stone required for the restoration of cultural heritage objects. This paper, along with above mentioned basic relationships, provides some real examples connected with the difficulties to find the extractable source of natural stone for restoration of iconic cultural heritage objects - specifically search for sources of Carboniferous arkoses to be used for replacement of the decayed ashlars at the Gothic Charles Bridge in Prague (Czech Republic).

  19. The Role of Natural Organic Matter and Mineral Colloids in the Transport of Contaminants through Heterogeneous Vadose-Zone Environments

    SciTech Connect

    James Saiers, Yale University; Joseph Ryan, University of Colorado

    2009-01-31

    Our research was guided by a key objective of the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP), which is to improve conceptual and predictive models for contaminant movement in complex vadose zone environments. In this report, increases in the understanding of colloidcontaminant interactions, colloid mobilization, and colloid deposition within unsaturated soils are cited as requisite needs for predicting contaminant fate and distribution in the vadose zone. We addressed these needs by pursuing three key goals: 1. Identify the mechanisms that govern OM and mineral-colloid reaction and transport in heterogeneous, unsaturated porous media; 2. Quantify the role of OM and mineral colloids in scavenging and facilitating the transport of contaminants of concern to DOE; and 3. Develop and test a mathematical model suitable for simulating the movement of OM- and colloid-associated contaminants through heterogeneous, unsaturated porous media.

  20. New data on the Hyrkkoelae native copper mineralization: A natural analogue for the long-term corrosion of copper canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Marcos, N.; Ahonen, L.; Bros, R.; Roos, P.; Suksi, J.; Oversby, V.

    1999-07-01

    The Hyrkkoelae U-Cu mineralization located in southwestern Finland is reassessed with reference to the corrosion mechanisms affecting the stability of native copper and the time-scales of corrosion processes. The mineral assemblage native copper--copper sulfide occurs in open fractures at several depth intervals within granite pegmatites (GP). The surfaces of these open fractures have accumulations of uranophane crystals and other unidentified uranyl compounds. The secondary uranium minerals are mainly distributed around copper sulfide grains. Microscopic intergrowths of copper sulfides and uranyl compounds also have been observed. Groundwater samples were collected from the vicinity of the Cu samples. The hydrogeochemical features of these samples indicate that the present conditions are oxidizing. The minimum age of U(VI) transport and deposition is about 200,000 years. This age is indicated by {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U activity ratios of uranophane. The age of the hexavalent uranium precipitation may be somewhat later than the last influxes and/or demobilization of sulfur. The mineral assemblage native copper--copper oxide (cuprite) occurs only at one depth interval within altered granite pegmatite. The fracture surface was coated by smectite. The content of uranium in smectite was 69--75 ppm U. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U activity ratios of smectite showed that it has been exposed to recent groundwaters (e.g., during the last million years). The pH of the groundwater at this interval was near neutral (6.9). The copper grains present at this fracture surface were as large as 1 mm in diameter and had rims of cuprite of 0.01 to 0.1 mm thick. The smallest grains were totally oxidized.

  1. The complex nature of hydrothermal smectites and mixed layer minerals from an andesite near Wurgwitz, Saxony, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Haubrich, Frank; Ullrich, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    At Wurgwitz near Dresden, Saxony, Germany, a quarry was opened recently to retrieve material from the "Wilsdruff-Potschappel Porphyrite". This Permo-Carboniferous, latitic-andesitic lava flow shows intensive alteration features in its upper sections. The material is dissected by a series of fissures (herzynic strike, 80-90 ° dip), which exhibit intensive green coloured, clayey fillings as well as disintegrated, grey to brown fissure flanks. Several alteration types of different macroscopic habit could be deciphered. The material was sampled and investigated by XRD, DTA-TG-DTG, SEM, RFA, AAS and EDS techniques. In general, three types of dioctahedric smectites could be identified and characterised. 1) Montmorillonite with beidellitic character or sometimes typical beidellite, 2) smectite with nontronitic character, and 3) chromium-rich smectite, fulfilling preconditions for designating it volkonskoite. The latter was not described from Saxony, yet, and is an overall rare mineral (four findings worldwide). Further, a regular trioctahedral mixed layer mineral, corrensite, could be identified. Several arguments suggest hydrothermal or metasomatic processes related to both, formation of the identified clay minerals and alteration of the andesite itself: 1) Pipes with iron-rich, gel-like coatings on several fissure fillings may be interpreted as remnants of circulated fluids. 2) Concentration of magnesium within bedrock is insufficient to allow smectite neoformation at all. 3) High amounts of chromium and vanadium argue for allochthonous element supply. The source of chromium, leading to volkonskoite formation remains unclear, yet.

  2. Investigations into the Early Life-history of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Reischauer, Alyssa; Monzyk, Frederick; Van Dyke, Erick

    2003-06-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss using rotary screw traps on four streams in the Grande Ronde River basin during the 2001 migratory year (MY 2001) from 1 July 2000 through 30 June 2001. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O. mykiss could be distinguished. An 'early' migrant group left upper rearing areas from 1 July 2000 through 29 January 2001 with a peak in the fall. A 'late' migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from 30 January 2001 through 30 June 2001 with a peak in the spring. The migrant population of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River in MY 2001 was very low in comparison to previous migratory years. We estimated 51 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 12% of the migrant population leaving as early migrants to overwinter downstream. In the same migratory year, we estimated 16,067 O. mykiss migrants left upper rearing areas with approximately 4% of these fish descending the upper Grande Ronde River as early migrants. At the Catherine Creek trap, we estimated 21,937 juvenile spring chinook migrants in MY 2001. Of these migrants, 87% left upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. We also estimated 20,586 O. mykiss migrants in Catherine Creek with 44% leaving upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. At the Lostine River trap, we estimated 13,610 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 77% migrating early. We estimated 16,690 O. mykiss migrated out of the Lostine River with approximately 46% descending the river as early migrants. At the Minam River trap, we estimated 28,209 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of the river with 36% migrating early. During the same period, we estimated 28,113 O. mykiss with approximately 14

  3. The energy of naturally curved elastic rods with an application to the stretching and contraction of a free helical spring as a model for DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Gerald S.

    2015-09-14

    We give a contemporary and direct derivation of a classical, but insufficiently familiar, result in the theory of linear elasticity—a representation for the energy of a stressed elastic rod with central axis that intrinsically takes the shape of a general space curve. We show that the geometric torsion of the space curve, while playing a crucial role in the bending energy, is physically unrelated to the elastic twist. We prove that the twist energy vanishes in the lowest-energy states of a rod subject to constraints that do not restrict the twist. The stretching and contraction energies of a free helical spring are computed. There are local high-energy minima. We show the possibility of using the spring to model the chirality of DNA. We then compare our results with an available atomic level energy simulation that was performed on DNA unconstrained in the same sense as the free spring. We find some possible reflections of springlike behavior in the mechanics of DNA, but, unsurprisingly, the base pairs lend a material substance to the core of DNA that a spring does not capture.

  4. Composition, structure and properties of sediment thermal springs of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, Violetta; Smolyakov, Pavel; Parfenov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the physical and mechanical properties sediment thermal fields Mutnovsky, Lower Koshelevo and Bannyh (Kamchatka). This multi-component soils, mineral and chemical composition of which depends on the formation factors (pH, temperature, salinity of water, composition and structure of the host volcanic rocks). Samples Lower Koshelevo sediment thermal sources differ in the following composition: smectite, kaolinite, kaolinite-smectite mixed-mineral. Samples of sediment thermal springs Mutnovsky volcano in accordance with the X-ray analysis has the following composition: volcanic glass, crystalline sulfur, plagioclase, smectite, illite-smectite mixed, illite, chlorite, quartz, cristobalite, pyrite, melanterite, kaolinite. Natural moisture content samples of sediment thermal springs from 45 to 121%, hygroscopic moisture content of 1.3 to 3.7%. A large amount of native sulfur (up to 92%) and the presence of amorphous material gives low values of density of solid particles (up to 2.1 g/cm3) samples Mutnovskii thermal field. The values of the density of solids sediment Koshelevo and Bannyh hot springs close to those of the main components of mineral densities (up to 2.6-3.0 g/cm3). The results of the particle size distribution and microaggregate analysis of sediment thermal springs Lower Koshelevo field shows that the predominance observed of particles with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm, the coefficient of soil heterogeneity heterogeneous. In the bottom sediments of the thermal springs of the volcano Mutnovsky poorly traced predominance of one faction. Most prevalent fraction with particle size 0.01 - 0.05 mm. When analyzing the content in the soil microaggregates their content is shifted towards particles with a diameter of 0.25 mm. The contents of a large number of large (1-10 mm), porous rock fragments, due to the deposition of pyroclastic material from the eruptions of the last century. Present in large amounts rounded crystals of native sulfur

  5. Authentication potential of 87Sr/86Sr in water - reference of signatures in natural mineral water to regional geology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, G. D.; Voerkelius, S.

    2009-04-01

    The study presents the investigation of strontium isotope ratios of about 650 different European natural mineral waters as part of the food traceability project "TRACE" funded by the EU. The 87Sr/86Sr analysis is part of a multi-element approach for authen-ticity which also includes 18O, 2H, 3H, main and trace elements as well as 34S. The analysed 87Sr/86Sr cover a wide range of values from 0.7035 to 0.7777 indicating that the natural mineral water samples cover the span from young mantle derived basal-tic rocks to very old silicic continental crust. The results of the large-scale investigation are used to elaborate a novel spatial predic-tion for strontium isotope ratios by combining the measured data with a GIS based geo-logical map of Europe. The resulting map can be used to predict the strontium isotopic composition of ground-water and as such the composition of bioavailable strontium, which can be taken up by plants and further transferred into the food chain. In this study we show, as an example, that the strontium isotopic composition of honey and wheat from specific sample region within the TRACE project correlates well with that of the natural mineral water as pre-dicted by our map. The proof of principle shown is highly relevant for geographical food authentication as it will allow an assessment of the origin of food products without the immediate need for geographically authenticated materials which may not always be available in the first instance. As such, our approach provides a cost effective first instance screening tool. There is an increasing demand for independent analytical methods which can control the geographical origin. The EU project TRACE was started with the aim to develop a gen-eral understanding of the relation between the geo-bio-climatic environment and the isotope and elemental signature in food commodities. As one part of the study detailed isotope maps (e.g. 18O, 87Sr/86Sr) for groundwater will be generated by the isotope re

  6. Structure and hydrogeochemical functioning of a sparkling natural mineral water system determined using a multidisciplinary approach: a case study from southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, J. C.; Lachassagne, P.; Ladouche, B.; Dewandel, B.; Lanini, S.; Le Strat, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2013-12-01

    Natural mineral waters (NMW), often used to produce bottled water, are of high socio-economic interest and need appropriate management to ensure the sustainability of the resource. A complex sparkling NMW system at La Salvetat, southern France, was investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Geological and geophysical investigations, pumping test analyses, time-series signal processing, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data (both stable and radiogenic), and numerical modelling provided complementary information on the geometry, hydrodynamic characteristics and functioning of this mineral system. The conceptual model consists of a compartmentalized reservoir characterized by two subvertical, parallel deeply rooted hydraulically independent permeable structures that are fed by deep CO2-rich crustal fluids. The non-mineralized shallow aquifer system corresponds to a fissured layer within the weathered zone that is recharged by leakage from the overlying saprolite. This surficial aquifer responds rapidly to recharge (40-80 days), whereas the deep system's response to recharge is much longer (up to 120 days). This research demonstrates the need for multidisciplinary approaches and modelling (quantity, hydrochemistry) for understanding complex NMW systems. This knowledge is already being applied by the bottling company that manages the resource at La Salvetat, and would be useful for conceptualising other NMW sites.

  7. The role of ground-water recharge processes in the formation of natural acid-rock drainage in mineralized mountain watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, A. H.; Bove, D. J.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    An understanding of the natural production of low-pH and metal-rich ground and surface water (acid-rock drainage, or ARD) in mineralized watersheds is important for establishing pre-mining conditions in mined locations and for evaluating the potential environmental impacts of future mining in unmined locations. The significance of hydrothermal alteration type and lithology and in ARD production is well established, but the role played by climatic factors remains poorly understood. Ground-water recharge processes (e.g., water table depth, seasonal recharge fluctuations, and unsaturated zone residence time) could exert a major influence because they control features of the unsaturated zone that should in turn directly control the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the subsurface. We are exploring the relative importance of different aspects of ground-water recharge in ARD production by performing a series of numerical geochemical modeling experiments with PHREEQC and examining recently collected geochemical and hydrologic data from Handcart Gulch, a mineralized mountain watershed in the Colorado Front Range. Preliminary results suggest that ground-water residence time in the unsaturated zone is of primary importance. However, sulfide oxidation is probably oxygen-limited in deeper unsaturated zones under mountain ridges, meaning that ARD production may be commonly limited by rates of downward oxygen diffusion. Results of this study should assist in predicting possible future changes in ARD production in mountain watersheds under anticipated climate change scenarios.

  8. Environmental geochemistry of shale-hosted Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in northwest Alaska: Natural background concentrations of metals in water from mineralized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, K.D.; Taylor, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Red Dog, Lik and Drenchwater are shale-hosted stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in the northwestern Brooks Range. Natural background concentrations of metals in waters from the undisturbed (unmined) Drenchwater prospect and Lik deposit were compared to pre-mining baseline studies conducted at Red Dog. The primary factors affecting water chemistry are the extent of exposure of the deposits, the grade of mineralization, the presence of carbonate reeks in the section, and the proportion of Fe-sulfide in the ore. Surface water samples from the Drenchwater prospect, which has pyrite-dominant mineralization exposed in outcrop, have pH values as low as 2.8 and high dissolved concentrations of metals including as much as 95 mg 1-1 Al, 270 mg 1-1 Fe, 8 ??1-1 Cd, 10 ??1-1 Pb, and 2600 ??1-1 Zn, with As up to 26 ??g1-1. Surface waters from the Red Dog deposit prior to mining were also acidic and metal-rich, however, dissolved metal concentrations in Red Dog waters were many times greater. The higher metal concentrations in Red Dog waters reflect the high Zn grades and the abundant sphalerite, pyrite, and galena that were present in outcrop prior to mining. In contrast, despite significant mineralization at the Lik deposit, carbonate rocks in the section buffer the system, resulting in less acidic, mostly near-neutral pH values with low concentrations of most metals except Zn.

  9. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  10. Effect of size of man-made and natural mineral fibers on chemiluminescent response in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, M; Otake, T; Morinaga, K

    2001-01-01

    Fiber size is an important factor in the tumorigenicity of various mineral fibers and asbestos fibers in animal experiments. We examined the time course of the ability to induce lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) from human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to Japan Fibrous Material standard reference samples (glass wool, rock wool, micro glass fiber, two types of refractory ceramic fiber, refractory mullite fiber, potassium titanium whisker, silicon carbide whisker, titanium oxide whisker, and wollastonite). We determined how fiber length or width might modify the response of cells. We found that the patterns of time-dependent increase of CL (sigmoid type) were similar for each sample except wollastonite. We observed a strong correlation between geometric-mean length and ability to induce CL in seven samples > 6 microm in length over the time course (largest r(2) = 0.9760). Although we also observed a close positive correlation between geometric-mean width and the ability to induce CL in eight samples < 1.8 microm in width at 15 min (r(2) = 0.8760), a sample of 2.4 microm in width had a low ability to induce CL. Moreover, the relationship between width and the rate of increase in ability to induce CL had a negative correlation at 30-60 min (largest r(2) = 0.7473). Our findings suggest that the release of superoxide from macrophages occurs nonspecifically for various types of mineral fibers depending on fiber length. PMID:11675268

  11. Incorporation and mineralization of TNT and other anthropogenic organics by natural microbial assemblages from a small, tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Michael T; Coffin, Richard B; Boyd, Thomas J; Osburn, Christopher L

    2013-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) metabolism was compared across salinity transects in Kahana Bay, a small tropical estuary on Oahu, HI. In surface water, TNT incorporation rates (range: 3-121 μg C L(-1) d(-1)) were often 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than mineralization rates suggesting that it may serve as organic nitrogen for coastal microbial assemblages. These rates were often an order of magnitude more rapid than those for RDX and two orders more than HMX. During average or high stream flow, TNT incorporation was most rapid at the riverine end member and generally decreased with increasing salinity. This pattern was not seen during low flow periods. Although TNT metabolism was not correlated with heterotrophic growth rate, it may be related to metabolism of other aromatic compounds. With most TNT ring-carbon incorporation efficiencies at greater than 97%, production of new biomass appears to be a more significant product of microbial TNT metabolism than mineralization. PMID:23287075

  12. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    surfaces that produce palisade and "shrub" fabrics, respectively. At finer scales, composite fabrics are seen to consist distinctive associations of microstructures formed by the encrustation of individual cells and filaments. Composite fabrics survive the diagenetic transitions from primary opaline silica to quartz and are known from subaerial thermal spring deposits as old as Lower Carboniferous. However, fossil microorganisms tend to be rare in older deposits, and are usually preserved only where cells or sheaths have been stained by iron oxides. In subaqueous mineralizing springs at lower temperatures, early infilling leads to a more rapid and complete reduction in porosity and permeability. This process, along with the slower rates of microbial degradation at lower temperatures, creates a more favorable situation for organic matter preservation. Application of this taphonomic model to the Rhynie Chert, previously interpreted as subaerial, suggest it was probably deposited in a subaqueous spring setting at lower temperatures.

  13. Database of historically documented springs and spring flow measurements in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Reece, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    Springs are naturally occurring features that convey excess ground water to the land surface; they represent a transition from ground water to surface water. Water issues through one opening, multiple openings, or numerous seeps in the rock or soil. The database of this report provides information about springs and spring flow in Texas including spring names, identification numbers, location, and, if available, water source and use. This database does not include every spring in Texas, but is limited to an aggregation of selected digital and hard-copy data of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), and Capitol Environmental Services.

  14. Joystick With Cable Springs Offers Better Feel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; Ecklund, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Improved joystick allows motion in 6 degrees of freedom, biased toward central position and orientation by 16 segments of cable serving as springs. Improvement in feel and control results from nonlinear compliance of cable-spring assembly. Nonlinear variations accommodate natural reactions of hand and brain. Operator functions as part of feedback control loop. More comfortable, increases ability to exert control and reduces fatigue.

  15. Kinetic studies of natural uranium minerals for the long-term evolution of spent nuclear fuel under oxidizing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, I.; Cera, E.; Bruno, J.

    1993-12-31

    The time scale of spent fuel dissolution studies is of the order of magnitude of 2 to 10 years, while the performance of a spent fuel repository should be assessed for much longer times (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} years). These time scales can be bridged using appropriate natural analogues. Among other important information, the study of natural systems can give insight of which can be the oxidative alteration of spent fuel in granite environments. However, in studying such systems, thermodynamic and kinetic data of relevant natural solid phases are needed. In this work we present preliminary results of dissolution experiments carried out under oxidizing conditions with selected and well characterized natural samples of the alteration chain of uraninite (i.e., uraninite, schoepite, uranophane). The experiments have been performed using a synthetic granitic groundwater as a leachant, in contact with air and at 25{degrees}C.

  16. An EXAFS study on the effects of natural organic matter and the expandability of clay minerals on cesium adsorption and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Q. H.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, K.; Sakaguchi, A.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-06-01

    . However, a nearly complete OS complex was observed at the planar site of montmorillonite (large expansion). These processes were confirmed by sequential extraction, batch adsorption, XRD, and EXAFS, which clearly showed that Cs mobility in soil highly depends on clay mineral expandability, natural organic matter (NOM), and the coupling of both effects. The atomic-scale information given by EXAFS is consistent with the distribution data from adsorption experiments, GAM, sequential extraction, and DFT. These results can be used as a basis for a clearer understanding of Cs behavior in natural systems.

  17. East pacific rise: hot springs and geophysical experiments.

    PubMed

    Spiess, F N; Macdonald, K C; Atwater, T; Ballard, R; Carranza, A; Cordoba, D; Cox, C; Garcia, V M; Francheteau, J; Guerrero, J; Hawkins, J; Haymon, R; Hessler, R; Juteau, T; Kastner, M; Larson, R; Luyendyk, B; Macdougall, J D; Miller, S; Normark, W; Orcutt, J; Rangin, C

    1980-03-28

    Hydrothermal vents jetting out water at 380 degrees +/- 30 degrees C have been discovered on the axis of the East Pacific Rise. The hottest waters issue from mineralized chimneys and are blackened by sulfide precipitates. These hydrothermal springs are the sites of actively forming massive sulfide mineral deposits. Cooler springs are clear to milky and support exotic benthic communities of giant tube worms, clams, and crabs similar to those found at the Galápagos spreading center. Four prototype geophysical experiments were successfully conducted in and near the vent area: seismic refraction measurements with both source (thumper) and receivers on the sea floor, on-bottom gravity measurements, in situ magnetic gradiometer measurements from the submersible Alvin over a sea-floor magnetic reversal boundary, and an active electrical sounding experiment. These high-resolution determinations of crustal properties along the spreading center were made to gain knowledge of the source of new oceanic crust and marine magnetic anomalies, the nature of the axial magma chamber, and the depth of hydrothermal circulation. PMID:17779602

  18. Adsorption states of amphipatic solutes at the surface of naturally hydrophobic minerals: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Du, Hao; Miller, J D

    2007-11-01

    An initial molecular dynamics simulation study regarding interfacial phenomena at selected naturally hydrophobic surfaces is reported. Simulation results show that, due to the natural hydrophobicity of graphite and talc basal planes, the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide preferentially adsorbs at these surfaces through hydrophobic interactions. When a model dextrin molecule is considered, the simulation results suggest that the hydrophobic interaction between the naturally hydrophobic surfaces of graphite, talc basal plane, and sulfur and the hydrophobic moieties (C-H and methylene groups) in the dextrin molecule plays a significant role in dextrin adsorption at these surfaces. The hydroxyl group in the dextrin molecule also contributes to its adsorption at the talc basal plane surface. In contrast, dextrin was not found to adsorb at talc edge surfaces. PMID:17929842

  19. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  20. Using natural, stable calcium isotopes of human blood to detect and monitor changes in bone mineral balance.

    PubMed

    Channon, Melanie B; Gordon, Gwyneth W; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Skulan, Joseph L; Smith, Scott M; Anbar, Ariel D

    2015-08-01

    We are exploring variations in the Ca isotope composition of blood and urine as a new tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of changes in bone mineral balance for patients suffering from metabolic bone disease, cancers that originate in or metastasize to bone, and for astronauts who spend time in low gravity environments. Blood samples are often collected instead of, or in addition to, urine in clinical settings, so it is useful to know if variations in the Ca isotope composition of blood carry the same information as variations in urine. We found that the Ca isotope composition of blood shifts in the same direction and to the same magnitude (~2 parts per ten thousand--pptt) as that of urine in response to skeletal unloading during bed rest. However, the Ca isotope composition of blood is lighter than that of urine by 12 ± 2 pptt. This offset between blood and urine may result from Ca isotope fractionation occurring in the kidneys. This is the first study to confirm the suspected offset between the Ca isotope composition of blood and urine in humans, to directly quantify its magnitude, and to establish that either blood or urine can be used to detect and quantify bone loss. PMID:25900894

  1. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Verma, Surendra P; Pandarinath, Kailasa; Velasco-Tapia, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ríos, Rodolfo

    2009-04-13

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis. PMID:19327450

  2. Effectiveness of household natural sanitizers in the elimination of Salmonella typhimurium on rocket (Eruca sativa Miller) and spring onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Yucel Sengun, Ilkin; Karapinar, Mehmet

    2005-02-15

    Experiments were done with fresh lemon juice, vinegar and their mixture (1:1) to evaluate their efficacy in reducing the numbers of Salmonella typhimurium on fresh salad vegetables. Fresh whole rocket leaves and shredded spring onion samples were inoculated with S. typhimurium suspensions to provide initial populations of approximately 6 and 3 log cfu/g. After inoculation, vegetables were treated with the test solutions for 0, 15, 30 and 60 min, and pathogens were enumerated by using direct plating on Bismuth Sulphite Agar (BSA). Prior to this work, it was shown that BSA was not toxic for acid injured Salmonella cells by statistical analysis applied to enriched and non-enriched samples (P>0.05). Treatment of rocket leaves with fresh lemon juice and vinegar caused a significant reduction ranging between 1.23 and 4.17 log cfu/g and between 1.32 and 3.12 log cfu/g, respectively, while the maximum reduction reached by using lemon juice-vinegar mixture (1:1) for 15 min, which reduced the number of pathogens to an undetectable level. In the spring onion samples, lemon juice, vinegar and their mixture caused 0.87-2.93, 0.66-2.92 and 0.86-3.24 log cfu/g reductions, respectively. PMID:15698693

  3. Diagenetic Changes in Common Hot Spring Microfacies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinman, N. W.; Kendall, T. A.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Cady, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    The friable nature of silica hot spring deposits makes them susceptible to mechanical weathering. Rapid diagenesis must take place for these rocks to persist in the geologic record. The properties of two microfacies at two deposits were compared.

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2011 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2010 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 contains new chapters on iron oxide pigments, wollastonite, and zeolites. The chapters on mica (natural), scrap and flake and mica (natural), sheet have been combined into a single chapter - mica (natural). Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. "Appendix C - Reserves and Resources" has been divided into "Part A - Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals" and "Part B - Sources of Reserves Data," including some information that was previously in this introduction. A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2011 are welcomed.

  5. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  6. Investigating the Heterogeneous Interaction of VOCs with Natural Atmospheric Particles: Adsorption of Limonene and Toluene on Saharan Mineral Dusts.

    PubMed

    Romanías, Manolis N; Ourrad, Habib; Thévenet, Frédéric; Riffault, Véronique

    2016-03-01

    The heterogeneous interaction of limonene and toluene with Saharan dusts was investigated under dark conditions, pressure of 1 atm, and temperature 293 K. The mineral dust samples were collected from six different regions along the Sahara desert, extending from Tunisia to the western Atlantic coastal areas of Morocco, and experiments were carried out with the smallest sieved fractions, that is, inferior to 100 μm. N2 sorption measurements, granulometric analysis, and X-ray fluorescence and diffraction (XRF and XRD) measurements were conducted to determine the physicochemical properties of the particles. The chemical characterization showed that dust originating from mideastern Sahara has a significantly higher SiO2 content (∼ 82%) than dust collected from the western coastal regions where the SiO2 relative abundance was ∼ 50%. A novel experimental setup combining diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), and long path transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed us to follow both the adsorbed and gas phases. The kinetic adsorption/desorption measurements were performed using purified dry air as bath gas, exposing each dust surface to 10 ppm of the selective volatile organic compound (VOC). The adsorption of limonene was independent of the SiO2 content, given the experimental uncertainties, and the coverage measurements ranged between (10 and 18) × 10(13) molecules cm(-2). Experimental results suggest that other metal oxides that could possibly influence dust acidity may enhance the adsorption of limonene. On the contrary, in the case of toluene, the adsorption capacities of the Saharan samples increased with decreasing SiO2 content; however, the coverage measurements were significantly lower than those of limonene and ranged between (2 and 12) × 10(13) molecules cm(-2). Flushing the surface with purified dry air showed that VOC desorption is not a

  7. Assessment of the vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in a mineralized uranium area in south-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco Rodríguez, P; Vera Tomé, F; Lozano, J C

    2014-01-01

    Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used to determine the activity concentration of (238)U, (234)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (210)Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were sampled from areas with different levels of influence from the installation and hence had different levels of contamination. The vertical profiles of the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. To determine the origin of these natural radionuclides the Enrichment Factor was used. Also, study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same radioactive series allowed us to assess the different types of behaviors of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for the radionuclide members of the (238)U series were different at each sampling point, depending on the level of influence of the installation. However, the profiles of each point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the (238)U series ((238)U, (234)U, (230)Th, and (226)Ra). Moreover, a major imbalance was observed between (210)Pb and (226)Ra in the surface layer, due to (222)Rn exhalation and the subsequent surface deposition of (210)Pb. PMID:24182407

  8. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  10. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  11. Phase transitions and chain dynamics of surfactants intercalated into the galleries of naturally occurring clay mineral magadiite.

    PubMed

    Kharkov, Boris B; Corkery, Robert W; Dvinskikh, Sergey V

    2014-07-01

    We investigate conformational dynamics and phase transitions of surfactant molecules confined in the layered galleries of the organo-modified, natural polysilicate clay, magadiite. We have shown that our approach to studying this class of materials is capable of delivering detailed information on the molecular mobility of the confined molecules. From the analysis of the measured heteronuclear dipolar couplings, the orientational order parameters of the C-H bonds along the hydrocarbon chain have been determined. Three phases have been observed in the nanocomposite, characterized by distinct dynamical states of the surfactant. At room temperature, restricted mobility of the molecules led to the adoption of an essentially all-trans conformation by the chains. This behavior can be described by a model incorporating small-angle wobbling around the long molecular axes of the chains. Upon heating, dynamic transformation takes place, resulting in a rotator type solid phase where molecules in extended all-trans conformations undergo fast and unrestricted rotation about their respective symmetry axes. The second phase transition is associated with chain melting and the onset of translational dynamics and results in an essentially liquid-crystalline-like state of the organic component. The mobility of the surfactant is one of the key factors facilitating the efficient penetration of macromolecules in the process of preparing of polymer/organoclay nanocomposites. The exploration of dynamic properties of the functionalizing organic layer should provide important input into the improved design of new organic-inorganic hybrid materials. PMID:24921951

  12. Assessment of public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials from mining and mineral processing activities of Tarkwa Goldmine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Faanu, Augustine; Ephraim, James H; Darko, Emmanuel O

    2011-09-01

    Studies have been carried out in a Goldmine in Ghana to determine the exposure of the public to naturally occurring radioactive materials from processing of gold ore. Direct gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis techniques were used to analyse soil, rock, water and dust samples from the mining environment. The mean activity concentrations measured for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil/rock samples were 15.2, 26.9 and 157.1 Bq kg( - 1), respectively. For the water samples, the mean activity concentrations were 0.54 and 0.41 Bq l( - 1)) and 7.76 Bq l( - 1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The mean activity concentrations measured in the dust samples were 4.90 and 2.75 μBq m( - 3) for (238)U and (232)Th, respectively. The total annual effective dose to the public was estimated to be 0.69 mSv. The results in this study compared well with typical world average values. The results indicate an insignificant exposure of the public from the activities of the Goldmine. PMID:21072583

  13. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  14. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  15. Spring joint with overstrain sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, Peter M. (Inventor); Gaither, Bryan W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible joint may include a conductive compression spring and a pair of non-conductive spring cages disposed at opposite ends of the compression spring to support the compression spring. A conductive member disposed inside the compression spring may extend between the pair of spring cages. One end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with one of the spring cages and another end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with the other of the spring cages.

  16. Effects of oxyanions, natural organic matter, and bacterial cell numbers on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) and the formation of secondary mineralization products.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Gorski, C. A.; Scherer, M. M.; Boyanov, M. I.; Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Iowa

    2010-06-15

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides results in the production of Fe(II) and may lead to the subsequent formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products including magnetite, siderite, vivianite, chukanovite (ferrous hydroxy carbonate (FHC)), and green rust; however, the factors controlling the formation of specific Fe(II) phases are often not well-defined. This study examined effects of (i) a range of inorganic oxyanions (arsenate, borate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, and tungstate), (ii) natural organic matter (citrate, oxalate, microbial extracellular polymeric substances [EPS], and humic substances), and (iii) the type and number of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite and formation of Fe(II)-bearing secondary mineralization products. The bioreduction kinetics clustered into two distinct Fe(II) production profiles. 'Fast' Fe(II) production kinetics [19-24 mM Fe(II) d-1] were accompanied by formation of magnetite and FHC in the unamended control and in systems amended with borate, oxalate, gellan EPS, or Pony Lake fulvic acid or having 'low' cell numbers. Systems amended with arsenate, citrate, molybdate, phosphate, silicate, tungstate, EPS from Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, or humic substances derived from terrestrial plant material or with 'high' cell numbers exhibited comparatively slow Fe(II) production kinetics [1.8-4.0 mM Fe(II) d-1] and the formation of green rust. The results are consistent with a conceptual model whereby competitive sorption of more strongly bound anions blocks access of bacterial cells and reduced electron-shuttling compounds to sites on the iron oxide surface, thereby limiting the rate of bioreduction.

  17. Interim report task 2: performance testing - task 2.4: natural mineral analog studies physical and chemical characteristics of brannerite in natural systems to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract B345772

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, G R; Colella, M; Leung, S H F

    2000-04-30

    To investigate the long-term alteration behavior of brannerite, we have undertaken a study of 13 natural samples from various geological environments, including granites, granitic pegmatites, quartz veins, and placer deposits. Literature data and U-Th-Pb chemical dating carried out in this work indicate that the samples range in age from approximately 20 Ma to 1580 Ma. Where independent age data or estimates are available for comparison, the U-Th-Pb chemical ages are in reasonable agreement for the younger samples, but the older samples tend to show evidence for Pb loss (up to about 80%), a common feature of metamict Nb, Ta, and Ti oxide minerals. Our results show that many of the samples exhibit only minor alteration, usually within small patches, microfractures, or around the rims of the brannerite crystals. Other samples consist of variable amounts of unaltered and altered brannerite. Heavily altered samples may contain anatase and thorite as fine-grained alteration products. Certain samples exhibited fracturing of the associated rock matrix or mineral phase in the immediate vicinity of the brannerite grains. These fractures contain U bearing material and indicate that some U migrated locally from the source brannerite.

  18. Juvenile Spring Eruption: A Variant of Perniosis?

    PubMed

    Nabatian, Adam S; Rosman, Ilana S; Sturza, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile spring eruption (JSE) is a unique condition that typically affects the helices of the ears of boys and young men. The classical clinical picture of JSE includes the abrupt onset of lesions after spending time outdoors in the early spring. Because of the papulovesicular nature of the rash and the history of sun exposure, JSE is considered a variant of polymorphous light eruption. In addition to the term "juvenile spring eruption," this entity has also been described under other less common terms such as "perniosis juvenilis vernalis aurium" or "spring perniosis," which emphasizes the onset in the spring and the possible pathogenic role of cold weather. We present a case of likely JSE with histopathologic features more consistent with perniosis than polymorphous light eruption and present a review the literature. PMID:26291421

  19. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  20. Coil spring venting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-10-21

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed.

  1. Spring and valve skirt

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1986-07-29

    This patent describes an engine having a valve guide operatively mounting a valve stem and its associated valve spring and spring retainer for actuation of the valve stem by a valve actuator. An improvement is described comprising: a hollow, generally cylindrical shaped skirt means having a side portion forming an interior with one open end and having at its other end an end portion extending inwardly and formed with an axial opening therein communicating to the interior. The skirt means is mounted on and about the valve stem and spring retainer and about its spring so as to move with the valve stem and to cover the spring retainer and most of the portion of the valve spring and the valve stem extending outwardly from the valve guide except for an outermost end of the stem which extends through the opening in the end portion for actuation by the actuator , such that the inwardly extending end portion lies between the outermost end of the stem and an outermost end of the spring retainer to allow for retrofitting insertion of the skirt means over existing valve stems without removal of the spring and spring retainer. Excessive oil is presented from seeping between and valve guide and the valve stem thus preventing excessive carbon build-up in the combustion area, sticking valves, fouled plugs and high exhaust emissions.

  2. International minerals: a national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Seven authors bring a variety of perspectives to the subject of minerals availability. In the domestic area, an overview of the US strategic mineral situation is followed by a discussion of changes in one state's mineral policy decisions over a 200-year period. Later chapters describe the potential of Alaska's mineral resources, with a focus on the immediate need for a thorough inventory of this vast area, and the nature and sources of mineral information available to Canadian policymakers as useful models in making inventories. In the international area, there is a discussion of the key role of South Africa in the world mineral picture and the strategic importance to the Soviet Union of the mineral wealth of Afghanistan. The volume concludes with a review of the history of US mineral policies. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  3. Effect of mineral additives (natural pozzolana and sand of dunes) by substitution of cement on the performance and durability of mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, M.; Safi, B.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our work consists of the study of the substitution effects of clinker by mineral additions such as: natural pozzolana (PZ) and the sand of dunes (SD) finely crushed on the mechanical properties and the durability of the mortars worked out according to various combinations containing these additions. The results from this research confirm that the substitution of 20% to 30% of cement APC (Artificial Portland Cement) by additions in binary cement (APC + PZ) or ternary (APC + PZ + SD) contributes positively to the mechanical strength of mortars and resistance to the chemical attacks in various corrosive conditions such as: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid. The mechanical strength of the different variants is comparable to those of the APC. The test results of the weight loss and phenolphthalein shows that the chemical resistance of variants (PZ20) and (PZ20 with SD5) are larger compared to the reference mortar APC and other variants. This study shows that adding value by substituting a part of clinker. This substitution can save 20% to 30% of clinker used for the manufacture of cement; this will have a beneficial effect for cement and economically (less energy spent for the clinker burning). This study contributes to the protection of the environment as to produce one ton of clinker generates about one ton of CO2 is harmful to the atmosphere. Based on our results we will reduce from 20% to 30% CO2 gas responsible for the greenhouse effect.

  4. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. • High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. • The nanofibers calcined at 100–700 °C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. • The calcined nanofibers at 400 °C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 °C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 20–90 nm in diameter and 2–7 μm in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300–400 °C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 °C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 600–1000 °C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300–700 °C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 800–1000 °C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the

  5. A Magnet Spring Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.; Mead, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses an elementary spring model representing the motion of a magnet suspended from the ceiling at one end of a vertical spring which is held directly above a second magnet fixed on the floor. There are two cases depending upon the north-south pole orientation of the two magnets. The attraction or repelling force induced by the…

  6. Valve-spring Surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, Willy

    1937-01-01

    Test equipment is described that includes a system of three quartz indicators whereby three different pressures could be synchronized and simultaneously recorded on a single oscillogram. This equipment was used to test the reliction of waves at ends of valve spring, the dynamical stress of the valve spring for a single lift of the valve, and measurement of the curve of the cam tested. Other tests included simultaneous recording of the stress at both ends of the spring, spring oscillation during a single lift as a function of speed, computation of amplitude of oscillation for a single lift by harmonic analysis, effect of cam profile, the setting up of resonance, and forced spring oscillation with damping.

  7. Rotary spring energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.

    1981-07-01

    The goal was to design a lightweight system, for bicycles, that can level the input energy requirement (human exertion) in accordance with variations in road load (friction, wind, and grade) and/or to provide a system for regenerative braking, that is, to store energy normally lost in brake pad friction for brief periods until it required for re-acceleration or hill-climbing. The rotary spring, also called the coil, motor, spiral, or power spring is governed by the equations reviewed. Materials used in spring manufacture are briefly discussed, and justification for steel as the design choice of material is given. Torque and power requirements for a bicycle and rider are provided as well as estimated human power output levels. These criteria are examined to define spring size and possible orientations on a bicycle. Patents and designs for coupling the spring to the drive train are discussed.

  8. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  9. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  11. Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

  12. MINERAL WATERS ACROSS THE CHANNEL: MATTER THEORY AND NATURAL HISTORY FROM SAMUEL DUCLOS'S MINERALLOGENESIS TO MARTIN LISTER'S CHYMICAL MAGNETISM, CA. 1666-86.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie; Boantza, Victor D

    2015-12-20

    Our essay analyses a little-known book, Observations sur les eaux minerales des plusieurs provinces de France (1675), which is a study of French mineral waters, commissioned by and conducted at the French Royal Academy of Science (est. 1666). Its author, Samuel Cottereau Duclos (1598-1685), was a senior founding figure of the Academy, its chief chymist and one of its most influential members. We examine Observations with a focus on the changing attitudes towards chymical knowledge and practice in the French Academy and the Royal Society of London in the period 1666-84. Chymistry was a fundamental analytical tool for seventeenth-century natural historians, and, as the work of Lawrence Principe and William Newman has shown, it is central to understanding the 'long' Scientific Revolution. Much study has also been done on the developing norms of openness in the dissemination and presentation of scientific, and particularly chymical knowledge in the late seventeenth century, norms that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among individual chymists. Between these two standards a tension arose, evidenced by early modern 'vociferous criticisms' of chymical obscurity, with different strategies developed by individual philosophers for negotiating the emergent boundaries between secrecy and openness. Less well studied, however, are the strategies by which not just individuals but also scientific institutions negotiated these boundaries, particularly in the formative years of their public and political reputation in the late seventeenth century. Michael Hunter's recent and welcome study of the 'decline of magic' at the Royal Society has to some extent remedied these omissions. Hunter argues that the Society--as a corporate body--disregarded and avoided studies of magical and alchemical subjects in the late seventeenth century. Our examination problematizes these distinctions and presents a more complex picture. PMID:26665487

  13. Geochemistry and geothermometry of non-volcanic hot springs in West Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan; Nawawi, Mohd; Wagner, Karl; Arifin, Mohd Hariri

    2015-01-01

    Although more than sixty hot springs have been reported in West Malaysia, their geochemistry, geothermometry and utilization as a potential energy source have not been considered yet. This study reports the geochemistry, geothermometry and mineral saturation indices of a number of hot springs in West Malaysia. The potential of these hot springs as a source of geothermal energy as well as their origin and possible mixing with surface cold waters have been discussed. Surface temperatures of the studied hot springs range from 41 to 99 °C and pH values vary between 5.5 and 9. Geochemical data showed that among cations, Si, Na, Ca and K occur in relatively high contents, while Mg and Fe show very low concentrations. On the other hand, HCO3 is present in relatively high concentration compared to other anions (SO4, Cl and F). Data also illustrated that most of the studied hot springs are K-Na-bicarbonate rich waters although they represent different geological provenances in West Malaysia reflecting homogeneity in the geological formations and/or hydrochemical processes governing the characteristics of these waters. This homogeneity also indicates the insignificant effect of local geology on the chemistry of the studied hot springs. Saturation indices calculations of the studied thermal waters indicate that most of the secondary mineral phases such as goethite and hematite are apparently supersaturated while quartz and chalcedony are saturated. Conversely, amorphous silica is slightly under-saturated. These results suggest similar rock-water interactions for both geothermal and non-geothermal waters. The geological settings of the studied hot springs either in or close to granitic masses or along the major fault or shear zones as well as the Na-bicarbonate nature of the waters and low sulfate concentrations suggest their non-volcanic origin. They are also similar in their geological setting and water chemistry to other non-volcanic hot springs in other parts of the world

  14. Effects of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the expression of sirtuin 1 and angiogenic factors in the erectile tissue of rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cidália D; Severo, Milton; Rafael, Luísa; Martins, Maria João; Neves, Delminda

    2014-01-01

    Consuming a high-fructose diet induces metabolic syndrome (MS)-like features, including endothelial dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction and systemic vascular disease. Because mineral deficiency intensifies the deleterious effects of fructose consumption and mineral ingestion is protective against MS, we aimed to characterize the effects of 8 weeks of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the structural organization and expression of vascular growth factors and receptors on the corpus cavernosum (CC) in 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (FRUCT). Differences were not observed in the organization of the CC either on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or the components of the angiopoietins/Tie2 system. However, opposing expression patterns were observed for VEGF receptors (an increase and a decrease for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively) in FRUCT animals, with these patterns being strengthened by mineral-rich water ingestion. Mineral-rich water ingestion (FRUCTMIN) increased the proportion of smooth muscle cells compared with FRUCT rats and induced an upregulatory tendency of sirtuin 1 expression compared with the control and FRUCT groups. Western blot results were consistent with the dual immunofluorescence evaluation. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein and plasma testosterone levels were similar among the experimental groups, although a tendency for an increase in the former was observed in the FRUCTMIN group. The mineral-rich water-treated rats presented changes similar to those observed in rats treated with MS-protective polyphenol-rich beverages or subjected to energy restriction, which led us to hypothesize that the effects of mineral-rich water consumption may be more vast than those directly observed in this study. PMID:24625878

  15. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  16. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs

    PubMed Central

    Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  17. Lengthening Spring Season in Southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutzler, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in southwestern North America during the Spring season, a critically important transition season in terms of hydrology, ecosystem dynamics, and water resource management. Major rivers are snow-fed in mountainous headwaters but then flow through a monsoonal region with a Summer precipitation maximum; Spring is the dry season in between snowmelt and monsoon onset and is the principal wildfire season in the Southwest. Evaporation during the warm, dry Spring represents a major hydrologic loss in the surface water budget and is a principal cause of projections of significant decreases in post-snowmelt streamflow, during the first half of the growing season when demand for surface water for irrigated agriculture is highest. As temperatures increase, snowpack is expected to decrease and melt earlier, leading to a smaller and earlier peak in snowmelt runoff. Recent climate model projections suggest that monsoon onset should occur later in the year, delaying the summer rainy season. Each of these effects contributes to projections of a lengthening Spring season, at both the beginning and end of Spring. A longer, warmer Spring season is associated with significant surface drying and increased wildfire risk in the 21st Century across the Southwest. So far changes are observed at the beginning of spring in terms of temperature (increasing) and snowpack (decreasing). Detection of other changes, including metrics of the end of spring, has not been easy, in part due to the huge natural variability of precipitation that affects hydrologic variables in conjunction with temperature. This presentation describes efforts to diagnose and document observed changes in the transitions into and out of the Spring dry season in the Southwest, in variables such as temperature, snowmelt date, timing and magnitude of streamflow, and monsoon onset date.

  18. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs.

    PubMed

    Ohad, Shoshanit; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  19. Quantum model for entropic springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chiao-Hsuan; Taylor, Jacob M.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by understanding the emergence of thermodynamic restoring forces and oscillations, we develop a quantum-mechanical model of a bath of spins coupled to the elasticity of a material. We show our model reproduces the behavior of a variety of entropic springs while enabling investigation of nonequilibrium resonator states in the quantum domain. We find our model emerges naturally in disordered elastic media, such as glasses, and is an additional expected effect in systems with anomalous specific heat and 1 /f noise at low temperatures due to two-level systems that fluctuate.

  20. Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for each of the 24 mineral project areas (referred to herein as areas of interest), whose locality names, locations, and main mineral occurrences are shown on the index map of Afghanistan (fig. 1). ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA

  1. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  2. SPRING_TANK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  3. Harbingers of Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  4. Pan-Spectral Analysis of Classic Martian Low-Albedo Regions: Updates on the Nature and Distribution of Primary and Secondary Mineral Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Head, J. W.; Rogers, D.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the primary and secondary mineralogy of martian low-albedo regions using a combination of visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance and thermal infrared (TIR) emission datasets. TIR data were originally derived using the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument by [1,2], who interpreted these low-albedo regions to contain variable amounts of both basaltic and high-silica components; however, the nature of these high-silica phases remains uncertain, and both primary (e.g., volcanic glass) and secondary (e.g., hydrated alteration minerals) origins have been proposed. The mineralogical signatures of the evolving martian geologic, hydrologic, and climatic systems are recorded in these low-albedo regions, making the characterization of the identified high-silica phases critical towards better understanding the history of Mars. Consequently, we have completed a pan-spectral (VNIR and TIR) investigation of the nine low-albedo regions characterized by [2] in order to further constrain the composition of these martian landscapes. We derived regional VNIR spectra using Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) data. Data were acquired, processed, atmospherically corrected, and weighted based on their relative areal contributions, resulting in nine representative regional spectra. The primary mineral phases identified in VNIR spectra are consistent with a dominantly basaltic composition and are in good agreement with previous TIR analyses. The variability in the shape and position of the broad 2 micron crystal field absorption feature, classically attributed to variations in pyroxene composition, is quantitatively assessed using modified Gaussian modeling (MGM) approaches. The position of this 2 micron band, though, can also be influenced by oxidative weathering processes like those identified in Antarctica, which result in more negative spectral slopes in the near-infrared as well as apparent shifts of the

  5. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  6. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin, Annual Report 2008 : Project Period 1 February 2008 to 31 January 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Yanke, Jeffrey A.; Alfonse, Brian M.; Bratcher, Kyle W.

    2009-07-31

    This study was designed to document and describe the status and life history strategies of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin. We determined migration timing, abundance, and life-stage survival rates for juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer steelhead O. mykiss in four streams during migratory year 2008 from 1 July 2007 through 30 June 2008. As observed in previous years of this study, spring Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibited fall and spring movements out of natal rearing areas, but did not begin their smolt migration through the Snake and lower Columbia River hydrosystem until spring. In this report we provide estimates of migrant abundance and migration timing for each study stream, and their survival and timing to Lower Granite Dam. We also document aquatic habitat conditions using water temperature and stream flow in four study streams in the subbasin.

  7. Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    natural variation in flow, and many of the 12 springs types do not develop hydric soils or wetland vegetation. These factors and their normally small size preclude springs as jurisdictional wetlands by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Army Corps of Engineers criteria. Helocrenes (springfed wet meadows, cienegas, and some fens) are considered as wetlands, but the other 11 types of terrestrial springs often are not. The use of the phrase 'GDE' applies to any aquatic ecosystem supported by groundwater, and the utility of this phrase as a descriptor of springs is diluted by its application to all subterranean and surface aquatic habitats. The failure to recognize the importance of springs ecosystems has become a quiet but global crisis, in part due to inappropriate conceptual understanding and poor jurisdictional terminology. We clarify relationships between these concepts and terms to establish effective, consistent monitoring, assessment, restoration, management, and monitoring goals and protocols for improving springs stewardship.

  8. Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

  9. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde Riiver Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report 1 September 1995 to 1 August 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek.

  10. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral analcime - Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O - a natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-12-10

    We have studied the mineral analcime using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. The mineral analcime Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O is a crystalline sodium silicate. Chemical analysis shows the mineral contains a range of elements including Na, Al, Fe(2+) and Si. The mineral is characterized by intense Raman bands observed at 1052, 1096 and 1125cm(-1). The infrared bands are broad; nevertheless bands may be resolved at 1006 and 1119cm(-1). These bands are assigned to SiO stretching vibrational modes. Intense Raman band at 484cm(-1) is attributed to OSiO bending modes. Raman bands observed at 2501, 3542, 3558 and 3600cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibrations of water. Low intensity infrared bands are noted at 3373, 3529 and 3608cm(-1). The observation of multiple water bands indicate that water is involved in the structure of analcime with differing hydrogen bond strengths. This concept is supported by the number of bands in the water bending region. Vibrational spectroscopy assists with the characterization of the mineral analcime. PMID:24983920

  11. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral analcime - Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O - A natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L.; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the mineral analcime using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. The mineral analcime Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O is a crystalline sodium silicate. Chemical analysis shows the mineral contains a range of elements including Na, Al, Fe2+ and Si. The mineral is characterized by intense Raman bands observed at 1052, 1096 and 1125 cm-1. The infrared bands are broad; nevertheless bands may be resolved at 1006 and 1119 cm-1. These bands are assigned to SiO stretching vibrational modes. Intense Raman band at 484 cm-1 is attributed to OSiO bending modes. Raman bands observed at 2501, 3542, 3558 and 3600 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibrations of water. Low intensity infrared bands are noted at 3373, 3529 and 3608 cm-1. The observation of multiple water bands indicate that water is involved in the structure of analcime with differing hydrogen bond strengths. This concept is supported by the number of bands in the water bending region. Vibrational spectroscopy assists with the characterization of the mineral analcime.

  12. Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A spring (10) includes a tube (12) having an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension (22) extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension (24) extending vertically. A plurality of cuts (20) in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube (12) extend perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis (16) extending along the tube (12). An uncut portion (26) of the tube wall extends along the tube (12) for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom (28) of a seat cushion (30).

  13. Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, L. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A spring which includes a tube with an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension extending vertically is disclosed. A plurality of cuts in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube extend perpendiculary to a longitudinal axis extending along the tube. An uncut portion of the tube wall extends along the tube for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom of a seat cushion.

  14. Seismic baseline and induction studies: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Zandt, G.; McPherson, L.; Schaff, S.; Olsen, S.

    1982-05-01

    Local seismic networks were established at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area, utah and at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho to monitor the background seismicity prior to initiation of geothermal power production. The Raft River study area is currently seismically quiet down to the level of approximately magnitude one. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area has low-level seismic activity for M/sub L/ greater than about two; however, microearthquake (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 2) swarms appear to be relatively common. One swarm occurred adjacent to the Roosevelt geothermal area during the summer of 1981. From June 27 to August 28, 1044 microearthquakes (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 1.5) were recorded from which 686 earthquakes were located and analysed. The main cluster of microearthquakes was located about 2 km east of the production field at a depth of about 5 km. A few small events were located in the production field at shallow depths (< 2 km). Three of the four largest earthquakes in the swarm (M/sub L/ 1.5-2.0) were located 4 to 5 km further east along a n-NW trend beneath the flank of the adjacent Mineral Mountains. Focal mechanism solutions indicate primarily normal faulting due to the regional E-W extension which characterizes this portion of the eastern Basin and Range province. Hence, the Mineral Mountain swarm appears to be a natural release of tectonic stress in this area. Nevertheless, the occurrence of natural earthquake swarms indicates a potential for induced seismicity at Roosevelt Hot Springs after major production operations are initiated.

  15. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nuristan mineral district in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nuristan mineral district, which has gem, lithium, and cesium deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS

  16. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  17. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ahankashan mineral district in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ahankashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008, 2009, 2010),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this

  18. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Bamyan mineral district, which has areas with a spectral reflectance anomaly that require field investigation. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that

  19. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Annual Report 2000 : Project Period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Monzyk, Fred R.

    2002-06-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring.

  20. Walking with springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  1. Ultrabasic Spring Geomicrobiology of the Cedars Peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, O. J.; Morrill, P.; Muyzer, G.; Kuenen, J. G.; Nealson, K. H.

    2006-12-01

    Peridotite hosted aquifers are becoming well-known as a modern analog for both extraterrestrial and early- Earth habitats despite relatively few studies on microbes in ultramafic systems. To investigate the microbiology associated with aquifers of the actively serpentinizing Cedars Peridotite in coastal Northern California an interdisciplinary approach involving molecular phylogenetics, organic and inorganic geochemistry, as well as culture-based ecophysiological methods are being utilized. Based on our findings, Cedars spring microorganisms endure one of the harshest low-temperature aqueous environments on Earth with pH greater than 11.8, Eh less than -600 mV, undetectable dissolved CO2 and O2 and a lack of other obvious e- acceptors. Despite these conditions, life inhabits solid substrate surfaces within the springs to a concentration of 10E6-10E7 cells/sq. cm, but planktonic cell densities are extremely low (much less than 10E3/ml). Preliminary 16S data of 3 ultrabasic fluids reveals a community comprised primarily of bacteria that appears to be of low-diversity. Methanogens are strongly suggested to be present based on the isotopic composition of methane bubbling from the springs, but have not yet been identified via molecular techniques. Community level metagenomic sequencing of the ultrabasic spring microorganisms sampled from peridotite-associated mineral surfaces and glass slides incubated in specially designed flow- through chambers are currently in-progress and are likely to reveal several novel metabolic pathways.

  2. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  3. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  4. Spring polar ozone behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding of the springtime behavior of polar stratospheric ozone as of mid 1990 is summarized. Heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds as hypothesis for ozone loss are considered and a simplified description of the behavior of Antarctic ozone in winter and spring is given. Evidence that the situation is more complicated than described by the theory is produced. Many unresolved scientific issues remain and some of the most important problems are identified. Ozone changes each spring since 1979 have clearly established for the first time that man made chlorine compounds influence stratospheric ozone. Long before important advances in satellite and in situ investigations, it was Dobson's decision to place a total ozone measuring spectrometer at Halley Bay in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year and subsequent continuous monitoring which led to the discovery that ozone was being destroyed each spring by chlorine processed by polar stratospheric clouds.

  5. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHEMICAL AND FERTILIZER MINERAL INDUSTRY, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air and water pollutants are generated during the conversion of naturally occurring minerals into suitable forms for use in chemical and fertilizer production. These minerals are barite, borates, fluorspar, lithium minerals, mineral pigments, phosphate rock, potash, salt, sodium ...

  6. Sulfur/Carbonate Springs and Life in Glacial Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Grasby, S.; Longazo, T.

    2001-01-01

    Glacial springs are useful analogs to channels and seeps issuing from frozen strata on Mars. Mineralized water can move through, and discharge from, solid ice. This water, even near freezing, can support microbial life and bring it to the surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  8. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption. PMID:24555649

  9. Peatland Structural Controls on Spring Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Hackman, A. M.; Davenport, G.

    2013-12-01

    The species richness of wetland ecosystems' are sustained by the presence of discrete groundwater discharge, or springs. Springs provide thermal refugia and a source of fresh water inflow crucial for survival of many wetland species. The subsurface drivers that control the spatial distribution of surficial springs throughout peatland complexes are poorly understood due to the many challenges peatlands pose for hydrologic characterization, such as the internal heterogeneities, soft, dynamic substrate, and low gradient of peat drainage. This has previously made it difficult to collect spatial data required for restoration projects that seek to support spring obligate and thermally stressed species such as trout. Tidmarsh Farms is a 577-acre site in Southeastern Massachusetts where 100+ years of cranberry farming has significantly altered the original peatland hydrodynamics and ecology. Farming practices such as the regular application of sand, straightening of the main channel, and addition of drainage ditches has strongly degraded this peatland ecosystem. Our research has overlain non-invasive geophysical, thermal, and water isotopic data from the Tidmarsh Farms peatland to provide a detailed visualization of how subsurface peat structure and spring patterns correlate. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has proven particularly useful in characterizing internal peat structure and the mineral soil interface beneath peatlands, we interpolate the peatland basin at a large scale (1 km2) and compare this 3-D surface to the locations of springs on the peat platform. Springs, expressed as cold anomalies in summer and warm anomalies in winter, were specifically located by combining fiber-optic and infrared thermal surveys, utilizing the numerous relic agricultural drainage ditches as a sampling advantage. Isotopic signatures of the spring locations are used to distinguish local and regional discharge, differences that can be explained in part by the peat basin structure

  10. Bioleaching of Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  11. Dissolution kinetics of synthetic and natural meta-autunite minerals, X3-n(n)+ [(UO2)(PO4)]2 · xH2O, under acidic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellman, D. M.; Gunderson, K. M.; Icenhower, J. P.; Forrester, S. W.

    2007-11-01

    Mass transport within the uranium geochemical cycle is impacted by the availability of phosphorous. In oxidizing environments, in which the uranyl (UO22+) ionic species is typically mobile, formation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate minerals exerts a strong influence on uranium transport. Autunite group minerals, X3 - n(n)+ [(UO2)(PO4)]2 · xH2O, have been identified as the long-term uranium-controlling phases in many systems of geochemical interest. Anthropogenic operations related to uranium mining operations have created acidic environments exposing uranyl phosphate minerals to low-pH groundwaters. Investigations regarding the dissolution behavior of autunite group minerals under acidic conditions have not been reported; consequently, knowledge of the longevity of uranium-controlling solids is incomplete. The purpose of this investigation was threefold: (1) to quantify the dissolution kinetics of natural calcium meta-autunite, Ca[(UO2)2(PO4)2] · 3H2O, and synthetic sodium meta-autunite, Na2[(UO2)2(PO4)2] · 3H2O, under acidic conditions; (2) to measure the effect of temperature and pH on meta-autunite mineral dissolution; and (3) to investigate the formation of secondary uranyl phosphate phases as long-term controls on uranium migration. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) dissolution tests were conducted over the pH range of 2 to 5 and from 5° to 70°C. Results presented here illustrate meta-autunite dissolution kinetics are strongly dependent on pH but are relatively insensitive to temperature variations. In addition, the formation of secondary uranyl-phosphate phases such as uranyl phosphate, (UO2)3(PO4)2 · x H2O, may serve as a secondary phase limiting the migration of uranium in the environment.

  12. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  13. Spring black stem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring black stem is the most destructive alfalfa diseases in temperate regions of the U.S., Canada, Australia, and countries of Europe, Asia, and South America. The disease causes serious yield losses by reducing canopy dry matter and also decreases seed weight and crown and root mass. Forage qua...

  14. The News. Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This Spring issue of the quarterly newsletter of the Community College League of California contains the following articles: (1) Enrollment Drops; Fees to Blame?; (2) Senate's Grad Proposal Triggers Debate on Mission, Access; (3) Compton Decision has Affected Perceptions of Commission (discussion with Barbara Beno); (4) Dynamic New Architectural…

  15. Atascocita Springs Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigaglioni, Irene; Yocham, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    With the significant amount of time invested in researching the best techniques for delivering instruction to their students, Humble ISD is always on the forefront of education. Taking the recommendations of their active and vocal community groups, the district embarked in the design of the 26th elementary school, Atascocita Springs Elementary…

  16. Planar torsion spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

  17. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  18. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  19. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  20. The geomorphology of two hyper-saline springs in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, M. K.; Pollard, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    geomorphic literature. Preliminary data on surface and groundwater conditions of the springs; groundwater chemistry and mineral precipitates are presented. These data are used to model tufa processes and formation. Additional fieldwork is planned for April 2013 to expand and validate these observations. An interesting application of this research pertains to the search of liquid water on Mars. These features offer a potentially unique indication of groundwater activity in areas of cold permafrost and thus may aid in the site selection for future Mars missions. Axel Heiberg Island's cold and dry climate provides a Martian analogue setting that is a viable alternative to the costs and risks associated with full Mars missions. Numerous features on the surface of Mars indicate the action of water; e.g. gullies were observed within a small number of impact craters that suggest these have been formed in the recent past. It is believed water would exist in a briny nature that would allow it to remain stable on the surface for short periods of time. Results from NASA's Phoenix mission on Mars have provided the first physical evidence of the presence of liquid saline water. Finding water on Mars could have astrobiology implications and potentially the discovery of life on another planet.

  1. [TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL HEALING FACTORS (THERAPEUTIC MUDS, MINERAL WATER) IN CHILDREN WITH THE PATHOLOGY OF HEPATOBILIARY SYSTEM RESIDING IN UNFAVORAUBLE ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Iu V; Oranskiĭ, L E

    2015-01-01

    Health of children residing in the regions with polluted environment is significantly worse than the health of children not exposed to the emissions of industrial enterprises and motor vehicles. The gastrointestinal tract diseases occupy first places. There is elaborated the comprehensive treatment of the children with hepatobiliary diseases residing in unfavorable ecological conditions. There treatment includes factors possessing sanogenetic (mineral water therapeutic muds) and informative effects (EHF therapy). PMID:26155653

  2. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  3. Modeling Hydrothermal Mineralization: Fractal or Multifrcatal Models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.

    2004-05-01

    Hydrothermal mineralization occurs when the natural geo-processes involve the interaction of ore material-carrying hydrothermal fluids with rocks in the earth's crust in a specific geological environment. Mineralization can cause element concentration enrichment or depletion in the country rocks. Local enrichment may form ore body that can be mined for profit at the current economic and technological conditions. To understand the spatial distribution of element concentration enrichment or depletion caused by mineralization in a mineral district is essential for mineral exploration and mineral prediction. Grade-tonnage model and mineral deposits size distribution model are common models used for characterizing mineral deposits. This paper proposes a non-linear mineralization model on the basis of a modified classical igneous differentiation mineralization model to describe the generation of multifractal distribution of element concentration in the country rocks as well as grade-tonnage fractal/multifractal distribution of ore deposits that have been often observed in hydrothermal mineralization. This work may also lead to a singularity model to explain the common properties of mineralization and mineralization-associated geochemical anomaly diversity and the generalized self-similarity of the anomalies. The model has been applied to a case study of mineral deposits prediction and mineral resource assessment in the Abitibi district, northern Ontario, Canada.

  4. Mound Spring Complexes in Central Australia: An Analog for Martian Groundwater Fed Outflow Channels?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C.

    2003-01-01

    The arid inland of Australia contains a diversity of landscapes and landscape processes, often of great antiquity, extending back to the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. The potential of this landscape as a source of Mars analogs has, however, been little explored. The few examples studied so far include radiation-tolerant microbes in thermal springs and hematite-silica hydrothermal alteration near Arkaroola in the Finders Ranges, and aeolian landforms at Gurra Gurra water hole the north east of Arkaroola. Further Australian Mars analog studies were provided by the studies of Bourke and Zimbelman of the paleoflood record of the Todd and Hale Rivers in central Australia. To facilitate study of such analogues, Mars Society Australia has embarked on a project to construct a Mars Analog Research Station near Arkaroola. The international scientific community will soon have the opportunity to participate in Mars analog studies in central Australia utilizing this facility. An area of considerable Mars analog potential is the mound spring complexes that occur at the margins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) which underlies 22% of the Australian continent and covers 1.7 million km2. The mound springs are formed when ground water flows to a topographic low, and subsurface strata dips up causing a hydrological head at the surface. Minerals precipitated at the spring discharge zone form low mesas or "mounds", the height of which are controlled by the hydrological head. This paper describes the Dalhousie Mound Spring Complex (DMC) in the northern part of South Australia (Figure 1), and its potential as a Mars analog. Hydrogeology: The DMC consists of a cluster of more than 60 active springs formed by natural discharge from the GAB). Total measured discharge from the GAB is 1.74 GL per day, estimated unfocussed natural leakage through the aquaclude is thought be approximately equal to this figure. Some 54 ML per day are currently discharged by the DMC, 3% of the measured total. The

  5. Minerals Management Service: Annual performance plan for fiscal year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The mission is to manage the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and to timely collect, verify, and distribute mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on federal and Indian lands.

  6. The joys of spring.

    PubMed

    Riby, Leigh M

    2013-01-01

    This study used Vivaldi's Four Seasons, an extraordinary example of program music, to explore the consequence of music exposure on cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen participants performed a three-stimulus visual odd-ball task while ERPs were recorded. Participants were required to differentiate between a rare target stimulus (to elicit a memory updating component; P3b), a rare novel stimulus (to elicit a novelty attention component; P3a), and a frequent nontarget stimulus. During task performance participants listened to the four concertos: Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter in comparison to a silent control condition. Additionally, the three movements of each concerto have a fast, slow, fast structure that enabled examination of the impact of tempo. The data revealed that "Spring," particularly the well-recognized, vibrant, emotive, and uplifting first movement, had the ability to enhance mental alertness and brain measures of attention and memory. PMID:22851380

  7. Spring operated accelerator and constant force spring mechanism therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillinger, G. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A spring assembly consisting of an elongate piece of flat spring material formed into a spiral configuration and a free running spool in circumscribing relation to which this spring is disposed was developed. The spring has a distal end that is externally accessible so that when the distal end is drawn along a path, the spring unwinds against a restoring force present in the portion of the spring that resides in a transition region between a relatively straight condition on the path and a fully wound condition on the spool. When the distal end is released, the distal end is accelerated toward the spool by the force existing at the transition region which force is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the spring.

  8. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  9. Spring magnet films.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

    1999-03-29

    The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

  10. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  11. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Dudkash mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter R in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Dudkash mineral district, which has industrial mineral deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS

  12. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Tourmaline mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter J in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Tourmaline mineral district, which has tin deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products

  13. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  14. Minerals Management Service: Annual performance plan for fiscal year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Minerals Management Service manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil, and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore Federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  15. Mineral magnetism and geomagnetic secular variation of marine and lacustrine sediments from central Italy: timing and nature of local and regional Holocene environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolph, Timothy C.; Vigliotti, Luigi; Oldfield, Frank

    2004-07-01

    Sediment core palaeomagnetic and mineral magnetic records from two crater lakes in central Italy and from the western margin of the Adriatic Sea have been used to evaluate local and regional responses to Holocene environmental change. In all cores, sediment magnetism reflects the interplay between catchment material and the in situ production of bacterial magnetite (magnetotactic bacteria). In the lakes, the earliest Holocene sediments record a waning catchment input that we attribute to rising lake levels and increased tree cover in the catchment. From ˜9000 to 5000 yr BP, both lakes become anoxic, a consequence of water-mass stratification driven by high lake levels. Bottom-water anoxia also developed in the Adriatic, with sapropel S1 produced between ˜9000 and 7000 yr BP. Subsequently, the lake and Adriatic mineral magnetic records show evidence for increased catchment delivery, consistent with pollen evidence for Bronze Age deforestation. In the lakes, this evidence is first recorded at ˜4300 yr BP and a number of distinct clearance events are recorded. In comparison, at Adriatic site RF93-30, lithogenic input increases abruptly at ˜3500 yr BP and is followed by a slowly changing record of waxing and waning sediment delivery. Inter-site comparisons of palaeomagnetic data point to a possible link between the magnitude of the bacterial magnetite component and the recorded magnetic inclination. The sites are at near identical latitudes and have similar sediment accumulation rates but the Adriatic sites have a core-average magnetic inclination that is some 10° steeper than the lake average values. We suggest that the large dipole moment of the magnetosome chains, which in life produce the passive alignment of the bacterium along the local geomagnetic field line, produce a more faithful (albeit smoothed) record of the geomagnetic field.

  16. Lomonosov In Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    26 September 2004 This blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the frost-covered rims of Lomonosov Crater in late martian spring. At the north (top) end of the image, low, ground-hugging fog can be seen in association with the retreating seasonal polar cap. Lomonosov Crater is about 150 km (93 mi) in diameter and located at 65oN, 9oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. Fun with Automobile Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Klaus

    2006-10-01

    Simple measurements on car suspension systems and their analysis can raise student interest in the elementary discussion of the behavior of springs in oscillating systems. To understand these complicated oscillating systems and to interpret measurements properly, models may be used. Students find out how to make approximations and extract useful information from marginal data using common sense, basic physics, and simple software tools. Basic experiments on a physical model of a car suspension and on a passenger car, as well as the analysis of the data, will be presented. In particular, a value of the bounce mode frequency of a car was obtained using several approaches.

  18. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Farah mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter FF in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Farah mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of copper, zinc, lead, silver, and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2007, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that

  19. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Khanneshin mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter A in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Khanneshin mineral district, which has uranium, thorium, rare-earth-element, and apatite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be

  20. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Baghlan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter P in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Baghlan mineral district, which has industrial clay and gypsum deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2006, 2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Bakhud mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter U in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Bakhud mineral district, which has industrial fluorite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  2. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Uruzgan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter V in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Uruzgan mineral district, which has tin and tungsten deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  3. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Haji-Gak mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter C in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Haji-Gak mineral district, which has iron ore deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2006,2007), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products

  4. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Herat mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter T in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Herat mineral district, which has barium and limestone deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  5. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Nalbandon mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter L in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Nalbandon mineral district, which has lead and zinc deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2007, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  6. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghazni2 mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter EE in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghazni2 mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of gold, mercury, and sulfur deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image

  7. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Dusar-Shaida mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter I in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Dusar-Shaida mineral district, which has copper and tin deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the

  8. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Panjsher Valley mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter M in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Panjsher Valley mineral district, which has emerald and silver-iron deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2009, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from

  9. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Balkhab mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter B in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Balkhab mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match

  10. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Katawas mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter N in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Katawas mineral district, which has gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©AXA, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products match JAXA

  11. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kundalyan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter H in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kundalyan mineral district, which has porphyry copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  12. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Helmand mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter O in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Helmand mineral district, which has travertine deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  13. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghunday-Achin mineral district in Afghanistan, in Davis, P.A, compiler, Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghunday-Achin mineral district, which has magnesite and talc deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  14. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter Q in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Takhar mineral district, which has industrial evaporite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  15. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Aynak mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter E in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Aynak mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS

  16. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kharnak-Kanjar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter K in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kharnak-Kanjar mineral district, which has mercury deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  17. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter D in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Takhar mineral district, which has placer gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  18. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kunduz mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter S in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kunduz mineral district, which has celestite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2007,2008,2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the

  19. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Kandahar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter Z in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Kandahar mineral district, which has bauxite deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2006,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS

  20. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Zarkashan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter G in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Zarkashan mineral district, which has copper and gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Badakhshan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter F in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Arko, Scott A.; Harbin, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Badakhshan mineral district, which has gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA,2007,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such, the DS products

  2. Spectroscopic and Geochemical Analyses of Ferrihydrite from Hydrothermal Springs in Iceland and Applications to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice; Murad, E.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ferrihydrite samples were collected from a thermal spring and a cold stream in the Landmannalaugar region of Iceland. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses have been performed on the air-dried and fine-grained fractions of these samples. The ferrihydrite from the cold stream is a pure sample, containing small amounts of Ca, P and Si, which do not form minerals detectable with X-ray diffraction (XRD) or reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy. The ferrihydrite from the thermal pool is a less pure sample, containing larger amounts of amorphous Si and P. The XRD and spectral features for this sample are also consistent with a less crystalline structure. Some of the Si is incorporated in the structure of the ferrihydrite. The Ca, P and possibly some of the Si may be biogenic. The spectral character of these Icelandic ferrihydrites is compared with those of synthetic ferrihydrites and other iron oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals. Ferrihydrite is characterized by a broad Fe3+ excitation band near 0.92 microns (approx. 10900/cm) and a strong Fe-O absorption feature near 475/cm (approx. 21 microns) in transmittance spectra. Multiple bands due to H2O and OH are also present for ferrihydrite. Natural ferrihydrites frequently exhibit a band near 950-1050/cm (approx. 10 microns) that is typically not observed for synthetic ferrihydrites and may be due to some Si in the structure. An additional pair of spectral bands near 1400 and 1500/cm (approx. 7 microns) are characteristic of pure ferrihydrites from natural and synthetic sources. Hydrothermal springs may have been present at one time on Mars in association with volcanic activity. Ferrihydrite formation in such an environment may have contributed to the ferric oxide-rich surface material on Mars.

  3. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  4. Age and source of water in springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex, Calhoun County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from wells and springs accounts for more than 90 percent of the public water supply in Calhoun County, Alabama. Springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex are used for public water supply for the cities of Anniston and Jacksonville. The largest ground-water supply is Coldwater Spring, the primary source of water for Anniston, Alabama. The average discharge of Coldwater Spring is about 32 million gallons per day, and the variability of discharge is about 75 percent. Water-quality samples were collected from 6 springs and 15 wells in Calhoun County from November 2001 to January 2003. The pH of the ground water typically was greater than 6.0, and specific conductance was less than 300 microsiemens per centimeter. The water chemistry was dominated by calcium, carbonate, and bicarbonate ions. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of the water samples indicates the occurrence of a low-temperature, water-rock weathering reaction known as silicate hydrolysis. The residence time of the ground water, or ground-water age, was estimated by using analysis of chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, and regression modeling. Estimated ground-water ages ranged from less than 10 to approximately 40 years, with a median age of about 18 years. The Spearman rho test was used to identify statistically significant covariance among selected physical properties and constituents in the ground water. The alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved solids increased as age increased; these correlations reflect common changes in ground-water quality that occur with increasing residence time and support the accuracy of the age estimates. The concentration of sodium and chloride increased as age increased; the correlation of these constituents is interpreted to indicate natural sources for chloride and sodium. The concentration of silica increased as the concentration of potassium increased; this correlation, in addition to the isotopic data, is evidence that

  5. Microbially-influenced Fe-Cycling within high pH serpentinizing springs of the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casar, C.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Simon, A.; Cardace, D.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Zambales ophiolite region in the Philippines contains high pH springs associated with serpentinization. At the surface where calcium-saturated ­fluids mix with air, fluid becomes aerobic and diffusion of CO2 occurs. At depth, there are low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and O2, and high concentrations of CH4 and H2. Redox potential of iron in the fluids is largely dependent on pH. Fe2+ is unstable at a high pH, and spontaneously reacts with atmospheric O2 to form Fe3+, which is then hydrolysed to ferrihydrite. The reaction kinetics may be too rapid for microbes to harness energy for growth, however cells have been documented to act as nucleation sites for ferrihydrite precipitation in natural environments. Precipitates that sink to the subsurface act as substrates for microbes where they may carry out Fe3+ reduction in the presence of H2. Predictions made about Gibbs energy of reaction for iron metabolisms in serpentinizing systems show that Fe3+ reduction in the subsurface is energetically favorable (Fig. 1A) (Cardace, et al., 2013). Spring fluid and rock samples from the Zambales region were collected in September 2013. Time series microcosms including sample rock, spring fluid, and gas simulating the spring surface and subsurface (Fig. 1B) will investigate microbial growth rates and microbial reaction products over one year. Microcosms will undergo cell counts via fluorescence microscopy, SEM, and XRD to examine cell growth rates, microbial action on mineral surfaces, minerals forming around cells, and changes in mineralogy. After one year, microbial community structure and iron metabolizers will be identified via DNA sequencing.­­ Surface microcosms are expected to show abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ and formation of Fe3+ precipitates preferentially around cells acting as nucleation sites (except in abiotic control microcosms). Subsurface microcosms are expected to show biotic reduction of Fe3+ and signs of microbial action on mineral surfaces

  6. Tracing Hot-Spring Facies and thier Geothermally Silicified Microbial Textures into the Geologic Record: Relevance for Mars Biosignature Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K. A.; Guido, D. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Ruff, S. W.; Westall, F.

    2016-05-01

    Siliceous hot-spring deposits (sinters) in terrestrial volcanic terrains preserve robust microbial textures, owing to early mineralization, in the geologic record as far back as 3.48 billion years ago. Some resemble features at Columbia Hills.

  7. Analysis of H in Natural and Experimental Nominally Anhydrous Minerals: A Comparison of Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, Infrared and SIMS Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, A. C.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Bureau, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments to determine the H storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) can be used to place strong constraints on the degree of hydration required to initiate volatile fluxed melting in the mantle. Moreover, accurate measurements of H in NAMs from mantle xenoliths may be used to constrain the rheological properties of the source region. However, accurate measurements of H concentrations using infrared and ion beam techniques require mineral specific calibrations. Standardless measurements of H using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) in some cases have provided valuable verification of calibrations for other techniques, but so far have had limited application to experimental samples owing to sample size and analytical background. Results of recent measurements of H in garnet, pyroxene and feldspar will be used to illustrate the potential of the technique. Some of the results we will present include the following: 1) Forsterites grown at 2 and 3 GPa in the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system exhibit low frequency absorption bands in the OH stretching region between 3300 and 3400 cm-1, but very limited absorption at higher frequencies where the strongest absorption bands are usually seen for Al-free olivine. Analyses of H in these samples by ERDA will be used to develop a tentative site-specific molar absorption coefficient for the low frequency OH absorption band. 2) ERDA measurements of H in silicate glass standards verify previous determinations by Karl Fischer titration and FTIR spectroscopy, validating the ERDA technique. Samples of these rhyolitic glasses are available on request for use as analytical standards, and come with a compendium of analyses that have been used to characterize major and minor elemental composition and H content. 3) ERDA measurements of three homogeneous grossular garnets from East Africa show an excellent correlation (r2 = 1) with absorbance in the O-H stretching region and indicate an integral molar absorption coefficient

  8. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  9. Methane Seepage at Hyperalkaline Springs in the Ronda Peridotite Massif (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, G.; Vadillo, I.; Whiticar, M. J.; Marques, J. M.; Carreira, P. M.; Tiago, I.; Benavente, J.; Jimenez, P.; Urresti, B.

    2014-12-01

    Methane-rich, hyperalkaline spring waters and bubbling pools have been sampled in the Ronda peridotite massif in southern Spain. Water chemistry (T: 17.1-21.5 ºC; pH: 10.7-11.7; DO: <2 mg/L; Ca-OH facies) is characteristic of present-day serpentinization. Dissolved CH4 concentrations range from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L. CH4 stable C and H isotope ratios suggest a dominant abiotic origin in two natural spring sites (delta13C: -13 to -29 ‰ VPDB; delta2H: -309 to -333 ‰ VSMOW) and a mixed biotic-abiotic origin in springs with artificial water delivery systems (i.e., pipes or fountains; delta13C: -44 to -69 ‰; delta2H: -180 to -319 ‰). At the natural springs, gas is mainly released through bubbles close to the water outlet (CH4 flux ~1 kg/day by individual bubble trains), and subordinately by microseepage from the ground, even at distances of ~100 m from the bubble-spring site (flux of 10's, up to 97, mg CH4 m-2day-1). Gas seepage is strictly controlled by faults. Under-saturation of CH4 in water, bubbling and seepage location suggest that CH4 is not exclusively transported to the surface by hyperalkaline water, but it follows autonomous migration pathways along faults. Similar 'dry' seepage of abiotic gas was observed in the Philippines, New Zealand, Turkey and Italy. Like other land-based serpentinization systems, the Ronda peridotite massif is characterized by low heat flow (<40 mW/m2), with temperatures <60°C at depths of 1.5 km. At these low T and high pH conditions, CO32- is the only available carbon source dissolved in the water, and unlikely contributes to catalysed Fischer-Tropsch Type reactions. Methane production from CO2 hydrogenation in a gas phase system (unsaturated fractured rocks) cannot be excluded. The presence of ruthenium-enriched chromitites in the Ronda peridotites may support the hypothesis that CH4 is produced by CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by Ru minerals, even at temperatures below 100°C, as demonstrated in recent laboratory experiments

  10. Mineral displacement and -dissolution processes and their relevance to rock porosity and permeability in Rotliegend sandstones of the Altmark natural gas field (central Germany) - results from CO2 laboratory batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Enzmann, Frieder; Heister, Katja; Werner, Lars; Ganzer, Leonhard; Reitenbach, Viktor; Henkel, Steven; Albrecht, Daniel; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The Rotliegend reservoir sandstones of the Altmark area (central Germany) comprise the second largest natural gas field of Europe. These sandstones were deposited on a playa-like continental platform with braided river systems, ephemeral lakes and aeolian dunes under semi-arid conditions. Some of the pristine, red coloured deposits suffered intensive late diagenetic alteration and are now preserved as bleached, high porous and permeable sandstones. To evaluate the relevance of distinct fluids and their fluid-rock alteration reactions on such bleaching processes we performed laboratory static batch experiments on the Altmark sandstones. These 4-6 week lasting runs were conducted with CO2 saturated synthetic brines under typical Altmark reservoir conditions (p= 20 MPa, T= 125°C). Thereby mineralogical, petrophysical and (hydro- and geo-) chemical rock features were maintained prior and after the experiments. Chemical data proved the dissolution of carbonate and sulphate minerals during the runs, whereas the variation in abundance of further elements was within the detection limit of analytical accuracy. However, FE-SEM investigations on used, evaporated brines reveal the presence of illite and chlorite minerals within a matrix of Ca-, Si-, Fe, Al-, Na- and S components (carbonate, anhydrite, albite and Fe-(hydr-) oxides ?). By porosity and relative permeability measurements an increase in both rock features was observed after the runs, indicating that mineral dissolution and/or (clay) fine migration/detachment occurred during the experiments. Mineral dissolution, especially of pore-filling cements (e.g. carbonate-, sulphate minerals) is also deduced by BET analysis, in determining the specific surface of the sandstones. The size of these reactive surfaces increased after the experiments, suggesting that after the dissolution of pore-filling cements, formerly armoured grain rimming clay cutans were exposed to potential migrating fluids. These findings are also

  11. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  12. Is the spring water responsible for the fossilization of faunal remains at Florisbad, South Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Rod M.

    2006-01-01

    It is has been suggested that faunal remains at Florisbad were fossilized in a spring context due to the mineralized spring water. However, the environment conducive to the precipitation of CaCO3 and other authigenic minerals was formed largely through the salinization of the organic layers and clay, and the mineralization of the groundwater. Factors contributing to this favorable environment include: CaCO3 saturation, pH, the decomposition of halophytes, Eh, rainfall, biomineralization, and aeolian deposition. With the exception of pH, none of the above factors feature in a spring context, with evidence suggesting that the spring water may historically never have carried sufficient minerals for fossilization, and that contact with the spring water may actually have resulted in the demineralization of previously fossilized material. In light of this evidence, it is concluded that the fossilization of faunal remains at Florisbad took place in a sedimentary organic matter and clay environment and could not have taken place in the spring vents where there is an undersaturation of Ca.

  13. Enhancement in mineralization of a number of natural refractory organic compounds by the combined process of sonolysis and ozonolysis (US/O3).

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Elena, David; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2011-05-01

    As an advanced oxidation process, the combination of sonolysis (US)/ozonolysis (O(3)) was investigated on the treatment of tannic acid (TA) and humic acid (HA). In this study, biodegradable chemicals were found by the molecular weight and GC-MS analysis method, and mineralization rate and synergetic effects were also studied. For the water samples prior to the treatment of US/O(3), ratios of molecular size higher than 5000 and 2000 Da for HA and TA, detected by the ultra filtration method, were 90.25% and 89.53%, respectively. However, after 0.5h of reacting, this ratio rapidly reduced to 3% and 4%, and the ratios of molecules for HA and TA less than 500 Da rapidly increased from 0.8% to 41% and from 0.65% to 39%, respectively. In the results of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and total organic carbon (TOC) reductions, the US/O(3) process also showed synergetic effect by US/O(3) for COD(Cr) of HA and TA were 19% and 11%, and those for TOC of HA and TA were 0% and 1%, respectively. The major by-products of the oxidation process included formaldehyde, acetone, hydroxylamine, etc. Biological decomposable materials could be indirectly inferred by measuring the molecular weights and intermediates. PMID:21147543

  14. Spring-Tab Lock Washer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Jeff; Rogers, Dylan; Rodriguez, Pete

    1993-01-01

    Improved spring-tab lock washer offers alternative to such positive-locking devices as cotter pins and lock wires and to conventional split-ring lock washers. Does not dig into fastened parts with sharp edges; less likely to inflict scratches causing cracks. Contains three winglike spring tabs and three alignment pips, pressed into mating dimples in surface of part to be fastened. Spring tabs on lock washer allow only clockwise rotation (tightening) of bolt or nut.

  15. Modeling the effects of pumping wells in spring management: The case of Scirca spring (central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, W.; Mottola, A.; Cambi, C.

    2013-06-01

    One of the techniques used to increase the water yield of springs during dry seasons and droughts is drilling wells close to them. Where there is a low-hydraulic conductivity boundary close to a spring (the case considered here), this technique implies low well efficiency, high drawdown, and high cost of withdrawals. In addition, a set of pumping wells close to a spring can cause both it and the stream originating from it to dry up - a situation which is not always acceptable from an environmental point of view. In order to study better management strategies, this paper presents a finite difference model of the Scirca spring (Umbria - Marche Apennines, Italy), which originates from a limestone massif in which some formations are karstified. The model, built with Modflow using the equivalent porous media (EPM) approach, simulated the effects of pumping wells at various distances from the spring. Hydraulic Conductivity and Storativity were calibrated and validated on discharge data during recession, when recharge is nil. "Inverse modeling" was then used to estimate the daily recharge of the hydro-geological system of the Scirca spring for a period of several years. Lastly, the efficiency of various management schemes was evaluated by simulating the reaction of the spring, in terms of discharge, to a series of pumping scenarios, all guaranteeing a certain imposed withdrawal during summer, much larger than the natural spring discharge, given by spring discharge and well drawdown. The wells were located between 2850 and 100 m from the spring, the pumping time-span was set at 90 days, and pumping rates of 60, 90 and 120 l/s were applied. Results show that the maximum discharge at which spring drainage is avoided and that minimum vital flow is guaranteed is 90 l/s. The higher water volumes extracted during summer (dry season) are balanced by a lowering of the maximum natural discharges in winter and spring (recharge seasons). Simulations indicate that, by drilling pumping

  16. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with

  17. Investigations into the Early History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period September 1, 1996 to August 31, 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Johasson, Brian C.; Tranquilli, J. Vincent; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1998-10-28

    We have documented two general life history strategies utilized by juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin: (1) juveniles migrate downstream out of summer rearing areas in the fall, overwinter in river valley habitats, and begin their seaward migration in the spring, and (2) juveniles remain in summer rearing areas through the winter and begin seaward migration in the spring. In migration year 96-97, the patterns evident from migrant trap data were similar for the three Grande Ronde River populations studied, with 42% of the Lostine River migrants and 76% of the Catherine Creek migrants leaving upper rearing areas in the fall. Contrary to past years, the majority (98%) of upper Grande Ronde River migrants moved out in the fall. Total trap catch for the upper Grande Ronde River was exceedingly low (29 salmon), indicating that patterns seen this year may be equivocal. As in previous years, approximately 99% of chinook salmon juveniles moved past our trap at the lower end of the Grande Ronde River valley in the spring, reiterating that juvenile chinook salmon overwinter within the Grande Ronde valley section of the river. PIT-tagged fish were recaptured at Grande Ronde River traps and mainstem dams. Recapture data showed that fish that overwintered in valley habitats left as smolts and arrived at Lower Granite Dam earlier than fish that overwintered in upstream rearing areas. Fish from Catherine Creek that overwintered in valley habitats were recaptured at the dams at a higher rate than fish that overwintered upstream. In this first year of data for the Lostine River, fish tagged during the fall migration were detected at a similar rate to fish that overwintered upstream. Abundance estimates for migration year 96-97 were 70 for the upper Grande Ronde River, 4,316 for the Catherine Creek, and 4,323 for the Lostine River populations. Although present in most habitats, juvenile spring chinook salmon were found in the greatest abundance in pool

  18. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  19. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River basin. The objectives were to: (1) determine the abundance, distribution and survival of naturally produced fry and smolts in the Yakima River; (2) evaluate different methods of fry and smolt supplementation into the natural rearing environment while maintaining as much as possible the gentic integrity of naturally produced stocks; (3) locate and define areas in the watershed which may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; (4) define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and (5) determine physical and biological limitations for production within the system.

  20. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral harmotome - (Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16ṡ6H2O - A natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Wang, Lina; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The mineral harmotome (Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16ṡ6H2O is a crystalline sodium calcium silicate which has the potential to be used in plaster boards and other industrial applications. It is a natural zeolite with catalytic potential. Raman bands at 1020 and 1102 cm-1 are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of three dimensional siloxane units. Raman bands at 428, 470 and 491 cm-1 are assigned to OSiO bending modes. The broad Raman bands at around 699, 728, 768 cm-1 are attributed to water librational modes. Intense Raman bands in the 3100 to 3800 cm-1 spectral range are assigned to OH stretching vibrations of water in harmotome. Infrared spectra are in harmony with the Raman spectra. A sharp infrared band at 3731 cm-1 is assigned to the OH stretching vibration of SiOH units. Raman spectroscopy with complimentary infrared spectroscopy enables the characterization of the silicate mineral harmotome.

  1. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral harmotome--(Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16⋅6H2O--a natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Wang, Lina; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2015-02-25

    The mineral harmotome (Ba,Na,K)1-2(Si,Al)8O16⋅6H2O is a crystalline sodium calcium silicate which has the potential to be used in plaster boards and other industrial applications. It is a natural zeolite with catalytic potential. Raman bands at 1020 and 1102 cm(-1) are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of three dimensional siloxane units. Raman bands at 428, 470 and 491 cm(-1) are assigned to OSiO bending modes. The broad Raman bands at around 699, 728, 768 cm(-1) are attributed to water librational modes. Intense Raman bands in the 3100 to 3800 cm(-1) spectral range are assigned to OH stretching vibrations of water in harmotome. Infrared spectra are in harmony with the Raman spectra. A sharp infrared band at 3731 cm(-1) is assigned to the OH stretching vibration of SiOH units. Raman spectroscopy with complimentary infrared spectroscopy enables the characterization of the silicate mineral harmotome. PMID:25203212

  2. Vibrational spectroscopic study of the sulphate mineral glaucocerinite (Zn,Cu)10Al6(SO4)3(OH)32ṡ18H2O - A natural layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Theiss, Frederick L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    We have studied the molecular structure of the mineral glaucocerinite (Zn,Cu)5Al3(SO4)1.5(OH)16ṡ9(H2O) using a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral is one of the hydrotalcite supergroup of natural layered double hydroxides. The Raman spectrum is characterised by an intense Raman band at 982 cm-1 with a low intensity band at 1083 cm-1. These bands are attributed to the sulphate symmetric and antisymmetric stretching mode. The infrared spectrum is quite broad with a peak at 1020 cm-1. A series of Raman bands at 546, 584, 602, 625 and 651 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4 (SO4)2- bending modes. The observation of multiple bands provides evidence for the reduction in symmetry of the sulphate anion from Td to C2v or even lower symmetry. The Raman band at 762 cm-1 is attributed to a hydroxyl deformation mode associated with AlOH units. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of glaucocerinite to be determined.

  3. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  4. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1997 to 31 August 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Tranquilli, J. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 6,716 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 6% of the migrants left in summer, 29% in fall, 2% in winter, and 63% in spring. We estimated 8,763 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 12% of the migrants left in summer, 37% in fall, 21% in winter, and 29% in spring. We estimated 8,859 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1997 to June 1998; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 15,738 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1997 to April 1998; approximately 3% of the migrants left in summer, 61% in fall, 2% in winter, and 34% in spring. We estimated 22,754 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from September 1997 to April 1998; approximately 55% of the migrants left in fall, 5% in winter, and 40% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 1 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 3 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 8 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 26 May 1998, with a median passage date of 28 April. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher

  5. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Parwan mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter CC in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Parwan mineral district, which has gold and copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006, 2007), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  6. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghazni1 mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter DD in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghazni1 mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of clay, aluminum, gold, silver, mercury, and sulfur deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such

  7. The hydrogeologic connectivity of a low-flow saline-spring fen peatland within the Athabasca oil sands region, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Corey M.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2015-12-01

    Saline springs can provide clues as to the nature of groundwater flow, including how it relates to subsurface wastewater storage and the distribution of solutes in the landscape. A saline-spring peatland neighboring a proposed in-situ oil facility was examined near Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada). The study area is situated just north of a saline groundwater discharge zone, which coincides with the erosional edge of the Cretaceous Grand Rapids Formation. Na+ (mean 6,949 mg L-1) and Cl- (mean 13,776 mg L-1) were the dominant salts within the peatland, which increased by an order of magnitude in the opposite direction to that of the local groundwater flow. Rivers and freshwater wetlands within the study area had anomalously high salinities, in some cases exceeding 10,000 mg L-1 total dissolved solids within deeper sediments. Saline-spring features were observed as far as 5 km from the study area. A low-permeability mineral layer underlying the peatland restricted vertical groundwater exchange (estimated to be less than several mm over the 4-month study period). Sand and gravel lenses underlying the fen's high-salinity zone may function as areas of enhanced discharge. High Cl/Br ratios point to halite as a potential source of salinity, while δ18O and δ2H signatures in groundwater were lower than modern-day precipitation or Quaternary aquifers. The complex connectivity of saline-spring wetlands within the landscape has implications for industry and land-use managers, and justifies incorporating them into monitoring networks to better gauge the magnitude and flow history of natural saline discharge in the oil sands region.

  8. Arsenic and other trace elements in thermal springs and in cold waters from drinking water wells on the Bolivian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo; Quintanilla Aguirre, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Numerous hot springs and fumaroles occur along the Andes Mountains, in the Bolivian Altiplano, where people use thermal springs for recreational purposes as pools, baths and also for consumption as drinking water and irrigation once it is mixed with natural surface waters; most of these thermal springs emerge from earth surface and flow naturally into the rivers streams which drain further into the Poopó Lake. Physicochemical characteristics of the thermal water samples showed pH from 6.3 to 8.3 with an average of 7.0, redox potential from +106 to +204 mV with an average of +172 mV, temperatures from 40 to 75 °C with an average of 56 °C and high electrical conductivity ranging from 1.8 to 75 mS/cm and averaged 13 mS/cm. Predominant major ions are Na+ and Cl- and the principal water types are 37.5% Na-Cl type and 37.5% Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 65.3 μg/L and arsenic speciation indicate the predominance of As(III) species. Sediments collected from the outlets of thermal waters show high iron content, and ferric oxides and hydroxides are assumed to be principal mineral phases for arsenic attenuation by adsorption/co-precipitation processes. Arsenic concentrations in cold water samples from shallow aquifers are higher than those in thermal springs (range < 5.6-233.2 μg/L), it is likely that thermal water discharge is not the main source of high arsenic content in the shallow aquifer as they are very immature and may only have a small component corresponding to the deep geothermal reservoir. As people use both thermal waters and cold waters for consumption, there is a high risk for arsenic exposure in the area.

  9. Field experience with a new installation for countercurrent ion-exchange treatment of low-mineralized natural water with high content of organic impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Larin, A. B.; Oparin, M. Yu.; Vinogradov, V. N.

    2009-06-01

    Results obtained from examination of the working characteristics of filters are presented together with the filtering material analysis data that were obtained on a new high-output plant for ion-exchange treatment of natural water with high content of organic impurities. Stable operation of the plant is pointed out, and difficulties are indicated that arise from the fact that the water treatment system does not contain a unit for coagulation in a clarifier.

  10. Springing into Spring: Reading Games for the Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    As spring arrives, more time is spent outdoors. Unfortunately, as spring fever hits, books and learning often take a backseat. The goal is for educators to find a way to re-engage learners. In this article, the author presents a seasonal story and game that can help catch students' attention by making learning both informative and entertaining.…

  11. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOEpatents

    McKelvey, Thomas E.; Guarnieri, Joseph J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  12. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOEpatents

    McKelvey, T.E.; Guarnieri, J.J.

    1984-03-13

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  13. Sulfur/Carbonate Springs and Life in Glacial Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Grasby, Stephen; Longazo, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Ice in the near subsurface of Mars apparently discharges liquid water on occasion. Cold-tolerant microorganisms are known to exist within terrestrial glacial ice, and may be brought to the surface as a result of melting events. We are investigating a set of springs that deposit sulfur and carbonate minerals, as well as evidence of microbial life, on the surface of a glacier in the Canadian arctic. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Evaluation of the migration of mutagens/carcinogens from PET bottles into mineral water by Tradescantia/micronuclei test, Comet assay on leukocytes and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; Monarca, S; De Fusco, R; Senatore, F; Poli, P; Buschini, A; Rossi, C; Zani, C

    2003-01-20

    This study monitored the release of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds into mineral water (natural and carbonated) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, using a plant mutagenicity test which reveals micronuclei formation in Tradescantia pollen cells (Trad/MCN test), a DNA damage assay (Comet assay) on human leukocytes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the characterisation of migrants. The water samples were collected at a bottling plant and stored in PET bottles for a period ranging from 1 to 12 months. Every month some samples were randomly collected and lyophilised, the residual powders were extracted with organic solvents and then analysed by GC/MS and tested for DNA damage in human leukocytes, or reconstituted with distilled water to obtain concentrates for the exposure of Tradescantia inflorescences. Micronuclei increase in pollen was found only in natural mineral water stored for 2 months. DNA-damaging activity was found in many of the natural and carbonated water samples. Spring water was negative in the plant micronuclei test and the Comet assay, whereas distributed spring water showed DNA-damaging effects, suggesting a possible introduction of genotoxins through the distribution pipelines. GC/MS analysis showed the presence in mineral water of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, a nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenic plasticizer, after 9 months of storage in PET bottles. PMID:12526902

  15. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  16. Carbon Source Preference in Chemosynthetic Hot Spring Communities

    PubMed Central

    Urschel, Matthew R.; Kubo, Michael D.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Peters, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), formate, and acetate mineralization and/or assimilation were determined in 13 high-temperature (>73°C) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, in order to evaluate the relative importance of these substrates in supporting microbial metabolism. While 9 of the hot spring communities exhibited rates of DIC assimilation that were greater than those of formate and acetate assimilation, 2 exhibited rates of formate and/or acetate assimilation that exceeded those of DIC assimilation. Overall rates of DIC, formate, and acetate mineralization and assimilation were positively correlated with spring pH but showed little correlation with temperature. Communities sampled from hot springs with similar geochemistries generally exhibited similar rates of substrate transformation, as well as similar community compositions, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequencing. Amendment of microcosms with small (micromolar) amounts of formate suppressed DIC assimilation in short-term (<45-min) incubations, despite the presence of native DIC concentrations that exceeded those of added formate by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. The concentration of added formate required to suppress DIC assimilation was similar to the affinity constant (Km) for formate transformation, as determined by community kinetic assays. These results suggest that dominant chemoautotrophs in high-temperature communities are facultatively autotrophic or mixotrophic, are adapted to fluctuating nutrient availabilities, and are capable of taking advantage of energy-rich organic substrates when they become available. PMID:25819970

  17. Carbon source preference in chemosynthetic hot spring communities.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Matthew R; Kubo, Michael D; Hoehler, Tori M; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S

    2015-06-01

    Rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), formate, and acetate mineralization and/or assimilation were determined in 13 high-temperature (>73 °C) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, in order to evaluate the relative importance of these substrates in supporting microbial metabolism. While 9 of the hot spring communities exhibited rates of DIC assimilation that were greater than those of formate and acetate assimilation, 2 exhibited rates of formate and/or acetate assimilation that exceeded those of DIC assimilation. Overall rates of DIC, formate, and acetate mineralization and assimilation were positively correlated with spring pH but showed little correlation with temperature. Communities sampled from hot springs with similar geochemistries generally exhibited similar rates of substrate transformation, as well as similar community compositions, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequencing. Amendment of microcosms with small (micromolar) amounts of formate suppressed DIC assimilation in short-term (<45-min) incubations, despite the presence of native DIC concentrations that exceeded those of added formate by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. The concentration of added formate required to suppress DIC assimilation was similar to the affinity constant (K(m)) for formate transformation, as determined by community kinetic assays. These results suggest that dominant chemoautotrophs in high-temperature communities are facultatively autotrophic or mixotrophic, are adapted to fluctuating nutrient availabilities, and are capable of taking advantage of energy-rich organic substrates when they become available. PMID:25819970

  18. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  19. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  20. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  1. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  2. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  3. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  4. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  5. Single-Crystal Springs For Accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal noise reduced, enabling use of smaller proof masses. Spring-and-mass accelerometers in which springs made of single-crystal material being developed. In spring-and-mass accelerometer, proof mass attached to one end of spring, and acceleration of object at other end of spring measured in terms of deflection of spring, provided frequency spectrum of acceleration lies well below resonant frequency of spring-and-proof-mass system. Use of single-crystal spring materials instead of such polycrystalline spring materials as ordinary metals makes possible to construct highly sensitive accelerometers (including seismometers) with small proof masses.

  6. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  7. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...

  8. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...

  9. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...

  10. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...

  11. Quantification of Dynamic Water-Rock-Microbe Interactions in a Travertine-Depositing Hot Spring, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, L. M.; Sivaguru, M.; Fried, G.; Sanford, R. A.; Fouke, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Filamentous microbial mats in a travertine-depositing hot spring at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park exert primary controls on the growth rate, mineralogy, and crystal fabric of calcium carbonate minerals (travertine) that precipitate in the spring. Filaments directly affect porosity and permeability of travertine by providing a structural framework consisting of "ropes" of microbial cells around which carbonate minerals precipitate, creating a uniquely biogenetic mineral fabric characterized by horizontal layers of large tubular pores. Nanometer scale microscopy reveals that these mineral fabrics may be directly tied to microbial activities, as aragonite crystals precipitating directly on filaments are smaller and more densely packed than crystals precipitating on extra-polymeric substances (EPS) between filaments. In order to more closely examine the processes which control calcium carbonate crystallization dynamics in this system, a high-resolution transect of water and travertine was sampled for geochemistry, microscopy, and microbial biomass along the primary flow path from upstream to downstream of Narrow Gauge spring at Mammoth Hot Springs. Travertine samples were analyzed for petrography using transmitted light, cathodoluminescence, and laser confocal microscopy to examine crystal morphology and associations with microbial filaments and provide insight on pore network distributions. Additionally, travertine and spring water geochemistry was also analyzed for major and trace ions, δ34S, δ13C, and δ18O, to identify any trends that may relate to crystallization rates, microbial biomass, or crystal habit. Total biomass was determined using dried weight. Water-rock-microbe interactions result in upstream-to-downstream variations in travertine crystal morphology and water chemistry that are directly related to systematic changes in microbial biomass and community respiration. Geochemical modeling lends insight into the biogeochemical reactions

  12. Microbial Paleontology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Modern and Ancient Thermal Spring Deposits and Their Recognition on the Early Earth and Mars"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.

    2004-01-01

    The vision of this project was to improve our understanding of the processes by which microbiological information is captured and preserved in rapidly mineralizing sedimentary environments. Specifically, the research focused on the ways in which microbial mats and biofilms influence the sedimentology, geochemistry and paleontology of modem hydrothermal spring deposits in Yellowstone national Park and their ancient analogs. Toward that goal, we sought to understand how the preservation of fossil biosignatures is affected by 1) taphonomy- the natural degradation processes that affect an organism from the time of its death, until its discovery as a fossil and 2) diagenesis- longer-term, post-depositional processes, including cementation and matrix recrystallization, which collectively affect the mineral matrix that contains fossil biosignature information. Early objectives of this project included the development of observational frameworks (facies models) and methods (highly-integrated, interdisciplinary approaches) that could be used to explore for hydrothermal deposits in ancient terranes on Earth, and eventually on Mars.

  13. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  14. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  15. Siliceous Shrubs in Yellowstone's Hot Springs: Implications for Exobiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    Potential relict hot springs have been identified on Mars and, using the Earth as an analog, Martian hot springs are postulated to be an optimal locality for recognizing preserved evidence of extraterrestrial life. Distinctive organic and inorganic biomarkers are necessary to recognize preserved evidence of life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial hot spring accumulations. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., contain a wealth of information about primitive microbial life and associated biosignatures that may be useful for future exobiological investigations. Numerous siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone contain abundant, centimeter-scale, spinose precipitates of opaline silica (opal-A). Although areally extensive in siliceous hot spring discharge channel facies, these spinose forms have largely escaped attention. These precipitates referred to as shrubs, consist of porous aggregates of spinose opaline silica that superficially resemble miniature woody plants, i.e., the term shrubs. Shrubs in carbonate precipitating systems have received considerable attention, and represent naturally occurring biotically induced precipitates. As such, shrubs have great potential as hot spring environmental indicators and, more importantly, proxies for pre-existing microbial life.

  16. Minerals Yearbook, 1988 international review. The mineral industries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, I.E.; Gurmendi, A.C.; Velasco, P.

    1988-01-01

    All three countries in this Andean group have diversified mineral industries that play an important role in their respective domestic economies. Peru, as the largest country with a population of over 21 million, is the most diversified mineral producer with the highest value of total output. The values added by the mineral industries in 1988 were $2.78 billion for Peru, $1.98 billion for Ecuador, and $0.64 billion for Bolivia. Each value encompasses production of petroleum, natural gas, metals, and industrial minerals. During the period 1980-88, Ecuador's mineral output in terms of value expanded while that of Bolivia and Peru contracted.

  17. FEMP Focus - Spring 2004

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-29

    Features information about Measurement and Verification (M&V) of Energy Savings, Energy Rate Escalation calculator, Landfill Gas-to-Energy Project, Natural Gas Markets, GSA develops new O&M contract, and more for federal agencies.

  18. Electronic structure calculations of mercury mobilization from mineral phases and photocatalytic removal from water and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Da Pieve, Fabiana; Stankowski, Martin; Hogan, Conor

    2014-09-15

    Mercury is a hazardous environmental pollutant mobilized from natural sources, and anthropogenically contaminated and disturbed areas. Current methods to assess mobility and environmental impact are mainly based on field measurements, soil monitoring, and kinetic modelling. In order to understand in detail the extent to which different mineral sources can give rise to mercury release it is necessary to investigate the complexity at the microscopic level and the possible degradation/dissolution processes. In this work, we investigated the potential for mobilization of mercury structurally trapped in three relevant minerals occurring in hot spring environments and mining areas, namely, cinnabar (α-HgS), corderoite (α-Hg3S2Cl2), and mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Quantum chemical methods based on density functional theory as well as more sophisticated approaches are used to assess the possibility of a) direct photoreduction and formation of elemental Hg at the surface of the minerals, providing a path for ready release in the environment; and b) reductive dissolution of the minerals in the presence of solutions containing halogens. Furthermore, we study the use of TiO2 as a potential photocatalyst for decontamination of polluted waters (mainly Hg(2+)-containing species) and air (atmospheric Hg(0)). Our results partially explain the observed pathways of Hg mobilization from relevant minerals and the microscopic mechanisms behind photocatalytic removal of Hg-based pollutants. Possible sources of disagreement with observations are discussed and further improvements to our approach are suggested. PMID:24982025

  19. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    injected substrate solutions. Nanobacteria may provide a model for primordial life-forms, such as replicating clay crystallites in a sandstone, where minerals and metal atoms associated to membranes, may play catalytic and structural roles reducing the number of enzymes and structural proteins needed for life. Such simple metabolic pathways may support the 10,000-fold slower growth rate of nanobacteria, as compared to the usual bacteria. They may also explain the endurability of this life-form in extreme environmental conditions. Altogether such properties do suggest that nanobacteria may have evolved from environmental sources, such a shot springs, to take advantage of the steady-state calcium and phosphate supply of the mammalian blood. Based upon our findings of nanobacteria, a novel theory for the early development of life, based on apatite-mediated chemistry on membranes selecting itself for its own catalytical machinery, is presented.

  20. Microorganisms meet solid minerals: interactions and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Ng, Daphne H P; Kumar, Amit; Cao, Bin

    2016-08-01

    In natural and engineered environments, microorganisms often co-exist and interact with various minerals or mineral-containing solids. Microorganism-mineral interactions contribute significantly to environmental processes, including biogeochemical cycles in natural ecosystems and biodeterioration of materials in engineered environments. In this mini-review, we provide a summary of several key mechanisms involved in microorganism-mineral interactions, including the following: (i) solid minerals serve as substrata for biofilm development; (ii) solid minerals serve as an electron source or sink for microbial respiration; (iii) solid minerals provide microorganisms with macro or micronutrients for cell growth; and (iv) (semi)conductive solid minerals serve as extracellular electron conduits facilitating cell-to-cell interactions. We also highlight recent developments in harnessing microbe-mineral interactions for biotechnological applications. PMID:27338573

  1. Piston and spring powered engine

    SciTech Connect

    Samodovitz, A. J.

    1985-12-10

    The invention is an improved piston engine, either two stroke or four stroke. In one, two stroke, one cylinder embodiment, the improvement comprises two springs connecting between the piston and the base of the piston. These springs are relatively relaxed when the crank is at top dead center. Then during the power/intake stroke, some of the fuel's energy is delivered to the crankshaft and some is used to compress the springs. The stored energy in the springs is delivered to the crankshaft during the exhaust/compression stroke while the springs return to their relatively relaxed condition. As a result, energy is delivered to the crankshaft during both strokes of the cycle, and the engine runs smooth. In one, four stroke, two cylinder embodiment, each cylinder has springs as described above, the cranks of each cylinder are aligned, and the cam sets one cylinder in the power stroke while the other is in the intake stroke. As a result, the engine runs smooth because energy is delivered to the crankshaft during all four strokes of the cycle, during two of the strokes by the burning fuel and during the other two by the release of energy in the springs. In both embodiments, a heavy crankshaft is not needed because of the more uniform power delivery.

  2. Mineral-Based Amendments for Remediation

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Amending soils with mineral-based materials to immobilize contaminants is both old and new. Although mineral amendments have been used for decades in agriculture, new applications with a variety of natural and reprocessed materials are emerging. By sequestering contaminants in or on solid phases and reducing their ability to partition into water or air, amendments can reduce the risk of exposure to humans or biota. A variety of mineral types are commonly used to amend contaminated soils, with different modes of molecular-scale sequestration. Regulatory, social, and economic factors also influence decisions to employ mineral amendments as a treatment technology. PMID:22203887

  3. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, C C; Albert, F G; Chafetz, H S; Combie, J; Graham, C R; Kieft, T L; Kivett, S J; McKay, D S; Steele, A; Taunton, A E; Taylor, M R; Thomas-Keprta, K L; Westall, F

    2000-09-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars. PMID:11543582

  4. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; Taylor, M. R.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Westall, F.

    2000-01-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  5. Microscopic Physical Biomarkers in Carbonate Hot Springs: Implications in the Search for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Albert, Fred G.; Chafetz, Henry S.; Combie, Joan; Graham, Catherine R.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Kivett, Steven J.; McKay, David S.; Steele, Andrew; Taunton, Anne E.; Taylor, Michael R.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Westall, Frances

    2000-09-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms—submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72°C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  6. Ecological differentiation in planktonic and sediment-associated chemotrophic microbial populations in Yellowstone hot springs.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Feyhl-Buska, Jayme; Robinson, Kirtland J; Fecteau, Kristopher M; Xu, Huifang; Shock, Everett L; Boyd, Eric S

    2016-09-01

    Chemosynthetic sediment and planktonic community composition and sizes, aqueous geochemistry and sediment mineralogy were determined in 15 non-photosynthetic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These data were used to evaluate the hypothesis that differences in the availability of dissolved or mineral substrates in the bulk fluids or sediments within springs coincides with ecologically differentiated microbial communities and their populations. Planktonic and sediment-associated communities exhibited differing ecological characteristics including community sizes, evenness and richness. pH and temperature influenced microbial community composition among springs, but within-spring partitioning of taxa into sediment or planktonic communities was widespread, statistically supported (P < 0.05) and could be best explained by the inferred metabolic strategies of the partitioned taxa. Microaerophilic genera of the Aquificales predominated in many of the planktonic communities. In contrast, taxa capable of mineral-based metabolism such as S(o) oxidation/reduction or Fe-oxide reduction predominated in sediment communities. These results indicate that ecological differentiation within thermal spring habitats is common across a range of spring geochemistry and is influenced by the availability of dissolved nutrients and minerals that can be used in metabolism. PMID:27306555

  7. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. PMID:24138490

  8. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  9. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  10. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  11. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    in the silicate (clay mineral in our case) structure, the specific bonding of these ions, and other factors. In fact, the reasons for coloration are not known completely, but it is certain that a combination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions is necessary to give a nice green color to clays. In the green clay minerals discussed here, the colors vary greatly as seen under the optical microscope (not always the same as the one seen in hand specimen). Yellow to blue-green hues can be found. However, for the moment, no clear relation between iron content, iron valence ratio, or other factors such as minor transition element concentrations can be found to explain the greenness of green clay minerals. The fact that a clay is green just indicates a combination of the two oxidation states of iron. The color, however, indicates the key to the formation in nature of green clay minerals.Green clay minerals are in general the product of "mixed valence" conditions of formation, most often in a situation where some iron is reduced from Fe3+ and enters into a silicate mineral structure. In general, iron would rather be an oxide when it is in the trivalent state. The moment iron is reduced to a divalent state under surface or near-surface conditions, it looks for a silicate, sulfide, or carbonate to hide in. The reverse is also true, of course. When a silicate is oxidized, Fe2+ becoming Fe3+, the iron begins to group together in oxide clumps and eventually exits the silicate structure. This is seen in thin section in altered rocks (weathering or hydrothermal action). The production of trivalent, oxidized iron usually results in a brownish or orange mineral.If the geology of the formation of green silicate minerals is relatively well defined, especially at near surface or surface conditions, the question remains how much of the iron is in a reduced oxidation state and how? In the case of reduction of iron in surface environments: if most of the iron goes to Fe2+, one mineral is formed; if only

  12. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on migrant shorebirds using rocky intertidal habitats of Prince William Sound, Alaska, during spring, 1989. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    A minimum of a few 10,000`s of surfbirds (Aphriza virgata) and black turnstones (Arenaria melanocephala) used rocky intertidal habitats of southwestern Prince William sound in spring 1989. Virtually all the shorebirds were found using shorelines, primarily on northern Montague Island, subjectively classified in the field as lightly oiled or unoiled. Surfbirds and black turnstones preyed mainly on herring eggs, blue mussels, and barnacles. Samples of these prey items from oiled areas contained petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, as did at some of the samples from the relatively clean portions of Montague Island. The results of chemical analysis of a small sample of shorebird liver tissues provided only limited support for the hypothesis that shorebirds had ingested significant quantities of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Surfbirds and black turnstones probably escaped significant population impacts as a result of the EVOs because shorelines which received heavy use by these species were largely spared contamination.

  13. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.; Pringle, M.K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s−1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 Ls−1, which corresponds to about 8.2×104 kJ s−1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and technically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m. y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

  14. Water quality and aquatic toxicity data of 2002 spring thaw conditions in the upper Animas River watershed, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, D.L.; Wirt, L.; Besser, J.M.; Wright, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic, water-quality, and biologic toxicity data collected during the annual spring thaw of 2002 in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The spring-thaw runoff is a concern because elevated concentrations of iron oxyhydroxides can contain sorbed trace metals that are potentially toxic to aquatic life. Water chemistry of streams draining the San Juan Mountains is affected by natural acid drainage and weathering of hydrothermal altered volcanic rocks and by more than a century of mining activities. The timing of the spring-thaw sampling effort was determined by reviewing historical climate and stream-flow hydrographs and current weather conditions. Twenty-one water-quality samples were collected between 11:00 AM March 27, 2002 and 6:00 PM March 30, 2002 to characterize water chemistry at the A-72 gage on the upper Animas River below Silverton. Analyses of unfiltered water at the A-72 gage showed a relation between turbidity and total-recoverable iron concentrations, and showed diurnal patterns. Copper and lead concentrations were related to iron concentrations, indicating that these elements are probably sorbed to colloidal iron material. Calcium, strontium, and sulfate concentrations showed overall decreasing trends due to dilution, but the loads of those constituents increased over the sampling period. Nine water-quality samples were collected near the confluence of Mineral Creek with the Animas River, the confluence of Cement Creek with the Animas River, and on the upper Animas River above the confluence with Cement Creek (three samples at each site). A total of six bulk water-toxicity samples were collected before, during, and after the spring thaw from the Animas River at the A-72 gage site. Toxicity tests conducted with the bulk water samples on amphipods did not show strong differences in toxicity among the three sampling periods; however, toxicity of river water to fathead minnows showed a decreasing trend

  15. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment. PMID:26040975

  16. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  17. Geochemical processes at mineral surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.A.; Hayes, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume includes 32 papers which were presented at a symposium on geochemical processes at mineral-water interfaces in 1985 and which bring to bear on this area a very wide range of expertise. The discontinuities in properties which occur at the mineral-water interface have profound effects on the movement of naturally occurring ions. Weathering and precipitation processes control the concentrations and speciation of ions in natural waters and the movements of these within the hydrosphere; both classes of processes take place at mineral-water interfaces. After an introductory overview, the book is divided into seven major sections, each dealing with one of the aspects of the processes occurring at the mineral-water interface. Five papers deal with the physical properties of the mineral-water interface; these represent a well-balanced mix of experimental and theoretical (mathematical modeling) work. Adsorption phenomena are dealt with in another five papers; these are largely experimental in character. Ion-exchange processes are discussed in four papers, one of which addresses the use of relaxation methods to study ion exchange kinetics at the microscopic level. Spectroscopic techniques (including electron-spin resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy) are utilized in four papers. Chemical reactions, mainly redox processes, at mineral-water interfaces are treated in four papers, one of which deals with non-biological organic reactions. Solid-solution formation and equilibria are the subjects of another set of four articles, and the last group of papers deals with the processes involved in precipitation and dissolution, including weathering.

  18. 28 CFR 0.68 - Delegation respecting mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delegation respecting mineral leasing. 0... JUSTICE Environment and Natural Resources Division § 0.68 Delegation respecting mineral leasing. The.... 914, 30 U.S.C. 352, respecting the leasing of minerals on lands under the jurisdiction of...

  19. 28 CFR 0.68 - Delegation respecting mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delegation respecting mineral leasing. 0... JUSTICE Environment and Natural Resources Division § 0.68 Delegation respecting mineral leasing. The.... 914, 30 U.S.C. 352, respecting the leasing of minerals on lands under the jurisdiction of...

  20. 28 CFR 0.68 - Delegation respecting mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delegation respecting mineral leasing. 0... JUSTICE Environment and Natural Resources Division § 0.68 Delegation respecting mineral leasing. The.... 914, 30 U.S.C. 352, respecting the leasing of minerals on lands under the jurisdiction of...

  1. 28 CFR 0.68 - Delegation respecting mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delegation respecting mineral leasing. 0... JUSTICE Environment and Natural Resources Division § 0.68 Delegation respecting mineral leasing. The.... 914, 30 U.S.C. 352, respecting the leasing of minerals on lands under the jurisdiction of...

  2. 28 CFR 0.68 - Delegation respecting mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation respecting mineral leasing. 0... JUSTICE Environment and Natural Resources Division § 0.68 Delegation respecting mineral leasing. The.... 914, 30 U.S.C. 352, respecting the leasing of minerals on lands under the jurisdiction of...

  3. Microbial Biosignatures in High Iron Thermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    The emerging anoxic source waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park contain 2.6 to 11.2 mg/L Fe(II) and are 51-54° C and pH 5.5-6.0. These waters flow down the accumulating iron deposits and over three major phototrophic mat communities: Synechococcus/Chloroflexus at 51-54° C, Pseudanabaena at 51-54° C, and a narrow Oscillatoria at 36-45° C. We are assessing the contribution of the phototrophs to biosignature formation in this high iron system. These biosignatures can be used to assess the biological contribution to ancient iron deposits on Earth (e.g. Precambrian Banded Iron Formations) and, potentially, to those found on Mars. Most studies to date have focused on chemotrophic iron-oxidizing communities; however, recent research has demonstrated that phototrophs have a significant physiological impact on these iron thermal springs (Pierson et al. 1999, Pierson and Parenteau 2000, and Trouwborst et al., 2003). We completed a survey of the microfossils, biominerals, biofabrics, and lipid biomarkers in the phototrophic mats and stromatolitic iron deposits using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat was heavily encrusted with iron silicates while the narrow Oscillatoria mat was encrusted primarily with iron oxides. Encrustation of the cells increased with depth in the mats. Amorphous 2-line ferrihydrite is the primary precipitate in the spring and the only iron oxide mineral associated with the mats. Goethite, hematite, and siderite were detected in dry sediment samples on the face of the main iron deposit. Analysis of polar lipid fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) generated a suite of lipid biomarkers. The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat contained two mono-unsaturated isomers of n-C18:1 with smaller amounts of polyunsaturated n-C18:2, characteristic of cyanobacteria

  4. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  5. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  6. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  7. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., except when that spring is part of a nest of three or more springs and none of the other springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not...

  8. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  9. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  10. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  11. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  12. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  13. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  14. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  15. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  16. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  17. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  18. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  19. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  20. Calculation of pH and mineral equilibria in hydrothermal waters with application to geothermometry and studies of boiling and dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mark; Spycher, Nicolas

    1984-07-01

    Using chemical analyses and 25° pH measurements of quenched high-temperature waters, we calculate in situ pH and distribution of aqueous species at high temperature. This is accomplished by solving simultaneous mass action equations for complexes and redox equilibria and mass balance equations, on all components, including a H + equation with as many as 60 terms (depending on water composition). This calculation provides accurate values for the activities of aqueous ions in a given water at high temperature, which are used to calculate an ion activity product ( Q) for each of more than 100 minerals. The value of log( Q/ K) for each mineral, where K is the equilibrium constant, provides a measure of proximity of the aqueous solution to equilibrium with the mineral. By plotting log Q/ Kvs. T for natural waters, it is possible to determine: a) whether the water was in equilibrium with a host rock mineral assemblage, b) probable minerals in the equilibrium assemblage and c) the temperature of equilibrium. In cases where the fluid departs from equilibrium with a host rock assemblage, it is possible to determine whether this may result from boiling or dilution, and an estimate of amount of lost gas or diluting water can be determined. The calculation is illustrated by application to geothermal waters from Iceland, Broadlands, and Sulphur Bank, hot spring waters from Jemez, Yellowstone and Blackfoot Reservoir (Idaho) and fluid inclusions from the Sunnyside Mine, Colorado. It is shown that most geothermal waters approach equilibrium with a subsurface mineral assemblage at a temperature close to measured temperatures and that some hot springs also approach equilibrium with the host rock at temperatures above outlet temperatures but commonly below the Na-K-Ca temperatures. The log Q/ K plots show that some discrepancies between Na-K-Ca temperatures on spring waters and actual temperatures result from a failure of alkali feldspars to equilibrate with the fluid and with each