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Sample records for naturally coinfected sheep

  1. Detection of PrPSc in lung and mammary gland is favored by the presence of Visna/maedi virus lesions in naturally coinfected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Eider; Monleón, Eva; Bolea, Rosa; Acín, Cristina; Pérez, Marta; Álvarez, Neila; Leginagoikoa, Iratxe; Juste, Ramón; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Reina, Ramsés; Glaria, Idoia; Berriatua, Eduardo; de Andrés, Damián; Badiola, Juan José; Amorena, Beatriz; Luján, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports on the pathogenesis of scrapie (Sc) and Visna/maedi virus (VMV) coinfections. The aim of this work was to study in vivo as well as post mortem both diseases in 91 sheep. Diagnosis of Sc and VMV infections allowed the distribution of animals into five groups according to the presence (+) or absence (−) of infection by Sc and VMV: Sc−/VMV−, Sc−/VMV+, Sc+/VMV− and Sc+/VMV+. The latter was divided into two subgroups, with and without VMV-induced lymphoid follicle hyperplasia (LFH), respectively. In both the lung and mammary gland, PrPSc deposits were found in the germinal center of hyperplasic lymphoid follicles in the subgroup of Sc+/VMV+ having VMV-induced LFH. This detection was always associated with (and likely preceded by) PrPSc observation in the corresponding lymph nodes. No PrPSc was found in other VMV-associated lesions. Animals suffering from scrapie had a statistically significantly lower mean age than the scrapie free animals at the time of death, with no apparent VMV influence. ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most abundant among the 91 ewes and the most frequent in scrapie-affected sheep. VMV infection does not seem to influence the scrapie risk group distribution among animals from the five groups established in this work. Altogether, these data indicate that certain VMV-induced lesions can favor PrPSc deposits in Sc non-target organs such as the lung and the mammary gland, making this coinfection an interesting field that warrants further research for a better comprehension of the pathogenesis of both diseases. PMID:20423698

  2. High frequency of chlamydial co-infections in clinically healthy sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological situation of ovine chlamydial infections in continental Europe, especially Germany is poorly characterised. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the chlamydial sero- and antigen prevalence was estimated in thirty-two randomly selected sheep flocks with an average abortion rate lower than 1%. Seven vaccinated flocks were reviewed separately. Results A wide range of samples from 32 flocks were examined. Assumption of a seroprevalence of 10% (CI 95%) at flock level, revealed that 94% of the tested flocks were serologically positive with ongoing infection (i.e. animals with seroconversion) in nearly half (47%) of the flocks. On the basis of an estimated 25% antigen prevalence (CI 95%), PCR and DNA microarray testing, together with sequencing revealed the presence of chlamydiae in 78% of the flocks. The species most frequently found was Chlamydophila (C.) abortus (50%) followed by C. pecorum (47%) and C. psittaci genotype A (25%). Mixed infections occurred in 25% of the tested flocks. Samples obtained from the vaccinated flocks revealed the presence of C. abortus field samples in 4/7 flocks. C. pecorum was isolated from 2/7 flocks and the presence of seroconversion was determined in 3/7 flocks. Conclusions The results imply that chlamydial infections occur frequently in German sheep flocks, even in the absence of elevated abortion rates. The fact that C. pecorum and the potentially zoonotic C. psittaci were found alongside the classical abortifacient agent C. abortus, raise questions about the significance of this reservoir for animal and human health and underline the necessity for regular monitoring. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of C. psittaci infections in sheep. PMID:21679409

  3. Natural dicrocoeliasis in imported sheep, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abu Zinada, N Y

    1999-08-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a common liver fluke of sheep and other herbivorous animals. Examination of imported sheep showed 40% in Somalian sheep, 26% in Turkish and 2% in native breed sheep. The results were discussed with stress on epidemiology. PMID:10605513

  4. Immunological alterations and associated diseases in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally co-infected with SIV and STLV.

    PubMed

    Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Sallé, Bettina; Lepelletier, Yves; Mortreux, Franck; Hermine, Olivier; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-04-01

    Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates. PMID:24725945

  5. Resistance of four sheep breeds to natural and subsequent artificial Haemonchus contortus infection.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, J M; Bain, R K; Wanyangu, S W; Ihiga, M A; Duncan, J L; Murray, M; Stear, M J

    1997-05-01

    The response of Red Maasai sheep to natural and artificial Haemonchus contortus infections was compared with sheep of Blackheaded Somali, Dorper and Romney Marsh breeds. Significant breed differences in egg count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mortality rates showed that the Red Maasai sheep were more resistant to natural H. contortus infection than sheep from the other three breeds. Of the initial groups of 15 wethers of each breed, two animals from each of the Dorper and Blackheaded Somali groups and nine from the Romney Marsh group died with haemonchosis during a 12 month field study. Following artificial infection of the Red Maasai, Dorpers and Blackheaded Somalis, with 10000 H. contortus L3, the Red Maasai sheep maintained a lower egg output and a higher PCV than animals of the other two breeds. The results clearly showed that breed substitution with the Red Maasai is a control option in areas where sheep are kept for meat and H. contortus is endemic. PMID:9195736

  6. The prevalence of Neospora caninum and co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii by PCR analysis in naturally occurring mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Williams, R H; Morley, E K; Cook, D A N; Terry, R S; Murphy, R G; Smith, J E; Hide, G

    2006-01-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites associated with bovine and ovine abortion respectively. Little is known about the extent of Neospora/Toxoplasma co-infection in naturally infected populations of animals. Using nested PCR techniques, based on primers from the Nc5 region of N. caninum and SAG1 for T. gondii, the prevalence of N. caninum and its co-infection with T. gondii were investigated in populations of Mus domesticus, Rattus norvegicus and aborted lambs (Ovis aries). A low frequency of infection with N. caninum was detected in the Mus domesticus (3%) and Rattus norvegicus (4.4%) populations. A relatively high frequency of infection with N. caninum was detected in the brains of aborted lambs (18.9%). There was no significant relationship between N. caninum and T. gondii co-infection. Investigation of the tissue distribution of Neospora, in aborted lambs, showed that Neospora could not be detected in tissues other than brain and this was in contrast to Toxoplasma where the parasite could be frequently detected in a range of tissues. PMID:16393351

  7. Lower numbers of natural killer T cells in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Karina I; Bruno, Fernanda R; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer E; Maeda, Solange M; Tomimori, Jane; Xavier, Marilia B; Haslett, Patrick A; Nixon, Douglas F; Kallas, Esper G

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous population of lymphocytes that recognize antigens presented by CD1d and have attracted attention because of their potential role linking innate and adaptive immune responses. Peripheral NKT cells display a memory-activated phenotype and can rapidly secrete large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon antigenic activation. In this study, we evaluated NKT cells in the context of patients co-infected with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae. The volunteers were enrolled into four groups: 22 healthy controls, 23 HIV-1-infected patients, 20 patients with leprosy and 17 patients with leprosy and HIV-1-infection. Flow cytometry and ELISPOT assays were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We demonstrated that patients co-infected with HIV-1 and M. leprae have significantly lower NKT cell frequencies [median 0.022%, interquartile range (IQR): 0.007–0.051] in the peripheral blood when compared with healthy subjects (median 0.077%, IQR: 0.032–0.405, P < 0.01) or HIV-1 mono-infected patients (median 0.072%, IQR: 0.030–0.160, P < 0.05). Also, more NKT cells from co-infected patients secreted interferon-γ after stimulation with DimerX, when compared with leprosy mono-infected patients (P = 0.05). These results suggest that NKT cells are decreased in frequency in HIV-1 and M. leprae co-infected patients compared with HIV-1 mono-infected patients alone, but are at a more activated state. Innate immunity in human subjects is strongly influenced by their spectrum of chronic infections, and in HIV-1-infected subjects, a concurrent mycobacterial infection probably hyper-activates and lowers circulating NKT cell numbers. PMID:22269018

  8. The pulmonary involvement in Theileria lestoquardi naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    El Imam, Ahmed H; Hassan, Shawgi M; Gameel, Ahmed A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Taha, Khalid M

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Ovine Theileriosis (MOT) caused by Theileria lestoquardi is considered a major constraint for sheep production in many areas of the world including Sudan. Pulmonary oedema is thought to be the main cause of animal death, but the mechanism, the cell types involved and/or the probable cause of this pneumonia has yet to be defined. The present study was carried out to investigate the pulmonary involvement post T. lestoquardi infection and to identify the cell types involved in pneumonia. Apparently healthy sheep were exposed to ticks challenge in T. lestoquardi endemic area. Lungs impression smears and tissue sections for histopathology were processed. At necropsy, fifteen infected sheep revealed severe pneumonia associated with oedema and accumulation of creamy-grayish frothy exudates. The microscopic findings of examined lungs showed emphysema, congestion, collapse and proliferation of immense amount of different kinds of cells. The current study indicates that T. lestoquardi infections are accompanied with remarkable pulmonary involvements and may lead to respiratory failure and death. PMID:27262956

  9. Oxfendazole Treatment of Sheep with Naturally Acquired Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dueger, Erica L.; Moro, Pedro L.; Gilman, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    A blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of oxfendazole for the treatment of ovine hydatid disease. Cyst fertility and parasite viability were measured following daily, weekly, and monthly treatment schedules with 30 mg of oxfendazole per kg of body weight. The 12-week trial was conducted in 215 adult sheep in the central Peruvian Andes and was masked for both treatment group and scheduling. In this trial oxfendazole significantly reduced protoscolex viability relative to controls in all treatment groups. In the daily, weekly, and monthly groups, 100, 97, and 78% of sheep, respectively, were either cured or improved following treatment, compared to 35% cured or improved animals in the control group. However, daily dosing at 30 mg of oxfendazole per kg proved highly toxic to sheep, resulting in a 24% death rate in the daily group as compared to a 4 to 6% mortality rate in all other groups. If found safe in humans, oxfendazole may prove to be a useful and inexpensive treatment for cestode infections in humans. This study suggests that a staggered dosing regimen of oxfendazole, and possibly other benzimidazoles, may be as efficacious as daily treatment regimens for hydatidosis while decreasing both the cost and adverse effects associated with daily dosing. PMID:10471576

  10. Biological control of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes using Duddingtonia flagrans in sheep under natural conditions in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-De Gives, Pedro; Zapata Nieto, Claudia; Hernández, Enrique Liébano; Arellano, María Eugenia López; Rodríguez, David Herrera; Garduño, Roberto González

    2006-10-01

    This investigation was aimed to evaluate the use of an oral bio-preparation containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores for the control of sheep gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes under the Mexican cold high plateau conditions. Two groups of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode naturally infected sheep, were randomly selected and located into two free-gastrointestinal nematode larvae paddocks. Group 1 received once a week a supplement containing D. flagrans chlamydospores mixed with oats and molasses. Group 2 received a similar supplement without any fungal material. After 5 months grazing animals were discarded from the experiment and two groups of free-nematode "tracer" sheep were located into the same paddocks to collect larvae from the contaminated pastures. Animals were slaughtered and necropsied and the nematodes were obtained and counted. A screening of the number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae present on the grass was performed and compared between the two grazing areas. The results showed 56% reduction in the Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and 94% reduction in the Nematodirus sp. population of the "tracer" sheep who grazed on the D. flagrans-treated sheep area, compared to the nematode population in animals grazed on the non-treated area. The results of the number of larvae on the grazing pastures showed a 51.1% reduction for H. contortus, and 100% for Cooperia sp. in the area with fungi. In the case of Trichostrongylus sp. no reduction was observed, when compared to the control group. PMID:17135538

  11. Diagnosis and prevalence of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in lung tissues of naturally infected farm sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Ganesh G.; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to detect ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) in sheep flocks affected with pulmonary disorders at organized farm. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 sheep died naturally were thoroughly examined for the lesions of OPA during necropsy. Tissue sections from affected portion of the lungs from each animal were collected aseptically and divided into two parts; one each for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and another for histopathology. Results: On PCR examination of lung tissues, six sheep (8%) were found to be positive for JSRV. Two of them were 3-6 months of age and did not show clinical signs/gross lesions of OPA. Four adult sheep positive on PCR revealed characteristic lesions of OPA on gross and histopathological examination. Conclusion: In the absence of known specific antibody response to the infection with JSRV, there is no diagnostic serological test available. The PCR assay employed in this study on lung tissues, using primers based on the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat for JSRV would be helpful in the screening of preclinical and clinical cases of OPA in sheep. PMID:27182131

  12. Growth and Pathogenic Potential of Naturally Selected Reassortants after Coinfection with Pandemic H1N1 and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Suk; Baek, Yun Hee; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q.; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Kim, Eun-Ha; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Choi, Won-Suk; Kim, Eung-Gook; Kim, Chul-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Coinfection of ferrets with H5N1 and pH1N1 viruses resulted in two predominate genotypes in the lungs containing surface genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in the backbone of pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1). Compared to parental strains, these reassortants exhibited increased growth and virulence in vitro and in mice but failed to be transmitted indirectly to naive contact ferrets. Thus, this demonstrates a possible natural reassortment following coinfection as well as the pathogenicity of the potential reassortants. PMID:26491154

  13. Growth and Pathogenic Potential of Naturally Selected Reassortants after Coinfection with Pandemic H1N1 and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Suk; Baek, Yun Hee; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Kim, Eun-Ha; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Choi, Won-Suk; Kim, Eung-Gook; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-01-01

    Coinfection of ferrets with H5N1 and pH1N1 viruses resulted in two predominate genotypes in the lungs containing surface genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in the backbone of pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1). Compared to parental strains, these reassortants exhibited increased growth and virulence in vitro and in mice but failed to be transmitted indirectly to naive contact ferrets. Thus, this demonstrates a possible natural reassortment following coinfection as well as the pathogenicity of the potential reassortants. PMID:26491154

  14. Dynamics of the natural transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy within an intensively managed sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Martin; Witz, Janey P; Martin, Stuart; Hawkins, Steve A C; Bellworthy, Sue J; Dexter, Glenda E; Thurston, Lisa; González, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are susceptible to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent and in the UK they may have been exposed to BSE via contaminated meat and bone meal. An experimental sheep flock was established to determine whether ovine BSE could be naturally transmitted under conditions of intensive husbandry. The flock consisted of 113 sheep of different breeds and susceptible PRNP genotypes orally dosed with BSE, 159 sheep subsequently born to them and 125 unchallenged sentinel controls. BSE was confirmed in 104 (92%) orally dosed sheep and natural transmission was recorded for 14 of 79 (18%) lambs born to BSE infected dams, with rates varying according to PRNP genotype. The likelihood of natural BSE transmission was linked to stage of incubation period of the dam: the attack rate for lambs born within 100 days of the death of BSE infected dams was significantly higher (9/22, 41%) than for the rest (5/57, 9%). Within the group of ewes lambing close to death, those rearing infected progeny (n = 8, for 9/12 infected lambs) showed a significantly greater involvement of lymphoid tissues than those rearing non-infected offspring (n = 8, for 0/10 infected lambs). Horizontal transmission to the progeny of non-infected mothers was recorded only once (1/205, 0.5%). This low rate of lateral transmission was attributed, at least partly, to an almost complete absence of infected placentas. We conclude that, although BSE can be naturally transmitted through dam-lamb close contact, the infection in this study flock would not have persisted due to low-efficiency maternal and lateral transmissions. PMID:26511838

  15. Efficacy of oxyclozanide against adult Paramphistomum leydeni in naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Rodrigo; Moreno, Laura; Alvarez, Luis; Lanusse, Carlos; Romero, Jorge

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the current study was to assess oxyclozanide (OCZ) efficacy against Paramphistomum leydeni in naturally infected adult sheep. OCZ concentrations in blood stream and gastrointestinal fluids collected from treated animals were also measured. Fifteen P. leydeni naturally infected sheep were randomly divided into two groups: untreated control (n=5) and treated (n=10). The treated group was orally drenched with OCZ (20mg/kg, day 0). A second dose was administered 72 h later. Faecal samples were taken at days 0, +3 and +5. Five sheep from both groups were slaughtered at day +5. At necropsies, rumen, abomasum and small intestine were examined for adult and immature flukes. All recovered flukes were counted and the treatment efficacy was estimated. Additionally, serum and gastrointestinal fluid content (ruminal, abomasal and small intestine) samples, obtained from five treated animals at day +5, were analyzed by HPLC to measure OCZ concentrations. OCZ showed high efficacy (99%) against mature P. leydeni. The post-treatment egg reduction was also high after the first dose with values ranging from 98.4% (day +3) to 99.5% (day +5). The highest OCZ concentrations were measured in serum (20.7 ± 11.5 μg/mL) followed by the small intestinal fluid (6.00 ± 4.50 μg/mL). Very low OCZ concentrations (ranging between 0.05 and 0.02 μg/mL) were measured in ruminal and abomasal fluids. OCZ administered to sheep twice (20mg/kg) by the oral route was highly efficacious against mature stages of P. leydeni in naturally infected sheep. Despite a high drug concentration at the intestinal fluid, OCZ efficacy against immature stages could not be assessed. OCZ efficacy and assessment of its concentration profiles in different tissues are considered a contribution to the scarce information available on this ruminant fluke. PMID:25458118

  16. The diagnosis of fasciolosis in feces of sheep by means of a PCR and its application in the detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks naturally infected.

    PubMed

    Robles-Pérez, D; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Martínez-Valladares, M

    2013-10-18

    The aim of this study was to develop a PCR for the diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection in feces of sheep based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. Detection of infection was possible from the second week post-infection in experimentally infected sheep by amplification of a 292bp fragment. This PCR was employed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in naturally infected sheep flocks, and results were compared with techniques such as the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the copro-antigen reduction test (CRT). The FECRT was carried out in two flocks, Santillan de la Vega (SV) and Corullón (CR), with sheep treated with albendazole (ABZ), clorsulon (CL), or triclabendazole (TCBZ). Feces were collected from individuals on days 0, 7, 15, and 30 post-treatment (pt). The FECRT showed adult F. hepatica to be resistant to ABZ and CL in both flocks. All parasite stages in the SV flock were susceptible to TCBZ, while in the CR flock, adult flukes showed resistance and immature forms were susceptible to the treatment. To compare FECRT and the PCR results, we calculated the percent of positive sheep on day 1 pt. In both flocks, the percent positive sheep was consistently higher by PCR than by sedimentation, confirming that the PCR is a more sensitive method of diagnosing infection and therefore to detect the resistance in infected animals. The CRT was carried out in the SV flock using a sandwich ELISA kit. The percent of sheep found positive by PCR was higher than with ELISA. Comparison of FECRT, CRT, and PCR for the detection of AR showed PCR to be the most sensitive. PMID:23743420

  17. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. PMID:27478131

  18. The use of a Psoroptes ovis serodiagnostic test for the analysis of a natural outbreak of sheep scab

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sheep scab is a highly contagious disease of sheep caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis. The disease is endemic in the UK and has significant economic impact through its effects on performance and welfare. Diagnosis of sheep scab is achieved through observation of clinical signs e.g. itching, pruritis and wool loss and ultimately through the detection of mites in skin scrapings. Early stages of infestation are often difficult to diagnose and sub-clinical animals can be a major factor in disease spread. The development of a diagnostic assay would enable farmers and veterinarians to detect disease at an early stage, reducing the risk of developing clinical disease and limiting spread. Methods Serum samples were obtained from an outbreak of sheep scab within an experimental flock (n = 480 (3 samples each from 160 sheep)) allowing the assessment, by ELISA of sheep scab specific antibody prior to infestation, mid-outbreak (combined with clinical assessment) and post-treatment. Results Analysis of pre-infestation samples demonstrated low levels of potential false positives (3.8%). Of the 27 animals with clinical or behavioural signs of disease 25 tested positive at the mid-outbreak sampling period, however, the remaining 2 sheep tested positive at the subsequent sampling period. Clinical assessment revealed the absence of clinical or behavioural signs of disease in 132 sheep, whilst analysis of mid-outbreak samples showed that 105 of these clinically negative animals were serologically positive, representing potential sub-clinical infestations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that this ELISA test can effectively diagnose sheep scab in a natural outbreak of disease, and more importantly, highlights its ability to detect sub-clinically infested animals. This ELISA, employing a single recombinant antigen, represents a major step forward in the diagnosis of sheep scab and may prove to be critical in any future control program. PMID:22233730

  19. Biology of PrPsc accumulation in two natural scrapie-infected sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Caplazi, Patrick; O'Rourke, Katherine; Wolf, Cynthia; Shaw, Daniel; Baszler, Timothy V

    2004-11-01

    Sheep scrapie is a prion disease that requires interaction of exogenous prions with host prion protein (PrP) supporting prion formation. Disease is associated with deposition of a host-generated conformational variant of PrP, PrPsc, in a variety of tissues, including brain, resulting in fatal spongiform encephalopathy. Efficiency of PrPsc formation is determined by polymorphisms in the PrP-coding sequence. This article adds to previous data of natural sheep scrapie, concentrating on the effect of host genotype and age on PrPsc accumulation patterns during preclinical and clinical disease. Two entire scrapie-infected, predominantly Suffolk-cross, sheep flocks euthanized for regulatory purposes were genotyped and analyzed for PrPsc deposition in various tissues using single- and dual-label immunohistochemistry. Scrapie, as defined by PrPsc deposition, occurred in 13/80 sheep. Preclinical disease was evident in nearly 70% of infected sheep, ranging in age from 14 months to 7 years. PrPsc accumulated systemically in the nervous tissue, various lymphoid tissues, both alimentary tract related and non-alimentary tract related, and the placenta. Clinical neurological illness was always associated with spongiform encephalopathy and PrPsc deposition in the brain. Only 6 of 9 sheep with preclinical scrapie had PrPsc deposition in the brain but widespread PrPsc deposition in peripheral lymphoid tissue, supporting previous data showing peripheral PrPsc accumulation preceding deposition in the brain. PrPsc colocalized with a marker for follicular dendritic cells throughout the lymphoid system. PrPsc also accumulated in the peripheral nervous system, particularly the nervous supply of the gastrointestinal tract. Abundant PrPsc was evident in trophoblast cells of placentomes but not in the endometrium, myometrium, or associated nervous plexus. PrPsc deposits were not observed in the mammary parenchyma or bone marrow. Scrapie susceptibility was defined genetically by PrP codon 171

  20. Distribution of Peripheral PrPSc in Sheep with Naturally Acquired Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Garza, María Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Marín, Belén; Badiola, Juan José; Monleón, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system is the hallmark of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, in some of these diseases such as scrapie or chronic wasting disease, the PrPSc can also accumulate in other tissues, particularly in the lymphoreticular system. In recent years, PrPSc in organs other than nervous and lymphoid have been described, suggesting that distribution of this protein in affected individuals may be much larger than previously thought. In the present study, 11 non-nervous/non-lymphoid organs from 16 naturally scrapie infected sheep in advanced stages of the disease were examined for the presence of PrPSc. Fourteen infected sheep were of the ARQ/ARQ PRNP genotype and 2 of the VRQ/VRQ, where the letters A, R, Q, and V represent the codes for amino-acids alanine, arginine, glutamine and valine, respectively. Adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skin, urinary bladder and mammary gland were positive for PrPSc by immunohistochemistry and IDEXX HerdChek scrapie/BSE Antigen EIA Test in at least one animal. Lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle exhibited PrPSc deposits by immunohistochemistry only. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the presence of PrPSc in the heart, pancreas and urinary bladder in naturally acquired scrapie infections. In some other organs examined, in which PrPSc had been previously detected, PrPSc immunolabeling was observed to be associated with new structures within those organs. The results of the present study illustrate a wide dissemination of PrPSc in both ARQ/ARQ and VRQ/VRQ infected sheep, even when the involvement of the lymphoreticular system is scarce or absent, thus highlighting the role of the peripheral nervous system in the spread of PrPSc. PMID:24828439

  1. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naïve HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Charles; Hu, Fengyu; Ning, Chuanyi; Lan, Yun; Tang, Xiaoping; Tucker, Joseph D.; Cai, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs) has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China. Methods Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1–6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance. Results Overall, 72.8% (566/778) of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193) of genotype 1, 100% (23/23) of genotype 2, 100% (237/237) of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325) of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69) patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance. Conclusions The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed. PMID:27341031

  2. Efficacy of nitroxynil against Fasciola hepatica resistant to triclabendazole in a naturally infected sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valladares, Maria; del Rosario Famularo, Maria; Fernández-Pato, Nelida; Castañón-Ordóñez, Luciano; Cordero-Pérez, Coral; Rojo-Vázquez, Francisco Antonio

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) and nitroxynil against a TCBZ-resistant Fasciola hepatica strain in a naturally infected sheep flock. The efficacies were measured by the faecal egg count reduction test. The level of F. hepatica antigens was tested in faeces; and haematological indices such as total proteins (TP), albumin, hepatic enzymes and total IgG were also studied. The results confirmed the resistance of F. hepatica against TCBZ in the flock with an efficacy during the first month post-treatment between 59.4% and 73.8%. In the nitroxynil group, the efficacy during the same period ranged between 81.3% and 86%, likely because the efficacy of this drug against 7- to 9-week-old immature stages is only 50-90%. Anemia was showed in all groups and white blood cells were always higher than the reference range. The values of TP and albumin were within normal range in most of the sheep, and an increase in hepatic enzymes confirmed the liver damage. Regarding total IgG, some negative correlations were found with egg excretion, and in relation to the level of antigens in faeces, these ones decreased immediately after treatment. We conclude that nitroxynil could be an alternative in case of TCBZ resistance. PMID:20680341

  3. Accumulation of PrP-Sc in hemal nodes of naturally and experimentally scrapie-infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal disease of sheep and goats which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent. Infection is accompanied by accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Hemal nodes, which are unique ...

  4. Study of heat-stress levels in naturally ventilated sheep barns during heat waves: development and assessment of regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Bartzanas, T.; Panagakis, P.; Zhang, G.; Kittas, C.

    2016-03-01

    It is well documented that heat-stress burdens sheep welfare and productivity. Peak heat-stress levels are observed when high temperatures prevail, i.e. during heat waves; however, continuous measurements inside livestock buildings are not usually available for long periods so as to study the variation of summer heat-stress levels for several years, especially during extreme hot weather. Α methodology to develop a long time series of summer temperature and relative humidity inside naturally ventilated sheep barns is proposed. The accuracy and the transferability of the developed linear regression models were verified. Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was used to assess sheep's potential heat-stress. Τhe variation of THI inside a barn during heat wave and non-heat wave days was examined, and the results were comparatively assessed. The analysis showed that sheep were exposed to moderate, severe, and extreme severe heat-stress in 10, 21 and 66 % of hours, respectively, during heat wave days, while the corresponding values during non-heat wave days were 14, 33 and 43 %, respectively. The heat load on sheep was much higher during heat wave events than during non-heat wave periods. Additionally, based on the averaged diurnal variation of THI, it was concluded that extreme severe heat-stress conditions were prevailing between 1000 and 2400 hours local time during heat wave days. Cool off night periods were never and extremely rarely detected during heat wave and non-heat wave days, respectively.

  5. HIV and co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christina C; Crane, Megan; Zhou, JingLing; Mina, Michael; Post, Jeffrey J; Cameron, Barbara A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Jaworowski, Anthony; French, Martyn A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite significant reductions in morbidity and mortality secondary to availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection still accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. The majority of deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of opportunistic co-infections are disproportionately high. In this review, we discuss the immunopathogenesis of five common infections that cause significant morbidity in HIV-infected patients globally. These include co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Plasmodium falciparum. Specifically, we review the natural history of each co-infection in the setting of HIV, the specific immune defects induced by HIV, the effects of cART on the immune response to the co-infection, the pathogenesis of immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with each infection, and advances in the areas of prevention of each co-infection via vaccination. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and gaps for future research. PMID:23772618

  6. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Waste management opportunities in small and medium companies were highlighted. • Pilot scale program for windrow co-composting of natural casings was investigated. • Compost preparation, characterization and application phases were discussed. • Natural casings co-composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution. - Abstract: After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6–0.9–0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations.

  7. Co-infection of influenza A viruses of swine contributes to effective shuffling of gene segments in a naturally reared pig.

    PubMed

    Abe, Haruka; Mine, Junki; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Boonpornprasert, Prakit; Ubonyaem, Namfon; Patcharasinghawut, Phornnachat; Nuansrichay, Bandit; Tanikawa, Taichiro; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Saito, Takehiko

    2015-10-01

    Following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, surveillance activities have been accelerated globally to monitor the emergence of novel reassortant viruses. However, the mechanism by which influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) acquire novel gene constellations through reassortment events in natural settings remains poorly understood. To explore the mechanism, we collected 785 nasal swabs from pigs in a farm in Thailand from 2011 to 2014. H3N2, H3N1, H1N1 and H1N2 IAVs-S were isolated from a single co-infected sample by plaque purification and showed a high degree of diversity of the genome. In particular, the H1N1 isolates, possessing a novel gene constellation previously unreported in Thailand, exhibited greater variation in internal genes than H3N2 IAVs-S. A pair of isolates, designated H3N2-B and H1N1-D, was determined to have been initially introduced to the farm. These results demonstrate that numerous IAVs-S with various gene constellations can be created in a single co-infected pig via reassortment. PMID:26115167

  8. A Bovine Cell Line That Can Be Infected by Natural Sheep Scrapie Prions

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlegel, Anja M.; Geissen, Markus; Lenk, Matthias; Riebe, Roland; Angermann, Marlies; Schaetzl, Hermann; Groschup, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture systems represent a crucial part in basic prion research; yet, cell lines that are susceptible to prions, especially to field isolated prions that were not adapted to rodents, are very rare. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cell line that was susceptible to ruminant-derived prions and to establish a stable prion infection within it. Based on species and tissue of origin as well as PrP expression rate, we pre-selected a total of 33 cell lines that were then challenged with natural and with mouse propagated BSE or scrapie inocula. Here, we report the successful infection of a non-transgenic bovine cell line, a sub-line of the bovine kidney cell line MDBK, with natural sheep scrapie prions. This cell line retained the scrapie infection for more than 200 passages. Selective cloning resulted in cell populations with increased accumulation of PrPres, although this treatment was not mandatory for retaining the infection. The infection remained stable, even under suboptimal culture conditions. The resulting infectivity of the cells was confirmed by mouse bioassay (Tgbov mice, Tgshp mice). We believe that PES cells used together with other prion permissive cell lines will prove a valuable tool for ongoing efforts to understand and defeat prions and prion diseases. PMID:25565633

  9. Co-infection alters population dynamics of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Susi, Hanna; Barrès, Benoit; Vale, Pedro F; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Co-infections by multiple pathogen strains are common in the wild. Theory predicts co-infections to have major consequences for both within- and between-host disease dynamics, but data are currently scarce. Here, using common garden populations of Plantago lanceolata infected by two strains of the pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis, either singly or under co-infection, we find the highest disease prevalence in co-infected treatments both at the host genotype and population levels. A spore-trapping experiment demonstrates that co-infected hosts shed more transmission propagules than singly infected hosts, thereby explaining the observed change in epidemiological dynamics. Our experimental findings are confirmed in natural pathogen populations-more devastating epidemics were measured in populations with higher levels of co-infection. Jointly, our results confirm the predictions made by theoretical and experimental studies for the potential of co-infection to alter disease dynamics across a large host-pathogen metapopulation. PMID:25569306

  10. Genetic and Pathological Follow-Up Study of Goats Experimentally and Naturally Exposed to a Sheep Scrapie Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Maestrale, Caterina; Cancedda, Maria G.; Pintus, Davide; Masia, Mariangela; Nonno, Romolo; Ru, Giuseppe; Carta, Antonello; Demontis, Francesca; Santucciu, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thirty-seven goats carrying different prion protein genotypes (PRNP) were orally infected with a classical scrapie brain homogenate from wild-type (ARQ/ARQ) sheep and then mated to obtain 2 additional generations of offspring, which were kept in the same environment and allowed to be naturally exposed to scrapie. Occurrence of clinical or subclinical scrapie was observed in the experimentally infected goats (F0) and in only one (F1b) of the naturally exposed offspring groups. In both groups (F0 and F1b), goats carrying the R154H, H154H, R211Q, and P168Q-P240P dimorphisms died of scrapie after a longer incubation period than wild-type, G37V, Q168Q-P240P, and S240P goats. In contrast, D145D and Q222K goats were resistant to infection. The immunobiochemical signature of the scrapie isolate and its pathological aspects observed in the sheep donors were substantially maintained over 2 goat generations, i.e., after experimental and natural transmission. This demonstrates that the prion protein gene sequence, which is shared by sheep and goats, is more powerful than any possible but unknown species-related factors in determining scrapie phenotypes. With regard to genetics, our study confirms that the K222 mutation protects goats even against ovine scrapie isolates, and for the first time, a possible association of D145 mutation with scrapie resistance is shown. In addition, it is possible that the sole diverse frequencies of these genetic variants might, at least in part, shape the prevalence of scrapie among naturally exposed progenies in affected herds. IMPORTANCE This study was aimed at investigating the genetic and pathological features characterizing sheep-to-goat transmission of scrapie. We show that in goats with different prion protein gene mutations, the K222 genetic variant is associated with scrapie resistance after natural and experimental exposure to ovine prion infectivity. In addition, we observed for the first time a protective effect of the D145

  11. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig M; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2014-11-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum trigonocephalum; in sheep, Teladorsagia circumcincta/Teladorsagia trifurcata, O. gruehneri/O. arctica, Nematodirus filicollis and N. spathiger. In the sheep sharing corral with reindeer, the only abomasal nematode species found was O. gruehneri, a reindeer parasite. The generation interval of O. gruehneri in Finnish reindeer appears to be shorter than in Canadian Arctic caribou, where complete larval inhibition leading to only one generation yearly has been reported. PMID:25106839

  12. Accumulation and dissemination of prion protein in experimental sheep scrapie in the natural host

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Stephen J; Dexter, Glenda E; Heasman, Lindsay; Warner, Richard; Moore, S Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to study the sites of uptake and mechanisms of dissemination of scrapie prions in the natural host under controlled conditions, lambs aged 14 days and homozygous for the VRQ allele of the PrP gene were infected by the oral route. Infection occurred in all lambs with a remarkably short and highly consistent incubation period of approximately 6 months. Challenge of lambs at approximately eight months of age resulted in disease in all animals, but with more variable incubation periods averaging significantly longer than those challenged at 14 days. This model provides an excellent system in which to study the disease in the natural host by virtue of the relatively short incubation period and close resemblance to natural infection. Results Multiple sites of prion uptake were identified, of which the most important was the Peyer's patch of the distal ileum. Neuroinvasion was detected initially in the enteric nervous system prior to infection of the central nervous system. At end stage disease prion accumulation was widespread throughout the entire neuraxis, but vacuolar pathology was absent in most animals that developed disease at 6–7 months of age. Conclusion Initial spread of detectable PrP was consistent with drainage in afferent lymph to dependent lymph nodes. Subsequent accumulation of prions in lymphoid tissue not associated with the gut is consistent with haematogenous spread. In addition to macrophages and follicular dendritic cells, prion containing cells consistent with afferent lymph dendritic cells were identified and are suggested as a likely vehicle for carriage of prions from initial site of uptake to the lymphoreticular system, and as potential carriers of prion protein in blood. It is apparent that spongiform change, the characteristic lesion of scrapie and other prion diseases, is not responsible for the clinical signs in sheep, but may develop in an age dependent manner. PMID:19243608

  13. Evaluation of Nitazoxanide and Oxfendazole Efficacy against Cystic Echinococcosis in Naturally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lopera, Luis; Jayashi, Cesar; Angelats, Roxana; Barron, Eduardo A.; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Villarreal, Lucia; Garcia, Hector H.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Cystic echinococosis (CE) is a public health problem caused by Echinococcus granulosus. We aimed to determine the efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) and oxfendazole (OXF) against CE in naturally infected sheep. A total of 151 ewes were assigned to the following groups: 15 mg/kg of NTZ weekly for five weeks (NTZ5); two rounds of 15 mg/kg of NTZ a day for five days (NTZ5×2) two weeks apart; 30 mg/kg of OXF a week for 11 weeks (OXF11); 30 mg/kg of OXF plus 15 mg/kg of NTZ a week for 11 weeks (OXF/NTZ); and the control group. OXF11 and OXF/NTZ decreased the number of fertile cysts, increased the number of degenerated cysts, and were more efficacious (49.6–61.2%) against lung cysts and liver cysts (91.8–100%) than any other treatment group. OXF might be an additional strategy for control programs and an optional treatment of human CE after it is licensed. PMID:19270283

  14. Acute and chronic disease associated with naturally occurring T-2 mycotoxicosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ferreras, M C; Benavides, J; García-Pariente, C; Delgado, L; Fuertes, M; Muñoz, M; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V

    2013-02-01

    A flock of approximately 1,000 sheep were exposed intermittently to food contaminated with T-2 toxin (T-2), a potent type-A trichothecene mycotoxin produced primarily by Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae. In the acute stage of the intoxication, affected sheep developed anorexia, decreased water consumption, ruminal atony, soft faeces and apathy. One hundred and ninety of the exposed sheep died. The main gross lesions observed in animals dying during the acute disease were rumenitis and ulcerative abomasitis, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, necrosis of the exocrine pancreas, myocarditis and intense oedema of the skin and brain. Sheep developing the chronic stage of disease showed weight loss and reproductive inefficiency and the main pathological features observed in animals dying during this stage were gastrointestinal inflammation, myocardial fibrosis and necrotic and suppurative lesions in the oral cavity. Opportunistic infections (e.g. mycotic mastitis or parasitic pneumonia) were also identified in these animals. Increased serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were observed, most likely related to heart lesions. T-2 toxins were detected in all samples of the diet of these animals that were analyzed. The changes in the sheep reported here are similar to those described previously in experimental studies. Lesions observed in the present animals suggest an additional cardiotoxic effect of T-2 in sheep. PMID:22819015

  15. Plants of the Cerrado naturally selected by grazing sheep may have potential for inhibiting development of Haemonchus contortus larva.

    PubMed

    Morais-Costa, Franciellen; Soares, Ana Cláudia Maia; Bastos, Gabriela Almeida; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Braga, Fernão Castro; Dos Santos Lima, Walter; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2015-10-01

    Plant species naturally selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado region of Brazil were assessed in vitro for activity against Haemonchus contortus. One year of observations showed the plant families in the region exhibiting greatest richness to be Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, and Annonaceae. Nine species commonly selected by grazing sheep showed variation in the selectivity index with respect to the dry and rainy seasons. Coproculture was conducted in five replicates of 11 treatments: ivermectin, distilled water, or dehydrated leaves of nine selected plant species administered at 333.3 mg g(-1) fecal culture. The dried powder of Piptadenia viridiflora and Ximenia americana leaves significantly reduced the number of infective larvae compared to the distilled water control. These species showed efficacy of over 85 % despite low concentrations of proanthocyanidin. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of extracts of these plants showed major peaks of UV spectra characteristic of flavonoids. Those naturally selected plant species with high antihelminthic efficacy show promise for use in diet as an alternative control of H. contortus in sheep. PMID:26085457

  16. Gastrointestinal nematode species diversity in Soay sheep kept in a natural environment without active parasite control.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rona; Melville, Lynsey; Sargison, Fiona; Kenyon, Fiona; Nussey, Dan; Watt, Kathryn; Sargison, Neil

    2016-08-30

    Molecular methods based on ITS2 sequence analysis were used to identify strongylid parasites and describe their diversity in a management intervention and anthelmintic drug treatment-free sheep flock. Fourteen different nematode parasite species were identified in the flock and the results showed a greater level of nematode species diversity than is normally reported in managed farmed flocks, with the presence of parasites such as Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Spiculopteragia houdemeri and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis that are considered to be absent or rare in sheep kept in comparable localities. The implied prevalences of Haemonchus contortus in lambs, and of Trichostrongylus axei in lambs, ewes and rams, were higher than those in farmed sheep kept in similar regions, while those of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were lower. Comparison of the patterns of nematode parasite infection between the summer and autumn sampling periods showed differences from the scenarios that are commonplace in comparable managed flocks; with T. vitrinus burdens of the lambs being higher in the summer than in the winter, and Oesophagostomum venulosum being the predominant nematode species in the adult sheep during the summer, while more-or-less absent from these groups during the winter. Rams played an important role in the epidemiology of certain parasitic nematode species. The relatively non-pathogenic O. venulosum was the only parasitic nematode species to predominate in any group during the study. This preliminary characterisation of the nematode parasite burdens of sheep extensively grazed on diverse unimproved pastures will aid in the understanding of the parasitological consequences of intensive grazing management and of the manner in which modern agriculture upsets the equilibrium between parasites and their hosts. These factors must be accounted for when defining the concept of sustainable parasite control and informing

  17. Natural variation in methane emission of sheep fed on a lucerne pellet diet is unrelated to rumen ciliate community type.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Pinares-Patiño, Cesar S; Seedorf, Henning; Kirk, Michelle R; McEwan, John C; Janssen, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Only limited information is available on the roles of different rumen ciliate community types, first described by Eadie in 1962, in enteric methane (CH4) formation by their ruminant hosts. If the different types were differentially associated with CH4 formation, then ciliate community typing could be used to identify naturally high and low CH4-emitting animals. Here we measured the CH4 yields [g CH4 (kg feed dry matter intake, DMI)- 1] of 118 sheep fed a standard pelleted lucerne diet at two different times, at least 2 weeks apart. There were significant differences (P < 2.2 × 10- 16, Wilcoxon rank sum test) in the CH4 yields ( ± sd) from sheep selected as high [16.7 ± 1.5 g CH4 (kg DMI)- 1] and low emitters [13.3 ± 1.5 g CH4 (kg DMI)- 1]. A rumen sample was collected after each of the two measurements, and ciliate composition was analysed using barcoded 454 Titanium pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA genes. The genera found, in order of mean relative abundance, were Epidinium, Entodinium, Dasytricha, Eudiplodinium, Polyplastron, Isotricha and Anoplodinium-Diplodinium, none of which was significantly correlated with the CH4 emissions ranking associated with the rumen sample. Ciliate communities naturally assembled into four types (A, AB, B and O), characterized by the presence and absence of key genera. There was no difference in CH4 yield between sheep that harboured different ciliate community types, suggesting that these did not underlie the natural variation in CH4 yields. Further research is needed to unravel the nature of interactions between ciliate protozoa and other rumen micro-organisms, which may ultimately lead to contrasting CH4 emission phenotypes. PMID:26813792

  18. Gene expression profiling of mesenteric lymph nodes from sheep with natural scrapie

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prion diseases are characterized by the accumulation of the pathogenic PrPSc protein, mainly in the brain and the lymphoreticular system. Although prions multiply/accumulate in the lymph nodes without any detectable pathology, transcriptional changes in this tissue may reflect biological processes that contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of prion diseases. Little is known about the molecular processes that occur in the lymphoreticular system in early and late stages of prion disease. We performed a microarray-based study to identify genes that are differentially expressed at different disease stages in the mesenteric lymph node of sheep naturally infected with scrapie. Oligo DNA microarrays were used to identify gene-expression profiles in the early/middle (preclinical) and late (clinical) stages of the disease. Results In the clinical stage of the disease, we detected 105 genes that were differentially expressed (≥2-fold change in expression). Of these, 43 were upregulated and 62 downregulated as compared with age-matched negative controls. Fewer genes (50) were differentially expressed in the preclinical stage of the disease. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were largely associated with the following terms: glycoprotein, extracellular region, disulfide bond, cell cycle and extracellular matrix. Moreover, some of the annotated genes could be grouped into 3 specific signaling pathways: focal adhesion, PPAR signaling and ECM-receptor interaction. We discuss the relationship between the observed gene expression profiles and PrPSc deposition and the potential involvement in the pathogenesis of scrapie of 7 specific differentially expressed genes whose expression levels were confirmed by real time-PCR. Conclusions The present findings identify new genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of natural scrapie infection in the lymphoreticular system, and confirm previous reports describing scrapie

  19. Compensating for diminishing natural water: Predicting the impacts of water development on summer habitat of desert bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, K.M.; Lowrey, C.; Thompson, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial water sources have been used for decades to enhance and restore wildlife habitat but the benefits of their use have been subject to debate. During the past century, the number of natural springs in Joshua Tree National Park, California, USA, has declined. In response to concerns about the viability of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) population, a number of water developments were constructed throughout the park. We modeled potential historical and present-day summer habitat of female bighorn sheep to evaluate the effectiveness of the artificial and remaining natural water sources in maintaining habitat and to determine how loss of artificial sources might affect future habitat availability. Prior to 1950, 583.5 km2 of summer habitat was potentially available. Presently, only 170.6 km2 of habitat is available around natural water sources and 153.5 km2 is available around guzzlers. When all perennial water sources are included in the habitat model (minus overlap), 302.3 km2 of summer habitat is potentially available. This represents only 51.7% of summer habitat available prior to 1950. Without artificial water developments, 47.7% of present-day summer habitat would be lost, which raises important management questions regarding the debate about what is natural or artificial within otherwise protected areas.

  20. Scrapie in France: some possible predisposing factors in the naturally-acquired disease of sheep.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, J; Delasnerie-Laupretre, N; Cathala, F; Brown, P

    1983-10-01

    A nationwide survey of the occurrence of scrapie in France during the 12-year period 1968-1979 has shown the disease to be more widespread than previously thought. The data suggest that certain sheep raising practices, such as transhumance (nomadic grazing), pen and pasture alternations, and use of animals for milk production, may play a possible role in disease prevalence. PMID:6685940

  1. Efficacy of clorsulon against mature, naturally acquired Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, G L; Wallace, D H; Schons, D J; Hoberg, E P

    1986-08-01

    Clorsulon (3.5 or 7 mg/kg of body weight) was given orally to mature cows (dairy or beef) and to mature mixed-breed sheep harboring patent infections of Fasciola hepatica. Eighteen animals of each species were assigned to a control group (drug vehicle) or to 1 of 2 treatment (3.5 or 7.0 mg/kg) groups of 6 animals each. On posttreatment days 8 (cows) or 14 (sheep), the animals were slaughtered for recovery of flukes. In cows, the efficacy (P values for treatment groups vs control) of clorsulon against infections of mature F hepatica was 99.21% (P less than or equal to 0.0065) at 3.5 mg/kg and was 100% (P less than or equal to 0.0039) at 7 mg/kg. In sheep, the efficacy was 93.33% (P less than or equal to 0.0104) at 3.5 mg/kg and was 100% (P less than or equal to 0.0039) at 7 mg/kg. These results indicate that clorsulon is a highly effective compound for the treatment of mature F hepatica in cows and sheep. PMID:3752673

  2. Persistent efficacy of a long acting injectable formulation of moxidectin against natural infestations of the sheep nasal bot (Oestrus ovis) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rugg, Douglas; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; Sarasola, Patxi; Figueras, Luis; Lacasta, Delia; Liu, Bo; Bartram, David

    2012-09-10

    Cydectin(®) 2% LA Solution for Injection for Sheep (Pfizer Animal Health) is a long-acting (LA) formulation of moxidectin for the treatment and prevention of mixed infections of gastro-intestinal nematodes, respiratory nematodes and certain arthropod parasites in sheep. To evaluate the duration of persistent efficacy against nasal bots (Oestrus ovis), a natural exposure study was conducted in Spain during the summer of 2011. One hundred and twenty nasal bot-free, Rasa Aragonesa sheep were randomly allocated to eight groups of 15 animals each. On Day 0, four groups were treated at the recommended dose rate of 1 mg moxidectin/kg bodyweight. Four groups remained untreated as negative controls. All animals were held in nasal bot-proof housing except for exposure to natural challenge when one group of treated sheep and one of group of control animals were transferred to a local pasture at either 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, or 60-80 days after treatment. Following challenge, sheep were scored for clinical signs of bot infestation, necropsied and the heads sectioned for larval recovery. Nasal bot larvae were retrieved from 7 to 11 control sheep following each exposure period indicating that adult bots were active throughout the study. In the first challenge up to 20 days after treatment, when sheep were slaughtered immediately after exposure, the majority of larvae were first instar (L1) and only 3 of the 15 control sheep were infested with second instars (L2). There was 100% efficacy against L2 and 38.1% reduction in the number of live L1 in the treated sheep but mean counts were not significantly different between treatment and control groups (P ≥ 0.05). For the subsequent exposure periods 20-80 days after treatment (necropsies 7-9 days after challenge), 6-10 sheep were infested with L1 and 9-11 control sheep were infested with L2 and third instars (L3). There was negligible efficacy against L1, but treatment with moxidectin resulted in 100% control of L2 and L3. These

  3. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem. PMID:22191174

  4. The field evaluation of albendazole and triclabendazole efficacy against Fasciola hepatica by coproantigen ELISA in naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Novobilský, Adam; Averpil, Helen Björk; Höglund, Johan

    2012-11-23

    Albendazole (ABZ) has been used for control of ovine fasciolosis in Sweden for several decades. However, increasing prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in Sweden requires attention to diagnostic tools and current control strategies. The coproantigen reduction test (CRT) using commercial Bio-X K201 Fasciola coproantigen ELISA (Bio-X Diagnostics, Jemelle, Belgium) was recently suggested as a novel method for diagnosis of patent F. hepatica infection. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of albendazole and triclabendazole (TCBZ) treatment against F. hepatica in naturally infected sheep in south-western Sweden by CRT, and also to evaluate the usefulness of this test as a diagnostic marker for anthelmintic efficacy following treatment with ABZ. Three weeks after housing, 24 serologically positive ewes on a commercial farm in Sweden were randomly allocated into three groups, which were either dewormed with 5mg/kg ABZ, 10mg/ml TCBZ or left untreated. Twenty-six days after initial administration of these anthelmintics, all of the sheep in the ABZ group and untreated control groups were treated with 10mg/kg TCBZ. While TCBZ caused elimination of coproantigen and eggs in faeces 7 days after application, ABZ treatment failed completely. Neither anthelmintic resistance, underdosing, nor lack of efficacy due to the presence of immature flukes can be out ruled as possible causes. Despite some deviations in conformity between coproantigen levels and presence of fluke eggs, the CRT was a useful tool for measuring treatment efficacies. PMID:22818198

  5. Naturally resident and exogenously applied T4-like and T5-like bacteriophages can reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 levels in sheep guts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In preparing sheep for an in vivo Escherichia coli O157:H7 eradication trial, we found that 20/39 members of a single flock were naturally colonized by O157:H7-infecting phages. Characterization showed these were all one phage type (subsequently named CEV2) infecting 15/16 O157:H7, 7/72 ECOR, and c...

  6. Use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies in sheep naturally infected with Salmonella Abortusovis.

    PubMed

    Wirz-Dittus, Sophie; Belloy, Luc; Doherr, Marcus G; Hüssy, Daniela; Sting, Reinhard; Gabioud, Patricia; Waldvogel, Andreas S

    2010-07-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified and validated to detect antibodies against Salmonella Abortusovis in naturally infected sheep. The ELISA was validated with 44 positive and 45 negative control serum samples. Compared with the immunoblot, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 98% and 100%, respectively. To follow antibody levels over time, samples from 12 infected ewes were collected at 1, 3, and 10 months after abortion. All animals showed antibody levels above the cutoff value throughout the observation period. One and 3 months after abortion, high antibody levels could be detected in all but one animal, whereas after 10 months, 9 animals had markedly lower but still positive antibody levels. The test characteristics and evidence for the persistence of detectable antibody levels in all infected animals for up to 10 months indicates that the ELISA can be used for herd surveillance testing. PMID:20622222

  7. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). PMID:25962538

  8. Evaluation of a commercial ELISA kit for detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in serum, plasma and meat juice from experimentally and naturally infected sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common food borne zoonoses worldwide, and can be a serious life-threatening disease in the congenitally infected fetus and in immunosupressed patients. Among food animals, sheep along with goats and pigs possess the highest incidence of T. gondii cysts in meat, and play a major role as a source of human infection. Methods In this study, a new commercial ELISA kit (PrioCHECK® Toxoplasma Ab SR, Prionics Schlieren-Zurich, Switzerland) for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies in serum, plasma and meat juice of sheep, was evaluated by comparing it with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and real-time PCR, on samples from experimentally inoculated and naturally exposed sheep. Results The commercial ELISA detected the infection status in 50% and 100% of sheep orally inoculated with 10,000 T. gondii oocysts (n = 6), from two or three weeks post infection (wpi), respectively, both on serum and plasma samples. Meat juice from all experimentally inoculated sheep collected at slaughter (12 wpi) showed positive ELISA values. In naturally exposed sheep (n = 396), the ELISA showed a very good agreement with IFAT (kappa = 0.91-1.0) and IHA (kappa = 0.96-1.0) performed on serum; and a positive correlation was observed between ELISA values and IFAT titers. By a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the commercial ELISA had relative sensitivities between 93.33% and 100%, and relative specificities between 96.87% and 100% respect to IFAT and IHA, depending on the considered cut-off value and animal groups tested. Furthermore, the ELISA correctly recognized all animals reacting positive in real-time PCR. The ELISA results on meat juice agreed with those on serum samples in all experimentally inoculated animals, and in 94 out of 96 (97.9%) naturally exposed sheep, when meat juice was tested at a 1:10 dilution. Conclusion The commercial ELISA kit

  9. Circulation of Coxiella burnetii in a Naturally Infected Flock of Dairy Sheep: Shedding Dynamics, Environmental Contamination, and Genotype Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Joulié, A.; Laroucau, K.; Bailly, X.; Prigent, M.; Gasqui, P.; Lepetitcolin, E.; Blanchard, B.; Rousset, E.; Sidi-Boumedine, K.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir. Sheep, in particular, may frequently cause outbreaks in humans. Because within-flock circulation data are essential to implementing optimal management strategies, we performed a follow-up study of a naturally infected flock of dairy sheep. We aimed to (i) describe C. burnetii shedding dynamics by sampling vaginal mucus, feces, and milk, (ii) assess circulating strain diversity, and (iii) quantify barn environmental contamination. For 8 months, we sampled vaginal mucus and feces every 3 weeks from aborting and nonaborting ewes (n = 11 and n = 26, respectively); for lactating females, milk was obtained as well. We also sampled vaginal mucus from nine ewe lambs. Dust and air samples were collected every 3 and 6 weeks, respectively. All samples were screened using real-time PCR, and strongly positive samples were further analyzed using quantitative PCR. Vaginal and fecal samples with sufficient bacterial burdens were then genotyped by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) using 17 markers. C. burnetii burdens were higher in vaginal mucus and feces than in milk, and they peaked in the first 3 weeks postabortion or postpartum. Primiparous females and aborting females tended to shed C. burnetii longer and have higher bacterial burdens than nonaborting and multiparous females. Six genotype clusters were identified; they were independent of abortion status, and within-individual genotype diversity was observed. C. burnetii was also detected in air and dust samples. Further studies should determine whether the within-flock circulation dynamics observed here are generalizable. PMID:26253679

  10. Circulation of Coxiella burnetii in a Naturally Infected Flock of Dairy Sheep: Shedding Dynamics, Environmental Contamination, and Genotype Diversity.

    PubMed

    Joulié, A; Laroucau, K; Bailly, X; Prigent, M; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Blanchard, B; Rousset, E; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2015-10-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir. Sheep, in particular, may frequently cause outbreaks in humans. Because within-flock circulation data are essential to implementing optimal management strategies, we performed a follow-up study of a naturally infected flock of dairy sheep. We aimed to (i) describe C. burnetii shedding dynamics by sampling vaginal mucus, feces, and milk, (ii) assess circulating strain diversity, and (iii) quantify barn environmental contamination. For 8 months, we sampled vaginal mucus and feces every 3 weeks from aborting and nonaborting ewes (n=11 and n=26, respectively); for lactating females, milk was obtained as well. We also sampled vaginal mucus from nine ewe lambs. Dust and air samples were collected every 3 and 6 weeks, respectively. All samples were screened using real-time PCR, and strongly positive samples were further analyzed using quantitative PCR. Vaginal and fecal samples with sufficient bacterial burdens were then genotyped by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) using 17 markers. C. burnetii burdens were higher in vaginal mucus and feces than in milk, and they peaked in the first 3 weeks postabortion or postpartum. Primiparous females and aborting females tended to shed C. burnetii longer and have higher bacterial burdens than nonaborting and multiparous females. Six genotype clusters were identified; they were independent of abortion status, and within-individual genotype diversity was observed. C. burnetii was also detected in air and dust samples. Further studies should determine whether the within-flock circulation dynamics observed here are generalizable. PMID:26253679

  11. Natural involution of muscle in the proximal sesamoidean ligament in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Rowlerson, A

    1995-01-01

    In sheep, the muscle component of the proximal sesamoidean ligament, which is well developed at birth, undergoes a progressive involution postnatally. The development of muscle fibres in the proximal sesamoidean ligament was compared with masseter and semimembranosus muscles from before birth into adult life, using histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. Neonatal myosin (a marker for developmental immaturity) disappeared earlier, and the adult pattern of myosin expression and fibre type composition was reached earlier in the proximal sesamoid ligament than masseter and semimembranosus. Proximal sesamoid ligament muscle fibres therefore complete normal development, but with a faster time course than the other muscles. Invasion of fibrous connective tissue between muscle fibres of the proximal sesamoidean ligament adjoining the tendinous component (one feature of the involution) was found to begin perinatally, eventually resulting in a marked fibrosis and atrophy of peripheral fibres. Regeneration of muscle fibres was absent or abortive, even near areas of fibre necrosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7649819

  12. Slip-shod or safely shod: the bighorn sheep as a natural model for research.

    PubMed Central

    Manning, D P; Cooper, J E; Jones, C; Bruce, M

    1990-01-01

    Over a million injuries caused by slipping of footwear are believed to require treatment by doctors every year in the United Kingdom and many domestic animals are injured by slipping. Recent research has revealed that surface roughness of solings and floors is an important determinant of grip on lubricated surfaces and it is also known that soling friction is affected by hardness. The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) an animal species which has adapted to a slippery environment, was studied to elucidate optimum roughness and hardness and other features which influence grip. Four adult ewes were examined in the London Zoo. The cloven hooves of this species are very mobile and the cranial tips of the hooves are the first parts to make contact with the ground. A very small contact area ensures penetration of a film of water. Mean roughness of the contact area was found to be 53 microns Rtm and the mean hardness 63 Shore A. These characteristics appear to facilitate an excellent grip on wet slippery rock but not on smooth ice. Further studies of the feet of wild species could contribute to an understanding of the factors which determine the safety of solings and floors. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:2250262

  13. Classical scrapie prions are associated with peripheral blood monocytes and T-lymphocytes from naturally infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. As detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay, previous studies suggested scrapie prions in the blood of sheep might be associated with B lymphocytes but not with monocytes or T lymphocytes. The association of sc...

  14. Coinfections Acquired from Ixodes Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Stephen J.; Neitzel, David; Reed, Kurt D.; Belongia, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    The pathogens that cause Lyme disease (LD), human anaplasmosis, and babesiosis can coexist in Ixodes ticks and cause human coinfections. Although the risk of human coinfection differs by geographic location, the true prevalence of coinfecting pathogens among Ixodes ticks remains largely unknown for the majority of geographic locations. The prevalence of dually infected Ixodes ticks appears highest among ticks from regions of North America and Europe where LD is endemic, with reported prevalences of ≤28%. In North America and Europe, the majority of tick-borne coinfections occur among humans with diagnosed LD. Humans coinfected with LD and babesiosis appear to have more intense, prolonged symptoms than those with LD alone. Coinfected persons can also manifest diverse, influenza-like symptoms, and abnormal laboratory test results are frequently observed. Coinfecting pathogens might alter the efficiency of transmission, cause cooperative or competitive pathogen interactions, and alter disease severity among hosts. No prospective studies to assess the immunologic effects of coinfection among humans have been conducted, but animal models demonstrate that certain coinfections can modulate the immune response. Clinicians should consider the likelihood of coinfection when pursuing laboratory testing or selecting therapy for patients with tick-borne illness. PMID:17041141

  15. Whole-genome resequencing uncovers molecular signatures of natural and sexual selection in wild bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Marty; Luikart, Gordon; Bunch, Rowan; Dewey, Sarah; Edwards, William; McWilliam, Sean; Stephenson, John; Allendorf, Fred W; Hogg, John T; Kijas, James

    2015-11-01

    The identification of genes influencing fitness is central to our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation and how it shapes phenotypic variation in wild populations. Here, we used whole-genome resequencing of wild Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to >50-fold coverage to identify 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic regions bearing signatures of directional selection (i.e. selective sweeps). A comparison of SNP diversity between the X chromosome and the autosomes indicated that bighorn males had a dramatically reduced long-term effective population size compared to females. This probably reflects a long history of intense sexual selection mediated by male-male competition for mates. Selective sweep scans based on heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity revealed evidence for a selective sweep shared across multiple populations at RXFP2, a gene that strongly affects horn size in domestic ungulates. The massive horns carried by bighorn rams appear to have evolved in part via strong positive selection at RXFP2. We identified evidence for selection within individual populations at genes affecting early body growth and cellular response to hypoxia; however, these must be interpreted more cautiously as genetic drift is strong within local populations and may have caused false positives. These results represent a rare example of strong genomic signatures of selection identified at genes with known function in wild populations of a nonmodel species. Our results also showcase the value of reference genome assemblies from agricultural or model species for studies of the genomic basis of adaptation in closely related wild taxa. PMID:26454263

  16. Serial passage of sheep scrapie inoculum in Suffolk sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a recent study, it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with a US scrapie agent (No. 13-7) developed scrapie and s...

  17. The efficacy of monepantel against naturally acquired inhibited and developing fourth-stage larvae of Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ramage, C; Bartley, D J; Jackson, F; Cody, R; Hosking, B C

    2012-05-25

    The inhibition of Teladorsagia and other nematode genera at the early fourth-stage is a biological process that allows the parasites to survive in their host in a dormant state when prevailing conditions may otherwise kill them or prevent their progeny from surviving in the external environment. A study was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against natural infections of inhibited fourth-stage Teladorsagia spp. larvae. At necropsy it was determined that the untreated control sheep were additionally infected with developing fourth-stage Teladorsagia spp. larvae and this is the first published evidence on the efficacy of monepantel against natural infections of this parasite and stage. The study sheep, which had grazed on naturally contaminated pastures since birth, were transferred to indoor housing after a subset of animals was examined to confirm the presence of inhibited larvae within the study population prior to the experiment. After 14 days of housing, monepantel was orally administered at 2.5 mg/kg to half of the animals. The sheep were necropsied seven days later and their parasite burdens recovered for the determination of efficacy, which was 99.7% for the inhibited stages and 99.3% for the developing fourth-stages. In conclusion, monepantel dosed orally at 2.5 mg/kg is a highly effective treatment against naturally acquired infections of inhibited and developing fourth-stage larvae of Teladorsagia spp. PMID:22177334

  18. Clinical and virological dynamics of a serotype O 2010 South East Asia lineage foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep using natural and simulated natural inoculation and exposure systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection dynamics of a recent field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), serotype O, topotype South East Asia, lineage Myamar ’98 were evaluated in sheep using four different systems for virus exposure. Two novel, simulated natural, inoculation systems consisting of intra-nasopharyngeal ...

  19. Effect of an Orange Oil Emulsion on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...

  20. Natural Killer cell activation distinguishes M. tuberculosis-mediated Immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) from chronic HIV and HIV-MTB co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Conradie, F.; Foulkes, A.S.; Ive, P.; Yin, X.; Roussos, K.; Glencross, D.K.; Lawrie, D.; Stevens, W.; Montaner, L.J.; Sanne; Azzoni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background With increased access to antiretroviral treatment (ART), Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-infected populations remains a clinical challenge. We studied a cross-sectional cohort of HIV-infected subjects in Johannesburg (South Africa) to help define the immune correlates that best distinguish IRIS from ongoing MTB cases. Methods We studied HIV+ subjects developing MTB-related unmasking IRIS (u-TB-IRIS) after ART initiation; control groups were HIV subjects and HIV-TB co-infected subjects with comparable ART treatment. Testing was conducted with whole blood-based 4-color flow cytometry and plasma-based Luminex cytokine assessment. Results NK cell activation, C-reactive protein and IL-8 serum concentration were significantly higher in u-TB-IRIS subjects as compared to both control groups. In addition, all MTB co-infected subjects, independent of clinical presentation, had higher neutrophils and T cell activation, together with lower lymphocytes, CD4+ T cell and myeloid DC counts. Using conditional inference tree analysis we show that elevated NK cell activation in combination with lymphocyte count characterizes the immunological profile of u-TB-IRIS. Conclusions Our results support a role for innate immune effectors in the immunopathogenesis of unmasking MTB-related IRIS, and identify new immune parameters defining this pathology. PMID:21826013

  1. Clinical and virological dynamics of a serotype O 2010 South East Asia lineage foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep using natural and simulated natural inoculation and exposure systems.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Pacheco, Juan M; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Ferreira, Helena C de Carvalho; Vosloo, Wilna; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Within-host infection dynamics of a recent field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), serotype O, topotype South East Asia, lineage Myamar'98 were evaluated in sheep using four different systems for virus exposure. Two novel, simulated natural, inoculation systems consisting of intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) deposition and aerosol inoculation were evaluated in comparison with two conventional systems: coronary band inoculation and direct contact exposure. All four exposure systems were efficient in generating consistently severe, generalized FMD with synchronous clinical characteristics within exposure groups, indicating that this Myanmar98 strain is highly virulent in sheep. Clinical and virological dynamics were similarly rapid following INP- and coronary band inoculation, with both systems leading to significantly earlier detection of virus shedding when compared to aerosol inoculation and contact exposure. The data presented herein support application of the two optimized simulated natural inoculation systems as valid alternatives to conventionally used exposure systems for studies of FMDV pathogenesis and vaccinology in sheep. Furthermore, the data suggest that targeted exposure of the ovine pharynx is highly efficient for generating consistent FMDV infection, which supports critical involvement of this anatomic region as a site of primary virus replication in sheep. PMID:25937316

  2. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep.

    PubMed

    Leymaster, K A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Clawson, M L; Harhay, G P; Heaton, M P

    2013-11-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLV, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections, and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalence are costly. Variants of ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) affect susceptibility to OPPV. The primary experimental objective was to estimate additive and dominance effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to OPPV infection following natural exposure. A group of 187 trial lambs was born and raised by mature, infected ewes to ensure natural exposure to OPPV. Parents of trial lambs were heterozygous for haplotypes 1 and 3, producing lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3." A group of 20 sentinel lambs was born and raised by mature, uninfected ewes that were diplotype "1 1." Sentinel lambs had diplotypes "1 1" and "1 3," being sired by the same set of rams as trial lambs. Trial and sentinel lambs were comingled during the experiment. Lambs were weaned at 60 d of age, bled 1 wk after weaning, and thereafter at intervals of 4 or 5 wk until 9 mo of age when OPPV infection status was determined by use of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only 1 sentinel lamb became infected. Infection status of trial lambs was analyzed using logistic regression procedures to account for the binary nature of infection status and random effects of sires. Effects of sex, type of birth, type of rearing, age of dam, breed type of dam, and sires were not detected (P>0.20). Infection status was affected by diplotype of lamb (P=0.005), with additive (P=0.002) and dominance (P=0.052) effects identified. Predicted probabilities of infection for lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" were 0.094, 0.323, and 0.346, respectively. Confidence intervals for probabilities of infection for diplotypes "1 3" and "3 3" were similar, but distinct from diplotype

  3. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLVs, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalenc...

  4. Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Bruchfeld, Judith; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Källenius, Gunilla

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) constitute the main burden of infectious disease in resource-limited countries. In the individual host, the two pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV, potentiate one another, accelerating the deterioration of immunological functions. In high-burden settings, HIV coinfection is the most important risk factor for developing active TB, which increases the susceptibility to primary infection or reinfection and also the risk of TB reactivation for patients with latent TB. M. tuberculosis infection also has a negative impact on the immune response to HIV, accelerating the progression from HIV infection to AIDS. The clinical management of HIV-associated TB includes the integration of effective anti-TB treatment, use of concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART), prevention of HIV-related comorbidities, management of drug cytotoxicity, and prevention/treatment of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). PMID:25722472

  5. Coinfection of Schistosoma (Trematoda) with bacteria, protozoa and helminths.

    PubMed

    Abruzzi, Amy; Fried, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This review examines coinfection of selected species of Schistosoma with bacteria, protozoa and helminths and focuses on the effects of the coinfection on the hosts. The review is based mainly on tables that contain the salient information on the coinfecting organisms in vertebrate hosts. Further explanation and clarification of the tables are given in the text. A table is also provided that gives synoptic information on the 37 species in the 19 genera considered in this review. Coinfection studies with Schistosoma species and the other organisms were considered in six tables plus the accompanying text. Considerations of the Schistosoma interactions with another species of organism include studies on coinfection with Plasmodium, with protozoa other than Plasmodium; with Salmonella, with bacteria other than Salmonella; and with Fasciola, with helminths other than Fasciola. Numerous factors were found to influence the effects of coinfection on the vertebrate host, including organisms and hosts used in the studies, order and time interval between the first and the second infection, studies on natural versus experimental hosts, dosage of the infectious agents, strains and pedigrees of the parasites, age of hosts at time of exposure to the infectious agents and age of hosts at the time of necropsy. Overall, a prior infection with Schistosoma, particularly a patent infection, often has an effect on the subsequent infection by a protozoan, bacterium or other helminth. In relatively few cases, a prior infection with Schistosoma decreased the severity of the subsequent infection as with Helicobacter pylori, Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma or Plasmodium, the latter only exhibiting this behaviour when coinfected with Schistosoma haematobium. More often, however, a prior infection with Schistosoma increased the severity of the second infection as with Leishmania, Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoeba histolytica, Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella. In some of these coinfection studies

  6. Restoration of ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole adult sheep ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B.K.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.; Onions, V.; Pincott-Allen, C.; Aljaser, F.; Fisher, J.; McNeilly, A.S.; Webb, R.; Picton, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to restore ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole ovaries, complete with vascular pedicle, in adult females from a large monovulatory animal model species (i.e. sheep)? SUMMARY ANSWER Full (100%) restoration of acute ovarian function and high rates of natural fertility (pregnancy rate 64%; live birth rate 29%), with multiple live births, were obtained following whole ovary cryopreservation and autotransplantation (WOCP&TP) of adult sheep ovaries utilizing optimized cryopreservation and post-operative anti-coagulant regimes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertility preservation by WOCP&TP requires successful cryopreservation of both the ovary and its vascular supply. Previous work has indicated detrimental effects of WOCP&TP on the ovarian follicle population. Recent experiments suggest that these deleterious effects can be attributed to an acute loss of vascular patency due to clot formation induced by damage to ovarian arterial endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Study 1 (2010–2011; N = 16) examined the effect of post-thaw perfusion of survival factors (angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic; n = 7–8) and treatment with aspirin (pre-operative versus pre- and post-operative (n = 7–9)) on the restoration of ovarian function for 3 months after WOCP&TP. Study 2 (2011–2012; N = 16) examined the effect of cryoprotectant (CPA) perfusion time (10 versus 60 min; n = 16) and pre- and post-operative treatment with aspirin in combination with enoxaparine (Clexane®; n = 8) or eptifibatide (Integrilin®; n = 8) on ovarian function and fertility 11–23 months after WOCP&TP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Both studies utilized mature, parous, Greyface ewes aged 3–6 years and weighing 50–75 kg. Restoration of ovarian function was monitored by bi-weekly blood sampling and display of behavioural oestrus. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotrophins, progesterone

  7. Evaluation of Oxfendazole, Praziquantel and Albendazole against Cystic Echinococcosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Naturally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Barron, Eduardo A.; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Llamosas, Monica; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Robinson, Colin; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cystic Echinococosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by larval stage Echinococcus granulosus. We determined the effects of high dose of Oxfendazole (OXF), combination Oxfendazole/Praziquantel (PZQ), and combination Albendazole (ABZ)/Praziquantel against CE in sheep. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 118 randomly selected ewes. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) placebo; 2) OXF 60 mg/Kg of body weight (BW) weekly for four weeks; 3) ABZ 30 mg/Kg BW + PZQ 40 mg/Kg BW weekly for 6 weeks, and 4) OXF 30 mg/Kg BW+ PZQ 40 mg/Kg BW biweekly for 3 administrations (6 weeks). Percent protoscolex (PSC) viability was evaluated using a 0.1% aqueous eosin vital stain for each cyst. “Noninfective” sheep were those that had no viable PSCs; “low-medium infective” were those that had 1% to 60% PSC viability; and “high infective” were those with more than 60% PSC viability. We evaluated 92 of the 118 sheep. ABZ/PZQ led the lowest PSC viability for lung cysts (12.7%), while OXF/PZQ did so for liver cysts (13.5%). The percentage of either “noninfective” or “low-medium infective” sheep was 90%, 93.8% and 88.9% for OXF, ABZ/PZQ and OXF/PZQ group as compared to 50% “noninfective” or “low-medium infective” for placebo. After performing all necropsies, CE prevalence in the flock of sheep was 95.7% (88/92) with a total number of 1094 cysts (12.4 cysts/animal). On average, the two-drug-combination groups resulted pulmonary cysts that were 6 mm smaller and hepatic cysts that were 4.2 mm smaller than placebo (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that Oxfendazole at 60 mg, combination Oxfendazole/Praziquantel and combination Albendazole/Praziquantel are successful schemas that can be added to control measures in animals and merits further study for the treatment of animal CE. Further investigations on different schedules of monotherapy or combined chemotherapy are

  8. Exploring Differentially Expressed Genes and Natural Antisense Transcripts in Sheep (Ovis aries) Skin with Different Wool Fiber Diameters by Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianbin; Guo, Jian; Yuan, Chao; Feng, Ruilin; Niu, Chune; Sun, Xiaoping; Yang, Bohui

    2015-01-01

    Wool fiber diameter (WFD) is the most important economic trait of wool. However, the genes specifically controlling WFD remain elusive. In this study, the expression profiles of skin from two groups of Gansu Alpine merino sheep with different WFD (a super-fine wool group [FD = 18.0 ± 0.5 μm, n= 3] and a fine wool group [FD=23.0±0.5μm, n=3]) were analyzed using next-generation sequencing–based digital gene expression profiling. A total of 40 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, including 9 up-regulated genes and 31 down-regulated genes. Further expression profile analysis of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) showed that more than 30% of the genes presented in sheep skin expression profiles had NATs. A total of 7 NATs with significant differential expression were detected, and all were down-regulated. Among of 40 DEGs, 3 DEGs (AQP8, Bos d2, and SPRR) had significant NATs which were all significantly down-regulated in the super-fine wool group. In total of DEGs and NATs were summarized as 3 main GO categories and 38 subcategories. Among the molecular functions, cellular components and biological processes categories, binding, cell part and metabolic process were the most dominant subcategories, respectively. However, no significant enrichment of GO terms was found (corrected P-value >0.05). The pathways that were significantly enriched with significant DEGs and NATs were mainly the lipoic acid metabolism, bile secretion, salivary secretion and ribosome and phenylalanine metabolism pathways (P < 0.05). The results indicated that expression of NATs and gene transcripts were correlated, suggesting a role in gene regulation. The discovery of these DEGs and NATs could facilitate enhanced selection for super-fine wool sheep through gene-assisted selection or targeted gene manipulation in the future. PMID:26076016

  9. The comparative efficacy of four anthelmintics against a natural acquired Fasciola hepatica infection in hill sheep flock in the west of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mooney, L; Good, B; Hanrahan, J P; Mulcahy, G; de Waal, T

    2009-10-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four different anthelmintics against F. hepatica in a naturally infected hill sheep flock in the west of Ireland. In a randomised trial, 138 ewes were divided into four groups. On day 0 each group was dosed with one of four anthelmintics: triclabendazole, closantel, oxyclozanide or nitroxynil. Faecal samples were obtained from each animal per rectum on the day of treatment and again at 7, 14, 21 and 56 days post-treatment. The number of F. hepatica eggs per gram of faeces was determined using the sedimentation technique and the efficacy of each anthelmintic was calculated in terms of the percentage reduction in egg count at each time point. The results for closantel, oxyclozanide and nitroxynil indicate that these drugs are effective with faecal egg count being reduced by 100% by day 14 post-treatment. However, the results for triclabendazole group yielded lower efficacy levels, with faecal egg count reductions of between 49% and 66% based on arithmetic means, over the period 7-56 days post-treatment. These results are highly indicative of triclabendazole resistant F. hepatica in sheep on this farm. PMID:19556063

  10. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. PMID:27514886

  11. HIV and hepatitis C co-infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, R; Dunning, J; Nelson, M

    2005-09-01

    HIV/HCV co-infection is emerging as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the 21st century. This editorial reviews the prevalence of co-infection, the factors involved in acquisition of HCV, and the influence of co-infection on disease progression. We examine the results of the major co-infection trials including APRICOT, ACTG 5071 and RIBAVIC. These trials, in association with emerging evidence for future therapies currently undergoing investigation, have led to increased hope of treatment success in co-infected individuals. PMID:16115185

  12. Hypobiosis of Haemonchus contortus in natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gatongi, P M; Prichard, R K; Ranjan, S; Gathuma, J M; Munyua, W K; Cheruiyot, H; Scott, M E

    1998-05-01

    A total of 42 lambs, 42 kids, 21 ewes and 21 does were necropsied during an investigation of the epidemiology of Haemonchus contortus infection of sheep (Red Maasai) and goats (Small East African Goat) in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Availability and establishment of the infective stages were monitored by the necropsy of 21 tracer lambs and 21 tracer kids. Prevalence of H. contortus was over 90% in both sheep and goats and this species contributed to about 80% of the total worm burden. Only about 10% of the hypobiotic larvae were recovered from the mucosal digest whereas about 90% were recovered from the abomasal contents and washings, thereby suggesting that hypobiotic larvae may be loosely attached to the abomasal mucosa from which they may be dislodged during the processing of the abomasa for examination. Throughout the study, both adult worms and hypobiotic larvae were found in proportions that varied with seasons. Statistically, a higher proportion of hypobiotic larvae was found during the dry months than during the wet months, an indication that hypobiosis was an important feature in the survival of H. contortus during the dry months. Negligible worm burdens were acquired by the tracers during the short rains, suggesting that few H. contortus larvae survived on pasture in this season. The effectiveness of strategic control using ivermectin varied according to the timing in relation to the wet season. Treatment did not influence the seasonal pattern of hypobiosis but the treatment administered before the onset of the rains significantly reduced the numbers of both hypobiotic larvae and the adult worms. Treatment during the rains conferred a temporary relief of adult worm burden but had no impact on hypobiotic larvae. PMID:9652383

  13. Sheep and farm level factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study of sheep on six farms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep in the UK currently affecting approximately 50% of farms. Six farms were studied in North Wales to investigate (1) the prevalence dynamics of CODD, (2) the association between sheep with CODD and potential risk factors and (3) the impact of CODD on lameness in sheep. The farms were visited at approximately two-month intervals between June 2012 and October 2013 and 6515 sheep were examined. The mean sheep level prevalence of CODD varied between farms (2.5-11.9%). Within farms, prevalence may increase in the late summer/early autumn and after housing. Environmental risk factors included larger flocks, lowland pasture, lush pasture and poached pasture. Co-infection of a foot with footrot was strongly associated with CODD in that foot (OR: 7.7 95% CI: 3.9-15.5 P<0.001) but negatively associated with co-infection of a foot with interdigital dermatitis (OR: 0.04 95% CI: 0.02-0.1 P<0.001). Reinfection with CODD was observed in 78 individual sheep but there was no re-infection at foot level. Lameness on all farms reduced during the study and seasonal changes in lameness followed similar patterns to those for CODD. Infection with CODD leads to a greater increase in locomotion score compared to footrot or interdigital dermatitis and CODD lesion grade was strongly associated with being lame. Sheep with CODD in more than one foot were more likely to be lame (OR: 25.0 95% CI: 12.5-49.9 P<0.001) than those with just one foot affected (OR:10.0 95% CI: 8.6-11.6 P<0.001). The biggest risk factor for CODD is co-infection with footrot and therefore control of footrot should help reduce the risk of CODD on affected farms. Furthermore environmental risk factors for CODD are similar to those for footrot adding weight for control strategies that target both diseases in tandem. The routine repeated gathering of sheep for the purposes of treating all lame sheep might be an effective control strategy for

  14. Advances in the management of HIV/HCV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Mandorfer, Mattias; Schwabl, Philipp; Steiner, Sebastian; Reiberger, Thomas; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus

    2016-05-01

    HCV coinfection has emerged as a major cause of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients. As a consequence of the availability of modern combined antiretroviral therapy regimens, for optimally managed HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, the rates of liver fibrosis progression and the risk of liver-related events are increasingly similar to those of HCV-monoinfected patients. Moreover, our understanding of modulators of liver disease progression has greatly improved. In addition to immune status, endocrine, metabolic, genetic and viral factors are closely interrelated and might be important determinants of liver disease progression. In the last decade, a variety of serologic and radiographic tests for noninvasive liver disease staging have been extensively validated and are commonly used in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Sustained virologic response prevents end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death, with an even greater effect size in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients. As interferon-free regimens achieve comparable rates of sustained virologic response in HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients, HIV/HCV-coinfected patients should from now on be referred to as a special, rather than a difficult-to-treat, population. Our comprehensive review covers all relevant aspects of HIV/HCV coinfection. Beginning with the changing epidemiology, it also provides new insights into the natural history of this condition and gives an overview on non-invasive techniques for the staging of liver disease. Furthermore, it outlines current recommendations for the treatment of acute hepatitis C and summarizes the unprecedented advances in the field of chronic hepatitis C therapy. PMID:26758592

  15. The Role of Co-Infections in Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV§

    PubMed Central

    King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2015-01-01

    In HIV-infected women, co-infections that target the placenta, fetal membranes, genital tract, and breast tissue, as well as systemic maternal and infant infections, have been shown to increase the risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT). Active co-infection stimulates the release of cytokines and inflammatory agents that enhance HIV replication locally or systemically and increase tissue permeability, which weakens natural defenses to MTCT. Many maternal or infant co-infections can affect MTCT of HIV, and particular ones, such as genital tract infection with herpes simplex virus, or systemic infections such as hepatitis B, can have substantial epidemiologic impact on MTCT. Screening and treatment for co-infections that can make infants susceptible to MTCT in utero, peripartum, or postpartum can help reduce the incidence of HIV infection among infants and improve the health of mothers and infants worldwide. PMID:23305198

  16. Malaria endemicity and co-infection with tissue-dwelling parasites in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Onkoba, Nyamongo W; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms and outcomes of host-parasite interactions during malaria co-infections with gastrointestinal helminths are reasonably understood. In contrast, very little is known about such mechanisms in cases of malaria co-infections with tissue-dwelling parasites. This is lack of knowledge is exacerbated by misdiagnosis, lack of pathognomonic clinical signs and the chronic nature of tissue-dwelling helminthic infections. A good understanding of the implications of tissue-dwelling parasitic co-infections with malaria will contribute towards the improvement of the control and management of such co-infections in endemic areas. This review summarises and discusses current information available and gaps in research on malaria co-infection with gastro-intestinal helminths and tissue-dwelling parasites with emphasis on helminthic infections, in terms of the effects of migrating larval stages and intra and extracellular localisations of protozoan parasites and helminths in organs, tissues, and vascular and lymphatic circulations. PMID:26377900

  17. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  18. Hepatitis B Virus-HIV Coinfection: Forgotten but Not Gone

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Owing to shared routes of transmission and common risk factors, coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV is common. As AIDS-related opportunistic infections have declined with successful antiretroviral therapy (ART), liver-related mortality has emerged as the second leading cause of death among patients infected with HIV HIV infection negatively impacts the natural history of HBV, increasing the risks for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related mortality. With the availability of effective antiviral therapy active against both HIV and HBV and simplified treatment algorithms, it has become easier than ever to treat coinfected patients. However, the issues of suboptimal response, incomplete viral suppression, adverse effects of long-term antiviral treatment, and potential hepatotoxicity of ART remain major challenges.

  19. Insights into human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus co-infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Runu; Pal, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Shared routes of transmission lead to frequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in a host which results in about 10% of HIV positive individuals to have chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. In post-antiretroviral therapy era, liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals and HBV co-infection have become the major health issue among this population particularly from the regions with endemic HBV infection. In setting of HIV-HBV co-infection, HIV significantly impacts the natural history of HBV infection, its disease profile and the treatment outcome in negative manner. Moreover, the epidemiological pattern of HBV infection and the diversity in HBV genome (genotypic and phenotypic) are also varied in HIV co-infected subjects as compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. Several reports on the abovementioned issues are available from developed parts of the world as well as from sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast, most of these research areas remained unexplored in India despite having considerable burden of HIV and HBV infections. This review discusses present knowledge from the studies on HIV-HBV co-infection in India and relevant reports from different parts of the world. Issues needed for the future research relevant to HIV-HBV co-infection in India are also highlighted here, including a call for further investigations on this field of study. PMID:26279986

  20. Peripheral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Provirus Levels Correlate with and Predict Histological Tissue Lesion Severity in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether host immune responses in the form of serum anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses or virus replication in the form of peripheral OPP provirus levels associate with the degree of histological tissue lesions in naturally OPPV infec...

  1. Therapeutic management of sarcoptic mange in a sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G S S; Nagesha, A M; Hemanna Gowda, K

    2013-10-01

    Sarcoptic mange infested sheep showed pruritis, excoriation, crusts, lichenification and secondary alopecia on face and ears. All the infested sheep were treated successfully with Ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight and complete recovery of skin was observed between 10th and 14th day post treatments. Sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and the spread of Sarcoptes scabiei is usually by close contact but in goats not same because it has natural resistance against sheep mange. PMID:24431584

  2. Research on HIV Co-Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page Get email updates Order publications Featured Research The Path to a Cure for Hepatitis C ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Research on HIV Co-Infections HIV-infected people are ...

  3. Epidemiology of Plasmodium and Helminth Coinfection and Possible Reasons for Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed. PMID:27092310

  4. Epidemiology of Plasmodium and Helminth Coinfection and Possible Reasons for Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed. PMID:27092310

  5. Relationship of PrPSc molecular properties with incubation time in a natural prion disease host: a characterization of three isolates of U.S. sheep scrapie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of aspects of tertiary and quaternary structure of PrPSc associated with differences in disease presentation in the host is a key area of interest in the prion field. Previously, we determined that a U.S. scrapie isolate (136-VDEP) with a short incubation time upon passage in sheep als...

  6. Priming of Soil Carbon Decomposition in Two Inner Mongolia Grassland Soils following Sheep Dung Addition: A Study Using 13C Natural Abundance Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Yanfen; Wang, Chengjie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C) sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content) and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content). Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ13C = −26.8‰; dung δ13C = −26.2‰) or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C4 plant with δ13C = −14.6‰; dung δ13C = −15.7‰). Fresh C3 and C4 sheep dung was mixed with the two grassland soils and incubated under controlled conditions for analysis of 13C-CO2 emissions. Soil samples were taken at days 17, 43, 86, 127 and 152 after sheep dung addition to detect the δ13C signal in soil and dung components. Analysis revealed that 16.9% and 16.6% of the sheep dung C had decomposed, of which 3.5% and 2.8% was sequestrated in the soils of L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands, respectively, while the remaining decomposed sheep dung was emitted as CO2. The cumulative amounts of C respired from dung treated soils during 152 days were 7–8 times higher than in the un-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO2 originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg−1 dry soil had been emitted as CO2 for the L. chinensis and A. frigida soils, respectively. Hence, the net C losses from L. chinensis and A. frigida soils were 0.6 g and 0.9 g C kg−1 soil, which was 2.6% and 7.0% of the total C in L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands soils, respectively. Our results suggest that grazing of degraded Inner Mongolian pastures may cause a net soil C loss due to the positive priming effect, thereby accelerating soil deterioration. PMID:24236024

  7. Hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus co-infected individuals: Is this still a “special population”?

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Allen, Joanna; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Co-infected individuals are traditionally considered as one of the “special populations” amongst those with chronic HCV, mainly because of faster progression to end-stage liver disease and suboptimal responses to treatment with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, the benefits of which are often outweighed by toxicity. The advent of the newer direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has given hope that the majority of co-infected individuals can clear HCV. However the “special population” designation may prove an obstacle for those with co-infection to gain access to the new agents, in terms of requirement for separate pre-licensing clinical trials and extensive drug-drug interaction studies. We review the global epidemiology, natural history and pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infection. The accelerated course of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infection is not adequately offset by successful combination antiretroviral therapy. We also review the treatment trials of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infected individuals with DAAs and compare them to trials in the HCV mono-infected. There is convincing evidence that HIV co-infection no longer diminishes the response to treatment against HCV in the new era of DAA-based therapy. The management of HCV co-infection should therefore become a priority in the care of HIV infected individuals, along with public health efforts to prevent new HCV infections, focusing particularly on specific patient groups at risk, such as men who have sex with men and injecting drug users. PMID:26244068

  8. Chemotherapy of paramphistomosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C

    1988-05-01

    Controlled trials were used to assess the efficacy of various anthelmintics against immature and adult paramphistomes in 75 experimentally or naturally infected sheep. Albendazole (20 mg/kg), praziquantel (10 mg/kg), nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) triclabendazole (10 and 100 mg/kg), profenophos (25 mg/kg) and netobimin (15 mg/kg) had little or no activity against adult or immature fluke. Niclosamide at 100 mg/kg had high efficacy (99%) against intestinal fluke but none against adult fluke. A 2- tertiary-butyl benzthiazole compound (CGA 72630) at 25 mg/kg and resorantel at 65 mg/kg had very high efficacy against both adult and immature fluke in the rumen and small intestine respectively. The efficacy of other anthelmintics which have been used against paramphistomes in sheep is reviewed. PMID:3401161

  9. Differences in amniotic amino acid concentrations between pregnancies obtained with transfer of vitrified thawed in vitro-produced embryos and with natural mating in sheep.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, S M; Mossa, F; Strina, A; Ariu, F; Pau, S; Ledda, M; Sotgia, S; Carru, C; Ledda, S

    2015-03-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) and cryopreservation are associated with a high incidence of pregnancy complications and fetal abnormalities that may be linked with alterations of placental development. The amniotic fluid is partly derived from the transport of water and solutes across the placenta and provides the fetus with amino acids (AAs), which are the building blocks for biomolecules involved in physiological growth and development. To better understand the anomalies associated with IVP pregnancies, the present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that amniotic concentrations of AAs differ in pregnancies derived from vitrified/thawed (V/T) IVP embryos compared with gestations obtained with natural mating (NM) in sheep. Amniotic fluid was sampled in ewes that were pregnant after transfer of V/T IVP embryos and that had conceived with NM between Days 60 and 65 (V/T, n = 6; NM, n = 11) and between Days 80 and 85 (V/T, n = 5; NM, n = 14) of gestation via ultrasound-guided amniocentesis. Concentrations of 16 AAs in the amniotic fluid were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. From Days 60 to 65 of gestation, concentrations of cystine, phenylalanine, and isoleucine were lower in V/T compared with NM ewes. From Days 80 to 85 of pregnancy, the mean concentrations of cystine and lysine were lower in the V/T versus NM groups. The total AA concentration per ewe was similar between the groups from Days 60 to 65 and 80 to 85 of gestation and decreased by 55% from Days 60 to 65 and 80 to 85 of gestation in all ewes. The most abundant AA from Days 60 to 65 of gestation was alanine in both groups, whereas from Days 80 to 85, the most abundant AAs were alanine in NM and glycine in V/T ewes; cystine was the less abundant detectable AA in all ewes at both stages of gestation. Results report that V/T IVP embryos have decreased concentrations of individual AAs in the amniotic fluid during the second trimester of gestation possibly because of an

  10. HBV and HIV co-infection: Impact on liver pathobiology and therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on progression of severe liver diseases is a serious public health issue, worldwide. In the co-infection cases, about 90% of HIV-infected population is seropositive for HBV where approximately 5%-40% individuals are chronically infected. In HIV co-infected individuals, liver-related mortality is estimated over 17 times higher than those with HBV mono-infection. The spectrum of HIV-induced liver diseases includes hepatitis, steatohepatitis, endothelialitis, necrosis, granulomatosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. Moreover, HIV co-infection significantly alters the natural history of hepatitis B, and therefore complicates the disease management. Though several studies have demonstrated impact of HIV proteins on hepatocyte biology, only a few data is available on interactions between HBV and HIV proteins. Thus, the clinical spectrum as well as the complexity of the co-infection offers challenging fronts to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and to design effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:25625003

  11. Treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 coinfection.

    PubMed

    Boesecke, Christoph; Rockstroh, Jürgen K

    2015-09-01

    Several all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination therapies including two fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) have been recently licensed for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Results of pivotal trials with these new compounds are now also available in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, highlighting that, in the DAA era, differences no longer do exist in efficacy between HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. This review will give an overview of the key DAA-containing studies in HIV/HCV genotype 1 coinfection and give guidance on how and when these should be used in clinical practice. Simplified DAA-based and potentially interferon-free HCV therapy regimens are characterized by smaller pill burden, better tolerability, shorter treatment durations, and higher cure rates. With first pilot studies in HCV treatment-naive and treatment-experienced persons with HCV/HIV coinfection demonstrating sustained virological response rates above 95 %, interferon (IFN)-free DAA combinations should be considered the new standard of care for chronic HCV. Per both European and US treatment guidelines, HCV treatment indications and DAA drug selection in HIV-coinfected patients are no longer different from HCV-monoinfected patients as cure rates in HCV-monoinfected and HCV-coinfected patients are superimposable. Drug-drug interactions with the new DAAs and concomitant antiretroviral therapy, however, have to be checked carefully prior to selecting DAAs due to commonly shared metabolization pathways. In countries with access to the new DAAs, interferon-free DAA combination therapy for HCV genotype 1 infection is strongly recommended. Agents should be selected based upon HCV genotype and according to current guidelines. Potential drug-drug interactions between HIV antiretrovirals and HCV therapy need to be checked, and if necessary, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has to be adapted to the respective HCV therapy

  12. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  13. Co-infection with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei increases severity of malaria and trypanosomiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi; Odeniran, Paul Olalekan

    2016-07-01

    Individuals in natural populations may be infected with multiple different parasites at a time. These parasites may interact with each other or act independently in the host, and this may result to varying outcomes on host health and survival. This study therefore aimed at investigating the health impact of co-infection of mice with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei. Forty Swiss albino mice (14-17g) were divided into four groups of ten. Mice in groups A and B received 10(6)P. berghei and groups B and C 10(5)T. brucei, while group D were uninfected. The co-infected mice had higher P. berghei and T. brucei parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice. The co-infected mice had significantly (p<0.05) lower survival rate compared with the mono-infected mice. Co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei resulted in rapid P. berghei and T. brucei development and increased parasitaemia. The leukocyte numbers significantly (p<0.05) reduced on days 12 and 15 post infection among P. berghei infected mice, in the presence or absence of T. brucei. Anaemia and hypoglycaemia was more severe in the co-infected mice. Therefore, co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei may increase pathologic impact to the host by increasing parasitaemia. PMID:27021269

  14. Susceptibility to Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes Is Not Affected in Mice Coinfected with Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Maaz, Denny; Rausch, Sebastian; Richter, Dania; Krücken, Jürgen; Kühl, Anja A.; Demeler, Janina; Blümke, Julia; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. In a parasitological survey of wild mice in Berlin, Germany, approximately 40% of Ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus Heligmosomoides. We therefore aimed to analyze the immunological impact of the nematode/tick coinfection as well as its effect on the tick-borne pathogen Borrelia afzelii. Hosts experimentally coinfected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and larval/nymphal I. ricinus ticks developed substantially stronger systemic type 2 T helper cell (Th2) responses, on the basis of the levels of GATA-3 and interleukin-13 expression, than mice infected with a single pathogen. During repeated larval infestations, however, anti-tick Th2 reactivity and an observed partial immunity to tick feeding were unaffected by concurrent nematode infections. Importantly, the strong systemic Th2 immune response in coinfected mice did not affect susceptibility to tick-borne B. afzelii. An observed trend for decreased local and systemic Th1 reactivity against B. afzelii in coinfected mice did not result in a higher spirochete burden, nor did it facilitate bacterial dissemination or induce signs of immunopathology. Hence, this study indicates that strong systemic Th2 responses in nematode/tick-coinfected house mice do not affect the success of tick feeding and the control of the causative agent of Lyme disease. PMID:26883594

  15. Susceptibility to Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes Is Not Affected in Mice Coinfected with Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Maaz, Denny; Rausch, Sebastian; Richter, Dania; Krücken, Jürgen; Kühl, Anja A; Demeler, Janina; Blümke, Julia; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Hartmann, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    Small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. In a parasitological survey of wild mice in Berlin, Germany, approximately 40% of Ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus Heligmosomoides We therefore aimed to analyze the immunological impact of the nematode/tick coinfection as well as its effect on the tick-borne pathogen Borrelia afzelii Hosts experimentally coinfected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and larval/nymphal I. ricinus ticks developed substantially stronger systemic type 2 T helper cell (Th2) responses, on the basis of the levels of GATA-3 and interleukin-13 expression, than mice infected with a single pathogen. During repeated larval infestations, however, anti-tick Th2 reactivity and an observed partial immunity to tick feeding were unaffected by concurrent nematode infections. Importantly, the strong systemic Th2 immune response in coinfected mice did not affect susceptibility to tick-borne B. afzelii An observed trend for decreased local and systemic Th1 reactivity against B. afzelii in coinfected mice did not result in a higher spirochete burden, nor did it facilitate bacterial dissemination or induce signs of immunopathology. Hence, this study indicates that strong systemic Th2 responses in nematode/tick-coinfected house mice do not affect the success of tick feeding and the control of the causative agent of Lyme disease. PMID:26883594

  16. Salivary prions in sheep and deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a prion disease transmitted naturally within affected host populations of sheep and goats. Although milk and placenta have been identified as sources of contagion for scrapie prions, these sources seem insufficient to explain either indirect or interspecies scrapie transmission. Here we s...

  17. Coinfection and the evolution of drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J; Day, T

    2014-12-01

    Recent experimental work in the rodent malaria model has shown that when two or more strains share a host, there is competitive release of drug-resistant strains upon treatment. In other words, the propagule output of a particular strain is repressed when competing with other strains and increases upon the removal of this competition. This within-host effect is predicted to have an important impact on the evolution and growth of resistant strains. However, how this effect translates to epidemiological parameters at the between-host level, the level at which disease and resistance spread, has yet to be determined. Here we present a general, between-host epidemiological model that explicitly takes into account the effect of coinfection and competitive release. Although our model does show that when there is coinfection competitive release may contribute to the emergence of resistance, it also highlights an additional between-host effect. It is the combination of these two effects, the between-host effect and the within-host effect, that determines the overall influence of coinfection on the emergence of resistance. Therefore, even when competitive release of drug-resistant strains occurs, within an infected individual, it is not necessarily true that coinfection will result in the increased emergence of resistance. These results have important implications for the control of the emergence and spread of drug resistance. PMID:25417787

  18. Influenza A Virus Coinfection through Transmission Can Support High Levels of Reassortment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hui; Li, Lian; White, Maria C.; Steel, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The reassortment of gene segments between influenza viruses increases genomic diversity and plays an important role in viral evolution. We have shown previously that this process is highly efficient within a coinfected cell and, given synchronous coinfection at moderate or high doses, can give rise to ∼60 to 70% of progeny shed from an animal host. Conversely, reassortment in vivo can be rendered undetectable by lowering viral doses or extending the time between infections. One might also predict that seeding of transmitted viruses into different sites within the target tissue could limit subsequent reassortment. Given the potential for stochastic factors to restrict reassortment during natural infection, we sought to determine its efficiency in a host coinfected through transmission. Two scenarios were tested in a guinea pig model, using influenza A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) virus (wt) and a silently mutated variant (var) thereof as parental virus strains. In the first, coinfection was achieved by exposing a naive guinea pig to two cagemates, one infected with wt and the other with var virus. When such exposure led to coinfection, robust reassortment was typically seen, with 50 to 100% of isolates carrying reassortant genomes at one or more time points. In the second scenario, naive guinea pigs were exposed to a cagemate that had been coinoculated with wt and var viruses. Here, reassortment occurred in the coinoculated donor host, multiple variants were transmitted, and reassortants were prevalent in the recipient host. Together, these results demonstrate the immense potential for reassortment to generate viral diversity in nature. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses evolve rapidly under selection due to the generation of viral diversity through two mechanisms. The first is the introduction of random errors into the genome by the viral polymerase, which occurs with a frequency of approximately 10−5 errors/nucleotide replicated. The second is reassortment, or the

  19. Experimental transmission of U.S. scrapie agent by nasal, peritoneal and conjunctival routes to genetically susceptible sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. This study documents incubation periods, pathological findings and distribution of abnormal prion proteins (PrP**Sc) by immunohistochemistry in tissues of genetically susceptible sheep inoculated with U.S. sheep scr...

  20. Potential Animal Reservoirs of Toscana Virus and Coinfections with Leishmania infantum in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dincer, Ender; Gargari, Sepandar; Ozkul, Aykut; Ergunay, Koray

    2015-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV), a sandfly-borne phlebovirus, is an important agent of human meningoencephalitis in the Mediterranean region, for which vertebrates acting as reservoirs have not yet been determined. This study investigates TOSV and Leishmania infections in dogs, cats, sheep, and goats from Adana and Mersin provinces in southeastern Turkey. TOSV neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in 40.4% of the dog and 4% of the goat samples. TOSV RNA was detected in 9.9% of the 252 samples that mainly comprise dogs (96%). Thus, canine species can be suggested as the candidate reservoirs of TOSV. Partial sequences revealed the activity of TOSV genotypes A and B. In two dogs presenting with symptoms of canine leishmaniasis, infections of TOSV genotype B and Leishmania infantum have been documented, describing the first report of coinfections with these agents. PMID:25711610

  1. Relative reproductive success of co-infecting parasite genotypes under intensified within-host competition.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Louhi, Katja-Riikka; Karvonen, Anssi; Rellstab, Christian; Jokela, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    In nature, host individuals are commonly simultaneously infected with more than one genotype of the same parasite species. These co-infecting parasites often interact, which can affect their fitness and shape host-parasite ecology and evolution. Many of such interactions take place through competition for limited host resources. Therefore, variation in ecological factors modifying the host resource level could be important in determining the intensity of competition and the outcome of co-infections. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the relative reproductive success of co-infecting genotypes of the trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum in its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis while experimentally manipulating snail resource level using contrasting feeding treatments (ad libitum food supply, no food). We found that food deprivation constrained the overall parasite within-host reproduction as the release of parasite transmission stages (cercariae) was reduced. This indicates intensified competition among the parasite genotypes. The genotypic composition of the released cercariae, however, was not affected by the feeding treatments. This suggests that in this system, the relative reproductive success of co-infecting parasite genotypes, which is an important component determining their fitness, is robust to variation in ecological factors modifying the strength of resource competition. PMID:26296607

  2. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. PMID:20817517

  3. First Autochthonous Coinfected Anthrax in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Parvaneh; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Aslani, Narges; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous anthrax has a mortality rate of 20% if no antibacterial treatment is applied. The clinical manifestations of cutaneous anthrax are obviously striking, but coinfection may produce atypical lesions and mask the clinical manifestations and proper laboratory diagnosis. Anthrax is known to be more common in the Middle East and Iran is one of the countries in which the zoonotic form of anthrax may still be encountered. We report a case of a 19-years-old male who used to apply Venetian ceruse on his skin. Venetian ceruse (also known as Spirits of Saturn) is an old cosmetic product used for skin whitening traditionally made from sheep's spinal cord. The patient referred to the Referral Laboratory, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, with atypical dermatosis, pronounced pain, and oedema of the affected tissue. It was confirmed by both conventional and molecular analysis that culture was a mixture of Bacillus anthracis and Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone (1000 mg/day for two weeks), gentamicin (1.5-2 mg/kg/day), terbinafine (200 mg/week for one month), and 1% clotrimazole cream (5 weeks) two times per day which resulted in gradual improvement. No relapse could be detected after one-year follow-up. Anthrax infection might present a broader spectrum of symptoms than expected by clinicians. These unfamiliar characteristics may lead to delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment, and higher mortality rate. Clinicians need to be aware of this issue in order to have successful management over this infection. PMID:26451148

  4. First Autochthonous Coinfected Anthrax in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Parvaneh; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Aslani, Narges; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous anthrax has a mortality rate of 20% if no antibacterial treatment is applied. The clinical manifestations of cutaneous anthrax are obviously striking, but coinfection may produce atypical lesions and mask the clinical manifestations and proper laboratory diagnosis. Anthrax is known to be more common in the Middle East and Iran is one of the countries in which the zoonotic form of anthrax may still be encountered. We report a case of a 19-years-old male who used to apply Venetian ceruse on his skin. Venetian ceruse (also known as Spirits of Saturn) is an old cosmetic product used for skin whitening traditionally made from sheep's spinal cord. The patient referred to the Referral Laboratory, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, with atypical dermatosis, pronounced pain, and oedema of the affected tissue. It was confirmed by both conventional and molecular analysis that culture was a mixture of Bacillus anthracis and Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone (1000 mg/day for two weeks), gentamicin (1.5–2 mg/kg/day), terbinafine (200 mg/week for one month), and 1% clotrimazole cream (5 weeks) two times per day which resulted in gradual improvement. No relapse could be detected after one-year follow-up. Anthrax infection might present a broader spectrum of symptoms than expected by clinicians. These unfamiliar characteristics may lead to delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment, and higher mortality rate. Clinicians need to be aware of this issue in order to have successful management over this infection. PMID:26451148

  5. Uterine leiomyoma in a sheep.

    PubMed

    Corpa, J M; Martínez, C M

    2010-08-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumours, which are frequently found in animal species. However, the presence of leiomyomas in domestic ruminants has been rarely reported, especially in sheep. This report describes the pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a leiomyoma in the uterine body of a sheep and discusses the different aetiological causes. This is the first description of a leiomyoma in sheep in Spain. PMID:19210663

  6. Helminth-Tuberculosis Co-infection: An Immunologic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Babu, Subash; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-09-01

    Over 2 billion people worldwide are infected with helminths (worms). Similarly, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) occurs in over a third of the world's population, often with a great degree of geographical overlap with helminth infection. Interestingly, the responses induced by the extracellular helminths and those induced by the intracellular Mtb are often mutually antagonistic and, as a consequence, can result in impaired (or cross-regulated) host responses to either of the infecting pathogens. In this review, we outline the nature of the immune responses induced by infections with helminths and tuberculosis (TB) and then provide data from both experimental models and human studies that illustrate how the immune response engendered by helminth parasites modulates Mtb-specific responses in helminth-TB coinfection. PMID:27501916

  7. Comparative pathology of pulmonary hydatid cysts in macropods and sheep.

    PubMed

    Barnes, T S; Hinds, L A; Jenkins, D J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Lightowlers, M W; Coleman, G T

    2011-01-01

    The development and appearance of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus in experimentally infected tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and sheep during the period 9-17 months post-infection (mpi) were studied. Cysts of unknown age were also examined from mature, naturally infected sheep. The cysts grew more rapidly and became fertile within a shorter period in wallabies compared with sheep. Cysts from the wallabies were larger in absolute size and were larger relative to the size of the lungs. Microscopical examination revealed that wallaby hydatid cysts developed in small bronchioles. Hydatid cysts in the wallabies had a thicker germinal membrane, with more nuclei and a thicker laminated layer (LL), than hydatid cysts of similar age found in sheep. In contrast, the adventitial layer was thicker in the ovine cysts, comprising a hyalinized layer of degenerate collagen and necrotic cellular debris surrounded by a layer of granulation tissue that was largely absent from lesions in the wallabies. Multilocular cysts were present in sheep, but not in wallabies. The greater thickness of the germinal membrane in wallaby cysts suggests greater parasite activity, which may explain the more rapid growth rate in this host, whereas the thicker adventitial layer in sheep cysts may be restrictive to growth while simultaneously protecting the hydatid from the host immune response. These differences in the parasite-host relationship between macropods and sheep may reflect the relatively recent introduction of the parasite into Australia. PMID:20846666

  8. Exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens among Soay sheep (Ovis aries) of the St Kilda archipelago.

    PubMed

    Graham, A L; Nussey, D H; Lloyd-Smith, J O; Longbottom, D; Maley, M; Pemberton, J M; Pilkington, J G; Prager, K C; Smith, L; Watt, K A; Wilson, K; McNEILLY, T N; Brülisauer, F

    2016-07-01

    We assessed evidence of exposure to viruses and bacteria in an unmanaged and long-isolated population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting Hirta, in the St Kilda archipelago, 65 km west of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The sheep harbour many metazoan and protozoan parasites but their exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens is unknown. We tested for herpes viral DNA in leucocytes and found that 21 of 42 tested sheep were infected with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). We also tested 750 plasma samples collected between 1997 and 2010 for evidence of exposure to seven other viral and bacterial agents common in domestic Scottish sheep. We found evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp., with overall seroprevalence of 6·5%. However, serological evidence indicated that the population had not been exposed to border disease, parainfluenza, maedi-visna, or orf viruses, nor to Chlamydia abortus. Some sheep tested positive for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) but, in the absence of retrospective faecal samples, the presence of this infection could not be confirmed. The roles of importation, the pathogen-host interaction, nematode co-infection and local transmission warrant future investigation, to elucidate the transmission ecology and fitness effects of the few viral and bacterial pathogens on Hirta. PMID:26829883

  9. Proteomics approach to understand reduced clearance of mycobacteria and high viral titers during HIV-mycobacteria co-infection.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Rakesh; Dhali, Snigdha; Rizvi, Arshad; Sankati, Swetha; Vemula, Mani Harika; Mahajan, Gaurang; Rapole, Srikanth; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    Environmental mycobacteria, highly prevalent in natural and artificial (including chlorinated municipal water) niches, are emerging as new threat to human health, especially to HIV-infected population. These seemingly harmless non-pathogenic mycobacteria, which are otherwise cleared, establish as opportunistic infections adding to HIV-associated complications. Although immune-evading strategies of pathogenic mycobacteria are known, the mechanisms underlying the early events by which opportunistic mycobacteria establish infection in macrophages and influencing HIV infection are unclear. Proteomics of phagosome-enriched fractions from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mono-infected and HIV-M. bovis BCG co-infected THP-1 cells by LC-MALDI-MS/MS revealed differential distribution of 260 proteins. Validation of the proteomics data showed that HIV co-infection helped the survival of non-pathogenic mycobacteria by obstructing phagosome maturation, promoting lipid biogenesis and increasing intracellular ATP equivalents. In turn, mycobacterial co-infection up-regulated purinergic receptors in macrophages that are known to support HIV entry, explaining increased viral titers during co-infection. The mutualism was reconfirmed using clinically relevant opportunistic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium phlei that exhibited increased survival during co-infection, together with increase in HIV titers. Additionally, the catalogued proteins in the study provide new leads that will significantly add to the understanding of the biology of opportunistic mycobacteria and HIV coalition. PMID:26332641

  10. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  11. The quality of meat from sheep treated with tannin- and saponin-based remedies as a natural strategy for parasite control.

    PubMed

    Brogna, D M R; Tansawat, R; Cornforth, D; Ward, R; Bella, M; Luciano, G; Priolo, A; Villalba, J

    2014-02-01

    Lambs were assigned to four groups of seven and treated as follows for 12 days: control group (BP) was fed beet pulp; group T (tannin remedy) received the BP diet including 80 g/kg of quebracho extract; group S (saponin remedy) received the BP diet including 15 g/kg of quillaja extract; and group C had a free choice between T and S remedies. Lipid oxidation was lower in meat from S lambs compared to T lambs (P<0.05). Among the volatile compounds, lactate was lower in meat from S lambs compared to T animals (P=0.05). Metabolomic analysis showed that the T treatment increased ribose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol concentration in meat (P<0.05), while cholesterol was decreased by S and C treatments. The T treatment increased the concentration of C14:1 cis-9 (P<0.05). These findings indicate that treatments for parasite control containing tannins and saponins do not detrimentally affect sheep meat quality. PMID:24211542

  12. Disease Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Coinfection of the Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J.; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23±0.07; h2LC = 0.17±0.08; h2HC = 0.24±0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99±0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = −0.14±0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32±0.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon

  13. Phosphatic fertiliser poisoning of sheep: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, P J; McCausland, I P; Coup, M R

    1982-11-01

    The toxicity of serpentine phosphate and superphosphate for non-pregnant dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes was investigated by oral dosing. An attempt was made to reproduce a natural episode of poisoning by exposing pregnant and lactating ewes to topdressed pasture. A total dose in the range of 1200 to 1800 g of serpentine phosphate was required to kill two ewes and it was concluded that natural episodes of poisoning with this material are unlikely. The toxic process was similar to that caused by superphosphate. The LD50 of superphosphate was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 6 g/kg and a dose in the range of 200 to 300 g was sufficient to kill most sheep. The apparently greater susceptibility of pregnant and lactating sheep to poisoning suggested by the study of natural outbreaks was not demonstrated in these experiments, but the numbers of experimental animals may have been too small to detect differing susceptibility. The clinical disease resembled that seen in natural episodes; anorexia, diarrhoea, progressive depression and death in a period of 5 to 8 days after the start of dosing. Sublethal doses produced a transient diarrhoea and, in two sheep, a severe wool-break. The principal biochemical changes were hyperphosphataemia and evidence of renal failure (oliguria, uraemia, azotaemia). Gross lesions were not consistently present but included abomasal ulceration and renal cortical swelling and pallor. The histopathological evidence of renal tubular obstruction by flocculant eosinophilic casts was characteristic. PMID:16030836

  14. Co-infection of mallards with low virulence Newcastle disease virus and low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl are considered the natural reservoirs of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) and low virulence Newcastle disease viruses (loNDV). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of co-infections with loNDV and LPAIV on the infectivity and excretion of these viruses in ...

  15. Variability of the Sheep Lung Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Steven; Pollock, Jolinda; Tennant, Peter; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequencing technologies have recently facilitated the characterization of bacterial communities present in lungs during health and disease. However, there is currently a dearth of information concerning the variability of such data in health both between and within subjects. This study seeks to examine such variability using healthy adult sheep as our model system. Protected specimen brush samples were collected from three spatially disparate segmental bronchi of six adult sheep (age, 20 months) on three occasions (day 0, 1 month, and 3 months). To further explore the spatial variability of the microbiotas, more-extensive brushing samples (n = 16) and a throat swab were taken from a separate sheep. The V2 and V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. DNA sequences were analyzed using the mothur software package. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacterial DNA. Some sheep lungs contained dramatically different bacterial communities at different sampling sites, whereas in others, airway microbiotas appeared similar across the lung. In our spatial variability study, we observed clustering related to the depth within the lung from which samples were taken. Lung depth refers to increasing distance from the glottis, progressing in a caudal direction. We conclude that both host influence and local factors have impacts on the composition of the sheep lung microbiota. IMPORTANCE Until recently, it was assumed that the lungs were a sterile environment which was colonized by microbes only during disease. However, recent studies using sequencing technologies have found that there is a small population of bacteria which exists in the lung during health, referred to as the “lung microbiota.” In this study, we characterize the variability of the lung microbiotas of healthy sheep. Sheep not only are economically important animals but also are often used as large animal models of human

  16. HIV, HCV & Leprosy co-infection.

    PubMed

    George, A; Kanish, B

    2014-01-01

    In the era where Hansen's disease has achieved elimination status in India, co-infection with HIV can possibly cause a resurgence of this disease. A young intravenous drug abuser was found to have triple affliction, where HIV and HCV infection were discovered on testing after the patient was clinically diagnosed to have Hansen's disease. To our knowledge, there has been no case reported where leprosy was seen with HIV and HCV infection. We are reporting a patient with lepromatous Hansen's disease in type 2 reaction in whom HIV and HCV was incidentally diagnosed. PMID:26118224

  17. Guidelines on the treatment of chronic coinfection by Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV outside endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Molina, José A; Rodríguez-Guardado, Azucena; Soriano, Antonio; Pinazo, María-Jesús; Carrilero, Bartolomé; García-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Salas, Joaquín; Torrús, Diego; Soler-Ferrer, Cristina; Puente, Sabino; Haro-González, Juan Luís; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Gascon, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    As a result of population migration, Chagas disease is no longer limited to the North and South American continents. In HIV-infected patients, chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi behaves as an opportunistic infection in severely immunosuppressed patients and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Unlike other opportunistic infections, information on the natural history, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Chagas disease is scarce. Spain has the highest number of cases of Chagas disease outside the North and South American continents, and coinfection with HIV is increasingly prevalent. In this article, the Spanish Society for Tropical Medicine and International Health (Sociedad Española de Medicina Tropical y Salud Internacional) reviews the current situation of coinfection with HIV and T. cruzi infection and provides guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention in areas where Chagas disease is not endemic. It also identifies areas of uncertainty where additional research is necessary. PMID:22189148

  18. Can SHEEP prevent wildfires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfires have been shown to exhibit power law frequency-magnitude statistics with non-cumulative slope, or scaling exponent, b between approximately 1.3 < b < 2.0. Land management practice appear to have increased the rate of large fires (shallower slopes, smaller b values) in some regions. Ironically, aggressive wildfire suppression may be one of the most pernicious culprits. In order to study this problem, we present an agent based variation to the venerable Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model. In addition to conventional fires, we introduce a number of simulated herbivorous endemic and environmental process (SHEEP) agents to the lattice. SHEEP fracture and trim large clusters to produce steeper frequency-size distributions of fuel clusters and model fires. We discuss the role of cluster shape, or fractal dimension, in the model, and we propose several interpretations of the SHEEP agent. Of particular interest, we discuss the effects of fire suppression as well as wildlife and livestock populations with respect to wildfire hazard.

  19. The British HIV Association national audit on the management of subjects co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B/C.

    PubMed

    Garvey, L; Curtis, H; Brook, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to survey current service provision and adherence to the British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the management of HIV and hepatitis B/C co-infected patients in the UK. Sites were invited to complete a survey of local care arrangements for co-infected patients. A case-note audit of all co-infected attendees during a six-month period in 2009 was performed. Data including demographics, clinical parameters, hepatitis disease status, antiretroviral and hepatitis B/C therapy were collected. Using BHIVA guidelines as audit standards, the proportion of sites and subjects meeting each standard was calculated. One-hundred and forty sites (75%) responded and data from 973 eligible co-infected patients were submitted. Approximately a third of sites reported not re-checking hepatitis serology or vaccination titres annually. Of all co-infected patients, 122 (13%) were neither vaccinated nor immune to hepatitis A and 26 (5%) of patients with hepatitis C were neither vaccinated nor naturally immune to hepatitis B. Of HBsAg-positive subjects, 25 (6%) were receiving lamivudine as the sole drug with antihepatitis B activity. In the UK, the management of HIV and hepatitis B/C co-infection remains highly variable. Optimizing the care of this high-risk patient group is a priority. PMID:21464457

  20. "Ménage à Trois": the evolutionary interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Armezzani, Alessia; Varela, Mariana; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo; Arnaud, Frédérick

    2014-12-01

    Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium. PMID:25502326

  1. Incidence and risk factors for steatosis progression in adults coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Woreta, Tinsay A.; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Brown, Todd T.; Higgins, Yvonne; Thomas, David L.; Torbenson, Michael S.; Moore, Richard D.; Sulkowski, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Hepatic steatosis is a common histological finding in patients that are co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), although little is known about its natural history. We prospectively examined the natural history of steatosis in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV that attended an urban HIV clinic. Methods The study cohort consisted of 222 co-infected patients (87% African American, 94% with HCV genotype 1 infection) who had at least 2 liver biopsies performed between 1993 and 2008. Biopsies were scored by a single pathologist; samples were classified as having trivial (< 5% of hepatocytes affected) or significant (>5%) levels of fat (steatosis). We characterized progression to significant levels of fat among patients whose first biopsy samples had no or trivial levels of fat, and regression among those with significant fat, using logistic regression. Results Initial biopsies from most patients (88%) had no or trivial amounts of fat. Among second biopsy samples, 74% had no or trivial fat and 13% had significant amounts of fat. The strongest risk factors for steatosis progression were alcohol abuse and overweight/obesity; cumulative exposure to anti-retroviral therapy between biopsies and high counts of CD4+ T cells were associated with reduced progression of steatosis. Among the 28 patients whose initial biopsy had significant fat levels, most (75%) regressed. Conclusions Antiretroviral therapy and high counts of CD4+ T cells are associated with reduced progression of steatosis in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. Efforts to diagnose and prevent steatosis should focus on persons with high body mass index and excessive alcohol intake. PMID:21134375

  2. Comparison of two US sheep scrapie isolates supports identification as separate strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats. There are different strains of sheep scrapie that are associated with unique molecular, transmission, and phenotype characteristics, but very little is known about the potential presence of scrapie str...

  3. Characterization of a U.S. Sheep Scrapie Isolate with Short Incubation Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a previous study it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with US scrapie inoculum (No. 13-7) developed terminal di...

  4. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  5. Viral Co-infection and Leprosy Outcomes: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Paulo R. L.; Machado, Lídia M.; Shibuya, Mayume; Rego, Jamile; Johnson, Warren D.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of the host immunity in determining leprosy clinical forms and complications is well recognized, implying that changes in the immune status may interfere with several aspects of the disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of viral co-infections and associated immunological changes will have a clinical impact on leprosy outcomes. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on the development of reactions, neuritis, neuropathy and relapses. Methodology/Principal Findings Cohort study in 245 leprosy subjects from Bahia, Brazil. Patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until at least the end of multidrug therapy. Viral co-infection was detected in 36 out of the 245 patients (14.7%). Specific co-infection rates were 10.6% for HBV, 2.9% for HIV, 2.5% for HTLV-1 and 0.8% for HCV. All four groups of co-infected patients had higher rates of neuritis and nerve function impairment compared to non co-infected leprosy subjects. The relapse rate was also higher in the co-infected group (8.3%) versus patients without co-infection (1.9%); relative risk 4.37, 95% confidence interval 1.02–18.74. Conclusions/Significance Leprosy patients should be screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV-1 co-infections. Besides contributing to better health care, this measure will facilitate the early detection of severe complications through targeting of higher risk patients. PMID:26267882

  6. Transmission dynamics of an insect-specific flavivirus in a naturally infected Culex pipiens laboratory colony and effects of co-infection on vector competence for West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Bethany G.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J.; Eisen, Lars; Moore, Chester G.; Blair, Carol D.

    2012-01-01

    We established a laboratory colony of Culex pipiens mosquitoes from eggs collected in Colorado and discovered that mosquitoes in the colony are naturally infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific flavivirus. In this study we examined transmission dynamics of CxFV and effects of persistent CxFV infection on vector competence for West Nile virus (WNV). We found that vertical transmission is the primary mechanism for persistence of CxFV in Cx. pipiens, with venereal transmission potentially playing a minor role. Vector competence experiments indicated possible early suppression of WNV replication by persistent CxFV infection in Cx. pipiens. This is the first description of insect-specific flavivirus transmission dynamics in a naturally infected mosquito colony and the observation of delayed dissemination of superinfecting WNV suggests that the presence of CxFV may impact the intensity of enzootic transmission of WNV and the risk of human exposure to this important pathogen. PMID:22425062

  7. Scrapie resistance in ARQ sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in the ovine prion protein amino acid sequence influences scrapie progression, with sheep homozygous for A**136 R**154 Q**171 considered susceptible. This study examined the association of survival time of scrapie-exposed ARQ sheep with variation elsewhere in ovine prion gene. Four single ...

  8. Scrapie resistance in ARQ sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of sheep to classical scrapie is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the ovine prion gene (PRNP), especially at amino acid residues 136, 154 and 171. Sheep with the A136R154R171 haplotype are considered resistant, while those homozygous for A136R154Q171 are susceptible. How...

  9. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  10. Proteome of Aedes aegypti in response to infection and coinfection with microsporidian parasites

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alison B; Agnew, Philip; Noel, Valérie; Demettre, Edith; Seveno, Martial; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Michalakis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Hosts are frequently infected with more than one parasite or pathogen at any one time, but little is known as to how they respond to multiple immune challenges compared to those involving single infections. We investigated the proteome of Aedes aegypti larvae following infection with either Edhazardia aedis or Vavraia culicis, and coinfections involving both. They are both obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum microsporidia and infect natural populations of Ae. aegypti. The results found some proteins only showing modified abundance in response to infections involving E. aedis, while others were only differentially abundant when infections involved V. culicis. Some proteins only responded with modified abundance to the coinfection condition, while others were differentially abundant in response to all three types of infection. As time since infection increased, the response to each of the single parasite infections diverged, while the response to the E. aedis and coinfection treatments converged. Some of the proteins differentially abundant in response to infection were identified. They included two vacuolar ATPases, proteins known to have a role in determining the infection success of intracellular parasites. This result suggests microsporidia could influence the infection success of other intracellular pathogens infecting vector species of mosquito, including viruses, Plasmodium and Wolbachia. PMID:22837817

  11. Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

  12. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  13. Simazine toxicosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Allender, W J; Glastonbury, J W

    1992-10-01

    A case of simazine toxicosis in sheep was investigated. Affected animals exhibited generalized muscle tremors which progressed to mild tetany followed by collapse of the hind legs. Other signs included a short prancing gait with head tucked in a similar manner to that of a show pony. Death occurred within 2 to 3 d of the appearance of clinical signs. Mild to acute myocardial degeneration was evident; the livers had mild to acute hepatic fatty change. The levels of simazine found in livers varied from less than 0.2 mg/kg to almost 2 mg/kg in the worst affected animals. PMID:1455610

  14. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease. PMID:21143669

  15. Some observations on sheep sarcoptic mange in Tehran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Bahonar, A R

    2009-03-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in 278 sheep from 12 fatling flocks. The sheep presented crusted skin lesions initially appear on the lips or nostrils, the lesion on nostrils also extend towards around the eyes, the supraorbital fossae and in some cases over entire face. The infested male lambs by mating behavior in fatling flocks caused transmitting the infection to fat tail area and scrotum. Histopathological study of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum and mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Attempts to eliminate S. scabiei var. ovis were made in 3 naturally infested sheep herds, by two dippings with two weeks interval with Amitraz, Cypermetrin and Prompetamphos. The results of this study indicate that acaricidal treatment of S. scabiei var. ovis in 3 naturally infested herds was successful, but a few cases of reinfestation were found in each treated group. PMID:18626781

  16. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Norman, Francesca F.; Cruz, Israel; Alvar, Jorge; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%–6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region. PMID:25144380

  17. Impact of bacterial coinfection on clinical outcomes in pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Ishida, T; Tachibana, H; Ito, Y; Ito, A; Hashimoto, T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bacterial coinfection on patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence, clinical features, microbial distributions, and outcomes of patients with bacterial coinfection in a cohort of 433 hospitalized patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Eighty-five patients (19.6 %) were diagnosed with bacterial coinfection; the most frequent pathogens were Haemophilus influenzae (25 patients, 33.3 %), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (15 patients, 20.0 %), and Moraxella catarrhalis (13 patients, 17.3 %). The CURB-65 score and pneumonia severity index (PSI) were significantly higher in patients with bacterial coinfection (both P < 0.001). In addition, the proportion of patients with bacterial coinfection who met the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) severe pneumonia criteria was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified three risk factors for bacterial coinfection in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia: alcoholism (odds ratio [OR], 5.12; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI), 1.60-16.4; P = 0.006), hospitalization for 2 days or more within 90 days preceding admission (OR, 2.02; 95 % CI, 1.03-3.98; P = 0.041), and residence in a nursing home or extended care facility (OR, 3.22; 95 % CI, 1.48-6.97; P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis for 30-day mortality showed that bacterial coinfection was a significant adverse prognostic factor (OR, 2.50; 95 % CI, 1.13-5.53; P = 0.023), independent of IDSA/ATS severe pneumonia, PSI, or healthcare-associated pneumonia. In conclusion, bacterial coinfection may have an adverse impact on severity and outcomes of pneumococcal pneumonia. PMID:26059041

  18. The epidemiological consequences of leprosy-tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, N; Voss-Böhme, A

    2013-02-01

    While in antiquity both leprosy and tuberculosis were prevalent in Europe, leprosy declined thereafter and, simultaneously, tuberculosis prevalence increased. Since both diseases are caused by mycobacterial infections, it has been suggested that there might be a causal relationship between both epidemics. Chaussinand observed the inverse prevalence of leprosy and tuberculosis and suggested that individuals with a latent tuberculosis infection are protected from acquiring leprosy. His cross-immunity hypothesis has been countered more recently by a co-infection hypothesis. The latter suggestion, proposed by Donoghue, states that people being infected with multi-bacillary leprosy are more susceptible to tuberculosis, which leads to increased mortality from the disease. This study utilizes mathematical modeling to explore the epidemiological consequences of the co-infection hypothesis for realistically confined parameter values. While the co-infection hypothesis appears plausible at first glance, a second thought reveals that it comprises also substantial consequences for tuberculosis epidemics: if co-infection raises the mortality rate above that of purely tuberculosis infected persons, then tuberculosis might as well be eradicated by leprosy. It is the specific interplay of both increased susceptibility towards tuberculosis and increased death rate when co-infected that determines the epidemiological fate. As a result of this analysis, it is shown that there is a large parameter region where the eventual disappearance of leprosy could indeed be explained by co-infection. This parameter region is considerably larger than that predicted by the cross-immunity hypothesis. This shows that the co-infection hypothesis should be considered a significant alternative to the cross-immunity hypothesis. The time scales at which the effects of co-infection are observed depend critically on the spatial distribution of the individuals but reach epidemiologically realistic values for

  19. Tick-borne pathogens and associated co-infections in ticks collected from domestic animals in central China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks can transmit a number of pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Tick borne diseases (TBDs), which may lead to organ failure and death have been recently reported in China. 98.75% of the total cases (>1000) in Henan provinces have been reported in Xinyang city. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the fauna of ticks and detect the potential pathogens in ticks in Xinyang, the region of central China. Methods Ticks were collected from 10 villages of Xinyang from April to December 2012, from domestic animals including sheep, cattle and dogs. Then identification of ticks and detection of tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, were undertaken by using polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) and sequence analysis. Moreover, the co-infection patterns of various pathogens were compared among locations where ticks were collected. Results A total of 308 ticks were collected. Two species of Ixodidae were found, namely Haemaphysalis longicornis (96.75%) and Rhipicephalus microplus (3.25%). Five genera of pathogens, namely Theileria spp. (3.25%), Anaplasma spp. (2.92%), Babesia spp. (1.95%), Ehrlichia spp. (2.92%) and Rickettsia spp. (0.65%), were detected in 7 villages. Co-infections by two pathogens were diagnosed in 11.11% of all infected ticks. Conclusions Both human and animal pathogens were abundant in ticks in the study areas. Humans and animals in these regions were at a high risk of exposure to piroplasmosis, since piroplasm had the highest rates of infection and co-infection in positive ticks. PMID:24886497

  20. Reciprocal immunomodulation in a schistosome and hepatotropic virus coinfection model.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Matthew J; Buchatska, Olena; Ashton, Miranda; Montoya, Maria; Bickle, Quentin D; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-11-15

    Human coinfection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni and hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses is associated with increased hepatic viral burdens and severe liver pathology. In this study we developed a murine S. mansoni/lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) coinfection model that reproduces the enhanced viral replication and liver pathology observed in human coinfections, and used this model to explore the mechanisms involved. Viral coinfection during the Th2-dominated granulomatous phase of the schistosome infection resulted in induction of a strong LCMV-specific T cell response, with infiltration of high numbers of LCMV-specific IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ cells into the liver. This was associated with suppression of production of the Th2 cytokines dominant during S. mansoni infection and a rapid increase in morbidity, linked to hepatotoxicity. Interestingly, the liver of coinfected mice was extremely susceptible to viral replication. This correlated with a reduced intrahepatic type I IFN response following virus infection. Schistosome egg Ags were found to suppress the type I IFN response induced in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. These results suggest that suppression of the antiviral type I IFN response by schistosome egg Ags in vivo predisposes the liver to enhanced viral replication with ensuing immunopathological consequences, findings that may be paralleled in human schistosome/hepatotropic virus coinfections. PMID:16272278

  1. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  2. Comparison between histopathologic features of leprosy in reaction lesions in HIV coinfected and non-coinfected patients*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marília Brasil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy and HIV are diseases that have a major impact on public health in Brazil. Patients coinfected with both diseases, appear to be at higher risk to develop leprosy reactions. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to describe the histopathological aspects of cutaneous lesions during reactional states in a group of patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection, compared to patients with leprosy, without coinfection. METHODS Two groups were established: group 1 comprised of 40 patients coinfected with HIV-leprosy; group 2, comprised of 107 patients with leprosy only. Patients presenting reactional states of leprosy had their lesions biopsied and comparatively evaluated. RESULTS Reversal reaction was the most frequent feature in both groups, with dermis edema as the most common histopathological finding. Giant cells were seen in all group 1 histopathological examinations. Dermis edema was the most common finding in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. CONCLUSION Few histopathological differences were found in both groups, with reversal reaction as the most significant one, although this fact should be analyzed considering the predominant BT clinical form in the coinfected group and BB form in the group without HIV. Larger prospective studies in patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection are needed to confirm and broaden these results. PMID:25672296

  3. Pharmacokinetics of albendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Marriner, S E; Bogan, J A

    1980-07-01

    The concentrations of albendazole and its two major metabolites, the sulfoxide and sulfone, were measured in plasma and in ruminal and abomasal fluid of three sheep (surgically prepared with permanent ruminal and abomasal cannulae) orally given albendazole as a suspension at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg. Albendazole was not detectable in plasma at any time in one sheep (detection limit, 0.02 micrograms/ml) and in the other sheep, only transiently detectable. Albendazole sulfoxide was detectable in plasma and in abomasal fluid at mean peak concentrations of 3.2 and 26.2 micrograms/ml, respectively, 20 hours after administration. It is probable that much of the anthelmintic activity of albendazole in sheep is due to the metabolically formed sulfoxide and sulfone. PMID:7436109

  4. Culex Flavivirus and West Nile Virus Mosquito Coinfection and Positive Ecological Association in Chicago, United States

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Christina M.; Cerutti, Francesco; Anderson, Tavis K.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Walker, Edward D.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Brawn, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus globally distributed in mosquitoes of the genus Culex. CxFV was positively associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a case–control study of 268 mosquito pools from an endemic focus of WNV transmission in Chicago, United States. Specifically, WNV-positive Culex mosquito pools were four times more likely also to be infected with CxFV than were spatiotemporally matched WNV-negative pools. In addition, mosquito pools from residential sites characterized by dense housing and impermeable surfaces were more likely to be infected with CxFV than were pools from nearby urban green spaces. Further, 6/15 (40%) WNV-positive individual mosquitoes were also CxFV positive, demonstrating that both viruses can coinfect mosquitoes in nature. Phylogenetic analysis of CxFV from Chicago demonstrated a pattern similar to WNV, consisting of low global viral diversity and lack of geographic clustering. These results illustrate a positive ecological association between CxFV and WNV, and that coinfection of individual mosquitoes can occur naturally in areas of high flaviviral transmission. These conclusions represent a challenge to the hypothesis of super-infection exclusion in the CxFV/WNV system, whereby an established infection with one virus may interfere with secondary viral infection with a similar virus. This study suggests that infection with insect-specific flaviviruses such as CxFV may not exclude secondary infection with genetically distinct flaviviruses such as WNV, and that both viruses can naturally coinfect mosquitoes that are epidemic bridge vectors of WNV to humans. PMID:21254845

  5. Experimental transmission of scrapie agent to susceptible sheep by intralingual and intracerebral inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. This study documents incubation periods, pathological findings and distribution of abnormal prion proteins (PrP**res) by immunohistochemistry in tissues of genetical...

  6. Investigation of transferrin polymorphism in Garole sheep.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devesh K; Taraphder, Subhash; Sahoo, Ajit K; Dhara, K C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April-September, 2009. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined through SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin type was controlled by five codominant alleles (TfA, TfB, TfC TfD and TfE) in Garole sheep. These five alleles, because of co-dominant nature of inheritance, determined the occurrence of nine transferrin genotypes in the analyzed flock. Four (TfAA, TfBB, TfCC and TfDD) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (TfAD, TfBC, TfBD, TfCD and TfDE) heterozygous. It was found that the TfDD genotype (0.263) was predominant while TfDE genotype (0.042) was least common in the analyzed flock. Frequencies of other genotypes were as: TfCD(0.242), TfBD(0.126), TfCC(0.084), TfBB(0.074), TfAA(0.063), TfAD and TfBC (0.053 for each genotype ) in whole population. From the result it was found that in whole population combined, the heterozygotic genotypic frequency (0.516) was more than that of homozygotic genotypic frequency (0.484). Considerable variations were recognized in the frequencies of transferrin alleles. In the whole population frequencies of transferrin alleles were found to be TfA = 0.089, TfB = 0.163, TfC = 0.232, TfD = 0.495 and TfE = 0.021. Transferrin system has shown an absence of genetic equilibrium among the analyzed herd (chi2 value = 51.31). In conclusion, there were polymorphism in Transferrin types and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the five alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Garole sheep. PMID:20349135

  7. Prion genotypes of scrapie-infected Canadian sheep 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Noel P.; O’Rourke, Katherine I.; Feng, Yuqin; Rendulich, Jasmine; DiFruscio, Cathleen; Balachandran, Aru

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the genetics of the prion protein gene (PRNP) at codons 136, 154, and 171 for sheep diagnosed with naturally acquired classical scrapie in Canada between 1998 and 2008. Genotyping analysis was performed on 249 sheep with confirmed classical scrapie infection representing 98 flocks from 6 provinces. A further case-control analysis of 3 of these flocks compared the genotypes between infected sheep (n = 72) and those of their healthy flockmates (n = 1990). The incidence of classical scrapie in the Canadian sheep population was highly associated with the ARQ haplotype (91.8%) and the ARQ/ARQ genotype (91.6%). In addition, the ARQ haplotype was found at significantly higher frequency in scrapie-infected sheep when compared with their healthy flockmates. Comparison with other published data suggests that the scrapie risk of PRNP genotypes differs between Canada and countries where the VRQ allele is associated with the highest susceptibility to infection. PMID:20885849

  8. Major Histocompatibility Complex Heterozygote Superiority during Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Erin E.; Penn, Dustin J.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2003-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a critical role in immune recognition, and many alleles confer susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases. How these deleterious alleles persist in populations is controversial. One hypothesis postulates that MHC heterozygote superiority emerges over multiple infections because MHC-mediated resistance is generally dominant and many allele-specific susceptibilities to pathogens will be masked by the resistant allele in heterozygotes. We tested this hypothesis by using experimental coinfections with Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium C5TS) and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in MHC-congenic mouse strains where one haplotype was resistant to Salmonella and the other was resistant to TMEV. MHC heterozygotes were superior to both homozygotes in 7 out of 8 comparisons (P = 0.0024), and the mean standardized pathogen load of heterozygotes was reduced by 41% over that of homozygotes (P = 0.01). In contrast, no heterozygote superiority was observed when the MHC haplotype combinations had similar susceptibility profiles to the two pathogens. This is the first experimental evidence for MHC heterozygote superiority against multiple pathogens, a mechanism that would contribute to the evolution of MHC diversity and explain the persistence of alleles conferring susceptibility to disease. PMID:12654829

  9. Coinfections of the Respiratory Tract: Viral Competition for Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pinky, Lubna; Dobrovolny, Hana M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that simultaneous infection of the respiratory tract with at least two viruses is common in hospitalized patients, although it is not clear whether these infections are more or less severe than single virus infections. We use a mathematical model to study the dynamics of viral coinfection of the respiratory tract in an effort to understand the kinetics of these infections. Specifically, we use our model to investigate coinfections of influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, and human metapneumovirus. Our study shows that during coinfections, one virus can block another simply by being the first to infect the available host cells; there is no need for viral interference through immune response interactions. We use the model to calculate the duration of detectable coinfection and examine how it varies as initial viral dose and time of infection are varied. We find that rhinovirus, the fastest-growing virus, reduces replication of the remaining viruses during a coinfection, while parainfluenza virus, the slowest-growing virus is suppressed in the presence of other viruses. PMID:27196110

  10. “Ménage à Trois”: The Evolutionary Interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Armezzani, Alessia; Varela, Mariana; Spencer, Thomas E.; Palmarini, Massimo; Arnaud, Frédérick

    2014-01-01

    Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium. PMID:25502326

  11. Allelic frequency and genotypes of prion protein at codon 136 and 171 in Iranian Ghezel sheep breeds

    PubMed Central

    Zadeh, Reza Ashrafi; Omrani, Mir Davood; Ramezani, Fatemeh; Amniattalab, Amir

    2011-01-01

    PrP genotypes at codons 136 and 171 in 120 Iranian Ghezel sheep breeds were studied using allele-specific PCR amplification and compared with the well-known sheep breeds in North America, the United States and Europe. The frequency of V allele and VV genotype at codon 136 of Ghezel sheep breed was significantly lower than AA and AV. At codon 171, the frequency of allele H was significantly lower than Q and R. Despite the similarities of PrP genotypes at codons 136 and 171 between Iranian Ghezel sheep breeds and some of the studied breeds, significant differences were found with others. Planning of effective breeding control and successful eradication of susceptible genotypes in Iranian Ghezel sheep breeds will not be possible unless the susceptibility of various genotypes in Ghezel sheep breeds to natural or experimental scrapie has been elucidated. PMID:21778818

  12. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further. PMID:27283855

  13. Hepatitis Aand E Co-Infection with Worst Outcome.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Anjum; Cheema, Huma Arshad; Assiri, Asaad

    2016-06-01

    Infections are still a major problem in the developing countries like Pakistan because of poor sewage disposal and economic restraints. Acute viral hepatitis like Aand E are not uncommon in pediatric age group because of unhygienic food handling and poor sewage disposal, but majority recovers well without any complications. Co-infections are rare occurrences and physicians need to be well aware while managing such conditions to avoid worst outcome. Co-infection with hepatitis Aand E is reported occasionally in the literature, however, other concurrent infections such as hepatitis A with Salmonellaand hepatotropic viruses like viral hepatitis B and C are present in the literature. Co-infections should be kept in consideration when someone presents with atypical symptoms or unusual disease course like this presented case. We report here a girl child who had acute hepatitis A and E concurrent infections and presented with hepatic encephalopathy and had worst outcome, despite all the supportive measures being taken. PMID:27376213

  14. Coinfection of Schistosoma Species with Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Viruses.

    PubMed

    Abruzzi, Amy; Fried, Bernard; Alikhan, Sukaina B

    2016-01-01

    in chronic hepatitis with greater cirrhosis as well as higher mortality. Much of the same was also observed with respect to HCV, where coinfection with Schistosoma was associated with a reduced ability to spontaneously resolve the viral infection and more often resulted in rapid fibrosis as well as higher mortality. Furthermore, two of these studies which were fully comparative in nature, support the supposition that there is a synergistic association between Schistosoma-HCV for both liver fibrosis and mortality. Immunological studies, all conducted on HCV, also generally seem to support this. The results of our research argue for greater primary prevention for both HBV and HCV in Schistosoma-endemic populations. Although no vaccine currently exists for HCV as it does for HBV, additional steps can still be taken to reduce transmission in high-risk populations. Greater use of the HBV vaccine is particularly advisable. Finally, additional observational, longitudinal studies conducted on human populations that are fully comparative in nature could help answer some of the remaining questions on both Schistosoma-HBV as well as Schistosoma-HCV coinfections. Some of these include the role of active versus past schistosomal infections, the role of genetic variants, as well as the effect of coinfection on treatment. Future studies should make a particular effort to use a sufficient sample size to ensure adequate statistical power, which was not often properly considered in many of the studies we reviewed for this paper. PMID:27015949

  15. Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: the first 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Alvar, J; Cañavate, C; Gutiérrez-Solar, B; Jiménez, M; Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Molina, R; Moreno, J

    1997-01-01

    Over 850 Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases have been recorded, the majority in Europe, where 7 to 17% of HIV-positive individuals with fever have amastigotes, suggesting that Leishmania-infected individuals without symptoms will express symptoms of leishmaniasis if they become immunosuppressed. However, there are indirect reasons and statistical data demonstrating that intravenous drug addiction plays a specific role in Leishmania infantum transmission: an anthroponotic cycle complementary to the zoonotic one has been suggested. Due to anergy in patients with coinfection, L. infantum dermotropic zymodemes are isolated from patient viscera and a higher L. infantum phenotypic variability is seen. Moreover, insect trypanosomatids that are currently considered nonpathogenic have been isolated from coinfected patients. HIV infection and Leishmania infection each induce important analogous immunological changes whose effects are multiplied if they occur concomitantly, such as a Th1-to-Th2 response switch; however, the consequences of the viral infection predominate. In fact, a large proportion of coinfected patients have no detectable anti-Leishmania antibodies. The microorganisms share target cells, and it has been demonstrated in vitro how L. infantum induces the expression of latent HIV-1. Bone marrow culture is the most useful diagnostic technique, but it is invasive. Blood smears and culture are good alternatives. PCR, xenodiagnosis, and circulating-antigen detection are available only in specialized laboratories. The relationship with low levels of CD4+ cells conditions the clinical presentation and evolution of disease. Most patients have visceral leishmaniasis, but asymptomatic, cutaneous, mucocutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis can be produced by L. infantum. The digestive and respiratory tracts are frequently parasitized. The course of coinfection is marked by a high relapse rate. There is a lack

  16. Brucellosis in captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4.

    PubMed

    Kreeger, Terry J; Cook, Walter E; Edwards, William H; Cornish, Todd

    2004-04-01

    Nine (four female, five male) captive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fetus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. Brucella abortus biovar 4 was cultured in all bighorn sheep from a variety of tissues, including testes/epididymides, mammary gland, and lymph nodes. All bighorn sheep tested were positive on a variety of standard Brucella serologic tests. This is the first report of brucellosis caused by B. abortus in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. It also provides evidence that bighorn sheep develop many of the manifestations ascribed to this disease and that infection can occur from natural exposure to an aborted fetus from another species. Wildlife managers responsible for bighorn sheep populations sympatric with Brucella-infected elk or bison (Bison bison) should be cognizant of the possibility of this disease in bighorn sheep. PMID:15362833

  17. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n−3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n−6) into n−3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  = 925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n−3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n−6/n−3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

  18. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  19. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  20. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection.

    PubMed

    Randall, J; Cable, J; Guschina, I A; Harwood, J L; Lello, J

    2013-10-22

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  1. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; Harwood, J. L.; Lello, J.

    2013-01-01

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  2. Parasite Co-Infections and Their Impact on Survival of Indigenous Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thumbi, Samuel M.; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Poole, Elizabeth Jane; Kiara, Henry; Toye, Philip G.; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary Ndila; Conradie, Ilana; Jennings, Amy; Handel, Ian Graham; Coetzer, Jacobus Andries Wynand; Steyl, Johan C. A.; Hanotte, Olivier; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    In natural populations, individuals may be infected with multiple distinct pathogens at a time. These pathogens may act independently or interact with each other and the host through various mechanisms, with resultant varying outcomes on host health and survival. To study effects of pathogens and their interactions on host survival, we followed 548 zebu cattle during their first year of life, determining their infection and clinical status every 5 weeks. Using a combination of clinical signs observed before death, laboratory diagnostic test results, gross-lesions on post-mortem examination, histo-pathology results and survival analysis statistical techniques, cause-specific aetiology for each death case were determined, and effect of co-infections in observed mortality patterns. East Coast fever (ECF) caused by protozoan parasite Theileria parva and haemonchosis were the most important diseases associated with calf mortality, together accounting for over half (52%) of all deaths due to infectious diseases. Co-infection with Trypanosoma species increased the hazard for ECF death by 6 times (1.4–25; 95% CI). In addition, the hazard for ECF death was increased in the presence of Strongyle eggs, and this was burden dependent. An increase by 1000 Strongyle eggs per gram of faeces count was associated with a 1.5 times (1.4–1.6; 95% CI) increase in the hazard for ECF mortality. Deaths due to haemonchosis were burden dependent, with a 70% increase in hazard for death for every increase in strongyle eggs per gram count of 1000. These findings have important implications for disease control strategies, suggesting a need to consider co-infections in epidemiological studies as opposed to single-pathogen focus, and benefits of an integrated approach to helminths and East Coast fever disease control. PMID:24586220

  3. Parasite co-infections and their impact on survival of indigenous cattle.

    PubMed

    Thumbi, Samuel M; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Poole, Elizabeth Jane; Kiara, Henry; Toye, Philip G; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary Ndila; Conradie, Ilana; Jennings, Amy; Handel, Ian Graham; Coetzer, Jacobus Andries Wynand; Steyl, Johan C A; Hanotte, Olivier; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-01-01

    In natural populations, individuals may be infected with multiple distinct pathogens at a time. These pathogens may act independently or interact with each other and the host through various mechanisms, with resultant varying outcomes on host health and survival. To study effects of pathogens and their interactions on host survival, we followed 548 zebu cattle during their first year of life, determining their infection and clinical status every 5 weeks. Using a combination of clinical signs observed before death, laboratory diagnostic test results, gross-lesions on post-mortem examination, histo-pathology results and survival analysis statistical techniques, cause-specific aetiology for each death case were determined, and effect of co-infections in observed mortality patterns. East Coast fever (ECF) caused by protozoan parasite Theileria parva and haemonchosis were the most important diseases associated with calf mortality, together accounting for over half (52%) of all deaths due to infectious diseases. Co-infection with Trypanosoma species increased the hazard for ECF death by 6 times (1.4-25; 95% CI). In addition, the hazard for ECF death was increased in the presence of Strongyle eggs, and this was burden dependent. An increase by 1000 Strongyle eggs per gram of faeces count was associated with a 1.5 times (1.4-1.6; 95% CI) increase in the hazard for ECF mortality. Deaths due to haemonchosis were burden dependent, with a 70% increase in hazard for death for every increase in strongyle eggs per gram count of 1000. These findings have important implications for disease control strategies, suggesting a need to consider co-infections in epidemiological studies as opposed to single-pathogen focus, and benefits of an integrated approach to helminths and East Coast fever disease control. PMID:24586220

  4. Increased Immune Response Variability during Simultaneous Viral Coinfection Leads to Unpredictability in CD8 T Cell Immunity and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Laurie L.; Cornberg, Markus; Chen, Alex T.; Emonet, Sebastien; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT T cell memory is usually studied in the context of infection with a single pathogen in naive mice, but how memory develops during a coinfection with two pathogens, as frequently occurs in nature or after vaccination, is far less studied. Here, we questioned how the competition between immune responses to two viruses in the same naive host would influence the development of CD8 T cell memory and subsequent disease outcome upon challenge. Using two different models of coinfection, including the well-studied lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) and Pichinde (PICV) viruses, several differences were observed within the CD8 T cell responses to either virus. Compared to single-virus infection, coinfection resulted in substantial variation among mice in the size of epitope-specific T cell responses to each virus. Some mice had an overall reduced number of virus-specific cells to either one of the viruses, and other mice developed an immunodominant response to a normally subdominant, cross-reactive epitope (nucleoprotein residues 205 to 212, or NP205). These changes led to decreased protective immunity and enhanced pathology in some mice upon challenge with either of the original coinfecting viruses. In mice with PICV-dominant responses, during a high-dose challenge with LCMV clone 13, increased immunopathology was associated with a reduced number of LCMV-specific effector memory CD8 T cells. In mice with dominant cross-reactive memory responses, during challenge with PICV increased immunopathology was directly associated with these cross-reactive NP205-specific CD8 memory cells. In conclusion, the inherent competition between two simultaneous immune responses results in significant alterations in T cell immunity and subsequent disease outcome upon reexposure. IMPORTANCE Combination vaccines and simultaneous administration of vaccines are necessary to accommodate required immunizations and maintain vaccination rates. Antibody responses generally correlate with

  5. Hepatitis C virus–HIV-coinfected patients and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kardashian, Ani A.; Price, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the experience to date and unique challenges associated with liver transplantation in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients. Recent findings The prevalence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is rising among HIV-infected individuals. With careful patient selection and in the absence of HCV infection, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected liver transplant recipients have comparable posttransplant outcomes. However, in the presence of HCV infection, patient and graft survival are significantly poorer in HIV-infected recipients, who have a higher risk of aggressive HCV recurrence, acute rejection, sepsis, and multiorgan failure. Outcomes may be improved with careful recipient and donor selection and with the availability of new highly potent all-oral HCV direct acting antivirals (DAAs). Although all-oral DAAs have not been evaluated in HIV/HCV-coinfected transplant patients, HIV does not adversely impact treatment success in nontransplant populations. Therefore, there is great hope that HCV can be successful eradicated in HIV/HCV-coinfected transplant patients and will result in improved outcomes. Careful attention to drug–drug interactions with HIV antiretroviral agents, DAAs, and posttransplant immunosuppressants is required. Summary Liver transplant outcomes are poorer in HIV/HCV-coinfected recipients compared with those with HCV-monoinfection. The new HCV DAAs offer tremendous potential to improve outcomes in this challenging population. PMID:25944240

  6. Complex dynamics of synergistic coinfections on realistically clustered networks

    PubMed Central

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Althouse, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of contact structure clustering on the dynamics of multiple diseases interacting through coinfection of a single individual, two problems typically studied independently. We highlight how clustering, which is well known to hinder propagation of diseases, can actually speed up epidemic propagation in the context of synergistic coinfections if the strength of the coupling matches that of the clustering. We also show that such dynamics lead to a first-order transition in endemic states, where small changes in transmissibility of the diseases can lead to explosive outbreaks and regions where these explosive outbreaks can only happen on clustered networks. We develop a mean-field model of coinfection of two diseases following susceptible-infectious-susceptible dynamics, which is allowed to interact on a general class of modular networks. We also introduce a criterion based on tertiary infections that yields precise analytical estimates of when clustering will lead to faster propagation than nonclustered networks. Our results carry importance for epidemiology, mathematical modeling, and the propagation of interacting phenomena in general. We make a call for more detailed epidemiological data of interacting coinfections. PMID:26195773

  7. Hansen's disease and HIV coinfection with facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Nidhi; Kar, Sumit; Madke, Bhushan; Gangane, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    There are very few published reports of HIV leprosy co infection in India in spite of having a large burden of both leprosy and HIV. Herein we are reporting a case of co-infection of Hansen's disease and HIV with facial nerve palsy. PMID:25883486

  8. Hansen's disease and HIV coinfection with facial nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Nidhi; Kar, Sumit; Madke, Bhushan; Gangane, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    There are very few published reports of HIV leprosy co infection in India in spite of having a large burden of both leprosy and HIV. Herein we are reporting a case of co-infection of Hansen's disease and HIV with facial nerve palsy. PMID:25883486

  9. Coinfection with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which these pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whose relatives, B...

  10. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis. PMID:17945454

  11. Coinfection of Pigs with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which these pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whose relatives, B...

  12. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886

  13. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  14. Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

  15. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for

  16. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for

  17. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  18. Quantitative analysis of Babesia ovis infection in sheep and ticks.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Wollkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovich, Benjamin; Savitzky, Igor; Zamir, Shmuel; Molad, Thea; Shkap, Varda

    2016-05-15

    A quantitative PCR, based on the gene encoding Babesia ovis Surface Protein D (BoSPD) was developed and applied to investigate the presence of Babesia ovis (B. ovis) in its principal vector, the tick Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa), and in the ovine host. Quantification of B. ovis in experimentally-infected lambs showed a sharp increase in parasitemia 10-11days in blood-inoculated and adult tick-infested lambs, and 24days in a larvae-infested lamb. A gradual decrease of parasitemia was observed in the following months, with parasites detectable 6-12 months post-infection. Examination of the parasite load in adult R. bursa during the post-molting period using the quantitative PCR assay revealed a low parasite load during days 2-7 post-molting, followed by a sharp increase, until day 11, which corresponded to the completion of the pre-feeding period. The assay was then used to detect B. ovis in naturally-infected sheep and ticks. Examination of samples from 8 sheep and 2 goats from infected flocks detected B. ovis in both goats and in 7 out of the 8 sheep. Additionally, B. ovis was detected in 9 tick pools (5 ticks in each pool) and two individual ticks removed from sheep in infected flocks. PMID:27084469

  19. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  20. Occult hepatitis B virus co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A review of prevalence, diagnosis and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Cevallos, Ana Maria; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Enriquez-Navarro, Karina; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Lira, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is high as they share similar mechanisms of transmission. The development and widespread use of highly sensitive tests for HBV diagnosis has demonstrated that a significant proportion of apparently healthy individuals with evidence of exposure to HBV continue to carry fully functional HBV DNA in their hepatocytes, a situation that predisposes them to the development of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of co-infections frequently influences the natural evolution of each of the participating infections present by either facilitating their virulence or competing for resources. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat these infections may also contribute to changes in the natural course of these infections, making the analysis of the impact of co-infection more difficult. The majority of studies has examined the impact of HIV on overt chronic hepatitis B, finding that co-infection carries an increased risk of progressive liver disease and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the effect of HIV on the natural history of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) has not been fully assessed, all available data suggest a persisting risk of repeated flares of hepatitis and progressive liver disease. We describe studies regarding the diagnosis, prevalence and clinical significance of OBI in HIV-positive patients in this short review. Discrepancies in worldwide prevalence show the urgent need for the standardization of diagnostic criteria, as established by the Taormina statements. Ideally, standardized protocols for testing should be employed to enable the comparison of data from different groups. Additional studies are needed to define the differences in risk for OBI without HIV and in HIV-HBV co-infected patients with or without overt disease. PMID:25729480

  1. [Coinfection between hepatitis B virus and malaria: clinical, serologic and immunologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Braga, Wornei Silva Miranda; Souza, Rita Auxiliadora Botelho de; Silva, Eva Batista da; Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da; Tosta, Carlos Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The Amazon region is known for a high prevalence of hepatitis B infection, and accounts for more than 90% of malaria cases in Brazil. It has been suggested that the occurrence of coinfections may be important, and may influence the natural history of both diseases. This study evaluated 545 patients with acute malaria, in Coari, Western Brazilian Amazon. 333 (61.1%) presented Plasmodium vivax malaria, 193 (35.4%) Plasmodium falciparum and 19 (3.5%) mixed infections. The HBsAg prevalence was 4.2% and total anti-HBc 49.7%. Patients with HBV serological markers presented no clinical differences than those with malaria only, nor showed any association with classic signs of hepatic disorder. Although showing no statistical significance, HBsAg reactive subjects presented lower parasitic load and higher antibody titers, suggesting the possibility that the immune response in a coinfected individual is differentiated and leads to a variation in the parasite load and antibody production. PMID:16501762

  2. Association between chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C/HIV co-infection and the development of colorectal adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Davis-Yadley, Ashley H.; Lipka, Seth; Vardaros, Magdalene; Shen, Huafeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited knowledge exists about the effects chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has in the development of colorectal adenomas (CRA). Data regarding the association between chronic HIV infection and the development of CRA is scarce as well. We aim to determine if there is an association between the development of CRA and chronic infection with HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection. Methods From July 1, 2009 to March 31, 2011 a total of 2,051 patients that underwent colonoscopy were included in our study. The population was divided into 2 study groups: those patients who tested positive for HCV, and HCV/HIC; the control groups consisted of patients whose results were negative. Fisher’s exact χ2 test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables was used to analyze data between groups. Logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR). Results CRA detection was higher in the HCV than in the control group (26.3% vs. 20.2%; P=1.02); Likewise, the incidence of CRA (25.5% vs. 20.8%; P=0.63) was higher in the co-infection group. However, in both of the study groups this difference was non-statistical. Conclusions A higher detection rate of CRP was seen in the HCV population; however, it failed to reach statistical significance. Whether co-infection with HIV/HCV increases the incidence of CRA and/or has a synergistic effect remains to be determined. The small sample population and the retrospective single institution nature of our study, as well as other confounders may have contributed to our negative results. However, our findings question whether HCV and HIV/HCV co-infected patients will benefit from screening colonoscopy at an earlier age. This issue merits further investigation with a large multi-center prospective study. PMID:27563452

  3. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  4. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea var. Fistulosa in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  5. Epizootic Pneumonia of Bighorn Sheep following Experimental Exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Lahmers, Kevin; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Foreyt, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia. Methodology/Principal Findings In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:25302992

  6. Genetic variation of 5 SNPs of MC1R gene in Chinese indigenous sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Yang, G L; Fu, D L; Lang, X; Ylan, Y F; Luo, Y Z

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess genetic diversity, genetic differentiation.relationship and population structure among 10 Chinese sheep populations using 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). in MC1R gene. The genetic diversity indices suggested that the intra-population variation levels of Chinese Merino and Large-tailed Han,breeds were lowest than Kazakh Fat-Rumped. Chinese sheep breeds have maintained a high intra-population variation levels (95.23%). The genetic differentiation patterns and genetic relationships among Chinese sheep breeds displayed a high consistency with the traditional classification. The cluster trees were constructed by UPMGA method. The results showed that Chinese indigenous sheep populations have distinct genetic differentiation. The inter-population variation levels in Chinese sheep populations indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred. The Bayesian cluster analyses also showed a reliable clustering pattern, which revealed three major clusters in.Chinese indigenous sheep populations (Mongolian group, Kazakh group and Tibetan group), except for Duolang and Minxian Black-fur. There were probably caused by different breeding history, geography isolation and different levels of inbreeding. The findings supported the related records in literature, ten sheep populations originated on different time stage from the primogenitor population and communicated genetically with each other in the process of natural and artificial selection, and in different ecological environment. It is concluded that Chinese indigenous sheep have higher genetic variation and diversity, genetic differentiation exist between Chinese sheep populations. The majority breeds are consistent with the geographical distribution and breed characteristic. PMID:25720251

  7. Selenium toxicity in sheep grazing reclaimed phosphate mining sites.

    PubMed

    Fessler, A J; Moller, G; Talcott, P A; Exon, J H

    2003-12-01

    Phosphate mining operations in southeastern Idaho have exposed selenium (Se) that was originally sequestered in the subsurface. Sheep grazing in these areas have died as a result of high Se concentrations in forage and water. This study was designed to monitor the health status of sheep grazing in a natural environment with known elevated levels of Se. A total of 72 Columbia x Suffolk sheep were divided into 3 treatment groups that included control (Con), low selenium (LoSe) and high selenium (HiSe). The baseline phase of the study was conducted in an area with normal background Se levels in forage and water, and was grazed for 3 w by all sheep groups. The sheep then were moved onto reclaimed mine areas to begin the 4-w exposure phase. This was followed by a 2-w depuration phase where sheep again received normal Se levels in forage and water. The Con group was held on areas with normal Se levels of forage (< 0.32 ppm Se dw) and water (< 1.70 ppb Se). The LoSe group was held in an area of elevated forage Se (< 13.0 ppm Se dw) and normal Se levels in their water (< 1.70 ppb Se) during the exposure phase. The HiSe group was held on mining areas with elevated Se forage (< 49.0 ppm Se dw) and drinking water (340 to 415 ppb Se). Whole blood and serum levels in the HiSe group peaked at 1.32 and 0.99 ppm mean Se, respectively. The LoSe group had mean whole blood and serum Se levels of 0.75 ppm on day 42 and 0.32 ppm on day 35 respectively. The Con group maintained low Se levels in both whole blood and serum that ranged from 0.05 to 0.14 ppm and 0.06 to 0.13 ppm respectively. The Se exposure in the HiSe group was estimated 0.26 mg Se/kg body weight/d. One sheep in the HiSe group died and was diagnosed with Se toxicosis based on clinical signs, histopathology and tissue Se levels. Se in liver (3.90 ppm), kidney (1.90 ppm) and skeletal muscle (0.70 ppm) were indicative of high to toxic Se exposure. Two other sheep necropsied after the exposure phase also had Se concentrations

  8. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  9. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Expands a Population of NKG2D+CD8+ T Cells That Exacerbates Disease in Mice Coinfected with Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Erika J; Clark, Megan; Novais, Fernanda O; Wherry, E John; Scott, Phillip

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a significant neglected tropical disease that is associated with a wide range of clinical presentations and a lifelong persistent infection. Because of the chronic nature of the disease, there is a high risk for coinfection occurring in patients, and how coinfections influence the outcome of leishmaniasis is poorly understood. To address this issue, we infected mice with Leishmania major and 2 wk later with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and then monitored the course of infection. Leishmania parasites are controlled by production of IFN-γ, which leads to macrophage-mediated parasite killing. Thus, one might predict that coinfection with LCMV, which induces a strong systemic type 1 response, would accelerate disease resolution. However, we found that infection with LCMV led to significantly enhanced disease in L. major-infected animals. This increased disease correlated with an infiltration into the leishmanial lesions of NKG2D(+) CD8(+) T cells producing granzyme B, but surprisingly little IFN-γ. We found that depletion of CD8 T cells after viral clearance, as well as blockade of NKG2D, reversed the increased pathology seen in coinfected mice. Thus, this work highlights the impact a secondary infection can have on leishmaniasis and demonstrates that even pathogens known to promote a type 1 response may exacerbate leishmanial infections. PMID:26290604

  10. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  11. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    HIV is the top and tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, with an estimated 8.7 million incident cases of tuberculosis and 2.5 million new HIV infections annually. The World Health Organization estimates that HIV prevalence among children with tuberculosis, in countries with moderate to high prevalence, ranges from 10 to 60%. The mechanisms promoting susceptibility of people with HIV to tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood, being likely caused by multifactorial processes. Paediatric tuberculosis and HIV have overlapping clinical manifestations, which could lead to missed or late diagnosis. Although every effort should be made to obtain a microbiologically-confirmed diagnosis in children with tuberculosis, in reality this may only be achieved in a minority, reflecting their paucibacillary nature and the difficulties in obtain samples. Rapid polymerase chain reaction tests, such as Xpert MTB/RIF assay, are increasingly used in children. The use of less or non invasive methods of sample collection, such as naso-pharyngeal aspirates and stool samples for a polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic test tests and mycobacterial cultures is promising technique in HIV negative and HIV positive children. Anti-tuberculosis treatment should be started immediately at diagnosis with a four drug regimen, irrespective of the disease severity. Moreover, tuberculosis disease in an HIV infected child is considered to be a clinical indication for initiation of antiretroviral treatment. The World Health Organization recommends starting antiretroviral treatment in children as soon as anti-tuberculosis treatment is tolerated and within 2- 8 weeks after initiating it. The treatment of choice depends on the child’s age and availability of age-appropriate formulations, and potential drug interactions and resistance. Treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected children follows same principles as for HIV

  12. Amino acids in sheep production.

    PubMed

    McCoard, Susan A; Sales, Francisco A; Sciascia, Quentin L

    2016-01-01

    Increasing production efficiency with a high standard of animal welfare and respect for the environment is a goal of sheep farming systems. Substantial gains in productivity have been achieved through improved genetics, nutrition and management changes; however the survival and growth performance of multiple-born lambs still remains a problem. This is a significant production efficiency and animal well-being issue. There is a growing body of evidence that some amino acids have a role in regulating growth, reproduction and immunity through modulation of metabolic and cell signaling pathways. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is currently known about the role of amino acids in sheep production and the potential for supplementation strategies to influence on-farm survival and growth of lambs. PMID:26709661

  13. Current Concepts of HBV/HCV Coinfection: Coexistence, but Not Necessarily in Harmony

    PubMed Central

    Jamma, Shailaja; Hussain, Ghazi; Lau, Daryl T.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are important causes of chronic liver disease globally. Although HBV/HCV coinfection is not uncommon, its epidemiology is poorly defined. Numerous studies provided evidence that coinfection accelerates liver disease progression and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. By applying new cell culture models to examine the interaction of both viruses, investigators concluded that HBV and HCV replicate in the same hepatocyte without interference. The roles of innate and adaptive immunity in determining the viral replication and disease outcomes still need rigorous investigation. To date, no standard-of-care recommendation exists for HBV/HCV coinfection. Pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy demonstrated similar efficacy in suppressing HCV RNA in coinfection and HCV monoinfection. However, HBV reactivation during therapy can be a challenge. Future clinical trials evaluating the addition of a nucleoside/nucleotide analog for selective patients with HBV/HCV coinfection are essential for successful management of HBV/HCV coinfection. PMID:21258658

  14. Ethylene glycol poisoning in sheep.

    PubMed

    2015-05-16

    Oxalate toxicity in sheep as a consequence of exposure to ethylene glycol. Chlamydophila abortus infection in a dairy cow. Neosporosis diagnosed in a newborn lamb with deformities. Yersiniosis affecting a 1000-strong goat herd. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome causing blue ears in 14-week-old pigs. Avian tuberculosis diagnosed in an adult Mandarin duck. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for January and February 2015. PMID:25977491

  15. Challenges facing providers caring for HIV/HCV-coinfected patients

    PubMed Central

    Lekas, Helen-Maria; Siegel, Karolynn; Leider, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users also infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the synergistic adverse effect of the two diseases on patients' health and survival, the research on the clinical management of these patients and particularly the low uptake of HCV therapy is limited. We conducted qualitative interviews with 17 HIV providers from two urban public hospitals. We discovered that the limitations of the current state of medical knowledge, the severe side effects of HIV and HCV therapies, and the psychosocial vulnerability of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients combined with their resistance to becoming informed about HCV posed significant challenges for providers. To contend with these challenges, providers incorporated key dimensions of patient-centered medicine in their practice such as considering their patients' psychosocial profiles and the meaning patients assign to being coinfected, and finding ways to engage their patients in a therapeutic alliance. PMID:21825278

  16. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai; Zahoor, Adnan; Jyothi, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs. PMID:27293296

  17. Co-infections and Pathogenesis of KSHV-Associated Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is one of the several carcinogenic viruses that infect humans. KSHV infection has been implicated in the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman’s Disease. While KSHV infection is necessary for the development of KSHV associated malignancies, it is not sufficient to induce tumorigenesis. Evidently, other co-factors are essential for the progression of KSHV induced malignancies. One of the most important co-factors, necessary for the progression of KSHV induced tumors, is immune suppression that frequently arises during co-infection with HIV and also by other immune suppressants. In this mini-review, we discuss the roles of co-infection with HIV and other pathogens on KSHV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:26913028

  18. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, K. D.; Corr, S. A.; Gutierrez, C. G.; Fisher, P. A.; Lee, J.-H.; Rathbone, A. J.; Choi, I.; Campbell, K. H. S.; Gardner, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7–9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  19. Fatal case of acute gastroenteritis with multiple viral coinfections.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Julien; Morel-Baccard, Christine; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Germi, Raphaële; Pothier, Pierre; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Morand, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    We report a fatal case of acute gastroenteritis in a child with autism spectrum disorder. Multiple viral coinfections were detected by PCR in the patient's stool and digestive biopsy specimens. As viral detection is not necessarily associated with symptomatic disease, a semi-quantitative approach using cycle treshold values was proposed for the clinical interpretation of PCR. We discuss whether concomitant viral infections could be a risk factor for severe outcome in gastroenteritis cases. Individual risk factors are also addressed. PMID:26655270

  20. Parasite virulence, co-infections and cytokine balance in malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Raquel Müller; Lima, Nathália Ferreira; Ferreira, Marcelo Urbano

    2014-01-01

    Strong early inflammatory responses followed by a timely production of regulatory cytokines are required to control malaria parasite multiplication without inducing major host pathology. Here, we briefly examine the homeostasis of inflammatory responses to malaria parasite species with varying virulence levels and discuss how co-infections with bacteria, viruses, and helminths can modulate inflammation, either aggravating or alleviating malaria-related morbidity. PMID:24854175

  1. A Case of Primary HIV Type 1 and Cytomegalovirus Coinfection Presenting with Widespread Clinical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joseph Y.; Singer, Elyse J.; Bonelli, Laura; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Coinfection of HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may occur given the shared routes of transmission, and the clinical presentations of each process overlap. We present a case of acute HIV-1 and CMV coinfection presenting with an acute febrile illness complicated by meningitis, hepatitis, and retinopathy. This and other similar cases demonstrate the need to consider CMV coin-fection in acute HIV-1 disease, particularly in situations with significant end-organ damage. PMID:24476962

  2. Diagnosis & treatment of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Padmapriyadarsini, C.; Narendran, G.; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in both the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. Because of the poor performance of sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients, newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-constrained settings. The treatment of co-infected patients requires antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs to be administered concomitantly; challenges include pill burden and patient compliance, drug interactions, overlapping toxic effects, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Also important questions about the duration and schedule of anti-TB drug regimens and timing of antiretroviral therapy remain unanswered. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for TB and vice-versa requires good co-ordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programmes. Linkage of co-infected patients to antiretroviral treatment centres is critical if early mortality is to be prevented. We present here an overview of existing diagnostic strategies, new tests in the pipeline and recommendations for treatment of patients with HIV-TB dual infection. PMID:22310818

  3. Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.

    PubMed Central

    Funnyé, Allen S.; Akhtar, Abbasi J.

    2003-01-01

    Co-infection of syphilis and AIDS has profound implications for the African American community. The purpose of this review is to: evaluate the historical background of HIV and syphilis and their similarities in pathogenesis; review the epidemiology of syphilis and HIV co-infection, and implications for continued prevention efforts; examine the effect of syphilis on HIV transmission and acquisition; and, to examine the effects of HIV infection on syphilis transmission, diagnostic and serologic changes, clinical course, and treatment. The prevalence of HIV is higher in those with syphilis; moreover, the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection is highest in African Americans. There may be humoral and cellular immune similarities. HIV may affect the transmission of syphilis, alter its serologic diagnosis, and accelerate and change the clinical course and response to treatment. In conclusion, combined infection of HIV and syphilis may alter the clinical presentation and course of either disease. There are historical and immunologic similarities and the high prevalence in African Americans compared to other groups is of great importance for prevention efforts. PMID:12793793

  4. Response to antiretroviral therapy in occult hepatitis B and HIV co-infection in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David; Stanley, Alastair; Sarfo, Stephen; Appiah, Lambert; Ankcorn, Michael; Foster, Geraldine; Schwab, Uli; Phillips, Richard; Geretti, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome of first-line antiretroviral therapy among 35 Ghanaians with occult HBV/HIV co-infection, comparing them over 2 years to 120 patients with HBsAg+ HBV/HIV co-infection and 230 patients without HBV co-infection. Increases in CD4 cell count and BMI were similar, whereas elevations of hepatic transaminases were more frequent in both the occult HBV and HBsAg+ patients. Occult HBV/HIV co-infection appears not to impact adversely on response to antiretroviral therapy in Ghana. PMID:22874516

  5. Parasite co-infection and interaction as drivers of host heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Cattadori, I M; Boag, B; Hudson, P J

    2008-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that the interaction between concomitant infecting parasites modifies host susceptibility, parasite intensity and the pattern of parasite distribution within the host population. We used a 26 year time series of three common parasites in a natural population of rabbits: two gastrointestinal nematodes (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Graphidium strigosum) and the immunosuppressive myxoma virus. The frequency distribution of nematodes in the host population and the relationship between host age and nematode intensity were explored in rabbits with either single or dual nematode infections and rabbits infected with the nematodes and myxoma virus. The aggregation of T. retortaeformis and G. strigosum among the rabbits varied with the nature of the co-infection both in male and female hosts. The two nematodes exhibited different age-intensity profiles: G. strigosum intensity increased exponentially with host age while T. retortaeformis intensity exhibited a convex shape. The presence of a secondary infection did not change the age-intensity profile for G. strigosum but for T. retortaeformis co-infection (either both nematodes or myxoma-nematodes) resulted in significantly greater intensities in adult hosts. Results suggest that multi-species infections contributed to aggregation of parasites in the host population and to seasonal variation in intensity, but also enhanced differences in parasitism between sexes. This effect was apparent for T. retortaeformis, which appears to elicit a strong acquired immune response but not for G. strigosum which does not produce any evident immune reaction. We concluded that concomitant infections mediated by host immunity are important in modifying host susceptibility and influencing heterogeneity amongst individual hosts. PMID:17936286

  6. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Rickettsiales in Goats and Sheep from Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yan; Yin, Hongmei; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Pan, Weiqing; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Members from Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and some spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsiae are important tick-borne pathogens. One hundred goats and sheep from southeastern China were examined for the presence of Anaplasma, E. chaffeensis, and SFG Rickettsiae by PCR. A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, and Anaplasma centrale were detected in 15, 49, and 16 samples, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and A. centrale were highly homologous to strains from Japanese sika deer and Japanese cattle, respectively, whereas a diversity of A. bovis sequences were detected. New genetic variants of Anaplasma close to A. centrale have been revealed. No Ehrlichia was detected in this study. The presence of SFG Rickettsiae was determined in 26 samples. The coinfection with more than two pathogens tested in this study was as high as 29%. This study has molecularly characterized the circulation of Anaplasma and Rickettsiae in goats and sheep in southeastern China, which highlights the risk of contracting the pathogens upon tick exposure. PMID:26872274

  7. Influence of hydrothermal factors on wool development of Tan sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C. J.; Shiquan, Wang

    1992-06-01

    Hydrothermal factors in Ningxia, an arid and semi-arid area in Northwestern China, were examined to determine their influence on the geographical differentiation of the wool quality of Tan sheep lambskin. Prospective areas for extension of the Tan sheep industry were also investigated. Two sheep groups were sampled; one consisted of artificial insemination flocks (1241 lambs sampled from 25 flocks) and the other of natural mating flocks (1009 lambs from 38 flocks). Six phenotypical traits were measured for each lamb and six hydrothermal factors were collected from the meteorological stations located in the sampling areas. A significant correlation was found between wool characteristics of the lambskin and hydrothermal conditions. Data further indicated that among all the hydrothermal factors measured, those causing the geographical differentiation of soil and vegetation were the major factors responsible for the corresponding differentiation of the lambskin and wool quality of Tan sheep. Thermal factors were mostly positively correlated with wool quality, while the influence of moisture was negative. Three eco-geographical regions were defined based on a combination of the hydrothermal conditions and corresponding wool characters: (i) typical region or super-suitable region, (ii) sub-typical region or suitable region and (iii) transitional region. The delimitation could be used as a basis for the extension of the Tan sheep industry. It is also suggested that the wool quality of lambskin of Tan sheep in these three regions could be improved by means of controlled breeding and selection.

  8. Immunohistochemical distinction between preclinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Thuring, C M A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M; Vromans, M E W; van Zijderveld, F G; Sweeney, T

    2005-01-01

    Sheep are susceptible experimentally to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the clinical signs being indistinguishable from those of scrapie. Because of the possibility of natural ovine BSE infection, laboratory tests are needed to distinguish between scrapie and BSE infection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether (1) PrPSc accumulates in biopsy samples of the tonsil or third eyelid, or both, of BSE-infected sheep before the appearance of clinical disease, and (2) such samples from BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep differ in respect of PrPSc accumulations. Homozygous ARQ sheep (n = 10) were dosed orally at 4-5 months of age with a brain homogenate from BSE-infected cattle. Third eyelid and tonsillar biopsy samples were taken at < or = 6 monthly intervals post-infection and examined immunohistochemically for PrPSc. Third eyelid protuberances were difficult to identify, resulting in many unsuitable samples; however, third eyelid samples shown to contain lymphoid follicles were invariably negative for PrPSc. In contrast, tonsillar biopsy samples became positive for PrPSc from 11 to 20 months post-infection. Consistent differences in the morphology of PrPSc granules in tingible body macrophages (TBMs) between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep were detected with anti-peptide antibodies directed towards amino acids 93-106 of the ovine prion protein: thus, PrPSc appeared as single granules in TBMs of tonsillar sections from BSE-infected sheep, whereas clusters of PrPSc granules were observed within TBMs in the tonsils of scrapie-infected sheep. In contrast, antibodies against epitopes situated N- and C-terminally from the 93-106 region of the ovine prion protein revealed no differences between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep in terms of PrPSc granules in TBMs. PMID:15629480

  9. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in brazilian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces were collected from 125 sheep between January and December 2007, on ten farms in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium. Ninety samples were collected from lambs 2 to 6 months of age, and 35 were from sheep over 12 months of age. All samples were...

  10. Identification of atypical scrapie in Canadian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, exists in most small ruminant producing countries of the world. An atypical form of this disease, originally termed Nor98, was discovered in large abattoir surveillance of clinically normal, predominantly older sheep and rarely ...

  11. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  12. Reflex onset of polypnoea in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. D.; Raghavan, G. V.

    1970-01-01

    1. Measurements have been made of the cardio-respiratory activities, ear and lumbar skin temperatures, and temperature of the blood in the carotid artery and jugular vein of partially shorn and unshorn sheep during mammary heating at ambient temperatures of 20/55, 15/55 and 10/55 (dry bulb temperature, ° C/relative humidity,%). 2. Heating the mammary region resulted in a marked rise in respiratory and heart rates of unshorn sheep, whereas, in partially shorn sheep, the heart rates increased without being accompanied by a similar rise in respiratory rates. 3. With decrease in ambient temperature from 20 to 10° C, there was a decrease in respiratory response of unshorn sheep during mammary heat treatment suggesting that the magnitude of respiratory response during mammary heat treatment depends on the environmental temperature to which the sheep is exposed. 4. The carotid blood temperature declined following mammary heat treatment at all ambient temperatures studied, both in unshorn and partially shorn sheep, but the magnitude of decline was greater in unshorn than in partially shorn sheep. 5. The rise in respiratory rates following mammary heating of unshorn sheep at all ambient temperatures, in spite of a decline in carotid blood temperature and the absence of similar responses during flank heating, is attributed to the stimulation of warm receptors in the mammary region. PMID:5500728

  13. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27184115

  15. Reduced Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep with TMEM154 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Michael P.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-Mckown, Carol G.; Leymaster, Kreg A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Harhay, Gregory P.; White, Stephen N.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Keen, James E.; Laegreid, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154) that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10−9). Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E) at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K) at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 5–1,100). In a combined analysis of nine cohorts with 2,705 sheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 2.36–3.43). Although rare, some sheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection. PMID:22291605

  16. Genetic parameters for resistance to trichostrongylid infection in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Pérez, J; de la Fuente, L F; Meana, A; Martínez-Valladares, M; San Primitivo, F; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Arranz, J J

    2010-04-01

    In sheep, the traditional chemical control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites with anthelmintics has led to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance. The selection of sheep with enhanced resistance to GIN parasites has been suggested as an alternative strategy to develop sustainable control of parasite infections. Most of the estimations of the genetic parameters for sheep resistance to GIN parasites have been obtained from young animals belonging to meat- and/or wool-specialised breeds. We present here the estimated genetic parameters for four parasite resistance traits studied in a commercial population of adult Spanish Churra dairy ewes. These involved two faecal egg counts (FECs) (LFEC0 and LFEC1) and two serum indicator traits, the anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta fourth stage larvae IgA (IgA) and the pepsinogen (Peps) levels. In addition, this study has allowed us to identify the environmental factors influencing parasite resistance in naturally infected Spanish Churra sheep and to quantify the genetic component of this complex phenotype. The heritabilities estimated for the two FECs analysed (0.12 for LFEC0 and 0.09 for LFEC1) were lower than those obtained for the examined serum indicators (0.19 for IgA and 0.21 for Peps). The genetic correlations between the traits ranged from 0.43 (Peps-IgA) to 0.82 (LFEC0-LFEC1) and were higher than their phenotypic counterparts, which ranged between 0.07 and 0.10. The heritabilities estimated for the studied traits were lower than previously reported in lambs. This may be due to the differences in the immune mechanisms controlling the infection in young (antibody reactions) and adult (hypersensitivity reactions) animals/sheep. In summary, this study demonstrates the presence of heritable variation in parasite resistance indicator traits in the Churra population studied, which suggests that genetic improvement is feasible for this complex trait in this population. However, further studies in which

  17. Impact of porcine group A rotavirus co-infection on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus pathogenicity in piglets.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Seung; Song, Dae-Sub

    2008-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine group A rotavirus (PGAR) are the main causative agents of acute diarrhea in piglets. In South Korea, PGAR is prevalent in piglets naturally infected with PEDV. Piglets naturally co-infected with PEDV and PGAR appeared to have severe and prolonged diarrhea that was distinct from that commonly observed. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of PGAR co-infection on PEDV pathogenicity in piglets. Thirty-six colostrum-deprived, one-day old, Large White-Duroc crossbred pigs were randomly divided into four equal groups: PEDV, PEDV/PGAR, PGAR, and control groups. The piglets were euthanized at 1, 2, or 3 days post-inoculation (DPI) to measure the villous height:crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio and to collect fecal samples for RT-PCR and virus isolation. No significant differences in mean VH:CD ratio and clinical symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and anorexia) were observed between the PEDV/PGAR-infected and PEDV-infected groups of piglets at 1, 2 and 3 DPI; however, at 2 and 3 DPI, PGAR was detected in all fecal samples by RT-PCR and virus isolation. These findings failed to detect any interaction between PEDV and porcine rotavirus in the small intestines of piglets, suggesting that concurrent infection of PGAR may not synergistically enhance intestinal villous atrophy of piglets with PEDV disease. We propose that the severe diarrhea exhibited in PEDV and PGAR co-infected piglets may be more associated with the immunity level of the host rather than to any synergistic effect of PGAR on PEDV enteritis. PMID:17727905

  18. Expression of p53 protein, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus matrix protein, and surfactant protein in the lungs of sheep with pulmonary adenomatosis.

    PubMed

    İlhan, Fatma; Vural, Sevil A; Yıldırım, Serkan; Sözdutmaz, İbrahim; Alcigir, Mehmet E

    2016-05-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring cancer in sheep that is caused by the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). Because the pathologic and epidemiologic features of OPA are similar to those of bronchoalveolar carcinoma in humans, OPA is considered a useful animal model for pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, 3,512 lungs from various breeds of sheep were collected and macroscopically examined. OPA was identified in 30 sheep, and samples of these animals were further examined by histologic, immunohistochemical (p53 protein, surfactant protein A [SP-A], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], JSRV matrix protein [MA]), and PCR methods. Papillary or acinar adenocarcinomas were detected microscopically in the affected areas. Immunoreactivity for p53 PAb240 was detected in 13 sheep, whereas p53 DO-1 was not detected in any of the OPA animals. PCNA immunoreactivity was recorded in 27 animals. SP-A and JSRV MA protein was immunopositive in all 30. JSRV proviral DNA was detected by PCR analysis in all of the lung samples collected from OPA animals. In addition, the pulmonary SP-A levels were increased in tumor cells. The results of this study suggest that PCNA and p53 protein expression may be useful indicators in monitoring malignancy of pulmonary tumors. PMID:27016721

  19. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  20. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  1. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  2. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  3. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. The effect of coinfection of S...

  4. Exploring the sheep rumen microbiome for carbohydrate-active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lucas Dantas; de Souza Lima, André Oliveira; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Darias, Phillip; da Silva, Lília Raquel Fé; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Louvandini, Helder; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Mendes, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    The rumen is a complex ecosystem enriched for microorganisms able to degrade biomass during the animal's digestion process. The recovery of new enzymes from naturally evolved biomass-degrading microbial communities is a promising strategy to overcome the inefficient enzymatic plant destruction in industrial production of biofuels. In this context, this study aimed to describe the bacterial composition and functions in the sheep rumen microbiome, focusing on carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAE). Here, we used phylogenetic profiling analysis (inventory of 16S rRNA genes) combined with metagenomics to access the rumen microbiome of four sheep and explore its potential to identify fibrolytic enzymes. The bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, followed by Proteobacteria. As observed for other ruminants, Prevotella was the dominant genus in the microbiome, comprising more than 30 % of the total bacterial community. Multivariate analysis of the phylogenetic profiling data and chemical parameters showed a positive correlation between the abundance of Prevotellaceae (Bacteroidetes phylum) and organic matter degradability. A negative correlation was observed between Succinivibrionaceae (Proteobacteria phylum) and methane production. An average of 2 % of the shotgun metagenomic reads was assigned to putative CAE when considering nine protein databases. In addition, assembled contigs allowed recognition of 67 putative partial CAE (NCBI-Refseq) representing 12 glycosyl hydrolase families (Pfam database). Overall, we identified a total of 28 lignocellulases, 22 amylases and 9 other putative CAE, showing the sheep rumen microbiome as a promising source of new fibrolytic enzymes. PMID:25900454

  5. Outbreak of melioidosis and leptospirosis co-infection following a rescue operation.

    PubMed

    Sapian, M; Khair, M T; How, S H; Rajalingam, R; Sahhir, K; Norazah, A; Khebir, V; Jamalludin, A R

    2012-06-01

    We analyzed the epidemiological data of all people who were involved in the search and rescue operation in Lubuk Yu, a natural recreational forest with waterfall and stream. The hospital admission records of the cases who fulfilled the case definition and the environmental samples result taken at Lubuk Yu recreational area were studied. 153 people were exposed to this outbreak, 85 (55.5%) were professional rescuers from various government agencies and 68 (44.5%) were villagers. 21 fulfilled the case definition. Ten cases were confirmed melioidosis, six melioidosis alone and four coinfected with leptospirosis. There were eight deaths in this outbreak, seven were villagers and one professional rescuer. Overall case fatality was 70%. All confirmed melioidosis cases and seven who died had diabetes mellitus. The morbidity rate were higher among the villagers, 23.5% compared to professional rescuers, 5.9%. The case fatality rate were also higher in this group which was 100% compared to 33.3% in professional rescuers. The soil and water samples in Lubuk Yu recreational area were positive for leptospira and Burkholderia pseudomallei. The presence of co-infection and co-morbidities especially diabetes mellitus among the exposed led to the high mortality in this outbreak hence a high index of suspicion is important among the healthcare professionals in the management of melioidosis cases. To avoid similar incident in future, search and rescue operation should be only conducted by professional rescuers with appropriate personal protective equipment. A register of rescuers should be maintained for surveillance and follow up if necessary. PMID:23082420

  6. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    PubMed

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation. PMID:23473225

  7. Muellerius capillaris in north-east Zaire: prevalence in sheep and goats and determination of intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Chartier, C

    1989-12-01

    Muellerius capillaris was the only species of nematode recovered from the lungs of young and adult sheep and goats of north-east Zaire. The prevalences were of 19% (sheep) and 32% (goats). The slug Atoxon pallens contained larvae in natural conditions and represents a potential intermediate host. The land snails Achatinidae (Achatina stuhlmanni and Limicolaria spp.) could not be experimentally infected with M. capillaris larvae. PMID:2600412

  8. Malaria-Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Co-infection: Influence on Disease Outcomes and Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Raquel A.; Silva-dos-Santos, Danielle; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana S.; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Villa-Verde, Dea M. S.; De Luca, Paula M.; Banic, Dalma M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) are co-endemic throughout large regions in tropical countries and co-infection may impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. In the present study, we evaluate Malaria/Leishmaniasis disease outcome, Th1/Th2 cytokine levels and the CD4 and CD8 T-cell profiles in a co-infection murine model (BALB/c) of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py) and Leishmania amazonensis (La) or L. braziliensis (Lb). Malaria parasitaemia was assessed through blood strains stained with Giemsa. Leishmania lesions were monitored with a digital caliper and parasite loads determined by limiting-dilution assay. Serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 were determined using multiplexed bead assay and expression of CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cells markers were determined by Flow Cytometry in the thymus, spleens and lymph nodes. Parasitaemia in Lb+Py co-infected group was lower than in Py single-infected group, suggesting a protective effect of Lb co-infection in Malaria progression. In contrast, La+Py co-infection increased parasitaemia, patent infection and induced mortality in non-lethal Malaria infection. Regarding Leishmaniasis, Lb+Py co-infected group presented smaller lesions and less ulceration than Lb single-infected animals. In contrast, La+Py co-infected group presented only a transitory delay on the development of lesions when compared to La single-infected mice. Decreased levels of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed in the serum of co-infected groups, demonstrating a modulation of Malaria immune response by Leishmania co-infections. We observed an intense thymic atrophy in Py single-infected and co-infected groups, which recovered earlier in co-infected animals. The CD4 and CD8 T cell profiles in thymus, spleens and lymph nodes did not differ between Py single and co-infected groups, except for a decrease in CD4+CD8+ T cells which also increased faster in co-infected mice. Our results suggest that Py and Leishmania co-infection

  9. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01) inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  10. [A meningitis case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection].

    PubMed

    Karsen, Hasan; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasim; Irmak, Hasan; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2008-10-01

    Turkey is located at an endemic area for brusellosis and tuberculosis which are both important public health problems. Meningitis caused by Brucella and Mycobacterium spp. may be confused since the clinical and laboratory findings are similar. In this report, a meningitis case with Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection has been presented. A 19-years-old woman was admitted to our clinic with severe headache, fever, vomiting, meningeal irritation symptoms, confusion and diplopia. The patient was initially diagnosed as Brucella meningitis based on her history (stockbreeding, consuming raw milk products, clinical symptoms concordant to brucellosis lasting for 4-5 months), physical examination and laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/80 titer in CSF and at 1/640 titer in serum, whereas no growth of Brucella spp. was detected in CSF and blood cultures. Antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone, rifampicin and doxycyclin was started, however, there was no clinical improvement and agitation and confusion of the patient continued by the end of second day of treatment. Repeated CSF examination yielded acid-fast bacteria. The patient was then diagnosed as meningitis with double etiology and the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone, streptomycin, morphozinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid for thirty days. Tuberculosis meningitis was confirmed with the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the 14th day of cultivation (BACTEC, Becton Dickinson, USA) of the CSF sample. On the 30th day of treatment she was discharged on anti-tuberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin for 12 months. The follow-up of the patient on the first and third months of treatment revealed clinical and laboratory improvement. Since this was a rare case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection, this report emphasizes that such co-infections should be kept in mind especially in the endemic areas for tuberculosis and brucellosis

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C co-infection in sub-Saharan West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mboto, C I; Davies, A; Fielder, M; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is becoming a major global problem, leading to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Co-existence in sub-Saharan West Africa of a high prevalence of HIV and HCV, which share similar behavioural risk factors and modes of transmission, must be seen in the broader context of an emerging third epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection, as many factors that may affect the spread of HIV and HCV co-infection are endemic in the continent, including host factors such as sexual behaviour, presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, female and male circumcision status, percutaneous and perinatal exposure, and poverty. This review examines the epidemiology, risk factors and transmission of HIV and HCV co-infection and draws attention to the possible emergence of an epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection in the region. PMID:16613141

  12. H1N1 influenza pneumonia and bacterial coinfection.

    PubMed

    Calbo, Esther; Robles, Alejandro; Sangil, Anna; Benet, Susana; Viladot, Maria Eugenia; Pascual, Vanesa; Barreiro, Bienvenido

    2011-12-01

    The model described by Bewick et al seems to be able to distinguish between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and non-H1N1 community acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on five criteria. However, bacterial infection in the influenza group has not been accurately excluded. Therefore, this model could misidentify these patients and lead to an inappropriate treatment. We conducted a prospective observational study to compare mixed pneumonia vs viral pneumonia. In the mixed pneumonia group patients were older, had higher levels of procalcitonine and higher scores of severity. In our cohort the model proposed by Bewick et al would not identify patients with coinfection. PMID:21994246

  13. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sawiak, Stephen J.; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R.; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L.; McLaughlan, Clive J.; Bawden, C. Simon; Palmer, David N.; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  14. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  15. Invited review: Current state of genetic improvement in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Casu, Sara; Salaris, S

    2009-12-01

    Dairy sheep have been farmed traditionally in the Mediterranean basin in southern Europe, central Europe, eastern Europe, and in Near East countries. Currently, dairy sheep farming systems vary from extensive to intensive according to the economic relevance of the production chain and the specific environment and breed. Modern breeding programs were conceived in the 1960s. The most efficient selection scheme for local dairy sheep breeds is based on pyramidal management of the population with the breeders of nucleus flocks at the top, where pedigree and official milk recording, artificial insemination, controlled natural mating, and breeding value estimation are carried out to generate genetic progress. The genetic progress is then transferred to the commercial flocks through artificial insemination or natural-mating rams. Increasing milk yield is still the most profitable breeding objective for several breeds. Almost all milk is used for cheese production and, consequently, milk content traits are very important. Moreover, other traits are gaining interest for selection: machine milking ability and udder morphology, resistance to diseases (mastitis, internal parasites, scrapie), and traits related to the nutritional value of milk (fatty acid composition). Current breeding programs based on the traditional quantitative approach have achieved appreciable genetic gains for milk yield. In many cases, further selection goals such as milk composition, udder morphology, somatic cell count, and scrapie resistance have been implemented. However, the possibility of including other traits of selective interest is limited by high recording costs. Also, the organizational effort needed to apply the traditional quantitative approach limits the diffusion of current selection programs outside the European Mediterranean area. In this context, the application of selection schemes assisted by molecular information, to improve either traditional dairy traits or traits costly to record

  16. Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp. co-infection in wild bats from Argentina, French Guyana, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis organisms cause host infections primarily affecting the lung tissue. H. capsulatum is endemic in the United States of America and Latin American countries. In special environments, H. capsulatum is commonly associated with bat and bird droppings. Pneumocystis-host specificity has been primarily studied in laboratory animals, and its ability to be harboured by wild animals remains as an important issue for understanding the spread of this pathogen in nature. Bats infected with H. capsulatum or Pneumocystis spp. have been found, with this mammal serving as a probable reservoir and disperser; however, the co-infection of bats with both of these microorganisms has never been explored. To evaluate the impact of H. capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp. infections in this flying mammal, 21 bat lungs from Argentina (AR), 13 from French Guyana (FG), and 88 from Mexico (MX) were screened using nested-PCR of the fragments, employing the Hcp100 locus for H. capsulatum and the mtLSUrRNA and mtSSUrRNA loci for Pneumocystis organisms. Results Of the 122 bats studied, 98 revealed H. capsulatum infections in which 55 of these bats exhibited this infection alone. In addition, 51 bats revealed Pneumocystis spp. infection of which eight bats exhibited a Pneumocystis infection alone. A total of 43 bats (eight from AR, one from FG, and 34 from MX) were found co-infected with both fungi, representing a co-infection rate of 35.2% (95% CI = 26.8-43.6%). Conclusion The data highlights the H. capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp.co-infection in bat population’s suggesting interplay with this wild host. PMID:24495513

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Redondo, I; Innes, E A

    1997-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals. Sheep and cattle show different susceptibilities to T. gondii infection. Primary infection in pregnant sheep can result in abortion or the birth of weak lambs but they are then protected against further challenge by the development of an effective immunity. Cattle on the other hand can be readily infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality have not been recorded. The evidence suggests that cattle develop a more effective immune response to T. gondii infection than sheep. Potential mechanisms to explain these differences are discussed in this paper. PMID:9208205

  18. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  19. Evaluation of mosquito responses to pyrethroid insecticides topically applied to sheep.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G D; Goosey, H B; Rolston, M G; Miller, W L; Hokit, D G; Redden, R R; Kott, R W

    2013-06-01

    A rise in the incidence of mosquito-transmitted Cache Valley virus (CVV) in lambs in 2011 prompted a study to evaluate on-animal pyrethroid insecticides to reduce mosquito attacks on sheep. Using enclosure traps for 1 night per wk for 6 wk, we compared engorgement rates of mosquitoes given the opportunity to feed on untreated sheep and sheep treated with 1 Python insecticide ear tag (containing 10% zeta-cypermethrin and 20% piperonyl butoxide) per animal or 2 synergized permethrin body spray treatments (containing 2.5% permethrin and 2.5% piperonyl butoxide). During the 6-wk study, 18,920 mosquitoes were collected in the animal-baited enclosure traps. Thirteen species were identified from these collections with the floodwater species Aedes increpitus and Ae. idahoensis making up 68% of the total. Potential CVV vector species, making up 25% of the samples, included Ae. vexans, Ae. dorsalis, Culex tarsalis, and Culiseta inornata. Traps baited with untreated sheep collected 9,701 mosquitoes with 65% of these engorged. Traps baited with sheep treated with Python ear tags or permethrin spray collected 4,034 and 4,555, respectively, with engorgement rates of 23% and 35%. Blood feeding on ear-tagged sheep was significantly reduced by as much as 90% compared to the untreated sheep, and protection lasted 4 wk or longer. Permethrin spray treatments were most effective within 24 h after application and provided better protection against Ae. dorsalis than the Python tag. Effectiveness of the permethrin spray diminished 1 wk after the 2nd application was made. The effect of these treatments appeared to be repellency because negligible mosquito mortality was observed at the time of collection. Further evaluation of these insecticides under conditions of natural exposure to a mosquito-borne pathogen is warranted. PMID:23923329

  20. Uptake of albendazole and albendazole sulphoxide by Haemonchus contortus and Fasciola hepatica in sheep.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L I; Imperiale, F A; Sánchez, S F; Murno, G A; Lanusse, C E

    2000-12-20

    The pattern of in vivo uptake of albendazole (ABZ) and its major metabolite, ABZ-sulphoxide (ABZSO), by Haemonchus contortus and Fasciola hepatica recovered from ABZ-treated sheep, was investigated. Concentration profiles of both compounds were simultaneously measured in target tissues/fluids from the same infected sheep. In addition, the proportion of the (+) and (-) ABZSO enantiomers was determined in plasma, bile and F. hepatica recovered from treated sheep. Sheep naturally infected with H. contortus were intraruminally (i.r.) treated with ABZ (micronized suspension, 7. 5mg/kg) and the plasma concentrations of ABZSO and ABZ-sulphone (ABZSO(2)) determined in addition to the concentration of ABZ and ABZSO in H. contortus, abomasal mucosa and fluid content samples. In addition, F. hepatica artificially infected sheep were treated i.r. with the same ABZ suspension (7.5mg/kg), and samples of blood, bile, liver tissue and adult flukes were collected and analysed by HPLC to determine the concentrations of ABZ and both enantiomers of ABZSO. ABZSO and ABZSO(2) were the analytes recovered in plasma with ABZ and ABZSO present in H. contortus. ABZ was the analyte recovered at the highest concentration in H. contortus and abomasal mucosa, whereas higher concentrations of ABZSO were measured in abomasal fluid content. Only low concentrations of ABZ were detected in F. hepatica and bile, but markedly higher concentrations of ABZ were measured in liver tissue. ABZSO was the main molecule recovered in F. hepatica, plasma and bile samples collected from ABZ-treated sheep. The (+) enantiomer of ABZSO was recovered at a higher proportion in plasma (75%), bile (78%) and F. hepatica (74%) after ABZ administration to infected sheep. PMID:11078946

  1. Syphilis, leprosy, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Claudia Fd; Bornhausen-Demarch, Eduardo; Prata, Aline G; de Andrade, Felipe C; Fernandes, Mariana P; Lopes, Marcia Ra; Nery, José Ac

    2013-08-01

    The association between syphilis, leprosy, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not well documented, and the emergence of isolated cases raises the interest and indicates that this triple coinfection can occur. We report the case of a 42-year-old man from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who presented with erythematous papules on the trunk, back, and upper and lower extremities; an erythematous plaque on the upper abdomen; and an erythematous violaceous plaque on the right thigh with altered sensitivity. Laboratory investigation showed a reagent VDRL test (1:512) and positive test results for Treponema pallidum hemagglutination. Treatment with benzathine penicillin (2,400,000 U intramuscularly) was started (2 doses 1 week apart). On follow-up 40 days later, the lesions showed partial improvement with persistence of the plaques on the right thigh and upper abdomen as well as a new similar plaque on the back. Further laboratory examinations showed negative bacilloscopy, positive HIV test, and histologic findings consistent with tuberculoid leprosy. The patient was started on multidrug therapy for paucibacillary leprosy with clinical improvement; the patient also was monitored by the HIV/AIDS department. We emphasize the importance of clinical suspicion for a coinfection case despite the polymorphism of these diseases as well as the precise interpretation of laboratory and histopathology examinations to correctly manage atypical cases. PMID:24087779

  2. Bacterial Coinfections in Travelers with Malaria: Rationale for Antibiotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Naucler, Pontus; Dashti, Saduddin; Shokri, Akhar; Eriksson, Sara; Hjertqvist, Marika; Karlsson, Lillemor; Capraru, Teodor; Färnert, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Malaria predisposes children in areas where malaria is endemic to concurrent bacteremia, often with severe outcomes. The importance of bacterial coinfections in patients diagnosed with malaria in nonendemic settings has, however, not been reported. A retrospective analysis of microbiology data was performed in 755 travelers diagnosed with malaria in Sweden. Bacterial cultures from blood and other locations were correlated to clinical outcome and antibiotic treatment. Blood cultures were drawn from 417 (55%) patients (88% of whom were >15 years old), and bacterial isolates of clinical relevance (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli) were detected in 2 patients (0.3%). Cultures from other locations (mainly urine, nasopharyngeal, and fecal samples) were obtained from 44% of the patients with 4.9% positivity. Of the 38 patients given antibiotics, 47% had neither severe malaria nor positive cultures and/or radiology signs indicative of treatment. C-reactive protein levels were associated with bacterial infections but had only a fair predictive value. Bacterial coinfections are uncommon among travelers with malaria. These data suggest a weaker association between malaria and bacteremia than previously described in endemic settings and might indicate different patient populations with different pathophysiological mechanisms and microbial environments. The study supports a restrictive antibiotic policy in returning travelers with malaria. PMID:23052321

  3. Report of outbreaks of classical scrapie in Dorper sheep and associated prion protein gene polymorphisms in affected flocks.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Caroline Pinto; de Oliveira, Eduardo Conceição; Leal, Juliano Souza; de Almeida, Laura Lopes; de Castro, Luiza Amaral; da Silva, Sergio Ceroni; Driemeier, David

    2015-08-01

    Scrapie is an infectious neurodegenerative disease affecting sheep and goats, related with conformational alteration of an isoform of the prion protein that leads to deposition and aggregation in the host's central nervous system. Occurrence of the natural disease can be influenced by host genetic factors, such as a single nucleotide polymorphism of the prion protein gene. This study reports three scrapie-affected Dorper flocks located on three different farms in Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze these three flocks using scrapie diagnostics, combining histology, immunohistochemistry, genotyping, and western blot assays. For immunohistochemistry, 192 sheep were selected and 308 sheep blood samples were taken for genotyping. A total of 22 sheep were scrapie positive by immunohistochemistry. Of these, four presented clinical signs and had scrapie immunoreactivity at the obex in western blot assays. The sheep without clinical signs were positive in lymphoid organs, such as the third eyelid and rectal mucosa. The major genotypes found on the flocks were ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR, and ARQ/VRQ for codons 136, 154, and 171. Most of the sheep were considered to be at moderate to high risk, based on risk groups for developing scrapie. Some blood samples were sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in other codons, such as 127, 142, and 143. Our data demonstrate the importance of preclinical scrapie diagnosis in Brazilian sheep, as most of the affected sheep showed no clinical signs, and emphasize the relevance of genotyping other Dorper sheep to determine the genotypic profile of the breed. PMID:25995150

  4. [Histopathology of Q rickettsiosis in sheep].

    PubMed

    Belchev, L; Pavlov, N

    1977-01-01

    Examined was material taken from five sheep (ewes) and two weaned lambs having naturally contracted Qu rickettsiosis. Described are the clinical symptoms of the disease and the morphologic changes. The diseased animals showed rise in temperature (39.5--40.5 degrees C), loss of appetite, and depression. Some of the weaned lambs manifested slight cough and digestive troubles. Part of the animals showed nervous symptoms--tic movements of the head and limbs. Morphologically, the liver was edematired, of lower compactness, and the spleen was enlarged, the meninges being hyperemic and peppered with pinpointed hemorrhages. Histologically, a strong diffuse activation and proliferation of the liver capillary endothelium was established along with necrobiosis of the liver epithelial cells and a diffuse leukocyte infiltration. Established was also hyperplasia of the reticular cells and the lymph follicles of the spleen and the bronchial lymph nodes. The epithelial cells of the kidney tubules were involved in vacuolar dystrophy, and in the medular section there were fibroblastic proliferations with hyperemia. Inflammatory changes in the brain were also found. PMID:607554

  5. Experimental transmission of U.S. scrapie agent to neonatal sheep by oral route

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. This study documents incubation periods, pathological findings and distribution of abnormal prion proteins (PrP**Sc) by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in tiss...

  6. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  7. Modified plasma and abomasal disposition of albendazole in nematode-infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L I; Sánchez, S F; Lanusse, C E

    1997-05-01

    The influence of gastrointestinal nematode infection on the kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites, albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2) in plasma and abomasal fluid was investigated in sheep. A micronised suspension of ABZ was administered intraruminally at 7.5 mg kg-1 to the following groups of sheep: (a) non-parasitised (control); (b) artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus; (c) naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Plasma and abomasal fluid samples were obtained serially over 72 h post-treatment and they were analysed by HPLC for ABZ and its metabolites. The ABZ parent drug was not detected in plasma at any time post-treatment, however the metabolites ABZSO and ABZSO2 were recovered in the bloodstream. The active metabolite ABZSO was recovered in plasma between 0.5 and 48 (uninfected), 60 (H. contortus infected) or 72 h (naturally infected sheep) post-administration. The area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) values for ABZSO were higher in both artificially infected (64.0 micrograms h ml-1) and naturally infected (79.3 micrograms h ml-1) sheep as compared with non-infected animals (41.8 micrograms h ml-1). Peak plasma concentrations for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were higher in both artificially and naturally infected sheep than in non-parasitised animals. No changes in the half-lives and mean residence times for these metabolites were observed in infected sheep. ABZ and its metabolites were found in the abomasum between 0.5 and 48 (infected animals) or 72 h (uninfected) post-treatment. The availability (total AUCs) of ABZ and its metabolites in abomasal fluid were lower in H. contortus infected sheep than in the uninfected control animals. The increased abomasal pH induced by the presence of the H. contortus infection may reduce the plasma/abomasum pH gradient, which results in a decreased ionic-trapping of ABZ and its metabolites in the abomasum. Such a

  8. Plasmodium–Helminth Coinfection and Its Sources of Heterogeneity Across East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L.; Gitonga, Caroline W.; Ashton, Ruth A.; Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Snow, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Plasmodium–helminth coinfection can have a number of consequences for infected hosts, yet our knowledge of the epidemiology of coinfection across multiple settings is limited. This study investigates the distribution and heterogeneity of coinfection with Plasmodium falciparum and 3 major helminth species across East Africa. Methods. Cross-sectional parasite surveys were conducted among 28 050 children in 299 schools across a range of environmental settings in Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia. Data on individual, household, and environmental risk factors were collected and a spatially explicit Bayesian modeling framework was used to investigate heterogeneities of species infection and coinfection and their risk factors as well as school- and individual-level associations between species. Results. Broad-scale geographical patterns of Plasmodium–helminth coinfection are strongly influenced by the least common infection and by species-specific environmental factors. At the individual level, there is an enduring positive association between P. falciparum and hookworm but no association between P. falciparum and Schistosoma species. However, the relative importance of such within-individual associations is less than the role of spatial factors in influencing coinfection risks. Conclusions. Patterns of coinfection seem to be influenced more by the distribution of the least common species and its environmental risk factors, rather than any enduring within-individual associations. PMID:22262792

  9. Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Stokely, Janelle N; Niendorf, Sandra; Taube, Stefan; Hoehne, Marina; Young, Vincent B; Rogers, Mary AM; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients (n=290), whom the provider suspected of C. difficile infections. Subsequent testing was then performed for HuNoV genogroups I and II. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine symptoms more frequently associated with coinfections. Results The final cohort consisted of the following outcome groups: C. difficile (n=196), C. difficile + HuNoV coinfection (n=40), HuNoV only (n=12), and neither (n=136). Coinfected patients were more likely to develop nausea, gas, and abdominal pain and were more likely to seek treatment in the winter season compared with individuals not infected or infected with either pathogen alone. Conclusion Our study revealed that patients with coinfection are more likely to experience certain gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular abdominal pain, suggesting an increased severity of disease symptomatology in coinfected patients. PMID:27418856

  10. Homotypic and heterotypic immune responses to group A rotaviruses in parenterally immunized sheep.

    PubMed

    Beards, G M; King, J A; Mazhar, S; Landon, J; Desselberger, U

    1993-01-01

    Immune responses to human rotaviruses were investigated in sheep with a view to obtaining antibodies for passive immunotherapy of humans. Eighteen adult sheep with previous natural exposure to rotavirus serotypes G3 and G6 were immunized parenterally with purified preparations of either individual rotavirus serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and G8, or a mixture thereof. Two additional sheep were kept as control animals with the flock. The antibody responses were measured on serial serum samples by neutralization tests. The homotypic antibody response ranged from 100-fold (rarely) up to 100,000-fold increases in titre. Heterotypic responses against serotypes G3 and G6 were demonstrated in 7/12 and 15/18 sheep, respectively, but the increases in titre were lower than the homotypic responses, ranging from 10- to 100-fold in most cases and were 1000-fold in two sheep. Interestingly, no heterotypic response against the human rotavirus serotypes was raised after 3 months; moderate titres of cross-neutralizing antibodies for the human serotypes were only observed after a third inoculation. PMID:8382420