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Sample records for naturally occurring isotopes

  1. URBAN STORMWATER TRACING WITH THE NATURALLY OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the naturally-occurring deuterium isotope assist the tracing of water components during wet-weather flows in an urban watershed. A transect of installations in the vadose and saturated zones was completed in the vicinity of a small stream and storm sewer. High-r...

  2. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Rodushkin, I.; Halicz, L.; Segal, I.; Pape, A.; Miller, H. W.; Kolb, D.; Brandt, R.

    2007-08-15

    Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  3. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  4. BIODEGRADATION - MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION (MNA) FOR OXYGENATES: HOW IT EVOLVED, WHY IT OCCURS AND STABLE ISOTOPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organisms that degrade MtBE under anaerobic conditions are evolved to acquire energy for growth by using molecular hydrogen and carbonate ion to cleave methyl ether bonds. Methyl ether bonds are common in nature and the bond also occurs in MTBE. MTBE in contaminated ground...

  5. Naturally occurring chemical carcinogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products are chemicals found in nature which have unique pharmacological effects. Humans are exposed to many of these bioactive naturally occurring chemicals via the air breathed, the water drunk and the food eaten. Exposure also occurs in clinical settings. Naturally occurring chemicals ...

  6. Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Hopple, J.A.; Böhlke, J.K.; Peiser, H.S.; Rieder, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R.D., Jr.; Revesz, K.M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.

    2002-01-01

    laboratories comparable. The minimum and maximum concentrations of a selected isotope in naturally occurring terrestrial materials for selected chemical elements reviewed in this report are given below: Isotope Minimum mole fraction Maximum mole fraction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2H 0 .000 0255 0 .000 1838 7Li 0 .9227 0 .9278 11B 0 .7961 0 .8107 13C 0 .009 629 0 .011 466 15N 0 .003 462 0 .004 210 18O 0 .001 875 0 .002 218 26Mg 0 .1099 0 .1103 30Si 0 .030 816 0 .031 023 34S 0 .0398 0 .0473 37Cl 0 .240 77 0 .243 56 44Ca 0 .020 82 0 .020 92 53Cr 0 .095 01 0 .095 53 56Fe 0 .917 42 0 .917 60 65Cu 0 .3066 0 .3102 205Tl 0 .704 72 0 .705 06 The numerical values above have uncertainties that depend upon the uncertainties of the determinations of the absolute isotope-abundance variations of reference materials of the elements. Because reference materials used for absolute isotope-abundance measurements have not been included in relative isotope abundance investigations of zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium, ranges in isotopic composition are not listed for these elements, although such ranges may be measurable with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry. This report is available at the url: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014222.

  7. Radiometric method for determining concentration of naturally occurring isotopes and device therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, S.L.; Gerling, V.E.; Golubnichy, V.V.; Kotsen, M.E.; Stepanov, J.N.

    1984-10-09

    The proposed method essentially consists in that a sample of a substance is placed between two scintillators in immediate contact therewith whereupon said sample is hermetically sealed. Arranged in close proximity to each scintillator is a photomultiplier tube recording ionizing ..cap alpha..- and b-radiation. A selector is utilized to select pulses corresponding to ..cap alpha..- and b-particles, and delayed coincidence circuits of a recording element separate and record b-..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. cascade pairs of delayed coincidences of RaC, ThC, and AcA radionuclides. Flows are measured twice at a predetermined time interval to account for emanation build-up tendency and concentration of isotopes of radium is determined from a formula.

  8. New insight into biomarkers of human mercury exposure using naturally occurring mercury stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2013-04-01

    Human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and elemental mercury vapor (Hg(0)(g)) are often estimated using total Hg concentrations in hair and urine, respectively. We investigated whether Hg stable isotopes could be used to better distinguish between exposure to Hg(0)(g) versus MeHg. We found that hair from North American dental professionals was characterized by high positive Δ(199)Hg values (mean = 1.86‰, 1 SD = 0.12‰, n = 11). This confirms that among people who regularly consume fish, total Hg concentrations in hair reflect exposure to MeHg. In contrast, we found that urine from the same individuals was characterized by a range of Δ(199)Hg values (0.29 to 1.77‰, 2 SD = 0.06‰, n = 12) that were significantly correlated to the number of dental amalgams in each individual's mouth. We hypothesize that fish-derived MeHg is demethylated within the body, causing mass-dependent fractionation and the excretion of inorganic Hg in urine. Mercury in urine therefore represents a mixture of demethylated fish-derived MeHg and amalgam-derived inorganic Hg. We estimate that the majority (>70%) of Hg in urine from individuals with <10 dental amalgams is derived from ingestion of MeHg in fish. These data suggest that within populations that consume fish, urine total Hg concentrations may overestimate Hg exposure from personal dental amalgams. PMID:23463943

  9. Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

    2010-12-01

    A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual δ15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual δ13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 δ13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather δ13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather δ13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

  10. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  11. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  12. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  13. Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2010-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4−) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO4− appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO4− indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO4− (δ18O, Δ17O, δ37Cl) and associated NO3− (δ18O, Δ17O, δ15N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO3−-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO4− in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO4− from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO4−. ClO4− in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Δ17O values (+8.6 to +18.4 ‰), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley δ37Cl values (−3.1 to −0.8 ‰) and δ18O values (+2.9 to +26.1‰) are higher than those of Atacama ClO4−. In contrast, ClO4− from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Δ17O (+0.3 to +1.3‰), with relatively high δ37Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 ‰) and δ18O (+0.5 to +4.8 ‰), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4− was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Δ17O values in ClO4− (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Δ17O values in NO3−, indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O3-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low Δ17O values in less arid settings. Although Δ17O variations in terrestrial NO3− can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric

  14. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    PubMed

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning. PMID:3086679

  15. Comment on ``Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, R. C.; de Laeter, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    In their article “Existence of Long-Lived Isomeric States in Naturally-Occuring Neutron-Deficient Th Isotopes” [Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303 (2007)], Marinov fail to demonstrate that basic mass spectrometric protocols, such as abundance sensitivity, linearity, and freedom from possible interferences, have been met. In particular, the claim that four isomeric states of Th have been discovered, using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS), with abundances from (1-10)×10-11 relative to Th232, cannot be accepted, given the known abundance sensitivities of other sector field mass spectrometers. Accelerator mass spectrometry is the only mass spectrometric methodology capable of measuring relative abundances of the magnitude claimed by Marinov

  16. INACTIVATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ENTEROVIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project was to compare the kinetics of chlorine inactivation of a naturally-shed virus and its tissue culture grown counterpart. Since inactivation studies require purified preparation possessing high infectivity titer and low chlorine demand a major part of this...

  17. Biodegradation – Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for Oxygenates: How it Evolved, why it Occurs and Using Stable Carbon Isotopes to Predict Plume Behavior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organisms that degrade MtBE under anaerobic conditions are evolved to acquire energy for growth by using molecular hydrogen and carbonate ion to cleave methyl ether bonds. Methyl ether bonds are common in nature and the bond also occurs in MTBE. MTBE in contaminated ground...

  18. Stable Isotopes of Selenium and Common Elements (N, O, S) Reveal Redox Controls on the Mobility of a Naturally Occurring Source of Selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, R. E.; Hibbs, B.; Ellis, A.

    2007-12-01

    Historically, an extensive wetland known as the "Swamp of the Frogs" occupied the central, low-lying part of the San Diego Creek Watershed in Orange County, California. The swamp acted as a sink for the redox sensitive trace element selenium. Toward the end of the nineteenth century the swamp was drained to make way for the expansion of ranching and agriculture, resulting in a shift in prevailing redox conditions. High levels selenium have been reported in the shallow groundwaters associated with the historic swamp often causing surface water concentrations to exceed the EPA chronic criterion of 5 ug/L. Nitrate in groundwater often exceeds 10 mg/L NO3-N due to leaching of fertilizer used on citrus crops. Published research has shown that nitrate can act to oxidize reduced forms of sulfur and selenium. Stable isotopes of selenium, N and O in nitrate and S in sulfate are used to investigate the link between denitrification and the oxidation of reduced forms of sulfur and selenium along two groundwater flowpaths within the historic swamp. The "El Modena" flowpath begins roughly at the northern boundary of the historic swamp. Along this flowpath selenium increases from an upgradient value of 12 ug/L to a downgradient value of 80 ug/L while nitrate varies from 16 to 28 mg/L NO3-N. Isotopes of N and O in nitrate indicate a denitrification trend along the flowpath as delta 15N [NO3-] increases from 6.8 per mille to 19.0 per mille and delta 18O [NO3-] increases from 6.8 per mille to 14.0 per mille. The behavior of sulfur isotopes varies inversely with that of nitrogen with delta 34S [SO4 2-] decreasing from 0.1 per mille to -17.2 per mille. This, coupled with a slight enrichment in delta 13C-DIC, suggests that denitrification is coupled to the oxidation of metal sulfides disseminated in soils. Selenium isotopes (del 82/76Se [SeO4 2-]) did not grow isotopically depleted as expected, but varied from about 1.0 per mille at the outer boundary of the historic marsh, decreasing

  19. Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Tropones and Tropolones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Song, Wangze; Schienebeck, Casi M.; Zhang, Min; Tang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Tropones and tropolones are an important class of seven-membered non-benzenoid aromatic compounds. They can be prepared directly by oxidation of seven-membered rings. They can also be derived from cyclization or cycloaddition of appropriate precursors followed by elimination or rearrangement. This review discusses the types of naturally occurring tropones and tropolones and outlines important methods developed for the synthesis of tropone and tropolone natural products. PMID:25400298

  20. Naturally-occurring chemical analogues for repository-derived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1996-12-01

    Studies of natural systems are a valuable means of gaining information on the behavior of elements and radionuclides in the geosphere or biosphere that may be used to support performance assessments for radioactive waste repositories. However, these natural system studies face the problem that some of the chemical and isotopic species that occur in radioactive wastes do not occur naturally. Therefore, when attempting to study transport processes for these species other, naturally-occurring species must be examined as {open_quote}chemical analogues{close_quote} for the waste species. Chemical analogues are chosen on the basis of some similarity with the chemical behavior of the waste species in relevant physico-chemical environments. This is a tricky procedure and each system must be considered on a case-by-case basis, although some guidelines can be established and these are given here.

  1. Naturally occurring products in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Sankari, Leena S.; Malathi, L.; Krupaa, Jayasri R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases and are becoming an important research area for drug discovery. These products, especially phytochemicals have been extensively studies and have exhibited anti-carcinogenic activities by interfering with the initiation, development and progression of cancer through the modulation of various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This concept is gaining attention because it is a cost-effective alternative to cancer treatment. In this article, we have discussed some of the naturally occurring products used in cancer treatment. PMID:26015704

  2. Medicinal significance of naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Muna Ali

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive natural products are serendipitous drug candidates, which stimulate synthetic approaches for improving and supporting drug discovery and development. Therefore, the search for bioactive metabolites from different natural sources continues to play an important role in fashioning new medicinal agents. Several cyclic peptides were produced by organisms, such as β-defensins, gramicidin S, and tyrocidine A, and exhibited a wide range of bioactivities, such as antiviral activity against HIV-1, influenza A viruses, or antibacterial activity. Cyclic tetrapeptides are a class of natural products that were found to have a broad range of biological activities, promising pharmacokinetic properties, as well as interesting conformational dynamics and ability of slow inter-conversion to several different structures. Cyclooligopeptides, particularly medium ring-sized peptides, were obtained from marine microorganisms and exhibited a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial and anti-dinoflagellate activities, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory activity against enzyme sortase B. Most of the naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides are obtained from fungi. Some natural cyclic tetrapeptides were found to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC), which regulate the expression of genes. These compounds are very useful as cancer therapeutics. Various analogues of the natural cyclotetrapeptides were successfully synthesized to find novel lead compounds for pharmacological and biotechnological applications. Therefore, in this review, previously reported novel natural cyclotetrapeptides are briefly discussed, along with their important biological activities as drug candidates, together with their promising therapeutic properties. Moreover, their future perspective in drug discovery as potential therapeutic agents will be determined. PMID:27300506

  3. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  4. Naturally occurring anti M complicating ABO grouping.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Safoorah; Dantes, Roelyn; Varghese, Sunu; Al Hakawati, Imadeddin

    2011-01-01

    Anti M is considered a naturally occurring antibody that is usually active at temperatures below 37°C and is thus of no clinical significance. This antibody, if present in an individual, can lead to a discrepancy between forward and reverse ABO grouping and thus creates diagnostic difficulties for blood bank staff. We report a case of a 58-year-old lady who had an unexpected reaction in reverse grouping due to anti M that posed a problem for us in the interpretation of results of her blood group. We also reviewed the literature to find out the significance of such discrepancy in blood grouping. PMID:21393909

  5. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  6. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  7. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-06-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  8. Tetrahedral boron in naturally occurring tourmaline

    SciTech Connect

    Tagg, S.L.; Cho, H.; Dyar, M.D.; Grew, E.S.

    1999-09-01

    Evidence for boron in both trigonal and tetrahedral coordination has been found in {sup 11}B magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of natural, inclusion-free specimens of aluminum-rich lithian tourmaline from granitic pregmatites.

  9. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  10. Naturally occurring hydroxytyrosol: synthesis and anticancer potential.

    PubMed

    Bernini, R; Merendino, N; Romani, A; Velotti, F

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that polyphenols, a group of secondary plant metabolites occurring mainly in the plant kingdom, may have a protective effect against some chronic degenerative diseases such as cancer. Polyphenols are part of the human diet, being present in vegetal food and beverages. Among them, an olive biophenol named hydroxytyrosol [2-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol, HTyr] has recently received particular attention because of its antioxidant, antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, which have the potential to specifically counteract all cancer hallmarks, thus representing the expectant biological activities underlying the anti-tumor properties of this polyphenol. After a description of the synthetic procedures to prepare pure HTyr, this review takes into consideration the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of HTyr as the result of its antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. In particular, the review is focused on the current knowledge of the main cellular and molecular mechanisms used by HTyr to affect carcinogenesis, highlighting the specific oncogenic and inflammatory signaling pathways potentially targeted by HTyr. PMID:23244583

  11. Analysis of natural-occurring and synthetic sexual hormones in sludge-amended soils by matrix solid-phase dispersion and isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Pérez, Rosa A; Tadeo, José L

    2013-03-29

    A sensitive analytical method is presented for the simultaneous determination of four synthetic estrogens and six steroid hormones in sludge-amended soil. The method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injecting a large volume sample (10μL) after trimethylsilyl derivatization, using the solvent vent mode. It affords good resolution, high sensitivity and reproducibility and freedom from interferences even from complex matrices as soil amended with sewage sludge. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 10 to 300pgg(-1) with testosterone and progesterone having the highest limits. Soil amended with sewage sludge was spiked at 2, 10, 25 and 50ngg(-1) and the recoveries after MSPD with acetonitrile:methanol (90:10, v/v), ranged from 80 to 110% with relative standard deviations ≤9%. The method was applied to the analysis of six soil samples collected from agricultural plots and forested fields that had been amended with sewage sludge using isotopically labeled surrogates. Three of the synthetic estrogens studied were found at least in one of the six samples analyzed and trans-androsterone and estrone were the only natural hormones detected, although at very low levels (≤0.4ngg(-1)). PMID:23465128

  12. Stable isotope deltas: tiny, yet robust signatures in nature.

    PubMed

    Brand, Willi A; Coplen, Tyler B

    2012-09-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including (14)C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. (13)C, (2)H, and (18)O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as-25 per mil can be written as-25 mUr (or-2.5 cUr or-0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg 'units' are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  13. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  14. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  15. A preliminary evaluation of naturally occurring radioactivity concentration levels across the State of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Shams, H; Bajoga, A D; Alazemi, N; Bradley, D A; Regan, P H

    2016-03-01

    An evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a surface radiological map of the State of Kuwait. Soil samples were collected from twelve locations across Kuwait and analysed using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The (226)Ra and (235)U specific activity concentrations have been determined and used to estimate the (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratios which are found to be comparable to that expected for naturally occurring uranium material. PMID:26717795

  16. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  17. Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.

    PubMed

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-01-01

    The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis. PMID:24957317

  18. Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F.

    2008-07-01

    The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural

  19. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

  20. Addressing Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mining companies deal with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) issues on their sites in two ways, avoidance and management. Avoidance simply means that to the extent practical, new mines are located in areas where NOA is unlikely to occur. Where mines are located in areas where NOA may be present, mines implement management procedures to identify and control potential sources of NOA. Management practices may include procedures set forth in regulations such as California's Air Toxicity Control Measure that deals with surface mining, voluntary procedures, or a combination of both. The mining industry generally recognizes that addressing NOA issues is a cost of doing business.;

  1. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  2. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

  3. Synthetic muscle promoters: activities exceeding naturally occurring regulatory sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.

  4. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  5. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  6. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  7. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  8. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. PMID:25816274

  9. Purifying food-grade, naturally occurring CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Nobles, J.E.; Stancik, J.W.

    1983-12-26

    Technology to purify naturally occurring CO/sub 2/ into products suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and food grade CO/sub 2/ markets has been commercially demonstrated in a 20 MMscfd (1,100 ton/day) CO/sub 2/ processing facility owned and operated by Columbia Hydrocarbon Corp. The unit demonstrates that it is technically and economically feasible to process low grade natural gas to produce pipeline specification natural gas, raw CO/sub 2/, and food grade CO/sub 2/. The Selexol treating facility is located on a reclaimed coal strip mine with very restricted plot area. Only compression and dehydration equipment for the CO/sub 2/ is located there. The CO/sub 2/ is transported by pipeline to the Marmet site, approx. 7 miles away. This site contains the facilities for purifying the CO/sub 2/ and for storage.

  10. Active experiments, magnetospheric modification, and a naturally occurring analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Recently, a scheme has been proposed which would modify the magnetosphere by injecting plasma near the equator beyond the plasmapause and initiating wave-particle instabilities. The expected effects have been examined theoretically. Injection of plasma into this region is also a naturally occurring phenomenon produced by the cross-tail electric fields which are associated with geomagnetic activity. For further investigation of magnetospheric instabilities, the advantages of examining artificially injected plasma (control of time and location of injection and of the volume of plasma injected) contrast with the advantages of studying natural enhancements (no extra payload, frequent occurrence). Thus, the two types of experiments are complementary. In preliminary studies of natural plasma enhancements both ULF and ELF emissions have been observed. The ELF noise is consistent with generation by the electron cyclotron instability.

  11. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2014-01-01

    Background Directly Acting Antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C (HCV) therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV positive and negative individuals with recent HCV. Methods The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from fifty genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Results Twelve percent of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (ie < 20%) but above a threshold of 1%. Resistance variants (< 1%) were observed at most sites associated with DAA resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Conclusions Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites, and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. PMID:25105742

  12. Measurements for the Development of a Simulated Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material

    PubMed Central

    Pibida, L.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen different commercially available samples containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (i.e., natural uranium, thorium, radium and potassium) were investigated, including zircon sand, cat litter, roofing tiles, ice melt and fertilizer among others. A large variation in isotopic composition was observed across the measured samples. As a result of this observation, a need was identified to develop and implement the use of a simulated NORM sample to serve as a reference standard sample containing naturally occurring radioactive elements. The purpose of the simulated NORM sample would be to simulate typical samples containing NORM to be used for testing radiation detection instruments against ANSI/IEEE and IEC document standards requirements. The design and construction of the proposed new simulated NORM sample and the subsequent energy spectra characterization measurements are presented as part of this work. PMID:26900520

  13. Macaques exhibit a naturally-occurring depression similar to humans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17-22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  14. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia. PMID:21515621

  15. Interaction between manufactured gold nanoparticles and naturally occurring organic macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Diegoli, Sara; Manciulea, Adriana L; Begum, Shakiela; Jones, Ian P; Lead, Jamie R; Preece, Jon A

    2008-08-25

    The increasing exploitation of nanomaterials into many consumer and other products is raising concerns as these nanomaterials are likely to be released into the environment. Due to our lack of knowledge about the environmental chemistry, transport and ecotoxicology of nanomaterials, it is of paramount importance to study how natural aquatic colloids can interact with manufactured gold nanoparticles as these interactions will determine their environmental fate and behaviour. In this context, our work aims to quantify the effect of naturally occurring riverine macromolecules--International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) Suwannee River Humic Acid Standard (SRHA)--on citrate- and acrylate-stabilized gold nanoparticles. The influence of SRHA on the stability of the gold colloids was studied as a function of pH by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At high ionic strengths (0.1 M), extensive and rapid aggregation occurred, while more subtle effects were observed at lower ionic strength values. Evidence was found that SRHA enhances particle stability at extreme pH values (ionic strength<0.01 M) by substituting and/or over-coating the original stabilizer on the gold nanoparticle surface, thus affecting surface charge and chemistry. These findings have important implications for the fate and behaviour of nanoparticles in the environment and their ecotoxicity. PMID:18534664

  16. Dry-Heat Inactivation Kinetics of Naturally Occurring Spore Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bond, W. W.; Favero, M. S.; Petersen, N. J.; Marshall, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-three soil samples were collected from areas of the United States where major spacecraft assembly and launch facilities are in operation. Soil samples were treated with ethyl alcohol, ultrasonic energy, and gross filtration. The resultant suspensions consisted of viable, naturally occurring bacterial spores and were used to inoculate stainless-steel strips. The strips were suspended in a forced air oven and assays were made at 5-min intervals for the number of viable spores. Most survivor curves were nonlinear. Subsequently, spore crops of heat-sensitive and heat-resistant soil isolates were found to have linear survivor curves at 125 C which were unaffected by the presence or absence of sterile soil particles from the parent sample. When two spore crops, one of which was heat-resistant and the other heat-sensitive, were mixed, the resultant nonlinear curves were unaffected by the presence or absence of sterile parent soil. Therefore, the survivor curves obtained originally with the soils were the result of heterogeneous spore populations rather than of protection afforded by soil particles in our test system. These results question the rationale both of assuming logarithmic death and of using decimal-reduction values obtained with subcultured standard reference spores in the derivation of dry-heat sterilization cycles for items contaminated with naturally occurring spore populations. PMID:5498605

  17. Macaques Exhibit a Naturally-Occurring Depression Similar to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17–22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  18. Helium isotopic abundance variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The isotopic abundance of helium in nature has been reviewed. This atomic weight value is based on the value of helium in the atmosphere, which is invariant around the world and up to a distance of 100,000 feet. Helium does vary in natural gas, volcanic rocks and gases, ocean floor sediments, waters of various types and in radioactive minerals and ores due to {alpha} particle decay of radioactive nuclides.

  19. Designing a Nanotube Using Naturally Occurring Protein Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Zheng, Jie; Nussinov, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Here our goal is to carry out nanotube design using naturally occurring protein building blocks. Inspection of the protein structural database reveals the richness of the conformations of proteins, their parts, and their chemistry. Given target functional protein nanotube geometry, our strategy involves scanning a library of candidate building blocks, combinatorially assembling them into the shape and testing its stability. Since self-assembly takes place on time scales not affordable for computations, here we propose a strategy for the very first step in protein nanotube design: we map the candidate building blocks onto a planar sheet and wrap the sheet around a cylinder with the target dimensions. We provide examples of three nanotubes, two peptide and one protein, in atomistic model detail for which there are experimental data. The nanotube models can be used to verify a nanostructure observed by low-resolution experiments, and to study the mechanism of tube formation. PMID:16683021

  20. Vampire bat reproductive control by a naturally occurring phytooestrogen.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Hector; Pérez-Rivero, Juan-José; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; de-Paz, Octavio; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Rabies transmission by wild animals has not being controlled satisfactorily. One major rabies vector to humans and cattle is the hematophagous vampire bat Desmodus rotundus whose distribution is still increasing in the Americas. Of all of the strategies currently in place to control this vector, none of them are really specific and some have ecological impacts. In the present study we used a naturally occurring phytoestrogen on a small vampire bat colony. After collection, bats were fed bovine blood containing 200 microg coumestrol for a 30-day period. After treatment, gonads were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Data indicate that coumestrol adversely affects gonad histology and has a possible impact on the fertility of both male and female vampire bats. PMID:17394795

  1. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-15

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all-atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. PMID:26841080

  2. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all‐atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841080

  3. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  4. Metabolic mechanism of phenyllactic acid naturally occurring in Chinese pickles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Ning, Yawei; Liu, Dou; Yan, Aihong; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Shijie; Miao, Ming; Zhu, Hong; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    Phenyllactic acid, a phenolic acid phytochemical with the antimicrobial activity, was rarely reported in food besides honey and sourdough. This study evidenced a new food source of phenyllactic acid and elucidated its metabolic mechanism. Phenyllactic acid naturally occurred in Chinese pickles with concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.30 mM in 23 pickle samples including homemade and commercial ones. Then, lactic acid bacteria capable of metabolizing phenyllactic acid were screened from each homemade pickle and a promising strain was characterized as Lactobacillus plantarum. Moreover, the investigation of the metabolic mechanism of phenyllactic acid in pickles suggested that the yield of phenyllactic acid was positively related to the content of phenylalanine in food, and the addition of phenylalanine as precursor substance could significantly promote the production of phenyllactic acid. This investigation could provide some insights into the accumulation of phenyllactic acid in pickle for long storage life. PMID:25976820

  5. Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Shabbeer, Shabana; Sobolewski, Michelle; Anchoori, Ravi Kumar; Kachhap, Sushant; Hidalgo, Manuel; Jimeno, Antonio; Davidson, Nancy; Carducci, Michael A; Khan, Saeed R

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, various dietary components that can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72 h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines (PCa). When tested at higher doses (15-20 ug/mL), FE continued to be growth inhibitory to PCa cell lines but not to either primary prostate or hTert-immortalized prostate cells. At least part of the growth inhibition is due to induction of cell death, as seen by incorporation of Ethidium Bromide III into cancer cells exposed to FE. Molecular changes induced in PCa cells are: in DU-145 cells: downregulation of mutant p53, and in PC-3 cells upregulation of p21 and inhibition of TGFbeta induced phosphorylation of Akt. The surprising finding of our studies is that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously upregulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential. PMID:19197146

  6. Sequestering Naturally Occurring Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capron, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide has been found as shallow as 1,500 meters in seafloor ooze. Did the liquid carbon dioxide originate from volcanic activity? Or did bacteria convert organic matter, which started as atmospheric carbon dioxide, into methane and liquid carbon dioxide? At typical ocean temperatures carbon dioxide coming out of solution below 600 meters will be liquid. Therefore, one likely mechanism for generating liquid carbon dioxide in seafloor ooze is the bacterial decomposition of organic matter. This paper examines quantitative and qualitative bacterial decomposition of aquatic biomass, with an emphasis on assessing and demonstrating feasibility. Calculations suggest natural processes sequestering liquid carbon dioxide in the seafloor can be sustainably increased to decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. First, algae growing on the ocean surface absorb carbon dioxide. The algae are then gathered into a submerged container. Naturally occurring bacteria will digest the algae producing methane, liquid carbon dioxide, and ammonium. The ammonium can be recycled as a nutrient for growing more algae. Bacterial decomposition continues in dilute solutions with any biomass. The process does not require any particular biomass. Also, concentrating the biomass by removing water is not essential. The buoyancy provided by water allows relatively inexpensive tension fabric structures to contain the dilute algae and decomposition products. Calculations based on algae growth in open ponds and experience with bacterial decomposition at 1 to 5 bar pressures suggest the economics of the associated macro-algae growing and harvesting can favor increasing ocean species diversity.

  7. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. PMID:27404718

  8. Assembly of naturally occurring glycosides, evolved tactics, and glycosylation methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Biao; Sun, Jiansong; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2012-08-21

    Glycosylation of proteins and lipids is critical to many life processes. Secondary metabolites (or natural products), such as flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, and antibiotics, are also frequently modified with saccharides. The resulting glycosides include diverse structures and functions, and some of them have pharmacological significance. The saccharide portions of the glycosides often have specific structural characteristics that depend on the aglycones. These molecules also form heterogeneous "glycoform" mixtures where molecules have similar glycosidic linkages but the saccharides vary in the length and type of monosaccharide unit. Thus, it is difficult to purify homogeneous glycosides in appreciable amounts from natural sources. Chemical synthesis provides a feasible access to the homogeneous glycosides and their congeners. Synthesis of a glycoside involves the synthesis of the aglycone, the saccharide, the connection of these two parts, and the overall manipulation of protecting groups. However, most synthetic efforts to date have focused on the aglycones, treating the attachment of saccharides onto the aglycones as a dispensable topic. The synthesis of the aglycone and the synthesis of the saccharide belong to two independent categories of chemistry, and different types of the aglycones and saccharides pose as specific synthetic subjects in their own disciplines. The only reaction that integrates the broad chemistry of glycoside synthesis is the glycosidic bond formation between the saccharide and the aglycone. Focusing on this glycosylation reaction in this Account, we string together our experience with the synthesis of the naturally occurring glycosides. We briefly describe the synthesis of 18 glycosides, including glycolipids, phenolic glycosides, steroid glycosides, and triterpene glycosides. Each molecule represents a prototypical structure of a family of the natural glycosides with interesting biological activities, and we emphasize the general

  9. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets. PMID:23467094

  10. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-12-31

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth`s crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine {open_quotes}concentrations{close_quotes}, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn`t be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930`s, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980`s. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed.

  11. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet were studied using the modal frequency technique. The evolution of the modal spectrum was obtained for a jet with a Reynolds number based on a diameter of 400,000 for both laminar and turbulent nozzle boundary layers. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing rapidly but dominating only the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal was observed closer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Target modes for efficient excitation of the jet were determined and two cases of excitation were studied. First, a jet was excited simultaneously by two helical modes, m equals plus 1 and m equals minus 1 at a Strouhal number based on jet diameter of 0.15 and the axisymmetric mode, m equals 0 at a jet diameter of 0.6. Second, m equals plus one and m equals minus 1 at jet diameter equals 0.3 and m equals 0 at jet diameter equals 0.6 were excited simultaneously. The downstream evolution of the hydrodynamic modes and the spreading rate of the jet were documented for each case. Higher jet spreading rates, accompanied by distorted jet cross sections were observed for the cases where combinations of axisymmetric and helical forcings were applied.

  12. Application of the Commission's recommendations to naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2015-06-01

    Since publication of the 2007 Recommendations (ICRP Publication 103), the International Commission on Radiological Protection has focused on preparing a series of publications dedicated to different types of existing exposure situations, such as radon exposure, cosmic exposure in aviation, and exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The publication related to NORM will present the main types of corresponding activities, and describe the characteristics of NORM exposure. It will also develop a conceptual framework for the practical application of the Commission's system to NORM exposure. In particular, the publication will explain why NORM activities are generally considered to be existing exposure situations, and when some of them should be managed as planned exposure situations. It will indicate when the workers should be considered as occupationally exposed. It will also provide recommendations regarding application of the three principles of radiological protection. The need to consider the justification of the re-use or recycling of residues carefully will be highlighted. Guidance will be provided for selection of the reference level, and for implementation of the optimisation process through a graded approach including both prevention and mitigation of exposures. Flexibility will be recommended for the application of dose limits, notably when the situation is managed as a planned exposure situation. PMID:25816272

  13. Solution of naturally-occurring glasses in the geological environment

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, B.P.

    1982-12-01

    As part of a study to investigate the feasibility of putting nuclear wastes in glass containers and burying them on land or dumping them in the ocean, we have made a study of the amount of solution experienced by naturally occurring glasses from two land sites and thirty-four deep-sea sites. The glasses used in this study are microtektites from three strewn fields (Australasian, Ivory Coast, and North American) and from the Zhamanshin impact crater in southern Siberia. The microtektites range in age from 0.7 to 35 m.y. and they have a wide range in composition. Although several criteria for determining the amount of solution were considered, most of the conclusions are based on two criteria: (1) width of cracks, and (2) elevation of silica-rich inclusions above the adjacent microtektite surface. The amount of solution was determined for about 170 microtektites; and measured amounts of solution range from 0.2 to at least 28 {mu}m, but most are less than 5 {mu}m. There appears to be no systematic relationship between age and amount of solution. 21 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Naturally occurring murine norovirus infection in a large research institution.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Kathy A; Green, Kim Y; Copeland, Michelle; Barron, Elyssa; Mandel, Myrna; Faucette, Lawrence J; Williams, Elizabeth M; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Elkins, William R; Ward, Jerrold M

    2007-07-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered infectious agent in mice and may be the most common naturally occurring infection of laboratory mice in North America. In 2005, we surveyed the Swiss Webster female sentinel mice in our institute's research facilities. Of the 4 facilities surveyed, 3 had sentinel mice that were positive for MNV antibodies, whereas our largest facility (which only receives mice directly from select vendors or by embryo rederivation directly into the facility) was apparently MNV-free. However, testing of sentinel mice in this large facility 1 y later found that 2% of the animals had developed MNV-specific antibodies. In a recently opened fifth facility, a serologic survey in 2006 identified MNV-antibody-positive Tac:SW sentinel mice that had received bedding from experimental mice on the same rack quadrant. Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction analysis of feces from the cages of these mice showed evidence for shedding of MNV. These sentinel mice were used to study the fecal excretion, antibody development, gross lesions upon necropsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry of the viral infection. None of the MNV-antibody-positive sentinel mice exhibited clinical signs or gross lesions, but these mice excreted virus in feces and developed antibodies to MNV. Histopathologic lesions consisted only of a few hepatic inflammatory foci in each liver section, some of which were immunoreactive with antibodies to MNV. MNV viral antigens also were present in the mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:17645294

  15. Antimicrobial evaluation of selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Mara; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the antimicrobial activity of eight selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Results showed a moderate antimicrobial activity. The most active compounds were 3-(4-geranyloxyphenyl)-1-ethanol (4) and 3-(4-isopentenyloxyphenyl)-1-propanol (5) that were tested on mature and in-formation biofilms of all micro-organisms, moreover the cytotoxic activity was evaluated. Except for S. epidermidis, both compounds reduced significantly (p < 0.05) the microbial biofilm formation at 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC, in particular, compounds 4 and 5 at each concentration, inhibited E. coli biofilm formation to a greater extent, the biofilm formation was never more than 44% in respect to the control, moreover both compounds showed a low cytotoxic effect. Oxyprenylated derivatives may be of great interest for the development of novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies and the synthesis of semi-synthetic analogues with anti-biofilm efficacy. PMID:27498831

  16. Identifying Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities: A Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Yamashita, Takashi; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Guided by the concept of “aging in place” and potential policy implications, the study analyzed naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs; 40% or greater house owners and renters aged 65 years and older) and whether there were spatiotemporal patterns in Ohio between 2000 and 2010. Method Data were derived from the 2000 and 2010 census tracts. Geovisualization was used to visually examine the distribution of NORCs in 2000 and 2010. Global Moran’s I was used to quantify the spatial distribution of NORCs in Ohio and Local Moran’s I was used to identify clusters of NORCs (i.e., hot spots). Results The number of NORCs slightly decreased despite the overall increase of the older population from 2000 to 2010. NORCs were identified in one of the 3 most populous counties (i.e., Cuyahoga) and its neighboring counties. A number of hot spots were identified in Cuyahoga County (among Ohio’s most populous and NORC-rich counties), both in 2000 and 2010. There were different patterns including emerging, disappearing, and enduring NORCs and disproportionate distributions of NORCs across the state between 2000 and 2010. Discussion Locating NORCs could aid governments to create “aging in place” sensitive policies to address issues of independence, social care, health care, volunteerism, and community participation. PMID:24958694

  17. Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation in naturally occurring ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, R. E.; Poulsen, T.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Klein, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon, and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope—IceCube. Located in Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occurring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high-precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in apparent neutrino direction. In closing, we also describe a simple experiment to test this formalism and calculate the impact of anisotropy on light yields from lead tungstate crystals as used, for example, in the CMS calorimeter at the CERN LHC.

  18. Biophysical characterization of naturally occurring titin M10 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Rudloff, Michael W; Woosley, Alec N; Wright, Nathan T

    2015-01-01

    The giant proteins titin and obscurin are important for sarcomeric organization, stretch response, and sarcomerogenesis in myofibrils. The extreme C-terminus of titin (the M10 domain) binds to the N-terminus of obscurin (the Ig1 domain) in the M-band. The high-resolution structure of human M10 has been solved, along with M10 bound to one of its two known molecular targets, the Ig1 domain of obscurin-like. Multiple M10 mutations are linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2J (LGMD2J) and tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD). The effect of the M10 mutations on protein structure and function has not been thoroughly characterized. We have engineered all four of the naturally occurring human M10 missense mutants and biophysically characterized them in vitro. Two of the four mutated constructs are severely misfolded, and cannot bind to the obscurin Ig1 domain. One mutation, H66P, is folded at room temperature but unfolds at 37°C, rendering it binding incompetent. The I57N mutation shows no significant structural, dynamic, or binding differences from the wild-type domain. We suggest that this mutation is not directly responsible for muscle wasting disease, but is instead merely a silent mutation found in symptomatic patients. Understanding the biophysical basis of muscle wasting disease can help streamline potential future treatments. PMID:25739468

  19. Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helly, John J.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2004-09-01

    Hypoxia in the ocean influences biogeochemical cycling of elements, the distribution of marine species and the economic well being of many coastal countries. Previous delineations of hypoxic environments focus on those in enclosed seas where hypoxia may be exacerbated by anthropogenically induced eutrophication. Permanently hypoxic water masses in the open ocean, referred to as oxygen minimum zones, impinge on a much larger seafloor surface area along continental margins of the eastern Pacific, Indian and western Atlantic Oceans. We provide the first global quantification of naturally hypoxic continental margin floor by determining upper and lower oxygen minimum zone depth boundaries from hydrographic data and computing the area between the isobaths using seafloor topography. This approach reveals that there are over one million km 2 of permanently hypoxic shelf and bathyal sea floor, where dissolved oxygen is <0.5 ml l -1; over half (59%) occurs in the northern Indian Ocean. We also document strong variation in the intensity, vertical position and thickness of the OMZ as a function of latitude in the eastern Pacific Ocean and as a function of longitude in the northern Indian Ocean. Seafloor OMZs are regions of low biodiversity and are inhospitable to most commercially valuable marine resources, but support a fascinating array of protozoan and metazoan adaptations to hypoxic conditions.

  20. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted. PMID:27433836

  1. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug. PMID:26974691

  2. Role of naturally occurring gas hydrates in sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    McIver, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrates have the potential to store enormous volumes of both gas and water in semi-solid form in ocean-bottom sediments and then to release that gas and water when the hydrate's equilibrium condition are disturbed. Therefore, hydrates provide a potential mechanism for transporting large volumes of sediments. Under the combined low bottom-water temperatures and moderate hydrostatic pressures that exist over most of the continental slopes and all of the continental rises and abyssal plains, hydrocarbon gases at or near saturation in the interstitial waters of the near-bottom sediments will form hydrates. The gas can either be autochthonous, microbially produced gas, or allochthonous, catagenic gas from deeper sediments. Equilibrium conditions that stabilize hydrated sediments may be disturbed, for example, by continued sedimentation or by lowering of sea level. In either case, some of the solid gas-water matrix decomposes. Released gas and water volume exceeds the volume occupied by the hydrate, so the internal pressure rises - drastically if large volumes of hydrate are decomposed. Part of the once rigid sediment is converted to a gas- and water-rich, relatively low density mud. When the internal pressure, due to the presence of the compressed gas or to buoyancy, is sufficiently high, the overlying sediment may be lifted and/or breached, and the less dense, gas-cut mud may break through. Such hydrate-related phenomena can cause mud diapirs, mud volcanos, mud slides, or turbidite flows, depending on sediment configuration and bottom topography. 4 figures.

  3. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  4. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  5. A nitrogen and sulfur isotope investigation of redox conditions occurring in a shallow outwash aquifer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, R.; Hartke, E.

    2001-12-01

    The sources and distribution of elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations were determined using nitrogen and sulfur isotopes in groundwater from an unconfined outwash aquifer located in Jackson County, southern Indiana. Land use is mostly agricultural. Local farmers apply nitrogeneous inorganic fertilizers to their fields. In addition, two commercial confined feedlots house over two million chickens, and wastes are stored in seven interconnected lagoons at the larger feedlot. These wastes are later applied to an adjacent field via spray irrigation. Over 50 shallow wells (5 m deep), domestic wells (7 m deep) and deep wells (15to 20 m deep) were sampled over a two- year period to monitor nitrogen and sulfur inputs from these sources. Most shallow groundwater in the study area is above the EPA drinking water standards for nitrate-N (>10 mgL). Nitrate concentrations are highest down gradient from the spray irrigation field (53.5 mgL), yet are also elevated in up gradient groundwaters. Nitrogen isotopes are enriched in the heavier isotope (d15N-NO3 > +13.7 ooo) down gradient from the large feedlot and lightest signatures (d15N-NO3 < +2.0 ooo) are found in up gradient groundwater underlying fields that use inorganic fertilizers. Analytes associated with feedlot wastes (sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfate) are also elevated down gradient from the larger feedlot. Deep groundwater has no nitrate and higher sulfate concentrations than shallow waters. In two sets of multi-level wells, enrichment in both oxygen and nitrogen isotopes indicates that denitrification may occur at two depths: 1) locally in shallow waters adjacent to the waste lagoons; and 2) in deeper waters (approximately 10 m) throughout the study area. Sulfate isotopic signatures in deep groundwater approach the signature of pyrite found within the outwash (d34S-SO4 = -11.6 ooo). Autotrophic denitrification may be occurring where nitrate is reduced and the oxidation of pyrite is adding sulfate with depth.

  6. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    SciTech Connect

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  7. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  8. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie

    2008-11-15

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally Occurring U-Series Disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, Michael; Ku, Teh-Lung

    1999-06-01

    The main goal of the research is to understand the migratory behavior of radioactive contaminants in subsurface fractured systems by using naturally occurring U-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Naturally-occurring uranium- and thorium-series radioactive disequilibria can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of radioactive contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. This study will also provide an improved understanding of the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of radioactive contaminants. We intend to produce a realistic model of radionuclide migration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer beneath the INEEL by evaluating the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in rock minerals and sorbed phases, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibrium and a statistical analysis based model code for the calculation of in-situ retardation factors of radionuclides and rock/water interaction time scales.

  10. Chemical and isotopic evidence for hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the Lincolnshire Limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Philip K.; Lloyd, John W.

    1990-12-01

    Over 150 groundwater samples from the Lincolnshire Limestone have been analysed for pH, major ions and δ 13C ratios. Where possible, field E h and iodide concentrations were measured and methane concentrations were determined for 12 samples. Stable isotope ratios were determined for soil and rock carbonate samples. A system of zonation allows the division of hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the aquifer. The use of hydrochemical and isotope data in modelling exercises enables the re-evaluation and possible enhancement of the understanding of hydrogeochemical processes. The carbonate chemistry of outcrop groundwaters is explained by calcite saturation being achieved under open-system conditions in the soil zone. δ 13C ratios in the range - 15.99 to - 10.57‰ may be generated from a stoichiometric reaction with possible additional partial and/or simultaneous exchange with soil CO 2 or carbonate. The isotopic composition of soil carbonate shows the effects of precipitation from soil waters. The incongruent dissolution of primary depositional limestone carbonate results in increasing magnesium and strontium concentrations and increasing δ 13C ratios for the groundwaters with flow down the hydraulic gradient. As a result of incongruent dissolution, secondary calcite may be precipitated onto fissure surfaces. Significant nitrate and sulphate reduction in non-saline groundwaters is not supported by the results of hydrochemical and isotope modelling exercises. However, sulphate reduction and methane fermentation may be affecting the isotopic and chemical compositions of saline groundwaters. Sodium-calcium ion exchange leads to limited calcite dissolution deep in the aquifer, but the evolution of these groundwaters is confused by the uncertain effects of oxidation of organic carbon and mixing with a saline end-member solution.

  11. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city. PMID:26919836

  12. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  13. Geochemistry of a naturally occurring massive marine gas hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Claypool, G.E.; Threlkeld, C.N.; Dendy, Sloan E.

    1984-01-01

    During Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 84 a core 1 m long and 6 cm in diameter of massive gas hydrate was unexpectedly recovered at Site 570 in upper slope sediment of the Middle America Trench offshore of Guatemala. This core contained only 5-7% sediment, the remainder being the solid hydrate composed of gas and water. Samples of the gas hydrate were decomposed under controlled conditions in a closed container maintained at 4??C. Gas pressure increased and asymptotically approached the equilibrium decomposition pressure for an ideal methane hydrate, CH4.5-3/4H2O, of 3930 kPa and approached to this pressure after each time gas was released, until the gas hydrate was completely decomposed. The gas evolved during hydrate decomposition was 99.4% methane, ???0.2% ethane, and ???0.4% CO2. Hydrocarbons from propane to heptane were also present, but in concentrations of less than 100 p.p.m. The carbon-isotopic composition of methane was -41 to -44 permil(( 0 00), relative to PDB standard. The observed volumetric methane/water ratio was 64 or 67, which indicates that before it was stored and analyzed, the gas hydrate probably had lost methane. The sample material used in the experiments was likely a mixture of methane hydrate and water ice. Formation of this massive gas hydrate probably involved the following processes: (i) upward migration of gas and its accumulation in a zone where conditions favored the growth of gas hydrates, (ii) continued, unusually rapid biological generation of methane, and (iii) release of gas from water solution as pressure decreased due to sea level lowering and tectonic uplift. ?? 1984.

  14. Going Wild: Lessons from Naturally Occurring T-Lymphotropic Lentiviruses

    PubMed Central

    VandeWoude, Sue; Apetrei, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    Over 40 nonhuman primate (NHP) species harbor species-specific simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Similarly, more than 20 species of nondomestic felids and African hyenids demonstrate seroreactivity against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigens. While it has been challenging to study the biological implications of nonfatal infections in natural populations, epidemiologic and clinical studies performed thus far have only rarely detected increased morbidity or impaired fecundity/survival of naturally infected SIV- or FIV-seropositive versus -seronegative animals. Cross-species transmissions of these agents are rare in nature but have been used to develop experimental systems to evaluate mechanisms of pathogenicity and to develop animal models of HIV/AIDS. Given that felids and primates are substantially evolutionarily removed yet demonstrate the same pattern of apparently nonpathogenic lentiviral infections, comparison of the biological behaviors of these viruses can yield important implications for host-lentiviral adaptation which are relevant to human HIV/AIDS infection. This review therefore evaluates similarities in epidemiology, lentiviral genotyping, pathogenicity, host immune responses, and cross-species transmission of FIVs and factors associated with the establishment of lentiviral infections in new species. This comparison of consistent patterns in lentivirus biology will expose new directions for scientific inquiry for understanding the basis for virulence versus avirulence. PMID:17041142

  15. Ammonite habitat revealed via isotopic composition and comparisons with co-occurring benthic and planktonic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Jocelyn Anne; Larina, Ekaterina; Knoll, Katja; Garb, Matthew; Cochran, J. Kirk; Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Landman, Neil H.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonites are among the best-known fossils of the Phanerozoic, yet their habitat is poorly understood. Three common ammonite families (Baculitidae, Scaphitidae, and Sphenodiscidae) co-occur with well-preserved planktonic and benthic organisms at the type locality of the upper Maastrichtian Owl Creek Formation, offering an excellent opportunity to constrain their depth habitats through isotopic comparisons among taxa. Based on sedimentary evidence and the micro- and macrofauna at this site, we infer that the 9-m-thick sequence was deposited at a paleodepth of 70–150 m. Taxa present throughout the sequence include a diverse assemblage of ammonites, bivalves, and gastropods, abundant benthic foraminifera, and rare planktonic foraminifera. No stratigraphic trends are observed in the isotopic data of any taxon, and thus all of the data from each taxon are considered as replicates. Oxygen isotope-based temperature estimates from the baculites and scaphites overlap with those of the benthos and are distinct from those of the plankton. In contrast, sphenodiscid temperature estimates span a range that includes estimates of the planktonic foraminifera and of the warmer half of the benthic values. These results suggest baculites and scaphites lived close to the seafloor, whereas sphenodiscids sometimes inhabited the upper water column and/or lived closer to shore. In fact, the rarity and poorer preservation of the sphenodiscids relative to the baculites and scaphites suggests that the sphenodiscid shells may have only reached the Owl Creek locality by drifting seaward after death. PMID:26630003

  16. Ammonite habitat revealed via isotopic composition and comparisons with co-occurring benthic and planktonic organisms.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Jocelyn Anne; Larina, Ekaterina; Knoll, Katja; Garb, Matthew; Cochran, J Kirk; Huber, Brian T; MacLeod, Kenneth G; Landman, Neil H

    2015-12-22

    Ammonites are among the best-known fossils of the Phanerozoic, yet their habitat is poorly understood. Three common ammonite families (Baculitidae, Scaphitidae, and Sphenodiscidae) co-occur with well-preserved planktonic and benthic organisms at the type locality of the upper Maastrichtian Owl Creek Formation, offering an excellent opportunity to constrain their depth habitats through isotopic comparisons among taxa. Based on sedimentary evidence and the micro- and macrofauna at this site, we infer that the 9-m-thick sequence was deposited at a paleodepth of 70-150 m. Taxa present throughout the sequence include a diverse assemblage of ammonites, bivalves, and gastropods, abundant benthic foraminifera, and rare planktonic foraminifera. No stratigraphic trends are observed in the isotopic data of any taxon, and thus all of the data from each taxon are considered as replicates. Oxygen isotope-based temperature estimates from the baculites and scaphites overlap with those of the benthos and are distinct from those of the plankton. In contrast, sphenodiscid temperature estimates span a range that includes estimates of the planktonic foraminifera and of the warmer half of the benthic values. These results suggest baculites and scaphites lived close to the seafloor, whereas sphenodiscids sometimes inhabited the upper water column and/or lived closer to shore. In fact, the rarity and poorer preservation of the sphenodiscids relative to the baculites and scaphites suggests that the sphenodiscid shells may have only reached the Owl Creek locality by drifting seaward after death. PMID:26630003

  17. Ammonite habitat revealed via isotopic composition and comparisons with co-occurring benthic and planktonic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessa, Jocelyn Anne; Larina, Ekaterina; Knoll, Katja; Garb, Matthew; Cochran, J. Kirk; Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Landman, Neil H.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonites are among the best-known fossils of the Phanerozoic, yet their habitat is poorly understood. Three common ammonite families (Baculitidae, Scaphitidae, and Sphenodiscidae) co-occur with well-preserved planktonic and benthic organisms at the type locality of the upper Maastrichtian Owl Creek Formation, offering an excellent opportunity to constrain their depth habitats through isotopic comparisons among taxa. Based on sedimentary evidence and the micro- and macrofauna at this site, we infer that the 9-m-thick sequence was deposited at a paleodepth of 70-150 m. Taxa present throughout the sequence include a diverse assemblage of ammonites, bivalves, and gastropods, abundant benthic foraminifera, and rare planktonic foraminifera. No stratigraphic trends are observed in the isotopic data of any taxon, and thus all of the data from each taxon are considered as replicates. Oxygen isotope-based temperature estimates from the baculites and scaphites overlap with those of the benthos and are distinct from those of the plankton. In contrast, sphenodiscid temperature estimates span a range that includes estimates of the planktonic foraminifera and of the warmer half of the benthic values. These results suggest baculites and scaphites lived close to the seafloor, whereas sphenodiscids sometimes inhabited the upper water column and/or lived closer to shore. In fact, the rarity and poorer preservation of the sphenodiscids relative to the baculites and scaphites suggests that the sphenodiscid shells may have only reached the Owl Creek locality by drifting seaward after death.

  18. The Frequency, Nature, and Effects of Naturally Occurring Appearance-Focused Social Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and weight-related cognitions. During their daily activities, women reporting body dissatisfaction (n = 53) and women reporting body satisfaction (n = 34) recorded their reactions to comparison information.…

  19. Virological and serological findings in dogs with naturally occurring distemper.

    PubMed

    Elia, Gabriella; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Larocca, Vittorio; Martella, Vito; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-03-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. The unpredictable and variable course of CDV-related disease may hamper correct diagnosis of infection and makes it crucial the collection of samples suitable for laboratory confirmation. In the present study we were able to follow the disease in two dogs infected naturally, collecting different biological matrices during the entire period of infection. By real time RT-PCR, viral RNA was detected and quantified, suggesting that urine and rectal swabs would be useful for ante-mortem diagnosis of distemper in dogs, regardless of the clinical stage and form of the illness. PMID:25512131

  20. Biomimetic Nitration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Formation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Conjugated Nitrodienes

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitro-conjugated linoleic acids (NO2-cLA), endogenous nitrodiene lipids which act as inflammatory signaling mediators, were isolated and single isomers purified from the biomimetic acidic nitration products of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Structures were elucidated by means of detailed NMR and HPLC–MS/MS spectroscopic analysis and the relative double bond configurations assigned. Additional synthetic methods produced useful quantities and similar isomeric distributions of these unusual and reactive compounds for biological studies and isotopic standards, and the potential conversion of nitro-linoleic to nitro-conjugated linoleic acids was explored via a facile base-catalyzed isomerization. This represents one of the few descriptions of naturally occurring conjugated nitro dienes (in particular, 1-nitro 1,3-diene), an unusual and highly reactive motif with few biological examples extant. PMID:24350701

  1. Polyomavirus and Naturally Occuring Neuroglial Tumors in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor).

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Patricia A; Brostoff, Terza; Church, Molly E; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Woolard, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Polyomavirus (PyV) infections are widespread in human populations and, although generally associated with silent persistence, rarely cause severe disease. Among diseases convincingly associated with natural PyV infections of humans, there are remarkably different tissue tropisms and outcomes, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, transient or progressive nephropathy, and cancer. The variable character and unpredictable outcomes of infection attest to large gaps in our basic understanding of PyV biology. In particular, the rich history of research demonstrating the oncogenic potential of PyVs in laboratory animals begs the question of why cancer is not more often associated with infection. Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV), discovered in 2010, is consistently identified in neuroglial tumors in free-ranging raccoons in the western United States. Exposure to RacPyV is widespread, and RacPyV is detected in tissues of raccoons without tumors. Studying the relationship of RacPyV with its natural host is a unique opportunity to uncover cogent cellular targets and protein interactions between the virus and its host. Our hypothesis is that RacPyV, as an intact episome, alters cellular pathways within neural progenitor cells and drives oncogenesis. PMID:26912716

  2. Natural isotope correction of MS/MS measurements for metabolomics and (13) C fluxomics.

    PubMed

    Niedenführ, Sebastian; Ten Pierick, Angela; van Dam, Patricia T N; Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A; Nöh, Katharina; Wahl, S Aljoscha

    2016-05-01

    Fluxomics and metabolomics are crucial tools for metabolic engineering and biomedical analysis to determine the in vivo cellular state. Especially, the application of (13) C isotopes allows comprehensive insights into the functional operation of cellular metabolism. Compared to single MS, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides more detailed and accurate measurements of the metabolite enrichment patterns (tandem mass isotopomers), increasing the accuracy of metabolite concentration measurements and metabolic flux estimation. MS-type data from isotope labeling experiments is biased by naturally occurring stable isotopes (C, H, N, O, etc.). In particular, GC-MS(/MS) requires derivatization for the usually non-volatile intracellular metabolites introducing additional natural isotopes leading to measurements that do not directly represent the carbon labeling distribution. To make full useof LC- and GC-MS/MS mass isotopomer measurements, the influence of natural isotopes has to be eliminated (corrected). Our correction approach is analyzed for the two most common applications; (13) C fluxomics and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) based metabolomics. Natural isotopes can have an impact on the calculated flux distribution which strongly depends on the substrate labeling and the actual flux distribution. Second, we show that in IDMS based metabolomics natural isotopes lead to underestimated concentrations that can and should be corrected with a nonlinear calibration. Our simulations indicate that the correction for natural abundance in isotope based fluxomics and quantitative metabolomics is essential for correct data interpretation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1137-1147. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26479486

  3. Structures and Properties of Naturally Occurring Polyether Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Jacek; Brzezinski, Bogumil

    2013-01-01

    Polyether ionophores represent a large group of natural, biologically active substances produced by Streptomyces spp. They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. Several of polyether ionophores are widely used as growth promoters in veterinary. Polyether antibiotics show a broad spectrum of bioactivity ranging from antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and tumour cell cytotoxicity. Recently, it has been shown that some of these compounds are able to selectively kill cancer stem cells and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, they are recognized as new potential anticancer drugs. The biological activity of polyether ionophores is strictly connected with their molecular structure; therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of their formula, molecular structure, and properties. PMID:23586016

  4. Probing zeolite syntheses to determine natural occurances of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Song, S.; Fang, J.

    2003-12-01

    In this study, zeolites were synthesized from different glasses to probe the occurrence of zeolites in nature. The experiments were carried out with synthetic glass systems of Na2O.Al2O3.nSiO2, CaO.Al2O3.nSiO2, xNa2O.(1-x)CaO.Al2O3.nSiO2 and xNa2O.(1-x)K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2 in alkaline solutions of NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3, NH4OH, NaOH (+) NaCl and NaOH (+) KOH at temperatures ranging from 110›J to 210›J and with autogeneous pressures in the autoclaves. Synthetic products were examined by an X-ray powder diffractometer, a scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer, and an electron microprobe. The minerals synthesized included zeolites, i.e., thomsonite, gismondine, amicite, garronite, gobbinsite, analcime, phillipsite, merlinoite, chabazite and mordenite; artificial synthetic zeolites, and feldspars. Chemical analyses indicated that the composition of synthetic zeolites is profoundly influenced by the composition of the initial glasses, especially the SiO2/Al2O3 ratios and cations. On the other hand, the influence of Na+ and K+ have over the formation of zeolites in solution, other ions, such as CO32- were involved in the preventing of the formation of Ca-zeolites. Comparing the experimental results with natural occurrences suggests that thomsonite, gismondine and amicite are usually found in ultrabasic and basic rocks; garronite and gobbinsite in basic to intermediate rocks; analcime, phillipsite, and chabazite in basic to acid rocks; merlinoite in high-potassium rocks; and mordenite in acid rocks. In addition, Ca-zeolites including thomsonite, gismondine and garronite are favored in fresh water environments, and alkali zeolites including gobbinsite, phillipsite, and analcime are most abundant in saline lake and deep sea conditions.

  5. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2007-11-01

    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

  6. Isolation and Spectral Analysis of Naturally Occurring Thiarubrine A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Juan; Morton, Melita; Downum, Kelsey; O'Shea, Kevin E.

    2001-06-01

    We have designed an experiment in which students isolate and characterize thiarubrine A, a pseudo-antiaromatic 1,2-dithia-3,5-cyclohexadiene derivative. Thiarubrines are an important class of compounds which have recently received attention because of their unusual reactivity, unique biological activity, and potential medicinal applications. They possess a distinctive red color and structure features that are particularly useful for demonstrating UV-vis, NMR, and IR spectral analyses. A crude mixture containing thiarubrine A is obtained by methanol (liquid-solid) extraction of the roots of short ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Alternatively, these compounds can be isolated from numerous taxa within the family Asteraceae. Thiarubrine A possesses alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl functionality, which is useful in illustrating the utility of IR and NMR in the characterization of natural products. The long wavelength UV-vis absorption band of thiarubrine is indication of the nonplanarity of dithiin ring and provides an excellent opportunity to discuss the concepts of aromaticity, conjugation, and molecular orbital theory.

  7. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-01

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Reb ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. ["On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows," Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  8. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-15

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Re{sub b} ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. [“On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows,” Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  9. Naturally-occurring dimers of flavonoids as anticarcinogens.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Andrew G; Pomilio, Alicia B

    2013-10-01

    Biflavonoids are dimers of flavonoid moieties linked by a C-C or C-O-C bond. Simple, complex, rearranged, natural and ketalized Diels-Alder adducts, benzofuran derivatives, and spirobiflavonoids are some of the structural groups of biflavonoids. These compounds are mainly distributed in the Gymnosperms, Angiosperms (monocots and dicots), ferns (Pteridophyta), and mosses (Bryophyta). Biflavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, vasorelaxant, anticlotting, among others. This work is focused on probably the most potentially relevant biological activity of biflavonoids, the anticancer activity and the involved mechanisms of action, such as induction of apoptosis [inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases; effects on NF-κB family of transcription factors; activation of caspase(s); inhibition effects on bcl-2 expression, and upregulation of p53 and caspase-3 gene expression]; inhibition of angiogenesis [anti-proliferative effects; activation of Rho-GTPases and ERK signaling pathways; inhibition of FASN activity]; inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing; inhibition of human DNA topoisomerases I and II-α; anti-inflammatory/ immunoregulatory effects [inhibition of XO; inhibition of proinflammatory enzymes, such as PLA2 and COX; effects on cytokines mediated COX-2 and iNOS expression]; modulation of immune response; inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation; antioxidant and analgesic activities in relation to the anticarcinogen behavior. For that reason the structures and anticarcinogenic activities of 83 biflavonoids are thoroughly discussed. The results of this work indicate that biflavonoids strongly affect the cancer cells with little effect on normal cell proliferation, suggesting a therapeutic potential against cancer. PMID:23796246

  10. Biotransformations of Plutonium and Uranium by Naturally-Occurring Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Boukhalfa, Hakim; Icopini, Gary A.; Lack, Joe G.; Reilly, Sean D.; Hersman, Larry E.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; John, Seth G.; Neu, Mary P.

    2004-03-17

    DOE sites are contaminated by radionuclides and toxic metals, which are in contact with organic contaminants, reactive minerals, and diverse populations of microorganisms. Actinide species to be stabilized or mobilized in situ via direct and indirect chemical, biological, and geochemical processes. Actinide contamination tends to be broadly dispersed and present at low concentrations and therefore prohibitively costly to remove using conventional methods. Pu contamination is particularly challenging because of personnel exposure concerns and a lack of disposal sites. Bacterial bioremediation is a preferable treatment approach. Given that the radionuclides of most concern to the NABIR program are generally more mobile in their oxidized forms (e.g. Pu(VI), Pu(V), U(VI), Tc(VII), Cr(VI)), proposed biostabilization strategies are generally based upon either in situ sequestration of the oxidized form (e.g. actinide biosorption and bioaccumulation within exopolymers and biofilms) or biomineralization of the reduced form (e.g., direct or indirect production of insoluble hydroxides by DMRB). The feasibility of these approaches is affected by the speciation of actinides under environment conditions. For example, actinides can form complexes with co-contaminants (e.g. EDTA) or natural chelators like siderophores and biopolymers. Resulting complexes can interact with bacteria in several ways to yield biostabilized products or more mobile species that could persist. They are investigating how organic chelators affect the speciation and biotransformation of U and Pu. Previously, they reported how these siderophores bind, desorb and solubilize radionuclides. Here they present new results on EDTA complexation, siderophore-mediated Pu accumulation by aerobic bacteria, and initial studies of Pu reduction by DMRB.

  11. Potent In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Naturally Occurring Acetylenic Acids▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Ashfaq, M. Khalid; Babu, K. Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; ElSohly, Hala N.; Manly, Susan P.; Clark, Alice M.

    2008-01-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C16 to C20: 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 μM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 μmol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies. PMID:18458131

  12. Naturally occurring muscle pain during exercise: assessment and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Cook, D B; O'Connor, P J; Eubanks, S A; Smith, J C; Lee, M

    1997-08-01

    The objectives were: (i) to present a method for assessing muscle pain during exercise, (ii) to provide reliability and validity data in support of the measurement tool, (iii) to test whether leg muscle pain threshold during exercise was related to a commonly used measure of pain threshold pain during test, (iv) to examine the relationship between pain and exertion ratings, (v) to test whether leg muscle pain is related to performance, and (vi) to test whether a large dose of aspirin would delay leg muscle pain threshold and/or reduce pain ratings during exercise. In study 1, seven females and seven males completed three 1-min cycling bouts at three different randomly ordered power outputs. Pain was assessed using a 10-point pain scale. High intraclass correlations (R from 0.88 to 0.98) indicated that pain intensity could be rated reliably using the scale. In study 2, 11 college-aged males (age 21.3 +/- 1.3 yr) performed a ramped (24 W.min-1) maximal cycle ergometry test. A button was depressed when leg muscle pain threshold was reached. Pain threshold occurred near 50% of maximal capacity: 50.3 (+/- 12.9% Wmax), 48.6 (+/- 14.8% VO2max), and 55.8 (+/- 12.9% RPEmax). Pain intensity ratings obtained following pain threshold were positively accelerating function of the relative exercise intensity. Volitional exhaustion was associated with pain ratings of 8.2 (+/- 2.5), a value most closely associated with the verbal anchor "very strong pain." In study 3, participants completed the same maximal exercise test as in study 2 as well as leg cycling at 60 rpm for 8 s at four randomly ordered power outputs (100, 150, 200, and 250 W) on a separate day. Pain and RPE ratings were significantly lower during the 8-s bouts compared to those obtained at the same power outputs during the maximal cycle test. The results suggest that noxious metabolites of muscle contraction play a role in leg muscle pain during exercise. In study 4, moderately active male subjects (N = 19) completed

  13. The physical chemistry of mass-independent isotope effects and their observation in nature.

    PubMed

    Thiemens, Mark H; Chakraborty, Subrata; Dominguez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the physical chemistry of isotope effects and precise measurements in samples from nature have provided information on processes that could not have been obtained otherwise. With the discovery of a mass-independent isotopic fractionation during the formation of ozone, a new physical chemical basis for isotope effects required development. Combined theoretical and experimental developments have broadened this understanding and extended the range of chemical systems where these unique effects occur. Simultaneously, the application of mass-independent isotopic measurements to an extensive range of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial systems has furthered the understanding of events such as solar system origin and evolution and planetary atmospheric chemistry, present and past. PMID:22475336

  14. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Galindo, C; Mougin, L; Fakhi, S; Nourreddine, A; Lamghari, A; Hannache, H

    2007-01-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz and clays constitute the main composition of the inorganic matrix. Pyrite crystals are also present. A selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and alpha-counting, was performed to assess the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides. Leaching results indicate that 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 228Th have multiple modes of occurrence in the shale. U is interpreted to have been concentrated under anaerobic conditions. An integrated isotopic approach showed the preferential mobilization of uranium carried by humic acids to carbonate and apatite phases. Th is partitioned between silicate minerals and pyrite. PMID:17098337

  15. Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

  16. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. PMID:25816275

  17. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  18. The first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, rapalexins A and B, are cruciferous phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Zheng, Qing-An; Gadagi, Ravi S

    2007-01-28

    The discovery of the first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, indole-3-isothiocyanates, their first synthesis, antimicrobial activity and proposed biogenetic origin in canola plants are reported. PMID:17220973

  19. Long-Term Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Male Fischer 344 Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysot...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF CASEINS CROSSLINKED BY A NATURALLY OCCURRING CROSSLINKING AGENT-GENIPIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing economic and environmental pressures demand more effective utilization of natural resources. Genipin, a naturally occurring crosslinking agent obtained from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, has recently attracted much attention due to its low cytotoxicity compared to traditional crossli...

  1. INFLUENCE OF EASILY DEGRADABLE NATURALLY OCCURRING CARBON SUBSTRATES ON BIODEGRADATION OF MONOSUBSTITUTED PHENOLS BY AQUATIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of readily degradable, naturally occurring carbon substrates on the biodegradation of several monosubstitued phenols (m-cresol, m-aminophenol, p-chlorophenol) was examined. The natural substrate classes used were amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. Samples ...

  2. Reassessing the stable isotope composition assigned to methane flux from natural wetlands in isotope-constrained budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornibrook, Edward; Maxfield, Peter; Gauci, Vincent; Stott, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Stable isotope ratios in CH4 preserve information about its origin and history, and are commonly used to constrain global CH4 budgets. Wetlands are key contributors to the atmospheric burden of CH4 and typically are assigned a stable carbon isotope composition of ~-60 permil in isotope-weighted stable isotope models despite the considerable range of δ13C(CH4) values (~ -100 to -40 permil) known to occur in these diverse ecosystems. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) associated with the metabolism of CH4-producing microorganisms generate much of the natural variation but highly negative and positive δ13C(CH4) values generally result from secondary processes (e.g., diffusive transport or oxidation by soil methanotrophs). Despite these complexities, consistent patterns exist in the isotope composition of wetland CH4 that can be linked conclusively to trophic status and consequently, natural succession or human perturbations that impact nutrient levels. Another challenge for accurate representation of wetlands in carbon cycle models is parameterisation of sporadic CH4 emission events. Abrupt release of large volumes of CH4-rich bubbles in short periods of time can account for a significant proportion of the annual CH4 flux from a wetland but such events are difficult to detect using conventional methods. New infrared spectroscopy techniques capable of high temporal resolution measurements of CH4 concentration and stable isotope composition can readily quantify short-lived CH4 pulses. Moreover, the isotope data can be used conclusively to determine shifts in the mode of CH4 transport and provide the potential to link initiation of abrupt emission events to forcing by internal or external factors.

  3. Characterization of contaminant transport using naturally-occurring U-series disequilibria. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, M.; Ku, T.L.

    1998-06-01

    'The goal of the research is to study the migratory behavior of contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium- and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Naturally occurring U- and Th-series disequilibria can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. The authors are developing a realistic model of contaminant migration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer beneath the INEEL by evaluating the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to: (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in rock minerals and sorbed phases, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibria and a statistical analysis-based model code for the calculation of in-situ retardation factors of radionuclides and rock/water interaction time scales. This study will also provide an improved understanding of the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of contaminants. This report summarizes results after 20 months of a 36-month project. Studies performed at LANL include analysis of the long-lived nuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 231}Pa by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Studies performed at the Univ. of Southern California include the measurement of short-lived naturally occurring radionuclides by decay-counting techniques and the development of models to predict the migration behavior of these radionuclides. Initial efforts began with analysis of 31, 0.5L water samples obtained through routine sampling by USGS and INEEL personnel. One significant observation from these data is that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are highest in waters that emanate from local recharge

  4. Segregation of naturally occurring mitochondrial DNA variants in a mini-pig model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within cells and tissues, the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form and can harbour naturally occurring variants. Whilst high variant load can cause mitochondrial disease, naturally occurring mtDNA variants likely persist at low levels across generations of ...

  5. Stable Cl And O Isotope Ratios Of Anthropogenic And Natural Perchlorates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloso, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Böhlke, J.; Gu, B.; Horita, J.; Brown, G.; Hatzinger, P.

    2004-12-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) in aqueous systems, even in low concentrations, is recognized to have potential human health risks. The drinking and irrigation water supplies of millions of people in the U.S. have recently been found to be contaminated with perchlorate, and this problem continues to become even more widespread. Perchlorate, as a highly soluble and relatively inert anion, tends to persist over long time periods and its removal by conventional water treatment technologies is difficult and expensive. Many known sources of perchlorate contamination are anthropogenic, resulting from its extensive use as an oxidizer component in solid propellants for missiles, rockets, and fireworks. However, certain fertilizers derived from Chilean nitrate evaporate deposits are known to contain a low percentage of perchlorate (<0.5%) that may contaminate groundwater. New isotopic evidence provides insights on the possible natural sources of perchlorate in surface and ground waters. Stable isotope ratios of Cl and O can now be used to determine whether the source of perchlorates in a given area is natural or anthropogenic. Microbial perchlorate reduction has a large (˜15 per mil) kinetic isotope effect, and this may be used to identify whether natural attenuation of perchlorate is occurring. Anthropogenic perchlorate salts in milligram amounts are readily analyzed for 37Cl and 18O isotopes. Extracting an isotopically measurable amount of perchlorate from natural waters, which are usually within ppb range of concentrations, is a challenge. But with the use of a new class of highly-selective bifunctional anion exchange resins, recovery of trace amounts of perchlorate for accurate isotopic analysis has been demonstrated. Isotopic characterization is being conducted on anthropogenic perchlorate reagents, natural perchlorate-bearing salt deposits, and perchlorate-bearing groundwaters. Significant and consistent isotopic differences in both the Cl and O isotope ratios between

  6. Copper isotope fractionation during equilibration with natural and synthetic ligands.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Brooke M; Kirby, Jason K; Degryse, Fien; Scheiderich, Kathleen; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    As copper (Cu) stable isotopes emerge as a tool for tracing Cu biogeochemical cycling, an understanding of how Cu isotopes fractionate during complexation with soluble organic ligands in natural waters and soil solutions is required. A Donnan dialysis technique was employed to assess the isotopic fractionation of Cu during complexation with the soluble synthetic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and desferrioxamine B (DFOB), as well as with Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). The results indicated enrichment of the heavy isotope ((65)Cu) in the complexes, with Δ(65)Cu complex-free values ranging from +0.14 to +0.84‰. A strong linear correlation was found between the logarithms of the stability constants of the Cu complexes and the magnitudes of isotopic fractionation. These results show that complexation of Cu by organic ligands can affect the isotopic signature of the free Cu ion. This free Cu is considered the most bioavailable species, and hence, our results highlight the importance of understanding fractionation processes in the uptake medium when using Cu isotopes to study the uptake mechanisms of organisms. These data contribute a vital piece to the emerging picture of Cu isotope cycling in the natural environment, as organic complexation plays a key role in the Cu cycle. PMID:24992660

  7. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    PubMed

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004). PMID:26670035

  8. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    PubMed

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:26037957

  9. Environmental and biomedical applications of natural metal stable isotope variations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullen, T.D.; Walczyk, T.

    2009-01-01

    etal stable isotopes are now being used to trace metal contaminants in the environment and as indicators of human systemic function where metals play a role. Stable isotope abundance variations provide information about metal sources and the processes affecting metals in complex natural systems, complementing information gained from surrogate tracers, such as metal abundance ratios or biochemical markers of metal metabolism. The science is still in its infancy, but the results of initial studies confirm that metal stable isotopes can provide a powerful tool for forensic and biomedical investigations.

  10. Stable isotope tracers: natural and anthropogenic recharge, Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Alan E.

    1997-12-01

    Stable isotopic techniques have been utilized to locate occurrences and trace movements of a variety of naturally and anthropogenically recharged waters in aquifers of Orange County, California. This basin is of particular interest not only because it provides the dominant water supply for the two million residents of this well-populated county, but also because it is representative of a common arid environment where natural recharge is dominated by distant, high-elevation precipitation transported by a major river. Such arid basins are particularly sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic disturbance of their recharge and their subsurface hydrology. In order to identify distinctive waters, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios from Orange County wells have been compared with a regional database including an array of surface water samples representative of watershed runoff. Four distinctive subsurface water types can be resolved. Waters of "local" rainfall and imported, "Colorado" River aqueduct origins are easily distinguished from dominant, "native" Santa Ana river compositions by use of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. Recent human interference with Santa Ana river flow and recharge is also marginally resolvable by isotopic techniques. Distinguishable isotopic signatures of "recent" Santa Ana recharge appear to be due to evaporative loss, perhaps during storage in the Prado Reservoir or in percolation ponds, prior to recharge into Orange County aquifers. Characterization of traceable isotopic signatures of distinct natural and anthropogenic recharge components provides a major advance towards use of such techniques for developing a well constrained, three-dimensional hydrologic model for this complex basin.

  11. DECIPHERING NATURALLY-OCCURRING PB CONTAMINATION IMPACTING DRINKING WATER WELLS: SHAKER VILLAGE CATCHMENT, MAINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace Pb concentrations in groundwater within glacial deposits across Maine fluctuate considerably. Deciphering the distribution and sources of naturally occurring Pb in groundwater with only the use of conventional anomaly identification techniques presents a challenge. In a rep...

  12. Distribution and inventories of some artificial and naturally occurring radionuclides in medium to coarse-grained sediments of the channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boust, Dominique

    1999-12-01

    Concentrations of artificial ( 60Co, 137Cs, 238Pu and 239,240Pu) and naturally occurring radionuclides ( 40K, 212Pb and 214Pb, daughter nuclides of the 232Th and 238U series) in bottom sediments of the Channel are reported. They are grain-size modulated but usual grain-size normalisation methods fail due to the strong heterogeneity of the sediment admixture and/or the occurrence of rock debris in the area of concern. When plotted versus distance from Cap La Hague, 60Co and Pu isotope concentrations display a maximum in the Central Channel, but 137Cs do not. This is further explained by the contribution of the releases from the La Hague plant relative to other radionuclide inputs, especially Atlantic inflow and direct atmospheric fallout. Apparent transit times from Cap La Hague are derived from Pu isotopic ratios and yield average sediment velocities ranging from some kilometres to some tens of kilometres per year. Sediment inventories of artificial radionuclides show that a significant part of the input of 60Co and Pu isotopes is immobilised in the Channel seabed while most of the 137Cs input has been evacuated by water mass circulation.

  13. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler rinsate could survive in cold storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105/ml naturally occu...

  14. Concentrations of the naturally occurring radionucleides Pb-210, Po-210, and Ra-226 in aquatic fauna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Study reveals naturally occurring radionuclides are ubiquitous and contribute a substantial fraction of the natural radiation dose to humans and various biota. Measurements may be useful in ecological and other biological problems such as tracing food chains of animals and study of the metabolism of these elements.

  15. Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

  16. Chlorine isotope investigation of natural attenuation of trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Holt, B.D.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-10-15

    Natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be an important mechanism for groundwater remediation. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness of natural CAH attenuation from chemical analyses of groundwater samples because mixing, dispersion, and secondary reactions can mask the chemical evidence of attenuation. In this paper, the authors explore the application of stable chlorine isotope ratio measurements as a new tool for evaluating natural attenuation of CAHs. They report stable isotope ratios of chlorine in both trichloroethene (TCE) and inorganic chloride in groundwater from an aerobic aquifer beneath an extensively contaminated industrial site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. Variations in the concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of TCE and chloride in the groundwater are consistent with those expected from natural attenuation. These data support a model in which partial TCE degradation occurred in relatively impermeable, clay-rich sediments above the aquifer, and little or no further degradation of TCE occurred within the aquifer. A record of changing conditions within the TCE source area can be inferred from the spatial variation of chlorine isotope ratios for TCE and chloride within the plume.

  17. Encapsulation of piceatannol, a naturally occurring hydroxylated analogue of resveratrol, by natural and modified cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Matencio, Adrián; García-Carmona, Francisco; López-Nicolás, José Manuel

    2016-05-18

    In this work, an in-depth study of the interaction between piceatannol (a type of stilbene with high biological activity) and different natural and modified cyclodextrins (CDs) is made, using steady state fluorescence. This bioactive molecule forms a 1 : 1 complex with all the natural (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) and modified (HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD and M-β-CD) CDs tested. Among natural CDs, the interaction of piceatannol with β-CD was the most efficient. However, the modified CDs showed higher encapsulation constants (KF) than β-CD, except M-β-CD; the highest KF being found for HP-β-CD (14 048 ± 702 M(-1)). The encapsulation of piceatannol in the internal cavity of CDs showed a strong dependence on pH and temperature. The interaction between HP-β-CD and piceatannol was less effective in the pH region where the stilbene begins to suffer the deprotonation of its hydroxyl group. Moreover, the values of KF decreased as the system temperature increased. To obtain information on the mechanism involved in the piceatannol affinity for CD, the thermodynamic parameters of the complexation (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) were studied, the results showed a negative entropy (-3.7 ± 0.2 J mol(-1) K(-1)), enthalpy (-24.6 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and Gibbs free energy change at 25 °C (-23.5 ± 1.2 J mol(-1)). Finally, molecular docking calculations provided further insights into how the different interactions influence the complexation constant. A high degree of correlation was observed between the computed scores and experimental values. PMID:27142512

  18. Stable isotope fractionation of selenium by natural microbial consortia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, A.S.; Johnson, T.M.; Herbel, M.J.; Bullen, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of Se depend on its redox state, and reduction of Se oxyanions to less mobile, reduced species controls transport of this potentially toxic element in the environment. Stable isotope fractionation of Se is currently being developed as an indicator of Se immobilization through reduction. In this study, Se isotope fractionation resulting from reduction of Se(VI) and Se(IV) oxyanions by natural microbial consortia was measured in sediment slurry experiments under nearly natural conditions, with no substrate added. Experiments were conducted with a wide range of initial Se concentrations and with sediment and water from three locations with contrasting environmental settings. The products of Se(VI) and Se(IV) reduction were enriched in the lighter isotopes relative to the reactants. Shifts of -2.6??? to -3.1??? and -5.5??? to -5.7???, respectively, were observed in the 80Se/76Se ratio. These isotopic fractionations did not depend significantly on initial Se concentrations, which were varied from 22 ??g/l to 8 mg/l, or on geochemical differences among the sediments. These results provide estimates of Se isotope fractionation in organic-rich wetland environments but may not be appropriate for substrate-poor aquifers and marine sediments. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-08-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  20. Recent progress regarding the bioactivities, biosynthesis and synthesis of naturally occurring resorcinolic macrolides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Jiang, Cheng-shi; Zhang, Zai-long; Ma, Wen-quan; Guo, Yue-wei

    2014-01-01

    Macrolides, which comprise a family of lactones with different ring sizes, belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Resorcinolic macrolides, an important subgroup, possess interesting structures and exhibit a wide variety of bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-bacteria, and anti-malaria activities, etc. This review summarizes progress in isolation, bioactivity studies, biosynthesis, and representative chemical syntheses of this group of macrolides in recent decades, encompassing 63 naturally occurring macrolides published in 120 articles. PMID:24464049

  1. Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    TEH-LUNG KU

    2001-06-01

    Study the migration of nuclear waste contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Radioactive disequilibria among members of these decay-series nuclides can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting.

  2. A study of the dry heat resistance of naturally occurring organisms widely dispersed on a surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garst, D. M.; Lindell, K. F.

    1971-01-01

    Although Bacillus subtilis var. niger is the standard test organism for NASA planetary quarantine sterilization studies, it was found that some naturally occurring soil organisms are more heat resistant. The separation of these organisms from soil particles is described. Experiments are discussed which were designed to show that the heat resistance is a natural characteristic of the organisms, rather than a condition induced by the clumping effect of agglomerated particles and organisms.

  3. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yunyan; Ma, Qisheng; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Dai, Jinxing; Katz, Barry; Zhang, Shuichang; Tang, Yongchun

    2011-05-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2 cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using δD values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the δ 13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that δD values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that δD values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane.

  4. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ni, Y.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Dai, J.; Katz, B.; Zhang, S.; Tang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using ??D values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the ??13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that ??D values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that ??D values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Groundwater surface water interaction study using natural isotopes tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Kim, Yong Chul; Cho, Soo Young; Lee, Kil Yong

    2015-04-01

    Tritium and stable isotopes are a component of the water molecule, they are the most conservative tracer for groundwater study. And also, radon is natural radioactive nuclide and well dissolved in groundwater. Therefore, these isotopes are used natural tracer for the study of surface water and groundwater interaction of water curtain greenhouse area. The study area used groundwater as a water curtain for warming tool of greenhouse during the winter, and is associated with issues of groundwater shortage while being subject to groundwater-river water interaction. During the winter time, these interactions were studied by using Rn-222, stable isotopes and H-3. These interaction was monitored in multi depth well and linear direction well of groundwater flow. And dam effect was also compared. Samples were collected monthly from October 2013 to April 2014. Radon and tritium were analyzed using Quantulus low background liquid scintillation counter and stable isotopes were analyzed using an IRIS (Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy ; L2120-i, Picarro). During the winter time, radon concentration was varied from 0.07 Bq/L to 8.9 Bq/L and different interaction was showed between dam. Surface water intrusion was severe at February and restored April when greenhouse warming was ended. The stable isotope results showed different trend with depth and ranged from -9.16 ‰ to -7.24 ‰ for δ 18O value, while the δD value was ranged from -57.86 ‰ to -50.98 ‰. The groundwater age as dated by H-3 was ranged 0.23 Bq/L - 0.59 Bq/L with an average value of 0.37 Bq/L.

  6. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  7. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM GROUNDWATER USING NATURALLY OCCURRING IRON OXIDES IN RURAL REGIONS OF MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have found that the iron oxide particles produced by grinding naturally occurring iron ores are very effective in removing arsenic from water. The arsenic adsorption isothermal of the particles h...

  8. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  9. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  10. Subject Reaction to Human-Caused and Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belford, Susan; Gibbs, Margaret

    While research has shown that people are adversely psychologically affected by knowledge that their communities have been toxically contaminated, it has been suggested that those who see a disaster as naturally occurring tend to be less adversely affected than those who see a disaster as caused by human acts. To examine this issue, questionnaires…

  11. Naturally occurring vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Whisker growth of germanium sulfide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Larson, R.R.; Dwornik, E.J.

    1974-01-01

    The first naturally occurring terrestrial example of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been observed in condensates from gases released by burning coal in culm banks. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis indicate that the crystals consist of elongated rods (??? 100 ??m) of germanium sulfide capped by bulbs depleted in germanium. ?? 1974.

  12. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  13. Tasks, Teacher Feedback, and Learner Modified Output in Naturally Occurring Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura; Revesz, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Tasks and interactional feedback have received much attention in instructed second language acquisition research in recent years. However, little research exists that has investigated feedback and task factors together during naturally occurring teacher-student interaction in classroom settings. To bridge this gap, the current study explored the…

  14. Widespread elimination of naturally occurring neuronal death in Bax-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    White, F A; Keller-Peck, C R; Knudson, C M; Korsmeyer, S J; Snider, W D

    1998-02-15

    The proapoptotic molecule BAX is required for death of sympathetic and motor neurons in the setting of trophic factor deprivation. Furthermore, adult Bax-/- mice have more motor neurons than do their wild-type counterparts. These findings raise the possibility that BAX regulates naturally occurring cell death during development in many neuronal populations. To test this idea, we assessed apoptosis using TUNEL labeling in several well-studied neural systems during embryonic and early postnatal development in Bax-/- mice. Remarkably, naturally occurring cell death is virtually eliminated between embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) and postnatal day 1 (PN1) in most peripheral ganglia, in motor pools in the spinal cord, and in the trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex. Additionally, reduction, although not elimination, of cell death was noted throughout the developing cerebellum, in some layers of the retina, and in the hippocampus. Saving of cells was verified by axon counts of dorsal and ventral roots, as well as facial and optic nerves that revealed 24-35% increases in axon number. Interestingly, many of the supernumerary axons had very small cross-sectional areas, suggesting that the associated neurons are not normal. We conclude that BAX is a critical mediator of naturally occurring death of peripheral and CNS neurons during embryonic life. However, rescue from naturally occurring cell death does not imply that the neurons will develop normal functional capabilities. PMID:9454852

  15. Antibacterial Activities of Naturally occurring Compounds against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activities of 19 naturally-occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), a bovine isolate NCTC 8578, a raw ...

  16. THE ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING AMOEBA-RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A. Isolation of ARB from naturally-occurring amoebae and identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing.

    Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000μg/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur isotopic signatures in pyrite and dissolved sulfate and the correlation between dissolved sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations suggest that sulfide oxidation is the dominant process controlling arsenic release to groundwater. However, arsenic-bearing oxyhydroxides can potentially provide another arsenic source if reducing conditions develop or if they are transported as colloids in the aquifer. Analysis of well data indicates that the intersection of the SCH with static water levels measured in residential wells is strongly correlated with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. Field and laboratory data suggest that the most severe arsenic contamination is caused by localized borehole interactions of air, water, and sulfides. Although arsenic contamination is caused by oxidation of naturally occurring sulfides, it is influenced by water-level fluctuations caused by municipal well pumping or climate changes, which can shift geographic areas in which contamination occurs. Résumé De fortes concentrations en arsenic, jusqu'à 12000μg/L, ont été mesurées dans l'eau souterraine d'un aquifère gréseux captif, dans l'est du Wisconsin. La principale source d'arsenic est un horizon à cimentation secondaire (SCH) comportant des sulfures, dont l'épaisseur, la morphologie et les concentrations en arsenic sont variables. L'arsenic est présent dans la pyrite et dans la marcassite, de même que dans des oxy-hydroxydes de fer, mais non pas dans une phase séparée d'arsénopyrite. Les signatures isotopiques du soufre presque identiques dans la

  17. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  18. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  19. Magnesium Isotope Fractionation By Chemical Diffusion In Natural Silicate Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, R.; Richter, F. M.; Watson, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    The isotopic composition of geologic materials can be altered by natural processes in a number of different ways. Important information about the conditions and the processes that operated can be documented by studying the resulting fractionations. In this study, we document the fractionation of magnesium isotopes by chemical diffusion between coeval felsic and silicic magmas from the Vinal Cove complex of the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex in Maine. Further, we show that the isotopic fractionation can be used to determine the extent of diffusive transport associated with particular geological processes. The Vinal Cove complex is dominated by felsic porphyry along with substantial volumes of contemporaneous mafic and hybrid rocks. The rocks of the Vinal Cove complex appear to record events during the waning stages of solidification of the Vinalhaven intrusive complex, when a large mafic dike intruded a small, partially molten inner portion of the mostly solidified, coarse-grained Vinalhaven granite (Wiebe et al., 2004). An approximately 20 cm thick zone of felsic porphyry between granite and basalt is thought to have formed by the thermal rejuvenation of a silicic crystal mush by a basaltic influx. The contact between the porphyry and the basalt is irregular and crenulate. The magnesium isotopic compositions of samples from two regions across this contact were measured. In addition, two experimental diffusion couples, made by juxtaposing powders of felsic porphyry and basalt from the natural sample from Vinal Cove, were also used to quantify and to compare the magnesium isotopic fractionations associated with chemical diffusion between the natural and experimental samples. The two diffusion couples were made by annealing the powders in a piston cylinder assembly at temperatures of 1450°C, pressures of 1450 kbar, and for 22.5 and 10 hours respectively. Chemical diffusion of magnesium from basalt to felsic porphyry was driven by a concentration ratio of between 4 and

  1. Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: A UV-visible spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S. W. H.; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S.

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids—the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, Kc. Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities.

  2. Size dependent fluorescence tuning of naturally occurring betacyanin with silver nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Light absorption and scattering of metal nano partilces occur in very narrow range of wavelengths. This is also dependent on the geometry and shape of metal nano particles. It is also known that scattering is related to (volume)2 and absorption is related to the volume of the spherical metal nano particles. In our work we show that using this principle metal nano particles enable fluorescence tuning of dyes. In our experiment we show such tuning in naturally occurring betacyanin extracted from red beetroot. We also show that such tuning is dependent on the size variation of the silver nano particles.

  3. Structural consequences of chromophore formation and exploration of conserved lid residues amongst naturally occurring fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Matthew H.; Li, Binsen; Shahid, Ramza; Peshkepija, Paola; Zimmer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods were used to generate the lowest energy conformations of the immature precyclized forms of the 28 naturally occurring GFP-like proteins deposited in the pdb. In all 28 GFP-like proteins, the beta-barrel contracts upon chromophore formation and becomes more rigid. Our prior analysis of over 260 distinct naturally occurring GFP-like proteins revealed that most of the conserved residues are located in the top and bottom of the barrel in the turns between the β-sheets (Ong et al. 2011) [1]. Structural analyses, molecular dynamics simulations and the Anisotropic Network Model were used to explore the role of these conserved lid residues as possible folding nuclei. Our results are internally consistent and show that the conserved residues in the top and bottom lids undergo relatively less translational movement than other lid residues, and a number of these residues may play an important role as hinges or folding nuclei in the fluorescent proteins.

  4. Pyrethroid insecticides: A naturally occurring toxin. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of pyrethrum and pyrethroid insecticides. Topics examine toxicity to fish, worms, flies, mosquitoes, and moths. Chemical residue on crops, the transportation of pyrethrum from soils to crops, and pyrethrum accumulation in ponds and lakes are among the topics discussed. Naturally occurring and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are included. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Segregation of Naturally Occurring Mitochondrial DNA Variants in a Mini-Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Cagnone, Gael; Tsai, Te-Sha; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Rossello, Fernando; Powell, David R; Rohrer, Gary; Cree, Lynsey; Trounce, Ian A; St John, Justin C

    2016-03-01

    The maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form within cells and harbors sequence variants (heteroplasmy). While a single mtDNA variant at high load can cause disease, naturally occurring variants likely persist at low levels across generations of healthy populations. To determine how naturally occurring variants are segregated and transmitted, we generated a mini-pig model, which originates from the same maternal ancestor. Following next-generation sequencing, we identified a series of low-level mtDNA variants in blood samples from the female founder and her daughters. Four variants, ranging from 3% to 20%, were selected for validation by high-resolution melting analysis in 12 tissues from 31 animals across three generations. All four variants were maintained in the offspring, but variant load fluctuated significantly across the generations in several tissues, with sex-specific differences in heart and liver. Moreover, variant load was persistently reduced in high-respiratory organs (heart, brain, diaphragm, and muscle), which correlated significantly with higher mtDNA copy number. However, oocytes showed increased heterogeneity in variant load, which correlated with increased mtDNA copy number during in vitro maturation. Altogether, these outcomes show that naturally occurring mtDNA variants segregate and are maintained in a tissue-specific manner across generations. This segregation likely involves the maintenance of selective mtDNA variants during organogenesis, which can be differentially regulated in oocytes and preimplantation embryos during maturation. PMID:26819245

  6. California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) Update of the Schools Naturally Occurring Asbestos Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, M.

    2012-12-01

    Prior to acquisition and/or construction of prospective school sites, the California Education Code mandates that school districts complete environmental assessments and cleanups for prospective new or expanding school sites in order to qualify for state funding. If prospective school sites are determined to have environmental contamination from hazardous materials, including naturally occurring hazardous materials such as naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), where there may be unacceptable potential health risks, the school sites must be properly mitigated prior to occupancy for protection of human health and the environment. NOA is of special concern for schools, because children who are exposed to asbestos may be at increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases over time. In order to protect human health, the Department of Toxic Substances Control's (DTSC) goals at school sites are to: 1) identify the presence of NOA in school site soils using exposure-reducing soil thresholds; 2) manage potential NOA exposures using mitigation measures to reduce generation of airborne asbestos fibers from soils on school sites; and 3) ensure long-term monitoring and protection of mitigation measures via Operations & Maintenance activities. DTSC is currently in the process of revising its Interim Guidance Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) at School Sites - September 2004. The revisions include: 1) updating the guidance to consider incremental sampling for use at NOA sites in consultation with DTSC's project manager and technical staff, and 2) documenting a tiered approach to addressing high and low activity areas on a school.

  7. The sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring quinones. Experimental studies in guinea pigs. II. Benzoquinones.

    PubMed

    Schulz, K H; Garbe, I; Hausen, B M; Simatupang, M H

    1979-05-01

    Experimental studies on the sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring benzoquinones, isolated from plants and woods have been carried out in guinea pigs of the Pirbright white strain. Seven compounds were available: primin, three dalbergiones, mansonia quinone (mansonone A), 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone and rapanone. With five of these substances (primin, mansonone A, three dalbergiones) guinea pigs could be sensitized. Primin, the allergen of Primula obconica Hance (primrose) proved to be the most effective one of all quinones tested in this and the preceding studies. As a similar but weaker sensitizer R-3, 4-dimethoxydalbergione from Machaerium scleroxylon Tul. (Pao ferro, Caviuna vermelha) could be identified. The results obtained with mansonone A, a sesquiterpenoid quinone from Mansonia altissima A. Chev. demonstrate that even naturally occurring orthoquinones are capable of inducing contact allergy. Allergic cross reactions could be obtained between all chemically related mansonones A-F. The results are in good accordance with the view that the sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring quinones depends on the fundamental quinoid structure and the length, position and configuration of the aliphatic side-chain. PMID:464645

  8. Investigating microbial carbon cycling using natural abundance isotope analysis of PLFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, G. G.; Brady, A.; Cowie, B.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding microbial carbon sources and cycling is fundamental to our conceptualization of microbial ecosystems and their role in biogeochemical cycling in natural systems. Achieving this understanding requires application of a wide range of approaches. Natural abundance isotope analysis of individual compounds, particularly cellular components such as Phospholipids Fatty Acids (PLFA) can provide insights into the carbon sources and metabolic activities of the in situ microbial community from environmental samples. This is primarily because specific PLFA can be well resolved by gas chromatography even from complex matrices where confounding biological/organic compound abound. These PLFA can then be attributed to the viable microbial community, in some cases to specific components of this community and due to characteristic biosynthetic fractionations of stable isotope ratios, δ13C analysis of PLFA can: differentiate isotopically distinct primary carbon sources of heterotrophic communities; identify isotopic patterns characteristic of autotrophic versus heterotrophic processes; and elucidate microbial biosynthetic pathways. In cases where there δ13C cannot provide resolution of carbon sources, new approaches in Δ14C of PLFA can be applied. The vast range in Δ14C of ancient and modern carbon provides an easily traceable signal that can differentiate uptake and utilization of these carbon sources. This is particularly useful in cases such as contaminated sites where petroleum based contamination has occurred, or in natural systems where microbial communities may be utilizing geologic versus recently photosynthetically fixed carbon. This talk will present several examples demonstrating the utility of this approach.

  9. Naturally occurring amino acid derivatives with herbicidal, fungicidal or insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Lamberth, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Several naturally occurring amino acid derivatives display significant activities against weeds, fungi and insects: some of them have been even commercialized and are applied as crop protection agents. The 53 most important amino acid natural products with such efficacy are presented in this review together with their natural source, mode of action and biological activity. The diversity of the manifold bacterial, fungal and plantal sources of these compounds is impressive as well as their completely different structural scaffolds, ranging from cyclopeptides via unique non-proteinogenic amino acids to peptidyl nucleosides, the broad range of target enzymes from several different biochemical pathways, which they inhibit and also the plethora of different weeds, fungi and insects they are able to control. PMID:26801938

  10. Intraspecific variation in testis asymmetry in birds: evidence for naturally occurring compensation

    PubMed Central

    Calhim, Sara; Birkhead, Tim R.

    2009-01-01

    In many taxa, the left and right testes often differ in size. The compensation hypothesis states that one testis of the pair serves as a ‘back-up’ for any reduced function in the other and provides a mechanism to explain intraspecific variation in degree and direction of gonad asymmetry. Although testis asymmetry is common in birds, evidence for natural testis compensation is unknown. Using a novel quantitative approach that can be applied to any bilateral organ or structure, we show that testis compensation occurs naturally in birds and can be complete when one testis fails to develop. Owing to a recurrent risk of testis impairment and an evolutionary trade-off between natural and sexual selections acting on the arrangement of internal organs in species with abdominal and/or seasonal testes, compensation adds an important, but neglected, dimension to measures of male reproductive investment. PMID:19324740

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Arsenolipids: Naturally Occurring Arsenic Compounds in Fish and Algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic-containing lipids (arsenolipids) are natural products present in fish and algae. Because these compounds occur in foods, there is considerable interest in their human toxicology. We report the synthesis and characterization of seven arsenic-containing lipids, including six natural products. The compounds comprise dimethylarsinyl groups attached to saturated long-chain hydrocarbons (three compounds), saturated long-chain fatty acids (two compounds), and monounsaturated long chain fatty acids (two compounds). The arsenic group was introduced through sodium dimethylarsenide or bis(dimethylarsenic) oxide. The latter route provided higher and more reproducible yields, and consequently, this pathway was followed to synthesize six of the seven compounds. Mass spectral properties are described to assist in the identification of these compounds in natural samples. The pure synthesized arsenolipids will be used for in vitro experiments with human cells to test their uptake, biotransformation, and possible toxic effects. PMID:24683287

  12. IMAGE Observations of Sounder Stimulated and Naturally Occurring Fast Z mode Cavity Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Taylor, C.; Reddy, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report first observations of sounder stimulated and naturally occurring fast Z mode (ZM) cavity noise detected by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite. The fast Z mode cavity noise is a banded, structure-less radio emission trapped inside fast Z mode cavities, which are characterized by a minimum (fz,min) in fast Z mode cut-off frequency (fz) along a geomagnetic field line [Gurnett et al., JGR, 1983]. Fast Z mode waves reflect at fz ~ f, where f is the wave frequency. Waves in the frequency range fz,min < f < fz,max, where fz,max is the maximum fz above fz,min altitude, are trapped within the cavity as they bounce back and forth between reflection altitudes (fz ~ f) above and below the fz,min altitude. These trapped waves will be observed by a satellite passing through the cavity. The observed cavity noise lower cutoff is at the local Z mode cut-off frequency (fz,Sat) and the upper cut-off is presumably close to fz,max. The cavity noise is observed typically inside the plasmasphere. Comparison of cavity noise as observed on the plasmagram obtained during active sounding with that observed on the dynamic spectra obtained from the interspersed passive wave measurements indicate that the cavity noise is either stimulated by transmissions from the sounder (RPI) or is of natural origin. The sounder stimulated noise is often accompanied by fast Z mode echoes. The naturally occurring cavity noise is observed on both the plasmagram and the dynamic spectra. We believe the stimulated cavity noise is generated due to scattering from small-scale irregularities of waves transmitted by RPI. One potential candidate for the source of naturally occurring Z mode cavity noise is the ring current electrons that can generate fast ZM waves via higher order cyclotron resonance [Nishimura et al., Earth Planets Space, 2007].

  13. Perchlorate isotope forensics with naturally produced 36Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, D.; Parker, D.; Singleton, M.; Buchholz, B.; Esser, B.; Moran, J.; Rood, D.; Finkel, R.

    2008-12-01

    The source of perchlorate (ClO4-) in many surface and groundwaters is not known. Recent studies (Parker et al., 2008) suggest that natural production is widespread and common, and may involve atmospheric processes. The isotopic composition of perchlorate chlorine and oxygen has proven useful for identifying anthropogenic/natural perchlorate sources (Bohlke et al, 2005) and for exploring biodegradation in environmental samples (Sturchio et al, 2007). The stable isotope approach, however, requires processing very large volumes of water to obtain milligrams of rigorously separated perchlorate for analysis, limiting its widespread application. Chlorine-36 (36Cl) is a long-lived and rare radionuclide produced cosmogenically in the upper atmosphere. The measurement of 36Cl/Cl by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) only requires micrograms of sample chlorine enabling lower volume extractions (less than 1/10th that required for stable isotope techniques), and potentially less rigorous perchlorate chemistry. The primary technical goal of our work is to determine the utility of 36Cl in distinguishing perchlorate source and in constraining mechanisms of natural perchlorate formation. We expect that synthetic perchlorate compounds produced using chloride brines from ancient sources and concentrated modern deposits will have low 36Cl/Cl ratios that will be distinct from natural perchlorate produced in the atmosphere. High levels of 36Cl in groundwater or rainwater perchlorate would then be an unambiguous indication of a natural atmospheric production, and the distribution of 36Cl/Cl in precipitation and groundwater (in conjunction with stable isotope compositions) would constrain the mechanism for natural perchlorate production in the atmosphere. Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we have measured 36Cl/Cl in a number of synthetic perchlorate salts (including potassium, sodium, magnesium, and ammonium salts). Synthetic salt 36Cl/Cl atom ratios range from 1 to 35 e-15

  14. Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes. PMID:24375470

  15. Alaska, Naturally Occurring Asbestos: Experiences, Policy and 2012 Limitation of Liability Legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargesheimer, J.; Perkins, R.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in mineral deposits in Alaska. There are many regions in Alaska that have minerals in surface rocks that may contain asbestos and asbestos has been discovered in many locations in Alaska. Gravel is constantly in demand for heavy construction projects, but some remote localities in Alaska do not have gravel sources that are NOA-free. Determining if NOA can be safely used in heavy construction materials and what can or should be done with NOA materials that are already in place are complex questions. Answers will depend on the amount and type of asbestos mineral, how it is handled in processing, and how it is maintained - all subject to regulation and control of operations. The State of Alaska recently enacted legislation (HB 258) providing, among other things, "… immunity for the state and for landowners, extractors, suppliers, transporters, and contractors for certain actions or claims arising in connection with the use of gravel or aggregate material containing naturally occurring asbestos in certain areas." Implementation of the law and interim regulations and guidance should enable use of NOA for heavy construction materials in Alaska, but as with any new law, it will take some time to understand its full scope and effect.

  16. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses. PMID:12748987

  18. Naturally occurring somatic motoneuron death in a teleost angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, H; Yoshida, M; Uematsu, K

    1999-05-28

    Naturally occurring somatic motoneuron death in a teleost angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, was investigated histochemically and electron microscopically. The number of motor axons in the ventral root, which corresponds to the motoneuron number in spinal hemisegment, was rapidly increased beyond the adult value within 3 days after hatching, and then decreased to reach the adult value within a few weeks. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) histochemistry, which detects fragmented nuclear DNA characteristic to apoptotic cells, showed that the apoptotic cells are located in the motor column of the cord in the larvae at specific developmental stages. Electron microscopic observations of the spinal cells further confirmed the motoneuron apoptosis. The present data suggest that the massive death of somatic motoneurons at certain ontogenic stages which has been known to occur in higher vertebrates also takes place in fish. PMID:10400233

  19. Naturally-occurring expressive suppression in daily life depletes executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Franchow, Emilie I; Suchy, Yana

    2015-02-01

    The depleting impact of experimentally manipulated expressive suppression (ES) on cognition (especially executive functioning and related processes) has been well established (Baumeister, 2002a). However, the impact of ES that occurs naturally in the course of daily life has not been examined. Sixty two adults (M = 22.89 years old) completed questions about recent ES burden (over the past 2 weeks and on the test day) and completed cognitive measures assessing executive functioning, working memory, and speed of information processing. Individuals with higher-than-usual burden of ES on the test day exhibited poorer executive performance and those with high ES over the past 2 weeks exhibited poorer processing speed above and beyond depression, suggesting that ES burden as it occurs in the course of daily life is associated with compromised cognitive performance. PMID:25111882

  20. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  1. Soil-to-Crop Transfer Factors of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Stable Elements for Long-Term Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2007-07-01

    A soil-to-crop transfer factor, TF, is a key parameter that directly affects the internal dose assessment for the ingestion pathway, however, obtaining TFs of various long-lived radionuclides occurred during operation of nuclear power plants is difficult because most of them could not be found in natural environments. In this study, therefore, we collected crops and their associated soils throughout Japan and measured more than 50 elements to obtain TFs under equilibrium conditions. The TFs were calculated for 42 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tl, Pb, Th and U) from their concentrations in both crop and soil samples. The TF is defined as the concentration of an isotope in a crop (in Bq/kg or mg/kg dry weight) divided by the concentration of the isotope in soil (in Bq.kg or mg/kg dry weight). Probability distributions of TFs for 62 upland field crops were usually log-normal type so that geometric means (GMs) were calculated. The values for the elements of interest from the viewpoint of long-term dose assessment were 2.5E-02 for Se, 7.9E-02 for Sr, 3.1E-03 for Cs, 4.2E-04 for Th and 4.6E-04 for U. Leafy vegetable showed the highest TFs for all the elements among the crop groups. It was clear that these data were usually within the 95% confidence limits of TFs compiled by IAEA in Technical Report Series 364. (authors)

  2. Naturally occurring levels of elements in fishes as determined by PIXE and XRF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallandini, L.; Giacobini, F.; Turchetto, M.; Galassini, S.; Liu, Q. X.; Shao, H. R.; Moschini, G.; Moro, R.; Gialanella, G.; Ghermandi, G.; Cecchi, R.; Injuk, J.; Valković, V.

    1989-04-01

    Naturally occurring levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sb, Sr and Pb were measured in the gills, liver and muscles of fishes ( Zosterisessor ophiocephalus Pall) in the northwestern region of the Adriatic Sea. The overall performance of PIXE and XRF methods was tested by the analysis of standard reference materials. The mean concentration values for elements were calculated from the distribution of experimentally determined concentration values. The obtained data are discussed in the framework of metal metabolism and toxicology.

  3. Editing the genome to introduce a beneficial naturally occurring mutation associated with increased fetal globin.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Beeke; Funnell, Alister P W; Norton, Laura J; Pearson, Richard C M; Wilkinson-White, Lorna E; Lester, Krystal; Vadolas, Jim; Porteus, Matthew H; Matthews, Jacqueline M; Quinlan, Kate G R; Crossley, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders resulting from defects in the adult globin genes are among the most common inherited diseases. Symptoms worsen from birth as fetal γ-globin expression is silenced. Genome editing could permit the introduction of beneficial single-nucleotide variants to ameliorate symptoms. Here, as proof of concept, we introduce the naturally occurring Hereditary Persistance of Fetal Haemoglobin (HPFH) -175T>C point mutation associated with elevated fetal γ-globin into erythroid cell lines. We show that this mutation increases fetal globin expression through de novo recruitment of the activator TAL1 to promote chromatin looping of distal enhancers to the modified γ-globin promoter. PMID:25971621

  4. Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-04-01

    This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose. PMID:20336233

  5. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  6. Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) Naturally Occurring Asbestos Regulations and Enforcement Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.

    2012-12-01

    BAAQMD has been delegated local enforcement of the Naturally-Occurring Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations, Section 93105, Title 17, California Code of Regulation ("NOA ATCM") by the state Air Resource Board. BAAQMD will present an overview of how BAAQMD administers and enforces the NOA ATCM, as well as a discussion of various issues that have arisen at NOA projects BAAQMD has overseen, and steps that have been taken in the interest of protecting the public health.

  7. Naturally occurring bioactive Cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids in fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2014-10-15

    This article focuses on the occurrence and biological activities of cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids obtained from fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants. Naturally occurring CBC alkaloids are of particular interest because many of these compounds display important biological activities and possess antitumour, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and immunosuppressive properties. Therefore, these compounds are of great interest in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Fermentation and production of CBC alkaloids by fungi and/or fungal endophytes is also discussed. This review presents the structures and describes the activities of 98 CBC alkaloids. PMID:25442265

  8. Intramolecular nitrone dipolar cycloadditions: control of regioselectivity and synthesis of naturally-occurring spirocyclic alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Alastair J; Adams, Joseph P; Bond, Andrew D; Holmes, Andrew B; Press, Neil J; Roughley, Stephen D; Ryan, John H; Saubern, Simon; Smith, Catherine J; Turnbull, Michael D; Newton, Annabella F

    2012-12-01

    The intramolecular nitrone dipolar cycloaddition of in situ-generated nitrones such as compound 26 has been used for the synthesis of cyclic isoxazolidines 27 and 29. The regioselectivity of the intramolecular cycloaddition depends on the nature of the terminal substituent on the dipolarophile. The influence of the substituent on the regioselectivity of the cycloaddition has been examined using several model systems and two methods of nitrone formation. These studies demonstrated that the cyano-substituent plays a special role in favouring the formation of the 6,6,5-ring fused adduct 27 under thermodynamically controlled conditions. The utility of the cyclo-adduct 57 (see Scheme 12) as a precursor for the naturally occurring histrionicotoxins is illustrated by the synthesis of three "unsymmetrical" (i.e. with each side chain bearing different functional groups) members of the histrionicotoxin family HTX-259A, HTX-285C and HTX-285E (2, 3 and 4 respectively). PMID:23051904

  9. Naturally occurring asbestos in eastern Australia: a review of geological occurrence, disturbance and mesothelioma risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Potential asbestos-bearing rocks account for about 0.2% of the land area of eastern Australia. The main mode of occurrence is as narrow cross fibre and slip fibre veins of chrysotile asbestos in serpentinised ophiolite complexes along the boundaries of major tectonic domains. Smaller deposits of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos occur in metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks associated with the Macquarie Volcanic Arc in New South Wales. Amphibole asbestos is also known from Proterozoic and Palaeozoic amphibolite and from Devonian basalt. Natural asbestos-bearing materials in eastern Australia have been disturbed by mining, road construction, agriculture and forestry, urban development and through natural weathering processes. Persons most at risk of potential exposure to asbestos from natural sources include: farmers who work or live in areas where asbestos-bearing materials may be routinely disturbed by agricultural activities; construction workers involved in large-scale earthwork projects in areas underlain by asbestos-bearing rocks; and quarry workers who unwittingly disturb asbestos-bearing materials. Government authorities and private enterprise need to take geological factors into account to reduce the likelihood of unplanned disturbance of natural asbestos-bearing materials.

  10. Molecular- and nm-scale Investigation of the Structure and Compositional Heterogeneity of Naturally Occurring Ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismasu, C.; Michel, F. M.; Stebbins, J. F.; Tcaciuc, A. P.; Brown, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    Ferrihydrite is a hydrated Fe(III) nano-oxide that forms in vast quantities in contaminated acid mine drainage environments. As a result of its high surface area, ferrihydrite is an important environmental sorbent, and plays an essential role in the geochemical cycling of pollutant metal(loid)s in these settings. Despite its environmental relevance, this nanomineral remains one of the least understood environmental solids in terms of its structure (bulk and surface), compositional variations, and the factors affecting its reactivity. Under natural aqueous conditions, ferrihydrite often precipitates in the presence of several inorganic compounds such as aluminum, silica, arsenic, etc., or in the presence of organic matter. These impurities can affect the molecular-level structure of naturally occurring ferrihydrite, thus modifying fundamental properties that are directly correlated with solid-phase stability and surface reactivity. Currently there exists a significant gap in our understanding of the structure of synthetic vs. natural ferrihydrites, due to the inherent difficulties associated to the investigation of these poorly crystalline nanophases. In this study, we combined synchrotron- and laboratory-based techniques to characterize naturally occurring ferrihydrite from an acid mine drainage system situated at the New Idria mercury mine in California. We used high-energy X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis to elucidate quantitative structural details of these samples. We have additionally used scanning transmission X-ray microscopy high resolution imaging (30 nm) to evaluate the spatial relationship of major elements Si, Al, and C within ferrihydrite. Al, Si and C K-edge near- edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to obtain short-range structural information. By combining these techniques we attain the highest level of resolution permitted by current analytical

  11. Cd Isotopic Composition Measured by Plasma Source Mass Spectrometry on Natural and Anthropogenic Materials. A Preliminary Outline of Cd Isotope Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocent, C.

    2004-05-01

    Cadmium is a trace metal that is used as a geochemical tracer of natural processes, like biological productivity and paleoproductivity, and also of anthropogenic pollution, as Cd is known to be a toxic heavy metal that has become a major environmental and health concern. For these purposes, an outstanding issue is to determine whether Cd, like a number of metallic elements (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Tl), may display variable isotopic compositions in natural and/or industrial compounds. It is known that Cd may display variable isotopic composition. Indeed, isotopic fractionation processes have been documented in some meteorites and in lunar soils. Consequently, due to its relatively low boiling point (767\\deg C) and also to the large mass range covered by its isotopes (10 mass units), Cd might fractionate isotopically, for example during the outpouring of acidic volcanic magmas and/or the emplacement of granitoids. On another hand, isotopic fractionation could also occur during human activities like refuse incineration or industrial manufacturing, for instance. Finally, biologically-induced isotopic fractionation should not be ruled out, as it is clearly evidenced for other metals, like Fe. A high precision method has been developed for determining the isotopic composition of Cd by plasma source mass spectrometry (Neptune). This method holds on the standard-bracketing technique, owing to the availability of Cd solutions of known isotopic composition provided by the University of M\\H{u}nster. This allows to correct precisely for mass fractionation that occurs in the plasma source mass spectrometer. It is also critical for the analysis to be possible to work with Cd solutions of very high purity. Chemical isolation of Cd involves 3 steps, and may be also suitable for Cd isotopic measurements using solid source mass spectrometry. Preliminary results suggest that Cd is likely to fractionate during smelting activities, as indicated by measurements on mining waste. The

  12. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on <25 μg of Ca. Results from this new study show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density by X-ray measurements occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  13. AAV-Mediated Cone Rescue in a Naturally Occurring Mouse Model of CNGA3-Achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L.; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A.; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

  14. Naturally occurring H-DNA-forming sequences are mutagenic in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring DNA sequences can form noncanonical structures such as H-DNA, which are abundant and regulate the expression of several disease-linked genes. Here, we show that H-DNA-forming sequences are intrinsically mutagenic in mammalian cells. This finding suggests that DNA is a causative factor in mutagenesis and not just the end product. By using the endogenous H-DNA-forming sequence found in the human c-myc promoter, mutation frequencies in a reporter gene were increased ≈20-fold over background in COS-7 cells. H-DNA-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) were detected near the H-DNA locus. The structures of the mutants revealed microhomologies at the breakpoints, consistent with a nonhomologous end-joining repair of the DSBs. These results implicate H-DNA-induced DSBs in c-myc gene translocations in diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma and t(12;15) BALB/c plasmacytomas, where most breakpoints are found near the H-DNA-forming site. Thus, our findings suggest that H-DNA is a source of genetic instability resulting from DSBs and demonstrate that naturally occurring DNA sequences are mutagenic in mammals, perhaps contributing to genetic evolution and disease. PMID:15342911

  15. Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores. [Viking spacecraft dry heat decontamination simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puleo, J. R.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Peeler, J. T.; Oxborrow, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5- and 15-h cycles at 125 C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 0.001 to 0.0001) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

  16. Human prostacyclin receptor structure and function from naturally-occurring and synthetic mutations.

    PubMed

    Stitham, Jeremiah; Arehart, Eric J; Gleim, Scott R; Douville, Karen L; Hwa, John

    2007-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is released by vascular endothelial cells and serves as a potent vasodilator, inhibitor of platelet aggregation (anti-thrombotic), and moderator of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation-migration-differentiation (anti-atherosclerotic). These actions are mediated via a seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), known as the human prostacyclin receptor or hIP. Animal studies using prostacyclin receptor knock-out (IP-/-) mice have revealed increased propensities towards thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis, restenosis, as well as reperfusion injury. Of further importance has been the world-wide withdrawal of selective COX-2 inhibitors, due to their discriminating suppression of COX-2-derived PGI2 and its cardioprotective effects, leading to increased cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and thrombotic stroke. Over the last decade, mutagenesis studies of the IP receptor, in conjunction with in vitro functional assays and molecular modeling, have provided critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of both agonist binding and receptor activation. Most recently, the discovery of naturally-occurring and dysfunctional mutations within the hIP has provided additional insights into the proposed cardioprotective role of prostacyclin. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent findings regarding hIP receptor structure-function that have developed through the study of both synthetic and naturally-occurring mutations. PMID:17164137

  17. Naturally occurring human urinary peptides for use in diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Good, David M; Zürbig, Petra; Argilés, Angel; Bauer, Hartwig W; Behrens, Georg; Coon, Joshua J; Dakna, Mohammed; Decramer, Stéphane; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F; Ehrich, Jochen H H; Eitner, Frank; Fliser, Danilo; Frommberger, Moritz; Ganser, Arnold; Girolami, Mark A; Golovko, Igor; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haubitz, Marion; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Jankowski, Joachim; Jahn, Holger; Jerums, George; Julian, Bruce A; Kellmann, Markus; Kliem, Volker; Kolch, Walter; Krolewski, Andrzej S; Luppi, Mario; Massy, Ziad; Melter, Michael; Neusüss, Christian; Novak, Jan; Peter, Karlheinz; Rossing, Kasper; Rupprecht, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P; Schiffer, Eric; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Tarnow, Lise; Theodorescu, Dan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Vanholder, Raymond; Weissinger, Eva M; Mischak, Harald; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Because of its availability, ease of collection, and correlation with physiology and pathology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics/peptidomics. However, the lack of comparable data sets from large cohorts has greatly hindered the development of clinical proteomics. Here, we report the establishment of a reproducible, high resolution method for peptidome analysis of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins, ranging from 800 to 17,000 Da, using samples from 3,600 individuals analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS. All processed data were deposited in an Structured Query Language (SQL) database. This database currently contains 5,010 relevant unique urinary peptides that serve as a pool of potential classifiers for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. As an example, by using this source of information, we were able to define urinary peptide biomarkers for chronic kidney diseases, allowing diagnosis of these diseases with high accuracy. Application of the chronic kidney disease-specific biomarker set to an independent test cohort in the subsequent replication phase resulted in 85.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results indicate the potential usefulness of capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS for clinical applications in the analysis of naturally occurring urinary peptides. PMID:20616184

  18. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained by NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.

  19. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility`s operations will also be presented.

  20. Drosophila TRPA1 channel is required to avoid the naturally occurring insect repellent citronellal

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ronderos, David S.; Lee, Youngseok; Akitake, Bradley; Woodward, Owen M.; Guggino, William B.; Smith, Dean P.; Montell, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Summary Plants produce naturally occurring insect repellents, such as citronellal, which is the main component of citronellal oil and is among the most widely-used-naturally-occurring insect repellents. However, the molecular pathways through which insects sense botanical repellents are unknown. Here, we showed that Drosophila used two pathways for direct avoidance of citronellal. The olfactory co-receptor, Or83b, which is required for the response to the synthetic repellent DEET, contributed to citronellal repulsion, and was essential for citronellal-evoked action potentials. Mutations affecting the Ca2+-permeable cation channel, TRPA1 resulted in a comparable defect in avoiding citronellal vapor. The TRPA1-dependent aversion to citronellal relied on a G protein/phospholipase C (PLC) signaling cascade, rather than direct detection of citronellal by TRPA1. Loss of TRPA1, Gq or PLC caused an increase in the frequency of citronellal-evoked action potentials in olfactory receptor neurons. Absence of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel, Slowpoke, resulted in a similar impairment in citronellal avoidance, and an increase in the frequency of action potentials. These results suggest that TRPA1 is required for activation of a BK channel to modulate citronellal-evoked action potentials, and for aversion to citronellal. In contrast to Drosophila TRPA1, Anopheles gambiae TRPA1 was directly and potently activated by citronellal, thereby raising the possibility that mosquito TRPA1 may be a target for developing improved repellents to reduce insect-borne diseases such as malaria. PMID:20797863

  1. Naturally Occurring Human Urinary Peptides for Use in Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Good, David M.; Zürbig, Petra; Argilés, Àngel; Bauer, Hartwig W.; Behrens, Georg; Coon, Joshua J.; Dakna, Mohammed; Decramer, Stéphane; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Ehrich, Jochen H. H.; Eitner, Frank; Fliser, Danilo; Frommberger, Moritz; Ganser, Arnold; Girolami, Mark A.; Golovko, Igor; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haubitz, Marion; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Jankowski, Joachim; Jahn, Holger; Jerums, George; Julian, Bruce A.; Kellmann, Markus; Kliem, Volker; Kolch, Walter; Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Luppi, Mario; Massy, Ziad; Melter, Michael; Neusüss, Christian; Novak, Jan; Peter, Karlheinz; Rossing, Kasper; Rupprecht, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P.; Schiffer, Eric; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Tarnow, Lise; Theodorescu, Dan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Vanholder, Raymond; Weissinger, Eva M.; Mischak, Harald; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Because of its availability, ease of collection, and correlation with physiology and pathology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics/peptidomics. However, the lack of comparable data sets from large cohorts has greatly hindered the development of clinical proteomics. Here, we report the establishment of a reproducible, high resolution method for peptidome analysis of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins, ranging from 800 to 17,000 Da, using samples from 3,600 individuals analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS. All processed data were deposited in an Structured Query Language (SQL) database. This database currently contains 5,010 relevant unique urinary peptides that serve as a pool of potential classifiers for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. As an example, by using this source of information, we were able to define urinary peptide biomarkers for chronic kidney diseases, allowing diagnosis of these diseases with high accuracy. Application of the chronic kidney disease-specific biomarker set to an independent test cohort in the subsequent replication phase resulted in 85.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results indicate the potential usefulness of capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS for clinical applications in the analysis of naturally occurring urinary peptides. PMID:20616184

  2. Monitoring Natural Occurring Asbestos in ophiolite sequences and derived soils: implication with human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Bloise, Andrea; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on soils that developed on serpentinite-metabasite bedrocks, which could potentially be rich in asbestos minerals and, as a consequence, have a negative impact on agricultural activity and on environmental quality. In order to investigate the natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) on the surface of the soil formed from serpentinites and metabasite, we selected a study area located in Sila Piccola (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy), where previous studies highlighted the presence of asbestiform minerals within the large ophiolitic sequences that crop out (Punturo et al., 2015; Bloise et al., 2015). Agricultural soil samples have been collected mainly close to urban centres and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (TEM-EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Results pointed out as all the collected soil samples contain serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile), asbestos amphiboles, clays, chlorite, muscovite, plagioclase and iron oxides in various amounts. Electron microscope images of the soils show that their contain a variety of aggregating agents such as organic matter and clay in which individual fibres of chrysotile and tremolite-actinolite are trapped. The investigation showed that both serpentinite and metabasite rocks act as a perennial source of contamination for the agriculture lands because of the high amount of tremolite-actinolite found in the studied soil samples developed on such lithotypes. Even if asbestiform minerals usually occur in aggregates which cannot be suspended in the air, agricultural activities such as plowing can destroy these soil aggregates with the creation of dust containing inhalable asbestos fibres that evolve into airborne increasing the exposure of population to them. Since the dispersion of fibres could be associated with

  3. A naturally occurring deletion mutant of figwort mosaic virus (caulimovirus) is generated by RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Richins, R D; Shepherd, R J

    1991-09-01

    A naturally occurring deletion mutant is observed in plants infected with figwort mosaic virus (FMV), a caulimovirus. The encapsidated mutant genome is formed spontaneously in association with two different strains of FMV in four host plant species. The mutant also appears when cloned wild-type viral DNA is used as the inoculum. The deletion mutant alone is not infectious and it appears unable to replicate after its formation, even in the presence of wild-type virus. The gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was inserted at different positions in the deletion mutant genome, and subsequent transient assays showed that gene expression of the mutant occurs despite the deletion. Sequence analyses of the mutant genome revealed a deletion of 1237-bp segment encompassing a major portion of the coat protein gene and the 5' end of the downstream reverse transcriptase gene. This deletion is associated with consensus signals for RNA splicing including the conserved 5' and 3' splice sites plus surrounding sequences, putative branch point(s) for lariat formation, and an extremely high adenosine content (41%) of the removed fragment. This suggests that splicing of the FMV full-length transcript has occurred prior to reverse transcription and this accounts for the presence and accumulation of encapsidated DNAs with the same deletion. PMID:1871973

  4. Reactive Neurogenesis in Response to Naturally Occurring Apoptosis in an Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Tracy A.; Thatra, Nivretta M.; Lee, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal birth and death are tightly coordinated to establish and maintain properly functioning neural circuits. Disruption of the equilibrium between neuronal birth and death following brain injury or pharmacological insult often induces reactive, and in some cases regenerative, neurogenesis. Many neurodegenerative disorders are not injury-induced, however, so it is critical to determine if and how reactive neurogenesis occurs under noninjury-induced neurodegenerative conditions. Here, we used a model of naturally occurring neural degradation in a neural circuit that controls song behavior in Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and examined the temporal dynamics between neuronal birth and death. We found that during seasonal-like regression of the song, control nucleus HVC (proper name), caspase-mediated apoptosis increased within 2 d following transition from breeding to nonbreeding conditions and neural stem-cell proliferation in the nearby ventricular zone (VZ) increased shortly thereafter. We show that inhibiting caspase-mediated apoptosis in HVC decreased neural stem-cell proliferation in the VZ. In baseline conditions the extent of neural stem-cell proliferation correlated positively with the number of dying cells in HVC. We demonstrate that as apoptosis increased and the number of both recently born and pre-existing neurons in HVC decreased, the structure of song, a learned sensorimotor behavior, degraded. Our data illustrate that reactive neurogenesis is not limited to injury-induced neuronal death, but also can result from normally occurring degradation of a telencephalic neural circuit. PMID:25253853

  5. Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

    2013-06-01

    The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium. PMID:23519083

  6. Beneficial Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Naturally Occurring Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E.; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X107 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  7. Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X10(7) autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  8. The effect of various naturally occurring metal-binding compounds on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.C.; McCafferty, E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are of considerable interest as possible corrosion inhibitors because of increased attention on the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. A hydroxamate yeast siderophore (rhodotorulic acid), a catecholate bacterial siderophore (parabactin), an adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and two metal-binding compounds isolated from the tomato and sunflower roots, namely, chlorogenic and caffeic acid, respectively, were adsorbed from solution onto pure aluminum (99.9995%) and their effect on the critical pitting potential and polarization resistance in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl was measured. These measurements were made using anodic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. The catechol-containing siderophore has an inhibitive effect on the critical pitting potential of aluminum in 0.1 M NaCl and increases the polarization resistance of the metal over time. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel is also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  9. The corrosion inhibition of iron and aluminum by various naturally occurring biological molecules

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, E.; Hansen, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Biological polymers that exhibit a strong affinity for metal surfaces are increasingly becoming the focus of research toward the development of environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. This paper deals with the use of various naturally occurring organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors for iron or aluminum. Among the organic molecules considered are catecholate and hydroxamate siderophores isolated from bacteria, the adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. FTIR analysis, anodic polarization curves, and AC impedance measurements were used to determine the adsorption and effectiveness of the various organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors. Parabactin, a catecholate siderophore, was effective in inhibiting both the corrosion of iron in hydrochloric acid and the pitting of aluminum in 0.1 M sodium chloride. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel was also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  10. Partitioning of naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) in Marcellus Shale produced fluids influenced by chemical matrix.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew W; Johns, Adam J; Eitrheim, Eric S; Knight, Andrew W; Basile, Madeline; Bettis, E Arthur; Schultz, Michael K; Forbes, Tori Z

    2016-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) associated with unconventional drilling produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale have raised environmental concerns. However, few investigations into the fundamental chemistry of NORM in Marcellus Shale produced fluids have been performed. Thus, we performed radiochemical experiments with Marcellus Shale produced fluids to understand the partitioning behavior of major radioelements of environmental health concern (uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), lead (Pb), and polonium (Po)). We applied a novel radiotracer, (203)Pb, to understand the behavior of trace-levels of (210)Pb in these fluids. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated U, Th, and Po are particle reactive in Marcellus Shale produced fluids and Ra and Pb are soluble. Sediment partitioning experiments revealed that >99% of Ra does not adsorb to sediments in the presence of Marcellus Shale produced fluids. Further experiments indicated that although Ra adsorption is related to ionic strength, the concentrations of heavier alkaline earth metals (Ba, Sr) are stronger predictors of Ra solubility. PMID:26952871

  11. Some Nutritional Characteristics of a Naturally Occurring Alga (Microcystis sp.) in a Guatemalan Lake

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Flores, Antonio; Molina, Mario R.; Almengor, Leticia; Bressani, Ricardo

    1977-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of an alga (Microcystis sp.) that occurs naturally in a Guatemalan lake were determined. The sun-dried material proved to have a high protein content (55.6%) and to be a possible good source of calcium and phosphorus (1, 169.1 and 633.4 mg/100 mg, respectively). Amino acid analysis showed that total sulfur amino acids were the most deficient ones, giving a protein score of 42 to the material. The in vitro protein digestibility of the material was 69.5%. Biological trials demonstrated that when the material was offered as the only protein source, very low consumption and a high mortality rate were obtained whether or not the diet was supplemented with 0.4% dl-methionine. However, when the material supplied 25% of the total protein of a corn-algae diet, the protein quality of the cereal was significantly improved (P < 0.05). PMID:16345191

  12. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM): a matter of wide societal implication.

    PubMed

    Pescatore, C; Menon, S

    2000-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are ubiquitous on Earth and their radioactivity may become concentrated as a result of human activities. Numerous industries produce concentrated radioactivity in their by-products: the coal industry, petroleum extraction and processing, water treatment, etc. The present reference system of radiation protection does not provide a complete framework for the coherent management of all types of radioactively contaminated materials. Inconsistencies in waste management policy and practice can be noted across the board, and especially vis-à-vis the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear industry. This article reviews the present societal approach to manage materials that are radioactive but are often not recognised as being such, and place the management of radioactive materials from the nuclear industry in perspective. PMID:11302258

  13. Behavioral responses of western corn rootworm larvae to naturally occurring and synthetic hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Arnason, J T; Philogéne, B J; Atkinson, J; Morand, P

    1992-07-01

    Hydroxamic acids have been shown to be toxic to many pest insects and pathogens. In this study, the behavioral responses of western corn rootworm larvae to naturally occurring and synthetic hydroxamic acids were investigated. In a choice test between corn roots treated with hydroxamic acids and roots treated with distilled water (control), western corn rootworm larvae chose to burrow into the control roots significantly more often than compoundtreated roots. In addition, when corn roots were treated with different hydroxamic acids in a designed searching-behavior test, neonate larvae of western corn rootworm responded by significantly reducing the number of turns, while the area searched and locomotor rate significantly increased. The responses were dependent on the concentrations of the test compounds. These results suggested that hydroxamic acids were acting as behavior-modifying and possibly feeding-deterrent chemicals. PMID:24254140

  14. Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised exclusively of naturally occurring antimicrobials and EDTA: antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-05-12

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways. PMID:24702678

  15. Alertness and clear thinking as characteristics of high naturally occurring autonomic nervous system arousal.

    PubMed

    Schubert, D S

    1977-10-01

    Studies of the effect of induced mood on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) suggested that naturally occurring mood might also covary with the ANS. Ss were 13 men and women aged 20 to 70. Fatigue, confusion, and depression were measured on the Profile of Mood States, while barometric pressure and the ANS indices of heart rate and body temperature were also recorded. Fatigue and confusion each showed negative relationships to both heart rate and body temperature. Barometric pressure showed a suggestively positive relationship to the mood of depression. Hypothalamic serotonin concentration was suggested as a central factor producing the covariations between the mood indices (alertness and clear thinking) and the ANS measures. PMID:21943

  16. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans; , Carl B.

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  17. El Dorado Air Quality Management District's Approach to Dealing With Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in El Dorado County made headlines with the discovery significant amounts of tremolite/actinolite asbestos in areas where residents had built, or were in the process of building, homes and residences. The El Dorado Air Quality Management District has been involved in all aspects of dealing with NOA from the very beginning of its discovery, from overseeing the rehabilitation of school sites to expanding and rewriting fugitive dust rules at construction sites. A discussion of best management practices which have been developed will be given, as well as how the El Dorado Air Quality Management District has worked to educate members of the public, as well as workers in the field, about NOA to aid in maintaining the health and safety of the public.

  18. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis. PMID:21425681

  19. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained bymore » NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.« less

  20. Differential susceptibility to colorectal cancer due to naturally occurring gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Aaron C.; Akter, Sadia; Hanson, Marina M.; Busi, Susheel B.; Parker, Taybor W.; Schehr, Rebecca J.; Hankins, Miriam A.; Ahner, Carin E.; Davis, Justin W.; Franklin, Craig L.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating the human microbiome have identified particular bacterial species that correlate with the presence of colorectal cancer. To evaluate the role of qualitatively different but naturally occurring gut microbiota and the relationship with colorectal cancer development, genetically identical embryos from the Polyposis in Rat Colon (Pirc) rat model of colorectal cancer were transferred into recipients of three different genetic backgrounds (F344/NHsd, LEW/SsNHsd, and Crl:SD). Tumor development in the pups was tracked longitudinally via colonoscopy, and end-stage tumor burden was determined. To confirm vertical transmission and identify associations between the gut microbiota and disease phenotype, the fecal microbiota was characterized in recipient dams 24 hours pre-partum, and in Pirc rat offspring prior to and during disease progression. Our data show that the gut microbiota varies between rat strains, with LEW/SsNHsd having a greater relative abundance of the bacteria Prevotella copri. The mature gut microbiota of pups resembled the profile of their dams, indicating that the dam is the primary determinant of the developing microbiota. Both male and female F344-Pirc rats harboring the Lewis microbiota had decreased tumor burden relative to genetically identical rats harboring F344 or SD microbiota. Significant negative correlations were detected between tumor burden and the relative abundance of specific taxa from samples taken at weaning and shortly thereafter, prior to observable adenoma development. Notably, this naturally occurring variation in the gut microbiota is associated with a significant difference in severity of colorectal cancer, and the abundance of certain taxa is associated with decreased tumor burden. PMID:26378041

  1. Naturally-occurring antisperm antibodies in men: interference with fertility and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, F; Romano, R; Santucci, R; La Verghetta, G; D'Abrizio, P; Francavilla, S

    1999-02-01

    Naturally-occurring antisperm antibodies in men are a relative cause of infertility, being the fertility impairment related with the degree of sperm autoimmunization. The impairment of sperm penetration through the cervical mucus represents the best established mechanism of the antibody interference with fertility. Another mechanism may involve complement-mediated sperm injury and opsonizing effect through the female genital tract. Finally, sperm-bound antibodies can interfere with sperm functions involved in the fertilization process, mainly in the sperm-zona pellucida interaction. While some mechanisms of the antibody-interference with fertility depend only on the degree of sperm autoimmunization (e.g., inhibition of cervical mucus penetration), other mechanisms (e.g., interference with gametes interaction) could or could not occur depending on the relevance in the fertilization process of the specific antigen(s) recognized by antisperm antibodies, which are policlonal in nature. Intrauterine insemination is an effective treatment when sperm autoimmunization is low or moderate, mainly if combined with corticosteroid treatment and superovulated cycles. On the contrary, its effectiveness in cases of high degree of sperm autoimmunization is controversial. The resort to "high tech" procedures is mandatory when other less invasive approaches have failed or they may also be chosen as a first-choice method in cases of high degree of sperm autoimmunization. Since in most reports the fertilization rate with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) was significantly lower in the presence of sperm-bound antibodies than in the case of other indications, the likelihood of fertilization is higher with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI), where the reported fertilization rates are similar to those in other indications, or even higher. PMID:9924142

  2. Naturally-Occurring Marine Brominated Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “brominated indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051

  3. The effect of inoculum volume on the microbiologic detection of naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer B; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; DeGraves, Fred J

    2010-09-01

    Currently no standard definitions for the diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection (IMI) exist. As a result, criteria applied in research to diagnose S. aureus IMIs have varied making comparisons between published works difficult. The goal of the current study was to define the optimal inoculum volume used in the diagnosis of naturally occurring S. aureus IMIs. Microbiologic results from 2 field studies examining S. aureus IMIs were used to examine the effects of inoculum volume on the microbiologic detection of S. aureus. A total of 1,583 milk samples were included in the analysis, and the results of using a 0.01-ml and a 0.1-ml inoculum are presented. Using a 0.01-ml inoculum resulted in a sensitivity of 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.6-93%) and a specificity of 99.4% (95% CI: 98.6-99.8%). Using the larger 0.1-ml inoculum resulted in a sensitivity of 96.8% (95% CI: 95.2-97.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95% CI: 98.4-99.7%). All false-positive samples were from S. aureus-negative quarters in S. aureus-positive cows. There were no false-positive cultures from S. aureus-negative cows. Of the false-negative samples, the majority (77%) were from 6 of the 34 S. aureus-positive quarters. Results from the current study of naturally occurring S. aureus IMIs support the hypothesis that, when using quarter level milk samples, a S. aureus IMI is most accurately diagnosed using a 0.1-ml inoculum. Regardless of inoculum volume, a single quarter sample culture that is positive with S. aureus (>or=1 colony-forming unit) is sufficient to diagnose a S. aureus IMI. PMID:20807927

  4. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  5. Glycosphingolipid analysis in a naturally occurring ovine model of acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Hein, Leanne; Rozaklis, Tina; Adams, Melissa; Duplock, Stephen; Snel, Marten; Hemsley, Kim; Kuchel, Tim; Smith, Nicholas; Hopwood, John J

    2016-07-01

    Gaucher disease arises from mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene which encodes an enzyme required for the lysosomal catabolism of glucosylceramide. We have identified a naturally occurring mutation in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene in sheep that leads to Gaucher disease with acute neurological symptoms. Here we have examined the clinical phenotype at birth and subsequently quantified lipids in Gaucher lamb brain, in order to characterise the disorder. Enzyme activity assessments showed that a reduction in β-glucocerebrosidase activity to 1-5% of wild-type occurs consistently across newborn Gaucher lamb brain regions. We analyzed glucosylceramide, glucosylsphingosine, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and ganglioside profiles in brain, liver, and spleen, and observed 30- to 130-fold higher glucosylceramide, and 500- to 2000-fold higher glucosylsphingosine concentrations in Gaucher diseased lambs compared to wild-type. Significant increases of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and gangliosides [GM1, GM2, GM3] concentrations were also detected in the brain. As these glycosphingolipids are involved in many cellular events, an imbalance or disruption of the cell membrane lipid homeostasis would be expected to impair normal neuronal function. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of glycosphingolipids in various brain regions in a large animal model of neuronal disease, which permits the mechanistic investigation of lipid deregulation and their contribution to neurodegenerative process. PMID:26976737

  6. Naturally Occurring Mutations in the MPS1 Gene Predispose Cells to Kinase Inhibitor Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Gurden, Mark D; Westwood, Isaac M; Faisal, Amir; Naud, Sébastien; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; McAndrew, Craig; Wood, Amy; Schmitt, Jessica; Boxall, Kathy; Mak, Grace; Workman, Paul; Burke, Rosemary; Hoelder, Swen; Blagg, Julian; Van Montfort, Rob L M; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-08-15

    Acquired resistance to therapy is perhaps the greatest challenge to effective clinical management of cancer. With several inhibitors of the mitotic checkpoint kinase MPS1 in preclinical development, we sought to investigate how resistance against these inhibitors may arise so that mitigation or bypass strategies could be addressed as early as possible. Toward this end, we modeled acquired resistance to the MPS1 inhibitors AZ3146, NMS-P715, and CCT251455, identifying five point mutations in the kinase domain of MPS1 that confer resistance against multiple inhibitors. Structural studies showed how the MPS1 mutants conferred resistance by causing steric hindrance to inhibitor binding. Notably, we show that these mutations occur in nontreated cancer cell lines and primary tumor specimens, and that they also preexist in normal lymphoblast and breast tissues. In a parallel piece of work, we also show that the EGFR p.T790M mutation, the most common mutation conferring resistance to the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib, also preexists in cancer cells and normal tissue. Our results therefore suggest that mutations conferring resistance to targeted therapy occur naturally in normal and malignant cells and these mutations do not arise as a result of the increased mutagenic plasticity of cancer cells. PMID:26202014

  7. The kinetics of clumped-isotope reactions in calcite and apatite from natural and experimental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, D. A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of clumped isotopes of carbonate-bearing minerals are a powerful tool for reconstructing past surface temperatures and thermal histories of shallow crustal rocks. Because the clumped-isotope thermometer is based on homogenous-phase equilibrium, a sample's clumped-isotope temperature is susceptible to resetting through, for example, intracrystalline diffusion and redistribution of C and O isotopes during (re)heating or slow cooling. Quantitative knowledge of the kinetics of this resetting have received increasing attention (1-3) and is critical for understanding the meaning of clumped-isotope temperatures of samples with complex burial histories. To better constrain these kinetics and complement previous work (1-3) we performed heating experiments (400-700°C) on optical calcites and carbonate-bearing apatites. As previously observed (2-3), calcites exhibit non-first-order kinetics. The data were fit using a model that incorporates both diffusion and isotope-exchange reactions (4). The kinetics derived with this model using the optical-calcite heating experiments of (2) and those measured here are indistinguishable. The model predicts that subtle changes (>10°C) in measured calcite clumped-isotope temperatures can occur at burial temperatures between 60-100°C on million-year timescales. Though small, such changes may have an impact on clumped-isotope-based reconstructions of past surface temperatures and thermal histories. The derived kinetics were compared to clumped-isotope measurements of cogenetic calcites and apatites from slowly cooled carbonatite intrusions. Apparent temperatures are 70-140°C for apatites and 120-190°C for calcites. Measured temperatures for calcites match modeled temperatures using reasonable geological cooling rates. Natural apatite samples yield lower apparent temperatures than predicted based on the model. We propose that this difference is the result of annealment of structural damage in apatites (e.g., generated by

  8. A Naturally Occurring Bovine Tauopathy Is Geographically Widespread in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Martin; Piccardo, Pedro; Ritchie, Diane L.; Ironside, James W.; Green, Alison J. E.; McGovern, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Many human neurodegenerative diseases are associated with hyperphosphorylation and widespread intra-neuronal and glial associated aggregation of the microtubule associated protein tau. In contrast, animal tauopathies are not reported with only senescent animals showing inconspicuous tau labelling of fine processes albeit significant tau aggregation may occur in some experimental animal disease. Since 1986, an idiopathic neurological condition of adult cattle has been recognised in the UK as a sub-set of cattle slaughtered as suspect bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. This disorder is characterised by brainstem neuronal chromatolysis and degeneration with variable hippocampal sclerosis and spongiform change. Selected cases of idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis (IBNC) were identified from archive material and characterised using antibodies specific to several tau hyperphosphorylation sites or different isoforms of the tau microtubule binding region. Labelling was also carried out for alpha synuclein, ubiquitin, TDP43, Aβ1–42, Aβ1–40. Widespread tau labelling was identified in all IBNC brains examined and with each of seven tau antibodies recognising different hyperphosphorylated sites. Labelling with each antibody was associated with dendrites, neuronal perikarya and glia. Thus IBNC is a sporadic, progressive neurological disease predominantly affecting aged cattle that occurs throughout the UK and is associated with hyperphosphorylation of tau, a rare example of a naturally-occurring tauopathy in a non-primate species. Secondary accumulation of alpha synuclein and ubiquitin was also present. The neuropathology does not precisely correspond with any human tauopathy. The cause of IBNC remains undetermined but environmental factors and exposure to agrochemicals needs to be considered in future aetiological investigations. PMID:26091261

  9. Controls on chemistry and diagenesis of naturally occurring iron-oxide phases

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy W. Hinman; J. Michelle Kotler; Beizhan Yan; Aaron Tenesch; Richard V. Morris; Daphne L. Stoner; Jill R. Scott

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to (i) document chemical and mineralogical compositions in two naturally acidic drainages over a 1 m soil profile, (ii) document organic and inorganic signatures representative of past chemical or biological processes in the soils, and (iii) determine whether mineralogical and chemical differences are a consequence of differences in original composition, depositional conditions, or diagenesis. Two sites were studied: Paymaster Creek in the Heddleston Mining District near Lincoln, Montana and the New World Mining District near Cooke City, Montana. The oldest deposits at both naturally acidic sites pre-date human mining activity by several thousand years, although there is recent human activity at both sites. Both sites have streams with high dissolved Fe and moderately low pH and actively accumulate schwertmannite on streambeds. Soil deposits away from the streambed at Paymaster Creek contained goethite with adsorbed sulfate, but no schwertmannite, suggesting either that the original conditions precluded schwertmannite precipitation or that diagenesis occurred rapidly converting the schwertmannite to goethite. The New World Mining District site showed the expected profile, which is a gradual transition from schwertmannite- and goethite-bearing soils to goethite-only soils. Concentrations of Cr, As and other trace elements shown to retard diagenesis were higher at the New World site than at the Paymaster site.

  10. Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2014-07-01

    Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild. PMID:24582737

  11. In silico prediction of the cosmetic whitening effects of naturally occurring lead compounds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Pedro; Tong, Henry H Y

    2012-10-01

    The identification of tyrosinase inhibitors is important, not only for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders, such as melasma, but also for the production of cosmetic whitening effects. The aim of this study was the in silico prediction of the naturally occurring lead compounds in three commonly used skin-whitening herbs: Ampelopsis japonica, Lindera aggregata, and Ginkgo biloba. The active ingredients responsible for the whitening effect of these herbs remain largely unknown. The tyrosinase binding affinities and skin permeation, skin irritancy, and corrosive properties of43 natural constituents of the three herbs were predicted by docking simulations using Surflex-Dock and the QSAR-based Dermal Permeability Coefficient Program (DERMWIN) and Skin Irritation Corrosion Rules Estimation Tool (SICRET) implemented in Toxtree. Nine constituents of the three herbs were found to have more advanced binding energies than the gold standard whitening agents, arbutin and kojic acid, but 40 were indicative of at least one skin sensitization alert, and many exhibited poor skin permeability. Linderagalactone c and (+)-n-methyllaurotetanine were found to have the strongest prospects for use in topical formulations, as they achieved high predicted tyrosinase binding scores and displayed good skin permeation properties and minimal potential for skin sensitization and irritation. PMID:23156992

  12. Acoustic surface perception from naturally occurring step sounds of a dexterous hexapod robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneyitoglu Ozkul, Mine; Saranli, Afsar; Yazicioglu, Yigit

    2013-10-01

    Legged robots that exhibit dynamic dexterity naturally interact with the surface to generate complex acoustic signals carrying rich information on the surface as well as the robot platform itself. However, the nature of a legged robot, which is a complex, hybrid dynamic system, renders the more common approach of model-based system identification impractical. The present paper focuses on acoustic surface identification and proposes a non-model-based analysis and classification approach adopted from the speech processing literature. A novel feature set composed of spectral band energies augmented by their vector time derivatives and time-domain averaged zero crossing rate is proposed. Using a multi-dimensional vector classifier, these features carry enough information to accurately classify a range of commonly occurring indoor and outdoor surfaces without using of any mechanical system model. A comparative experimental study is carried out and classification performance and computational complexity are characterized. Different feature combinations, classifiers and changes in critical design parameters are investigated. A realistic and representative acoustic data set is collected with the robot moving at different speeds on a number of surfaces. The study demonstrates promising performance of this non-model-based approach, even in an acoustically uncontrolled environment. The approach also has good chance of performing in real-time.

  13. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences.

    PubMed

    Kendall, G M; Wakeford, R; Athanson, M; Vincent, T J; Carter, E J; McColl, N P; Little, M P

    2016-03-01

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matérn correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matérn model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matérn model. PMID:26880257

  14. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash. PMID:24813148

  15. Natural thorium isotopes in marine sediment core off Labuan port

    SciTech Connect

    Hafidz, B. Y.; Asnor, A. S.; Terence, R. C.; Mohamed, C. A. R.

    2014-02-12

    Sediment core was collected from Labuan port and analyzed to determine the radioactivity of thorium (Th) isotopes. The objectives of this study are to determine the possible sources of Th isotopes at Labuan port and estimates the sedimentation rate based on {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th model. The results suggest the {sup 230}Th and {sup 232}Th might be originated from terrestrial sedimentary rock while {sup 228}Th originated by authigenic origin. High ratio value of {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th detected at the top surface sediment indicates the increasing of {sup 230}Th at the recent years which might be contributed from the anthropogenic sources. The sedimentation rate of core sediment from Labuan Port was successfully estimated by using {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th model. The result show high sedimentation rate with 4.67 cm/year indicates rapid deposition occurred at this study area due to the high physical activity at the Labuan port. By assume the constant sedimentation rate at this area; we estimated the age of 142 cm core sediment obtained from Labuan port is 32 years started from 1981 to 2012. This chronology will be used in forthcoming research to investigate the historical profile of anthropogenic activities affecting the Labuan port.

  16. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR RESOLUTION OF HYDROLOGY PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of environmental isotopes as tracers in the hydrosphere is increasing as analytical instrumentation improves and more applications are discovered. There exists still misconceptions on the role of isotopes in resolving hydrology problems. Naturally occurring isotopes in th...

  18. Potential health risk in areas with high naturally-occurring cadmium background in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhang; Xiao, Tangfu; Baveye, Philippe C; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Li, Huajun

    2015-02-01

    In various parts of the world, high cadmium (Cd) concentrations in environment are not related to anthropogenic contamination but have natural origins. Less is known about health risks that arise under these conditions. This study aimed to discuss the pollution of Cd with natural sources, and to investigate the concentration of Cd in food crops and the urine of inhabitants in an area of southwestern China. The results showed that the arable soils are moderately contaminated by Cd (I(geo)=1.51) relative to the local background, with a high ecological risk (Er=218). The chemical fractions of Cd in soils with natural sources are probably controlled by parent materials and mostly in residual phase. The average Cd concentrations were 0.68 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) in local vegetables, 0.04 mg kg(-1) in rice, and 0.14 μg L(-1) in water. Leafy vegetable tends to accumulate more Cd than the other crops. The calculated Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) had a much higher value (4.33) for Cd, suggesting that Cd represents a significant potential risk to the local population. The urinary Cd concentrations (mean at 3.92 μg L(-1) for male and 4.85 μg L(-1) for female) of inhabitants in the study area were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from the control area (mean at 0.8 μg L(-1) for male and 0.42 μg L(-1) for female). Male and female test subjects had similar urinary Cd levels (p>0.05), but age seemed to lead to an increase in Cd in the urine. These findings show that naturally-occurring Cd in local soils is taken up appreciably by local food crops, and that dietary exposure of Cd through vegetable ingestion is a major exposure pathway for local populations, and a potential risk to public health in the study area. PMID:25463862

  19. The global rise in methane 2007-present: isotopic constraints from Ascension and Alert. Is a significant change occurring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, Euan G.; Manning, Martin R.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James; Brownlow, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Since 2007, atmospheric methane has risen globally by about 6 ppb a year (NOAA data), though with strong year to year variations, after a prolonged approach to equilibrium in the 1980s and 1990s. Much of this growth has been driven from the tropics, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, though with brief episodes of strong growth also in the Arctic in 2007, and in the Northern Hemisphere's low temperate latitudes. Global growth was about 13±1 ppb in 2014 and continued strongly through 2015 (NOAA data). The renewed growth in total methane burden has been accompanied by a significant shift in δ13CCH4 ratio to more 13C depleted values, which began simultaneously with the start of the rise, and has been broadly sustained, although there have also been large short term positive anomalies in δ13CCH4 occurring in both hemispheres. On Ascension island (8oS), δ13CCH4 values through into 2015 have stabilised around 0.2‰ more negative than in 2007-8. Measurements from Cape Point (34oS), and Alert (82oN) show similar patterns, as do NOAA-INSTAAR results from S. Pole. This isotopic trend is quite different from the trend of the 20th century, and implies current growth is driven by biogenic sources, not direct anthropogenic emissions. A budget analysis of both methane mole fraction and δ13CCH4 ratio has been used to investigate patterns. It is unlikely that the growth was driven by reductions in the OH sink, as such scenarios are hard to reconcile with the isotopic record. Increased anthropogenic emissions, from coal and gas leaks or fires, would tend to shift isotopic values to less 13C depleted values, the opposite of observations. The most likely explanation for the change is thus sustained growth in low latitude and southern biogenic sources, probably mainly from tropical wetlands, forests and savannas, with a possible contribution also from ruminants. In total, over the 9 year 2007- 2015 period, methane growth has been about 50-60 ppb, and continuing. The broad

  20. Isotopic analysis of uranium in natural waters by alpha spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, K.W.

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of U234/U238 activity ratios for uranium present in natural waters. The uranium is coprecipitated from solution with aluminum phosphate, extracted into ethyl acetate, further purified by ion exchange, and finally electroplated on a titanium disc for counting. The individual isotopes are determined by measurement of the alpha-particle energy spectrum using a high resolution low-background alpha spectrometer. Overall chemical recovery of about 90 percent and a counting efficiency of 25 percent allow analyses of water samples containing as little as 0.10 ?g/l of uranium. The accuracy of the method is limited, on most samples, primarily by counting statistics.

  1. Bordetella pertussis Naturally Occurring Isolates with Altered Lipooligosaccharide Structure Fail To Fully Mature Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Veerman, Rosanne E.; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Deuss, Anna J. M.; Schuijt, Tim J.; Sloots, Arjen; Kuipers, Betsy; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.; van der Ley, Peter; Mooi, Frits R.; Han, Wanda G. H.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different B. pertussis clinical isolates. By using HEK-Blue cells transfected with different pattern recognition receptors, we found that 3 out of 19 clinical isolates failed to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These findings were confirmed by using the monocytic MM6 cell line. Although incubation with high concentrations of these 3 strains resulted in significant activation of the MM6 cells, it was found to occur mainly through interaction with TLR2 and not through TLR4. When using live bacteria, these 3 strains also failed to activate TLR4 on HEK-Blue cells, and activation of MM6 cells or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was significantly lower than activation induced by the other 16 strains. Mass spectrum analysis of the lipid A moieties from these 3 strains indicated an altered structure of this molecule. Gene sequence analysis revealed mutations in genes involved in lipid A synthesis. Findings from this study indicate that B. pertussis isolates that do not activate TLR4 occur naturally and that this phenotype may give this bacterium an advantage in tempering the innate immune response and establishing infection. Knowledge on the strategies used by this pathogen in evading the host immune response is essential for the improvement of current vaccines or for the development of new ones. PMID:25348634

  2. Effect of calcitonin pretreatment on naturally occurring intervertebral disc degeneration in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Tian, Faming; Wang, Wenya; Yan, Jinyin; Liu, Huanjiang; Liu, Binbin; Song, Huiping; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our previous study suggested protective effects of calcitonin (CT) on experimental osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to provide evidence of whether CT pretreatment could prevent naturally occurring intervertebral disc degeneration in guinea pigs. Methods: Forty-two 3 months old female guinea pigs were randomly assigned into 2 groups as follows: Twenty-four were treated by normal saline as control group and sacrificed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age (6 animals at each time point), the other 18 were received salmon CT (8 ug/kg/day, everyday) treatment at 3 months of age and sacrificed at the age of 6, 9 and 12 months respectively. Van Gieson stain and the histological score were used to identify the histological changes of the lumbar intervertebral discs. The disc height and vertebral body height were measured. Immunohistochemistry measurements for glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1 expressions were performed. Bone quality and microstructural changes in the L3-6 lumbar vertebral bodies were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD), micro-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. Results: Histological analysis indicated significantly higher disc degeneration scores in 9-month-old guinea pigs in comparison with younger animals, and grew higher with increasing age. CT treatment significantly reduced the histological score, and increased the disc height and the ratio to vertebral body height in 12 months old animals, as well as upregulated the glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen and inhibited the MMP-1 expression. Micro-CT analysis showed decreased percent bone volume (BV/TV) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), structural model index (SMI) in 12 months old animals in comparison with the younger animals. Markedly increased BV/TV and decreased Tb.Sp were observed in CT treated animals when compared with control animals. The biomechanical properties including maximum load, maximum stress, yield stress and

  3. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have

  4. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P < .05). Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities. PMID:15515590

  5. Persistence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria and bacteriophage fractions of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Calero-Cáceres, William; Muniesa, Maite

    2016-05-15

    The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is a serious global health concern. ARGs from bacteria can be mobilized by mobile genetic elements, and recent studies indicate that phages and phage-derived particles, among others, could play a role in the spread of ARGs through the environment. ARGs are abundant in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of water bodies and for successful transfer of the ARGs, their persistence in these environments is crucial. In this study, three ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M and sul1) that naturally occur in the bacterial and phage fractions of raw wastewater were used to evaluate the persistence of ARGs at different temperatures (4 °C, 22 °C and 37 °C) and pH values (3, 7 and 9), as well as after various disinfection treatments (thermal treatment, chlorination and UV) and natural inactivation in a mesocosm. Gene copies (GC) were quantified by qPCR; then the logarithmic reduction and significance of the differences between their numbers were evaluated. The ARGs persisted for a long time with minimal reductions after all the treatments. In general, they showed greater persistence in the bacteriophage fraction than in the bacterial fraction. Comparisons showed that the ARGs persisted under conditions that reduced culturable Escherichia coli and infectious coliphages below the limit of detection. The prevalence of ARGs, particularly in the bacteriophage fraction, poses the threat of the spread of ARGs and their incorporation into a new bacterial background that could lead to the emergence of new resistant clones. PMID:26978717

  6. Radiological impact of dietary intakes of naturally occurring radionuclides on Pakistani adults.

    PubMed

    Akhter, P; Rahman, K; Orfi, S D; Ahmad, N

    2007-02-01

    Daily dietary intakes of three naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K were estimated for the adult population of Pakistan using neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), respectively. The daily intakes of (232)Th ranged from 4 to 29 mBq, (238)U ranged from 17 to 82 mBq and (40)K ranged from 51 to 128 Bq. The geometric means of these intakes were 10 mBqd(-1) for (232)Th, 33 mBqd(-1) for (238)U and 78.5 Bqd(-1) for (40)K. The measured values give annual committed effective doses of 0.80, 0.53 and 178.75 microSvyr(-1) for (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, respectively to Pakistani population. The net radiological impact of these radionuclides is 180.08 microSvyr(-1). This value gives cancer risk factor of 4.5 x 10(-4) and loss of life expectancy of 0.87 days only. Whereas ICRP cancer risk factor for general public is 2.5 x 10(-3) and total risk involve from the all natural radiation sources based on global average annual radiation dose of 2.4 mSvyr(-1) is 6.0 x 10(-3). The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase of cancer risk from daily Pakistani diet is only a minor fraction of ICRP values. Therefore, the diet does not pose any significant health hazard and is considered radiologically safe for human consumption. PMID:17034921

  7. Long-term toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, Jaime M; McGee, Marie A; Nyska, Abraham; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Gavett, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON) were compared in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats 15 mo after exposure. Rat-respirable fractions of LA and SM displayed greater mean lengths and aspect ratios than ED and ON. After a single intratracheal (IT) instillation (0.5 or 1.5 mg/rat), persistent changes in ventilatory parameters and a significant increase in lung resistance at baseline and after methacholine aerosol dosing were found only in rats exposed to 1.5 mg SM. High-dose ED significantly elevated bronchoalveolar lavage lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein levels, while high-dose SM increased γ-glutamyl transferase and LDH activities. A moderate degree of lung interstitial fibrosis after exposure to 1.5 mg SM persisted 15 mo after exposure, unchanged from previous findings at 3 mo. LA induced mild fibrosis, while ED and ON produced minimal and no apparent fibrosis, respectively. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was observed 15 mo after exposure to LA or ED. Data demonstrated that SM, given by bolus IT dosing on an equivalent mass basis, induced greater pulmonary function deficits, airway hyperresponsiveness, and interstitial fibrosis than other NOA, although unlike LA and ED, no apparent evidence for carcinogenicity was found. All NOA samples except ON cleavage fragments produced some degree of long-term toxicity. PMID:26818398

  8. Infrared spectroscopic examination of the interaction of urea with the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byler, D.M.; Gerasimowicz, W.V.; Stockette, V.M.; Eberl, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has shown for the first time that the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite can absorb urea, (NH2)2CO, under ambient conditions from either aqueous or ethanolic solutions. The two strongest NH stretching bands at 3441 and 3344 cm-1 in pure, solid urea shift to higher frequency (about 3504 and 3401 cm-1) after absorption. Two of the four urea bands in the 1800-1300 cm-1 range (at 1683 and 1467 cm-1) undergo marked downward shifts to about 1670 and 1445 cm-1. The other two bands show little change in frequency. The strong band at 1602 cm-1, however, diminishes in intensity to little more than an ill-defined shoulder on the 1626-cm-1 peak. When clinoptilolite is heated to 450 ??C and then treated with molten urea (ca. 140 ??C) for several minutes, and finally washed twice with ethanol to remove excess unreacted urea, further changes become apparent in the spectrum of the urea-treated clinoptilolite. The two NH stretching bands broaden without significant change in frequency. Two new bands appear in the midfrequency range at 1777 (weak) and 1719 (medium strong) cm-1. Of the four original midfrequency peaks, the one at 1602 cm-1 is now absent. Two others (1627 and 1440 cm-1) exhibit little change, while the fourth has broadened and shifted down to 1663 cm-1, where it appears as a shoulder on the band at 1627 cm-1. Both treatments clearly induce interaction between urea and the zeolite which seems to result in significant modifications in the nature of the hydrogen bonding of the substrate. ?? 1991.

  9. Isotopic composition and neutronics of the Okelobondo natural reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palenik, Christopher Samuel

    The Oklo-Okelobondo and Bangombe uranium deposits, in Gabon, Africa host Earth's only known natural nuclear fission reactors. These 2 billion year old reactors represent a unique opportunity to study used nuclear fuel over geologic periods of time. The reactors in these deposits have been studied as a means by which to constrain the source term of fission product concentrations produced during reactor operation. The source term depends on the neutronic parameters, which include reactor operation duration, neutron flux and the neutron energy spectrum. Reactor operation has been modeled using a point-source computer simulation (Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion, ORIGEN, code) for a light water reactor. Model results have been constrained using secondary ionization mass spectroscopy (SIMS) isotopic measurements of the fission products Nd and Te, as well as U in uraninite from samples collected in the Okelobondo reactor zone. Based upon the constraints on the operating conditions, the pre-reactor concentrations of Nd (150 ppm +/- 75 ppm) and Te (<1 ppm) in uraninite were estimated. Related to the burnup measured in Okelobondo samples (0.7 to 13.8 GWd/MTU), the final fission product inventories of Nd (90 to 1200 ppm) and Te (10 to 110 ppm) were calculated. By the same means, the ranges of all other fission products and actinides produced during reactor operation were calculated as a function of burnup. These results provide a source term against which the present elemental and decay abundances at the fission reactor can be compared. Furthermore, they provide new insights into the extent to which a "fossil" nuclear reactor can be characterized on the basis of its isotopic signatures. In addition, results from the study of two other natural systems related to the radionuclide and fission product transport are included. A detailed mineralogical characterization of the uranyl mineralogy at the Bangombe uranium deposit in Gabon, Africa was completed to improve

  10. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  11. Colonial cell disaggregation and intracellular microcystin release following chlorination of naturally occurring Microcystis.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiang; Wert, Eric C

    2016-09-15

    Colonial cell disaggregation and release of intracellular microcystin were evaluated following chlorine treatment of naturally occurring Microcystis. Microscopic observations of water samples collected from Lake Mead, Nevada, USA, confirmed the presence of colonial Microcystis with cells protected by an outer sheath up to 30 μm thick. During chlorination, two stages of cell decomposition were observed, stage 1: colonial cell disaggregation, and stage 2: unicellular degradation. Following a [Cl2]0:DOC0 ratio of 0.15 (t = 20 min, pH = 8.2-8.5) in unfiltered Lake Havasu samples, total particle count increased from (1.0 ± 0.11) × 10(5) to 4.2 × 10(5) particles/mL and fluorescent particle count increased from (1.2 ± 0.50) × 10(4) to 1.2 × 10(5) particles/mL, illustrating colonial cell disaggregation. Although total and fluorescent particles increased, the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) decreased from 81 μg/L to 72 μg/L, and continued to decrease at higher [Cl2]0:DOC0 ratios. The preliminary second order rate constant for the reaction between Microcystis and chlorine in natural waters was estimated using either Chl-a (k = 15 M(-1) s(-1)) or fluorescence particle count (k = 38 M(-1) s(-1)) as an indicator of cell damage following colonial disaggregation (i.e., at [Cl2]0:DOC0 ratio ≥0.15). Complete release of intracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was observed in both Lake Havasu and Lake Mead samples when applying a [Cl2]0:DOC0 ratio of 0.30 (t = 20 min), which was equivalent to a chlorine exposure of 8 min-mg/L for Lake Havasu samples. With chlorination, DOC increased by 3-18% indicating release of either colony-bound or cell-bound DOC. The results demonstrated the ability of chlorine to disaggregate/inactivate natural Microcystis colonies, and identified oxidation conditions resulting in complete release of intracellular MC-LR. PMID:27240297

  12. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  13. A molecular informed poroelastic model for organic-rich, naturally occurring porous geocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfared, Siavash; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2016-03-01

    Molecular simulation results on organic maturity (mature and immature kerogen as the two asymptotic cases) are introduced into a continuum micromechanics based model for organic-rich shales. Through a fundamental functional relationship that constrains microporous kerogen density and elasticity variable spaces and within the framework of effective media theory; the model bridges the gap between asymptotic cases of organic maturity with texture as the overriding theme, specifically a matrix/inclusion (Mori-Tanaka) texture for immature systems and a granular (self-consistent) texture for mature ones. The utility of the molecular results merged into a continuum framework is demonstrated by estimating kerogen's microporosity (< 2 nm) from nanoindentation measurements. The effect of burial and diagenetic processes on the effective poroelasticity of these porous, naturally occurring geocomposites are captured by introduction of imperfect interfaces. Finally, the performance of the model is fully characterized by ranking the normalized contribution of uncertainty of input to the overall behavior and parameters of interest to geophysicists and geomechanicians such as degree of anisotropy and in situ stresses.

  14. Studies of two naturally occurring compounds which effect release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes. [Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two naturally occurring compounds which effect the release of neurotransmitter from synaptosomes have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Iotrochotin (IOT) isolated from wound exudate of the Caribbean purple bleeder sponge promotes release in a manner that is independent of the extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ ion concentration. Leptinotarsin (LPT-d), a protein taken from hemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, stimulates Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release. IOT is slightly acidic and has a molecular weight of approximately 18 kD. (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine which has been introduced into synaptosomes as (/sup 3/H)choline can be released by IOT. The toxin releasable pool of labelled neurotransmitter is not depleted by depolarization of the synaptosomes with high potassium, and therefore seems to be primarily extravesicular. LPT-d is a larger protein (molecular weight = 45 kD) than IOT, and seems to effect primarily vesicular release by opening at least one type of presynaptic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel. The facilitatory effects of the toxin on synaptosomal release can be inhibited by inorganic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, but are not generally affected by organic antagonists.

  15. A Naturally-Occurring Transcript Variant of MARCO Reveals the SRCR Domain is Critical for Function

    PubMed Central

    Novakowski, Kyle E.; Huynh, Angela; Han, SeongJun; Dorrington, Michael G.; Yin, Charles; Tu, Zhongyuan; Pelka, Peter; Whyte, Peter; Guarné, Alba; Sakamoto, Kaori; Bowdish, Dawn M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a Class A Scavenger Receptor (cA-SR) that recognizes and phagocytoses of a wide variety of pathogens. Most cA-SRs that contain a C-terminal Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) domain use the proximal collagenous domain to bind ligands. In contrast, for the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO in phagocytosis, adhesion and pro-inflammatory signalling is less clear. The discovery of a naturally-occurring transcript variant lacking the SRCR domain, MARCOII, provided the opportunity to study the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO. We tested whether the SRCR domain is required for ligand binding, promoting downstream signalling, and enhancing cellular adhesion. Unlike cells expressing full-length MARCO, ligand binding was abolished in MARCOII-expressing cells. Furthermore, co-expression of MARCO and MARCOII impaired phagocytic function, indicating that MARCOII acts as a dominant negative variant. Unlike MARCO, expression of MARCOII did not enhance Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to bacterial stimulation. MARCO-expressing cells were more adherent and exhibited a dendritic-like phenotype, while MARCOII-expressing cells were less adherent and did not exhibit changes in morphology. These data suggest the SRCR domain of MARCO is the key domain in modulating ligand binding, enhancing downstream pro-inflammatory signalling, and MARCO-mediated cellular adhesion. PMID:26888252

  16. Naturally occurring toxic factors in plants and animals used as food.

    PubMed

    Strong, F M

    1966-03-19

    Toxic components of natural foodstuffs are discussed, with special reference to lathyrogens, pressor amines, azoxyglycosides, and labile sulfur compounds. The osteolathyrogen, gamma-glutamyl-beta-aminopropionitrile, in sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus) seeds induces skeletal deformities and aortic rupture, probably by interfering with normal maturation of collagen fibres. Neurolathyrism in man may be caused by beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid, a neurotoxin recently identified in Lathyrus sativus seeds. Histamine, tyramine, noradrenaline, serotonin and other pressor amines occur in fruits and fermented foods such as bananas, pineapples, cheese and wine. Consumption of such foods by patients taking monoamine oxidase-inhibiting drugs (e.g. tranylcypromine) may produce serious hypertensive crises. Cycad nuts, widely used as human food in tropical and subtropical areas, contain a potent carcinogen, methyl azoxymethanol, which is more or less removed prior to use by leaching in water. Consumption of plants of the onion, cabbage and cress families introduces into the body such toxic chemicals as benzyl cyanide, goitrin and thiocyanates. The lachrymatory substance in onions is propenyl sulfenic acid. PMID:5905948

  17. Naturally-occurring TGR5 agonists modulating glucagon-like peptide-1 biosynthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Calderwood, Danielle; Gillespie, Anna; Mirza, Bushra; Green, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    Selective GLP-1 secretagogues represent a novel potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined the GLP-1 secretory activity of the ethnomedicinal plant, Fagonia cretica, which is postulated to possess anti-diabetic activity. After extraction and fractionation extracts and purified compounds were tested for GLP-1 and GIP secretory activity in pGIP/neo STC-1 cells. Intracellular levels of incretin hormones and their gene expression were also determined. Crude F. cretica extracts stimulated both GLP-1 and GIP secretion, increased cellular hormone content, and upregulated gene expression of proglucagon, GIP and prohormone convertase. However, ethyl acetate partitioning significantly enriched GLP-1 secretory activity and this fraction underwent bioactivity-guided fractionation. Three isolated compounds were potent and selective GLP-1 secretagogues: quinovic acid (QA) and two QA derivatives, QA-3β-O-β-D-glycopyranoside and QA-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(28→1)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester. All QA compounds activated the TGR5 receptor and increased intracellular incretin levels and gene expression. QA derivatives were more potent GLP-1 secretagogues than QA. This is the first time that QA and its naturally-occurring derivatives have been shown to activate TGR5 and stimulate GLP-1 secretion. These data provide a plausible mechanism for the ethnomedicinal use of F. cretica and may assist in the ongoing development of selective GLP-1 agonists. PMID:26820940

  18. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  19. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E.; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P.; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Currie, Peter D.; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K.; Cole, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237

  20. Relationships of phytomacrofauna to surface area in naturally occurring macrophyte stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Poe, Thomas P.; French, John R. P., III; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1988-01-01

    Most studies of the relationships between freshwater macrophytes and phytomacrofauna, or the macroinvertebrates associated with the macrophytes, have been based on individual plant collections or samples from monotypic plant stands. We describe the phytomacrofauna assemblages within naturally occurring, taxonomically mixed stands, and consider how macrophyte surface area and plant morphology influenced phytomacrofauna diversity and abundance. Samples of submersed macrophytes and phytomacrofauna were collected April-November 1979 in Anchor Bay of Lake St. Clair. Only the portions of macrophytes within the water column and invertebrates from above the sediment were considered. Densities of phytomacrofauna were not consistently related to fluctuations in macrophyte surface area, indicating that the use of macrophyte structure by the invertebrates changed during the year. Both the abundance and species richness of the phytomacrofauna were strongly related to macrophyte species richness reflecting the response of the invertebrates to the structural heterogeneity in taxonomically mixed stands. Vertically heterogeneous stands with an understory of Chara and an overstory of vascular macrophytes, for example, were likely to contain more invertebrates than stands with only one macrophyte taxon.

  1. Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Darren J.; Childs, Bennett G.; Durik, Matej; Wijers, Melinde E.; Sieben, Cynthia J.; Zhong, Jian; Saltness, Rachel; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Versoza, Grace C.; Pezeshki, Abdul-Mohammad; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Miller, Jordan D.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a stress-induced irreversible growth arrest often characterized by p16Ink4a expression and a distinctive secretory phenotype, prevents the proliferation of preneoplastic cells and has beneficial roles in tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs over time and have been speculated to play a role in aging. To explore the physiological relevance and consequences of naturally occurring senescent cells, we used a previously established transgene, INK-ATTAC, to induce apoptosis in p16Ink4a-expressing cells of wild-type mice by injection of AP20187 twice a week starting at one year of age. Here we show that compared to vehicle alone, AP20187 treatment extended median lifespan in both male and female mice of two distinct genetic backgrounds. Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive cells delayed tumorigenesis and attenuated age-related deterioration of several organs without apparent side effects, including kidney, heart and fat, where clearance preserved the functionality of glomeruli, cardio-protective KATP channels, and adipocytes, respectively. Thus, p16Ink4a-positive cells that accumulate during adulthood negatively influence lifespan and promote age-dependent changes in multiple organs, and their therapeutic removal may be an attractive approach to extend healthy lifespan. PMID:26840489

  2. Rubemamine and Rubescenamine, Two Naturally Occurring N-Cinnamoyl Phenethylamines with Umami-Taste-Modulating Properties.

    PubMed

    Backes, Michael; Obst, Katja; Bojahr, Juliane; Thorhauer, Anika; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Paetz, Susanne; Reichelt, Katharina V; Krammer, Gerhard E; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ley, Jakob P

    2015-10-01

    Sensory screening of a series of naturally occurring N-cinnamoyl derivatives of substituted phenethylamines revealed that rubemamine (9, from Chenopodium album) and rubescenamine (10, from Zanthoxylum rubsecens) elicit strong intrinsic umami taste in water at 50 and 10 ppm, respectively. Sensory tests in glutamate- and nucleotide-containing bases showed that the compounds influence the whole flavor profile of savory formulations. Both rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) at 10-100 ppm dose-dependently positively modulated the umami taste of MSG (0.17-0.22%) up to threefold. Among the investigated amides, only rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) are able to directly activate the TAS1R1-TAS1R3 umami taste receptor. Moreover, both compounds also synergistically modulated the activation of TAS1R1-TAS1R3 by MSG. Most remarkably, rubemamine (9) was able to further positively modulate the IMP-enhanced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 response to MSG ∼ 1.8-fold. Finally, armatamide (11), zanthosinamide (13), and dioxamine (14), which lack intrinsic umami taste in vivo and direct receptor response in vitro, also positively modulated receptor activation by MSG about twofold and the IMP-enhanced MSG-induced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responses approximately by 50%. In sensory experiments, dioxamine (14) at 25 ppm in combination with 0.17% MSG exhibited a sensory equivalent to 0.37% MSG. PMID:26375852

  3. What should a radiation regulator do about naturally occurring radioactive material?

    PubMed

    Loy, J

    2015-06-01

    The standard regulatory framework of authorisation, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, and regulation making is directed principally towards ensuring the regulatory control of planned exposure situations. Some mining and industrial activities involving exposures to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), such as uranium mining or the treatment and conditioning of NORM residues, may fit readily within this standard framework. In other cases, such as oil and gas exploration and production, the standard regulatory framework needs to be adjusted. For example, it is not sensible to require that an oil company seek a licence from the radiation regulator before drilling a well. The paper discusses other approaches that a regulator might take to assure protection and safety in such activities involving exposures to NORM, including the use of conditional exemptions from regulatory controls. It also suggests some areas where further guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection on application of the system of radiological protection to NORM would assist both regulators and operators. PMID:25816273

  4. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the South Western oil wells of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khodashenas, Alireza; Roayaei, Emad; Abtahi, Seyed Mojtaba; Ardalani, Elham

    2012-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to find out the concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in an oil production unit, an evaporation pond, and a drilling site in the Khuzestan province, in south west Iran the 4th largest oil producing country in the world. The nuclides (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples and (226)Ra was analyzed in both soil and water. The (232)Th ranged between 8.7 and 403 Bq kg(-1), while the minimum concentration for (40)K was much larger, i.e. 82 Bq kg(-1) and its maximum concentration was 815 Bq kg(-1). Soil samples indicated very low concentrations of (226)Ra, typically between 10.6 and 42.1 Bq kg(-1) with some exceptions of 282, 602, and even 1480 Bq kg(-1). Also, the range for (226)Ra in water was less from 0.1 to a maximum 30.3 Bq L(-1). Results show that on average, NORM concentrations in these areas are lower in comparison with the usual concentration levels in typical oil and gas fields, but despite this fact, necessary measures have to be taken in order to minimize the environmental impact of radioactive materials. PMID:22321893

  5. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established. PMID:26686009

  6. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET-PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different -OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H-atom abstraction from 4'-OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B-ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  7. Polyhydroxyester films obtained by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation of natural occurring fatty polyhydroxyacids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Jose; Heredia-Guerrero, José; Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Barthel, Markus; Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Free-standing polyesters films from mono and polyhydroxylated fatty acids (C16 and C18) have been obtained by non-catalyzed melt-condensation polymerization in air at 150°C. Chemical characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C MAS-NMR) has confirmed the formation of the corresponding esters and the occurrence of hydroxyl partial oxidation which extent depends on the type of hydroxylation of the monomer (primary or secondary). Generally, polyester films obtained are hydrophobic, insoluble in common solvents, amorphous and infusible as revealed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In ?-polyhydroxy acids, esterification reaction with primary hydroxyls is preferential and, therefore, the structure can be defined as linear with variable branching depending on the amount of esterified secondary hydroxyls. The occurrence side oxidative reactions like the diol cleavage are responsible for chain cross-linking. Films are thermally stable up to 200-250°C though this limit can be extended up to 300°C in the absence of ester bonds involving secondary hydroxyls. By analogy with natural occurring fatty polyesters (i.e. cutin in higher plants) these polymers are proposed as biodegradable and non-toxic barrier films or coatings to be used, for instance, in food packing

  8. Aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine encapsulated in liposomes: activity against naturally occurring dog breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Martha S T; Lucci, Carolina M; Longo, João Paulo F; Galera, Paula D; Simioni, Andreza R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Tedesco, Antônio C; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2012-04-01

    Breast tumors represent the most common malignant tumors. Current treatments for humans and pets rely on tumor excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, which may affect both cancer cells and normal cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved treatment modality for a variety of cancers and was recently recommended as a first-line treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers for humans. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of PDT using aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine that is encapsulated in liposomes and LED as a light source to kill naturally occurring female dog breast cancer in vitro. The cytotoxicity behavior of the encapsulated photosensitizer in the dark and under irradiation using the 670 nm laser were investigated using classical trypan blue and MTT cell viability tests, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining to label organelles, and cell morphology. Cell morphology was evaluated using light and electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate a reduced cell viability that is associated with morphologic alterations. The neoplasic cell destruction was predominantly mediated via a necrotic process, which was assayed using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. These findings were confirmed using light and electronic microscopy. The photosensitizer or laser irradiation alone did not induce cytotoxicity or morphological alterations, indicating the safety and efficacy of PDT with chloro-aluminum-phthalocyanine that was encapsulated in liposomes for the treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro. PMID:22515076

  9. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model.

    PubMed

    Don, Emily K; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A; Guillemin, Gilles J; Currie, Peter D; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K; Cole, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237

  10. Anabolic and Antiresorptive Modulation of Bone Homeostasis by the Epigenetic Modulator Sulforaphane, a Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Roman; Maurizi, Antonio; Roschger, Paul; Sturmlechner, Ines; Khani, Farzaneh; Spitzer, Silvia; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Karlic, Heidrun; Dudakovic, Amel; Klaushofer, Klaus; Teti, Anna; Rucci, Nadia; Varga, Franz; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2016-03-25

    Bone degenerative pathologies like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, promotes osteoblast differentiation by epigenetic mechanisms. SFN enhances active DNA demethylation viaTet1andTet2and promotes preosteoblast differentiation by enhancing extracellular matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblastic markers (Runx2,Col1a1,Bglap2,Sp7,Atf4, andAlpl). SFN decreases the expression of the osteoclast activator receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteocytes and mouse calvarial explants and preferentially induces apoptosis in preosteoclastic cells via up-regulation of theTet1/Fas/Caspase 8 and Caspase 3/7 pathway. These mechanistic effects correlate with higher bone volume (∼20%) in both normal and ovariectomized mice treated with SFN for 5 weeks compared with untreated mice as determined by microcomputed tomography. This effect is due to a higher trabecular number in these mice. Importantly, no shifts in mineral density distribution are observed upon SFN treatment as measured by quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Our data indicate that the food-derived compound SFN epigenetically stimulates osteoblast activity and diminishes osteoclast bone resorption, shifting the balance of bone homeostasis and favoring bone acquisition and/or mitigation of bone resorptionin vivo Thus, SFN is a member of a new class of epigenetic compounds that could be considered for novel strategies to counteract osteoporosis. PMID:26757819

  11. Recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin-ISCOM matrix adjuvanted vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, V. Michael; Ball, Louise M.; Hess, John F.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, blinded, controlled field trial was conducted during summer 2006 in a northern California, USA, herd of beef cattle to evaluate the efficacy of a recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin subunit vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK; pinkeye). A convenience sample comprised of 127 steers were administered a subcutaneous dose of either adjuvant alone (ISCOM matrices; control group) or recombinant M. bovoculi cytotoxin carboxy terminus adjuvanted with ISCOM matrices (MbvA group) and were boostered 21 days later. The steers were examined once weekly for 15 weeks for evidence of IBK. No significant difference in the cumulative proportion of corneal ulcerations was detected between groups. Compared to the control calves, the MbvA vaccinates had significantly higher increases in serum neutralizing titers to M. bovoculi hemolysin between week 0 and week 6. The prevalence of M. bovis isolations was higher from ulcerated eyes of calves vaccinated with MbvA as compared to control calves. Vaccination of calves against the carboxy terminus of M. bovoculi RTX toxin resulted in significant increases in serum hemolysin neutralizing titers and may modulate organism type cultured from ulcerated eyes of calves in herds where both M. bovis and M. bovoculi exist. Use of M. bovoculi antigens alone in vaccines to prevent IBK may not be beneficial in herds where IBK is associated with both M. bovoculi and M. bovis. PMID:20217228

  12. Acute phase proteins in naturally occurring respiratory disease of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Idoate, Ignacio; Vander Ley, Brian; Schultz, Loren; Heller, Meera

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three acute phase proteins (APP) [haptoglobin (HPT), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and transferrin (Tf)] in feedlot cattle with naturally occurring respiratory disease diagnosed by a calf health scoring chart (CHSC). Seventy-seven beef calves were observed for signs of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) during the first 28 days after arrival at the feedlot. Fourteen cases and pen matched controls were selected based on the CHSC. BRD cases were defined as a score of ≥ 5, while controls were defined as a score ≤ 4. The mean CHSC score in cases was 6.9 which was significantly greater than the controls 2.8 (P < 0.01). Mean plasma LBP and HPT concentrations were significantly greater in cases than controls (P < 0.01). Our study results show that measurement of HPT and LBP could be useful in detecting respiratory disease in feedlot conditions. Transferrin concentrations between the two groups were not statistically different. PMID:25599608

  13. Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.

  14. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Paul A.; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X*Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  15. A naturally occurring variant of endothelial lipase associated with elevated HDL exhibits impaired synthesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert J.; Edmondson, Andrew C.; Griffon, Nathalie; Hill, Theophelus B.; Fuki, Ilia V.; Badellino, Karen O.; Li, Mingyao; Wolfe, Megan L.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Human endothelial lipase (EL) is a member of a family of lipases and phospholipases that are involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. EL displays a preference to hydrolyze lipids in HDL. We report here that a naturally occurring low frequency coding variant in the EL gene (LIPG), glycine-26 to serine (G26S), is significantly more common in African-American individuals with elevated HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. To test the hypothesis that this variant results in reduced EL function, we extensively characterized and compared the catalytic and noncatalytic functions of the G26S variant and wild-type (WT) EL. While the catalytic-specific activity of G26S EL is similar to WT EL, its secretion is markedly reduced. Consistent with this observation, we found that carriers of the G26S variant had significantly reduced plasma levels of EL protein. Thus, this N-terminal variant results in reduced secretion of EL protein, plausibly leading to increased HDL-C levels. PMID:19411705

  16. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Grimes, Craig D; Czora, Cody S

    2016-01-01

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. PMID:27172198

  17. Naturally occurring p16(Ink4a)-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan.

    PubMed

    Baker, Darren J; Childs, Bennett G; Durik, Matej; Wijers, Melinde E; Sieben, Cynthia J; Zhong, Jian; Saltness, Rachel A; Jeganathan, Karthik B; Verzosa, Grace Casaclang; Pezeshki, Abdulmohammad; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Miller, Jordan D; van Deursen, Jan M

    2016-02-11

    Cellular senescence, a stress-induced irreversible growth arrest often characterized by expression of p16(Ink4a) (encoded by the Ink4a/Arf locus, also known as Cdkn2a) and a distinctive secretory phenotype, prevents the proliferation of preneoplastic cells and has beneficial roles in tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs over time, and have been speculated to have a role in ageing. To explore the physiological relevance and consequences of naturally occurring senescent cells, here we use a previously established transgene, INK-ATTAC, to induce apoptosis in p16(Ink4a)-expressing cells of wild-type mice by injection of AP20187 twice a week starting at one year of age. We show that compared to vehicle alone, AP20187 treatment extended median lifespan in both male and female mice of two distinct genetic backgrounds. The clearance of p16(Ink4a)-positive cells delayed tumorigenesis and attenuated age-related deterioration of several organs without apparent side effects, including kidney, heart and fat, where clearance preserved the functionality of glomeruli, cardio-protective KATP channels and adipocytes, respectively. Thus, p16(Ink4a)-positive cells that accumulate during adulthood negatively influence lifespan and promote age-dependent changes in several organs, and their therapeutic removal may be an attractive approach to extend healthy lifespan. PMID:26840489

  18. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  19. Treatment of graft-versus-host disease with naturally occurring T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Trzonkowski, Piotr; Dukat-Mazurek, Anna; Bieniaszewska, Maria; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Dobyszuk, Anita; Juścińska, Jolanta; Dutka, Magdalena; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Hellmann, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    A significant body of evidence suggests that treatment with naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) is an appropriate therapy for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). GvHD is a major complication of bone marrow transplantation in which the transplanted immune system recognizes recipient tissues as a non-self and destroys them. In many cases, this condition significantly deteriorates the quality of life of the affected patients. It is also one of the most important causes of death after bone marrow transplantation. Tregs constitute a population responsible for dominant tolerance to self-tissues in the immune system. These cells prevent autoimmune and allergic reactions and decrease the risk of rejection of allotransplants. For these reasons, Tregs are considered as a cellular drug in GvHD. The results of the first clinical trials with these cells are already available. In this review we present important experimental facts which led to the clinical use of Tregs. We then critically evaluate specific requirements for Treg therapy in GvHD and therapies with Tregs currently under clinical investigation, including our experience and future perspectives on this kind of cellular treatment. PMID:23813436

  20. A naturally occurring contrast agent for OCT imaging of smokers' lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Whiteman, Suzanne C.; Gey van Pittius, Daniel; El Haj, Alicia J.; Spiteri, Monica A.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2005-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers great potential for clinical applications in terms of its cost, safety and real-time imaging capability. Improvement of its resolution for revealing sub-layers or sub-cellular components within a tissue will further widen its application. In this study we report that carbon pigment, which is frequently present in the lungs of smokers, could be used as a contrast agent to improve the OCT imaging of lung tissue. Carbon produced an intense bright OCT image at a relatively deep location. The parallel histopathological section analysis confirmed the presence of carbon pigment in such tissues. The underlying mechanism of the OCT image formation has been discussed based on a model system in which carbon particles were dispersed in agar gel. Calculations and in-depth intensity profiles of OCT revealed that higher refractive index particles with a size close to or smaller than the wavelength would greatly increase backscattering and generate a sharp contrast, while a particle size several times larger than the wavelength would absorb or obstruct the light path. The naturally occurring contrast agent could provide a diagnostic biomarker of lung tissue in smokers. Furthermore, carbon under such circumstances, can be used as an effective exogenous contrast agent, with which specific components or tissues exhibiting early tumour formation can be optically labelled to delineate the location and boundary, providing potential for early cancer detection and its treatment.

  1. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  2. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of white matter damage after naturally-occurring spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter M; Jeffery, Nick D

    2006-04-01

    Detailed analysis of the structural changes that follow human clinical spinal cord injury is limited by difficulties in achieving adequate tissue fixation. This study bypasses this obstacle by examining the spinal cord from paraplegic domestic animals, enabling us to document the ultrastructural changes at different times following injury. In all but one case, injury resulted from a combination of contusion and compression. There was infarction and hemorrhage, followed by gray matter destruction and the rapid development of a variety of white matter changes including axon swelling and myelin degeneration. Axons greater than 5 microm in diameter were more susceptible to degenerative changes, whereas smaller axons, particularly those in the subpial region, were relatively well preserved. Demyelinated axons were seen within 2 weeks after injury and, at later time points, both Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte remyelination was common. More subtle white matter abnormalities were identified by examining sagittal sections, including focal accumulation of organelles in the axoplasm and partial and paranodal myelin abnormalities. These observations serve to validate observations from experimental models of spinal contusion but also highlight the complexity of naturally occurring (ie, clinical) spinal injury. They also raise the possibility that focal abnormalities such as paranodal demyelination may contribute to early axonal dysfunction and possibly to progressive tissue damage. PMID:16768749

  3. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  4. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Grimes, Craig D.; Czora, Cody S.

    2016-01-01

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP. These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. PMID:27172198

  5. Detection of cultured and uncultured Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Luisa; Chiarini, Luigi; Dalmastri, Claudia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Tabacchioni, Silvia

    2005-11-01

    The species composition of a Burkholderia cepacia complex population naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere was investigated by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered from maize root slurry on the two selective media Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine (PCAT) and trypan blue tetracycline (TB-T) and subjected to identification by a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of the recA gene. DNA extracted directly from root slurry was examined by means of nested PCR to amplify recA gene with species-specific B. cepacia complex primers and to obtain a library of PCR amplified recA genes. Using the culture-dependent method the species Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia ambifaria and Burkholderia pyrrocinia were identified, whereas using the culture-independent method also the species Burkholderia vietnamiensis was detected. The latter method also allowed us to highlight a higher diversity within the B. cenocepacia species. In fact, by using the culture-independent method the species B. cenocepacia recA lineages IIIA and IIID besides B. cenocepacia recA lineage IIIB were detected. Moreover, higher heterogeneity of recA RFLP patterns was observed among clones assigned to the species B. cenocepacia than among B. cenocepacia isolates from selective media. PMID:16232288

  6. Speech versus Song: Multiple Pitch-Sensitive Areas Revealed by a Naturally Occurring Musical Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

    2013-01-01

    It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory–motor integration. PMID:22314043

  7. Microbial utilization of naturally occurring hydrocarbons at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site

    SciTech Connect

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W. )

    1989-11-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California; depth, 2,000 m) is a site of hydrothermal activity in which petroliferous materials is formed by thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter. We investigated certain components of these naturally occurring hydrocarbons as potential carbon sources for a specific microflora at these deep-sea vent sites. Respiratory conversion of (1-{sup 14}C)hexadecane and (1(4,5,8)-{sup 14}C)naphthalene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was observed at 4{degree}C and 25{degree}C, and some was observed at 55{degree}C, but none was observed at 80{degree}C. Bacterial isolates were capable of growing on both substrates as the sole carbon source. All isolates were aerobic and mesophilic with respect to growth on hydrocarbons but also grew at low temperatures (4 to 5{degree}C). These results correlate well with previous geochemical analyses, indicating microbial hydrocarbon degradation, and show that at least some of the thermally produced hydrocarbons at Guaymas Basin are significant carbon sources to vent microbiota.

  8. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paul A; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X(*)Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  9. A quantitative analysis of microbially-induced calcite precipitation employing artificial and naturally-occurring sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen; Krieg Dosier, Ginger

    2013-04-01

    Microbially-induced calcite precipitation is a strong candidate for the production of sustainable construction materials. The process employs the microbe Sporosarcina pasteurii as an agent to microbially mediate the precipitation of calcium carbonate to bind unconsolidated sediment. As this process can be achieved under ambient temperature conditions and can utilise a wide variety of easily-available sediments, potentially including waste materials, it is envisioned that this procedure could significantly reduce carbon-dioxide emissions in the construction industry. This study describes and quantifies the precipitation of calcite cement in a range of naturally-occurring sediments compared with a control matrix. The study establishes the optimum treatment time for effective cement precipitation in order to produce a material that meets the standards required for construction whilst keeping economic and environmental outlays at a minimum. The 'control sediment' employed industrial-grade glass beads with a grain size range of 595-1180 microns (16-30 US mesh). Sporosarcina pasteurii were mixed in a solution of urea and calcium chloride and then inoculated into the control sediment. The microbes attach to the surface of the sediment grains and employ urea as a source of energy to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. By so doing, they increase the pH of the solution allowing calcium carbonate to precipitate at the cell walls to act as nucleation points facilitating the precipitation of cements as a grain-coating and biocementing the unconsolidated sediment. The solution treatment was repeated at eight hour intervals with samples removed for detailed analysis after each every five consecutive treatments (i.e. 40 hours). The process was repeated to produce 20 samples with treatment times between 40 and 800 hours. Cemented samples were impregnated with blue epoxy and examined petrographically to monitor cement development. Modal analysis was undertaken on each cemented

  10. Characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Libyan oil pipe scale using a germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, A. S.; Shutt, A. L.; Regan, P. H.; Matthews, M. C.; Alsulaiti, H.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Radioactive scale formation in various oil production facilities is acknowledged to pose a potential significant health and environmental issue. The presence of such an issue in Libyan oil fields was recognized as early as 1998. The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) involved in this matter are radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) and their decay products, precipitating into scales formed on the surfaces of production equipment. A field trip to a number of onshore Libyan oil fields has indicated the existence of elevated levels of specific activity in a number of locations in some of the more mature oil fields. In this study, oil scale samples collected from different parts of Libya have been characterized using gamma spectroscopy through use of a well shielded HPGe spectrometer. To avoid potential alpha-bearing dust inhalation and in accord with safe working practices at this University, the samples, contained in plastic bags and existing in different geometries, are not permitted to be opened. MCNP, a Monte Carlo simulation code, is being used to simulate the spectrometer and the scale samples in order to obtain the system absolute efficiency and then to calculate sample specific activities. The samples are assumed to have uniform densities and homogeneously distributed activity. Present results are compared to two extreme situations that were assumed in a previous study: (i) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface proximal to the detector, simulating the sample lowest activity, and; (ii) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface distal to the detector, simulating the sample highest activity.

  11. Managing for Successful Control of Naturally Occurring Asbestos During Large Scale Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, R.; Harnish, D.; Cavanaugh, J.; Kendall, K.; Virdee, A.; Ludlam, D.

    2012-12-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company recently completed environmental remediation and civil grading of a 35-acre site in San Francisco Bay Area, and the project became recognized with local agencies as having excellent controls systems for naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA). The project began in 2010 and was completed in 2012, and involved excavating and grading over 100,000 tons of soil containing NOA. The work was subject to requirements by state, local and regional agencies, including an asbestos dust mitigation plan for the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. Effective control of NOA is attributed to management approaches combined with effective monitoring and state-of-the-art controls. Management Planning. The contract for construction specified NOA compliance management and controls, including having a NOA-control "czar" ultimately responsible for effective mitigation. An important element was daily pre-planning for excavation/grading that involved both the NOA mitigation experts and construction staff. Personnel Planning and Training. All construction personnel were trained before work regarding NOA hazards and mitigations. Daily tailboards with all construction personnel included discussions of the NOA controls integral to the daily work. Supervision. A NOA mitigation compliance leader was assigned to each excavation operation, responsible for continuously monitoring wind direction and work to ensure mitigation met requirements, and that disturbed areas were hydrosealed or covered. Adaptive Management - Daily and weekly debriefs occurred with those responsible for NOA controls to evaluate effectiveness, and identify improvements needed. If a monitoring result exceeded the project trigger level, work shut down and a root-cause analysis was performed to determine appropriate corrective actions. Deviations of results from background were researched as to cause, and any adjustments identified. Nearby non-project activities were monitored, as they occasionally

  12. 13 ENDOR studies of organic radicals in natural isotopic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirste, Burkhard

    13C ENDOR studies of phenoxyls, galvinoxyls, triphenylmethyl radicals, nitroxides, and cyclosilane and semiquinone radical anions with natural isotopic distribution are reported. The method is described, and it is shown that 13C coupling constants can be measured precisely; in favorable cases even the determination of signs is possible by general TRIPLE resonance. Studies of the relaxation behavior of 13C ENDOR signals or measurements of hyperfine shifts in liquid-crystalline solutions yield information about dipolar hyperfine interactions and hence π spin populations which is of aid in assignments to molecular positions. Complete sets of 13C coupling constants have been determined for 2,4,6-tri- tert-butylphenoxyl and Coppinger's radical. For the central carbon atoms of tert-butyl groups, a Q parameter of Qτ-Bu C = -34 MHz is proposed, and for a 29Si atom in trimethylsilyl groups, QTMSSi = +49 MHz. Favorable conditions for natural-abundance 13C ENDOR experiments, e.g., small hyperfine anisotropies and use of deuterated compounds, and limitations of the method are discussed.

  13. Isolation of Naturally Occurring Viruses of the Murine Leukemia Virus Group in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Janet W.; Rowe, Wallace P.; Capps, Worth I.; Huebner, Robert J.

    1969-01-01

    A tissue culture cell system for isolation and identification of members of the murine leukemia virus group (the complement fixation for murine leukemia test) was modified to permit the isolation of naturally occurring virus from leukemic and normal mice. The important factors for increasing the sensitivity of the test were the use of National Institutes of Health (NIH) strain Webster Swiss embryo cell cultures and the selection of rat-immune sera having complement-fixing antibodies to tissue culture antigens of both the Gross and FMR subgroups. In all, 163 strains of mouse leukemia virus, from 11 inbred mouse strains, have been isolated. Representative virus isolates were shown to possess the properties of the murine leukemia virus group; i.e., they were chloroform-sensitive, noncytopathic agents which replicated in mouse embryo tissue culture and produced group-reactive, complement-fixing antigen and budding C-type particles visible by electron microscopy. These viruses could serve as helpers in the rescue of Moloney sarcoma virus genome from non-producer hamster sarcoma cells, yielding pseudotypes. All of the 19 field isolates tested were neutralized by Gross passage A antiserum but not by potent antisera to the Moloney, Rauscher, and Friend strains. Virus was recovered regularly from embryos and from the plasma and spleen of adult mice of high leukemic strains. In low leukemic mouse strains, different patterns of virus detection were observed. In C3H/He mice, virus was occasionally present in embryos and was found in 40% of adult spleens. BALB/c mice were virus-negative as fetuses or weanlings, but spleens of more than half of the mice over 6 months of age yielded virus. NIH mice have never yielded virus. In reciprocal matings between AKR and BALB/c mice, virus recovery from embryos was maternally determined. The development of tissue culture isolation procedures made possible for the first time the application of classical infectious disease methods to the

  14. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance. PMID:26467890

  15. Effects of Naturally Occuring Arginine 14 Deletion on Phospholamban Conformational Dynamics and Membrane Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Soller, Kailey J.; Ha, Kim N.; Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLN) is a single-pass membrane protein that regulates the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Phosphorylation of PLN at Ser16 reverses its inhibitory function under β-adrenergic stimulation, augmenting Ca2+ uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle contractility. PLN exists in two conformations; a T state, where the cytoplasmic domain is helical and absorbed on the membrane surface, and an R state, where the cytoplasmic domain is unfolded and membrane detached. Previous studies from our group have shown that the PLN conformational equilibrium is crucial to SERCA regulation. Here, we used a combination of solution and solid-state NMR techniques to compare the structural topology and conformational dynamics of monomeric PLN (PLNAFA) with that of the PLNR14del, a naturally occurring deletion mutant that is linked to the progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. We found that the behavior of the inhibitory transmembrane domain of PLNR14del is similar to that of the native sequence. In contrast, the conformational dynamics of R14del both in micelles and lipid membranes are enhanced. We conclude that the deletion of Arg14 in the cytoplasmic region weakens the interactions with the membrane and shifts the conformational equilibrium of PLN toward the disordered R state. This conformational transition is correlated with the loss-of-function character of this mutant and is corroborated by SERCA’s activity assays. These findings further support our hypothesis that SERCA function is fine-tuned by PLN conformational dynamics and begin to explain the aberrant regulation of SERCA by the R14del mutant. PMID:25251363

  16. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Hower, James C; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Taggart, Ross K; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and enrichment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in coal combustion residuals (CCRs) from different coal source basins have not been fully characterized in the United States. Here we provide a systematic analysis of the occurrence of NORM ((232)Th, (228)Ra, (238)U, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals and associated CCRs from the Illinois, Appalachian, and Powder River Basins. Illinois CCRs had the highest total Ra ((228)Ra + (226)Ra = 297 ± 46 Bq/kg) and the lowest (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio (0.31 ± 0.09), followed by Appalachian CCRs (283 ± 34 Bq/kg; 0.67 ± 0.09), and Powder River CCRs (213 ± 21 Bq/kg; 0.79 ± 0.10). Total Ra and (228)Ra/(226)Ra variations in CCRs correspond to the U and Th concentrations and ash contents of their feed coals, and we show that these relationships can be used to predict total NORM concentrations in CCRs. We observed differential NORM volatility during combustion that results in (210)Pb enrichment and (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios greater than 1 in most fly-ash samples. Overall, total NORM activities in CCRs are 7-10- and 3-5-fold higher than NORM activities in parent coals and average U.S. soil, respectively. This study lays the groundwork for future research related to the environmental and human health implications of CCR disposal and accidental release to the environment in the context of this elevated radioactivity. PMID:26328894

  17. Forecasting Seizures Using Intracranial EEG Measures and SVM in Naturally Occurring Canine Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Patterson, Edward E.; Vite, Charles; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Crepeau, Daniel; Stead, Matt; Howbert, J. Jeffry; Cherkassky, Vladimir; Wagenaar, Joost B.; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Management of drug resistant focal epilepsy would be greatly assisted by a reliable warning system capable of alerting patients prior to seizures to allow the patient to adjust activities or medication. Such a system requires successful identification of a preictal, or seizure-prone state. Identification of preictal states in continuous long- duration intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings of dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy was investigated using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The dogs studied were implanted with a 16-channel ambulatory iEEG recording device with average channel reference for a mean (st. dev.) of 380.4 (+87.5) days producing 220.2 (+104.1) days of intracranial EEG recorded at 400 Hz for analysis. The iEEG records had 51.6 (+52.8) seizures identified, of which 35.8 (+30.4) seizures were preceded by more than 4 hours of seizure-free data. Recorded iEEG data were stratified into 11 contiguous, non-overlapping frequency bands and binned into one-minute synchrony features for analysis. Performance of the SVM classifier was assessed using a 5-fold cross validation approach, where preictal training data were taken from 90 minute windows with a 5 minute pre-seizure offset. Analysis of the optimal preictal training time was performed by repeating the cross validation over a range of preictal windows and comparing results. We show that the optimization of feature selection varies for each subject, i.e. algorithms are subject specific, but achieve prediction performance significantly better than a time-matched Poisson random predictor (p<0.05) in 5/5 dogs analyzed. PMID:26241907

  18. Estimated trichloroethene transformation rates due to naturally occurring biodegradation in a fractured-rock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of trichloroethene (TCE) mass transformed by naturally occurring biodegradation processes in a fractured rock aquifer underlying a former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) site in West Trenton, New Jersey, were estimated. The methodology included (1) dividing the site into eight elements of equal size and vertically integrating observed concentrations of two daughter products of TCE biodegradation–cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and chloride–using water chemistry data from a network of 88 observation wells; (2) summing the molar mass of cis-DCE, the first biodegradation product of TCE, to provide a probable underestimate of reductive biodegradation of TCE, (3) summing the molar mass of chloride, the final product of chlorinated ethene degradation, to provide a probable overestimate of overall biodegradation. Finally, lower and higher estimates of aquifer porosities and groundwater residence times were used to estimate a range of overall transformation rates. The highest TCE transformation rates estimated using this procedure for the combined overburden and bedrock aquifers was 945 kg/yr, and the lowest was 37 kg/yr. However, hydrologic considerations suggest that approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr is the probable range for overall TCE transformation rates in this system. Estimated rates of TCE transformation were much higher in shallow overburden sediments (approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr) than in the deeper bedrock aquifer (approximately 20 to 0.15 kg/yr), which reflects the higher porosity and higher contaminant mass present in the overburden. By way of comparison, pump-and-treat operations at the NAWC site are estimated to have removed between 1,073 and 1,565 kg/yr of TCE between 1996 and 2009.

  19. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phalen, D.N.; Drew, M.L.; Contreras, C.; Roset, K.; Mora, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  20. Protective effect of naturally occurring anti-HER2 autoantibodies on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Yukiko; Shimoda, Masafumi; Kagara, Naofumi; Naoi, Yasuto; Tanei, Tomonori; Shimomura, Atsushi; Shimazu, Kenzo; Kim, Seung Jin; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2016-05-01

    Anti-HER2-autoantibodies (HER2-AAbs) are found in breast cancer patients as well as healthy individuals. However, the clinical relevance of the antibodies is unknown. We established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high sensitivity and quantified serum HER2-AAbs in 100 healthy women, 100 untreated patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 500 untreated patients with invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). The associations between the levels of HER2-AAbs and breast cancer risk, and recurrence-free survival, were examined. High levels of HER2-AAbs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of DCIS (odds ratio [OR] 0.19, P = 4.6 × 10(-7)) or IBC (OR 0.31, P = 3.7 × 10(-7)). Subgroup analysis of IBC revealed a stronger association of HER2-AAbs with a reduced risk of the hormone receptor (HR)(-)/HER2(+) subtype (OR 0.12) than the other subtypes (HR(+)/HER2(-) [OR = 0.32], HR(+)/HER2(+) [OR 0.38], and HR(-)/HER2(-) [OR 0.29]). When we set the cutoff of HER2-AAbs at 20 ng/mL, recurrence-free survival of HER2-AAb-positive patients (N = 74) was significantly better than that of HER2-AAb-negative patients (N = 426) (P = 0.015). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that HER2-AAbs, as well as histological grade, were independently and significantly (P = 0.0065 and 0.049, respectively) associated with recurrence-free survival. Our exploratory study suggests a protective effect of naturally occurring HER2-AAbs on the development of primary and recurrent breast cancer. Further studies on HER2-AAbs are warranted. PMID:27113738

  1. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects. PMID:26875187

  2. Identification of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Michelle R.; Pluhar, G. Elizabeth; Ohlfest, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Dogs with naturally occurring cancer represent an important large animal model for drug development and testing novel immunotherapies. However, poorly defined immunophenotypes of canine leukocytes have limited the study of tumor immunology in dogs. The accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is known to be a key mechanism of immune suppression in tumor-bearing mice and in human patients. We sought to identify MDSCs in the blood of dogs with cancer. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs with advanced or early stage cancer and from age-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Suppressive function was tested in T cell proliferation and cytokine elaboration assays. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify potential mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression. PBMCs from dogs with advanced or metastatic cancer exhibited a significantly higher percentage of CD11b+CD14−MHCII− cells compared to dogs diagnosed with early stage non-metastatic tumors and healthy dogs. These CD11b+ CD14−MHCII− cells constitute a subpopulation of activated granulocytes that co-purify with PBMCs, display polymorphonuclear granulocyte morphology, and demonstrate a potent ability to suppress proliferation and IFN-γ production in T cells from normal and tumor-bearing donors. Furthermore, these cells expressed hallmark suppressive factors of human MDSC including ARG1, iNOS2, TGF-β and IL-10. In summary our data demonstrate that MDSCs accumulate in the blood of dogs with advanced cancer and can be measured using this three-marker immunophenotype, thereby enabling prospective studies that can monitor MDSC burden. PMID:22428007

  3. Naturally occurring diallyl disulfide inhibits the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in boiled pork juice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S J; Jenq, S N; Lee, H

    1996-05-01

    Three heterocyclic aromatic amines, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, have been found in boiled pork juice. We have investigated the effect of naturally occurring organosulfur compounds, which are present in garlic and onion, on mutagen formation in boiled pork juice. Six organosulfur compounds - diallyl disulfide (DAD), dipropyl disulfide (DPD), diallyl sulfide (DAS), allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl mercaptan (AM) and cysteine - were added separately to the pork juice before reflux boiling and then the mutagenicity of each sample was examined with the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of S9 mix. All six compounds were found to inhibit the mutagenicity of boiled pork juice. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed with DAD and DPD, and this was 111-fold higher than that of the lowest, cysteine. To elucidate the inhibitory effect of DAD on mutagen formation in boiled pork juice, the major mutagenic fractions were monitored after HPLC separation by their mutagenicity with S. typhimurium TA98. By comparing the retention times of authentic IQ compounds from boiled pork juice with those following the addition of DAD, we showed that the mutagenicity of three major fractions was significantly inhibited compared with those same fractions in boiled pork juice alone. In addition, the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in the boiled pork juice with and without the addition of DAD were quantified and identified by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the reduction in the total amount of MRPs (pyridines, pyrazines, thiophenes and thiazoles) in boiled pork juice after boiling for 12 h is correlated with their mutagenicity. Among the MRPs, tetrahydrothiophene-3-one exhibited the strongest correlation. These data suggest that the inhibition of IQ mutagen formation by DAD is mediated through the

  4. Biomining with bacteriophage: selectivity of displayed peptides for naturally occurring sphalerite and chalcopyrite.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Susan B; Hewitt, Jeff; Macgillivray, Ross T A; Dunbar, W Scott

    2009-02-01

    During mineral processing, concentrates of sulfide minerals of economic interest are formed by froth flotation of fine ore particles. The method works well but recovery and selectivity can be poor for ores with complex mineralogy. There is considerable interest in methods that improve the selectivity of this process while avoiding the high costs of using flotation chemicals. Here we show the first application of phage biotechnology to the processing of economically important minerals in ore slurries. A random heptapeptide library was screened for peptide sequences that bind selectively to the minerals sphalerite (ZnS) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). After several rounds of enrichment, cloned phage containing the surface peptide loops KPLLMGS and QPKGPKQ bound specifically to sphalerite. Phage containing the peptide loop TPTTYKV bound to both sphalerite and chalcopyrite. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), the phage was characterized as strong binders compared to wild-type phage. Specificity of binding was confirmed by immunochemical visualization of phage bound to mineral particles but not to silica (a waste mineral) or pyrite. The current study focused primarily on the isolation of ZnS-specific phage that could be utilized in the separation of sphalerite from silica. At mining sites where sphalerite and chalcopyrite are not found together in natural ores, the separation of sphalerite from silica would be an appropriate enrichment step. At mining sites where sphalerite and chalcopyrite do occur together, more specific phage would be required. This bacteriophage has the potential to be used in a more selective method of mineral separation and to be the basis for advanced methods of mineral processing. PMID:18767194

  5. Initial evaluation of nighttime restlessness in a naturally occurring canine model of osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    Knazovicky, David; Tomas, Andrea; Motsinger-Reif, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) can lead to significant disruption of sleep and increased restlessness. Our objective was to assess whether naturally occurring canine OA is associated with nighttime restlessness and so has potential as a model of OA-associated sleep disturbance. The study was designed as a two-part prospective masked, placebo-controlled study using client-owned dogs (Part A n = 60; Part B n = 19). Inclusion criteria consisted of OA-associated joint pain and mobility impairment. The primary outcome measure for both parts was nighttime accelerometry. In Part B, quality of sleep was assessed using a clinical metrology instrument (Sleep and Night Time Restlessness Evaluation Score, SNoRE). Part A included dogs receiving two weeks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) preceded with two weeks of no treatment. Part B was a crossover study, with NSAID/placebo administered for two weeks followed by a washout period of one week and another two weeks of NSAID/placebo. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences between baseline and treatment. There were no significant changes in accelerometry-measured nighttime activity as a result of NSAID administration. SNoRE measures indicated significant improvements in aspects of the quality of nighttime sleep that did not involve obvious movement. These results reflect the few similar studies in human OA patients. Although accelerometry does not appear to be useful, this model has potential to model the human pain-related nighttime sleep disturbance, and other outcome measures should be explored in this model. PMID:25722957

  6. Diversity of Opines and Opine-Catabolizing Bacteria Isolated from Naturally Occurring Crown Gall Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L. W.; Chilton, W. S.; Canfield, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    The diversity of opines from 43 naturally occurring crown gall tumors on several plant species was analyzed for the presence of agropine, chrysopine, iminodiacid, an unidentified leucinopine-like iminodiacid (IDA-B), mannopine, octopine, nopaline, DL- and LL-succinamopine, leucinopine and heliopine. Opine utilization patterns of agrobacteria and fluorescent pseudomonads resident in a tumor were then analyzed and compared for agreement with the opine isolated from that tumor. Nopaline was the most common opine found and was detected in tumors from cherry, blackberry, grape, and plum. Octopine was not found, although octopine-catabolizing bacteria were isolated from several tumors. A new, previously undescribed iminodiacid of the succinamopine-leucinopine type (provisionally designated IDA-B) was isolated from tumors of wild blackberry. Field tumors from apple, blueberry and grape yielded no detectable opines, even though opine-utilizing bacteria were present. Bacterial isolates from plum and cherry showed the best correspondence between the opine in tumors (nopaline) and the presence of bacteria that catabolized that opine. However, several unusual opine catabolic combinations were identified, including isolates that catabolized a variety of opines but were nonpathogenic. More variability was observed among isolates from field tumors on the remaining plant species. We isolated novel mannopine-nopaline type agrobacteria from field tumors of cherry, plum and blackberry that induced tumors containing either mannopine (plus agropine) or nopaline, but not both. Epidemiologically, the galled plants from an area were not of clonal origin (same Ti plasmid), indicating that the field tumors from a small area were incited by more than one type of Ti plasmid. PMID:16535484

  7. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations. PMID:10647985

  8. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  9. Residential Proximity to Naturally Occurring Asbestos and Mesothelioma Risk in California

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue-lei; Day, Howard W.; Wang, Wei; Beckett, Laurel A.; Schenker, Marc B.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Little is known about environmental exposure to low levels of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) and malignant mesothelioma (MM) risk. Objectives: To conduct a cancer registry-based case control study of residential proximity to NOA with MM in California. Methods: Incident MM cases (n = 2,908) aged 35 yr or more, diagnosed between 1988 and 1997, were selected from the California Cancer Registry and frequency matched to control subjects with pancreatic cancer (n = 2,908) by 5-yr age group and sex. Control subjects were selected by stratified random sampling from 28,123 incident pancreatic cancers in the same time period. We located 93.7% of subjects at the house or street level at initial diagnosis. Individual occupational exposure to asbestos was derived from the longest held occupation, available for 74% of MM cases and 63% of pancreatic cancers. Occupational exposure to asbestos was determined by a priori classification and confirmed by association with mesothelioma. Main Results: The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for low, medium, and high probabilities of occupational exposures to asbestos were 1.71 (1.32–2.21), 2.51 (1.91–3.30), and 14.94 (8.37–26.67), respectively. Logistic regression analysis from a subset of 1,133 mesothelioma cases and 890 control subjects with pancreatic cancer showed that the odds of mesothelioma decreased approximately 6.3% for every 10 km farther from the nearest asbestos source, an odds ratio of 0.937 (95% confidence interval = 0.895–0.982), adjusted for age, sex, and occupational exposure to asbestos. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that residential proximity to NOA is significantly associated with increased risk of MM in California. PMID:15976368

  10. Efficacy of enrofloxacin in the treatment of naturally occurring acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Suojala, L; Simojoki, H; Mustonen, K; Kaartinen, L; Pyörälä, S

    2010-05-01

    The efficacy of the combination of systemic enrofloxacin (5mg/kg twice with a 24-h interval, first dose i.v., second dose s.c.) and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent ketoprofen (3mg/kg i.m. or 4 mg/kg per os daily for 1 to 3 d) treatment was compared with antiinflammatory treatment only in dairy cows with naturally occurring acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. A total of 132 cows with acute clinical mastitis and with confirmed growth of E. coli in a pretreatment milk sample were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Response to treatment was evaluated clinically and by bacteriological culturing and determination of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity on d 2 and 21 posttreatment. Enrofloxacin treatment did not increase bacteriological (90.5% of treated vs. 86.8% of nontreated cured) or clinical cure (46.7% of treated vs. 57.1% of nontreated cured), cow survival (95.3% of treated vs. 92.7% of nontreated), or quarter milk production assessed 21 d posttreatment (21.8 vs. 29.3% return to preinfection level for nontreated cows), nor did it decrease mammary gland tissue damage estimated using determination of milk NAGase activity (24.0+/-0.3 vs. 18.3+/-1.3 pmol of 4-methylumbelliferone per min per microL for nontreated cows). Treatment did not influence the number of study cows remaining in the herd after 6 mo (71.9% of treated vs. 80.6% of nontreated). The only significant effects of enrofloxacin were enhancing the bacteriological cure (odds ratio=3.32 for treated cows) and decreasing the clinical cure (odds ratio=0.05 for treated cows) on d 2 posttreatment. Our results did not support the use of enrofloxacin to treat acute clinical E. coli mastitis. PMID:20412909

  11. Naturally-occurring forelimb lameness in the horse results in significant compensatory load redistribution during trotting.

    PubMed

    Maliye, Sylvia; Voute, Lance C; Marshall, John F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to quantify the compensatory response to naturally-occurring forelimb lameness on load redistribution. Data from lameness investigations using an inertial sensor based system to monitor the response to forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia were reviewed. Horses with primary forelimb lameness were grouped for analysis as (1) all horses combined (n= 28), (2) forelimb-only lameness (n= 8/28), (3) forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness (n= 14/28), (4) forelimb-ipsilateral hindlimb lameness (n= 6/28). The effect of diagnostic anaesthesia on measures of head and pelvic movement asymmetry was determined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed between forelimb and hindlimb variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia resulted in a decrease in pelvic movement asymmetry among all horses and the forelimb-only and forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness groups. Pelvic movement asymmetry associated with the contralateral hindlimb decreased by a median of 38% (interquartile range [IQR] 10-65%), 43% (IQR 28-60%) and 28% (IQR 12-67%) in all horses, forelimb-only and forelimb-contralateral hindlimb groups respectively (P< 0.05). Maximum pelvic height difference (PDMax) significantly decreased in all horses combined and the forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness group by a median of 66% (IQR 24-100%) and 78% (IQR 27-100%, P< 0.01), respectively. Change in head movement asymmetry and vector sum was significantly positively correlated with PDMax in all horses combined and the forelimb-contralateral hindlimb group (P< 0.05). Forelimb lameness had a significant effect on hindlimb and pelvic movement in horses with clinical lameness resulting in compensatory load redistribution and decreased push-off from the contralateral hindlimb. PMID:25862395

  12. Zinc and cadmium adsorption to aluminum oxide nanoparticles affected by naturally occurring ligands.

    PubMed

    Stietiya, M Hashem; Wang, Jim J

    2014-03-01

    Nanoparticles of aluminum oxide (AlO) are efficient in removing Cd, Zn, and other heavy metals from wastewaters and soil solutions due to their high specific surface area and surface area to volume ratio. Naturally occurring ligands, such as phosphate (PO), citrate, and humic acid (HA), may affect the efficiency of AlO nanoparticles in adsorption of Cd and Zn. The objective of this study was to investigate Zn and Cd adsorption to AlO nanoparticles as influenced by PO, citrate, and HA. Adsorption of Zn and Cd was performed in mono-metal and binary-metal systems at pH 6.5 with initial metal concentration of 1.0 mmol L and varying ligand concentration at a solid:solution ratio of 1:1000. Adsorption isotherms showed that Zn had higher affinity to the AlO nanoparticle surface than Cd and that adsorption of Zn and Cd in the binary-metal system was lower than in the respective mono-metal systems. Phosphate and HA enhanced Zn and Cd adsorption in all systems, whereas citrate reduced Zn adsorption in the mono-metal system by 25% and increased adsorption in the other metal systems. Removal of Zn or Cd from the systems was generally accompanied by enhanced removal of PO and HA, which may indicate enhanced adsorption due to ternary complex formation or metal-ligand precipitation. Phosphate was the most effective among the three ligands in enhancing Zn and Cd adsorption. Overall, AlO nanoparticles are suitably used for Zn and Cd adsorption, which can be significantly enhanced by the presence of PO or HA and to a lesser degree by citrate at low concentrations. PMID:25602651

  13. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in Naturally Occurring Canine Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amanda R.; Welsh, C. Jane; Young, Colin; Spoor, Erich; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Griffin, John F.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Canine intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) is a common, naturally occurring form of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is increasingly being used in pre-clinical evaluation of therapies. Although IVDH bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to lesion morphology, imaging features, and post-SCI treatment, limited data are available concerning secondary injury mechanisms. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines, and chemokines in dogs with acute, surgically treated, thoracolumbar IVDH (n=39) and healthy control dogs (n=21) to investigate early inflammatory events after SCI. A bioplex system was used to measure interleukin (IL)-2, -6, -7, -8, -10, -15, and -18, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)-like protein, IFN-γ-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the CSF of healthy and SCI dogs were compared and, in SCI dogs, were correlated to the duration of SCI, behavioral measures of injury severity at the time of sampling, and neurological outcome 42 days post-SCI as determined by a validated ordinal score. IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in SCI cases than healthy controls (p=0.0013) and was negatively correlated with the duration of SCI (p=0.042). CSF MCP-1 and KC-like protein were positively correlated with CSF microprotein concentration in dogs with SCI (p<0.0001 and p=0.004). CSF MCP-1 concentration was negatively associated with 42-day postinjury outcome (p<0.0001). Taken together, these data indicate that cytokines and chemokines present after SCI in humans and rodent models are associated with SCI pathogenesis in canine IVDH. PMID:24786364

  14. Multi-Isotope Analysis as a Natural Reaction Probe of Biodegradation Mechanisms of 1,2- Dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S. K.; Dinglasan-Panlilio, M.; Edwards, E. A.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2006-12-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon, is an EPA priority pollutant and a widespread groundwater contaminant. Stable isotope fractionation during biodegradation of 1,2-DCA occurs due to differences in the reaction rates of heavy versus light atoms present at a reacting bond in the 1,2-DCA molecule. In general, light isotopic bonds react more quickly, producing a relative enrichment in the heavy isotope in the remaining contaminant pool. Compound specific isotope analysis has the potential to demonstrate the occurrence and extent of biodegradation at chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater sites. In this study, stable carbon isotope fractionation was used as a novel reaction probe to provide information about the mechanism of 1,2-DCA biodegradation. Isotopic fractionation was measured during 1,2-DCA degradation by a microbial culture capable of degrading 1,2-DCA under O2-reducing and NO3-reducing conditions. The microbial culture produced isotopic enrichment values that are not only large and reproducible, but are the same whether O2 or NO3 was used as an electron acceptor. The mean isotopic enrichment value of -25.8 permil measured for the microbial culture during 1,2-DCA degradation under both O2 and NO3- reducing conditions can be converted into a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) value to relate the observed isotopic fractionation to the mechanism of degradation. This KIE value (1.05) is consistent with degradation via a hydrolysis (SN2) reaction under both electron-accepting conditions. Isotope analysis was able to provide a first line of evidence for the reaction mechanism of 1,2-DCA biodegradation by the microbial culture. Using a multi-isotope approach incorporating both carbon and hydrogen isotopic data, compound specific isotope analysis also has the potential to determine degradation mechanisms for 1,2-DCA under aerobic conditions where 1,2-DCA is known to be degraded by two distinct enzymatic pathways. Biodegradation of 1

  15. Demonstration of significant abiotic iron isotope fractionation in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullen, T.D.; White, A.F.; Childs, C.W.; Vivit, D.V.; Schultz, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies reveal that the mineral ferrihydrite, formed as a result of abiotic oxidation of aqueous ferrous to ferric Fe, contains Fe that is isotopically heavy relative to coexisting aqueous Fe. Because the electron transfer step of the oxidation process at pH >5 is essentially irreversible and should favor the lighter Fe isotopes in the ferric iron product, this result suggests that relatively heavy Fe isotopes are preferentially partitioned into the readily oxidized Fe(II)(OH)x(aq) species or their transition complexes prior to oxidation. The apparent Fe isotope fractionation factor, ??ferrihydrite-water, depends primarily on the relative abundances of the Fe(II)(aq) species. This study demonstrates that abiotic processes can fractionate the Fe isotopes to the same extent as biotic processes, and thus Fe isotopes on their own do not provide an effective biosignature.

  16. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  17. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Gul, Rahmat; Ara, Tauseef; Hussain, Manzur

    2012-09-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in latrite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)), internal hazard index (H(in)), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E(eff)) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications. PMID:22355168

  18. Elevated Bacterial Abundance in Laboratory-Grown and Naturally Occurring Frost Flowers Under Late Winter Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, J. S.; Deming, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Sea ice has been identified as an important microbial habitat, with bacteria and other microbes concentrated in the brine inclusions between ice crystals. Frost flowers, thought to draw brine from underlying sea ice, have not been characterized from a microbial standpoint. To test whether frost flowers serve as an upward vector of bacteria contained within sea ice brines we grew frost flowers in a freezer laboratory (air temperature of -21°C) from saline water spiked with the mesophilic (and thus passive under experimental conditions) bacterium Halomonas pacifica. Salinity of melted samples was measured and bacterial abundance determined by epifluorescent microscopy. Bacterial counts scaled to ice-melt volume averaged 2.82 x 106 ml-1 for frost flowers, compared to 9.47 x 105 ml-1 for underlying ice (3 x higher). Bacterial counts also correlated significantly with salinity (maximum value of 62.5 psu) for frost flowers, brine skim, and ice (df = 17, r = 0.59, p < 0.0001). Segregation coefficients were calculated to describe the efficiency of transport of both cells and salt from the starting solution into frost flowers. From these coefficients an enrichment index was calculated to test for bacterial concentration into frost flowers at a different rate than salt. Analysis with a Student’s T-test (df = 24, t = 0.306, p = .76) indicated that cells and salt were not transported into frost flowers with a significantly different efficiency. To test these findings in the field we then collected frost flowers (and related samples) from new sea ice near Barrow, Alaska in April 2009. Bacterial counts were significantly elevated (again, a 3-fold increase) in natural frost flowers (mean = 2.73 x 105 ml-1) compared to underlying sea ice (mean = 8.46 x 104 cells ml-1). For all field samples collected (frost flowers, underlying brine skim and sea ice, as well as snow), bacterial abundance correlated significantly with salinity (maximum value 124 psu, df = 40, r = 0.60, p < 0

  19. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  20. Naturally Occurring Differences in CENH3 Affect Chromosome Segregation in Zygotic Mitosis of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Shamoni; Tan, Ek Han; West, Allan; Franklin, F. Chris H.; Comai, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The point of attachment of spindle microtubules to metaphase chromosomes is known as the centromere. Plant and animal centromeres are epigenetically specified by a centromere-specific variant of Histone H3, CENH3 (a.k.a. CENP-A). Unlike canonical histones that are invariant, CENH3 proteins are accumulating substitutions at an accelerated rate. This diversification of CENH3 is a conundrum since its role as the key determinant of centromere identity remains a constant across species. Here, we ask whether naturally occurring divergence in CENH3 has functional consequences. We performed functional complementation assays on cenh3-1, a null mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana, using untagged CENH3s from increasingly distant relatives. Contrary to previous results using GFP-tagged CENH3, we find that the essential functions of CENH3 are conserved across a broad evolutionary landscape. CENH3 from a species as distant as the monocot Zea mays can functionally replace A. thaliana CENH3. Plants expressing variant CENH3s that are fertile when selfed show dramatic segregation errors when crossed to a wild-type individual. The progeny of this cross include hybrid diploids, aneuploids with novel genetic rearrangements and haploids that inherit only the genome of the wild-type parent. Importantly, it is always chromosomes from the plant expressing the divergent CENH3 that missegregate. Using chimeras, we show that it is divergence in the fast-evolving N-terminal tail of CENH3 that is causing segregation errors and genome elimination. Furthermore, we analyzed N-terminal tail sequences from plant CENH3s and discovered a modular pattern of sequence conservation. From this we hypothesize that while the essential functions of CENH3 are largely conserved, the N-terminal tail is evolving to adapt to lineage-specific centromeric constraints. Our results demonstrate that this lineage-specific evolution of CENH3 causes inviability and sterility of progeny in crosses, at the same time producing

  1. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had “negative-type” mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas

  2. Mechanisms of action of naturally occurring antibodies against β-amyloid on microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring autoantibodies against amyloid-β (nAbs-Aβ) have been shown to exert beneficial effects on transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animals in vivo and on primary neurons in vitro. Not much is known about their effect on microglial cells. Our aim was to investigate the effect of nAbs-Aβ on amyloid-β (Aβ)-treated microglial cells in vitro with respect to cell viability, stress pathways, cytokine production and phagocytotic abilities and whether these effects can be conveyed to neurons. Methods Primary microglial cells isolated from Swiss Webster mouse mesencephalons on embryonic day 13.5 were pretreated with nAbs-Aβ and then treated with Aβ oligomers. After 3 hours, phagocytosis as well as western blot analysis were evaluated to measure the amount of phagocytized Aβ. Cell viability was analyzed using an MTT assay 24 hours after treatment. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants were analyzed with ELISAs and then we treated primary neuronal cells with these conditioned microglia supernatants. Twenty-four hours later we did a MTT assay of the treated neurons. We further investigated the effect of a single nAbs-Aβ administration on Tg2576 mice in vivo. Results Upon co-administration of Aβ and nAbs-Aβ no change in microglia viability was observed. However, there was an increase in phosphorylated p38 protein level, an increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in Aβ uptake by microglial cells. Treatment of primary neurons with conditioned microglia medium led to a 10% improvement in cell viability when nAbs-Aβ were co-administered compared to Aβ-treated cells alone. We were unable to detect changes in cytokine production in brain lysates of Tg2576 mice. Conclusions We provide evidence on the mechanism of action of nAbs-Aβ on microglia in vitro. Interestingly, our in vivo data indicate that nAbs-Aβ administration should be considered as a therapeutic strategy in AD, since there is no

  3. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference

    SciTech Connect

    William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was

  4. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    [HIV-1] and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection. PMID:26491161

  5. Mortality of one-week-old chickens during naturally occurring Marek's disease virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a serious economic disease of chickens which occurs worldwide. MD can present as one of several forms, with the most commonly occurring forms being the lymphoproliferative diseases. Under experimental conditions, an early mortality syndrome has been recognized following infec...

  6. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2011-12-26

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  7. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2011-12-01

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  8. Evaluation of multiple schedules with naturally occurring and therapist-arranged discriminative stimuli following functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Shamlian, Kenneth D; Fisher, Wayne W; Steege, Mark W; Cavanaugh, Brenna M; Samour, Kristina; Querim, Angie C

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have shown that (a) functional communication training (FCT) is effective for reducing problem behavior, and (b) multiple schedules can facilitate reinforcer schedule thinning during FCT. Most studies tha have used multiple schedules with FCT have included therapist-arranged stimuli (e.g., colored cards) as the discriminative stimuli (S(D) s), but recently, researchers have evaluated similar multiple-schedule training procedures with naturally occurring S(D) s (e.g., overt therapist behavior). The purposes of the current study were to compare the effects of arranged and naturally occurring S(D) s directly during (a) acquisition of discriminated functional communication responses (FCRs) and (b) generalization of discriminated FCRs when we introduced the multiple schedules in novel contexts in which the naturally occurring stimuli were either relatively easy or difficult to discriminate. Results showed that (a) 2 of 3 participants acquired discriminated responding of the FCR more rapidly with arranged than with naturally occurring stimuli, (b) 2 of 3 participants showed resurgence of problem behavior , and (c) 2 of 3 participants showed greater generalization of discriminated responding to novel contexts with arranged stimuli than with naturally occurring stimuli. We discuss these results relative to the conditions under which naturally occurring and arranged S(D) s may promote rapid and generalized treatment gains. PMID:26790565

  9. Understanding the Radioactive Ingrowth and Decay of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in the Environment: An Analysis of Produced Fluids from the Marcellus Shale

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Knight, Andrew W.; May, Dustin; Mehrhoff, Marinea A.; Shannon, Robert; Litman, Robert; Burnett, William C.; Forbes, Tori Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background The economic value of unconventional natural gas resources has stimulated rapid globalization of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. However, natural radioactivity found in the large volumes of “produced fluids” generated by these technologies is emerging as an international environmental health concern. Current assessments of the radioactivity concentration in liquid wastes focus on a single element—radium. However, the use of radium alone to predict radioactivity concentrations can greatly underestimate total levels. Objective We investigated the contribution to radioactivity concentrations from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), including uranium, thorium, actinium, radium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes, to the total radioactivity of hydraulic fracturing wastes. Methods For this study we used established methods and developed new methods designed to quantitate NORM of public health concern that may be enriched in complex brines from hydraulic fracturing wastes. Specifically, we examined the use of high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry and isotope dilution alpha spectrometry to quantitate NORM. Results We observed that radium decay products were initially absent from produced fluids due to differences in solubility. However, in systems closed to the release of gaseous radon, our model predicted that decay products will begin to ingrow immediately and (under these closed-system conditions) can contribute to an increase in the total radioactivity for more than 100 years. Conclusions Accurate predictions of radioactivity concentrations are critical for estimating doses to potentially exposed individuals and the surrounding environment. These predictions must include an understanding of the geochemistry, decay properties, and ingrowth kinetics of radium and its decay product radionuclides. Citation Nelson AW, Eitrheim ES, Knight AW, May D, Mehrhoff MA, Shannon R, Litman R, Burnett WC, Forbes TZ, Schultz MK. 2015

  10. Football Injuries Occurring on Natural Grass and Tartan Turf. A Comparison Study Covering 17 Years at the University of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, J. S.; And Others

    A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)

  11. AcuteToxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential public health issues related to exposure to natural asbestos deposits (commonly termed naturally occurring asbestos, NO A) has gained the regulatory and media spotlight in recent years. Arguably the most well known example is Libby, Montana, the site of the largest ...

  12. Naturally-Occurring Radionuclides In Drinking Water From Surface And Groundwater Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F. P.; Madruga, M. J.; Oliveira, J. M.; Lopes, I.; Ferrador, G.; Sequeira, M. M.

    2008-08-07

    Radioactivity in water for human consumption is under closer scrutiny than ever before and many countries adopted guideline values based on total alpha and total beta activity measurements. Although most waters from surface circulation meet these guidelines, it is frequently found that groundwater exceed guideline values. Results of water analyses by alpha spectrometry clarified that the main radionuclides present are from the uranium decay series, such as uranium isotopes, radium ({sup 226}Ra), radon ({sup 222}Rn), and also {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Occasionally, groundwater displayed {sup 226}Ra concentrations higher than 1 Bq L{sup -1} and {sup 222}Rn concentrations above 1000 Bq L{sup -1}. Nevertheless, lack of conformity of these waters with guidelines adopted, generally, is not due to anthropogenic inputs.

  13. Nitrate dynamics in natural plants: insights based on the concentration and natural isotope abundances of tissue nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of nitrate (NO−3), a major nitrogen (N) source for natural plants, has been studied mostly through experimental N addition, enzymatic assay, isotope labeling, and genetic expression. However, artificial N supply may not reasonably reflect the N strategies in natural plants because NO−3 uptake and reduction may vary with external N availability. Due to abrupt application and short operation time, field N addition, and isotopic labeling hinder the elucidation of in situ NO−3-use mechanisms. The concentration and natural isotopes of tissue NO−3 can offer insights into the plant NO−3 sources and dynamics in a natural context. Furthermore, they facilitate the exploration of plant NO−3 utilization and its interaction with N pollution and ecosystem N cycles without disturbing the N pools. The present study was conducted to review the application of the denitrifier method for concentration and isotope analyses of NO−3 in plants. Moreover, this study highlights the utility and advantages of these parameters in interpreting NO−3 sources and dynamics in natural plants. We summarize the major sources and reduction processes of NO−3 in plants, and discuss the implications of NO−3 concentration in plant tissues based on existing data. Particular emphasis was laid on the regulation of soil NO−3 and plant ecophysiological functions in interspecific and intra-plant NO−3 variations. We introduce N and O isotope systematics of NO−3 in plants and discuss the principles and feasibilities of using isotopic enrichment and fractionation factors; the correlation between concentration and isotopes (N and O isotopes: δ18O and Δ17O); and isotope mass-balance calculations to constrain sources and reduction of NO−3 in possible scenarios for natural plants are deliberated. Finally, we offer a preliminary framework of intraplant δ18O-NO−3 variation, and summarize the uncertainties in using tissue NO−3 parameters to interpret plant NO−3 utilization

  14. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    can be used to bring some of Norman?s high-arsenic wells into compliance with the new arsenic standard, the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a three-year research project in 2003 with participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oklahoma State University, and the City of Norman. The primary objectives of the project are to: (1) determine where naturally occurring arsenic is entering wells by collecting water samples at different depths, (2) investigate the utility of new methods for collecting water-quality data in a pumping well, (3) better understand the stratigraphy and composition of aquifer rocks, (4) assess 10 wells for the possibility of arsenic remediation by well modification, and (5) evaluate the effectiveness of well modification in bringing marginal wells into compliance with the new arsenic MCL. The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence of arsenic in ground water near Norman, Oklahoma, and available options for reducing arsenic concentrations in produced ground water.

  15. The naturally occurring furanones: formation and function from pheromone to food.

    PubMed

    Colin Slaughter, J

    1999-08-01

    Three closely related 4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanones have been found in a range of highly cooked foodstuffs where they are important flavour compounds with aroma threshold values as low as 20 micrograms kg-1 water (approximately 0.14 mumol l-1). The compounds are formed mainly as a result of the operation of the Maillard reactions between sugars and amino acids during heating but one compound, 5-(or 2)-ethyl-2-(or 5)-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, appears in practice to be produced by yeast, probably from a Maillard intermediate, during the fermentation stages in the production of soy sauce and beer. The compounds are also important in the flavour of strawberry, raspberry, pineapple and tomato but the route of biosynthesis is unknown. Two 3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanones, emoxyfuranone and sotolon, which are produced spontaneously from amino acids such as threonine and 4-hydroxy-L-leucine are major contributors to meaty and spicy/nutty flavours in foods. The biosynthesis of 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) and 5-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (erythroascorbic acid) from sugars in plants and yeast, respectively, has been characterized to the enzymic level. After treatment with chlorine, humic waters contain a range of chloro-furanones, some of which, particularly 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), are powerful mutagens. The furanones which occur in foods are also mutagenic to bacteria and cause DNA damage in laboratory tests. However, these compounds are, in practice, very effective anti-carcinogenic agents in the diets of animals which are being treated with known cancer-inducing compounds such as benzo[alpha]pyrene or azoxymethane. Two of the food-derived furanones have antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. A biological function has been discovered for some of the furanones besides vitamin C. 5-Methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone is a male pheromone in the cockroach Eurycolis

  16. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  17. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism. PMID:27374523

  18. Vitamin B12 Production and Depletion in a Naturally Occurring Eutrophic Lake1

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Paul A.; Morita, Richard Y.

    1972-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 within Upper Klamath Lake was surveyed at approximately monthly intervals during a period from September 1968 to November 1969. High concentrations (up to 1.8 μg/g of dry sediment) characteristically occurred at the water-sediment interface, with a sharp decline below this area. A heavy bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred from the latter part of May through October 1969. B12 concentrations of the uppermost sediments, from all but one sampling site, increased gradually through the bloom, followed by a drastic increase during the die-off period. B12 is probably not a limiting factor for primary productivity, since sufficient levels of this vitamin were found to occur throughout the year. Of 42 cultures isolated from Upper Klamath Lake water and sediments, 20 were found capable of producing 50 pg or more of B12/ml of medium. Phytoplankton samples were found to contain up to 5 μg of B12/g of dry material. Degradation of B12 occurred in sterilized as well as fresh sediment samples. PMID:4622828

  19. Elemental, stable isotopic and biochemical characterization of soil organic matter alteration across a natural peatland gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Belyea, L.; Laing, C.; Allton, K.; Abbott, G.; Muhammad, A.

    2010-12-01

    Northern peatlands store around one third of global soil C and thus represent a key reservoir. To elucidate how these systems might respond to climate change, field- and laboratory-based experimental incubation studies are being conducted at sites across a natural peatland gradient in the boreonemoral zone of central Sweden (Ryggmossen). The site comprises four successional stages, from edge to centre; Swamp Forest (SF), Lagg Fen (LF), Bog Margin (BM) and Bog Plateau (BP). The well-preserved succession shows strong decreases in mineral cations and pH, and distinct changes in vegetation and water-table depth. As an underpinning to these experiments, comprehensive characterization of natural soil organic matter (SOM) alteration has been carried out through detailed analyses of vegetation and downcore profiles at contrasting topographic sites (hummock vs hollow) in each of the four locations. As illustrated in Figure 1, while some similarities occur in downcore trends, contrasts are observed in C and N elemental and stable isotopic compositions, between stages and, in some cases, between microtopographic settings. Downcore trends and intersite differences are also observed in biochemical yields and molecular composition (carbohydrates, amino acids, phenols, lipids and D/L amino acid ratios). These reflect SOM decay and alteration combined with the effects of contrasting hydrologic, redox and nutrient regimes and differing vegetation and microbial inputs at each of the study sites. Multivariate analysis is used to to elucidate compositional patterns that characterize and delineate progressive SOM decay, specific vegetation types, and the effects of contrasting environmental conditions at the different sites. Figure 1. A. Organic carbon content (wt %), B. Atomic ratio of organic C to total N, C. Stable C isotopic composition of organic C (d13Corg), and D. Stable N isotopic composition of total nitrogen (d15N), all for core profiles from contrasting settings (hummock and

  20. Investigating Tungsten Concentrations and Isotopic Compositions of Natural Water Samples from the Carson River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, N. L.; Williams, R. W.; Kayzar, T. M.; Schorzman, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that W-isotopes may fractionate in nature1; however, the magnitude and cause of the isotopic variations are largely unknown and unconstrained. In this study, the isotopic compositions of the NIST 3163 W standard, W ore minerals, and 15 natural surface waters from Nevada's Carson River Basin were analyzed by MC-ICP-MS using external bracketing with NIST 3163 and the IUPAC 184W/183W for mass bias correction. Chemical separation procedures were developed to purify W from natural matrices and tested to assure fractionation was not introduced during column chemistry. The W isotopic compositions of these samples were measured and compared to the accepted IUPAC composition of natural W. Samples of wolframite (Fe, MnWO4) and hubnerite (MnWO4) have compositions similar to the IUPAC value but vary from the isotopic composition of NIST 3163 - particularly in 182W/183W. The isotopic compositions of the natural waters, except for an extremely evaporated sample from Soda Lake, are similar to the NIST standard. This evaporative lake, formed by a maar, has a unique chemical composition compared to other surface waters with high W (800 ± 20 ng/g) and As (1665 ± 17 ng/g) concentrations; and relatively low Fe (5.00 ± 0.13 ng/g) and Mn (0.52 ± 0.07 ng/g). These results support recent observations of natural W isotopic variation and imply that W-isotope compositions may be useful for environmental applications of stable isotope geochemistry. 1. Irisawa, K. and Hirata, T. (2006) Tungsten isotopic analysis on six geochemical reference materials using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry coupled with a rhenium-external correction technique. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 21, 1387-1395.

  1. Preschool Children's Interest in Babies: Observations in Naturally-Occurring Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    Previous research in laboratory settings has found that preschool girls show more interest in babies than do preschool boys. To validate these findings in natural settings, 71 children at 3 and 5 years of age were observed by their parents as the children interacted with babies in their daily lives. Each child was observed with three different…

  2. First report of the natural occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in peanuts in Haiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  3. First Report of the Natural Occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Peanuts in Haiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  4. NATURAL MERCURY ISOTOPES AS TRACERS OF SOURCES, CYCLING, AND DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research centers on the use of mercury isotope systematics as a new way of investigating natural and anthropogenic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere and of the atmospheric processes that affect transportation and deposition. Given the fact that isotope systematics of ...

  5. Characterization of calcium isotopes in natural and synthetic barite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, E.M.; Schauble, E.A.; Bullen, T.D.; Paytan, A.

    2008-01-01

    The mineral barite (BaSO4) accommodates calcium in its crystal lattice, providing an archive of Ca-isotopes in the highly stable sulfate mineral. Holocene marine (pelagic) barite samples from the major ocean basins are isotopically indistinguishable from each other (??44/40Ca = -2.01 ?? 0.15???) but are different from hydrothermal and cold seep barite samples (??44/40Ca = -4.13 to -2.72???). Laboratory precipitated (synthetic) barite samples are more depleted in the heavy Ca-isotopes than pelagic marine barite and span a range of Ca-isotope compositions, ??44/40Ca = -3.42 to -2.40???. Temperature, saturation state, a Ba2 + / a SO42 -, and aCa2+/aBa2+ each influence the fractionation of Ca-isotopes in synthetic barite; however, the fractionation in marine barite samples is not strongly related to any measured environmental parameter. First-principles lattice dynamical modeling predicts that at equilibrium Ca-substituted barite will have much lower 44Ca/40Ca than calcite, by -9??? at 0 ??C and -8??? at 25 ??C. Based on this model, none of the measured barite samples appear to be in isotopic equilibrium with their parent solutions, although as predicted they do record lower ??44/40Ca values than seawater and calcite. Kinetic fractionation processes therefore most likely control the extent of isotopic fractionation exhibited in barite. Potential fractionation mechanisms include factors influencing Ca2+ substitution for Ba2+ in barite (e.g. ionic strength and trace element concentration of the solution, competing complexation reactions, precipitation or growth rate, temperature, pressure, and saturation state) as well as nucleation and crystal growth rates. These factors should be considered when investigating controls on isotopic fractionation of Ca2+ and other elements in inorganic and biogenic minerals. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Single-born marmosets without hemopoietic chimerism: naturally occurring and induced.

    PubMed

    Gengozian, N; Batson, J S

    1975-01-01

    Marmosets have a high frequency of fraternal twinning, and placental vascular anastomoses between the twin fetuses invariably lead to hemopoietic chimerism. The occasional finding of chimerism in single-born marmosets suggested that in a twin pregnancy one fetus had undergone resorption after contributing hemopoietic stem cells to its twin. In this study non-chimeric single-born marmosets were produced by fallopian tube ligation or surgical relocation of one ovary in breeding females. Further, in an examination of hemopoietic cells from over 50 single-born young from nonoperated females, chimerism occurred less frequently than what one would expect if resorption of a co-twin had occurred after a functional anastomosis had been established. PMID:808628

  7. Stable isotope fractionation to investigate natural transformation mechanisms of organic contaminants: principles, prospects and limitations.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) has made it possible to analyze natural stable isotope ratios (e.g., (13)C/(12)C, (15)N/(14)N, (2)H/(1)H) of individual organic contaminants in environmental samples. They may be used as fingerprints to infer contamination sources, and may demonstrate, and even quantify, the occurrence of natural contaminant transformation by the enrichment of heavy isotopes that arises from degradation-induced isotope fractionation. This review highlights an additional powerful feature of stable isotope fractionation: the study of environmental transformation mechanisms. Isotope effects reflect the energy difference of isotopologues (i.e., molecules carrying a light versus a heavy isotope in a particular molecular position) when moving from reactant to transition state. Measuring isotope fractionation, therefore, essentially allows a glimpse at transition states! It is shown how such position-specific isotope effects are "diluted out" in the compound average measured by GC-IRMS, and how a careful evaluation in mechanistic scenarios and by dual isotope plots can recover the underlying mechanistic information. The mathematical framework for multistep isotope fractionation in environmental transformations is reviewed. Case studies demonstrate how isotope fractionation changes in the presence of mass transfer, enzymatic commitment to catalysis, multiple chemical reaction steps or limited bioavailability, and how this gives information about the individual process steps. Finally, it is discussed how isotope ratios of individual products evolve in sequential or parallel transformations, and what mechanistic insight they contain. A concluding session gives an outlook on current developments, future research directions and the potential for bridging the gap between laboratory and real world systems. PMID:21038038

  8. A naturally occurring nanomaterial from the Sundew (Drosera) for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lenaghan, S C; Serpersu, K; Xia, L; He, W; Zhang, M

    2011-12-01

    In recent years advances have been made in the design of novel materials for tissue engineering through the use of polysaccharides. This study evaluated the ability of a naturally secreted polysaccharide adhesive from the Sundew (Drosera capensis) as a support for cell growth. The Sundew adhesive has several advantages including its high elasticity and antibiotic nature. By coating glass cover slips with the Sundew adhesive, a network of nanofibers was generated that was capable of promoting attachment and differentiation of a model neuronal cell line, PC-12. We also demonstrated the potential of this material for repairing bone and soft tissue injuries, by testing attachment of osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Finally, it was determined that the Sundew biomaterial was stable through testing by atomic force microscopy and prolonged cell growth. This work has proven the capabilities of using a nanomaterial derived from the Sundew adhesive for the purpose of tissue engineering. PMID:22064887

  9. Naturally occurring variation in tadpole morphology and performance linked to predator regime

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James B; Saenz, Daniel; Adams, Cory K; Hibbitts, Toby J

    2015-01-01

    Divergent natural selection drives a considerable amount of the phenotypic and genetic variation observed in natural populations. For example, variation in the predator community can generate conflicting selection on behavioral, life-history, morphological, and performance traits. Differences in predator regime can subsequently increase phenotypic and genetic variations in the population and result in the evolution of reproductive barriers (ecological speciation) or phenotypic plasticity. We evaluated morphology and swimming performance in field collected Bronze Frog larvae (Lithobates clamitans) in ponds dominated by predatory fish and those dominated by invertebrate predators. Based on previous experimental findings, we hypothesized that tadpoles from fish-dominated ponds would have small bodies, long tails, and large tail muscles and that these features would facilitate fast-start speed. We also expected to see increased tail fin depth (i.e., the tail-lure morphology) in tadpoles from invertebrate-dominated ponds. Our results support our expectations with respect to morphology in affecting swimming performance of tadpoles in fish-dominated ponds. Furthermore, it is likely that divergent natural selection is playing a role in the diversification on morphology and locomotor performance in this system. PMID:26357533

  10. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. PMID:25233215

  11. Introduction to Chemistry and Applications in Nature of Mass Independent Isotope Effects Special Feature

    PubMed Central

    Thiemens, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio variations are regulated by physical and chemical laws. These rules depend on a relation with mass differences between isotopes. New classes of isotope variation effects that deviate from mass dependent laws, termed mass independent isotope effects, were discovered in 1983 and have a wide range of applications in basic chemistry and nature. In this special edition, new applications of these effects to physical chemistry, solar system origin models, terrestrial atmospheric and biogenic evolution, polar paleo climatology, snowball earth geology, and present day atmospheric sciences are presented. PMID:24167299

  12. Introduction to chemistry and applications in nature of mass independent isotope effects special feature.

    PubMed

    Thiemens, Mark H

    2013-10-29

    Stable isotope ratio variations are regulated by physical and chemical laws. These rules depend on a relation with mass differences between isotopes. New classes of isotope variation effects that deviate from mass dependent laws, termed mass independent isotope effects, were discovered in 1983 and have a wide range of applications in basic chemistry and nature. In this special edition, new applications of these effects to physical chemistry, solar system origin models, terrestrial atmospheric and biogenic evolution, polar paleo climatology, snowball earth geology, and present day atmospheric sciences are presented. PMID:24167299

  13. When a natural disaster occurs: lessons learned in meeting students' needs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Pamela G; Loffredo, Vincent J; McKee, John C

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation, weather-related natural disasters-tropical storms, floods, tornadoes, and earthquakes-struck even areas where weather concerns are not paramount on the minds of most people. These natural disasters heightened awareness that all geographic areas are susceptible to aberrant weather conditions. The purpose of this article was to relate the lessons learned by one academic health center in meeting students' emergency preparedness and disaster recovery needs following a major hurricane in fall 2008. To gauge students' storm-related needs, a Hurricane Needs Survey (HNS) was conducted in spring 2009, 7 months after the hurricane. Students responded to 26 structured response items and 3 open-ended questions. Five hundred fifteen surveys were completed, constituting a response rate of 37.2%. Data were analyzed by creating frequencies to profile students' hurricane experiences. Results indicated that all students left the island under mandatory evacuation orders; most stayed with their families, and most experienced moderate material losses. For some students, the evacuation process and life after the storm contributed to ongoing problems, worries, and academic performance issues. Qualitative content analysis was used to derive themes from the students' narrative responses to the HNS open-ended questions about their perceptions of the extent to which the University of Texas Medical Branch met their needs. When students' hurricane response comments were analyzed, three major themes emerged: being prepared, needing to be connected, and returning to normalcy. The major lessons learned are that the emergency preparation of students requires greater specificity and that discussion about poststorm recovery expectations is essential. Following a natural disaster, students experience more distress than may be readily apparent. PMID:22142912

  14. Comparison of reactive transport model predictions for natural attenuation processes occurring at chlorinated solvent contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, H. M.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of an analytical model and numerical model, namely BIOCLOR and HYDRODEOCHEM, for a test scenario involving the natural attenuations of dissolved solvent at chlorinated contaminated site are compared. Two models make same predictions for PCE, TCE and DCE and considerable different predictions for VC and ETH for the case of all species having identical retardation factors. Significant discrepancies between two models are observed for all species when retardation coefficients are considered to be different for all species. These differences can be attributed to the basic assumption that all the species have the same retardation factors embedded in BIOCHLOR.

  15. Evidence of fissiogenic Cs estimated from Ba isotopic deviations in an Oklo natural reactor zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Holliger, Philippe; Masuda, Akimasa

    1993-01-01

    Isotopic studies of many elements from the uranium ore natural nuclear reactors at Oklo provide useful information on the migration of radioactive nuclides. The fissiogenic isotopic composition of Ba is particularly interesting, as it is an important indication in the search for fissiogenic Cs. In this report we detail the detection of remarkable isotopic deviations of Ba in the Oklo samples and estimate the geochemical behaviour of fissiogenic Cs from excess Ba isotopes. Six samples systematically collected from borehole SF84 (zone 10) at the Oklo uranium mine have been analyzed. Isotopic deviations of Ba indicate the existence of fissiogenic Cs and Ba. A good correlation between the elemental abundance of Cs and isotopic abundances of excess 135Ba and 137Ba suggests that fissiogenic 135Ba and 137Ba behaved as Cs rather than Ba.

  16. Fate and bioaccumulation of soil-associated low-level naturally occurring radioactivity following disposal into a marine ecosystem. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.

    1986-10-01

    The fate of radium (Ra) and other naturally occurring uranium-series isotopes associated with soils disposed in seawater was examined using the Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory (MERL) controlled marine ecosystems. Thirty-seven kilograms of a soil containing approximately 400 pCi Ra-226/g from an inactive uranium ore processing plant site in Middlesex, New Jersey, were added to each of two mesocosms over five days in mid-September 1984. Radionuclide activity in these and two control mesocosms was observed for three months after the soil additions. Radioactivity in the soil appeared to be confined to discrete soil particles rather than being distributed equally on the soil particles, suggesting the source of the radioactivity was remnant ore particles.

  17. Examining the impact of thought substitution on intentional forgetting in induced and naturally occurring dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; Ridout, Nathan

    2016-07-30

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if natural and induced dysphoria is associated with impaired forgetting and, whether a thought-substitution strategy would ameliorate any observed deficits. Study 1: 36 dysphoric & 36 non-dysphoric participants learnt a series of emotional word pairs. Participants were subsequently presented with some of the cues and were asked to recall the targets or prevent the targets from coming to mind. Half of the participants were provided with substitute words to recall instead of the original targets (aided suppression). At final memory testing, participants were asked to recall the targets to all cues. Dysphoric participants exhibited impaired forgetting, even when using a thought substitution strategy. Non-dysphoric participants, however, were able to use substitutes to suppress words. Study 2: 50 healthy participants initially completed the aided condition of the forgetting task. Participants were then given a positive or negative mood-induction, followed by another version of the forgetting task. Although all participants showed a forgetting effect prior to the mood-induction, only the positive group was successful at forgetting after the mood induction. Taken together, these findings do not support the utility of thought-substitution as an aid to forgetting in individuals in a naturally or induced dysphoric mood. PMID:27209358

  18. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    PubMed

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment. PMID:27093125

  19. Naturally occurring diversity helps to reveal genes of adaptive importance in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Gentzbittel, Laurent; Andersen, Stig U.; Ben, Cécile; Rickauer, Martina; Stougaard, Jens; Young, Nevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes challenge plants and drive adaptation to new conditions, suggesting that natural biodiversity may be a source of adaptive alleles acting through phenotypic plasticity and/or micro-evolution. Crosses between accessions differing for a given trait have been the most common way to disentangle genetic and environmental components. Interestingly, such man-made crosses may combine alleles that never meet in nature. Another way to discover adaptive alleles, inspired by evolution, is to survey large ecotype collections and to use association genetics to identify loci of interest. Both of these two genetic approaches are based on the use of biodiversity and may eventually help us in identifying the genes that plants use to respond to challenges such as short-term stresses or those due to global climate change. In legumes, two wild species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, plus the cultivated soybean (Glycine max) have been adopted as models for genomic studies. In this review, we will discuss the resources, limitations and future plans for a systematic use of biodiversity resources in model legumes to pinpoint genes of adaptive importance in legumes, and their application in breeding. PMID:25954294

  20. ELASTOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF NATURALLY OCCURING TENDON AND LIGAMENT INJURIES OF THE EQUINE DISTAL LIMB.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Meghann; Redding, W Rich; Labens, Raphael; Davis, Weston; Daniel, Thomas M; Griffith, Emily; Seiler, Gabriela S

    2015-01-01

    Compression elastography is an ultrasonographic technique that estimates tissue strain and may have utility in diagnosing and monitoring soft tissue injuries in the equine athlete. Recently, elastography has been proven to be a feasible and repeatable imaging modality for evaluating normal tendons and ligaments of the equine distal forelimb. The purposes of this prospective study were to investigate the ability of elastography to detect spontaneously occurring lesions of equine tendons and ligaments diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gray-scale ultrasound (US) and to characterize the differences in the elastographic appearance of acute vs. chronic injuries. Fifty seven horses with a total of 65 lesions were evaluated. Images were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Acute lesions were found to be significantly softer (P < 0.0001) than chronic lesions (P < 0.0001) and the stiffness of lesions increased with progression of healing (P = 0.0138). A negative correlation between lesion hypoechogenicity and softness was appreciated with more hypoechoic lesions appearing softer (P = 0.0087) and more hyperechoic regions harder (P = 0.0002). A similar finding occurred with increased signal intensity on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and proton density (PD) MRI sequences correlating with increased softness on elastography (P = 0.0164). Using US and MRI as references, commonly encountered soft tissue injuries of the equine distal limb could be detected with elastography. However, elastography was limited for detecting small, proximal injuries of the hindlimb proximal suspensory ligament. Elastographic evaluation of equine tendons and ligaments may allow better characterization of lesion chronicity and severity, and sequential examinations may optimize lesion management, rehabilitation, and return to training. PMID:26304065

  1. Naturally occurring tyrosinase inhibitors: mechanism and applications in skin health, cosmetics and agriculture industries.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Shoukat; Kang, Moonkyu; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2007-09-01

    Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants and is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products. The inadequacy of current conventional methods to prevent tyrosinase action encourages researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for food and cosmetics. This article presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, biochemical characteristics, type of inhibitions, activators from various natural sources with its clinical and industrial importance in recent prospects is discussed in this paper. PMID:17605157

  2. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  3. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells. PMID:26747991

  4. Relative Resistance of HLA-B to Downregulation by Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Nef Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Toyoda, Mako; Jia, Xiaofei; Kuang, Xiaomei T.; Mwimanzi, Francis; Mwimanzi, Philip; Walker, Bruce D.; Xiong, Yong; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brockman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Nef binds to the cytoplasmic region of HLA-A and HLA-B and downregulates these molecules from the surface of virus-infected cells, thus evading immune detection by CD8+ T cells. Polymorphic residues within the HLA cytoplasmic region may affect Nef’s downregulation activity. However, the effects of HLA polymorphisms on recognition by primary Nef isolates remain elusive, as do the specific Nef regions responsible for downregulation of HLA-A versus HLA-B. Here, we examined 46 Nef clones isolated from chronically HIV-1 subtype B-infected subjects for their ability to downregulate various HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C molecules on the surface of virus-infected cells. Overall, HLA-B exhibited greater resistance to Nef-mediated downregulation than HLA-A, regardless of the cell type examined. As expected, no Nef clone downregulated HLA-C. Importantly, the differential abilities of patient-derived Nef clones to downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B correlated inversely with the sensitivities of HIV-infected target cells to recognition by effector cells expressing an HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell receptor. Nef codon function analysis implicated amino acid variation at position 202 (Nef-202) in differentially affecting the ability to downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B, an observation that was subsequently confirmed by experiments using Nef mutants constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The in silico and mutagenesis analyses further suggested that Nef-202 may interact with the C-terminal Cys-Lys-Val residues of HLA-A, which are absent in HLA-B. Taken together, the results show that natural polymorphisms within Nef modulate its interaction with natural polymorphisms in the HLA cytoplasmic tails, thereby affecting the efficiency of HLA downregulation and consequent recognition by HIV-specific T cells. These results thus extend our understanding of this complex pathway of retroviral immune evasion. PMID:26787826

  5. Solid-state NMR in the analysis of drugs and naturally occurring materials.

    PubMed

    Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This article presents some of the solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR provides structural information on powder amorphous solids for which single-crystal diffraction structures cannot be obtained. NMR is non-destructive; the powder sample may be used for further studies. Quantitative results can be obtained, although solid-state NMR spectra are not normally quantitative. As compared with other techniques, MAS NMR is insensitive and requires a significant amount of the powder sample (2-100mg) to fill the 1.3-7 mm ZrO2 rotor. This is its main drawback, since natural compounds isolated from plants, microorganisms or cell cultures are difficult to obtain in quantities higher than a few milligrams. Multinuclear MAS NMR routinely uses (1)H and (13)C nuclei, less frequently (15)N, (19)F, (31)P, (77)Se, (29)Si, (43)Ca or (23)Na. The article focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of SSNMR, the studies were aimed to control over manufacturing processes (e.g. crystallization and milling) investigation of chemical and physical stability of solid forms both as pure drug and in a formulated product. SSNMR is used in combination with some other analytical methods (DSC, XRD, FT-IR) and theoretical calculations of NMR parameters. Biologically active compounds, such as amino acids and small peptides, steroids and flavonoids were studied by SSNMR methods (part 4) providing valuable structural information. The SSNMR experiments performed on biopolymers and large natural products like proteins, cellulose and lipid layers are commented upon briefly in part 5. PMID:24173236

  6. Carbon isotope ratios in crassulacean Acid metabolism plants: seasonal patterns from plants in natural stands.

    PubMed

    Szarek, S R

    1976-09-01

    A year round study of photosynthesis and carbon isotope fractionation was conducted with plants of Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. and Yucca baccata Torr. occurring in natural stands at elevations of 525, 970, 1450 and 1900 m. Plant water potentials and the daytime pattern of (14)CO(2) photosynthesis were similar for all cacti along the elevational gradient, despite significant differences in temperature regime and soil water status. Carbon isotope ratios of total tissue and soluble extract fractions were relatively constant throughtout the entire year. Additionally, the sigma(13)C values were similar in all plants of the same species along the elevational gradient, i.e. -12.5 +/- 0.86 per thousand for O. phaeacantha and -15.7 +/- 0.95 per thousand for Y. baccata. The results of this study indicate Crassulacean acid metabolism predominates as the major carbon pathway of these plants, which do not facultatively utilize the reductive pentose phosphate cycle of photosynthesis as the primary carboxylation reaction. PMID:16659680

  7. Predation and Parasitism Rates on Sentinel and Naturally Occurring Egg Masses of the Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal changes in egg predation and parasitism rates on sentinel and naturally occurring (wild) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg predation and parasitism were significantly ...

  8. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  9. A novel Arometic compound acts synergistically with a naturally occurring monoterpene to elicit strong behavioral responses in Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inscent, Inc. has developed methodologies for rapidly screening potential ligands of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) isolated from the antennae of target insects. These novel ligands, referred to as Arometics, mimic naturally-occurring odorants and may function as super-stimuli because of their strong ...

  10. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  11. The Case of an In-Home Recreation Program for an Older Adult in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an in-home therapeutic recreation (TR) program with an elderly woman living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) by a fourth-year TR student. The program helped meet her physical, social, and cognitive needs and re-stimulate her interests. Results suggest that in-home TR can be beneficial, and TR…

  12. The Nature, Occurring Contexts, and Psychological Implications of Weight-Related Teasing in Urban Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents…

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIOUS ISOLATES OF A NATURALLY OCCURRING RECOMBINANT AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS USING BIOLOGICAL ASSAYS AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we have isolated a naturally occurring recombinant avian leukosis virus (ALV) containing the envelope of ALV-B and LTR of ALV-J from commercial layer flocks affected with myeloid leukosis. Seven new isolates of the recombinant ALV, isolated from the same flock, were characterized using bio...

  14. Phylogeny and Virulence of Naturally Occurring Type III Secretion System-Deficient Pectobacterium Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T.; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2009-01-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers. PMID:19411432

  15. Naturally occurring ERAP1 haplotypes encode functionally distinct alleles with fine substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Emma; Edwards, Christopher J; Elliott, Tim; James, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) trims peptides for MHC class I presentation, influencing the degree and specificity of CD8(+) T cell responses. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the exons encoding ERAP1 are associated with autoimmune diseases and cervical carcinoma, but it is not known whether they act independently or as disease-associated haplotypes. We sequenced ERAP1 from 20 individuals and show that single-nucleotide polymorphisms occur as distinct haplotypes in the human population and that these haplotypes encode functionally distinct ERAP1 alleles. Using a wide range of substrates, we are able to demonstrate that for any given substrate distinct ERAP1 alleles can be "normal," "hypofunctional," or "hyperfunctional" and that each allele has a trend bias toward one of these three activities. Thus, the repertoire of peptides presented at the cell surface for recognition by CTL is likely to depend on the precise combination of both MHC class I and ERAP1 alleles expressed within an individual, and has important implications for predisposition to disease. PMID:23733883

  16. Relationships between molecular structure and theology for xanthan, a naturally occurring, bacteria-produced cellulose derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Southwick, J.G.; Jamieson, A.M.; Blackwell, J.

    1983-01-01

    Quasielastic light scattering and other physical chemical techniques were used to compare the conformation and intermolecular interactions of xanthan in water, aqueous sodium chloride, and urea solutions. The results show that xanthan has a disordered conformation when dissolved in salt-free 4 M urea solutions, after they were maintained at 90/sup 0/C for 3 h and then cooled to room temperature. This conformation is similar to that observed previously only in low-ionic-strength solutions at higher temperature following disruption of the ordered low-temperature form. Anomalous behavior is seen for xanthan as a function of ionic strength, in that the hydrodynamic radius increases with increasing ionic strength, whereas a decrease is typical for polyelectrolytes. These observations suggest that aggregation of rod-like chains, similar to that seen for other stiff-chain polymers, occurs for xanthan in salt solutions, where the charged groups of the polyelectrolyte are screened by the salt ions. This aggregation may explain some of the high values of the molecular weight reported in the literature. 19 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Diagnostic features in 10 naturally occurring cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Brown, Cathy A

    2014-11-01

    The current report describes the diagnostic features in 10 cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis with minimal renal and hepatic changes that may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Most affected dogs were less than 6 months of age and had a biochemical profile consistent with hepatorenal dysfunction. Clinical signs consisted of vomiting, depression, icterus, dehydration, diarrhea, and anorexia. All dogs died or were humanely euthanized within 3-7 days after the onset of clinical disease. Necropsy findings included pulmonary edema with hemorrhages, icterus, renal and hepatic pallor and swelling, and gastric edema with hemorrhage. Despite severe azotemia, histological changes in the kidneys were subtle in all dogs, and included mild renal tubular simplification, with single-cell necrosis and attenuation, along with minimal interstitial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage. Hepatic lesions included scattered hepatocellular single-cell necrosis and hepatocellular dissociation. Prominent extrarenal lesions typically associated with uremia including vascular fibrinoid necrosis in multiple organs, pulmonary mineralization with occasional fibrinosuppurative exudation, and gastric mineralization were also present. Postmortem diagnostic confirmation was based on the detection of leptospiral antigen on fresh renal samples by fluorescent antibody test and on the demonstration of intact spirochetes in sections of kidneys using immunohistochemical staining. Acute fatal canine leptospirosis occurred as a fulminant hepatorenal disease affecting mainly young dogs, and the diagnosis was dependent on the recognition of the subtle renal changes with confirmation via fluorescent antibody testing or immunohistochemical staining. PMID:25274745

  18. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. PMID:24128326

  19. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip; Roy, Madhumita

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent

  20. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  1. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  2. Bone remodeling adjacent to total hip replacements: A naturally occurring material design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, Timothy P.; Hamilton, James J.

    1993-10-01

    The reaction of bone to orthopedic implants is an example of a self-adjusting material which changes from a ‘normal state’ to an altered state, based on the mechanical features of the implant and the loads applied to it. The changes in bone around cemented and uncemented femoral total hip components are well documented, and many numerical characterizations of the material reaction to stress have attempted to mimic the natural remodeling process. In this study we review the development of a simple material remodeling rule which yields a stable structure which is optimal and which allows a unique solution. We then use this algorithm to assess the effect of prosthesis stiffness and the presence of a compliant layer on bone remodeling around these implants. An axisymmetric model for axial loading is used to model changes in bone density through the thickness of the cancellous bone around the implants. With cortical remodeling left out of the simulation, the simulations showed density distributions that agreed in general with the results in the literature, and showed a marked difference in response if a compliant layer was added to the prosthesis.

  3. Laboratory studies using naturally occurring "green rust" to aid metal mine water remediation.

    PubMed

    Bearcock, Jenny M; Perkins, William T; Pearce, Nicholas J G

    2011-06-15

    Green rust, an Fe (II) and (III) oxyhydroxy salt, can alter the aqueous oxidation state, mobility and toxicity, of inorganic contaminants and thus could have applications in water treatment. This paper discusses a series of stirred, open batch experiments designed to evaluate green rust, and its oxidised equivalent in this context comparing it to a ferrihydrite/goethite 'ochre'. Natural green rust was added to different mine waters as either a wet, reduced material or a dry, partially oxidised material. Experiments showed that the addition of either form accelerated the removal of potentially harmful elements from solution. Within one hour Fe, Al and Cu were completely removed from mine waters with initial concentrations of 80, 70 and 8.5mg/L, respectively, and Zn was reduced from 60 to <5mg/L. These experiments show the potential of green rust in mine water treatment, especially as it is able to remove problematic elements such as Al and Zn. The material is effective even after being dried and mostly oxidised. Changes to the pH and ORP of the mine waters and surface catalysis are the suggested mechanisms of accelerated removal of contaminants. PMID:21497995

  4. Naturally Occurring Carbazole Alkaloids from Murraya koenigii as Potential Antidiabetic Agents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Om P S; Mishra, Akansha; Maurya, Ranjani; Saini, Deepika; Pandey, Jyotsana; Taneja, Isha; Raju, Kanumuri S R; Kanojiya, Sanjeev; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Srivastava, Mahendra N; Wahajuddin, M; Tamrakar, Akhilesh K; Srivastava, Arvind K; Yadav, Prem P

    2016-05-27

    This study identified koenidine (4) as a metabolically stable antidiabetic compound, when evaluated in a rodent type 2 model (leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice), and showed a considerable reduction in the postprandial blood glucose profile with an improvement in insulin sensitivity. Biological studies were directed from the preliminary in vitro evaluation of the effects of isolated carbazole alkaloids (1-6) on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in L6-GLUT4myc myotubes, followed by an investigation of their activity (2-5) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of koenidine (4) on GLUT4 translocation was mediated by the AKT-dependent signaling pathway in L6-GLUT4myc myotubes. Moreover, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of compounds 2 and 4 clearly showed that compound 4 was 2.7 times more bioavailable than compound 2, resulting in a superior in vivo efficacy. Therefore, these studies suggested that koenidine (4) may serve as a promising lead natural scaffold for managing insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:27136692

  5. Electrosensory interference in naturally occurring aggregates of a species of weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia virescens.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric W; Nizar, Jonathan M; Carrera-G, Erika; Fortune, Eric S

    2005-10-14

    The detection and identification of behaviorally relevant signals in the presence of competing signals in the environment is a major challenge of animal sensory systems. In weakly electric fish such as Eigenmannia virescens, the interactions between the autogenous electric field and the electric fields of nearby conspecifics can have profound effects on the perception of other behaviorally relevant electrosensory information. To better understand the natural signals that the nervous system of Eigenmannia experiences during the processing of electrosensory information, we examined the electrosensory milieu of Eigenmannia in the wild and in the laboratory. Recordings of the electric fields of Eigenmannia were made in 'black' and 'white' waters near the Napo River in eastern Ecuador. Fourier analysis revealed that Eigenmannia typically experience the electric fields of three to five conspecifics during the day and night in each habitat. The median difference in electric organ discharge frequencies between nearby Eigenmannia during the day was 23 Hz in black water habitats, 41 Hz in white water, and 37 Hz at night in both habitats: these signals are known to activate tuberous electroreceptors and downstream CNS circuits. There was no correlation between the number of individual Eigenmannia detected at recording sites and electric organ discharge frequencies. Further, Eigenmannia apparently do not maximize the frequency differences between conspecifics. In laboratory studies fish were preferentially observed in aggregates of two fish or more. Aggregate sizes observed in the laboratory were similar to those in the wild. PMID:16099058

  6. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  7. Interactions between natural-occurring landscape conditions and land use influencing the abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, micropterus dolomieu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interactions between natural landscape features and land use influenced the abundance of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in Missouri, USA, streams. Stream segments were placed into one of four groups based on natural-occurring watershed characteristics (soil texture and soil permeability) predicted to relate to smallmouth bass abundance. Within each group, stream segments were assigned forest (n = 3), pasture (n = 3), or urban (n = 3) designations based on the percentages of land use within each watershed. Analyses of variance indicated smallmouth bass densities differed between land use and natural conditions. Decision tree models indicated abundance was highest in forested stream segments and lowest in urban stream segments, regardless of group designation. Land use explained the most variation in decision tree models, but in-channel features of temperature, flow, and sediment also contributed significantly. These results are unique and indicate the importance of natural-occurring watershed conditions in defining the potential of populations and how finer-scale filters interact with land use to further alter population potential. Smallmouth bass has differing vulnerabilities to land-use attributes, and the better the natural watershed conditions are for population success, the more resilient these populations will be when land conversion occurs.

  8. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  9. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  10. Estimation of the radiological background and dose assessment in areas with naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies--a case study in the Iberian Massif (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F

    2012-10-01

    Naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies, representative of the several thousand recognized in the Portuguese section of the Iberian Massif and outcropping in three target areas with a total of a few thousand square metres, were subjected to a detailed study (1:1000 scale) to evaluate the radiological health-risk on the basis of a dose assessment. To reach this goal some radioactive isotopes from the uranium, thorium and potassium radioactive series were measured in 52 samples taken from different environmental compartments: soils, stream sediments, water, foodstuff (vegetables) and air; external radiation was also measured through a square grid of 10×10 m, with a total of 336 measurements. The results show that some radioisotopes have high activities in all the environmental compartments as well as a large variability, namely for those of the uranium decay chain, which is a common situation in the regional geological setting. Isotopic disequilibrium is also common and led to an enrichment of several isotopes in the different pathways, as is the case of (226)Ra; maximum values of 1.76 Bq L(-1) (water), 986 Bq kg(-1) (soils) and 18.9 Bq kg(-1) (in a turnip sample) were measured. On the basis of a realistic scenario combined with the experimental data, the effective dose from exposure to ionizing radiation for two groups of the population (rural and urban) was calculated; the effective dose is variable between 8.0 and 9.5 mSv year(-1), which is 3-4 times higher than the world average. Thus, the radiological health-risk for these populations could be significant and the studied uranium anomalies must be taken into account in the assessment of the geochemical background. The estimated effective dose can also be used as typical of the background of the Beiras uranium metalogenetic province and therefore as a "benchmark" in the remediation of the old uranium mining sites. PMID:22694913

  11. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  12. Collection, isolation and enrichment of naturally occurring magnetotactic bacteria from the environment.

    PubMed

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K; Lin, Wei; Lower, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are aquatic microorganisms that were first notably described in 1975 from sediment samples collected in salt marshes of Massachusetts (USA). Since then MTB have been discovered in stratified water- and sediment-columns from all over the world. One feature common to all MTB is that they contain magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bound magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or greigite (Fe3S4) or both. In the Northern hemisphere, MTB are typically attracted to the south end of a bar magnet, while in the Southern hemisphere they are usually attracted to the north end of a magnet. This property can be exploited when trying to isolate MTB from environmental samples. One of the most common ways to enrich MTB is to use a clear plastic container to collect sediment and water from a natural source, such as a freshwater pond. In the Northern hemisphere, the south end of a bar magnet is placed against the outside of the container just above the sediment at the sediment-water interface. After some time, the bacteria can be removed from the inside of the container near the magnet with a pipette and then enriched further by using a capillary racetrack and a magnet. Once enriched, the bacteria can be placed on a microscope slide using a hanging drop method and observed in a light microscope or deposited onto a copper grid and observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using this method, isolated MTB may be studied microscopically to determine characteristics such as swimming behavior, type and number of flagella, cell morphology of the cells, shape of the magnetic crystals, number of magnetosomes, number of magnetosome chains in each cell, composition of the nanomineral crystals, and presence of intracellular vacuoles. PMID:23183960

  13. Collection, Isolation and Enrichment of Naturally Occurring Magnetotactic Bacteria from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K.; Lin, Wei; Lower, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are aquatic microorganisms that were first notably described in 19751 from sediment samples collected in salt marshes of Massachusetts (USA). Since then MTB have been discovered in stratified water- and sediment-columns from all over the world2. One feature common to all MTB is that they contain magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bound magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or greigite (Fe3S4) or both3, 4. In the Northern hemisphere, MTB are typically attracted to the south end of a bar magnet, while in the Southern hemisphere they are usually attracted to the north end of a magnet3,5. This property can be exploited when trying to isolate MTB from environmental samples. One of the most common ways to enrich MTB is to use a clear plastic container to collect sediment and water from a natural source, such as a freshwater pond. In the Northern hemisphere, the south end of a bar magnet is placed against the outside of the container just above the sediment at the sediment-water interface. After some time, the bacteria can be removed from the inside of the container near the magnet with a pipette and then enriched further by using a capillary racetrack6 and a magnet. Once enriched, the bacteria can be placed on a microscope slide using a hanging drop method and observed in a light microscope or deposited onto a copper grid and observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using this method, isolated MTB may be studied microscopically to determine characteristics such as swimming behavior, type and number of flagella, cell morphology of the cells, shape of the magnetic crystals, number of magnetosomes, number of magnetosome chains in each cell, composition of the nanomineral crystals, and presence of intracellular vacuoles. PMID:23183960

  14. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  15. Microbial interactions with naturally occurring hydrophobic sediments: Influence on sediment and associated contaminant mobility.

    PubMed

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Lawrence, J R

    2016-04-01

    The erosion, transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants are known to be influenced by both particle characteristics and the flow dynamics imparted onto the sediment. The influential role of bitumen containing hydrophobic sediments and the microbial community on sediment dynamics are however less understood. This study links an experimental evaluation of sediment erosion with measured sediment-associated contaminant concentrations and microbial community analysis to provide an estimate of the potential for sediment to control the erosion, transport and fate of contaminants. Specifically the paper addresses the unique behaviour of hydrophobic sediments and the role that the microbial community associated with hydrophobic sediment may play in the transport of contaminated sediment. Results demonstrate that the hydrophobic cohesive sediment demonstrates unique transport and particle characteristics (poor settling and small floc size). Biofilms were observed to increase with consolidation/biostabilization times and generated a unique microbial consortium relative to the eroded flocs. Natural oil associated with the flocs appeared to be preferentially associated with microbial derived extracellular polymeric substances. While PAHs and naphthenic acid increased with increasing shear (indicative of increasing loads), they tended to decrease with consolidation/biostabilization (CB) time at similar shears suggesting a chemical and/or biological degradation. PAH and napthenic acid degrading microbes decreased with time as well, which may suggest that there was a reduced pool of PAHs and naphthenic acids available resulting in their die off. This study emphasizes the importance that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health incorporate the sediment (suspended and bed sediment) and biological (biofilm) compartments and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict contaminant

  16. Functional properties of a naturally occurring isoform of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Russwurm, M; Behrends, S; Harteneck, C; Koesling, D

    1998-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the target enzyme of the signalling molecule NO, contains one prosthetic haem group and consists of an alpha and a beta subunit. So far, only the alpha1beta1 heterodimer has been shown to exist in different cells and tissues, and most biochemical studies of sGC have been performed with the alpha1 beta1 heterodimer. Here we demonstrate for the first time the natural occurrence of the alpha2 subunit on the protein level. The alpha2 subunit co-precipitated with the beta1 subunit from human placenta, showing the existence of the alpha2 beta1 isoform in vivo. The new enzyme was expressed in and purified from cells from the Spodoptera frugiperda ovary cell line Sf 9. Spectral analysis showed that the alpha2 beta1 heterodimer contains a prosthetic haem group revealing the same characteristics as the haem in the alpha1 beta1 form. The kinetic properties of both isoforms and sensitivity towards NO were indistinguishable. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a selective inhibitor of sGC, abolished NO-stimulated activity of both heterodimers. The new NO-independent activator, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), increased the maximal NO-stimulated activity of the new isoform, caused a leftward-shift in the NO concentration-response curve and turned CO into an effective activator, as it did for the alpha1 beta1 heterodimer (200-fold activation). In summary, the differences in primary structure of both alpha subunits are contrasted by their functional similarity. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the physiological purpose of the new isoform. PMID:9742221

  17. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The Kd values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The Kd values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  18. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  19. Magnesium isotope fractionation by chemical diffusion in natural settings and in laboratory analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Rahul; Richter, Frank M.; Bruce Watson, E.; Scullard, Christian R.

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory experiments are used to document isotopic fractionation of magnesium by chemical diffusion in a silicate melt and the results compared to the magnesium isotopic composition across contacts between igneous rocks of different composition in natural settings. The natural samples are from transects from felsic to mafic rocks at Vinal Cove in the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine and from the Aztec Wash pluton in Nevada. Two laboratory diffusion couples made by juxtaposing melts made from powders of the felsic and mafic compositions sampled at Vinal Cove were annealed at about 1500 °C for 22.5 and 10 h, respectively. The transport of magnesium in the diffusion couples resulted in easily measured magnesium isotopic fractionations at the interface (δ26Mg∼1.5‰). These isotopic fractionations provide a distinctive isotopic “fingerprint” that we use to determine whether chemical gradients in natural settings where melts of different composition were juxtaposed were due to chemical diffusion. The magnesium isotopic fractionation along one profile at Vinal Cove is exactly what one would expect based on the fractionations found in the laboratory experiments. This is an important result in that it shows that the isotope fractionation by chemical diffusion found in highly controlled laboratory experiments can be found in a natural setting. This correspondence implies that chemical diffusion was the dominant process responsible for the transport of magnesium across this particular contact at Vinal Cove. A second Vinal Cove profile has a very similar gradient in magnesium concentration but with significantly less magnesium isotopic fractionation than expected. This suggests that mass transport at this location was only partly by diffusion and that some other mass transport mechanism such as mechanical mixing must have also played a role. The magnesium isotopic composition of samples from Aztec Wash shows no resolvable isotopic fractionation across the contact

  20. Naturally occurring and stress induced tubular structures from mammalian cells, a survival mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Laughlin, Richard C; Henry, David C; Krueger, Darryl E; Hudson, JoAn S; Kuan, Cheng-Yi; He, Jian; Reppert, Jason; Tomkins, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    dehydration. The disintegrative, mobile, disruptive and ubiquitous nature of straw cells makes this a possible physiological process that may be involved in human health, longevity, and various types of diseases such as cancer. PMID:17705822

  1. Nuclear genomic control of naturally occurring variation in mitochondrial function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells that play a crucial role in cellular survival and function. Mitochondrial function is under the control of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. While the latter has been the focus of most genetic research, we remain largely ignorant about the nuclear-encoded genomic control of inter-individual variability in mitochondrial function. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster as our model organism to address this question. Results We quantified mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiration rates and P:O ratio in mitochondria isolated from the thoraces of 40 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. We found significant within-population genetic variability for all mitochondrial traits. Hence, we performed genome-wide association mapping and identified 141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with differences in mitochondrial respiration and efficiency (P ≤1 × 10-5). Gene-centered regression models showed that 2–3 SNPs can explain 31, 13, and 18% of the phenotypic variation in state 3, state 4, and P:O ratio, respectively. Most of the genes tagged by the SNPs are involved in organ development, second messenger-mediated signaling pathways, and cytoskeleton remodeling. One of these genes, sallimus (sls), encodes a component of the muscle sarcomere. We confirmed the direct effect of sls on mitochondrial respiration using two viable mutants and their coisogenic wild-type strain. Furthermore, correlation network analysis revealed that sls functions as a transcriptional hub in a co-regulated module associated with mitochondrial respiration and is connected to CG7834, which is predicted to encode a protein with mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein activity. This latter finding was also verified in the sls mutants. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the genetic factors regulating natural variation in mitochondrial function in D

  2. Revealing the structural nature of the Cd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Diaz Varela, A.; Green, K. L.; Jamieson, D. S.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-10-01

    The even-even Cd isotopes have provided fertile ground for the investigation of collectivity in nuclei. Soon after the development of the Bohr model, the stable Cd isotopes were identified as nearly harmonic vibrators based on their excitation energy patterns. The measurements of enhanced B (E 2) values appeared to support this interpretation. Shape co-existing rotational-like intruder bands were discovered, and mixing between the configurations was invoked to explain the deviation of the decay pattern of multiphonon vibrational states. Very recently, a detailed analysis of the low-lying levels of 110Cd combining results of the (n ,n' γ) reaction and high-statistics β decay, provided strong evidence that the mixing between configurations is weak, except for the ground-state band and ``Kπ =0+ '' intruder band. The analysis of the levels in 110Cd has now been extended to 3 MeV, and combined with data for 112Cd and previous Coulomb excitation data for 114Cd, enables a detailed map of the E 2 collectivity in these nuclei, demanding a complete re-interpretation of the structure of the stable Cd isotopes.

  3. Removal of lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials by extraction with naturally occurring oils or synthetic substitutes thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.R.; Orme, T.W.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of removing lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials comprising blood plasma and fractions thereof containing the lipid soluble process chemicals. The lipid soluble process chemical is a virus attenuating solvent having a high flash point, a detergent, or a mixture thereof. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the lipid soluble process chemicals into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure. Also described is a method of removing lymphokine inducing phorbol esters from lympholkine-containing biological material. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the phorbol esters into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure so as to remove 80% or more of the phorbol esters.

  4. Cellular targets and mechanistic strategies of remyelination-promoting IgMs as part of the naturally occurring autoantibody repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Watzlawik, Jens O; Wootla, Bharath; Painter, Meghan M; Warrington, Arthur E; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins with germline sequences occur in invertebrates and vertebrates and are named naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs). NAbs may target foreign antigens, self- or altered self-components and are part of the normal immunoglobulin repertoire. Accumulating evidence indicates that naturally occurring antibodies can act as systemic surveillance molecules, which tag, damaged or stressed cells, invading pathogens and toxic cellular debris for elimination by the immune system. In addition to acting as detecting molecules, certain types of NAbs actively signal in different cell types with a broad range of responses from induction of apoptosis in cancer cells to stimulation of remyelination in glial cells. This review emphasizes functions and characteristics of NAbs with focus on remyelination-promoting mouse and human antibodies. Human remyelination-promoting NAbs are potential therapeutics to combat a wide spectrum of disease processes including demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. We will highlight the identified glycosphingolipid (SL) antigens of polyreactive remyelination-promoting antibodies and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. The nature of the identified antigens suggests a lipid raft-based mechanism for remyelination-promoting antibodies with SLs as most essential raft components. However, accumulating evidence also suggests involvement of other antigens in stimulation of remyelination, which will be discussed in the text. PMID:24053345

  5. Laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong‐Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon‐Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single‐electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low‐molecular‐weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase‐involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase‐catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono‐ or poly‐phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical‐mediated coupling or cross‐linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical‐scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase‐associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase

  6. Laccase-catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-05-01

    Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low-molecular-weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase-catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase-involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase-catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono- or poly-phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical-mediated coupling or cross-linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical-scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase-associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase-catalysed biosynthetic pathways and associated

  7. Stable silver isotope fractionation in the natural transformation process of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dawei; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Tuoya; Cai, Yong; Yin, Yongguang; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-08-01

    Nanoparticles in the environment can form by natural processes or be released due to human activities. Owing to limited analytical methods, the behaviour of nanoparticles in the natural environment is poorly understood and until now they have only been described by the variations in the nanoparticle size or the concentration of the element of interest. Here we show that by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure silver (Ag) isotope ratios it is possible to understand the transformation processes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the environment. We found that the formation and dissolution of AgNPs under natural conditions caused significant variations in the ratio of natural Ag isotopes (107Ag and 109Ag) with an isotopic enrichment factor (ε) up to 0.86‰. Furthermore, we show that engineered AgNPs have distinctly different isotope fractionation effects to their naturally formed counterparts. Further studies will be needed to understand whether isotope analysis can be used to reveal the sources of AgNPs in the environment.

  8. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G. . E-mail: luis.valerio@FDA.HHS.gov; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.; Contrera, Joseph F.

    2007-07-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals

  9. APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR WATERSHED INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental isotopes include naturally-occurring nuclides that can be applied as tracers within watersheds (Sidle, 1998). Recent advances in mass spectroscopy may supplant many traditional and costly hydrometric techniques. It is now possible, for example, to utilize isotopes a...

  10. A Naturally Occurring Single Amino Acid Replacement in Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Increases Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E.; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C.; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M.; Olsen, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype–patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  11. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  12. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Washington State: Swift Creek at the Intersection of Science, Law, and Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melious, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern corner of Washington state, a large landslide on Sumas Mountain deposits more than 100,000 cubic yards of soil containing asbestos fibers and heavy metals into Swift Creek every year. Engineers predict that asbestos-laden soils will slide into Swift Creek for at least the next 400 years. Swift Creek joins the Sumas River, which crosses the border into Canada, serving as an international delivery system for asbestos-laden soils. When the rivers flood, as happens regularly, they deliver asbestos into field, yards, and basements. The tools available to address the Swift Creek situation are at odds with the scope and nature of the problem. Asbestos regulation primarily addresses occupational settings, where exposures can be estimated. Hazardous waste regulation primarily addresses liability for abandoned waste products from human activities. Health and environmental issues relating to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are fundamentally different from either regulatory scheme. Liability is not a logical lever for a naturally occurring substance, the existence of which is nobody's fault, and exposures to NOA in the environment do not necessarily resemble occupational exposures. The gaps and flaws in the legal regime exacerbate the uncertainties created by uncertainties in the science. Once it is assumed that no level of exposure is safe, legal requirements adopted in very different contexts foreclose the options for addressing the Swift Creek problem. This presentation will outline the applicable laws and how they intersect with issues of risk perception, uncertainty and politics in efforts to address the Swift Creek NOA site.

  13. Nitrogen-isotope analysis of groundwater nitrate in carbonate aquifers: Natural sources versus human pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitler, Charles W.; Browning, Lawrence A.

    1983-02-01

    Results of nitrogen-isotope analyses of nitrate in the waters of the Cretaceous Edwards aquifer in Texas, U.S.A., indicate that the source of the nitrate is naturally-occurring nitrogen compounds in the recharge streams. In contrast, nitrogen isotopes of nitrate in the fresh waters of the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation on Grand Cayman Island, West Indies, indicate that human wastes are the source of the nitrate. The Cretaceous Edwards Limestone is a prolific aquifer that produces principally from fracture porosity along the Balcones Fault Zone. Recharge is primarily by streams crossing the fault zone. Rainfall is ˜ 70 cm yr. -1, and the water table is generally deeper than 30 m below land surface. The δ15 N of 73 samples of nitrate from Edwards waters ranged from + 1.9 to + 10‰ with an average of + 6.2‰. This δ15 N range is within the range of nitrate in surface water in the recharge streams ( δ 15N range = + 1 to + 8.3‰ ) and within the range of nitrate in surface water from the Colorado River, Texas, ( δ 15N range = + 1 to + 11‰ ). No sample was found to be enriched in 15N, which would suggest the presence of nitrate from animal waste ( δ 15N range = + 10 to + 22‰ ). The Ironshore Formation contains a small freshwater lens that is recharged entirely by percolation through the soil. Average rainfall is 165 cm yr. -1, and the water table is within 3 m of land surface. The δ15 N of four nitrate samples from water samples of the Ironshore Formation ranged from + 18 to + 23.9‰, which indicates a cesspool/septictank source of the nitrate. Limestone aquifers in humid environments that are recharged by percolation through the soil appear to be more susceptible to contamination by septic tanks than are aquifers in subhumid environments that feature thick unsaturated sections and are recharged by streams.

  14. Chemical method for nitrogen isotopic analysis of ammonium at natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Tu, Ying; Pan, Yuepeng

    2014-04-15

    We report a new chemical method to determine the (15)N natural abundance (δ(15)N) for ammonium (NH4(+)) in freshwater (e.g., precipitation) and soil KCl extract. This method is based on the isotopic analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O). Ammonium is initially oxidized to nitrite (NO2(-)) by hypobromite (BrO(-)) using previously established procedures. NO2(-) is then quantitatively converted into N2O by hydroxylamine (NH2OH) under strongly acid conditions. The produced N2O is analyzed by a commercially available purge and cryogenic trap system coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (PT-IRMS). On the basis of a typical analysis size of 4 mL, the standard deviation of δ(15)N measurements is less than 0.3‰ and often better than 0.1‰ (3 to 5 replicates). Compared to previous methods, the technique here has several advantages and the potential to be used as a routine method for (15)N/(14)N analysis of NH4(+): (1) substantially simplified preparation procedures and reduced preparation time particularly compared to the methods in which diffusion or distillation is involved since all reactions occur in the same vial and separation of NH4(+) from solution is not required; (2) more suitability for low volume samples including those with low N concentration, having a blank size of 0.6 to 2 nmol; (3) elimination of the use of extremely toxic reagents (e.g., HN3) and/or the use of specialized denitrifying bacterial cultures which may be impractical for many laboratories. PMID:24654992

  15. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible. PMID:22652567

  16. Natural variation of magnesium isotopes in mammal bones and teeth from two South African trophic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Isotopic fractionations accompanying element transfer through terrestrial ecosystems have the potential to shed light on ecological interactions between primary producers and consumers, but with the exception of carbon and nitrogen this potential has barely been exploited. Here, the magnesium stable isotope composition of bones and teeth of extant mammals from Kruger National Park (KNP) and Western Cape (WC), South Africa was measured for the first time. The nature of the geological substrate proves to be a major determinant of the ecosystem isotope baseline, as indicated by the lighter magnesium isotope ratios measured in WC mammals (ranging from -1.58‰ to -0.79‰) compared to those from KNP mammals (ranging from -1.01‰ to -0.04‰). Therefore, comparisons between the isotope signatures of taxa must be restricted to a pre-defined geographic area with a homogeneous substrate. In both parks, Mg shows slight enrichment in heavier isotopes from herbivores to carnivores. Plant remains trapped in the dentition of herbivores provide direct evidence of dietary source and, when available, were measured. In KNP only, δ26Mg of plant remains is systematically lighter than the values for herbivore teeth. These results invite further exploration of the variability of Mg isotopes in vertebrate ecosystems in order to test whether magnesium, a bio-essential element present in relatively large proportions in bone and teeth apatite, may serve as an additional trophic tracer to nitrogen, which is a constituent of collagen that rapidly degrades after burial.

  17. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  18. Upper limits for the existence of long-lived isotopes of roentgenium in natural gold

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, F.; Kutschera, W.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Winkler, G.

    2011-01-15

    A sensitive search for isotopes of a superheavy element (SHE) in natural gold materials has been performed with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, which is based on a 3-MV tandem accelerator. Because the most likely SHE in gold is roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111), the search concentrated on Rg isotopes. Two different mass regions were explored: (i) For the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 261}Rg and {sup 265}Rg, abundance limits in gold of 3x10{sup -16} were reached (no events observed). This is in stark contrast to the findings of Marinov et al.[Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 18, 621 (2009)], who reported positive identification of these isotopes with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry in the (1-10)x10{sup -10} abundance range. (ii) Theoretical models of SHEs predict a region of increased stability around the proton and neutron shell closures of Z = 114 and N = 184. We therefore investigated eight heavy Rg isotopes, {sup A}Rg, A = 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, and 296. For six isotopes no events were observed, setting limits also in the 10{sup -16} abundance range. For {sup 291}Rg and {sup 294}Rg we observed two and nine events, respectively, which results in an abundance in the 10{sup -15} range. However, pileup of a particularly strong background in these cases makes a positive identification as Rg isotopes--even after pileup correction--unlikely.

  19. Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation to the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, G.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Ryder, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental samples collected in the Mosquito Creek Lake area were used to characterize water quality in relation to the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine and to establish baseline water quality. Mosquito Creek Lake (a manmade reservoir) and the shallow bedrock aquifers near the lake are major sources of potable water in central Trumbull County. The city of Warren relies on the lake as a sole source of potable water. Some of the lake bottom may be in direct hydraulic connection with the underlying aquifers. The city of Cortland, along the southeastern shore of the lake, relies on the Cussewago Sandstone aquifer as a sole source of potable water. This aquifer subcrops beneath the glacio-fluvial sediments that underlie the lake. Nearly all residential homes around the lake, with the exception of homes in the city of Cortland, rely on domestic supply wells as a source of potable water. Oil and natural gas exploration and production have been ongoing in the Mosquito Creek Lakearea since the discovery of the historic Mecca Oil Pool in the Mississippian Berea and Cussewago Sandstones in 1860. Since the late 1970' s, the major drilling objective and zone of production is the Lower Silurian Clinton sandstone. The oil and natural gas resources of the Mosquito Creek Lake area, including reservoir pressure, production history, and engineering and abandonment practices are described in this report. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the historic Mecca oil and natural gas are very different than those of the Clinton sandstone oil and natural gas. Gas chromatograms show that Mecca oil samples are extensively altered by biodegradation, whereas Clinton sandstone oils are not. Extensive alteration of Mecca oil is consistent with their occurrence at very shallow depths (less than 100 ft below land surface) where microbial activity can affect their composition. Also, the carbon-isotope composition of dissolved methane gas from Berea and Cussewago

  20. Distribution of the PBC-specific- (M2) and the naturally-occurring mitochondrial antigen- (NOMAg) systems in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, P; Klein, R; Becker, E W; Berg, P A

    1992-01-01

    In previous studies it was demonstrated that antibodies in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and their relatives can recognize two different antigen systems in the ATPase fraction prepared from beef heart mitochondria, namely the PBC-related M2- and the naturally occurring mitochondrial antigen (NOMAg)-related epitopes. Since separation of these two antigen systems could not be achieved using mammalian mitochondria, mitochondria from a wide spectrum of plants were analysed with respect to the presence of mitochondrial antigens. Mitochondria from 29 species of plants were prepared and tested by ELISA and Western blot using marker sera from patients with PBC reacting in the Western blot with M2a,b,c,d (alpha-ketoacid-dehydrogenase complex) and NOMAg-specific sera recognizing the three major epitopes epsilon, zeta, and eta at 65, 61 and 58 kD. Naturally occurring mitochondrial antibody (NOMA)-positive marker sera reacted in the ELISA with mitochondria from all plants, and the zeta/eta positive sera gave also a positive reaction at 61/58 kD in the Western blot while the epsilon epitope could not be visualized by this method. In contrast, the M2 antigen was detected preferentially in lower plants such as algae, fungi, and ferns. Analysing these data with respect to the evolution of proteins one would have to assume that the M2 antigen was lost in most higher plants or underwent some structural alterations. Furthermore, considering the fact that the M2- and the NOMAg-related epitopes could be only partially separated, i.e. there were no plant mitochondria showing only M2 but no NOMAg, one could speculate that anti-M2 antibodies are derived from the pool of naturally occurring antibodies. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1281057

  1. Determination of site-specific carbon isotope ratios at natural abundance by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caer, V; Trierweiler, M; Martin, G J; Martin, M L

    1991-10-15

    Site-specific natural isotope fractionation of hydrogen studied by deuterium NMR (SNIF-NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful source of information on hydrogen pathways occurring in biosyntheses in natural conditions. The potential of the carbon counterpart of this method has been investigated and compared. Three typical molecular species, ethanol, acetic acid, and vanillin, have been considered. Taking into account the requirements of quantitative 13C NMR, appropriate experimental procedures have been defined and the repeatability and reproducibility of the isotope ratio determinations have been checked in different conditions. It is shown that the carbon version of the SNIF-NMR method is capable of detecting small differences in the carbon-13 content of the ethyl fragment of ethanols from different botanical or synthetic origins. These results are in agreement with mass spectrometry determinations of the overall carbon isotope ratios. Deviations with respect to a statistical distribution of 13C have been detected in the case of acetic acid and vanillin. However, since the method is very sensitive to several kinds of systematic error, only a relative significance can be attached at present to the internal parameters directly accessible. Isotope dilution experiments have also been carried out in order to check the consistency of the results. In the present state of experimental accuracy, the 13C NMR method is of more limited potential than 2H SNIF-NMR spectroscopy. However it may provide complementary information. Moreover it is particularly efficient for detecting and quantifying adulterations that aim to mimic the overall carbon-13 content of a natural compound by adding a selectivity enriched species to a less expensive substrate from a different origin. PMID:1759714

  2. Accidental Predissociation: A Special Case of Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effect and Possible Occurrence in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2009-12-01

    Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effects (PHIFE) are known to produce isotopic frac-tionation in some photo-dissociating molecules (1-2). The PHIFE formalism is based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the Reflection Principle. The isotopic fractionation arises principally from the spectral shift induced by the small difference in zero point energy between isotopologues and the contraction of the wave function due to isotopic substitution, consequently, the associated isotopic fractionations depends on the reduced mass of the isotopically substi-tuted species. The PHIFE formalism is only applicable to the molecules which undergo direct photo-dissociation that possess continuous absorption spectra. Simple molecules (N2, O2, CO) however do not follow a direct dissociation pathway and dissociate through an indirect process termed predissociation, which occurs when the molecule is excited to a quasi-bound state energetically above the dissociation continuum. The PHIFE formalism is not applicable when the absorption spectra are discrete. The assumption that the lightest isotopologues are preferentially predissociated is only valid for restricted predissociation cases. There is a special case of predissociation known as ‘accidental predissociation’ (3), which takes place through an intermediate bound state in two steps (i) leakage to an intermediate bound state (coupled through spin orbit interaction) and, (ii) predissociation to a third quasi-bound state from the intermediate state. Line broadening at an accidental predissociation is a function of the magnitude of coupling matrix elements and the linewidths are strongly influenced by isotopic substitution (4). An anomalous isotopic effect in accidental predissociation was spectroscopically observed in CO (5), N2 (4) and BeH (6). We measured the isotopic fractionation for the first time in two accidental predissociating states of CO through VUV photodissociation using the 9.0.2 beamline at ALS (7-8). In

  3. Computed Tomography Imaging of Solid Tumors Using a Liposomal-Iodine Contrast Agent in Companion Dogs with Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Sato, Amy F.; Starosolski, Zbigniew A.; Berg, John; Vail, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer serve as an important large animal model in translational research because they share strong similarities with human cancers. In this study, we investigated a long circulating liposomal-iodine contrast agent (Liposomal-I) for computed tomography (CT) imaging of solid tumors in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer. Materials and Methods The institutional animal ethics committees approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all owners. Thirteen dogs (mean age 10.1 years) with a variety of masses including primary and metastatic liver tumors, sarcomas, mammary carcinoma and lung tumors, were enrolled in the study. CT imaging was performed pre-contrast and at 15 minutes and 24 hours after intravenous administration of Liposomal-I (275 mg/kg iodine dose). Conventional contrast-enhanced CT imaging was performed in a subset of dogs, 90 minutes prior to administration of Liposomal-I. Histologic or cytologic diagnosis was obtained for each dog prior to admission into the study. Results Liposomal-I resulted in significant (p < 0.05) enhancement and uniform opacification of the vascular compartment. Non-renal, reticulo-endothelial systemic clearance of the contrast agent was demonstrated. Liposomal-I enabled visualization of primary and metastatic liver tumors. Sub-cm sized liver lesions grossly appeared as hypo-enhanced compared to the surrounding normal parenchyma with improved lesion conspicuity in the post-24 hour scan. Large liver tumors (> 1 cm) demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of intra-tumoral signal with visibly higher signal enhancement at the post-24 hour time point. Extra-hepatic, extra-splenic tumors, including histiocytic sarcoma, anaplastic sarcoma, mammary carcinoma and lung tumors, were visualized with a heterogeneous enhancement pattern in the post-24 hour scan. Conclusions The long circulating liposomal-iodine contrast agent enabled prolonged visualization of small

  4. Naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase: synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and X-ray crystallographic studies.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaoan; Sun, Hongbin; Liu, Jun; Cheng, Keguang; Zhang, Pu; Zhang, Liying; Hao, Jia; Zhang, Luyong; Ni, Peizhou; Zographos, Spyros E; Leonidas, Demetres D; Alexacou, Kyra-Melinda; Gimisis, Thanasis; Hayes, Joseph M; Oikonomakos, Nikos G

    2008-06-26

    Twenty-five naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes, 15 of which were synthesized in this study, were biologically evaluated as inhibitors of rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa). From SAR studies, the presence of a sugar moiety in triterpene saponins resulted in a markedly decreased activity ( 7, 18- 20) or no activity ( 21, 22). These saponins, however, might find their value as potential natural prodrugs which are much more water-soluble than their corresponding aglycones. To elucidate the mechanism of GP inhibition, we have determined the crystal structures of the GPb-asiatic acid and GPb-maslinic acid complexes. The X-ray analysis indicates that the inhibitors bind at the allosteric activator site, where the physiological activator AMP binds. Pentacyclic triterpenes represent a promising class of multiple-target antidiabetic agents that exert hypoglycemic effects, at least in part, through GP inhibition. PMID:18517260

  5. Bioavailability of metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in naturally occurring vegetation: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Nandhini, S

    2006-05-01

    A pilot scale study was conducted to find out the different forms of metals if fly ash (FA) and bioaccumulation of these metals in the naturally growing vegetation on FA dumps. The total, acid extractable, bioavailable and water soluble fraction of metals of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and Pb, and their bioaccumulation coefficients (BAC) on naturally growing vegetation were determined. FA samples had a neutral pH, low electrical conductivity, low organic C and trace amounts of N and P. The relative abundance of total metals in FA were found in the order Fe >Mn >Zn >Ni >Co>Cu. The concentration of bioavailable (DTPA) metals depend on the type and nature of coal used in thermal power stations. In the water the extract solution, only Fe and Zn were found above detection limits. After one year only four species of naturally occurring herbaceous vegetation were found growing and Cynodon dactylon (grass) covered almost entire surface of the FA. Iron accumulated to the greatest extent in vegetation followed by Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Co. The sequence of BAC for different metals were Fe (202)>Mn(90)>Zn (63)>Pb(49)>Ni(41)>Cu(24). The experimental study revealed that Cynodon grass could be used for remediation of fly ash without any amendments, as this grass species act as metal excluder type. PMID:16779594

  6. Total synthesis of isotopically enriched Si-29 silica NPs as potential spikes for isotope dilution quantification of natural silica NPs.

    PubMed

    Pálmai, Marcell; Szalay, Roland; Bartczak, Dorota; Varga, Zoltán; Nagy, Lívia Naszályi; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-05-01

    A new method was developed for the preparation of highly monodisperse isotopically enriched Si-29 silica nanoparticles ((29)Si-silica NPs) with the purpose of using them as spikes for isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) quantification of silica NPs with natural isotopic distribution. Si-29 tetraethyl orthosilicate ((29)Si-TEOS), the silica precursor was prepared in two steps starting from elementary silicon-29 pellets. In the first step Si-29 silicon tetrachloride ((29)SiCl4) was prepared by heating elementary silicon-29 in chlorine gas stream. By using a multistep cooling system and the dilution of the volatile and moisture-sensitive (29)SiCl4 in carbon tetrachloride as inert medium we managed to reduce product loss caused by evaporation. (29)Si-TEOS was obtained by treating (29)SiCl4 with absolute ethanol. Structural characterisation of (29)Si-TEOS was performed by using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. For the NP preparation, a basic amino acid catalysis route was used and the resulting NPs were analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. Finally, the feasibility of using enriched NPs for on-line field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle light scattering and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FFF/MALS/ICP-MS) has been demonstrated. PMID:25617615

  7. Iron isotopes in the Seine River (France): Natural versus anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiu-Bin; Busigny, Vincent; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Louvat, Pascale; Wang, Yi-Na

    2014-03-01

    The determination of fluxes and isotope compositions of Fe transported from continents to the ocean is essential for understanding global surface Fe cycle and its effect on oceanic biological productivity. Contrasting to non-polluted rivers, Fe isotope composition in rivers strongly affected by human activities is poorly constrained. In this contribution, we present the first Fe isotope data in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and dissolved load of the human-impacted Seine River (France). Iron concentrations and isotope compositions, together with major and trace element concentrations, were measured for two sample sets: (1) a geographic transect along the river from headwater to estuary, and (2) a temporal series of samples collected in Paris from 2004 to 2007. In the Seine River, Fe is mostly carried by SPM (average 99% of the total Fe) rather than dissolved load. The high Fe enrichment factor (1.40, relative to natural fluvial pre-historical and headwater sediments) and strong correlation between SPM Fe and Zn concentrations (r2 = 0.70, n = 30) demonstrate a strong anthropogenic Fe input. The Fe isotope compositions in SPM show a very small range (δ56Fe from -0.05‰ to 0.09‰) in spite of the large variations of Fe concentrations (from 1.78 to 4.17 wt.%) and are comparable to anthropogenic samples, suggesting that anthropogenic sources have similar Fe isotope composition to that of the natural background. In contrast, larger variations of Fe isotope compositions observed in the dissolved load (from -0.60‰ to 0.06‰) than that of SPM may provide a more promising means for tracing anthropogenic contributions to natural river systems. The δ56Fe and δ66Zn values of the dissolved loads are positively correlated (r2 = 0.62, n = 8), indicating a mixing between anthropogenic and natural end-members, enriched in light and heavy Fe isotopes respectively. Correlation between dissolved δ56Fe and DOC/Fe ratio (i.e. dissolved organic carbon/dissolved Fe

  8. Measurement of natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keita; Ohishi, Kazuki; Gilbert, Alexis; Akasaka, Mai; Yoshida, Naohiro; Yoshimura, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    The natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in urine was measured in healthy subjects using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS). Before applying the technique to a urine sample, we optimized the measurement conditions of HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS using aqueous solutions of commercial acetone reagents. The optimization enabled us to determine the carbon isotopic compositions within ±0.2 ‰ of precision and ±0.3‰ of error using 0.05 or 0.2 mL of aqueous solutions with acetone concentrations of 0.3-121 mg/L. For several days, we monitored the carbon isotopic compositions and concentrations of acetone in urine from three subjects who lived a daily life with no restrictions. We also monitored one subject for 3 days including a fasting period of 24 h. These results suggest that changes in the availability of glucose in the liver are reflected in changes in the carbon isotopic compositions of urine acetone. Results demonstrate that carbon isotopic measurement of metabolites in human biological samples at natural abundance levels has great potential as a tool for detecting metabolic changes caused by changes in physiological states and disease. Graphical abstract The natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in urine can be determined using HS-SPME-GCC-IRMS and can provide information on changes in the availability of glucose in the liver. PMID:26718914

  9. MNA of Chlorinated Solvents and Fuel Oxygenates: Why it occurs, how it evolved, and using stable carbon isotopes to predict plume behavior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organisms that degrade MTBE under anaerobic conditions are evolved to acquire energy for growth by using molecular hydrogen and carbonate ion to cleave methyl ether bonds. Methyl ether bonds are common in nature and the bond also occurs in MTBE. MTBE in contaminated ground...

  10. MNA for Chlorinated Solvents and Fuel Oxygenates: Why It Occurs, How It Evolved, and Using Stable Carbon Isotopes to Predict Plume Behavior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organisms that degrade MtBE under anaerobic conditions are evolved to acquire energy for growth by using molecular hydrogen and carbonate ion to cleave methyl ether bonds. Methyl ether bonds are common in nature and the bond also occurs in MTBE. MTBE in contaminated ground...

  11. Naturally occurring NS3 resistance-associated variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1: Their relevance for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Natalia; Betancour, Gabriela; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Hernández, Nelia; López, Pablo; Chiodi, Daniela; Sánchez, Adriana; Boschi, Susana; Fajardo, Alvaro; Sóñora, Martín; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 130-150 million infected individuals worldwide. HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment options in developing countries involve pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin as dual therapy or in combination with one or more direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) after treatment reveals the great variability of this virus leading to a great difficulty in developing effective antiviral strategies. Baseline RAVs detected in DAA treatment-naïve HCV-infected patients could be of great importance for clinical management and outcome prediction. Although the frequency of naturally occurring HCV NS3 protease inhibitor mutations has been addressed in many countries, there are only a few reports on their prevalence in South America. In this study, we investigated the presence of RAVs in the HCV NS3 serine protease region by analysing a cohort of Uruguayan patients with chronic hepatitis C who had not been treated with any DAAs and compare them with the results found for other South American countries. The results of these studies revealed that naturally occurring mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors exist in a substantial proportion of Uruguayan treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 enrolled in these studies. The identification of these baseline RAVs could be of great importance for patients' management and outcome prediction in developing countries. PMID:27449600

  12. Naturally occurring rhodopsin mutation in the dog causes retinal dysfunction and degeneration mimicking human dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Kijas, James W.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Pianta, Michael J.; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Miller, Brian J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2002-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by light and initiates the transduction cascade leading to night (rod) vision. Naturally occurring pathogenic rhodopsin (RHO) mutations have been previously identified only in humans and are a common cause of dominantly inherited blindness from retinal degeneration. We identified English Mastiff dogs with a naturally occurring dominant retinal degeneration and determined the cause to be a point mutation in the RHO gene (Thr4Arg). Dogs with this mutant allele manifest a retinal phenotype that closely mimics that in humans with RHO mutations. The phenotypic features shared by dog and man include a dramatically slowed time course of recovery of rod photoreceptor function after light exposure and a distinctive topographic pattern to the retinal degeneration. The canine disease offers opportunities to explore the basis of prolonged photoreceptor recovery after light in RHO mutations and determine whether there are links between the dysfunction and apoptotic retinal cell death. The RHO mutant dog also becomes the large animal needed for preclinical trials of therapies for a major subset of human retinopathies. PMID:11972042

  13. Assessment of naturally occurring covalent and total dimer levels in human IgG1 and IgG2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jane; Goetze, Andrew M; Flynn, Gregory C

    2014-03-01

    Antibody dimers, two self-associated monomers, have been detected on both recombinantly expressed and endogenous human IgG proteins. Nearly 10 years ago, Yoo et al. (2003) described low levels of IgG2 covalent dimer, in human serum, but did not quantify the levels. Here we quantify the total and covalent dimer levels of IgG2 and IgG1 in human blood, and study the origin of covalent dimer formation. Low levels (<1%) of total IgG1 and IgG2 dimers were measured in freshly prepared human plasma. Both IgG1 and IgG2 covalent dimers were also found in plasma. Whereas IgG1 covalent dimer levels were significantly reduced by steps intended to eliminate artifacts during sample preparation, IgG2 covalent dimer levels remain stable in such conditions. About 0.4% of IgG2 in plasma was in a covalent dimer form, yet very little (<0.03%) of IgG1 covalent dimer could be considered naturally occurring. IgG2 dimer also formed in vitro under conditions designed to mimic those in blood, suggesting that formation occurs in vivo during circulation. Thus, small amounts of covalent IgG2 dimer do appear to form naturally. PMID:24321397

  14. Preparation of peptide thioesters from naturally occurring sequences using reaction sequence consisting of regioselective S-cyanylation and hydrazinolysis.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Rin; Tsuda, Yusuke; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Shigenaga, Akira; Imanishi, Miki; Futaki, Shiroh; Otaka, Akira

    2016-11-01

    The vital roles of peptide/protein thioesters in protein chemistry, including chemical or semi-synthesis of proteins, have encouraged studies on the development of methods for the preparation of such chemical units. Biochemical protocols using intein or sortase have proved to be useful in protein chemistry as methods suitable for naturally occurring sequences, including recombinant proteins. Although chemical protocols are potential options for thioester preparation, only a few are applicable to naturally occurring sequences, because standard chemical protocols require an artificial chemical device for producing thioesters. In this context, the chemical preparation of thioesters based on a reaction sequence consisting of regioselective S-cyanylation and hydrazinolysis was investigated. Regioselective S-cyanylation, which is required for cysteine-containing thioesters, was achieved with the aid of a zinc-complex formation of a CCHH-type zinc-finger sequence. Free cysteine residues that are not involved in complex formation were selectively protected with a 6-nitroveratryl group followed by S-cyanylation of the zinc-binding cysteine. Hydrazinolysis of the resulting S-cyanopeptide and subsequent photo-removal of the 6-nitroveratryl group yielded the desired peptide hydrazide, which was then converted to the corresponding thioester. The generated thioester was successfully used in N-to-C-directed one-pot/sequential native chemical ligation using an N-sulfanylethylanilide peptide to give a 64-residue peptide toxin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 531-546, 2016. PMID:26501985

  15. Distribution of injected technetium(99m)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in horses with naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Patricia; Valdés Vázquez, Miguel A; Dudhia, Jayesh; Fiske-Jackson, Andrew R; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G; Smith, Roger K W

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate immediate cell survival and distribution following different administration routes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into naturally occurring tendon injuries. Ten million MSCs, labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, were implanted into 13 horses with naturally occurring tendon or ligament injuries intra-lesionally, intravenously and by regional perfusion, and traced for up to 48 h using planar gamma scintigraphy. Labeling efficiencies varied between 1.8% and 18.5% (mean 9.3%). Cells were retained in the damaged area after intra-lesional administration but only 24% of cells were still present within the tendon after 24 h. After intravenous injection, cells largely distributed to the lung fields, with no detectable cells in the tendon lesions. Significant labeling of the tendon lesions was observed in 11/12 horses following regional perfusion but at a lower level to intra-lesional injection. The highest cell numbers were retained after intra-lesional injection, although with considerable cell loss, while regional perfusion may be a viable alternative for MSC delivery. Cells did not "home" to damaged tendon in large numbers after intravenous administration. Cells were detected in the lungs most frequently after intravascular administration, although with no adverse effects. Low cell retention has important implications for designing effective clinical therapies for human clinical use. PMID:23508674

  16. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system. PMID:26754957

  17. Naturally occurring tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell precursors in individuals with and without cancer.

    PubMed

    Karanikas, Vaios; Zamanakou, Maria; Soukou, Faye; Kerenidi, Theodora; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Germenis, Anastasios E

    2010-07-01

    Boosting pre-existing, naturally occurring cytolytic CD8(+) T-cell (CTLs) responses directed against class-I MHC-restricted peptides of tumor antigens, represents a primary goal of cancer immunotherapy. The number of pre-existing antitumor CTLs and their impaired function has been incriminated as the most likely candidates for the reduced clinical efficacy of these trials. This study was scheduled to determine possible differences in the frequency and the function of naturally occurring CTL precursors (pCTLs) against multiple peptides derived from the cancer-testis antigens MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3, and the overexpressed antigen hTERT, in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients as compared with aged-matched healthy individuals. The cumulative frequency of circulating peptide-specific pCTLs was found significantly higher in the cancer patients, varied widely and was not affected by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Furthermore, this frequency was greatly different between the various tumor-antigen peptides. Under the light of recent evidence provided from animal models, these results indicate that the peptide-specific pCTL frequency might represent an important determinant for the fate of cancer immunotherapy. In addition, our results show that tumor-specific pCTLs of cancer patients can present functional differences regarding their proliferative capacity, intensity of multimer staining and lytic capacity, when compared with those of healthy individuals. Hence, our findings could have an important role for the design of improved immunotherapeutic approaches for lung cancer. PMID:20142837

  18. Molecular Imprint of Exposure to Naturally Occurring Genetic Variants of Human Cytomegalovirus on the T cell Repertoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Corey; Gras, Stephanie; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Bird, Nicola L.; Valkenburg, Sophie A.; Twist, Kelly-Anne; Burrows, Jacqueline M.; Miles, John J.; Chambers, Daniel; Bell, Scott; Campbell, Scott; Kedzierska, Katherine; Burrows, Scott R.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Khanna, Rajiv

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring variants of herpesviruses in clinical settings can have a dramatic impact on anti-viral immunity. Here we have evaluated the molecular imprint of variant peptide-MHC complexes on the T-cell repertoire during human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and demonstrate that primary co-infection with genetic variants of CMV was coincident with development of strain-specific T-cell immunity followed by emergence of cross-reactive virus-specific T-cells. Cross-reactive CMV-specific T cells exhibited a highly conserved public T cell repertoire, while T cells directed towards specific genetic variants displayed oligoclonal repertoires, unique to each individual. T cell recognition foot-print and pMHC-I structural analyses revealed that the cross-reactive T cells accommodate alterations in the pMHC complex with a broader foot-print focussing on the core of the peptide epitope. These findings provide novel molecular insight into how infection with naturally occurring genetic variants of persistent human herpesviruses imprints on the evolution of the anti-viral T-cell repertoire.

  19. Use of Sulphur and Boron Isotopes to Identify Natural Gas Processing Emissions Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, C. E.; Norman, A.; Wieser, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    Natural gas processing results in the emission of large amounts of gaseous pollutants as a result of planned and / or emergency flaring, sulphur incineration, and in the course of normal operation. Since many gas plants often contribute to the same air shed, it is not possible to conclusively determine the sources, amounts, and characteristics of pollution from a particular processing facility using traditional methods. However, sulphur isotopes have proven useful in the apportionment of sources of atmospheric sulphate (Norman et al., 1999), and boron isotopes have been shown to be of use in tracing coal contamination through groundwater (Davidson and Bassett, 1993). In this study, both sulphur and boron isotopes have been measured at source, receptor, and control sites, and, if emissions prove to be sufficiently distinct isotopically, they will be used to identify and apportion emissions downwind. Sulphur is present in natural gas as hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which is combusted to sulphur dioxide (SO2) prior to its release to the atmosphere, while boron is present both in hydrocarbon deposits as well as in any water used in the process. Little is known about the isotopic abundance variations of boron in hydrocarbon reservoirs, but Krouse (1991) has shown that the sulphur isotope composition of H2S in reservoirs varies according to both the concentration and the method of formation of H2S. As a result, gas plants processing gas from different reservoirs are expected to produce emissions with unique isotopic compositions. Samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler placed directly downwind of several gas plants, as well as at a receptor site and a control site. Aerosol sulphate and boron were collected on quartz fibre filters, while SO2 was collected on potassium hydroxide-impregnated cellulose filters. Solid sulphur samples were taken from those plants that process sulphur in order to compare the isotopic composition with atmospheric measurements. A

  20. Isotopic disequilibrium effects in leaching of natural uraninite and thorianite

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Gascoyne, M.

    1987-09-01

    Fractional leach rates of /sup 228/Th that are greater than those of /sup 232/Th from natural uraninite and thorianite have been interpreted by Eyal and Fleischer in terms of ..cap alpha..-decay damage to the crystal lattice. An alternative interpretation proposed here is that the enhanced leaching of /sup 228/Th is due to its presence as interstitial ions.

  1. A Nonselective Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Enhances the Activity of Vinblastine in a Naturally-Occurring Canine Model of Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Ruple-Czerniak, Audrey; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Naughton, James F.; Fulkerson, Christopher M.; Honkisz, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy is expected to remain an important part of invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) treatment. Strategies to enhance chemotherapy efficacy are needed. Objective: To determine the chemotherapy-enhancing effects of a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor on vinblastine in a naturally-occurring canine model of invasive UC. Methods: With IACUC approval, privately-owned dogs with naturally-occurring histologically-diagnosed invasive UC, expected survival ≥6 weeks, and informed owner consent were randomly allocated to receive vinblastine (2.5 mg/m2 intravenously every 2 weeks) plus piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg daily per os) or vinblastine alone (same dose) with the option to receive piroxicam alone when vinblastine failed. Scheduled evaluations included physical exam, standard laboratory analyses, thoracic radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and standardized measurement of urinary tract tumors. Results: Dogs receiving vinblastine alone (n = 27) and vinblastine-piroxicam (n = 24) were similar in age, sex, breed, tumor stage, and grade. Remission occurred more frequently (P <  0.02) with vinblastine-piroxicam (58.3%) than with vinblastine alone (22.2%). The median progression free interval was 143 days with vinblastine alone and 199 days with the combination. Interestingly, the overall median survival time was significantly longer (P <  0.03) in dogs receiving vinblastine alone followed by piroxicam alone (n = 20, 531 days) than in dogs receiving the combination (299 days). Treatment was well tolerated in both arms. Conclusions: Piroxicam significantly enhanced the activity of vinblastine in dogs with UC where the cancer closely mimics the human condition, clearly justifying further study. The study suggest the potential importance of tracking COX inhibitor use in patients in clinical trials as COX inhibitors could affect treatment response. PMID:27376143

  2. ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY - ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes.Analytical capabilities at IHL include light stable isotope radio mass...

  3. ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory (IHL) is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes.The emergent field of isotope hydrology follows advances in anal...

  4. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5’ cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila. PMID:26799957

  5. Tumour-Associated Transplantation Antigens of Neoplasms Induced by a Naturally Occurring Murine Sarcoma Virus (FBJ-MSV)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David B.; Moore, Michael

    1973-01-01

    FBJ osteosarcoma virus (FBJ-MSV) isolated originally from a spontaneously arising osteosarcoma in a CF1 mouse is the only known naturally occurring murine sarcoma virus (MSV). It is unique among strains of MSV in producing primarily sarcomata in mice. The capacity of tumour cells transformed in vivo by this agent to elicit specific transplantation immunity in syngeneic hosts was investigated. A low level of resistance (104-105 cells) was consistently induced by implantation of x-irradiated (15,000 rad) tumours or surgical excision of developing subcutaneous grafts. By contrast intraperitoneal inoculation of virus containing cellfree extracts of FBJ-MSV sarcomata was a far less effective immunization procedure. Confirmatory evidence for the antigenicity of these neoplasms was obtained in tests in which preincubation of tumour cells with lymphoid cells from specifically immune donors inhibited in vivo outgrowth of the FBJ-MSV cells in untreated syngeneic recipients. The induction of host resistance to FBJ-MSV cells by immunization with identical and independently-induced FBJ-MSV tumours established that FBJ-MSV cells possess common cell surface antigenic specificities in a manner analogous to those of experimental neoplasms induced by other oncogenic DNA and RNA viruses. Since FBJ-MSV cells release infectious virus it was not possible in this system to establish whether the tumour-rejection antigen was cellular or virion in nature. The antigenic weakness of FBJ-MSV cells in syngeneic hosts is comparable with that of virus-induced murine leukaemias of the Gross (G) or “wild” type subgroup to which category FBJ-MSV also belongs. These features suggest that FBJ-MSV exemplifies naturally occurring sarcomagenic viruses more closely than those of the Friend-Moloney-Rauscher-Graffi (FMRGr) subgroup which in general induce highly antigenic neoplasms. PMID:4516007

  6. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  7. Dual Infection and Superinfection Inhibition of Epithelial Skin Cells by Two Alphaherpesviruses Co-Occur in the Natural Host

    PubMed Central

    Jarosinski, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Hosts can be infected with multiple herpesviruses, known as superinfection; however, superinfection of cells is rare due to the phenomenon known as superinfection inhibition. It is believed that dual infection of cells occurs in nature, based on studies examining genetic exchange between homologous alphaherpesviruses in the host, but to date, this has not been directly shown in a natural model. In this report, gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), better known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV), was used in its natural host, the chicken, to determine whether two homologous alphaherpesviruses can infect the same cells in vivo. MDV shares close similarities with the human alphaherpesvirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV), with respect to replication in the skin and exit from the host. Recombinant MDVs were generated that express either the enhanced GFP (eGFP) or monomeric RFP (mRFP) fused to the UL47 (VP13/14) herpesvirus tegument protein. These viruses exhibited no alteration in pathogenic potential and expressed abundant UL47-eGFP or -mRFP in feather follicle epithelial cells in vivo. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, it was evident that these two similar, but distinguishable, viruses were able to replicate within the same cells of their natural host. Evidence of superinfection inhibition was also observed. These results have important implications for two reasons. First, these results show that during natural infection, both dual infection of cells and superinfection inhibition can co-occur at the cellular level. Secondly, vaccination against MDV with homologous alphaherpesvirus like attenuated GaHV-2, or non-oncogenic GaHV-3 or meleagrid herpesvirus (MeHV-1) has driven the virus to greater virulence and these results implicate the potential for genetic exchange between homologous avian alphaherpesviruses that could drive increased virulence. Because the live attenuated varicella vaccine is currently being administered to children, who in turn could be superinfected

  8. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products. PMID:26822920

  9. The atomic weight and isotopic composition of boron and their variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The boron isotopic composition and atomic weight value and their variation in nature are reviewed. Questions are raised about the previously recommended value and the uncertainty for the atomic weight. The problem of what constitutes an acceptable range for normal material and what should then be considered geologically exceptional is discussed. Recent measurements make some previous decisions in need of re-evaluation.

  10. Fractionation of iron isotopes during leaching of natural particles by acidic and circumneutral leaches and development of an optimal leach for marine particulate iron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revels, Brandi N.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Adkins, Jess F.; John, Seth G.

    2015-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for life on land and in the oceans. Iron stable isotope ratios (δ56Fe) can be used to study the biogeochemical cycling of Fe between particulate and dissolved phases in terrestrial and marine environments. We have investigated the dissolution of Fe from natural particles both to understand the mechanisms of Fe dissolution, and to choose a leach appropriate for extracting labile Fe phases of marine particles. With a goal of finding leaches which would be appropriate for studying dissolved-particle interactions in an oxic water column, three particle types were chosen including oxic seafloor sediments (MESS-3), terrestrial dust (Arizona Test Dust - A2 Fine), and ocean sediment trap material from the Cariaco basin. Four leaches were tested, including three acidic leaches similar to leaches previously applied to marine particles and sediments (25% acetic acid, 0.01 N HCl, and 0.5 N HCl) and a pH 8 oxalate-EDTA leach meant to mimic the dissolution of particles by organic complexation, as occurs in natural seawater. Each leach was applied for three different times (10 min, 2 h, 24 h) at three different temperatures (25 °C, 60 °C, 90 °C). MESS-3 was also leached under various redox conditions (0.02 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride or 0.02 M hydrogen peroxide). For all three sample types tested, we find a consistent relationship between the amount of Fe leached and leachate δ56Fe for all of the acidic leaches, and a different relationship between the amount of Fe leached and leachate δ56Fe for the oxalate-EDTA leach, suggesting that Fe was released through proton-promoted dissolution for all acidic leaches and by ligand-promoted dissolution for the oxalate-EDTA leach. Fe isotope fractionations of up to 2‰ were observed during acidic leaching of MESS-3 and Cariaco sediment trap material, but not for Arizona Test Dust, suggesting that sample composition influences fractionation, perhaps because Fe isotopes are greatly fractionated

  11. Precise determination of stable chlorine isotopic ratios in low-concentration natural samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magenheim, A. J.; Spivack, A. J.; Volpe, C.; Ransom, B.

    1994-07-01

    Investigation of stable chlorine isotopes in geological materials has been hindered by large sample requirements and/or lack of analytical precision. Here we describe precise methods for the extraction, isolation, and isotopic analysis of low levels of chlorine in both silicate and aerosol samples. Our standard procedure uses 2 μg of Cl for each isotopic analysis. External reproducibility (1 σ) is 0.25%. for the 37Cl /35Cl measurements. Chlorine is extracted from silicate samples (typically containing at least 20 μg of Cl) via pyrohydrolysis using induction heating and water vapor as the carrier, and the volatilized chlorine is condensed in aqueous solution. Atmospheric aerosols collected on filters are simply dissolved in water. Prior to isotopic measurement, removal of high levels of SO 42-, F -, and organic compounds is necessary for the production of stable ion beams. Sulfate is removed by BaSCO 4 precipitation, F - by CaF 2 precipitation, and organic compounds are extracted with activated carbon. Chlorine is converted to stoichiometric CsCl by cation exchange, and isotopic ratios are determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of Cs 2Cl +. We demonstrate that the sensitivity and precision of this method allow resolution of natural variations in chlorine isotopic composition, and thereby provide insight to some fundamental aspects of chlorine geochemistry.

  12. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§ Karl T. Schroeder,§ and Harry M. Edenborn

    2012-02-24

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ∼375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (εSr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where εSr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  13. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Kirby, Carl S.; Hammack, Richard W.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2012-03-20

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of 375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (ε{sub Sr}{sup SW} = +13.8 to +41.6, where ε{sub Sr}{sup SW} is the deviation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10{sup 4}); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  14. Consistency of NMR and mass spectrometry determinations of natural-abundance site-specific carbon isotope ratios. The case of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B L; Trierweiler, M; Jouitteau, C; Martin, G J

    1999-07-01

    Quantitative determinations of natural-abundance carbon isotope ratios by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) have been optimized by appropriate selection of the experimental conditions and by signal analysis based on a dedicated algorithm. To check the consistency of the isotopic values obtained by NMR and mass spectrometry (IRMS) the same glycerol samples have been investigated by both techniques. To have access to site-specific isotope ratios by IRMS, the products have been degraded and transformed into two derivatives, one of which contains carbons 1 and 3 and the other carbon 2 of glycerol. The sensitivity of the isotopic parameters determined by IRMS to fractionation effects possibly occurring in the course of the chemical transformations has been investigated, and the repeatability and reproducibility of both analytical chains have been estimated. The good agreement observed between the two series of isotopic results supports the reliability of the two different approaches. SNIF-NMR is therefore a very attractive tool for routine determination, in a single nondestructive experiment, of the carbon isotope distribution in glycerol, and the method can be applied to other compounds. Using this method, the isotopic distributions have been compared for glycerol samples, obtained from plant or animal oils, extracted from fermented media, or prepared by chemical synthesis. Typical behaviors are characterized. PMID:21662780

  15. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  16. Positive selection of natural poly-reactive B cells in the periphery occurs independent of heavy chain allelic inclusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ying; Ji, Qiuhe; Lin, Ying; Fu, Meng; Gao, Jixin; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Xingbin; Feng, Lei; Liu, Yufeng; Han, Hua; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Natural autoreactive B cells are important mediators of autoimmune diseases. Receptor editing is known to play an important role in both central and peripheral B cell tolerance. However, the role of allelic inclusion in the development of natural autoreactive B cells is not clear. Previously, we generated μ chain (TgV(H)3B4I) and μ/κ chains (TgV(H/L)3B4) transgenic mice using transgene derived from the 3B4 hybridoma, which produce poly-reactive natural autoantibodies. In this study, we demonstrate that a considerable population of B cells edited their B cells receptors (BCRs) via light chain or heavy chain allelic inclusion during their development in TgV(H)3B4I mice. Additionally, allelic inclusion occurred more frequently in the periphery and promoted the differentiation of B cells into marginal zone or B-1a cells in TgV(H)3B4I mice. B cells from TgV(H/L)3B4 mice expressing the intact transgenic 3B4 BCR without receptor editing secreted poly-reactive 3B4 antibody. Interestingly, however, B cell that underwent allelic inclusion in TgV(H)3B4I mice also produced poly-reactive autoantibodies in vivo and in vitro. Our findings suggest that receptor editing plays a minor role in the positive selection of B cells expressing natural poly-reactive BCRs, which can be positively selected through heavy chain allelic inclusion to retain their poly-reactivity in the periphery. PMID:25993514

  17. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V3+ in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V3+/Vtot ratio, followed by determination of V3+ in the presence of V4+. The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100?? in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V3+-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe3+ is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. ?? 1985.

  18. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field. PMID:26293623

  19. Polarization dependent two-photon absorption spectroscopy on a naturally occurring biomarker (curcumin) in solution: A theoretical-experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiburcio-Moreno, Jose A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Diaz, Carlos; Echevarria, Lorenzo; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the theoretical-experimental analysis of the two-photon absorption (TPA) and two-photon circular-linear dichroism (TPCLD) spectra of (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (curcumin) in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The measurement of the full TPA spectrum of this molecule reveals a maximum TPA cross-section at 740 nm, i.e. more than 10 times larger than the maximum reported in the literature at 800 nm for the application of curcumin in bioimaging. The TPCLD spectrum exposes the symmetry of the main excited-states involved in the two-photon excitation process. TD-DFT calculations support the experimental results. These outcomes are expected to expand the application of natural-occurring dyes in bioimaging.

  20. The nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents experienced many different types of teasing in physical education. Victims of teasing felt hurt and experienced uncomfortable feelings due to social comparisons. Overweight students who were not teased reported a variety of reasons. Teachers lacked awareness of and strategies to handle teasing of overweight students. There is a need to implement preventive policies and rules to eliminate weight-related teasing and create inclusive physical education environments. PMID:22808717

  1. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates.

    PubMed

    Wanty, R B; Goldhaber, M B

    1985-05-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V(3+) in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V(3+)/V(tot) ratio, followed by determination of V(3+) in the presence of V(4+). The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100 degrees in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V(3+)-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe(3+) is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. PMID:18963866

  2. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results. PMID:23602707

  3. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gbadago, J K; Faanhof, A; Darko, E O; Schandorf, C

    2011-09-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment. PMID:21865616

  4. Functional characterization of naturally occurring melittin peptide isoforms in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Park, Doori; Jung, Je Won; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Si Young; Kim, Boyun; Jin, Hye Jun; Kim, Jiyoung; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Ki Won; Song, Yong Sang; Hong, Seunghun; Womack, James E; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2014-03-01

    Insect-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have diverse effects on antimicrobial properties and pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation and anticancer properties. Naturally occurring genetic polymorphism have a direct and/or indirect influence on pharmacological effect of AMPs, therefore information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurring in natural AMPs provides an important clue to therapeutic applications. Here we identified nucleotide polymorphisms in melittin gene of honey bee populations, which is one of the potent AMP in bee venoms. We found that the novel SNP of melittin gene exists in these two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Nine polymorphisms were identified within the coding region of the melittin gene, of which one polymorphism that resulted in serine (Ser) to asparagine (Asp) substitution that can potentially effect on biological activities of melittin peptide. Serine-substituted melittin (Mel-S) showed more cytotoxic effect than asparagine-substituted melittin (Mel-N) against E. coli. Also, Mel-N and Mel-S had different inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory factors such as IL-6 and TNF-α in BV-2 cells. Moreover, Mel-S showed stronger cytotoxic activities than Mel-N peptide against two human ovarian cancer cell lines. Using carbon nanotube-based transistor, we here characterized that Mel-S interacted with small unilamellar liposomes more strongly than Mel-N. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that there exist different characteristics of the gene frequency and the biological activities of the melittin peptide in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and A. cerana. PMID:24512991

  5. Naturally Occurring Variation in the Glutathione-S-Transferase 4 Gene Determines Neurodegeneration After Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ström, Mikael; Lindblom, Rickard; Aeinehband, Shahin; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Lidman, Olle; Piehl, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Genetic factors are important for outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI), although exact knowledge of relevant genes/pathways is still lacking. We here used an unbiased approach to define differentially activated pathways between the inbred DA and PVG rat strains. The results prompted us to study further if a naturally occurring genetic variation in glutathione-S-transferase alpha 4 (Gsta4) affects the outcome after TBI. Results: Survival of neurons after experimental TBI is increased in PVG compared to the DA strain. Global expression profiling analysis shows the glutathione metabolism pathway to be the most regulated between the strains, with increased Gsta4 in PVG among top regulated transcripts. A congenic strain (R5) with a PVG genomic insert containing the Gsta4 gene on DA background displays a reversal of the strain pattern for Gsta4 expression and increased survival of neurons compared to DA. Gsta4 is known to effectively reduce 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a noxious by-product of lipid peroxidation. Immunostaining of 4-HNE was evident in both rat and human TBI. Intracerebral injection of 4-HNE resulted in neurodegeneration with increased levels of a marker for nerve injury in cerebrospinal fluid of DA compared to R5. Innovation: These findings provide strong support for the notion that the inherent capability of coping with increased 4-HNE after TBI affects outcome in terms of nerve cell loss. Conclusion: A naturally occurring variation in Gsta4 expression in rats affects neurodegeneration after TBI. Further studies are needed to explore if genetic variability in Gsta4 can be associated to outcome also in human TBI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 784–794. PMID:22881716

  6. Isotopic Composition of Natural Nitrate in Groundwater in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrystal, A. E.; Heikoop, J. M.; Longmire, P.; Dale, M.; Larson, T. E.; Perkins, G.; Fabyrka-Martin, J.; Simmons, A. M.; Fessenden-Rahn, J.

    2009-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established background concentrations for various dissolved constituents in local groundwater from perched-intermediate and regional aquifers in the vicinity of Los Alamos in north-central New Mexico. Typical background concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) are on the order of 0.31 mg/L as N (0.02 mM/L). In addition to natural sources, anthropogenic sources of NO3- in local groundwaters include industrial and treated sewage discharges released from LANL facilities, and treated sewage effluent discharges from Los Alamos County. We are using stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in NO3- to distinguish among these sources, define groundwater flow paths, and evaluate groundwater mixing. Following the approach of McMahon and Böhlke (2006), we have explored the δ18O[NO3-] of water samples taken from background wells and springs in the Los Alamos area. NO3- from a spring and a well located in the Valles caldera, upgradient and upwind (relative to prevailing winds) of Los Alamos has δ15N and δ18O values of approximately 4.8 ‰ and -2.6 ‰, respectively. Tritium and unadjusted radiocarbon analyses indicate that these caldera waters predate LANL operations commencing in 1943. NO3- from groundwater locations in Los Alamos that exhibit background conditions has isotopic values similar to those of the caldera groundwater. Because local groundwater is relatively oxidizing, denitrification is not expected to be a factor in altering isotopic compositions of NO3-. Results indicate that there is little direct atmospheric contribution to dissolved NO3-, and that most NO3- is derived from bacterial nitrification in which one oxygen atom comes from atmospheric oxygen and two oxygen atoms come from soil porewater. Oxygen isotope values plot slightly below the expected isotopic trend for a 1:2 mix of these two sources, indicating either slight fractionation of oxygen isotopes during nitrification, or potential mixing with geological sources of

  7. Variation in oxygen isotope ratio of dissolved orthophosphate induced by uptake process in natural coral holobionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrera, Charissa M.; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Atsushi; Umezawa, Yu; Morimoto, Naoko; San Diego-McGlone, Maria Lourdes; Nadaoka, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    A model incubation experiment using natural zooxanthellate corals was conducted to evaluate the influence of phosphate uptake by coral holobionts on oxygen isotope ratio of dissolved PO4 3- (δ18Op). Live coral samples of Acropora digitifera, Porites cylindrica, and Heliopora coerulea were collected from coral reefs around Ishigaki Island (Okinawa, Japan) and Bolinao (northern Luzon, Philippines) and incubated for 3-5 d after acclimatization under natural light conditions with elevated concentrations of PO4 3-. Phosphate uptake by corals behaved linearly with incubation time, with uptake rate depending on temperature. δ18Op usually increased with time toward the equilibrium value with respect to oxygen isotope exchange with ambient seawater, but sometimes became higher than equilibrium value at the end of incubation. The magnitude of the isotope effect associated with uptake depended on coral species; the greatest effect was in A. digitifera and the smallest in H. coerulea. However, it varied even within samples of a single coral species, which suggests multiple uptake processes with different isotope effects operating simultaneously with varying relative contributions in the coral holobionts used. In natural environments where concentrations of PO4 3- are much lower than those used during incubation, PO4 3- is presumably turned over much faster and the δ18Op easily altered by corals and other major primary producers. This should be taken into consideration when using δ18Op as an indicator of external PO4 3- sources in coastal ecosystems.

  8. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. Participants’ appraisals of the negative impact of LEs reported at age 15 were statistically adjusted using investigator-based ratings to control for objective differences across LEs. Higher appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were associated with both past and current depressive and anxiety disorders at age 15 and predicted subsequent first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders occurring between ages 15 and 20. In addition, appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were particularly elevated among those experiencing both a depressive and anxiety disorder over the course of the study. The findings suggest that systematically elevated appraisals of the negative impact of LEs is a predisposing factor for depression and anxiety disorders and may represent a specific risk factor for co-morbid depression and anxiety in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Keywords: depression; anxiety; stress appraisals; prospective study; PMID:21845380

  9. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions. PMID:26470235

  10. Characterization of Contaminant Transport using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria - Final Report - 05/01/1997 - 04/30/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, Michael T.; Ku, Teh-Lung

    2001-04-30

    The interactions of mixed wastes containing radionuclides with solid rock surface and the mobility of the radionuclides in aquifer systems depend not only on the chemistry of the nuclides and the physico-chemical effects of radioactive decay, but also on the site-specific hydrogeology. Thus, to characterize contaminant transport, it is best to cross-check figures derived from any small-scale laboratory experiments over limited times with that obtained from field-oriented, natural analog studies. We propose such a study using the naturally-occurring U and Th decay-series disequilibria. The work of ours and other researchers have shown that the parent/daughter disequilibrium patterns existing in groundwater systems can be modeled in terms of local nuclide mass balance to arrive at such information as the rock-water contact time (fluid flow) and rates of contaminant transport, taking into account the retardation effect due to nuclide/rock interaction contaminants at INEL by grouping them into three categories, represented by isotopes of (1) Th and Pa, (2) U and (3) Ra. Mass spectrometric measurements of these elements will be emphasized in order to minimize sample size requirements and to maximize precision. Results will form the data base for a model code for computing: (1) Fluid residence time (transport rates) in the basalt aquifers at various locations, (2) The in-situ adsorption and desorption rate constants, as well as the retardation factors, of various radionuclide wastes, and (3) Rock dissolution rate and its relation to preferential flow and contamination transport in the fractured rock.

  11. Ecological Physiology of Synechococcus sp. Strain SH-94-5, a Naturally Occurring Cyanobacterium Deficient in Nitrate Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott R.; Castenholz, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world. PMID:11425713

  12. Diagnosis of a naturally occurring dual infection of layer chickens with fowlpox virus and gallid herpesvirus 1 (infectious laryngotracheitis virus).

    PubMed

    Diallo, Ibrahim S; Taylor, Jim; Gibson, John; Hoad, John; De Jong, Amanda; Hewitson, Glen; Corney, Bruce G; Rodwell, Barry J

    2010-02-01

    An outbreak of acute respiratory disease in layers was diagnosed as being of dual nature due to fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis using a multidisciplinary approach including virus isolation, histopathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The diagnosis was based on virus isolation of gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1) in chicken kidney cells and fowlpox virus (FWPV) in 9-day-old chicken embryonated eggs inoculated via the chorioallantoic membrane. The histopathology of tracheas from dead birds revealed intra-cytoplasmic and intra-nuclear inclusions suggestive of poxvirus and herpesvirus involvement. The presence of FWPV was further confirmed by electron microscopy, PCR and histology. All FWPV isolates contained the long terminal repeats of reticuloendotheliosis virus as demonstrated by PCR. GaHV-1 isolates were detected by PCR and were shown to have a different restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern when compared with the chicken embryo origin SA2 vaccine strain; however, they shared the same pattern with the Intervet chicken embryo origin vaccine strain. This is a first report of dual infection of chickens with GaHV-1 and naturally occurring FWPV with reticuloendotheliosis virus insertions. Further characterization of the viruses was carried out and the results are reported here. PMID:20390533

  13. Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2011-10-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by {gamma}- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. {chi}{sup 2} test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

  14. Ecological physiology of Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5, a naturally occurring cyanobacterium deficient in nitrate assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world.

  15. Characteristics of helium isotopes in natural gas and its tectonic implication in Bohai Bay Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Weiwei; Dai, Jinxin; Yang, Shufeng; Chen, Hanlin

    2006-09-01

    Analysis on helium isotopes in natural gas in Bohai Bay Basin showed their mantle-origin indicated by high3He/4He ratio. The span of3He/4He ratio increased from west to east. This pattern implied a close relationship to the local tectonic setting. Bohai Bay Basin experienced intensive neo-tectonic activities in the Cenozoic. Widespread faulted-depressions and strong volcanic eruptions manifested its extensional tectonics. Abiogenic natural gas could be released from magmas and migrate upward through deep faults during the extension. Tectonic conditions in the area would favor upward invasion and reservation of mantle-originated helium. Furthermore, with decrease of convergence rate between the Pacific and the Eurasia Plate, the subduction slab of the Pacific Plate rolled back and became steeper, resulting in mantle flow and other tectonic activities migrating from west to east in nature, and caused the variation in isotopic helium ratios.

  16. Novel and nontraditional use of stable isotope tracers to study metal bioavailability from natural particles.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Cain, Daniel J; Fuller, Christopher C

    2013-04-01

    We devised a novel tracing approach that involves enriching test organisms with a stable metal isotope of low natural abundance prior to characterizing metal bioavailability from natural inorganic particles. In addition to circumventing uncertainties associated with labeling natural particles and distinguishing background metals, the proposed "reverse labeling" technique overcomes many drawbacks inherent to using radioisotope tracers. Specifically, we chronically exposed freshwater snails ( Lymnaea stagnalis ) to synthetic water spiked with Cu that was 99.4% (65)Cu to increase the relative abundance of (65)Cu in the snail's tissues from ~32% to >80%. The isotopically enriched snails were then exposed to benthic algae mixed with Cu-bearing Fe-Al particles collected from the Animas River (Colorado), an acid mine drainage impacted river. We used (63)Cu to trace Cu uptake from the natural particles and inferred their bioavailability from calculation of Cu assimilation into tissues. Cu assimilation from these particles was 44%, indicating that 44% of the particulate Cu was absorbed by the invertebrate. This demonstrates that inorganic particulate Cu can be bioavailable. The reverse labeling approach shows great potential in various scientific areas such as environmental contamination and nutrition for addressing questions involving uptake of an element that naturally has multiple isotopes. PMID:23458345

  17. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices. PMID:21892762

  18. A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally-occurring canine leishmaniosis, part I: vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Carbonell-Antoñanzas, M; Aiassa, E; Dhollander, S; Zagmutt, F J; Brodbelt, D C; Solano-Gallego, L

    2014-11-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic disease; however, the efficacy of available vaccines for the prevention of naturally-occurring Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs remains unclear. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of currently available vaccines to prevent naturally-occurring L. infantum infection in dogs. Four bibliographic databases (CAB Direct 2011, Web of Science 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine 2011 and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) were searched along with eight sets of conference proceedings and the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) database, from 1980 to November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised clinical trials (NRCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated vaccine efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search was conducted for all mitigations for CanL and yielded the title and abstract of 937 articles, from which 84 articles were screened based on full text. Twelve studies on vaccinations (five RCTs, seven NRCTs) were identified. Ten studies were at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, whilst two were at an unclear risk. The use of 200 μg ALM protein, Leishmune(®), CaniLeish(®), LiESAp with MDP, and ALM with BCG tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. The use of lyophilized protein vaccine significantly

  19. Locally Grown, Natural Ingredients? The Isotope Ratio Can Reveal a Lot!

    PubMed

    Rossier, Joël S; Maury, Valérie; Pfammatter, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    This communication gives an overview of selected isotope analyses applied to food authenticity assessment. Different isotope ratio detection technologies such as isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) are briefly described. It will be explained how δ(18)O of water contained in fruits and vegetables can be used to assess their country of production. It will be explained why asparagus grown in Valais, in the centre of the Alps carries much less heavy water than asparagus grown closer to the sea coast. On the other hand, the use of δ(13)C can reveal whether a product is natural or adulterated. Applications including honey or sparkling wine adulteration detection will be briefly presented. PMID:27198812

  20. Spinel-olivine-pyroxene equilibrium iron isotopic fractionation and applications to natural peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Sio, Corliss K. I.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Bi, Wenli; Tissot, François L. H.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, Esen E.

    2015-11-01

    Eight spinel-group minerals were synthesized by a flux-growth method producing spinels with varying composition and Fe3+/Fetot ratios. The mean force constants of iron bonds in these minerals were determined by synchrotron nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS) in order to determine the reduced isotopic partition function ratios (β-factors) of these spinels. The mean force constants are strongly dependent on the Fe3+/Fetot of the spinel but are independent, or weakly dependent on other structural and compositional parameters. From our spectroscopic data, it is found that a single redox-dependent calibration line accounts for the effects of Fe3+/Fetot on the β-factors of spinels. This calibration successfully describes the equilibrium Fe isotopes fractionation factors between spinels and silicates (olivine and pyroxenes). Our predictions are in excellent agreement with independent determinations for the equilibrium Fe isotopic fractionations for the magnetite-fayalite and the magnetite-hedenbergite couples. Our calibration applies to the entire range of Fe3+/Fetot ratios found in natural spinels and provides a basis for interpreting iron isotopic variations documented in mantle peridotites. Except for a few exceptions, most of the samples measured so far are in isotopic disequilibrium, reflecting metasomatism and partial melting processes.

  1. Spinel-olivine-pryoxene equilibrium iron isotopic fractionation and applications to natural peridotites

    SciTech Connect

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Sio, Corliss K. I.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Bi, Wenli; Tissot, Francois L. H.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, Esen E.

    2015-11-15

    Eight spinel-group minerals were synthesized by a flux-growth method producing spinels with varying composition and Fe3+/Fe-tot ratios. The mean force constants of iron bonds in these minerals were determined by synchrotron nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS) in order to determine the reduced isotopic partition function ratios (beta-factors) of these spinels. The mean force constants are strongly dependent on the Fe3+/Fe-tot of the spinel but are independent, or weakly dependent on other structural and compositional parameters. From our spectroscopic data, it is found that a single redox-dependent calibration line accounts for the effects of Fe3+/Fe-tot on the beta-factors of spinels. This calibration successfully describes the equilibrium Fe isotopes fractionation factors between spinels and silicates (olivine and pyroxenes). Our predictions are in excellent agreement with independent determinations for the equilibrium Fe isotopic fractionations for the magnetite- fayalite and the magnetite-hedenbergite couples. Our calibration applies to the entire range of Fe3+/Fe-tot ratios found in natural spinels and provides a basis for interpreting iron isotopic variations documented in mantle peridotites. Except for a few exceptions, most of the samples measured so far are in isotopic disequilibrium, reflecting metasomatism and partial melting processes.

  2. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  3. What do N isotopes tell us about the biogeochemistry of natural gradients? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menge, D.

    2013-12-01

    The two stable isotopes of nitrogen (N) hold great promise for biogeochemistry. Many processes prefer the lighter (14N) over the heavier (15N) isotope (they 'fractionate'), so the ratios of the two isotopes often differ within and across ecosystems. Our instruments are sufficiently awesome that we can observe these slight variations with great accuracy and precision, and these observations have revealed striking patterns along a number of natural environmental gradients. Because N isotopes integrate processes across time and space, there has been much hope that N isotopic patterns can unlock a mechanistic understanding of N dynamics, particularly at scales that are beyond the reach of experimentation. Is this a realistic hope? Certain patterns have clear, theory-based mechanistic implications. For example, the equilibrium (synonymous here with 'steady-state') isotopic signature of bulk soil N relative to net ecosystem N inputs indicates the degree of isotopic fractionation during ecosystem N losses. However, the nitrogen cycle is sufficiently complex that a given pattern could be produced from a variety of mechanisms, and in such cases it would be easy to infer a mechanism incorrectly. To expand our ability to make mechanistic inferences from N isotopic patterns, I extended a mathematical model of ecosystem N biogeochemistry to include explicit representations of the two N isotopes, constrained the theory with fractionation data, and analyzed the model using analytical approximations and numerical simulations. In this talk I will confine discussion to the submodel that studies ammonium and nitrate. The first three results I will discuss concern transient (non-equilibrium) dynamics, and serve as cautions for equilibrium-based interpretations. First, the time it takes to approach equilibrium is longer for N isotopic ratios than for the corresponding N pools, often by many fold, so isotopic ratios might be far from equilibrium even if pools are close. Second, the

  4. The carbon isotopic composition of catalytic gas: A comparative analysis with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D.; Elrod, L.W.

    1999-04-01

    Tee idea that natural gas is the thermal product of organic decomposition has persisted for over half a century. Crude oil is thought to be an important source of gas, cracking to wet gas above 150 C, and dry gas above 200 C. But there is little evidence to support this view. For example, crude oil is proving to be more stable than previously thought and projected to remain intact over geologic time at typical reservoir temperature. Moreover, when oil does crack, the products do not resemble natural gas. Oil to gas could be catalytic, however, promoted by the transition metals in ca