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1

Naturally occurring radioactive materials and medical isotopes at border crossings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) that triggers alarms at border crossings. This paper discusses experience with radiation portal monitors for the interdiction of radioactive materials and the issues raised by NORM. The

R. T. Kouzes; J. H. Ely; B. D. Geelhood; R. R. Hansen; E. A. Lepel; J. E. Schweppe; L. Siciliano; R. A. Warner

2003-01-01

2

The Role of Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry, Part I: The Theory  

PubMed Central

In this tutorial, the authors explain how naturally occurring stable isotopes are contributing to experimentally determined mass spectra and how this information can be exploited in quantitative experiments, structural elucidation studies and tracer methodologies. The first instalment of this two part series focuses on the theoretical aspects of stable isotopes and the calculation of their distribution patterns.

Bluck, Les; Volmer, Dietrich A.

2013-01-01

3

Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Rodushkin, I. [Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Luleaa (Sweden); Halicz, L.; Segal, I. [Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhei Israel St., Jerusalem 95501 (Israel); Pape, A. [IPHC-UMR7178, IN2P3-CNRS/ULP, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France); Gentry, R. V. [Earth Science Associates, P.O. Box 12067, Knoxville, Tennessee 37912-0067 (United States); Miller, H. W. [P. O. Box 1092, Boulder, Colorado 80306-1092 (United States); Kolb, D. [Department of Physics, University GH Kassel, D-34109 Kassel (Germany); Brandt, R. [Kernchemie, Philipps University, D-35041 Marburg (Germany)

2007-08-15

4

Evaluated nuclear data files for the naturally-occurring isotopes of cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive neutronic evaluated data files for the naturally-occurring isotopes of cadmium are deduced from experimental data and nuclear models, and presented in the ENDF/B-VI formats. Particular attention is given to those processes relevant to fuel-cycle and fission-product applications. Comparisons are made with prior evaluations of the cadmium isotopes, and discrepancies and consistencies cited. Some of the discrepancies are very large 9.9 as much as 100%), and the differences have the potential for a pronounced impact on applications usage. The present files are comprehensive, including may important processes that are not represented in the contemporary ENDF/B-VI system. Recommendations are made for future measurements where appropriate.

McCabe, J. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engineering; Smith, A.B. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engineering]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Meadows, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-06-01

5

APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

6

Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic weight uncertainties. This compilation indicates the extent to which the atomic weight of an element in a given material may differ from the standard atomic weight of the element. For most elements given above, data are graphically illustrated by a diagram in which the materials are specified in the ordinate and the compositional ranges are plotted along the abscissa in scales of (1) atomic weight, (2) mole fraction of a selected isotope, and (3) delta value of a selected isotope ratio. There are no internationally distributed isotopic reference materials for the elements zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium. Preparation of such materials will help to make isotope ratio measurements among laboratories comparable. The minimum and maximum concentrations of a selected isotope in naturally occurring terrestrial materials for selected chemical elements reviewed in this report are given below: Isotope Minimum mole fraction Maximum mole fraction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2H 0 .000 0255 0 .000 1838 7Li 0 .9227 0 .9278 11B 0 .7961 0 .8107 13C 0 .009 629 0 .011 466 15N 0 .003 462 0 .004 210 18O 0 .001 875 0 .002 218 26Mg 0 .1099 0 .1103 30Si 0 .030 816 0 .031 023 34S 0 .0398 0 .0473 37Cl 0 .240 77 0 .243 56 44Ca 0 .020 82 0 .020 92 53Cr 0 .095 01 0 .095 53 56Fe 0 .917 42 0 .917 60 65Cu 0 .3066 0 .3102 205Tl 0 .704 72 0 .705 06 The numerical values above have uncertainties that depend upon the uncertainties of the determinations of the absolute isotope-abundance variations of reference materials of the elements. Because reference materials used for absolute isotope-abundance measurements have not been included in relative isotope abundance investigations of zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium, ranges in isotopic composition are not listed for these elements, although such ranges may be measurable with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry. This report is available at the url: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014222.

Coplen, T. B.; Hopple, J. A.; Bohlke, J. K.; Peiser, H. S.; Rieder, S. E.; Krouse, H. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Revesz, K. M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.

2002-01-01

7

Radiometric method for determining concentration of naturally occurring isotopes and device therefor  

SciTech Connect

The proposed method essentially consists in that a sample of a substance is placed between two scintillators in immediate contact therewith whereupon said sample is hermetically sealed. Arranged in close proximity to each scintillator is a photomultiplier tube recording ionizing ..cap alpha..- and b-radiation. A selector is utilized to select pulses corresponding to ..cap alpha..- and b-particles, and delayed coincidence circuits of a recording element separate and record b-..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. cascade pairs of delayed coincidences of RaC, ThC, and AcA radionuclides. Flows are measured twice at a predetermined time interval to account for emanation build-up tendency and concentration of isotopes of radium is determined from a formula.

Yakubovich, S.L.; Gerling, V.E.; Golubnichy, V.V.; Kotsen, M.E.; Stepanov, J.N.

1984-10-09

8

New insight into biomarkers of human mercury exposure using naturally occurring mercury stable isotopes.  

PubMed

Human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and elemental mercury vapor (Hg(0)(g)) are often estimated using total Hg concentrations in hair and urine, respectively. We investigated whether Hg stable isotopes could be used to better distinguish between exposure to Hg(0)(g) versus MeHg. We found that hair from North American dental professionals was characterized by high positive ?(199)Hg values (mean = 1.86‰, 1 SD = 0.12‰, n = 11). This confirms that among people who regularly consume fish, total Hg concentrations in hair reflect exposure to MeHg. In contrast, we found that urine from the same individuals was characterized by a range of ?(199)Hg values (0.29 to 1.77‰, 2 SD = 0.06‰, n = 12) that were significantly correlated to the number of dental amalgams in each individual's mouth. We hypothesize that fish-derived MeHg is demethylated within the body, causing mass-dependent fractionation and the excretion of inorganic Hg in urine. Mercury in urine therefore represents a mixture of demethylated fish-derived MeHg and amalgam-derived inorganic Hg. We estimate that the majority (>70%) of Hg in urine from individuals with <10 dental amalgams is derived from ingestion of MeHg in fish. These data suggest that within populations that consume fish, urine total Hg concentrations may overestimate Hg exposure from personal dental amalgams. PMID:23463943

Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

2013-04-01

9

Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual ?15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual ?13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 ?13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather ?13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather ?13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

2010-12-01

10

Comment on 'Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes'  

SciTech Connect

In their article ''Existence of Long-Lived Isomeric States in Naturally-Occuring Neutron-Deficient Th Isotopes''[Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303 (2007)], Marinov et al. fail to demonstrate that basic mass spectrometric protocols, such as abundance sensitivity, linearity, and freedom from possible interferences, have been met. In particular, the claim that four isomeric states of Th have been discovered, using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS), with abundances from (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th, cannot be accepted, given the known abundance sensitivities of other sector field mass spectrometers. Accelerator mass spectrometry is the only mass spectrometric methodology capable of measuring relative abundances of the magnitude claimed by Marinov et al.

Barber, R. C.; De Laeter, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

2009-04-15

11

"Naturally occurring asbestos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos is commonly located within fractures, shear-bands or shear-planes, developed during late retrograde metamorphic history, 3. Tremolite-actinolite-type asbestos is abundant both in ultramafic and mafic rocks, 4. Natural asbestos occur in few places within the external zones of the Alps, especially within hercynian ophiolitic massifs or concentrated in late Alpine fractures affecting leptyno-amphibolic lithologies.

Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

2012-04-01

12

Naturally occurring triterpenoid saponins.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring new triterpenoid saponins reported from mid-1996 to March, 2007 are reviewed including their physical constants and plant sources, and are compiled in Table 1. New saponins are arranged in Table 1 on the basis of the skeletal structures of their aglycones, e.g., oleanane type, ursane type, lupane type, hopane type, taraxastane type, cycloartane type, lanostane type, tirucallane type, dammarane type, cucurbitane type, and holostane type. The known triterpenoid saponins and prosapogenins of the new saponins, the biological and pharmacological activities of which were published during 1996-2007, are also reviewed together with their plant sources listed in Table 2 according to the skeletal structures of their aglycones in the same fashion as in Table 1. The plant and animal sources of both new and known bioactive triterpenoid saponins are collected in Table 3 in alphabetical order. The biological and pharmacological activities such as antiallergic, antiatherosclerosis and antiplatelet, antibacterial, anticomplementary, antidiabetic, contraceptive, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antileishmanial, antimalarial/antiplasmodial, anti-obesity, anti-proliferative, antipsoriatic, antispasmodic, antisweet, antiviral, cytotoxic/antitumor, detoxication, gastroprotective, haemolytic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-enzyme, anti-osteoporotic, insecticidal, insulin-like, membrane-porosity, molluscicidal, neuropharmacological, anti-endothelial dysfunction, snake venom antidote, and sweet activities of these saponins or derived prosapogenins are discussed briefly after Table 3. PMID:20963775

Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Mohanta, Bikas Chandra; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

2010-10-01

13

Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO(4)(-) appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO(4)(-) indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO(4)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(37)Cl) and associated NO(3)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(15)N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO(3)(-)-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO(4)(-) in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO(4)(-) from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO(4)(-). ClO(4)(-) in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Delta(17)O values (+8.6 to +18.4 per thousand), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O(3)). However, the Death Valley delta(37)Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 per thousand) and delta(18)O values (+2.9 to +26.1 per thousand) are higher than those of Atacama ClO(4)(-). In contrast, ClO(4)(-) from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Delta(17)O (+0.3 to +1.3 per thousand), with relatively high delta(37)Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 per thousand) and delta(18)O (+0.5 to +4.8 per thousand), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O(3) as a reactant or that the ClO(4)(-) was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Delta(17)O values in ClO(4)(-) (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Delta(17)O values in NO(3)(-), indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O(3)-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low Delta(17)O values in less arid settings. Although Delta(17)O variations in terrestrial NO(3)(-) can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric (high Delta(17)O) and biogenic (low Delta(17)O) NO(3)(-), variations in Delta(17)O of terrestrial ClO(4)(-) are not readily explained in the same way. This study provides important new constraints for identifying natural sources of ClO(4)(-) in different environments by multicomponent isotopic characteristics, while presenting the possibilities of divergent ClO(4)(-) formation mechanisms and(or) ClO(4)(-) isotopic exchange in biologically active environments. PMID:20521813

Jackson, W Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B; Sturchio, Neil C

2010-07-01

14

Naturally Occurring Polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAY I add to the recent note1 on the isolation of a natural elastic polyester2? The natural occurrence of polyesters was observed as early as 1908 by Boug-ault and Bourdier3, who showed that the waxes obtained by extraction of the leaves of a variety of conifers are linear polyesters of hydroxy-acids such as juniperic acid (omega-hydroxypalmitic acid) and sabinic acid

F. S. Spring

1945-01-01

15

Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.  

PubMed

Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning. PMID:3086679

Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

1986-05-12

16

Diversity of Naturally Occurring Prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the patterns of naturally occurring microbial diversity, how these patterns vary in space and time, and how\\u000a they relate to ecosystem structure and function, remains a significant challenge for microbiologists. A variety of levels\\u000a of microbial diversity are important and relevant from the perspective of microbial ecology, including trophic, physiological\\u000a or functional diversity, intraspecific genetic diversity, or phylogenetic diversity

E. F. Long

17

Naturally occurring anhydrovitamin A2  

PubMed Central

1. `Naturally occurring anhydrovitamin A2' obtained from the liver oil of freshwater fish Bagarius bagarius yielded, after six-stage chromatography, a pure product showing characteristic bands at 350, 368 (E1%1cm. 1006) and 390m? in ethanol, and producing a green colour with antimony trichloride (E1%1cm. 1884 at 693m?). 2. On distribution of the material between light petroleum and 95% methanol, 70% of it is found in methanol, which points to its hydroxylic character. 3. It gives an acetyl derivative, from which the original hydroxy compound can be regenerated on hydrolysis. 4. The infrared spectrum shows, besides other bands, one at 3460cm.?1 attributable to a hydroxy group. 5. On passing a light-petroleum solution of naturally occurring anhydrovitamin A2 through manganese dioxide a 6% conversion into retinene2 is observed. 6. A 3-hydroxyanhydroretinol structure is proposed for naturally occurring anhydrovitamin A2 and a mechanism of its transformation into retinene2 on this basis is suggested.

Barua, R. K.; Nayar, P. G.

1966-01-01

18

Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.  

PubMed

As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery. PMID:24329991

Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

2014-01-01

19

INACTIVATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ENTEROVIRUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this project was to compare the kinetics of chlorine inactivation of a naturally-shed virus and its tissue culture grown counterpart. Since inactivation studies require purified preparation possessing high infectivity titer and low chlorine demand a major part of this...

20

Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming f...

P. Egidi

1997-01-01

21

Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels

Egidi

1997-01-01

22

Naturally-Occurring Autoantibodies to Cholesterol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present study, we have now found that most of the human sera that we have tested contain naturally occuring IgG and IgM autoantibodies that react with crystalline cholesterol. A few sera also contain IgA or IgE antibodies to cholesterol. The antibo...

C. R. Alving G. M. Swartz N. M. Wassef

1989-01-01

23

Forensic Identification of Anthropogenic and Naturally Occurring Sources of Perchlorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate (ClO4 ) is an emerging contaminant whose presence and origin is of considerable environmental interest. This article discusses known sources of perchlorate and available forensic techniques to distinguish between naturally occurring and anthropogenic origins. Forensic techniques presented include stable isotopic analysis (Cl\\/Cl, Sr\\/Sr, O\\/O), surrogates analysis (nitrates, sodium, chlorides, phosphate, nitroglycerins, metals, strontium), historical information assessment (aerial photography, propellant

P. Brent Duncan; Robert D. Morrison; Emily Vavricka

2005-01-01

24

Naturally occurring antibodies devoid of light chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

RANDOM association of VL and VH repertoires contributes considerably to antibody diversity1. The diversity and the affinity are then increased by hypermutation in B cells located in germinal centres2. Except in the case of 'heavy chain' disease3, naturally occurring heavy-chain antibodies have not been described, although antigen binding has been demonstrated for separated heavy chains4 or cloned VH domains5. Here

C. Hamers-Casterman; T. Atarhouch; S. Muyldermans; G. Robinson; C. Hammers; E. Bajyana Songa; N. Bendahman; R. Hammers

1993-01-01

25

Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-10-01

26

Leaching of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials.  

PubMed

A form of waste associated with mining activities is related to the type of deposit being mined and to the procedure of exploitation and enrichment adopted. The wastes usually contain relatively large amounts of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). The TENORM are often stored on the surface. Consequently, they can be leached as a result of interaction with aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. This further leads to pollution of water and soil in the vicinity of the stored wastes. The paper presents the results of laboratory investigation aimed at quantifying the leaching process of samples originating from uranium dumps and storage reservoirs associated with brine pumped from coal mines. The leaching process was investigated with respect to selected elements: uranium isotopes, radium isotopes, iron, barium and sodium. The samples were exposed to aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. The experiments revealed that TENORM in form of sulphate compounds are the most resistant against leaching. The leaching coefficient for radium isotopes varies from a few thousandth percent to a few hundredth percent. On the other hand, for TENORM occurring in sand or sludge, the leaching coefficient for uranium and radium isotopes ranged from a few hundredth percent to a few percent. PMID:17482828

Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Chru?ciel, Edward

2007-08-01

27

Naturally occurring, physiologically normal, primate chimeras  

PubMed Central

Callitrichids, South American primates including marmosets and tamarins, have evolved a unique physiology. Twins share a placenta during gestation and exchange stem cells, resulting in naturally occurring chimeric adults. Our study used a quantitative PCR-based assay to address whether this chimerism was restricted to blood and other cells of the hematopoietic lineage or whether it extended to other somatic tissues. These studies help to characterize species that have adapted evolutionarily to pervasive chimerism, with every individual healthy and unperturbed. This experiment of evolution offers insight into transplantation and histocompatibility, reproductive biology and behavior, and innate and adaptive immunity.

Sweeney, Carolyn; Ward, Joshua; Vallender, Eric J.

2012-01-01

28

Persulfate activation by naturally occurring trace minerals.  

PubMed

The potential for 13 naturally occurring minerals to mediate the decomposition of persulfate and generate a range of reactive oxygen species was investigated to provide fundamental information on activation mechanisms when persulfate is used for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). Only four of the minerals (cobaltite, ilmenite, pyrite, and siderite) promoted the decomposition of persulfate more rapidly than persulfate-deionized water control systems. The other nine minerals decomposed persulfate at the same rate or more slowly than the control systems. Mineral-mediated persulfate activation was conducted with the addition of one of three probe compounds to detect the generation of reactive oxygen species: anisole (sulfate+hydroxyl radical), nitrobenzene (hydroxyl radical), and hexachloroethane (reductants and nucleophiles). The reduced mineral pyrite promoted rapid generation of sulfate+hydroxyl radical. However, the remainder of the minerals provided minimal potential for the generation of reactive oxygen species. The results of this research demonstrate that the majority of naturally occurring trace minerals do not activate persulfate to generate reactive oxygen species, and other mechanisms of activation are necessary to promote contaminant destruction in the subsurface during persulfate ISCO. PMID:21968122

Teel, Amy L; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Watts, Richard J

2011-11-30

29

Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-01-01

30

Naturally Occurring Pathogens and Invasive Arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of introduced pest arthropods has been attributed, in part, to the pest arthropods’ separation from natural\\u000a control agents in their native ranges. Here we focus on the role of endemic pathogens in establishment and population regulation\\u000a of exotic pest and beneficial arthropods and explore factors affecting their regulation by endemic pathogens. We do not attempt\\u000a an exhaustive list of

Ted E. Cottrell; David I. Shapiro-Ilan

31

Naturally occurring gold nanoparticles and nanoplates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the weathering of gold deposits, exceptionally pure,<200 nm diameter, nanoparticulate gold plates (6 nm thick)are formed. The particles display controlled growth of bothsize and shape and signs of assembly to form belts and sheets.The gold is associated and inter-grown with minerals formedby evaporation and is interpreted to have been deposited rapidlyfrom saline groundwater during a drying event. The size andmorphology of the gold nanoparticles and nanoplates are identicalto the products of experimentally manufactured gold colloids.This represents the first direct observation of colloidal nanoparticulategold in nature, confirming this as an active mechanism of goldtransport during the weathering of gold deposits.

Hough, R. M.; Noble, R. R. P.; Hitchen, G. J.; Hart, R.; Reddy, S. M.; Saunders, M.; Clode, P.; Vaughan, D.; Lowe, J.; Gray, D. J.; Anand, R. R.; Butt, C. R. M.; Verrall, M.

2008-07-01

32

Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer  

PubMed Central

Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer.

Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

2011-01-01

33

Naturally occurring inhibitors of intracellular proteinases.  

PubMed

The papain inhibitor isolated from chicken egg white inhibits the enzymatic activity of cathepsin B1 and cathepsin C. The inhibitor bears two nonoverlapping reactive sites: one binds cathepsin B1, papain, ficin, and bromelain, the other one cathepsin C. The inhibitor decreases the degree of an immunologic hypersensitive reaction, the so-called Arthus reaction. A statistically significant inhibition of this immunologically developed inflammation occurs only if the inhibitor is applied intradermally and simultaneously with the provoking dose of the antigen to rabbits sensitized to the same antigen. The pepsin inhibitor from the body walls of the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides inhibits the proteolytic activity of cathepsin E. This inhibitor covalently bound to Sepharose 4B was used for affinity chromatography of cathepsin E. A cathepsin D inhibitor was isolated from potato tubers and its inhibitory and chemical characteristics were studied. The inhibitor does not inhibit either cathepsin E or pepsin yet inhibits trypsin in the alkaline pH-range. The molecular weight of the inhibitor is 21 790 and its molecule consists of 199 amino acid residues. The sequence of 17 amino acid residues was determined by Edman degradation of the inhibitor molecule. PMID:616734

Keilová, H; Tomásek, V

1977-01-01

34

Naturally occurring hydroxytyrosol: synthesis and anticancer potential.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that polyphenols, a group of secondary plant metabolites occurring mainly in the plant kingdom, may have a protective effect against some chronic degenerative diseases such as cancer. Polyphenols are part of the human diet, being present in vegetal food and beverages. Among them, an olive biophenol named hydroxytyrosol [2-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol, HTyr] has recently received particular attention because of its antioxidant, antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, which have the potential to specifically counteract all cancer hallmarks, thus representing the expectant biological activities underlying the anti-tumor properties of this polyphenol. After a description of the synthetic procedures to prepare pure HTyr, this review takes into consideration the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of HTyr as the result of its antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. In particular, the review is focused on the current knowledge of the main cellular and molecular mechanisms used by HTyr to affect carcinogenesis, highlighting the specific oncogenic and inflammatory signaling pathways potentially targeted by HTyr. PMID:23244583

Bernini, R; Merendino, N; Romani, A; Velotti, F

2013-01-01

35

Absolute configuration of naturally occurring glabridin.  

PubMed

The title compound {systematic name: 4-[(3R)-8,8-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-3-yl]benzene-1,3-diol, commonly named glabridin}, C20H20O4, is a species-specific biomarker from the roots Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (European licorice, Fabaceae). In the present study, this prenylated isoflavan has been purified from an enriched CHCl3 fraction of the extract of the root, using three steps of medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) by employing HW-40F, Sephadex LH-20 and LiChroCN as adsorbents. Pure glabridin was crystallized from an MeOH-H2O mixture (95:5?v/v) to yield colorless crystals containing one molecule per asymmetric unit (Z' = 1) in the space group P212121. Although the crystal structure has been reported before, the determination of the absolute configuration remained uncertain. Stereochemical analysis, including circular dichroism, NMR data and an X-ray diffraction data set with Bijvoet differences, confirms that glabridin, purified from its natural source, is found only in a C3 R configuration. These results can therefore be used as a reference for the assignment of the configuration and enantiopurity of any isolated or synthetic glabridin sample. PMID:24192160

Simmler, Charlotte; Fronczek, Frank R; Pauli, Guido F; Santarsiero, Bernard D

2013-11-01

36

Stable isotope deltas: tiny, yet robust signatures in nature.  

PubMed

Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including (14)C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. (13)C, (2)H, and (18)O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as-25 per mil can be written as-25 mUr (or-2.5 cUr or-0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg 'units' are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg can be written as+15 ?Ur. PMID:22462621

Brand, Willi A; Coplen, Tyler B

2012-09-01

37

Quantification of naturally occurring pyrrole acids in melanosomes.  

PubMed

Three naturally occurring pyrrole acids were found in Sepia, human black hair, and bovine choroid and iris melanosomes using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry--pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (PTeCA). PDCA and PTCA are common markers quantified from oxidative degradation of eumelanins. Using standards, the amounts of naturally occurring PDCA and PTCA were determined and compared to those obtained following peroxide oxidation of the same samples. Because the naturally occurring acids are water soluble, these results indicate that care must be exercised when comparing PDCA and PTCA yields from the degradation analyses of melanins isolated and prepared by different methods. This work also establishes that PTeCA is a naturally occurring pyrrole acid in melanosomes. PMID:18399924

Ward, Weslyn C; Lamb, Erin C; Gooden, David; Chen, Xin; Burinsky, David J; Simon, John D

2008-01-01

38

MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN NATURAL SAMPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium isotope ratios of 60 natural samples, including carbonate, evaporite, hydroxide, silicate, oxide, seawater, brine, meteorite, and biological samples, were measured by thermal emission mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis of the data reveals no evidence of variations among the natural samples or between any of the natural samples and a reference sample of magnesium metal. The 95% confidence limits for each

E. J. Catanzaro; T. J. Murphy

1966-01-01

39

Naturally Occurring Animal Models with Outer Retina Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring and laboratory generated animal models serve as powerful tools with which to investigate the etiology of human retinal degenerations, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), cone dystrophies (CD) and macular degeneration (MD). Much progress has been made in elucidating gene defects underlying disease, in understanding mechanisms leading to disease, and in designing molecules for translational research and gene-based therapy to interfere with the progression of disease. Key to this progress has been study of naturally occurring murine and canine retinal degeneration mutants. This article will review the history, phenotypes and gene defects of select animal models with outer retina (photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium) degeneration phenotypes.

Baehr, Wolfgang; Frederick, Jeanne M.

2009-01-01

40

Controlled fermentation of kimchi using naturally occurring antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented food. Since it ferments continuously during distribution and storage, the extension of shelf life by preventing over-acidification is a major concern in the kimchi industry. One of the most frequently attempted ways to delay fermentation is to add naturally occurring antimicrobial agents. Many researchers have investigated ways to delay over-acidification by adding minor ingredients, fruits or fruit seed extracts, extracts of medicinal herbs, culinary herbs and spices, and other miscellaneous substances to kimchi. The addition of naturally occurring antimicrobial agents may enhance the acceptability of kimchi to consumers over a longer period of time but may also have a disadvantage in that it may cause changes in sensory quality, especially if added in large amounts. To avoid undesirable sensory changes, application of hurdle technologies (i.e., multifactor preservative systems) which involve using combinations of low amounts of various naturally occurring antimicrobial agents as ingredients should be explored with the goal of controlling fermentation. If synergistic or additive antimicrobial effects can be achieved using small amounts of a combination of natural agents, changes in sensory qualities will be minimized, thereby prolonging shelf life. Research findings summarized in this review provide a basis for developing effective hurdle technologies using naturally occurring antimicrobial agents to extend shelf life of kimchi and perhaps other types of traditional fermented foods. PMID:22850370

Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2012-10-01

41

Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural decay series radionuclides, the resulting TENORM source term may contain several smaller decay chains, each headed by a different longer lived member of the original series. This paper presents the anatomy of common TENORM source terms and the pitfalls of measuring, interpreting and modeling these source terms. Modeling TENORM with common software such as RESRAD is discussed. In summary: RESRAD modeling (dose assessments) to derive single radionuclide, dose based acceptance criteria, requires a good understanding of the physical, chemical and biological factors/input parameters applicable to the selected exposure scenario(s). When NORM or TENORM source terms are modeled, an additional understanding of the status of equilibrium, is necessary to accurately perform a dose assessment in support of dose based acceptance criteria. Historical information about the site processes/ores, selection of appropriate analytical analyses to identify key decay series radionuclide and a comprehensive review of the characterization data are needed to understand the equilibrium status of the decay series present. Once the source term has been characterized (in regards to relative activities of the radionuclides within a decay series) the source term must be input into RESRAD to reflect that status of equilibrium at time zero, or at the time since placement, if the characterization data reflects the equilibrium status of dated material. When the RESRAD output file is reviewed, depending on the time of maximum dose, DCGL values may be artificially high in value. Sum of fraction calculations, based on the status of equilibrium of each decay series, can also be used to assess the RESRAD results and develop an appropriate MARSSIM final status survey protocol. (authors)

Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F. [Safety and Ecology Corporation, 2800 Solway Road, Knoxville, TN (United States)

2008-07-01

42

Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities: A Multiattribute Examination of Desirability Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used quantitative measures to examine relative importance of various apartment complex attributes (location, management, design) in attracting older and younger people to apartments that have (n=3) and have not (n=2) become Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities (NORCs). Results demonstrated attractive housing for older people was attractive…

Hunt, Michael E.; Ross, Leonard E.

1990-01-01

43

Haemostatic abnormalities in cats with naturally occurring liver diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in the haemostatic system were characterized in cats with different naturally occurring liver diseases. The study looked at 44 healthy cats and 45 cats with different liver diseases confirmed histologically or cytologically (neoplasia, n=9; inflammation, n=12; hepatic lipidosis, n=13; other degenerative liver diseases, n=11). The following parameters were evaluated: platelet count; prothrombin time; activated partial thromboplastin time; thrombin time;

Brigitte Dircks; Ingo Nolte; Reinhard Mischke

44

Complexes of Actinides with Naturally Occuring Organic Substances - Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Properties of naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids and their formation of actinide complexes are reviewed. Actinides in all the oxdation states III, IV, V and VI would form complexes with many humic and fulvic acids, comparable in strength to the hy...

U. Olofsson B. Allard

1983-01-01

45

Phototendering of wool sensitized by naturally occurring polyphenolic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of naturally occurring polyphenolics have been used since antiquity to dye wool. These colourants, originally extracted from plants and insects, can be fixed to wool fibres by a metal ion mordant with the free carboxylic acid and sulphydryl groups present in wool protein providing the necessary metal ion binding sites.Wool undergoes a variety of chemical reactions induced by

Gerald J Smith; Ian J Miller; Vincent Daniels

2005-01-01

46

On the Role of Attention in Naturally Occurring Matching Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior researchers have evaluated the efficacy of using the matching law to describe naturally occurring behavior-environment interactions. However, spurious matching could be obtained if the response and environmental event were correlated, even if the event did not reinforce the response. To assess the likelihood of obtaining spurious matching…

St. Peter, Claire C.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Bourret, Jason C.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Rapp, John T.

2005-01-01

47

Leaching of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A form of waste associated with mining activities is related to the type of deposit being mined and to the procedure of exploitation and enrichment adopted. The wastes usually contain relatively large amounts of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). The TENORM are often stored on the surface. Consequently, they can be leached as a result of interaction with

Nguyen Dinh Chau; Edward Chru?ciel

2007-01-01

48

Naturally occurring antisense: Transcriptional leakage or real overlap?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring antisense transcription is associated with the regulation of gene expression through a variety of biological mechanisms. Several recent genome-wide studies reported the identification of potential antisense transcripts for thousands of mammalian genes, many of them resulting from alternatively polyadenylated transcripts or heterogeneous transcription start sites. However, it is not clear whether this transcriptional plasticity is intentional, leading to

Dvir Dahary; Orna Elroy-Stein; Rotem Sorek

2005-01-01

49

Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni Occurs Beyond Limits of Growth  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

Vegge, Christina S.; Br?ndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzeta, Malgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

2012-01-01

50

Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.  

PubMed

The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis. PMID:24957317

Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

2014-01-01

51

Addressing Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Mining Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining companies deal with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) issues on their sites in two ways, avoidance and management. Avoidance simply means that to the extent practical, new mines are located in areas where NOA is unlikely to occur. Where mines are located in areas where NOA may be present, mines implement management procedures to identify and control potential sources of NOA. Management practices may include procedures set forth in regulations such as California's Air Toxicity Control Measure that deals with surface mining, voluntary procedures, or a combination of both. The mining industry generally recognizes that addressing NOA issues is a cost of doing business.;

Bieber, D. W.

2012-12-01

52

Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

1981-01-01

53

An update on antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones.  

PubMed

Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

2013-01-01

54

Synthetic muscle promoters: activities exceeding naturally occurring regulatory sequences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.

Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.

1999-01-01

55

Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year.

K. P. Smith; D. L. Blunt

1995-01-01

56

Role of naturally occurring gas hydrates in sediment transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring gas hydrates have the potential to store enormous volumes of both gas and water in semi-solid form in ocean-bottom sediments and then to release that gas and water when the hydrate's equilibrium condition are disturbed. Therefore, hydrates provide a potential mechanism for transporting large volumes of sediments. Under the combined low bottom-water temperatures and moderate hydrostatic pressures that

McIver

1982-01-01

57

Tribology of naturally occurring boric acid films on boron carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the formation and self-lubricating mechanisms of naturally occurring boric acid films on boron carbide (B4C) substrates. The sliding friction coefficients of yttria\\/partially stabilized zirconia pins against plain B4C substrates are quite high at 0.3–0.4, but are 6–10 times lower against the B4C substrates subjected to annealing at 800°C. We determined that this low friction was

A. Erdemir; C. Bindal; C. Zuiker; E. Savrun

1996-01-01

58

Naturally-occurring aromatic compounds inhibit potato tuber sprouting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several naturally-occurring aromatic aldehydes and an aromatic alcohol inhibited potato tuber sprouting when applied as volatiles\\u000a or directly as emulsions. Exposure to volatiles was for 1 or 10 days prior to placement into fresh air. Salicylaldehyde inhibited\\u000a sprouting of tubers exposed for 1 or more days; benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde and thymol suppressed sprouting\\u000a of tubers exposed for 10 days. Direct

Steven F. Vaughn; Gayland F. Spencer

1993-01-01

59

Potentiating the naturally occurring process for repair of damaged heart.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current progresses in application of both exogenous and endogenous progenitor cells/stem cells for cardiac repair, and the current understanding of the naturally-occurring process for physiological myocyte turnover and possibly cardiac repair. In particular the development of methods for potentiating the naturally-occurring mechanism for substantial repair of pathologically damaged cardiac tissues is discussed. In the last decade, tremendous efforts to identify both exogenous and endogenous progenitor cells/stem cells possessing capacities of differentiating into cardiac lineages have been made for potential cardiac repair. Although many impressive progresses have been made in the application of differently sourced progenitor cells/stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), skeletal myoblasts (SMs), umbilical cord blood cells (UCBs), residential cardiac stem cells (CSCs), cardiac resident fibroblasts (CRFs), or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) for repair of damaged heart, however, inevitable controversies exist concerning: (i) the immune compatibility of the exogenous donor progenitors/stem cells, (ii) the tumorigenicity with ESCs and iPS, and (iii) the efficiency of these exogenous or endogenous progenitors/ stem cells to acquire cardiac lineages to reconstitute the lost cardiac tissues. The recent recognition of some active small molecules that can induce myocardial regeneration to repair damaged heart tissues through enhancing the naturally-occurring cardiac-repair mechanism has offered the hope for clinical translation of the technology. Potentiating the naturally-occurring process for cardiac repair by administration of such small molecules has provided a promising strategy for reconstruction of damaged cardiac tissues after heart infarction. Therefore, this article is in favor of the notion that such small molecules with the activity of manipulating gene expressions in such a way of inducing endogenous stem cells to commit cardiac lineage differentiation and consequently myocardial regeneration may fulfill the dream of substantial repair of damaged heart. PMID:23844738

Li, Ming; Ng, Shi Chung

2014-01-01

60

Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

2012-12-01

61

High naturally occurring radioactivity in fossil groundwater from the Middle East.  

PubMed

High levels of naturally occurring and carcinogenic radium isotopes have been measured in low-saline and oxic groundwater from the Rum Group of the Disi sandstone aquifer in Jordan. The combined 228Ra and 226Ra activities are up to 2000% higher than international drinking water standards. Analyses of the host sandstone aquifer rocks show 228Ra and 226Ra activities and ratios that are consistent with previous reports of sandstone rocks from different parts of the world. A compilation of previous data in groundwater from worldwide sandstone aquifers shows large variations in Ra activities regardless of the groundwater salinity. On the basis of the distribution of the four Ra isotopes and the ratios of the short- to long-lived Ra isotopes, we postulate that Ra activity in groundwater is controlled by the balance of radioactive decay of parent Th isotopes on aquifer solids, decay of the dissolved radium isotopes, and adsorption of dissolved Ra on solid surfaces. The availability of surface adsorption sites, which depends on the clay content in the aquifer rocks, is therefore an important constraint for Ra activity in sandstone aquifers. These findings raise concerns about the safety of this and similar nonrenewable groundwater reservoirs, exacerbating the already severe water crisis in the Middle East. PMID:19368170

Vengosh, Avner; Hirschfeld, Daniella; Vinson, David; Dwyer, Gary; Raanan, Hadas; Rimawi, Omar; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah; Akkawi, Emad; Marie, Amer; Haquin, Gustavo; Zaarur, Shikma; Ganor, Jiwchar

2009-03-15

62

Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

Chen, S.Y.

1997-04-01

63

A naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Lettuce mosaic virus.  

PubMed

LMV-Common and LMV-Most are two seed-borne types of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), genus Potyvirus. LMV-Most, but not LMV-Common, overcomes the resistance afforded to lettuce by two recessive genes, mo11 and mo12. An RT-PCR-based assay thought to be specific for LMV-Most also amplified LMV-Tn2, previously typified as LMV-Common. The sequence of selected regions along the genome indicated that LMV-Tn2 is a natural recombinant between LMV-Most and LMV-Common isolates, with a putative recombination site located within the P3 coding region. This is the first evidence of a naturally occurring LMV recombinant isolate. PMID:14689284

Krause-Sakate, R; Fakhfakh, H; Peypelut, M; Pavan, M A; Zerbini, F M; Marrakchi, M; Candresse, T; Le Gall, O

2004-01-01

64

Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores.  

PubMed Central

Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 degrees C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 degrees C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 degrees C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 degrees C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 degrees C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5-and 15-h cycles at 125 degrees C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 10-3 to 10-4) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

Puleo, J R; Bergstrom, S L; Peeler, J T; Oxborrow, G S

1978-01-01

65

Dry-Heat Inactivation Kinetics of Naturally Occurring Spore Populations  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three soil samples were collected from areas of the United States where major spacecraft assembly and launch facilities are in operation. Soil samples were treated with ethyl alcohol, ultrasonic energy, and gross filtration. The resultant suspensions consisted of viable, naturally occurring bacterial spores and were used to inoculate stainless-steel strips. The strips were suspended in a forced air oven and assays were made at 5-min intervals for the number of viable spores. Most survivor curves were nonlinear. Subsequently, spore crops of heat-sensitive and heat-resistant soil isolates were found to have linear survivor curves at 125 C which were unaffected by the presence or absence of sterile soil particles from the parent sample. When two spore crops, one of which was heat-resistant and the other heat-sensitive, were mixed, the resultant nonlinear curves were unaffected by the presence or absence of sterile parent soil. Therefore, the survivor curves obtained originally with the soils were the result of heterogeneous spore populations rather than of protection afforded by soil particles in our test system. These results question the rationale both of assuming logarithmic death and of using decimal-reduction values obtained with subcultured standard reference spores in the derivation of dry-heat sterilization cycles for items contaminated with naturally occurring spore populations.

Bond, W. W.; Favero, M. S.; Petersen, N. J.; Marshall, J. H.

1970-01-01

66

Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores.  

PubMed

Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 degrees C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 degrees C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 degrees C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 degrees C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 degrees C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5-and 15-h cycles at 125 degrees C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 10-3 to 10-4) of very resistant spores can be tolerated. PMID:727780

Puleo, J R; Bergstrom, S L; Peeler, J T; Oxborrow, G S

1978-09-01

67

Thermoradiation Inactivation of Naturally Occurring Bacterial Spores in Soil  

PubMed Central

Samples of soil collected from the Kennedy Space Center near the spacecraft assembly facilities were found to contain microorganisms very resistant to conventional sterilzation techniques. The inactivation kinetics of the naturally occurring spores in soil were investigated by using dry heat and ionizing radiation, first separately and then simultaneously. Dry-heat inactivation kinetics of spores was determined at 105 and 125 C; radiation inactivation kinetics was determined for dose rates of 660 and 76 krads/h at 25 C. Simultaneous combinations of heat and radiation were then investigated at 105, 110, 115, 120, and 125 C, with a dose rate of 76 krads/h. Combined treatment was found to be highly synergistic, requiring greatly reduced radiation doses to accomplish sterilization of the population.

Reynolds, Marcel C.; Lindell, Kermit F.; David, Thomas J.; Favero, Martin S.; Bond, Walter W.

1974-01-01

68

Discrimination of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material in Plastic Scintillator Material  

SciTech Connect

Plastic scintillator material is used in many applications for the detection of gamma-rays from radioactive material, primarily due to the sensitivity per unit cost compared to other detection materials. However, the resolution and lack of full-energy peaks in the plastic scintillator material prohibits detailed spectroscopy. Therefore, other materials such as doped sodium iodide are used for spectroscopic applications. The limited spectroscopic information can however be exploited in plastic scintillator materials to provide some discrimination. The discrimination between man-made and naturally occurring sources would be useful in reducing alarm screening for radiation detection applications which target man-made sources. The results of applying the limited energy information from plastic scintillator material for radiation portal monitors are discussed.

Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Schweppe, John E.; Warner, Ray A.

2003-08-19

69

Modification of genotoxicity by naturally occurring flavorings and their derivatives.  

PubMed

The number of studies in the research field of antimutagenesis is increasing. The aims of many of these studies are preventing genetic hazards from environmental mutagens and elucidating the process of mutagenesis. Some naturally occurring flavorings such as vanillin, cinnamaldehyde, and coumarin have been reported to inhibit mutagenesis induced by mutagens in bacterial and mammalian cells. These flavorings are considered to act as antimutagens by modifying DNA replication and/or DNA repair systems after cellular DNA was damaged by mutagens. A factor that suppresses mutagenicity in a given situation, however, sometimes exerts enhancing effects when the endpoints investigated or the test conditions used are varied. This makes the evaluation of antimutagenic factors complicated. Different modifying effects of the above-mentioned flavorings observed in various test systems for genotoxicity are discussed, based on their proposed mechanisms. PMID:8329113

Ohta, T

1993-01-01

70

Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Canada, nuclear and radiological regulatory responsibilities are shared between the provinces/territories and the federal government. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates nuclear fuel cycle materials and man-made radionuclides under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (2000). The provinces and territories regulate NORM arising from industrial activities, not involving the nuclear fuel cycle materials. Present guideline-Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)-was published in 2000 in order to bring uniformity to the management of NORM-related procedures to provide adequate radiation protection for workers and the general public. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the NORM-related activities should not be posing any greater hazard than those activities regulated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act; these concepts are described in this paper.

Baweja, Anar S.; Tracy, Bliss L.

2008-08-01

71

Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent  

PubMed Central

In recent years, various dietary components that can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines (PCa). When tested at higher doses (15-20 ug/mL), FE continued to be growth inhibitory to PCa cell lines but not to either primary prostate or htert-immortalized prostate cells. At least part of the growth inhibition is due to induction of cell death, as seen by incorporation of Ethidium Bromide III into cancer cells exposed to FE. Molecular changes induced in PCa cells are: in DU-145 cells: down regulation of mutant p53, and in PC-3 cells up regulation of p21 and inhibition of TGF-? induced phosphorylation of Akt. The surprising finding of our studies is that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously up regulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential.

Shabbeer, Shabana; Sobolewski, Michelle; Kachhap, Sushant; Davidson, Nancy; Carducci, Michael A.; Khan, Saeed

2011-01-01

72

Retinoic acid receptor agonist activity of naturally occurring diterpenes.  

PubMed

Recent accumulating evidence indicates that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) may be useful for preventing or treating inflammation, allergy, and autoimmune diseases, despite its severe side effects. In this study, screening of 99 crude drugs for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligands by luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the methanol extract of Aralia cordata Rhizoma most effectively activates the transcriptional activity of RAR?. Pimaradienoic acid (ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) was subsequently isolated as the constituent capable of activating RAR. Pimaric acid and abietic acid, which have similar structures to pimaradienoic acid, were also found to be novel RAR agonists, although abietic acid only slightly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These three natural RAR agonists with diterpene structures, while structurally different from ATRA, were able to increase the mRNA levels of the constitutive androstane receptor in HepG2 cells, induce F9 cell differentiation followed by Cyp26a1 mRNA expression, and differentiate HL-60 cells via RAR activation in a different manner from ATRA. These results demonstrate that some diterpenes exist as naturally occurring RAR agonists and that the differences in chemical structure between ATRA and these diterpenes may induce distinct gene activation and a specific cellular response. PMID:24799257

Tanabe, Hiroki; Yasui, Tomohiro; Kotani, Hitoshi; Nagatsu, Akito; Makishima, Makoto; Amagaya, Sakae; Inoue, Makoto

2014-06-15

73

Naturally occurring phenylethanoid glycosides: potential leads for new therapeutics.  

PubMed

Natural products have long been regarded as excellent sources for drug discovery given their structure diversity and wide variety of biological activities. Phenylethanoid glycosides are naturally occurring compounds of plant origin and are structurally characterized with a hydroxyphenylethyl moiety to which a glucopyranose is linked through a glycosidic bond. To date several hundred compounds of this type have been isolated from medicinal plants and further pharmacological studies in vitro or in vivo have shown that these compounds possess a broad array of biological activities including antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neuro-protective, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory actions. Given their extensive activity profile, structure-activity relationships analyses of these compounds have been performed in a number of studies to reveal potential leads for future drug design. This article will summarize the major developments in phenylethanoid glycosides-based research in the past decade. The progresses made in phytochemistry and biological activity studies of these compounds will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the novel structures identified to date and the prominent therapeutic values associated with these molecules. PMID:18855681

Fu, Guangmiao; Pang, Haihong; Wong, Yung H

2008-01-01

74

Sequestering Naturally Occurring Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Deep Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid carbon dioxide has been found as shallow as 1,500 meters in seafloor ooze. Did the liquid carbon dioxide originate from volcanic activity? Or did bacteria convert organic matter, which started as atmospheric carbon dioxide, into methane and liquid carbon dioxide? At typical ocean temperatures carbon dioxide coming out of solution below 600 meters will be liquid. Therefore, one likely mechanism for generating liquid carbon dioxide in seafloor ooze is the bacterial decomposition of organic matter. This paper examines quantitative and qualitative bacterial decomposition of aquatic biomass, with an emphasis on assessing and demonstrating feasibility. Calculations suggest natural processes sequestering liquid carbon dioxide in the seafloor can be sustainably increased to decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. First, algae growing on the ocean surface absorb carbon dioxide. The algae are then gathered into a submerged container. Naturally occurring bacteria will digest the algae producing methane, liquid carbon dioxide, and ammonium. The ammonium can be recycled as a nutrient for growing more algae. Bacterial decomposition continues in dilute solutions with any biomass. The process does not require any particular biomass. Also, concentrating the biomass by removing water is not essential. The buoyancy provided by water allows relatively inexpensive tension fabric structures to contain the dilute algae and decomposition products. Calculations based on algae growth in open ponds and experience with bacterial decomposition at 1 to 5 bar pressures suggest the economics of the associated macro-algae growing and harvesting can favor increasing ocean species diversity.

Capron, M. E.

2008-12-01

75

Laboratory observation of naturally occurring dust-density waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust-density waves are electrostatic compressional waves that propagate in dusty plasma. Compared to the more familiar ion-acoustic waves, in dust-density waves, inertia is provided by dust particles (instead of ions) while pressure is provided by the ions as well as electrons (not just electrons). In a laboratory experiment, we observed dust density waves in a 3D void-free dusty plasma. The waves occur naturally due to an ion-flow instability. Dust particles (4.8 microns) are levitated within the volume of a glass box that rests atop an electrode in a radio-frequency glow discharge plasma. Horizontal confinement of dust particles is provided by the plasma's natural electric field that is enhanced by the walls of the glass box, while vertical confinement is due to the electrode's sheath. We observed dust-density waves with planar wave fronts propagating in alignment with flowing ions. By directly imaging the dust particles with a 500 frame-per-second camera, we monitor the dust density modulations in both space and time. A typical wave propagates at 40 mm/s with a frequency of 24 Hz. In this work, we characterize these waves and their growth as they propagate.

Flanagan, Tim; Goree, John

2010-11-01

76

Design of Bioactive Peptides from Naturally Occurring ?-Conotoxin Structures*  

PubMed Central

To date, cone snail toxins (“conotoxins”) are of great interest in the pursuit of novel subtype-selective modulators of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs). Navs participate in a wide range of electrophysiological processes. Consequently, their malfunctioning has been associated with numerous diseases. The development of subtype-selective modulators of Navs remains highly important in the treatment of such disorders. In current research, a series of novel, synthetic, and bioactive compounds were designed based on two naturally occurring ?-conotoxins that target Navs. The initial designed peptide contains solely 13 amino acids and was therefore named “Mini peptide.” It was derived from the ?-conotoxins KIIIA and BuIIIC. Based on this Mini peptide, 10 analogues were subsequently developed, comprising 12–16 amino acids with two disulfide bridges. Following appropriate folding and mass verification, blocking effects on Navs were investigated. The most promising compound established an IC50 of 34.1 ± 0.01 nm (R2-Midi on Nav1.2). An NMR structure of one of our most promising compounds was determined. Surprisingly, this structure does not reveal an ?-helix. We prove that it is possible to design small peptides based on known pharmacophores of ?-conotoxins without losing their potency and selectivity. These data can provide crucial material for further development of conotoxin-based therapeutics.

Stevens, Marijke; Peigneur, Steve; Dyubankova, Natalia; Lescrinier, Eveline; Herdewijn, Piet; Tytgat, Jan

2012-01-01

77

Design of bioactive peptides from naturally occurring ?-conotoxin structures.  

PubMed

To date, cone snail toxins ("conotoxins") are of great interest in the pursuit of novel subtype-selective modulators of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s). Na(v)s participate in a wide range of electrophysiological processes. Consequently, their malfunctioning has been associated with numerous diseases. The development of subtype-selective modulators of Na(v)s remains highly important in the treatment of such disorders. In current research, a series of novel, synthetic, and bioactive compounds were designed based on two naturally occurring ?-conotoxins that target Na(v)s. The initial designed peptide contains solely 13 amino acids and was therefore named "Mini peptide." It was derived from the ?-conotoxins KIIIA and BuIIIC. Based on this Mini peptide, 10 analogues were subsequently developed, comprising 12-16 amino acids with two disulfide bridges. Following appropriate folding and mass verification, blocking effects on Na(v)s were investigated. The most promising compound established an IC(50) of 34.1 ± 0.01 nM (R2-Midi on Na(v)1.2). An NMR structure of one of our most promising compounds was determined. Surprisingly, this structure does not reveal an ?-helix. We prove that it is possible to design small peptides based on known pharmacophores of ?-conotoxins without losing their potency and selectivity. These data can provide crucial material for further development of conotoxin-based therapeutics. PMID:22773842

Stevens, Marijke; Peigneur, Steve; Dyubankova, Natalia; Lescrinier, Eveline; Herdewijn, Piet; Tytgat, Jan

2012-09-01

78

Salvinorin A: A potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous ? opioid selective agonist  

PubMed Central

Salvia divinorum, whose main active ingredient is the neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A, is a hallucinogenic plant in the mint family that has been used in traditional spiritual practices for its psychoactive properties by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico. More recently, S. divinorum extracts and Salvinorin A have become more widely used in the U.S. as legal hallucinogens. We discovered that Salvinorin A potently and selectively inhibited 3H-bremazocine binding to cloned ? opioid receptors. Salvinorin A had no significant activity against a battery of 50 receptors, transporters, and ion channels and showed a distinctive profile compared with the prototypic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. Functional studies demonstrated that Salvinorin A is a potent ? opioid agonist at cloned ? opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells and at native ? opioid receptors expressed in guinea pig brain. Importantly, Salvinorin A had no actions at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, the principal molecular target responsible for the actions of classical hallucinogens. Salvinorin A thus represents, to our knowledge, the first naturally occurring nonnitrogenous opioid-receptor subtype-selective agonist. Because Salvinorin A is a psychotomimetic selective for ? opioid receptors, ? opioid-selective antagonists may represent novel psychotherapeutic compounds for diseases manifested by perceptual distortions (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia, and bipolar disorders). Additionally, these results suggest that ? opioid receptors play a prominent role in the modulation of human perception.

Roth, Bryan L.; Baner, Karen; Westkaemper, Richard; Siebert, Daniel; Rice, Kenner C.; Steinberg, SeAnna; Ernsberger, Paul; Rothman, Richard B.

2002-01-01

79

Natural occurring epialleles determine vitamin E accumulation in tomato fruits.  

PubMed

Vitamin E (VTE) content is a low heritability nutritional trait for which the genetic determinants are poorly understood. Here, we focus on a previously detected major tomato VTE quantitative trait loci (QTL; mQTL(9-2-6)) and identify the causal gene as one encoding a 2-methyl-6-phytylquinol methyltransferase (namely VTE3(1)) that catalyses one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of ?- and ?-tocopherols, which are the main forms of VTE. By reverse genetic approaches, expression analyses, siRNA profiling and DNA methylation assays, we demonstrate that mQTL(9-2-6) is an expression QTL associated with differential methylation of a SINE retrotransposon located in the promoter region of VTE3(1). Promoter DNA methylation can be spontaneously reverted leading to different epialleles affecting VTE3(1) expression and VTE content in fruits. These findings indicate therefore that naturally occurring epialleles are responsible for regulation of a nutritionally important metabolic QTL and provide direct evidence of a role for epigenetics in the determination of agronomic traits. PMID:24967512

Quadrana, Leandro; Almeida, Juliana; Asís, Ramon; Duffy, Tomás; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Bermúdez, Luisa; Conti, Gabriela; Corrêa da Silva, Junia V; Peralta, Iris E; Colot, Vincent; Asurmendi, Sebastian; Fernie, Alisdair R; Rossi, Magdalena; Carrari, Fernando

2014-01-01

80

Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet were studied using the modal frequency technique. The evolution of the modal spectrum was obtained for a jet with a Reynolds number based on a diameter of 400,000 for both laminar and turbulent nozzle boundary layers. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing rapidly but dominating only the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal was observed closer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Target modes for efficient excitation of the jet were determined and two cases of excitation were studied. First, a jet was excited simultaneously by two helical modes, m equals plus 1 and m equals minus 1 at a Strouhal number based on jet diameter of 0.15 and the axisymmetric mode, m equals 0 at a jet diameter of 0.6. Second, m equals plus one and m equals minus 1 at jet diameter equals 0.3 and m equals 0 at jet diameter equals 0.6 were excited simultaneously. The downstream evolution of the hydrodynamic modes and the spreading rate of the jet were documented for each case. Higher jet spreading rates, accompanied by distorted jet cross sections were observed for the cases where combinations of axisymmetric and helical forcings were applied.

Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

1991-01-01

81

Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of naturally occurring furan fatty acids.  

PubMed

As a part of our work on the antioxidant properties of naturally occurring furan fatty acids (F acids), we evaluated their hydroxyl radical (HO.) scavenging activity by an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping technique with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). The additions of F acids to the incubation mixture of Fe2(+)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex, H2O2 and DMPO decreased the intensity of the DMPO-OH adduct signal in a dose-dependent way. This decrease was not attributed to the destruction of DMPO-OH adduct by F acids. Kinetic competition studies indicated that the decrease in DMPO-OH signal intensity was mainly due to the competition of F acids with DMPO for HO., and not to the inhibition of the HO. generation system itself. F acids were found to react rapidly with HO. at approximately a diffusion-controlled rate (1.7 x 10(10)M-1 s-1). Comparison with the common HO. scavengers indicated that the rate constant of F acids is higher than those of mannitol and ethanol, and is compatible with those of histidine and dimethylsulfoxide, demonstrating that F acids are a potent HO. scavenger. It is suggested that F acids may serve as antioxidants in biological systems through their ability to scavenge HO.. PMID:8996648

Okada, Y; Kaneko, M; Okajima, H

1996-12-01

82

Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

1995-08-01

83

Ginsenosides Are Novel Naturally-Occurring Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands  

PubMed Central

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological actions of structurally diverse chemicals. In this study, we examined the ability of a series of ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, to bind to and activate/inhibit the AHR and AHR signal transduction. Utilizing a combination of ligand and DNA binding assays, molecular docking and reporter gene analysis, we demonstrated the ability of selected ginsenosides to directly bind to and activate the guinea pig cytosolic AHR, and to stimulate/inhibit AHR-dependent luciferase gene expression in a recombinant guinea pig cell line. Comparative studies revealed significant species differences in the ability of ginsenosides to stimulate AHR-dependent gene expression in guinea pig, rat, mouse and human cell lines. Not only did selected ginsenosides preferentially activate the AHR from one species and not others, mouse cell line was also significantly less responsive to these chemicals than rat and guinea pig cell lines, but the endogenous gene CYP1A1 could still be inducted in mouse cell line. Overall, the ability of these compounds to stimulate AHR signal transduction demonstrated that these ginsenosides are a new class of naturally occurring AHR agonists.

Hu, Qin; He, Guochun; Zhao, Jing; Soshilov, Anatoly; Denison, Michael S.; Zhang, Aiqian; Yin, Huijun; Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Bonati, Laura; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

2013-01-01

84

Human rhinovirus infection during naturally occurring COPD exacerbations.  

PubMed

Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is an important trigger of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but its role in determining exacerbation frequency phenotype or the time-course of HRV infection in naturally occurring exacerbations is unknown. Sputum samples from 77 patients were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR for both HRV (388 samples), and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (89 samples). Patients recorded worsening of respiratory symptoms on daily diary cards, from which exacerbations were identified. HRV prevalence and load at exacerbation presentation were significantly higher than in the stable state (prevalence 53.3% versus 17.2%, respectively; p<0.001) but 0% by day 35 post-exacerbation. HRV load was higher in patients with cold symptoms (p=0.046) or sore throats (p=0.006) than those without. 73% of bacterium-negative but HRV-positive exacerbations were bacterium-positive by day 14. Patients with HRV detected at exacerbation had a higher exacerbation frequency (interquartile range) of 3.01 (2.02-5.30) per year compared with patients without HRV (2.51 (2.00-3.51)) (p=0.038). HRV prevalence and load increased at COPD exacerbation, and resolved during recovery. Frequent exacerbators were more likely to experience HRV infection. Secondary bacterial infection is common after HRV infection, and provides a possible mechanism for exacerbation recurrence and a potential target for novel therapies. PMID:24627537

George, Sîobhán N; Garcha, Davinder S; Mackay, Alexander J; Patel, Anant R C; Singh, Richa; Sapsford, Raymond J; Donaldson, Gavin C; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

2014-07-01

85

Oxygen Isotope Evidence for the Extra-Terrestrial Origin of the First Natural Quasicrystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SIMS oxygen-isotopic data indicate that the first naturally occurring quasicrystal is associated with a diverse assemblage of high-temperature refractory chondritic minerals (silicates and oxides) formed in the early solar system.

Guan, Y.; Bindi, L.; Eiler, J. M.; Hollister, L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Steinhardt, P. J.; Yao, N.

2011-03-01

86

Role of naturally occurring gas hydrates in sediment transport  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring gas hydrates have the potential to store enormous volumes of both gas and water in semi-solid form in ocean-bottom sediments and then to release that gas and water when the hydrate's equilibrium condition are disturbed. Therefore, hydrates provide a potential mechanism for transporting large volumes of sediments. Under the combined low bottom-water temperatures and moderate hydrostatic pressures that exist over most of the continental slopes and all of the continental rises and abyssal plains, hydrocarbon gases at or near saturation in the interstitial waters of the near-bottom sediments will form hydrates. The gas can either be autochthonous, microbially produced gas, or allochthonous, catagenic gas from deeper sediments. Equilibrium conditions that stabilize hydrated sediments may be disturbed, for example, by continued sedimentation or by lowering of sea level. In either case, some of the solid gas-water matrix decomposes. Released gas and water volume exceeds the volume occupied by the hydrate, so the internal pressure rises - drastically if large volumes of hydrate are decomposed. Part of the once rigid sediment is converted to a gas- and water-rich, relatively low density mud. When the internal pressure, due to the presence of the compressed gas or to buoyancy, is sufficiently high, the overlying sediment may be lifted and/or breached, and the less dense, gas-cut mud may break through. Such hydrate-related phenomena can cause mud diapirs, mud volcanos, mud slides, or turbidite flows, depending on sediment configuration and bottom topography. 4 figures.

McIver, R.D.

1982-06-01

87

Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

2008-11-15

88

Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

Huang, J.C.

2001-07-17

89

Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds  

SciTech Connect

A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Manufactured Housing Institute. The results of this research can lead to savings in annual losses of life and property by providing validated information to enable the advancement of code requirements and by developing engineering software that can predict and optimize wind resistance.

W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

2006-08-01

90

A Naturally Occurring Colorant for Food and Beverages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A colorant from a natural source which produces a wide range of stable colors in food and beverages is provided. The colorant is the anthocyanin from 'Heavenly Blue' Morning Glory, peonidin 3-(dicaffeylsophoroside)-5-glucoside.

S. Asen R. N. Stewart K. H. Norris

1978-01-01

91

A Classroom Note on a Naturally Occurring Piecewise Defined Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an example of a piecewise defined function developed naturally as a consequence of the solution to the given problem statement, thereby allowing calculus students the uncommon opportunity to generate such an otherwise, seemingly contrived function. (JJK)

Cohen, Don

1991-01-01

92

Evidence for Naturally Occurring Electron Capture of {sup 123}Te  

SciTech Connect

Evidence for electron capture of {sup 123}Te from the {ital K} shell has been obtained in an experiment performed underground with an array of four 340 g TeO{sub 2} thermal detectors. This is the first proof of the decay of this isotope. In our thermal approach, unlike in previous experiments, the TeO{sub 2} bolometer acts as the same time as source and detector of the {sup 123}Te decay and its resolution allows to discriminate between the lines produced by background x rays excitation and electron capture. In addition, anticoincidence with the nearby detectors reduces the signal of x ray produced by excitation of Tellurium. The partial width for {ital K} electron capture of {sup 123}Te is the smallest one ever measured for a single beta process and lower by six orders of magnitude with respect to the previously reported one for this decay. An analysis based on the expected fraction of electron captures accompanied by internal bremsstrahlung allows to set a stringent limit, independent on the decay channel, for the lifetime of {sup 123}Te. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Camin, D.V.; Caspani, P.; Colling, P.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita di Milano e Sezione di Milano dell`INFN, I-20133 Milan (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita di Milano e Sezione di Milano dell`INFN, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Bucci, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010, Assergi (L`Aquila) (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010, Assergi (L`Aquila) (Italy)

1996-10-01

93

Naturally occurring vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical transmission of Neospora caninum was studied in naturally infected, privately owned dogs, using antibody detection by IFAT to identify infected individuals. Retrospective studies were undertaken in litters from six bitches of the Hamiltonstövare breed, and on litters from seven bitches of other breeds—in both cases following diagnosis of clinical disease in puppies—and prospective studies were carried out on 17

J. S. Barber; A. J. Trees

1998-01-01

94

Geochemistry of a naturally occurring massive marine gas hydrate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 84 a core 1 m long and 6 cm in diameter of massive gas hydrate was unexpectedly recovered at Site 570 in upper slope sediment of the Middle America Trench offshore of Guatemala. This core contained only 5-7% sediment, the remainder being the solid hydrate composed of gas and water. Samples of the gas hydrate were decomposed under controlled conditions in a closed container maintained at 4??C. Gas pressure increased and asymptotically approached the equilibrium decomposition pressure for an ideal methane hydrate, CH4.5-3/4H2O, of 3930 kPa and approached to this pressure after each time gas was released, until the gas hydrate was completely decomposed. The gas evolved during hydrate decomposition was 99.4% methane, ???0.2% ethane, and ???0.4% CO2. Hydrocarbons from propane to heptane were also present, but in concentrations of less than 100 p.p.m. The carbon-isotopic composition of methane was -41 to -44 permil(( 0 00), relative to PDB standard. The observed volumetric methane/water ratio was 64 or 67, which indicates that before it was stored and analyzed, the gas hydrate probably had lost methane. The sample material used in the experiments was likely a mixture of methane hydrate and water ice. Formation of this massive gas hydrate probably involved the following processes: (i) upward migration of gas and its accumulation in a zone where conditions favored the growth of gas hydrates, (ii) continued, unusually rapid biological generation of methane, and (iii) release of gas from water solution as pressure decreased due to sea level lowering and tectonic uplift. ?? 1984.

Kvenvolden, K. A.; Claypool, G. E.; Threlkeld, C. N.; Dendy, Sloan, E.

1984-01-01

95

Biomimetic Nitration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Formation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Conjugated Nitrodienes  

PubMed Central

Nitro-conjugated linoleic acids (NO2-cLA), endogenous nitrodiene lipids which act as inflammatory signaling mediators, were isolated and single isomers purified from the biomimetic acidic nitration products of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Structures were elucidated by means of detailed NMR and HPLC–MS/MS spectroscopic analysis and the relative double bond configurations assigned. Additional synthetic methods produced useful quantities and similar isomeric distributions of these unusual and reactive compounds for biological studies and isotopic standards, and the potential conversion of nitro-linoleic to nitro-conjugated linoleic acids was explored via a facile base-catalyzed isomerization. This represents one of the few descriptions of naturally occurring conjugated nitro dienes (in particular, 1-nitro 1,3-diene), an unusual and highly reactive motif with few biological examples extant.

Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Freeman, Bruce A.

2014-01-01

96

Biomimetic nitration of conjugated linoleic acid: formation and characterization of naturally occurring conjugated nitrodienes.  

PubMed

Nitro-conjugated linoleic acids (NO2-cLA), endogenous nitrodiene lipids which act as inflammatory signaling mediators, were isolated and single isomers purified from the biomimetic acidic nitration products of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Structures were elucidated by means of detailed NMR and HPLC-MS/MS spectroscopic analysis and the relative double bond configurations assigned. Additional synthetic methods produced useful quantities and similar isomeric distributions of these unusual and reactive compounds for biological studies and isotopic standards, and the potential conversion of nitro-linoleic to nitro-conjugated linoleic acids was explored via a facile base-catalyzed isomerization. This represents one of the few descriptions of naturally occurring conjugated nitro dienes (in particular, 1-nitro 1,3-diene), an unusual and highly reactive motif with few biological examples extant. PMID:24350701

Woodcock, Steven R; Salvatore, Sonia R; Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A

2014-01-01

97

Suppression of ochratoxin biosynthesis by naturally occurring alkaloids.  

PubMed

The effects of four alkaloids on the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB) and citrinin were examined on four OTA-producing aspergilli: Aspergillus auricomus, A. sclerotiorum and two isolates of A. alliaceus. Piperine and piperlongumine, natural alkaloids of Piper longum, significantly inhibited OTA production at 0.001% (w/v) for all aspergilli examined. Piperine and piperlongumine affected the polyketide synthesis step of OTA production and inhibited production of citrinin. Curcumin, a constituent of tumeric, completely inhibited mycelial growth of A. alliaceus isolate 791 at 0.1% (w/v) and decreased OTA production by approximately 70% at 0.01% (w/v). Sesamin, a constituent of sesame oil, inhibited OTA and OTB production by 60 and 45%, respectively, at 0.1% (w/v), showing its effect was on chloroperoxidase and polyketide synthase activity. The potential advantage of these natural products to reduce ochratoxin contamination of agricultural commodities is discussed. PMID:17454112

Lee, S E; Park, B S; Bayman, P; Baker, J L; Choi, W S; Campbell, B C

2007-04-01

98

Going Wild: Lessons from Naturally Occurring T-Lymphotropic Lentiviruses  

PubMed Central

Over 40 nonhuman primate (NHP) species harbor species-specific simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Similarly, more than 20 species of nondomestic felids and African hyenids demonstrate seroreactivity against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigens. While it has been challenging to study the biological implications of nonfatal infections in natural populations, epidemiologic and clinical studies performed thus far have only rarely detected increased morbidity or impaired fecundity/survival of naturally infected SIV- or FIV-seropositive versus -seronegative animals. Cross-species transmissions of these agents are rare in nature but have been used to develop experimental systems to evaluate mechanisms of pathogenicity and to develop animal models of HIV/AIDS. Given that felids and primates are substantially evolutionarily removed yet demonstrate the same pattern of apparently nonpathogenic lentiviral infections, comparison of the biological behaviors of these viruses can yield important implications for host-lentiviral adaptation which are relevant to human HIV/AIDS infection. This review therefore evaluates similarities in epidemiology, lentiviral genotyping, pathogenicity, host immune responses, and cross-species transmission of FIVs and factors associated with the establishment of lentiviral infections in new species. This comparison of consistent patterns in lentivirus biology will expose new directions for scientific inquiry for understanding the basis for virulence versus avirulence.

VandeWoude, Sue; Apetrei, Cristian

2006-01-01

99

Naturally occurring C-terminal splice variants of nuclear receptors  

PubMed Central

Alternative mRNA splicing in the region encoding the C-terminus of nuclear receptors results in receptor variants lacking the entire ligand-binding domain (LBD), or a part of it, and instead contain a sequence of splice variant-specific C-terminal amino acids. A total of thirteen such splice variants have been shown to occur in vertebrates, and at least nine occur in humans. None of these receptor variants appear to be able to bind endogenous ligands and to induce transcription on promoters containing the response element for the respective canonical receptor variant. Interestingly, ten of these C-terminal splice variants have been shown to display dominant-negative activity on the transactivational properties of their canonical equivalent. Research on most of these splice variants has been limited, and the dominant-negative effect of these receptor variants has only been demonstrated in reporter assays in vitro, using transiently transfected receptors and reporter constructs. Therefore, the in vivo function and relevance of most C-terminal splice variants remains unclear. By reviewing the literature on the human glucocorticoid receptor ?-isoform (hGR?), we show that the dominant-negative effect of hGR? is well established using more physiologically relevant readouts. The hGR ?-isoform may alter gene transcription independent from the canonical receptor and increased hGR? levels correlate with glucocorticoid resistance and the occurrence of several immune-related diseases. Thus, available data suggests that C-terminal splice variants of nuclear receptors act as dominant-negative inhibitors of receptor-mediated signaling in vivo, and that aberrant expression of these isoforms may be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases.

van der Vaart, Michiel; Schaaf, Marcel J.M.

2009-01-01

100

Biotransformations of Plutonium and Uranium by Naturally-Occurring Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

DOE sites are contaminated by radionuclides and toxic metals, which are in contact with organic contaminants, reactive minerals, and diverse populations of microorganisms. Actinide species to be stabilized or mobilized in situ via direct and indirect chemical, biological, and geochemical processes. Actinide contamination tends to be broadly dispersed and present at low concentrations and therefore prohibitively costly to remove using conventional methods. Pu contamination is particularly challenging because of personnel exposure concerns and a lack of disposal sites. Bacterial bioremediation is a preferable treatment approach. Given that the radionuclides of most concern to the NABIR program are generally more mobile in their oxidized forms (e.g. Pu(VI), Pu(V), U(VI), Tc(VII), Cr(VI)), proposed biostabilization strategies are generally based upon either in situ sequestration of the oxidized form (e.g. actinide biosorption and bioaccumulation within exopolymers and biofilms) or biomineralization of the reduced form (e.g., direct or indirect production of insoluble hydroxides by DMRB). The feasibility of these approaches is affected by the speciation of actinides under environment conditions. For example, actinides can form complexes with co-contaminants (e.g. EDTA) or natural chelators like siderophores and biopolymers. Resulting complexes can interact with bacteria in several ways to yield biostabilized products or more mobile species that could persist. They are investigating how organic chelators affect the speciation and biotransformation of U and Pu. Previously, they reported how these siderophores bind, desorb and solubilize radionuclides. Here they present new results on EDTA complexation, siderophore-mediated Pu accumulation by aerobic bacteria, and initial studies of Pu reduction by DMRB.

Boukhalfa, Hakim; Icopini, Gary A.; Lack, Joe G.; Reilly, Sean D.; Hersman, Larry E.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; John, Seth G.; Neu, Mary P.

2004-03-17

101

Determination of the Natural Abundances of Krypton and Xenon Isotopes Using Mass Spectrometry: A Demonstration of Isotopes and the Basis of Atomic Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer to demonstrate the existence of isotopes to students in an introductory chemistry course. Fragmentation reactions are avoided through the use of a noble gas (krypton or xenon) as the analyte. Students are able to readily identify the naturally occurring isotopes of the noble gas, and the quantitative mass spectrometric data

David N. Blauch; Merlyn D. Schuh; Felix A. Carroll

2002-01-01

102

Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco).  

PubMed

Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz and clays constitute the main composition of the inorganic matrix. Pyrite crystals are also present. A selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and alpha-counting, was performed to assess the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides. Leaching results indicate that 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 228Th have multiple modes of occurrence in the shale. U is interpreted to have been concentrated under anaerobic conditions. An integrated isotopic approach showed the preferential mobilization of uranium carried by humic acids to carbonate and apatite phases. Th is partitioned between silicate minerals and pyrite. PMID:17098337

Galindo, C; Mougin, L; Fakhi, S; Nourreddine, A; Lamghari, A; Hannache, H

2007-01-01

103

Measurement of isotope abundance variations in nature by gravimetric spiking isotope dilution analysis (GS-IDA).  

PubMed

Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored. PMID:23419016

Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas

2013-04-01

104

Isotope fractionation during natural gas hydrate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the task of pursuing the origin of hydrate-bound gas, isotope analysis is a well established tool of prediction. The carbon isotope values of methane, ethane, propane and i-butane will strongly indicate the source to either be microbial, thermogenic or of mixed origin. This is due to kinetic fractionation during microbial activity. In microbial CO2 reduction, the microbes tend to

Espen Nesheim Vaular; Djurdjica Corak; Tanja Barth

2010-01-01

105

INFLUENCE OF EASILY DEGRADABLE NATURALLY OCCURRING CARBON SUBSTRATES ON BIODEGRADATION OF MONOSUBSTITUTED PHENOLS BY AQUATIC BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of readily degradable, naturally occurring carbon substrates on the biodegradation of several monosubstitued phenols (m-cresol, m-aminophenol, p-chlorophenol) was examined. The natural substrate classes used were amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. Samples ...

106

Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.  

PubMed

This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 ?g/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 ?g/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and oxyhydroxides minerals were saturated in the groundwater, suggesting that the As reactivity is controlled by adsorption/desorption processes with these minerals. The data show that As and other oxyanion-forming elements such as U, B, Mo, and V had typically higher concentrations at pH > ~8, reflecting the pH-dependence of their mobilization. Based on the geochemical and stable isotope variations we have established a conceptual model for the occurrence of naturally occurring contaminants in MER groundwater: 1) regional groundwater recharge from the Highland, along the Rift margins, followed by lateral flow and water-rock interactions with the aquifer rocks resulted in a gradual increase of the salinity and naturally occurring contaminants towards the center of the valley; and (2) local ?(18)O-rich lake water recharge into adjacent shallow aquifers, followed by additional mobilization of As and other oxyanion-forming elements from the aquifer rocks. We posit that the combined physical-chemical conditions of the aquifers such as oxidizing state, Na-HCO3 composition, and pH>~8 lead to enhanced mobilization of oxyanion-forming elements from Fe-oxides and consequently contamination of local groundwater. These geochemical conditions characterize groundwater resources along the Eastern African Rift and thus constitute a potential threat to the quality of groundwater in larger areas of Eastern Africa. PMID:23899878

Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

2013-10-01

107

Stable Cl And O Isotope Ratios Of Anthropogenic And Natural Perchlorates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perchlorate (ClO4-) in aqueous systems, even in low concentrations, is recognized to have potential human health risks. The drinking and irrigation water supplies of millions of people in the U.S. have recently been found to be contaminated with perchlorate, and this problem continues to become even more widespread. Perchlorate, as a highly soluble and relatively inert anion, tends to persist over long time periods and its removal by conventional water treatment technologies is difficult and expensive. Many known sources of perchlorate contamination are anthropogenic, resulting from its extensive use as an oxidizer component in solid propellants for missiles, rockets, and fireworks. However, certain fertilizers derived from Chilean nitrate evaporate deposits are known to contain a low percentage of perchlorate (<0.5%) that may contaminate groundwater. New isotopic evidence provides insights on the possible natural sources of perchlorate in surface and ground waters. Stable isotope ratios of Cl and O can now be used to determine whether the source of perchlorates in a given area is natural or anthropogenic. Microbial perchlorate reduction has a large (˜15 per mil) kinetic isotope effect, and this may be used to identify whether natural attenuation of perchlorate is occurring. Anthropogenic perchlorate salts in milligram amounts are readily analyzed for 37Cl and 18O isotopes. Extracting an isotopically measurable amount of perchlorate from natural waters, which are usually within ppb range of concentrations, is a challenge. But with the use of a new class of highly-selective bifunctional anion exchange resins, recovery of trace amounts of perchlorate for accurate isotopic analysis has been demonstrated. Isotopic characterization is being conducted on anthropogenic perchlorate reagents, natural perchlorate-bearing salt deposits, and perchlorate-bearing groundwaters. Significant and consistent isotopic differences in both the Cl and O isotope ratios between anthropogenic and natural perchlorate sources have been identified. Anthropogenic perchlorate has ?37Cl values between -3.1 and +1.3, and ?18O values between -24.7 and -16.1. In contrast, naturally-occurring perchlorate analyzed thus far has ?37Cl values between -14.5 and -11.8, and ?18O values between -9.3 and -4.2, as well as a significant 17O excess not seen in anthropogenic perchlorate. These distinct isotopic characteristics may indicate an atmospheric origin for natural perchlorate. Perchlorate extracted from groundwater samples can be clearly identified in terms of source. Stable isotope forensics will provide a powerful tool for understanding perchlorate occurrences and contamination in the environment.

Beloso, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Böhlke, J.; Gu, B.; Horita, J.; Brown, G.; Hatzinger, P.

2004-12-01

108

Standards for stable isotope measurements in natural compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESEARCH based on stable isotope variations in natural compounds is expanding in scientific fields such as geochemistry, hydrology, environmental studies and biochemistry. However, intercomparison of results obtained in different laboratories is often not fully reliable and therefore to improve the intercalibration of deuterium and 18O measurements in natural waters, two water standards have been distributed by the International Atomic Energy

R. Gonfiantini

1978-01-01

109

Environmental and biomedical applications of natural metal stable isotope variations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

etal stable isotopes are now being used to trace metal contaminants in the environment and as indicators of human systemic function where metals play a role. Stable isotope abundance variations provide information about metal sources and the processes affecting metals in complex natural systems, complementing information gained from surrogate tracers, such as metal abundance ratios or biochemical markers of metal metabolism. The science is still in its infancy, but the results of initial studies confirm that metal stable isotopes can provide a powerful tool for forensic and biomedical investigations.

Bullen, T. D.; Walczyk, T.

2009-01-01

110

Heterogeneous distribution of natural zinc isotopes in mice.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is required for the function of more than 300 enzymes involved in many metabolic pathways, and is a vital micronutrient for living organisms. To investigate if Zn isotopes could be used to better understand metal homeostasis, as well as a biomarker for diseases, we assessed the distribution of natural Zn isotopes in various mouse tissues. We found that, with respect to Zn isotopes, most mouse organs are isotopically distinct and that the total range of variation within one mouse encompasses the variations observed in the Earth's crust. Therefore, biological activity may have a major impact on the distribution of Zn isotopes in inorganic materials. The most striking aspect of the data is that red blood cells and bones are enriched by ~0.5 per mil in (66)Zn relative to (64)Zn when compared to serum, and up to ~1 per mil when compared to the brain and liver. This fractionation is well explained by the equilibrium distribution of isotopes between different bonding environments of Zn in different organs. Differences in gender and genetic background did not appear to affect the isotopic distribution of Zn. Together, these results suggest the potential use of Zn isotopes as a tracer for dietary Zn, and for detecting disturbances in Zn metabolism due to pathological conditions. PMID:23589059

Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Shaw, Andrey S; Le Borgne, Marie

2013-06-01

111

Naturally Occurring Organic Compounds and Algal Growth in a Eutrophic Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature was reviewed with respect to naturally occurring organic compounds. Their identity and effects on life forms are listed in tabular form. Methods of separation and identification of trace organics in aquatic systems are discussed and applied...

V. D. Adams R. R. Renk P. A. Cowan D. B. Procella

1975-01-01

112

Evaluation of Exposure to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Tenorm) in the Phosphate Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this investigation was to provide information to the state of Florida regarding the radiation exposures to workers in the phosphate industry due to technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) and to...

B. C. Warren B. K. Birky T. Tolaymat

1998-01-01

113

Evaluation of the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Hungary, the evaluation of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) situation has not been performed in a full scale. So a surveying project was launched for study of TENORM situation.

L. Juhász; P. Szerbin; I. Czoch

2005-01-01

114

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM GROUNDWATER USING NATURALLY OCCURRING IRON OXIDES IN RURAL REGIONS OF MONGOLIA  

EPA Science Inventory

We have found that the iron oxide particles produced by grinding naturally occurring iron ores are very effective in removing arsenic from water. The arsenic adsorption isothermal of the particles h...

115

Study of naturally occurring, radionuclide bearing deposits at Portland Creek, Newfoundland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small uraniferous peat deposit located near Portland Creek, Newfoundland was investigated as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program (NUTP). The purpose of the investigation was to provide data on naturally occurring uranium series radionuclides a...

1985-01-01

116

Inhibition of Gland Development in Insects by a Naturally Occurring Antiallatotropin ("Anti-Hormone")  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The exercise will introduce the students to using chemical surgery as well as demonstrate the function of insect juvenile hormone and naturally occuring compounds in the interaction between insects and host plants.

Dorothy Feir (Saint Louis University;)

1981-06-07

117

Mass transfer and carbon isotope evolution in natural water systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents a theoretical treatment of the evolution of the carbon isotopes C13 and C14 in natural waters and in precipitates which derive from such waters. The effects of an arbitrary number of sources (such as dissolution of carbonate minerals and oxidation of organic material) and sinks (such as mineral precipitation, CO2 degassing and production of methane), and of equilibrium fractionation between solid, gas and aqueous phases are considered. The results are expressed as equations relating changes in isotopic composition to changes in conventional carbonate chemistry. One implication of the equations is that the isotopic composition of an aqueous phase may approach a limiting value whenever there are simultaneous inputs and outputs of carbonate. In order to unambiguously interpret isotopic data from carbonate precipitates and identify reactants and products in reacting natural waters, it is essential that isotopic changes are determined chiefly by reactant and product stoichiometry, independent of reaction path. We demonstrate that this is so by means of quantitative examples. The evolution equations are applied to: 1. (1) carbon-14 dating of groundwaters; 2. (2) interpretation of the isotopic composition of carbonate precipitates, carbonate cements and diagenetically altered carbonates; and 3. (3) the identification of chemical reaction stoichiometry. These applications are illustrated by examples which show the variation of ??C13 in solutions and in precipitates formed under a variety of conditions involving incongruent dissolution, CO2 degassing, methane production and mineral precipitation. ?? 1978.

Wigley, T. M. L.; Plummer, L. N.; Pearson, Jr. , F. J.

1978-01-01

118

Mass Independent Isotope Effects and Their Occurrence in Nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been nearly 20 years since the discovery of a chemically produced mass independent isotope effect by Thiemens and Heidenreich. Subsequent to that time there has been a great deal of progress in developing a physical chemical theory to account for the effect. In particular, recent work by R. Marcus and colleagues has advanced understanding of the effect considerably. There are now many know examples of mass independent isotopic compositions in nature, in fact, with the exception of water, all atmospheric molecules possess mass independent oxygen isotopic compositions. This includes O2, O3, CO2, H2O2, N2O, CO, and atmospheric aerosol sulfate and nitrate. In addition, sulfur in aerosol sulfate is mass independently fractionated and it is now known that the anomalies are preserved in Miocene Volcanic samples, Namibian desert sulfate, Pre-Cambrium sulfate and sulfide (sulfur isotopes), and sulfates from the Antarctic dry valleys. Polar ice samples are also known to preserve the mass independent isotopic anomalies. In addition, secondary minerals from the SNC Martian meteorites possess both sulfur and oxygen isotopic anomalies which are used to understand atmospheric-regolithic coupling. In all cases where mass independent isotopic compositions have been observed, understanding of the particular cycle has been advanced.

Thiemens, M. H.

2002-12-01

119

Stereochemical and pharmacological differences between naturally occurring p-synephrine and synthetic p-synephrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

p-Synephrine, the primary protoalkaloid in Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and some other Citrus species, exists in nature in the l- or [R-(?)]-enantiomeric form, whereas synthetic p-synephrine is a racemic mixture of the l- and d-enantiomeric forms. Based on receptor binding, the synthetic form is believed to exert approximately half the pharmacological activity of the naturally occurring protoalkaloid. This difference occurs

Sidney J. Stohs; Harry G. Preuss

120

Perchlorate isotope forensics with naturally produced 36Cl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source of perchlorate (ClO4-) in many surface and groundwaters is not known. Recent studies (Parker et al., 2008) suggest that natural production is widespread and common, and may involve atmospheric processes. The isotopic composition of perchlorate chlorine and oxygen has proven useful for identifying anthropogenic\\/natural perchlorate sources (Bohlke et al, 2005) and for exploring biodegradation in environmental samples (Sturchio

D. Hillegonds; D. Parker; M. Singleton; B. Buchholz; B. Esser; J. Moran; D. Rood; R. Finkel

2008-01-01

121

Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

2013-01-01

122

Apoptosis and autophagy induction as mechanism of cancer prevention by naturally occurring dietary agents  

PubMed Central

Nontoxic naturally occurring compounds, especially those from dietary sources, are receiving increasing consideration for prevention and treatment of diseases including cancer. There is a growing need for innovative anticancer therapies and therefore search for natural compounds with novel biological activities or antineoplastic potential is currently an important area in drug discovery. Support for this interest also comes from increasing concern over the efficacy and safety of many conventional therapies, especially those that run over a long course of time. Laboratory studies in different in vitro and in vivo systems have shown that many natural compounds possess the capacity to regulate response to oxidative stress and DNA damage, suppress angiogenesis, inhibit cell proliferation and induce autophagy and apoptosis. This review discusses the induction of apoptosis and autophagy as a mechanism of cancer prevention by some of the most studied naturally occurring dietary compounds.

Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

2013-01-01

123

Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using ??D values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the ??13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that ??D values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that ??D values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ni, Y.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G. S.; Dai, J.; Katz, B.; Zhang, S.; Tang, Y.

2011-01-01

124

Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria  

SciTech Connect

Study the migration of nuclear waste contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Radioactive disequilibria among members of these decay-series nuclides can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting.

TEH-LUNG KU

2001-06-01

125

School-Age Children's Attributions About Their Own Naturally Occurring Minor Injuries: A Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze children's attribution of cause regarding their naturally occurring minor injuries in light of the pre-injury parental acceptability of children's behavior and the emotions children experienced immediately after the event. Method: Sixty-one 8-year-old children were interviewed biweekly for one year about their naturally oc- curring minor injuries. Participants monitored environmental and psychosocial elements of the injuries and later

Sara Gable; Lizette Peterson

1998-01-01

126

Recent progress regarding the bioactivities, biosynthesis and synthesis of naturally occurring resorcinolic macrolides.  

PubMed

Macrolides, which comprise a family of lactones with different ring sizes, belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Resorcinolic macrolides, an important subgroup, possess interesting structures and exhibit a wide variety of bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-bacteria, and anti-malaria activities, etc. This review summarizes progress in isolation, bioactivity studies, biosynthesis, and representative chemical syntheses of this group of macrolides in recent decades, encompassing 63 naturally occurring macrolides published in 120 articles. PMID:24464049

Xu, Jing; Jiang, Cheng-shi; Zhang, Zai-long; Ma, Wen-quan; Guo, Yue-wei

2014-03-01

127

A study of the dry heat resistance of naturally occurring organisms widely dispersed on a surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although Bacillus subtilis var. niger is the standard test organism for NASA planetary quarantine sterilization studies, it was found that some naturally occurring soil organisms are more heat resistant. The separation of these organisms from soil particles is described. Experiments are discussed which were designed to show that the heat resistance is a natural characteristic of the organisms, rather than a condition induced by the clumping effect of agglomerated particles and organisms.

Garst, D. M.; Lindell, K. F.

1971-01-01

128

Indicators of a Successful Naturally Occurring Retirement Community: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) with supportive service programs holds great promise for providing cost-effective services to enable seniors to age in place. This article describes program activities, services, partnerships, and indicators for a successful 3-mile suburban neighborhood NORC. Program evaluation of participation and exit data are powerful indicators of success: St. Louis NORC's nursing home placement rate is

Karen Berry Elbert; Peggy Strecker Neufeld

2010-01-01

129

The role of bacterial nanowires on naturally-occurring electrical fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial activity is shown to significantly contribute to the naturally occurring electrical fields observed in geologic media. To investigate the source mechanism of this phenomenon we constructed models of the subsurface by inoculating saturated sand columns with the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and a mutant strain as control. S. oneidensis (and other microoragnisms) are known to develop a structured network

E. A. Hill; D. Ntarlagiannis; E. A. Atekwana; Y. A. Gorby

2007-01-01

130

Naturally occurring interference in Luminex ® assays for HLA–specific antibodies: Characteristics and resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substances occurring naturally in the sera of patients can interfere with Luminex® antibody assays, causing increased background and changes in antibody specificity. We present data on the effectiveness of hypotonic dialysis (HD) or dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment in eliminating this interference. HD significantly increased reaction strength of positive control beads and reduced reaction strength of negative control beads. HD also improved

Andrea A. Zachary; Donna P. Lucas; Barbara Detrick; Mary S. Leffell

2009-01-01

131

Analysis for naturally occuring radionuclides at environmental concentrations by gamma spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical potential of low level, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for naturally occurring radionuclides at environmental levels is described, with particular emphasis on detector background levels and sensitivity. Comparisons are drawn between the performance of a specially designed low background detector system, and that of standard off the shelf devices. Sample characteristics, calibration procedures and checks, are described, and empirical

A. S. Murray; R. Marten; A. Johnston; P. Martin

1987-01-01

132

SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II---Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology

A. Shakhashiro; U. Sansone; H. Wershofen; A. Bollhöfer; C. K. Kim; C. S. Kim; M. Korun; M. Moune; S. H. Lee; S. Tarjan

2010-01-01

133

The new IAEA reference material: IAEA434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results.This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization

A. Shakhashiro; U. Sansone; H. Wershofen; A. Bollhöfer; C. K. Kim; C. S. Kim; G. Kis-Benedek; M. Korun; M. Moune; S. H. Lee; S. Tarjan; M. S. Al-Masri

2011-01-01

134

Naturally occurring allelic variations as a new resource for functional genomics in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in rice genome analysis has made it possible to analyze naturally occurring allelic variation underlying complex traits. Using heading date as a model for complex traits, we detected and characterized quantita- tive trait loci (QTLs) and identified genes at QTLs at the molecular level. QTLs for heading date were mapped by using several types of progeny derived from

M. Yano

135

A Naturally Occurring Genetic Variant in the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin  Gene 5 Is Assembly Inefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hCGb gene family is composed of six homologous genes linked in tandem repeat on chromosome 19; the order of the genes is 7, 8, 5, 1, 2, and 3. Previous studies have shown that hCGb gene 5 is highly expressed during the first trimester of pregnancy. The purpose of our study was to identify naturally occurring polymor- phisms in

AMANDA K. MILLER-LINDHOLM; ELLIOTT BEDOWS; CYNTHIA F. BARTELS; JACQUES RAMEY; VICTORIA MACLIN; RAYMOND W. RUDDON

1999-01-01

136

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and\\/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To

H. Beddow; S. Black; D. Read

2006-01-01

137

Subject Reaction to Human-Caused and Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Threat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While research has shown that people are adversely psychologically affected by knowledge that their communities have been toxically contaminated, it has been suggested that those who see a disaster as naturally occurring tend to be less adversely affected than those who see a disaster as caused by human acts. To examine this issue, questionnaires…

Belford, Susan; Gibbs, Margaret

138

Stimulation of uncoupling protein 1 expression in brown adipocytes by naturally occurring carotenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of naturally occurring carotenoids on brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. The rationale behind is that certain carotenoids have provitamin A activity in mammals, and that one of the active forms of vitamin A, (retinoic acid) is known to behave as a transcriptional activator of the key gene for brown fat thermogenesis, the one encoding the

F Serra; ML Bonet; P Puigserver; J Oliver; A Palou

1999-01-01

139

Naturally occurring vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Whisker growth of germanium sulfide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first naturally occurring terrestrial example of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been observed in condensates from gases released by burning coal in culm banks. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis indicate that the crystals consist of elongated rods (??? 100 ??m) of germanium sulfide capped by bulbs depleted in germanium. ?? 1974.

Finkelman, R. B.; Larson, R. R.; Dwornik, E. J.

1974-01-01

140

Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: A UV–visible spectroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids—the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, Kc. Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is

Bushra Naseem; S. W. H. Shah; Aurangzeb Hasan; S. Sakhawat Shah

2010-01-01

141

Photoprotection: part I. Photoprotection by naturally occurring, physical, and systemic agents.  

PubMed

The acute and chronic consequences of ultraviolet radiation on human skin are reviewed. An awareness of variations in naturally occurring photoprotective agents and the use of glass, sunglasses, and fabric can lead to effective protection from the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation. New systemic agents, including Polypodium leucotomos, afamelanotide, and antioxidants have potential as photoprotective agents. PMID:24238179

Jansen, Rebecca; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Osterwalder, Uli; Lim, Henry W

2013-12-01

142

Fuzzy rule-based modelling for human health risk from naturally occurring radioactive materials in produced water.  

PubMed

Produced water, discharged from offshore oil and gas operations, contains chemicals from formation water, condensed water, and any chemical added down hole or during the oil/water separation process. Although, most of the contaminants fall below the detection limits within a short distance from the discharge port, a few of the remaining contaminants including naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are of concern due to their bioavailability in the media and bioaccumulation characteristics in finfish and shellfish species used for human consumption. In the past, several initiatives have been taken to model human health risk from NORM in produced water. The parameters of the available risk assessment models are imprecise and sparse in nature. In this study, a fuzzy possibilistic evaluation using fuzzy rule based modeling has been presented. Being conservative in nature, the possibilistic approach considers possible input parameter values; thus provides better environmental prediction than the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. The uncertainties of the input parameters were captured with fuzzy triangular membership functions (TFNs). Fuzzy if-then rules were applied for input concentrations of two isotopes of radium, namely (226)Ra, and (228)Ra, available in produced water and bulk dilution to evaluate the radium concentration in fish tissue used for human consumption. The bulk dilution was predicted using four input parameters: produced water discharge rate, ambient seawater velocity, depth of discharge port and density gradient. The evaluated cancer risk shows compliance with the regulatory guidelines; thus minimum risk to human health is expected from NORM components in produced water. PMID:16730105

Shakhawat, Chowdhury; Tahir, Husain; Neil, Bose

2006-01-01

143

Investigating microbial carbon cycling using natural abundance isotope analysis of PLFA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding microbial carbon sources and cycling is fundamental to our conceptualization of microbial ecosystems and their role in biogeochemical cycling in natural systems. Achieving this understanding requires application of a wide range of approaches. Natural abundance isotope analysis of individual compounds, particularly cellular components such as Phospholipids Fatty Acids (PLFA) can provide insights into the carbon sources and metabolic activities of the in situ microbial community from environmental samples. This is primarily because specific PLFA can be well resolved by gas chromatography even from complex matrices where confounding biological/organic compound abound. These PLFA can then be attributed to the viable microbial community, in some cases to specific components of this community and due to characteristic biosynthetic fractionations of stable isotope ratios, ?13C analysis of PLFA can: differentiate isotopically distinct primary carbon sources of heterotrophic communities; identify isotopic patterns characteristic of autotrophic versus heterotrophic processes; and elucidate microbial biosynthetic pathways. In cases where there ?13C cannot provide resolution of carbon sources, new approaches in ?14C of PLFA can be applied. The vast range in ?14C of ancient and modern carbon provides an easily traceable signal that can differentiate uptake and utilization of these carbon sources. This is particularly useful in cases such as contaminated sites where petroleum based contamination has occurred, or in natural systems where microbial communities may be utilizing geologic versus recently photosynthetically fixed carbon. This talk will present several examples demonstrating the utility of this approach.

Slater, G. G.; Brady, A.; Cowie, B.

2008-12-01

144

Characterization of volatile compounds contributing to naturally occurring fruity fermented flavor in peanuts.  

PubMed

Published research has indicated that ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methybutanaote, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, hexanoic acid, butanoic acid, and 3-methylbutanoic acid are responsible for fruity fermented (FF) off-flavor; however, these compounds were identified in samples that were artificially created by curing immature peanuts at a constant high temperature. The objective of this study was to characterize the volatile compounds contributing to naturally occurring FF off-flavor. Volatile compounds of naturally occurring FF and no-FF samples were characterized using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), solid phase microextraction (SPME), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) identified 12 potent aroma active compounds, none of which were the previously identified esters, with no consistent differences among the aroma active compounds in no-FF and FF samples. Hexanoic acid alone was identified in the naturally occurring FF sample using the SAFE GC-MS methodology, whereas two of the three previously identified esters were identified in natural and artificially created samples. The same two esters were confirmed by SPME GC-MS in natural and artificially created samples. This study demonstrated the need for caution in the direct application of data from artificially created samples until those compounds are verified in natural samples. However, these results suggest that a laboratory method using SPME-GC techniques could be developed and correlated on an ester concentration versus FF intensity basis to provide an alternative to sensory analysis for detection of FF off-flavor in peanut lots. PMID:18686969

Greene, Jeffrey L; Sanders, Timothy H; Drake, Mary Anne

2008-09-10

145

Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic sources of Pb in Laramie basin groundwaters, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water well samples, precipitation, and leachates of aquifer rock samples from the Laramie basin, Wyoming, were analyzed to test the suitability of Pb isotopes for tracing hydrologic processes in a basin where Sr isotopes had proven effective. Leachable Pb from host rocks to aquifers in this basin have isotopically distinct compositions and isotopic tracing would be effective in differentiating natural

R. N. Toner; C. D. Frost; K. R. Chamberlain

2003-01-01

146

Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: A UV-visible spectroscopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids—the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, Kc. Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities.

Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S. W. H.; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S.

2010-04-01

147

Playing 'Tetris' reduces the strength, frequency and vividness of naturally occurring cravings.  

PubMed

Elaborated Intrusion Theory (EI) postulates that imagery is central to craving, therefore a visually based task should decrease craving and craving imagery. This study provides the first laboratory test of this hypothesis in naturally occurring, rather than artificially induced, cravings. Participants reported if they were experiencing a craving and rated the strength, vividness and intrusiveness of their craving. They then either played 'Tetris' or they waited for a computer program to load (they were told it would load, but it was designed not to). Before task completion, craving scores between conditions did not differ; after, however, participants who had played 'Tetris' had significantly lower craving and less vivid craving imagery. The findings support EI theory, showing that a visuospatial working memory load reduces naturally occurring cravings, and that Tetris might be a useful task for tackling cravings outside the laboratory. Methodologically, the findings show that craving can be studied in the laboratory without using craving induction procedures. PMID:24508486

Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon

2014-05-01

148

Containment of naturally occurring subsea hydrocarbon emissions--A project review  

SciTech Connect

The Offshore Coal Oil Point area of California's Santa Barbara Channel has long been known for naturally occurring hydrocarbon seepage. The most active seepage on the West Coast is located 1.7 miles offshore at a water depth of 220 feet. Two pyramid shaped structures have been installed over this seep and have effectively curtailed 50% of Santa Barbara County's atmospheric hydrocarbon pollution. These structures are the largest ever constructed for the recovery of naturally occurring hydrocarbon seepage. They are also the first permanent structures installed solely for the production of oil and gas rather than for emergency control. This paper will review the project management of this unique venture as well as the motivations involved, both economic and environmental. Accumulated operational data will also be presented including production rates and gas compositional analysis.

Guthrie, L.D.; Rowley, P.R.

1983-05-01

149

Pyrethroid insecticides: A naturally occurring toxin. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of pyrethrum and pyrethroid insecticides. Topics examine toxicity to fish, worms, flies, mosquitoes, and moths. Chemical residue on crops, the transportation of pyrethrum from soils to crops, and pyrethrum accumulation in ponds and lakes are among the topics discussed. Naturally occurring and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are included. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

150

Naturally occurring high-chloride coal and superheater corrision laboratory study  

SciTech Connect

Commerical boiler tube alloys were tested for the corrosive effect of chloride while firing a naturally occurring high chloride Midwestern bituminous coal. On the basis of exposure in the convection pass at temperatures from 1100-1700/sup 0/F, Inconel Alloy 690 was found to have very good resistance to corrosion while Incoloy 800H and Tp-310 s. s. were good transitional materials. Poor materials were T-22, 316 s. s., Inconel 617, and Inconel 671.

Plumley, A.L.; Roczniak, W.R.

1982-10-01

151

Apoptosis of Neuro2a cells induced by lysosphingolipids with naturally occurring stereochemical configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosphingolipids, which lack the fatty acid moiety of sphingolipids, are known to be accumulated in some vari- ants of sphingolipid storage diseases. Here, we report that lyso- sphingolipids with naturally occurring stereochemical config- urations induce apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells. The intracellular dehydrogenase activity and ( 3 H)thymi- dine incorporation of Neuro2a cells were strongly suppressed by the addition

Noriyuki Sueyoshi; Taku Maehara; Makoto Ito

152

Revising the proton affinity scale of the naturally occurring ? -amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton affinities (PA) of the 20 naturally occurring ?-amino acids (AA) have been determined computationally by means of density functional theory (DFT) and high-level G2(MP2)\\u000a calculations. These theoretical PAs, together with data that have appeared since 1997 in the literature, are used to validate\\u000a the most reasonable currently available PA scale for AAs (Harrison, A. G. Mass Spectrom. Rev.

Christian Bleiholder; Sándor Suhai; Béla Paizs

2006-01-01

153

Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in

Egidi

1999-01-01

154

Environmental contamination by technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material - TENORM: A case study of phosphogypsum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material\\u000a (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry, located in Cubatão, São Paulo State,\\u000a Southwest Brazil. This industry is responsible for the production of 69 million tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled\\u000a in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates

P. S. C. Silva; B. P. Mazzilli; D. I. T. Fávaro

2006-01-01

155

Determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in formation water during oil exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is conducted, in order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of technologically\\u000a enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in Iran petroleum industry. Samples were collected from offshore\\u000a oil company for analysis of 238U, 235U, and 232Th series in produced waters. The activities of samples were determined by high-purity germanium detector, well

F. Moatar; S. R. Shadizadeh; A. R. Karbassi; E. Ardalani; R. Akbari Derakhshi; M. Asadi

2010-01-01

156

Activity measurements of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry; it can be used in agriculture and to make building materials. Phosphogypsum is radioactive due to the presence of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) and its environmental impact is a major concern of the public authorities. The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory from IFIN-HH participated at the IAEA-CU-2007-06-CCRI(II)-S5 Supplementary Comparison

A. Luca; R. Margineanu; M. Sahagia; A. C. Wätjen

2009-01-01

157

Hydroxytyrosol, a Natural Molecule Occurring in Olive Oil, Induces Cytochrome c-Dependent Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (DPE), a naturally occurring phenolic antioxidant molecule found in olive oil, has been reported to exert several biological and pharmacological activities. We studied the effect of this compound on the proliferation and survival of HL60 cell line. Concentrations from 50 to 100 ?M DPE, comparable to its olive oil content, caused a complete arrest of HL60 cell proliferation and

Fulvio Della Ragione; Valeria Cucciolla; Adriana Borriello; Valentina Della Pietra; Gabriele Pontoni; Luigi Racioppi; Caterina Manna; Patrizia Galletti; Vincenzo Zappia

2000-01-01

158

California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) Update of the Schools Naturally Occurring Asbestos Guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to acquisition and/or construction of prospective school sites, the California Education Code mandates that school districts complete environmental assessments and cleanups for prospective new or expanding school sites in order to qualify for state funding. If prospective school sites are determined to have environmental contamination from hazardous materials, including naturally occurring hazardous materials such as naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), where there may be unacceptable potential health risks, the school sites must be properly mitigated prior to occupancy for protection of human health and the environment. NOA is of special concern for schools, because children who are exposed to asbestos may be at increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases over time. In order to protect human health, the Department of Toxic Substances Control's (DTSC) goals at school sites are to: 1) identify the presence of NOA in school site soils using exposure-reducing soil thresholds; 2) manage potential NOA exposures using mitigation measures to reduce generation of airborne asbestos fibers from soils on school sites; and 3) ensure long-term monitoring and protection of mitigation measures via Operations & Maintenance activities. DTSC is currently in the process of revising its Interim Guidance Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) at School Sites - September 2004. The revisions include: 1) updating the guidance to consider incremental sampling for use at NOA sites in consultation with DTSC's project manager and technical staff, and 2) documenting a tiered approach to addressing high and low activity areas on a school.

Malinowski, M.

2012-12-01

159

Perchlorate isotope forensics with naturally produced 36Cl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The source of perchlorate (ClO4-) in many surface and groundwaters is not known. Recent studies (Parker et al., 2008) suggest that natural production is widespread and common, and may involve atmospheric processes. The isotopic composition of perchlorate chlorine and oxygen has proven useful for identifying anthropogenic/natural perchlorate sources (Bohlke et al, 2005) and for exploring biodegradation in environmental samples (Sturchio et al, 2007). The stable isotope approach, however, requires processing very large volumes of water to obtain milligrams of rigorously separated perchlorate for analysis, limiting its widespread application. Chlorine-36 (36Cl) is a long-lived and rare radionuclide produced cosmogenically in the upper atmosphere. The measurement of 36Cl/Cl by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) only requires micrograms of sample chlorine enabling lower volume extractions (less than 1/10th that required for stable isotope techniques), and potentially less rigorous perchlorate chemistry. The primary technical goal of our work is to determine the utility of 36Cl in distinguishing perchlorate source and in constraining mechanisms of natural perchlorate formation. We expect that synthetic perchlorate compounds produced using chloride brines from ancient sources and concentrated modern deposits will have low 36Cl/Cl ratios that will be distinct from natural perchlorate produced in the atmosphere. High levels of 36Cl in groundwater or rainwater perchlorate would then be an unambiguous indication of a natural atmospheric production, and the distribution of 36Cl/Cl in precipitation and groundwater (in conjunction with stable isotope compositions) would constrain the mechanism for natural perchlorate production in the atmosphere. Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we have measured 36Cl/Cl in a number of synthetic perchlorate salts (including potassium, sodium, magnesium, and ammonium salts). Synthetic salt 36Cl/Cl atom ratios range from 1 to 35 e-15 (consistent with recently reported analyses in Sturchio et al., 2008), and are two to fifteen times the AMS background. Bohlke et al, 2005. Anal. Chem. 77, 7838-7842. Parker et al, 2008. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 1465-1471. Sturchio et al, 2007. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 2796-2802. Sturchio et al, 2008. 36Cl: Tracer of perchlorate origin? (abstr.)Goldschmidt 2008 (July 13-18, Vancouver, Canada). This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344

Hillegonds, D.; Parker, D.; Singleton, M.; Buchholz, B.; Esser, B.; Moran, J.; Rood, D.; Finkel, R.

2008-12-01

160

Alaska, Naturally Occurring Asbestos: Experiences, Policy and 2012 Limitation of Liability Legislation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in mineral deposits in Alaska. There are many regions in Alaska that have minerals in surface rocks that may contain asbestos and asbestos has been discovered in many locations in Alaska. Gravel is constantly in demand for heavy construction projects, but some remote localities in Alaska do not have gravel sources that are NOA-free. Determining if NOA can be safely used in heavy construction materials and what can or should be done with NOA materials that are already in place are complex questions. Answers will depend on the amount and type of asbestos mineral, how it is handled in processing, and how it is maintained - all subject to regulation and control of operations. The State of Alaska recently enacted legislation (HB 258) providing, among other things, "… immunity for the state and for landowners, extractors, suppliers, transporters, and contractors for certain actions or claims arising in connection with the use of gravel or aggregate material containing naturally occurring asbestos in certain areas." Implementation of the law and interim regulations and guidance should enable use of NOA for heavy construction materials in Alaska, but as with any new law, it will take some time to understand its full scope and effect.

Hargesheimer, J.; Perkins, R.

2012-12-01

161

Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24375470

Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

2014-07-01

162

Magic angle magnetic resonance imaging of diode laser induced and naturally occurring lesions in equine tendons.  

PubMed

Magic angle magnetic resonance (MR) imaging consists of imaging tendons at 55° to the magnetic field. In people, magic angle MR imaging is valuable for detection of chronic tendon lesions and allows calculation of tendon T1 values. Increased T1 values occur in people with chronic tendinopathy. The T1 values of normal equine tendons have been reported but there are no available data for abnormal equine tendons. Twelve limbs were studied. Two limbs had diode laser tendon lesions induced postmortem, four limbs had diode laser tendon lesions induced in vivo and six limbs had naturally occurring tendon lesions. The limbs were imaged at 1.5 T using both conventional MR imaging and magic angle MR imaging. The post-mortem laser induced lesions were identified only with magic angle MR imaging. The in vivo induced lesions and naturally occurring lesions were identified with both techniques but had a different appearance with the two imaging techniques. Magic angle imaging was helpful at identifying lesions that were hypointense on conventional imaging. Increased T1 values were observed in all abnormal tendons and in several tendons with a subjectively normal MR appearance. The increased T1 value may reflect diffuse changes in the biochemical composition of tendons. Magic angle imaging has potential as a useful noninvasive tool to assess the changes of the extracellular tendon matrix using T1 values. PMID:22548673

Spriet, Mathieu; Murphy, Brian; Vallance, Stuart A; Vidal, Martin A; Whitcomb, Mary Beth; Wisner, Erik R

2012-01-01

163

Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

Korte, N.E.

1990-12-01

164

Investigation of the resistance of some naturally occurring and synthetic inorganic ion exchangers against gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of various doses of gamma radiation on the ion-exchange capacity, distribution coefficient values, elution behaviour, physical effect, pH titration and infrared spectra of some synthetic inorganic ion exchangers, namely the cerium substituted phosphates; and naturally occurring inorganic ion exchangers, zeolites from different parts of Iran, have been studied systematically. No significant change has been observed in the ion-exchange capacity (with the exception of CeP(Na), CeP(Di·Na) and zeolite 5 (deposits of arababad talas)), elution behaviour, physical effect, chemical stability and the infrared spectra of the synthetic ion exchangers irradiated upto a total dose of 200 kGy, while a change has been observed in the pH-titration and distribution behaviour. The increase in pH is sharper for irradiated samples with divalent cations than for the normal samples. Furthermore, the Kd values, and hence the selectivity towards certain cations increase with the total dose absorbed, reaching its optimum selectivity with the dose of 50-100 kGy. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies, show, similar pattern to those of synthetic ion exchangers, and in some cases an extremely high selectivity toward certain cations, like Be II. These make, zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers more viable economically, and extremely useful alternative in this industry.

Nilchi, A.; Khanchi, A.; Ghanadi Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, A.

2003-02-01

165

15 N isotope biogeochemistry and natural denitrification process in groundwater: Application to the chalk aquifer of northern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 15 N natural isotope tracing in an aquifer contained within chalk rocks in northern France indicates that, under certain hydrogeological conditions, major denitrification occurs. At the boundary where the aquifer becomes confined, the nitrate concentrations decrease in the direction of groundwater flow accompanied by an exponential increase in 15 N (expressed in 15 N ) of the

André Mariotti; Alain Landreau; Béatrice Simon

1988-01-01

166

Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: a UV-visible spectroscopic study.  

PubMed

Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids-the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, K(c). Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities. PMID:20163982

Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S W H; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S

2010-04-01

167

Diene conformation in the naturally occurring tricarboxylic acid, telfairic acid, by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conformational geometry of the two C dbnd6 C bonds in a naturally occurring dienetricarboxylic acid, telfairic acid, isolated from Xylaria telfairii, has been determined by Raman spectroscopy. This application of analytical Raman spectroscopy is important because infrared, UV and NMR spectroscopic techniques have failed to provide sufficient information for the determination of the diene geometry. Several specially synthesised model dienecarboxylic acids with known diene conformations were used to calibrate the Raman data. The natural extract from X. telfairii was shown to be a mixture of both cis ( Z) and trans ( E) forms whereas the purified extract was predominantly the trans isomer. Raman data also suggest that the established method for the preparation of a trans- trans sorbic acid is open to debate. Further applications of the Raman technique for the determination of diene conformation of fungal metabolite extracts are proposed.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Edwards, Raymond L.; Hartley, Melanie J.; Quinn, Michael

2006-05-01

168

Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) Naturally Occurring Asbestos Regulations and Enforcement Protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAAQMD has been delegated local enforcement of the Naturally-Occurring Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations, Section 93105, Title 17, California Code of Regulation ("NOA ATCM") by the state Air Resource Board. BAAQMD will present an overview of how BAAQMD administers and enforces the NOA ATCM, as well as a discussion of various issues that have arisen at NOA projects BAAQMD has overseen, and steps that have been taken in the interest of protecting the public health.

Wall, M.

2012-12-01

169

Evolution of frequency clusters in the naturally occurring dust acoustic wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatiotemporal evolution of the naturally occurring dust acoustic wave mode is experimentally investigated in a weakly coupled dc glow discharge dusty plasma system over a range of neutral gas pressures through the application of a time-resolved Hilbert Transform. Frequency clusters are observed over a range of neutral gas pressures, though their spatial distribution varies with neutral gas pressure. It is also observed that the wave frequency is observed to drop by ˜10 Hz across these frequency clusters independent of the experimental parameters.

Williams, J. D.

2014-02-01

170

Sensitization of non-small cell lung cancer cells to cisplatin by naturally occurring isothiocyanates  

PubMed Central

We show that naturally occurring isothiocyanates (ITCs) sensitize human non-small cell lung cancer cells to cisplatin. Moreover, structure of the ITC side chain moiety is important for sensitization. In NCI-H596 cells, 20 ?M benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) enhance the efficacy of various concentrations of cisplatin, but sulforaphane (SFN) does not. Reducing the concentration of BITC and PEITC to 10 ?M still allows for sensitization of cells to cisplatin. Neither cellular platinum accumulation nor DNA-platination account for this increased cytotoxicity. BITC and PEITC deplete ?-tubulin, but SFN does not; this correlates with and may be important for sensitization.

Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Hong, Charles; Wu, Mona Y; McCracken, Erin; Wang, Xiantao; Mi, Lixin; Chung, Fung-Lung

2010-01-01

171

Effect of Naturally Occurring Flavonoids on Lipid Peroxidation and Membrane Permeability Transition in Mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of eight structurally related naturally occurring flavonoids in inhibiting lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT), as well as respiration and protein sulfhydryl oxidation in rat liver mitochondria, was evaluated. The flavonoids tested exhibited the following order of potency to inhibit ADP\\/Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation, estimated with the thiobarbituric acid assay: 3?-O-methyl-quercetin > quercetin > 3,5,7,3?,4?-penta-O-methyl-quercetin > 3,7,3?,4?-tetra-O-methyl-quercetin

Antonio C Santos; Sérgio A Uyemura; João L. C Lopes; José N Bazon; Fábio E Mingatto; Carlos Curti

1998-01-01

172

Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

1997-07-01

173

Two previously undescribed extracellular streptococcal antigens detectable with naturally occurring human antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Two streptococcal extracellular antigens (X and Y), which are detectable with naturally occurring human antibodies, have been isolated and shown to represent entities distinct from previously described streptococcal enzymes, toxins, and antigens. They are each synthesized by both group C and group A streptococci and appear to be proteins. Both antigens were found to be nonhemolytic and nontoxic for human leucocytes as well as for isolated beating newborn rat heart cells in tissue culture. In addition to being distinct from known streptococcal enzymes, they were also shown to be devoid of several other enzymatic activities. Images

Kiefer, D; Halbert, S P

1976-01-01

174

HPLC analysis of naturally occurring free D-amino acids in mammals.  

PubMed

D-amino acids are currently recognized as naturally occurring physiologically active substances and biomarkers in mammals. The progress of analytical technologies, mostly high resolution chromatographic or electrodriven separation methods, has significantly contributed to the advances in D-amino acid research in real biological matrices. In this review, we would like to describe the D-amino acid research, from the discovery of appreciable amounts of free D-amino acids in mammals to the current metabolomics study focusing on amino acid enantiomers. The liquid phase enantioselective analytical methods utilized for the determination of D-amino acids in mammals including human beings will be discussed. PMID:22386210

Miyoshi, Yurika; Koga, Reiko; Oyama, Tsubasa; Han, Hai; Ueno, Kyoko; Masuyama, Kei; Itoh, Yusuke; Hamase, Kenji

2012-10-01

175

AAV-Mediated Cone Rescue in a Naturally Occurring Mouse Model of CNGA3-Achromatopsia  

PubMed Central

Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia.

Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L.; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A.; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W.

2012-01-01

176

AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.  

PubMed

Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

Pang, Ji-jing; Deng, Wen-Tao; Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W

2012-01-01

177

Targeting the oncogenic role of miRNA in human cancer using naturally occurring compounds  

PubMed Central

Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of genes involved in development, growth, proliferation and apoptosis. In cancer several miRNAs have been functionally classified as oncogenes or tumour suppressers or act to regulate transcription factors, like nuclear factor kappa B and NF-E2–related factor 2, in cancers such as leukaemia, breast and colorectal. Therefore, it has been proposed that manipulating miRNA regulation may be a novel avenue for developing efficient therapies against cancer. In this issue, Li and colleagues describe a novel way of targeting miRNA, by using a naturally occurring anti-cancer compound found in mistletoe which they showed to down-regulate miR-135a&b, which target the 3?untranslated region of adenomatous polyposis coli gene, the inactivation of which is a major initiating event in colorectal tumourigenesis. This commentary aims to discuss the regulatory mechanisms of miRNA synthesis and the potential outcomes for using naturally occurring compounds antioxidants or cellular antioxidant pathways to target miRNA for therapeutic intervention. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on Li et al., pp. 349–364 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01042.x

Rushworth, Stuart A

2011-01-01

178

Naturally Occurring Human Urinary Peptides for Use in Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease*  

PubMed Central

Because of its availability, ease of collection, and correlation with physiology and pathology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics/peptidomics. However, the lack of comparable data sets from large cohorts has greatly hindered the development of clinical proteomics. Here, we report the establishment of a reproducible, high resolution method for peptidome analysis of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins, ranging from 800 to 17,000 Da, using samples from 3,600 individuals analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS. All processed data were deposited in an Structured Query Language (SQL) database. This database currently contains 5,010 relevant unique urinary peptides that serve as a pool of potential classifiers for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. As an example, by using this source of information, we were able to define urinary peptide biomarkers for chronic kidney diseases, allowing diagnosis of these diseases with high accuracy. Application of the chronic kidney disease-specific biomarker set to an independent test cohort in the subsequent replication phase resulted in 85.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results indicate the potential usefulness of capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS for clinical applications in the analysis of naturally occurring urinary peptides.

Good, David M.; Zurbig, Petra; Argiles, Angel; Bauer, Hartwig W.; Behrens, Georg; Coon, Joshua J.; Dakna, Mohammed; Decramer, Stephane; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Ehrich, Jochen H. H.; Eitner, Frank; Fliser, Danilo; Frommberger, Moritz; Ganser, Arnold; Girolami, Mark A.; Golovko, Igor; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haubitz, Marion; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Jankowski, Joachim; Jahn, Holger; Jerums, George; Julian, Bruce A.; Kellmann, Markus; Kliem, Volker; Kolch, Walter; Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Luppi, Mario; Massy, Ziad; Melter, Michael; Neususs, Christian; Novak, Jan; Peter, Karlheinz; Rossing, Kasper; Rupprecht, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P.; Schiffer, Eric; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Tarnow, Lise; Theodorescu, Dan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Vanholder, Raymond; Weissinger, Eva M.; Mischak, Harald; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

2010-01-01

179

Oocyst Discharge, Rumen Metabolism and Performance of Early Weaned Lambs with Naturally Occurring Coccidiosis Fed Monensin  

PubMed Central

Ninety-six 9.5 kg early-weaned lambs with naturally occurring coccidiosis were fed monensin either at 0, 11, 22, or 33 mg/kg of feed for 105 days. Fecal oocyst discharge during the first three days was highest with monensin 22 mg, lowest with monensin 33 mg and averaged 149.6 × 103 oocysts per gram feces for all lambs. Monensin at 22 mg/kg of feed reduced Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae and E. ahsata oocyst discharge. Organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were highest (P ? 0.05) in lambs fed monensin 22 mg/kg of feed. Monensin increased (P ? 0.01) rumen ammonia and propionic acid and decreased (P ? 0.01) acetic acid. Feeding monensin 33 mg decreased (P ? 0.05) feed intake by 5% and had no effect on gain or feed efficiency. Optimal responses were observed with monensin at 11 mg, feed consumption was not affected, gains were 8% higher (P ? 0.05) and feed was utilized 9% more efficiently (P ? 0.05) than the controls. In conclusion, monensin was an effective therapeutic agent against naturally occurring coccidial infections in early weaned lambs. Performance responses were largest with monensin fed at the rate of 11 mg/kg of feed.

Horton, G. M. J.; Stockdale, P. H. G.

1981-01-01

180

Wlds protection distinguishes axon degeneration following injury from naturally occurring developmental pruning.  

PubMed

Axon pruning by degeneration remodels exuberant axonal connections and is widely required for the development of proper circuitry in the nervous system from insects to mammals. Developmental axon degeneration morphologically resembles injury-induced Wallerian degeneration, suggesting similar underlying mechanisms. As previously reported for mice, we show that Wlds protein substantially delays Wallerian degeneration in flies. Surprisingly, Wlds has no effect on naturally occurring developmental axon degeneration in flies or mice, although it protects against injury-induced degeneration of the same axons at the same developmental age. By contrast, the ubiquitin-proteasome system is intrinsically required for both developmental and injury-induced axon degeneration. We also show that the glial cell surface receptor Draper is required for efficient clearance of axon fragments during developmental axon degeneration, similar to its function in injury-induced degeneration. Thus, mechanistically, naturally occurring developmental axon pruning by degeneration and injury-induced axon degeneration differ significantly in early steps, but may converge onto a common execution pathway. PMID:16772170

Hoopfer, Eric D; McLaughlin, Todd; Watts, Ryan J; Schuldiner, Oren; O'Leary, Dennis D M; Luo, Liqun

2006-06-15

181

Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores. [Viking spacecraft dry heat decontamination simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5- and 15-h cycles at 125 C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 0.001 to 0.0001) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

Puleo, J. R.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Peeler, J. T.; Oxborrow, G. S.

1978-01-01

182

Naturally occurring conjugated octadecatrienoic acids are strong inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Fatty acids from natural sources (mostly seed oils) were isolated and assayed for their effect on the bioconversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin E2, using sheep vesicular gland microsomes. Homologues and isomers of the naturally occurring fatty acids, obtained by chemical modification and/or organic synthetic methods, were also tested. Two very active cyclooxygenase inhibitors were discovered, namely jacarandic acid (8Z, 10E, 12Z-octadecatrienoic acid), isolated from Jacaranda mimosifolia, the concentration which gives 50% inhibition ([I]50) being 2.4 microM and the synthetic 8Z, 10E, 12E-octadecatrienoic acid, having an [I]50 of 1.0 microM. Under the conditions of the assay (75 microM substrate), earlier described potent inhibitors showed the following [I]50's: indomethacin: 1.3 microM; 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid: 1.3 microM, 8Z, 12E, 14Z-eicosatrienoic acid: 2.7 microM; 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid: 4.4 microM. At a concentration of about half that of the substrate, the following naturally occurring fatty acids revealed inhibition ([I]50): columbinic acid (29 microM), calendulic acid (31 microM), liagoric acid (31 microM), ximenynic acid (39 microM), crepenynic acid (40 microM) and timnodonic acid (43 microM). Other fatty acids, and some of the above acids, were converted themselves more or less rapidly, mostly into conjugated monohydroxy fatty acids. PMID:3107083

Nugteren, D H; Christ-Hazelhof, E

1987-03-01

183

Mathematical modeling of stable carbon isotope ratios in natural gases^@?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach is presented for mathematical modeling of stable carbon isotope ratios in hydrocarbon gases based on both theoretical and experimental data. The kinetic model uses a set of parallel first-order gas generation reactions in which the relative cracking rates of isotopically substituted (k?) and unsubstituted (k) bonds are represented by the equation k?/k=(Af?/Af) exp(-?Ea/RT), where R is the gas constant and T is temperature. Quantum chemistry calculations have been used to estimate the entropic (A f?/A f) and enthalpic (?Ea) terms for homolytic bond cleavage in a variety of simple molecules. For loss of a methyl group from a short-chain n-alkane (? C 6), for example, we obtain an average ?Ea of 42.0 cal/mol and an average A f?/A f of 1.021. Expressed differently, 13C-methane generation is predicted to be 2.4% (24‰) slower than 12C-methane generation (from a short-chain n-alkane) in a sedimentary basin at 200°C but only 0.7% (7‰) slower in a laboratory heating experiment at 500°C. Similar calculations carried out for homolytic bond cleavage in other molecules show that with few exceptions, ?Ea varies between 0 and 60 cal/mol and A f?/A f between 1.00 and 1.04. Examination of this larger data set reveals: (1) a weak sigmoid relationship between ?Ea and bond dissociation energy; and (2) a strong positive correlation between ?Ea and A f?/A f. The significance of these findings is illustrated by fitting a kinetic model to chemical and isotopic data for the generation of methane from n-octadecane under isothermal closed-system conditions. For a specific temperature history, the fitted model provides quantitative relationships among methane carbon isotope composition, total methane yield and methane generation rate which may have relevance to the cracking of oil-prone kerogens and crude oil. The observed variability of the kinetic reactivity of various methane source rocks highlights the need to apply and adequately calibrate such models with laboratory data for specific study areas. With this approach isotope data of natural gases can be used not only to estimate the time of gas generation in a sedimentary basin, but also to evaluate the source rock maturities at which specific accumulations were generated, and place constraints on trap charging histories.

Tang, Y.; Perry, J. K.; Jenden, P. D.; Schoell, M.

2000-08-01

184

NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database  

PubMed Central

Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC50/ED50/EC50/GI50), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients’ Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI50 data.

Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Agarwal, Subhash M.

2013-01-01

185

Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.  

PubMed

The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium. PMID:23519083

Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

2013-06-01

186

NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database.  

PubMed

Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC(50)/ED(50)/EC(50)/GI(50)), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients' Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI(50) data. PMID:23203877

Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Agarwal, Subhash M

2013-01-01

187

ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR RESOLUTION OF HYDROLOGY PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of environmental isotopes as tracers in the hydrosphere is increasing as analytical instrumentation improves and more applications are discovered. There exists still misconceptions on the role of isotopes in resolving hydrology problems. Naturally occurring isotopes in th...

188

Isotopic identification of nitrogen hotspots across natural terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen (N) influences local biological processes, ecosystem productivity, the composition of the atmospheric-climate system, and the human endeavour as a whole. Here we use natural variations in N isotopes, coupled with two models, to trace global pathways of N loss from the land to the water and atmosphere. We show that denitrification accounts for approximately 35 % of total N losses from the natural soil, with NO, N2O, and N2 fluxes equal to 15.7 ± 4.7 Tg N yr-1, 10.2 ± 3.0 Tg N yr-1, and 21.0 ± 6.1 Tg N yr-1, respectively. Our analysis points to tropical regions as the major "hotspot" of nitrogen export from the terrestrial biosphere, accounting for 71 % of global N losses from the natural land surface. The poorly studied Congo Basin is further identified as one of the major natural sources of atmospheric N2O. Extra-tropical areas, by contrast, lose a greater fraction of N via leaching pathways (~77 % of total N losses) than do tropical biomes, likely contributing to N limitations of CO2 uptake at higher latitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on global models of the N cycle among different regions of the unfertilized biosphere.

Bai, E.; Houlton, B. Z.; Wang, Y. P.

2012-08-01

189

Beneficial Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Naturally Occurring Tendinopathy  

PubMed Central

Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X107 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in enhancing normalisation of biomechanical, morphological, and compositional parameters. These data in natural disease, with no adverse findings, support the use of this treatment for human tendon injuries.

Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E.; Dudhia, Jayesh

2013-01-01

190

Naturally occurring disk herniation in dogs: an opportunity for pre-clinical spinal cord injury research.  

PubMed

Traumatic spinal cord injuries represent a significant source of morbidity in humans. Despite decades of research using experimental models of spinal cord injury to identify candidate therapeutics, there has been only limited progress toward translating beneficial findings to human spinal cord injury. Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation is a naturally occurring disease that affects dogs and results in compressive/contusive spinal cord injury. Here we discuss aspects of this disease that are analogous to human spinal cord injury, including injury mechanisms, pathology, and metrics for determining outcomes. We address both the strengths and weaknesses of conducting pre-clinical research in these dogs, and include a review of studies that have utilized these animals to assess efficacy of candidate therapeutics. Finally, we consider a two-species approach to pre-clinical data acquisition, beginning with a reproducible model of spinal cord injury in the rodent as a tool for discovery with validation in pet dogs with intervertebral disk herniation. PMID:21438715

Levine, Jonathan M; Levine, Gwendolyn J; Porter, Brian F; Topp, Kimberly; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

2011-04-01

191

El Dorado Air Quality Management District's Approach to Dealing With Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005, Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in El Dorado County made headlines with the discovery significant amounts of tremolite/actinolite asbestos in areas where residents had built, or were in the process of building, homes and residences. The El Dorado Air Quality Management District has been involved in all aspects of dealing with NOA from the very beginning of its discovery, from overseeing the rehabilitation of school sites to expanding and rewriting fugitive dust rules at construction sites. A discussion of best management practices which have been developed will be given, as well as how the El Dorado Air Quality Management District has worked to educate members of the public, as well as workers in the field, about NOA to aid in maintaining the health and safety of the public.

Thomas, C.

2012-12-01

192

Cell division promoting activity of naturally occurring dehydrodiconiferyl glucosides: do cell wall components control cell division?  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring isomers of the dehydrodiconiferyl glucosides have been isolated from Vinca rosea crown gall tumors and have been tested for cell division promoting activities in the tobacco pith and leaf assay systems. The enantiomeric isomers A and B are active, although they are required at concentrations up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than zeatin riboside to promote comparable growth. We estimate that the active dehydrodiconiferyl glucosides are present in rapidly growing tissues (tumor tissue, habituated tissue, cultured nontransformed tissue) in micromolar concentrations. In quiescent tobacco pith tissue, the levels of these compounds are reduced by a factor of 100. These results suggest that cytokinin may exert control of cell division through the accumulation of molecules (the dehydrodiconiferyl glucosides) that are apparent cell wall components. Images

Binns, A N; Chen, R H; Wood, H N; Lynn, D G

1987-01-01

193

Sensitization of non-small cell lung cancer cells to cisplatin by naturally occurring isothiocyanates.  

PubMed

We show that naturally occurring isothiocyanates (ITCs) sensitize human non-small cell lung cancer cells to cisplatin. Moreover, the structure of the ITC side chain moiety is important for sensitization. In NCI-H596 cells, 20 microM benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) enhance the efficacy of various concentrations of cisplatin, but sulforaphane (SFN) does not. Reducing the concentration of BITC and PEITC to 10 microM still allows for the sensitization of cells to cisplatin. Neither cellular platinum accumulation nor DNA platination account for this increased cytotoxicity. BITC and PEITC deplete beta-tubulin, but SFN does not; this correlates with and may be important for sensitization. PMID:20707406

Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Hong, Charles; Wu, Mona Y; McCracken, Erin; Wang, Xiantao; Mi, Lixin; Chung, Fung-Lung

2010-08-16

194

Some Nutritional Characteristics of a Naturally Occurring Alga (Microcystis sp.) in a Guatemalan Lake  

PubMed Central

The nutritional characteristics of an alga (Microcystis sp.) that occurs naturally in a Guatemalan lake were determined. The sun-dried material proved to have a high protein content (55.6%) and to be a possible good source of calcium and phosphorus (1, 169.1 and 633.4 mg/100 mg, respectively). Amino acid analysis showed that total sulfur amino acids were the most deficient ones, giving a protein score of 42 to the material. The in vitro protein digestibility of the material was 69.5%. Biological trials demonstrated that when the material was offered as the only protein source, very low consumption and a high mortality rate were obtained whether or not the diet was supplemented with 0.4% dl-methionine. However, when the material supplied 25% of the total protein of a corn-algae diet, the protein quality of the cereal was significantly improved (P < 0.05).

de la Fuente, Gabriel; Flores, Antonio; Molina, Mario R.; Almengor, Leticia; Bressani, Ricardo

1977-01-01

195

Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies  

DOEpatents

Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

Fliermans; , Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

2012-08-07

196

Ultra-trace Measurements of 210Pb in natural occurring radioactive materials by ICP-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CC-ICP-MS) was investigated as a possible alternative to nuclear analytical techniques for the determination of 210Pb. The formation of isobaric and polyatomic interferences was studied. Following the acid digestion, extraction chromatography was tested to assess their usefulness in reducing its interferences. A 210Pb pre-concentration of >300-fold and recoveries of 63-73% were obtained using a combined extraction chromatography and pre-concentration by evaporation protocol. Improvement in sensitivity of 210Pb was found by optimization of the collision cell parameters using krypton as a collision gas. The detection limit was improved by a factor of 300 for 210Pb. A detection limit of 0.214 ppt (0.698 Bq/mL) was obtained. The method was applied to determine 210Pb in samples of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

Amr, M. A.; Al-Saad, K. A.; Helal, A. I.

2010-04-01

197

Naturally Occurring Disk Herniation in Dogs: An Opportunity for Pre-Clinical Spinal Cord Injury Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injuries represent a significant source of morbidity in humans. Despite decades of research using experimental models of spinal cord injury to identify candidate therapeutics, there has been only limited progress toward translating beneficial findings to human spinal cord injury. Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation is a naturally occurring disease that affects dogs and results in compressive/contusive spinal cord injury. Here we discuss aspects of this disease that are analogous to human spinal cord injury, including injury mechanisms, pathology, and metrics for determining outcomes. We address both the strengths and weaknesses of conducting pre-clinical research in these dogs, and include a review of studies that have utilized these animals to assess efficacy of candidate therapeutics. Finally, we consider a two-species approach to pre-clinical data acquisition, beginning with a reproducible model of spinal cord injury in the rodent as a tool for discovery with validation in pet dogs with intervertebral disk herniation.

Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Porter, Brian F.; Topp, Kimberly; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

2011-01-01

198

The effect of various naturally occurring metal-binding compounds on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring biological molecules are of considerable interest as possible corrosion inhibitors because of increased attention on the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. A hydroxamate yeast siderophore (rhodotorulic acid), a catecholate bacterial siderophore (parabactin), an adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and two metal-binding compounds isolated from the tomato and sunflower roots, namely, chlorogenic and caffeic acid, respectively, were adsorbed from solution onto pure aluminum (99.9995%) and their effect on the critical pitting potential and polarization resistance in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl was measured. These measurements were made using anodic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. The catechol-containing siderophore has an inhibitive effect on the critical pitting potential of aluminum in 0.1 M NaCl and increases the polarization resistance of the metal over time. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel is also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

Hansen, D.C.; McCafferty, E. [Naval Research lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-01-01

199

BRC dosposal alternatives for NORM (naturally-occurring radioactive materials) wastes in Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has investigated low-cost, alternative disposal methods for certain wastes containing small quantities of NORM. This paper presents a multipathway safety analysis of various scenarios for disposing of wastes containing limited quantities of naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in Texas. The wastes include pipe scales and sludges from oil and gas production, residues from rare-earth mineral processing, and water treatment resins, but exclude large-volume, diffuse waste. The purpose of the safety analysis to the define concentration and quantity limits for the key nuclides of NORM what will avoid dangerous radiation exposures under different waste disposal scenarios. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C. (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Pollard, C.S. (Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, Austin, TX (USA))

1989-01-01

200

Gene conversion is involved in the transfer of genetic information between naturally occurring inversions of Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

The DNA sequences of the ribosomal protein 49 (rp49) region were determined for 34 isochromosomal strains of Drosophila subobscura representing two chromosomal arrangements, the OST and the O3 + 4 gene arrangements, which differ by two overlapping inversions. The data reveal that gene conversion is a mechanism responsible for the transfer of genetic information between naturally occurring inversions of Drosophila. The estimated rate of gene transfer by gene conversion at this region, which is close to an inversion breakpoint, is lower than previous estimates obtained experimentally at the rosy (ry) gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate that gene arrangements OST and O3 + 4 are monophyletic and rather old (0.58 and 0.73 million years old, respectively). Images

Rozas, J; Aguade, M

1994-01-01

201

Naturally occurring high chloride coal and superheater corrosion - a laboratory study  

SciTech Connect

The fireside corrosion potential of commercial boiler tube alloys at elevated temperatures when exposed to the combustion products from a series of coals was investigated. The results of the laboratory and field tests were previously reported. In a supplementary phase of the program, the effect of chloride on similar alloys while firing a naturally occurring high chloride Midwestern bituminous coal in the same laboratory furnace were studied. On the basis of exposure in the convection pass at temperatures from 1100 to 1700 F, Inconel Alloy 690 was very good while Incoloy 800 and Tp-310 S.S. were good transitional materials. Poor materials were T-22, 316S.S., Inconel 617, and Inconel 671. 4 refs.

Plumley, A.L.; Roczniak, W.R.

1981-01-01

202

Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised exclusively of naturally occurring antimicrobials and EDTA: antioxidant and antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways. PMID:24702678

Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Uhrich, Kathryn E

2014-05-12

203

Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.  

PubMed

Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC. PMID:24936033

Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

2014-01-01

204

Naturally occurring human plasminogen, like genetically related apolipoprotein(a), contains oxidized phosphatidylcholine adducts  

PubMed Central

Human apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), synthesized in the liver, contains oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPtdPC) adducts probably generated at the hepatic site. Since plasminogen (Plg), also synthesized in the liver, is genetically related and structurally homologous to apo(a), we wanted to determine whether it contains oxPtdPCs and their location. We used Plg isolated from fresh or frozen normal human plasma and several commercial preparations. Some were freed of non-covalently bound lipids by organic solvent extraction. By immunoblot analyses all products reacted against T15, a natural IgM monoclonal antibody specific for phosphorylcholine -containing oxidized phospholipids (ox-PLs). This immunoreactivity was retained in urokinase type plasminogen activator -generated plasmin and was abrogated in Plg previously digested with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a reaction that generated that predominantly C16:0 lysophosphatidylcholine species as determined by mass spectrometry. Lysoderivatives were also generated upon the cleavage by Lp-PLA2 of a model ox-PL chemically linked to a lysine-containing pentapeptide. From inorganic phosphorous analyses, we found 2 moles of oxPtdPC/mole of Plg distributed between the kringles 1-4 and mini-Plg domain. OxPtdPCs were also present in the Plg isolated from the serum-free medium of cultured human HepG2 cells. In conclusion, our results provide strong evidence that naturally occurring Plg contains oxPtdPC probably linked by a Schiff base and also suggest that the linkage occurs at the hepatic site. Given the emerging evidence for the cardiovascular pathogenicity of oxPtdPCs we speculate that they may impart athero-thrombogenic properties to Plg under inflammatory conditions.

Edelstein, Celina; Pfaffinger, Ditta; Yang, Ming; Hill, John S.; Scanu, Angelo M.

2010-01-01

205

Analysis of naturally-occurring radionuclides in coal combustion fly ash, gypsum, and scrubber residue samples.  

PubMed

Coal combustion residues from coal-fired power plants can be advantageous for use in building and construction materials. These by-products contain trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series, as well as other naturally occurring radionuclides such as K. Analysis was performed on samples of coal fly ash, flue gas desulfurization, gypsum and scrubber sludges, fixated scrubber sludges, and waste water filter cakes sampled from multiple coal-fired power plants in the United States. The radioactive content of U and Th decay series nuclides was determined using gamma photopeaks from progeny Pb at 352 keV and Tl at 583 keV, respectively; K specific activities were determined using the 1,461 keV photopeak. The samples were hermetically sealed to allow for secular equilibrium between the radium parents and the radon and subsequent progeny. Samples were analyzed in a common geometry using two high purity germanium photon detectors with low energy detection capabilities. The specific activities (Bq kg) were compared to results from literature studies including different building materials and fly ash specific activities. Fly ash from bituminous and subbituminous coals had U specific activities varying from 30-217 Bq kg (mean + 1 s.d. 119 ± 45 Bq kg) and 72-209 Bq kg (115 ± 40 Bq kg), respectively; Th specific activities from 10-120 Bq kg (73 ± 26 Bq kg) and 53-110 Bq kg (81 ± 18 Bq kg), respectively; and K specific activities from 177 to 928 Bq kg (569 ± 184 Bq kg) and 87-303 Bq kg (171 ± 69 Bq kg), respectively. Gypsum samples had U, Th, and K specific activities approximately one order of magnitude less than measured for fly ash samples. PMID:23361421

Roper, Angela R; Stabin, Michael G; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S

2013-03-01

206

Natural thorium isotopes in marine sediment core off Labuan port  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment core was collected from Labuan port and analyzed to determine the radioactivity of thorium (Th) isotopes. The objectives of this study are to determine the possible sources of Th isotopes at Labuan port and estimates the sedimentation rate based on 228Th/232Th model. The results suggest the 230Th and 232Th might be originated from terrestrial sedimentary rock while 228Th originated by authigenic origin. High ratio value of 230Th/232Th detected at the top surface sediment indicates the increasing of 230Th at the recent years which might be contributed from the anthropogenic sources. The sedimentation rate of core sediment from Labuan Port was successfully estimated by using 228Th/232Th model. The result show high sedimentation rate with 4.67 cm/year indicates rapid deposition occurred at this study area due to the high physical activity at the Labuan port. By assume the constant sedimentation rate at this area; we estimated the age of 142 cm core sediment obtained from Labuan port is 32 years started from 1981 to 2012. This chronology will be used in forthcoming research to investigate the historical profile of anthropogenic activities affecting the Labuan port.

Hafidz, B. Y.; Asnor, A. S.; Terence, R. C.; Mohamed, C. A. R.

2014-02-01

207

P20 Involvement of gasotransmitters in the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by naturally occurring triterpenes.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are increasing throughout the world and account for 34% of annual deaths that occur in low and middle-income countries. The vascular endothelium synthesizes and releases a broad spectrum of vasoactive substances that play a fundamental role in the regulation and maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Altered endothelial signal transduction, which involves nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reduced bioavailability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of six naturally occurring triterpenes and to explore the involvement of gasotransmitters in their mechanism of action. The vasodilator activity of ursolic acid, uvaol, betulinic acid, friedelin, oleanolic acid, and lupeol was assessed by using the isolated rat aorta. All compounds displayed a significant relaxant effect on endothelium-intact vessels, in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was significantly reduced by the NO synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. The most potent vasodilator compound was uvaol and ursolic acid displayed the highest maximal effect. Vasodilation induced by ursolic acid was endothelium-dependent. Furthermore, propargylglycine, a cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, and mesoporphyrin-IX, a heme oxygenase inhibitor, abolished the vasorelaxant effect of this triterpene. In addition, aorta vasodilation was reduced following blockade of potassium channels by glibenclamide and tetraethylammonium. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that NO is the main gasotransmitter responsible for relaxation induced by the triterpenes. However, H2S and CO also contribute to this effect. PMID:24948290

Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Solís-Gutiérrez, Mariana; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J

2013-09-01

208

Naturally occurring neoplasms in pigeons in a research colony: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

This study reports the gross and microscopic pathology of naturally occurring neoplasms in adult pigeons that were presented for necropsy at the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory from 2001 to 2011. The study population consisted of white carneau and mixed-breed pigeons used in behavioral studies in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. Twelve types of neoplasms or proliferative disorders were identified in 28 of 83 pigeons (33.7%). Five pigeons had two or three types of neoplasms-proliferative disorders. Of the 83 pigeons, 11 (13.3%) had seminoma, five (6.0%) had thyroid adenoma, four (4.8%) had lymphoma, four (4.8%) had adenocarcinoma of female reproductive tract origin, two (2.4%) had pulmonary carcinoma, and two (2.4%) had cutaneous vascular hamartomas. Also identified were single incidences of dysgerminoma, mesothelioma, liposarcoma, cloacal papilloma, cloacal adenocarcinoma, and gizzard carcinoma. The most frequently occurring tumor was seminoma; 7/11 cases effaced both testicles and 3/11 cases had metastasis to the liver or kidney. The relatively high prevalence of neoplasms in pigeons in the present study is most likely related to the advanced ages of pigeons kept in the research colony. PMID:23678742

Shimonohara, Nozomi; Holland, Christine H; Lin, Tsang-Long; Wigle, William L

2013-03-01

209

Naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in visual wulst of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

The visual wulst (VW), the rostro-dorsal surface of the avian telencephalon extending from the midline to the lateral region of the brain, is a laminated "bulge" consisting in four histologically distinct rostro-caudally arranged laminae with a specific sequence: hyperpallium apicale, interstitial nucleus of hyperpallium apicale, hyperpallium intercalatum and hyperpallium densocellulare. The VW has been proposed to be the avian equivalent of the mammalian striate cortex. Various behavioral studies including lesion experiments have indicated the importance of the VW, which receives visual and/or auditory cues. We have investigated qualitatively and quantitatively the fascinating structural changes occurring in VW neurons of the seasonally breeding bird, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766). The Golgi method was used to study the seasonal fluctuations in the neuronal classes of the VW with regard to dendritic thickness, spine morphology and spine density during both the non-breeding and breeding periods of male Baya weaver birds. Significant variations in parameters studied among the various neuronal types located in the different well-demarcated regions of the VW are believed to contribute to the functional differences reported among the wulst regions. Thus, this study extends our view demonstrating naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in a seasonally dynamic avian brain of a bird that hones not only its learning and memorizing system but also its social and sexual system in preparation for the breeding season. PMID:23435992

Srivastava, U C; Gaur, Parul

2013-06-01

210

Characterization of a naturally occurring recombinant isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus.  

PubMed

The naturally occurring Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recombinant isolate A17b was recovered from its grapevine host by sap inoculation and serial passages onto Gomphrena globosa, a pseudo local lesion herbaceous host, and Chenopodium quinoa, a systemic herbaceous host, to characterize some of its biological properties. Sequence analysis of the CP gene, in which a recombinational event was previously detected, demonstrated the genetic stability of recombinant isolate A17b over a 5-year period in its natural host as well as in C. quinoa. Also, recombinant isolate A17b was graft transmissible, as shown by an in vitro heterologous approach, and transmitted by the nematode Xiphinema index as readily as nonrecombinant GFLV isolates. Furthermore, despite a lower pathogenicity on Chenopodium amaranticolor, recombinant isolate A17b had a similar host range and induced similar symptoms in type and severity to nonrecombinant GFLV isolates. Interestingly, the use of infectious chimeric RNA2 transcripts in combination to RNA1 transcripts of GFLV strain F13 suggested no implication of the recombination event in the CP gene of isolate A17b in the reduced pathogenicity on C. amaranticolor. Altogether, recombinant isolate A17b had similar biological properties to GFLV nonrecombinant isolates. PMID:15968475

Vigne, E; Demangeat, G; Komar, V; Fuchs, M

2005-11-01

211

Controls on chemistry and diagenesis of naturally occurring iron-oxide phases  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of this study were to (i) document chemical and mineralogical compositions in two naturally acidic drainages over a 1 m soil profile, (ii) document organic and inorganic signatures representative of past chemical or biological processes in the soils, and (iii) determine whether mineralogical and chemical differences are a consequence of differences in original composition, depositional conditions, or diagenesis. Two sites were studied: Paymaster Creek in the Heddleston Mining District near Lincoln, Montana and the New World Mining District near Cooke City, Montana. The oldest deposits at both naturally acidic sites pre-date human mining activity by several thousand years, although there is recent human activity at both sites. Both sites have streams with high dissolved Fe and moderately low pH and actively accumulate schwertmannite on streambeds. Soil deposits away from the streambed at Paymaster Creek contained goethite with adsorbed sulfate, but no schwertmannite, suggesting either that the original conditions precluded schwertmannite precipitation or that diagenesis occurred rapidly converting the schwertmannite to goethite. The New World Mining District site showed the expected profile, which is a gradual transition from schwertmannite- and goethite-bearing soils to goethite-only soils. Concentrations of Cr, As and other trace elements shown to retard diagenesis were higher at the New World site than at the Paymaster site.

Nancy W. Hinman; J. Michelle Kotler; Beizhan Yan; Aaron Tenesch; Richard V. Morris; Daphne L. Stoner; Jill R. Scott

2009-07-01

212

In silico prediction of the cosmetic whitening effects of naturally occurring lead compounds.  

PubMed

The identification of tyrosinase inhibitors is important, not only for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders, such as melasma, but also for the production of cosmetic whitening effects. The aim of this study was the in silico prediction of the naturally occurring lead compounds in three commonly used skin-whitening herbs: Ampelopsis japonica, Lindera aggregata, and Ginkgo biloba. The active ingredients responsible for the whitening effect of these herbs remain largely unknown. The tyrosinase binding affinities and skin permeation, skin irritancy, and corrosive properties of43 natural constituents of the three herbs were predicted by docking simulations using Surflex-Dock and the QSAR-based Dermal Permeability Coefficient Program (DERMWIN) and Skin Irritation Corrosion Rules Estimation Tool (SICRET) implemented in Toxtree. Nine constituents of the three herbs were found to have more advanced binding energies than the gold standard whitening agents, arbutin and kojic acid, but 40 were indicative of at least one skin sensitization alert, and many exhibited poor skin permeability. Linderagalactone c and (+)-n-methyllaurotetanine were found to have the strongest prospects for use in topical formulations, as they achieved high predicted tyrosinase binding scores and displayed good skin permeation properties and minimal potential for skin sensitization and irritation. PMID:23156992

Fong, Pedro; Tong, Henry H Y

2012-10-01

213

A naturally occurring variant of Hsp90 that is associated with decanalization  

PubMed Central

The heat shock protein Hsp90 has been the focus of many studies since it was suggested that it acts to mediate the buffering of phenotypic variation. Hsp90-mediated buffering may result in the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation that, when released either as a consequence of environmental or genetic stress, increases the evolvability of a population. Recent studies using laboratory-induced mutations of Hsp90 and/or chemical inhibition to disrupt Hsp90 function confirm that Hsp90 can buffer cryptic genetic variation. We have previously identified a naturally occurring variant in the charged linker region of the Hsp90 gene, and now examine whether this variant is associated with altered levels of trait variability. The variant is associated with the release of cryptic genetic variation for canalized morphological (bristle) traits, but not for uncanalized morphological (wing and bristle) traits, and the effect on canalized traits depends on culture temperature. This suggests that natural genetic variation in Hsp90 may mediate the evolution of canalized morphological traits even if it does not influence the expression of variation for uncanalized traits.

Sgro, Carla M.; Wegener, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Ary A.

2010-01-01

214

Phosphate removal from wastewaters by a naturally occurring, calcium-rich sepiolite.  

PubMed

Developing an easily handled and cost-effective phosphate absorbent is crucial for the control of water eutrophication. In this study, a naturally occurring, calcium-rich sepiolite (NOCS) was evaluated for its feasibility as a phosphate absorbent candidate. Batch studies showed that phosphate sorption on NOCS followed a stepwise isotherm for concentrations between 5 and 1000 mg P/l, and the phosphate sorption was fitted well by the Freundlich equation. The estimated maximum phosphorus sorption capacity was 32.0 mg P/g, which was quite high compared with other natural materials and was comparable to some efficient manmade P absorbents. The NOCS sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-first-order model with an R(2) value of 0.999. The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent. Phosphate adsorption decreased moderately with increasing pH values from 3.0 to 6.0, and it decreased sharply in alkaline conditions. Ionic strength, sulfate, nitrate and chloride anions had no effects on the phosphate removal capacity of NOCS, but fluoride and bicarbonate anions exerted large effects. Phosphorus fractionation indicated that phosphate removed from the solution was primarily formed as a calcium-bound phosphorus precipitation, which was further confirmed by SEM-EDS analysis. Moreover, phosphate was barely (<1.5%) desorbed from the phosphorus-adsorbed sepiolite regardless of pH value. PMID:22088501

Yin, Hongbin; Yun, Ye; Zhang, Yinlong; Fan, Chengxin

2011-12-30

215

Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.  

PubMed

Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild. PMID:24582737

Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

2014-07-01

216

Isotopic analysis of uranium in natural waters by alpha spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is described for the determination of U234/U238 activity ratios for uranium present in natural waters. The uranium is coprecipitated from solution with aluminum phosphate, extracted into ethyl acetate, further purified by ion exchange, and finally electroplated on a titanium disc for counting. The individual isotopes are determined by measurement of the alpha-particle energy spectrum using a high resolution low-background alpha spectrometer. Overall chemical recovery of about 90 percent and a counting efficiency of 25 percent allow analyses of water samples containing as little as 0.10 ?g/l of uranium. The accuracy of the method is limited, on most samples, primarily by counting statistics.

Edwards, K. W.

1968-01-01

217

Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) is a single-stranded DNA begomovirus of tomato that causes downward leaf curl, yellowing, and stunting. Leaf curl disease results in significant yield reduction in tomato crops in the Nile Basin. ToLCSDV symptoms resemble those caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a distinct and widespread begomovirus originating in the Middle East. In this study, tomato samples exhibiting leaf curl symptoms were collected from Gezira, Sudan. The associated viral genome was molecularly characterized, analyzed phylogenetically, and an infectious clone for one isolate was constructed. Findings The complete genomes for five newly discovered variants of ToLCSDV, ranging in size from 2765 to 2767-bp, were cloned and sequenced, and subjected to pairwise and phylogenetic analyses. Pairwise analysis indicated that the five Gezira isolates shared 97-100% nucleotide identity with each other. Further, these variants of ToLCSDV shared their highest nucleotide identity at 96-98%, 91-95%, 91-92%, and 91-92% with the Shambat, Gezira, Oman and Yemen strains of ToLCSDV, respectively. Based on the high maximum nucleotide identities shared between these ToLCSDV variants from Gezira and other previously recognized members of this taxonomic group, they are considered isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. Analysis of the complete genome sequence for these new variants revealed that they were naturally occurring recombinants between two previously reported strains of ToLCSDV. Finally, a dimeric clone constructed from one representative ToLCSV genome from Gezira was shown to be infectious following inoculation to tomato and N. benthamiana plants. Conclusion Five new, naturally occurring recombinant begomovirus variants (>96% shared nt identity) were identified in tomato plants from Gezira in Sudan, and shown to be isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. The cloned viral genome was infectious in N. benthamiana and tomato plants, and symptoms in tomato closely resembled those observed in field infected tomato plants, indicating the virus is the causal agent of the leaf curl disease. The symptoms that developed in tomato seedlings closely resembled those observed in field infected tomato plants, indicating that ToLCSDV is the causal agent of the leaf curl disease in Gezira.

2014-01-01

218

Effects of Naturally Occurring Coumarins on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Mice  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often are a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10,Cyp3a1, GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(?/?) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure.

Kleiner, Heather E.; Xia, Xiojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni., John

2008-01-01

219

Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice  

SciTech Connect

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure.

Kleiner, Heather E. [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)], E-mail: hklein@lsuhsc.edu; Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Zhang, Jun [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Evans, Ronald M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Moore, David D. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); DiGiovanni, John [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2008-10-15

220

Naturally Occurring Variants of Human ?9 Nicotinic Receptor Differentially Affect Bronchial Cell Proliferation and Transformation  

PubMed Central

Isolation of polyadenilated mRNA from human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D revealed the presence of multiple isoforms of RNA coded by the CHRNA9 gene for ?9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). BEP2D cells were homozygous for the rs10009228 polymorphism encoding for N442S amino acid substitution, and also contained mRNA coding for several truncated isoforms of ?9 protein. To elucidate the biologic significance of the naturally occurring variants of ?9 nAChR, we compared the biologic effects of overexpression of full-length ?9 N442 and S442 proteins, and the truncated ?9 variant occurring due to a loss of the exon 4 sequence that causes frame shift and early termination of the translation. These as well as control vector were overexpressed in the BEP2D cells that were used in the assays of proliferation rate, spontaneous vs. tobacco nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced cellular transformation, and tumorigenicity in cell culture and mice. Overexpression of the S442 variant significantly increased cellular proliferation, and spontaneous and NNK-induced transformation. The N442 variant significantly decreased cellular transformation, without affecting proliferation rate. Overexpression of the truncated ?9 significantly decreased proliferation and suppressed cellular transformation. These results suggested that ?9 nAChR plays important roles in regulation of bronchial cell growth by endogenous acetylcholine and exogenous nicotine, and susceptibility to NNK-induced carcinogenic transformation. The biologic activities of ?9 nAChR may be regulated at the splicing level, and genetic polymorphisms in CHRNA9 affecting protein levels, amino acid sequence and RNA splicing may influence the risk for lung cancer.

Chikova, Anna; Grando, Sergei A.

2011-01-01

221

Infrared spectroscopic examination of the interaction of urea with the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infrared spectroscopy has shown for the first time that the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite can absorb urea, (NH2)2CO, under ambient conditions from either aqueous or ethanolic solutions. The two strongest NH stretching bands at 3441 and 3344 cm-1 in pure, solid urea shift to higher frequency (about 3504 and 3401 cm-1) after absorption. Two of the four urea bands in the 1800-1300 cm-1 range (at 1683 and 1467 cm-1) undergo marked downward shifts to about 1670 and 1445 cm-1. The other two bands show little change in frequency. The strong band at 1602 cm-1, however, diminishes in intensity to little more than an ill-defined shoulder on the 1626-cm-1 peak. When clinoptilolite is heated to 450 ??C and then treated with molten urea (ca. 140 ??C) for several minutes, and finally washed twice with ethanol to remove excess unreacted urea, further changes become apparent in the spectrum of the urea-treated clinoptilolite. The two NH stretching bands broaden without significant change in frequency. Two new bands appear in the midfrequency range at 1777 (weak) and 1719 (medium strong) cm-1. Of the four original midfrequency peaks, the one at 1602 cm-1 is now absent. Two others (1627 and 1440 cm-1) exhibit little change, while the fourth has broadened and shifted down to 1663 cm-1, where it appears as a shoulder on the band at 1627 cm-1. Both treatments clearly induce interaction between urea and the zeolite which seems to result in significant modifications in the nature of the hydrogen bonding of the substrate. ?? 1991.

Byler, D. M.; Gerasimowicz, W. V.; Stockette, V. M.; Eberl, D. D.

1991-01-01

222

Thermodynamic characterization of RNA duplexes containing naturally occurring 1 x 2 nucleotide internal loops.  

PubMed

Thermodynamic data for RNA 1 x 2 nucleotide internal loops are lacking. Thermodynamic data that are available for 1 x 2 loops, however, are for loops that rarely occur in nature. In order to identify the most frequently occurring 1 x 2 nucleotide internal loops, a database of 955 RNA secondary structures was compiled and searched. Twenty-four RNA duplexes containing the most common 1 x 2 nucleotide loops were optically melted, and the thermodynamic parameters DeltaH degrees , DeltaS degrees , DeltaG degrees 37, and TM for each duplex were determined. This data set more than doubles the number of 1 x 2 nucleotide loops previously studied. A table of experimental free energy contributions for frequently occurring 1 x 2 nucleotide loops (as opposed to a predictive model) is likely to result in better prediction of RNA secondary structure from sequence. In order to improve free energy calculations for duplexes containing 1 x 2 nucleotide loops that do not have experimental free energy contributions, the data collected here were combined with data from 21 previously studied 1 x 2 loops. Using linear regression, the entire dataset was used to derive nearest neighbor parameters that can be used to predict the thermodynamics of previously unmeasured 1 x 2 nucleotide loops. The DeltaG degrees 37,loop and DeltaH degrees loop nearest neighbor parameters derived here were compared to values that were published previously for 1 x 2 nucleotide loops but were derived from either a significantly smaller dataset of 1 x 2 nucleotide loops or from internal loops of various sizes [Lu, Z. J., Turner, D. H., and Mathews, D. H. (2006) Nucleic Acids Res. 34, 4912-4924]. Most of these values were found to be within experimental error, suggesting that previous approximations and assumptions associated with the derivation of those nearest neighbor parameters were valid. DeltaS degrees loop nearest neighbor parameters are also reported for 1 x 2 nucleotide loops. Both the experimental thermodynamics and the nearest neighbor parameters reported here can be used to improve secondary structure prediction from sequence. PMID:18020450

Badhwar, Jaya; Karri, Saradasri; Cass, Cody K; Wunderlich, Erica L; Znosko, Brent M

2007-12-18

223

Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.  

PubMed

Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ?10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³?U, ²³²Th and ??K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³?U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg?¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ?0.13 mSv y?¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and storage warehouse were found to range from 10 to 213 Bq m?³. In this study, the estimated annual effective doses to exposed workers were <1 mSv y?¹. PMID:21148590

Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

2011-06-01

224

Potential involvement of Neospora caninum in naturally occurring ovine abortions in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite and is recognised as the leading cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Natural infection with N. caninum has been described in sheep but it has generally not been regarded as a significant cause of abortion. Recently, there have been several New Zealand cases of foetal abortions where N. caninum was detected which strongly suggested the involvement of Neospora in these abortions. However, there is minimal information about the prevalence of N. caninum infection naturally occurring in New Zealand sheep flocks and particularly its impact on reproduction success. Thus, this present study provides preliminary data on the role that Neospora is playing in ovine reproductive failure by establishing the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies and DNA in ewe blood and foetal material present in 21 New Zealand sheep farms with ongoing unexplained abortion problems and 10 farms with consistently high fertility levels. The results of this study demonstrated an overall seroprevalence of 1.4% which varied between Aborting/non-pregnant (1.8%), age-matched pregnant controls (0.6%) and high fertility (2.1%) ewes. However, despite the variation observed, there was no statistical difference between the three groups. In addition, Neospora DNA was detected by PCR in 13% of submitted foetal brains and in ewe blood from aborting/non-pregnant (6.9%), age-matched pregnant controls (3.6%) and high fertility pregnant (2.1%) ewes. When the PCR results were considered with the IFAT and IDEXX ELISA results, there was no correlation between serology positive and PCR positive blood samples. Taken together, these results reveal that reliance on ELISA-based serology or PCR alone may underestimate the involvement of Neospora. Furthermore, determining the involvement of Neospora appears to require a multi-facetted approach where diagnostic methods and serological cut-off values may need to be adjusted as further information about the effect of natural infections with N. caninum in the ovine host is elucidated. PMID:22112976

Howe, L; Collett, M G; Pattison, R S; Marshall, J; West, D M; Pomroy, W E

2012-04-30

225

The effects of cyclosporine versus standard care in dogs with naturally occurring glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a leading cause of chronic renal failure in dogs. However, little is known about the efficacy of available treatment options for GN in this species. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cyclosporine (Cy) administration on the outcome of naturally occurring GN in dogs. Thirteen dogs from 4 institutions were included in the study. Randomization of dogs into placebo-versus Cy-treated groups was stratified according to initial morphological diagnosis and contributing institution. Seven and 6 dogs were assigned to be given placebo or Cy, respectively. The initial Cy dose of 10 mg/kg every 24 hours was adjusted to maintain 24-hour trough, whole blood Cy concentrations between 250 and 400 ng/mL. There were no statistically significant differences between placebo- and Cy-treated groups with respect to serum total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen and creatinine, and plasma protein concentrations; platelet count; urine protein-creatinine ratio; endogenous creatinine clearance; 24-hour urine protein concentrations; or 24-hour urine protein-endogenous creatinine clearance ratio. However, PCV was significantly lower in the Cy-treated group. Decreased appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, involuntary shaking, and thrombocytopenia were noted in both treatment groups; however, clinical signs in Cy-treated dogs subjectively were more severe. One Cy-treated dog developed gingival hyperplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8523323

Vaden, S L; Breitschwerdt, E B; Armstrong, P J; Correa, M T; Brown, C; Polzin, D J; Brace, J J; DiBartola, S P; Barsanti, J A; Crowell, W

1995-01-01

226

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2013-01-01

227

Effects of some naturally occurring iron ion chelators on in vitro superoxide radical formation.  

PubMed

The effects of some naturally occurring iron ion chelators and their derivatives on the electron transfer from ferrous ions to oxygen molecules were examined by measuring oxygen consumption rates. Of the compounds examined, quinolinic acid, fusaric acid, and 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid repressed the oxygen consumption, whereas chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, catechol, L-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine, and xanthurenic acid accelerated it. Theoretical calculations showed that the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) of [Fe(II)(ligand)3]- complexes were relatively high when the ligands were caffeic acid and its derivatives such as catechol, gallic acid, and L-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine. On the other hand, the energies of the HOMOs of [Fe(II)(ligand)3]- complexes were relatively low when the ligands were quinolinic acid and its derivatives such as 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid and fusaric acid. The energies of the HOMOs appear to be closely related with acceleration or repression of the oxygen consumption; that is to say, when the energy of the HOMO is high, the oxygen consumption is accelerated, and vice versa. PMID:16327062

Hirai, Tomihiro; Fukushima, Kazuaki; Kumamoto, Kazumasa; Iwahashi, Hideo

2005-01-01

228

Single agent polysaccharopeptide delays metastases and improves survival in naturally occurring hemangiosarcoma.  

PubMed

The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality. PMID:22988473

Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Reetz, Jennifer

2012-01-01

229

Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma  

PubMed Central

The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality.

Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Reetz, Jennifer

2012-01-01

230

An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

Smith, K.P.

1992-12-01

231

A naturally occurring contrast agent for OCT imaging of smokers' lung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers great potential for clinical applications in terms of its cost, safety and real-time imaging capability. Improvement of its resolution for revealing sub-layers or sub-cellular components within a tissue will further widen its application. In this study we report that carbon pigment, which is frequently present in the lungs of smokers, could be used as a contrast agent to improve the OCT imaging of lung tissue. Carbon produced an intense bright OCT image at a relatively deep location. The parallel histopathological section analysis confirmed the presence of carbon pigment in such tissues. The underlying mechanism of the OCT image formation has been discussed based on a model system in which carbon particles were dispersed in agar gel. Calculations and in-depth intensity profiles of OCT revealed that higher refractive index particles with a size close to or smaller than the wavelength would greatly increase backscattering and generate a sharp contrast, while a particle size several times larger than the wavelength would absorb or obstruct the light path. The naturally occurring contrast agent could provide a diagnostic biomarker of lung tissue in smokers. Furthermore, carbon under such circumstances, can be used as an effective exogenous contrast agent, with which specific components or tissues exhibiting early tumour formation can be optically labelled to delineate the location and boundary, providing potential for early cancer detection and its treatment.

Yang, Ying; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Whiteman, Suzanne C.; Gey van Pittius, Daniel; El Haj, Alicia J.; Spiteri, Monica A.; Wang, Ruikang K.

2005-08-01

232

Microbial Utilization of Naturally Occurring Hydrocarbons at the Guaymas Basin Hydrothermal Vent Site †  

PubMed Central

The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California; depth, 2,000 m) is a site of hydrothermal activity in which petroliferous material is formed by thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter. We investigated certain components of these naturally occurring hydrocarbons as potential carbon sources for a specific microflora at these deep-sea vent sites. Respiratory conversion of [1-14C]hexadecane and [1(4,5,8)-14C]naphthalene to 14CO2 was observed at 4°C and 25°C, and some was observed at 55°C, but none was observed at 80°C. Bacterial isolates were capable of growing on both substrates as the sole carbon source. All isolates were aerobic and mesophilic with respect to growth on hydrocarbons but also grew at low temperatures (4 to 5°C). These results correlate well with previous geochemical analyses, indicating microbial hydrocarbon degradation, and show that at least some of the thermally produced hydrocarbons at Guaymas Basin are significant carbon sources to vent microbiota.

Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Wirsen, Carl O.; Jannasch, Holger W.

1989-01-01

233

Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the South Western oil wells of Iran.  

PubMed

An investigation was carried out to find out the concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in an oil production unit, an evaporation pond, and a drilling site in the Khuzestan province, in south west Iran the 4th largest oil producing country in the world. The nuclides (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples and (226)Ra was analyzed in both soil and water. The (232)Th ranged between 8.7 and 403 Bq kg(-1), while the minimum concentration for (40)K was much larger, i.e. 82 Bq kg(-1) and its maximum concentration was 815 Bq kg(-1). Soil samples indicated very low concentrations of (226)Ra, typically between 10.6 and 42.1 Bq kg(-1) with some exceptions of 282, 602, and even 1480 Bq kg(-1). Also, the range for (226)Ra in water was less from 0.1 to a maximum 30.3 Bq L(-1). Results show that on average, NORM concentrations in these areas are lower in comparison with the usual concentration levels in typical oil and gas fields, but despite this fact, necessary measures have to be taken in order to minimize the environmental impact of radioactive materials. PMID:22321893

Khodashenas, Alireza; Roayaei, Emad; Abtahi, Seyed Mojtaba; Ardalani, Elham

2012-07-01

234

Sex differences in naturally occurring leg muscle pain and exertion during maximal cycle ergometry.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the role of sex in perceptions of leg muscle pain during exercise. Males (N = 26; age = 23.2 +/- 3.9) and females (N = 26; age = 21.9 +/- 3.5) matched on weekly energy expenditure completed a ramped maximal cycle ergometry test. Leg muscle pain thresholds were determined and pain intensity ratings as well as ratings of perceived exertion were obtained during and after exercise. The power output at pain threshold was lower in females (129.9 +/- 46.5 watts) compared to males (148.2 +/- 56.6 watts). Peak power output and peak pain intensity ratings were lower (P < 0.001) in females (211.3 +/- 39.1 watts; 5.5 +/- 2.9) compared to males (303.6 +/- 27.5 watts; 8.5 +/- 2.3). A Sex X Relative Intensity (i.e., % peak power output) ANOVA revealed that females reported lower pain ratings at each relative intensity examined (F = 17.7; df = 1.50; p < 0.001). The primary conclusion of this investigation is that females rate naturally occurring leg muscle pain as less intense than males when data are relativized to peak power output. PMID:9777439

Cook, D B; O'Connor, P J; Oliver, S E; Lee, Y

1998-09-01

235

The role of bacterial nanowires on naturally-occurring electrical fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial activity is shown to significantly contribute to the naturally occurring electrical fields observed in geologic media. To investigate the source mechanism of this phenomenon we constructed models of the subsurface by inoculating saturated sand columns with the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and a mutant strain as control. S. oneidensis (and other microoragnisms) are known to develop a structured network of electron- conductive bacterial nanowires as a response to electron acceptor limitation conditions. We show that strong voltage gradients (SP) were concomitant with redox potential gradients in the MR-1 column but absent in the mutant columns. We hypothesize that deeply submerged (suffocating) cells gain access to oxygen through the nanowire network which extends to the groundwater - atmospheric air interface. The nanowires serve as conduits for transfer electrons from bacteria in the anaerobic part of the column to bacteria at the surface that have access to oxygen. We suggest that this process is directly linked with SP and redox gradients that develop across the column. We also observed that in the absence of conductive nanowires (or other conductors) redox potential gradients do not necessarily promote SP gradients as documented in our control columns. Our results suggest that microbial activity and nanowires greatly impact the electrical properties of porous materials and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie geophysical methods for mapping microbial activity in near subsurface environments.

Hill, E. A.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Gorby, Y. A.

2007-05-01

236

Naturally occurring anti-band 3 antibodies have a unique affinity for C3.  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring anti-band 3 antibodies appear to mediate opsonization of oxidatively stressed and in vivo aged red cells. Their low concentration in plasma (< 100 ng/ml) and weak affinity (estimated association constant, 5-7 x 10(6) l/mol) contrasted with their biological efficiency. In compensating for their inadequate properties they have an affinity for C3 at a site independent of the antigen binding domain, with an estimated association constant of 2-3 x 10(5) l/mol. Though weak, their binding to C3 was about 100 times higher than that of whole IgG, which is known to have an affinity for C3. The affinity for C3 may render these antibodies preferred targets of the short-lived nascent C3b and result in a preferential C3b-anti-band 3 complex formation. C3b-IgG complexes represent the best opsonins and can nucleate alternative complement pathway C3 convertases by which opsonization is further enhanced. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Lutz, H U; Nater, M; Stammler, P

1993-01-01

237

Speech versus Song: Multiple Pitch-Sensitive Areas Revealed by a Naturally Occurring Musical Illusion  

PubMed Central

It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory–motor integration.

Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

2013-01-01

238

Cellulosic ethanol production using the naturally occurring xylose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

Rising crude oil prices and environmental concerns have renewed interest in renewable energy. Cellulosic ethanol promises to deliver a renewable fuel from non-food feedstocks. One technical challenge producing cellulosic ethanol economically is a robust organism to utilize the different sugars present in cellulosic biomass. Unlike starch where glucose is the only sugar present, cellulosic biomass has other sugars such as xylose and arabinose, usually called C5 sugars. This review examines the most promising naturally occurring C5 fermenting organism, Pichia stipitis. In this work, the properties that make P. stipitis unique from other organisms, its physiology and fermentation results on lignocellulosic substrates have been reviewed. P. stipitis can produce 41 g ethanol/l with a potential to cleanup some of the most concentrated toxins. These results coupled with the less stringent nutritional requirements, great resistance to contamination and its thick cell walls makes P. stipitis a viable organism for scale-up. However, P. stipitis has a slower sugar consumption rate compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and requires microaerophilic condition for ethanol production. Finally, future studies to enhance fermentation capabilities of this yeast have been discussed. PMID:18431677

Agbogbo, Frank K; Coward-Kelly, Guillermo

2008-09-01

239

Two naturally occurring terpenes, dehydrocostuslactone and costunolide, decrease intracellular GSH content and inhibit STAT3 activation.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the present study is to envisage the molecular mechanism of inhibitory action of dehydrocostuslactone (DCE) and costunolide (CS), two naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones, towards the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We report that, in human THP-1 cell line, they inhibit IL-6-elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity with EC(50) of 10 µM with concomitant down-regulation of the phosphorylation of the tyrosine Janus kinases JAK1, JAK2 and Tyk2. Furthermore, these compounds that contain an ?-?-unsaturated carbonyl moiety and function as potent Michael reaction acceptor, induce a rapid drop in intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration by direct interaction with it, thereby triggering S-glutathionylation of STAT3. Dehydrocostunolide (HCS), the reduced form of CS lacking only the ?-?-unsaturated carbonyl group, fails to exert any inhibitory action. Finally, the glutathione ethylene ester (GEE), the cell permeable GSH form, reverts the inhibitory action of DCE and CS on STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that these two sesquiterpene lactones are able to induce redox-dependent post-translational modification of cysteine residues of STAT3 protein in order to regulate its function. PMID:21625597

Butturini, Elena; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; de Prati, Alessandra Carcereri; Darra, Elena; Rigo, Antonella; Shoji, Kazuo; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Suzuki, Hisanori; Mariotto, Sofia

2011-01-01

240

? arcades: recurring motifs in naturally occurring and disease-related amyloid fibrils  

PubMed Central

Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates that accumulate in diseases such as Alzheimer’s or type II diabetes. The amyloid-forming protein is disease specific. Amyloids may also be formed in vitro from many other proteins, after first denaturing them. Unlike the diverse native folds of these proteins, their amyloids are fundamentally similar in being rigid, smooth-sided, and cross-?-structured, that is, with ? strands running perpendicular to the fibril axis. In the absence of high-resolution fibril structures, increasingly credible models are being derived by integrating data from a crossfire of experimental techniques. Most current models of disease-related amyloids invoke “? arcades,” columnar structures produced by in-register stacking of “? arches.” A ? arch is a strand-turn-strand motif in which the two ? strands interact via their side chains, not via the polypeptide backbone as in a conventional ? hairpin. Crystal structures of ?-solenoids, a class of proteins with amyloid-like properties, offer insight into the ?-arc turns found in ? arches. General conformational and thermodynamic considerations suggest that complexes of 2 or more ? arches may nucleate amyloid fibrillogenesis in vivo. The apparent prevalence of ? arches and their components have implications for identifying amyloidogenic sequences, elucidating fibril polymorphisms, predicting the locations and conformations of ? arcs within amyloid fibrils, and refining existing fibril models.—Kajava, A. V., Baxa, U., Steven, A. C. ? arcades: recurring motifs in naturally occurring and disease-related amyloid fibrils.

Kajava, Andrey V.; Baxa, Ulrich; Steven, Alasdair C.

2010-01-01

241

Repair of naturally occurring mismatches can induce mutations in flanking DNA  

PubMed Central

‘Normal’ genomic DNA contains hundreds of mismatches that are generated daily by the spontaneous deamination of C (U/G) and methyl-C (T/G). Thus, a mutagenic effect of their repair could constitute a serious genetic burden. We show here that while mismatches introduced into human cells on an SV40-based episome were invariably repaired, this process induced mutations in flanking DNA at a significantly higher rate than no mismatch controls. Most mutations involved the C of TpC, the substrate of some single strand-specific APOBEC cytidine deaminases, similar to the mutations that can typify the ‘mutator phenotype’ of numerous tumors. siRNA knockdowns and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that TpC preferring APOBECs mediate the mutagenesis, and siRNA knockdowns showed that both the base excision and mismatch repair pathways are involved. That naturally occurring mispairs can be converted to mutators, represents an heretofore unsuspected source of genetic changes that could underlie disease, aging, and evolutionary change. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02001.001

Chen, Jia; Miller, Brendan F; Furano, Anthony V

2014-01-01

242

Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ?? 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (???6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

Felicetti, L. A.; Schwartz, C. C.; Rye, R. O.; Gunther, K. A.; Crock, J. G.; Haroldson, M. A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C. T.

2004-01-01

243

Method for Collecting Naturally Occurring Airborne Bacterial Spores for Determining Their Thermal Resistance  

PubMed Central

The ability to determine the thermal resistance of naturally occurring air borne bacterial spores associated with spacecraft and their assembly areas has been hindered by lack of an effective collecting system. Efforts to collect and concentrate spores with air samplers or from air filters have not been successful. A fallout method was developed for this purpose and tested. Sterile Teflon ribbons (7.6 by 183 cm) were exposed in pertinent spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently treated with dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 125 and 113 C. Heating intervals ranged from 1 to 12 h at 125 C and 6, 12, 18, and 24 h at 113 C. Eight hours was the longest heating time yielding survivors at 125 C, whereas survivors were recovered at all of the heating intervals at 113 C. D125C values were calculated using the fractional-replicate-unit-negative technique of Pflug and Schmidt (1968) and ranged from 25 to 126 min. This variation indicated that the most probable number of survivors at each heating interval did not fall on a straight line passing through the initial spore population. However, the most-probable-number values taken alone formed a straight line suggesting logarithmic thermal destruction of a subpopulation of spores with a D125C value of 6.3 h.

Puleo, J. R.; Favero, M. S.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Herring, C. M.

1975-01-01

244

Detection of cultured and uncultured Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The species composition of a Burkholderia cepacia complex population naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere was investigated by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered from maize root slurry on the two selective media Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine (PCAT) and trypan blue tetracycline (TB-T) and subjected to identification by a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of the recA gene. DNA extracted directly from root slurry was examined by means of nested PCR to amplify recA gene with species-specific B. cepacia complex primers and to obtain a library of PCR amplified recA genes. Using the culture-dependent method the species Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia ambifaria and Burkholderia pyrrocinia were identified, whereas using the culture-independent method also the species Burkholderia vietnamiensis was detected. The latter method also allowed us to highlight a higher diversity within the B. cenocepacia species. In fact, by using the culture-independent method the species B. cenocepacia recA lineages IIIA and IIID besides B. cenocepacia recA lineage IIIB were detected. Moreover, higher heterogeneity of recA RFLP patterns was observed among clones assigned to the species B. cenocepacia than among B. cenocepacia isolates from selective media. PMID:16232288

Pirone, Luisa; Chiarini, Luigi; Dalmastri, Claudia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Tabacchioni, Silvia

2005-11-01

245

The effects of naturally occurring acids on the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos.  

PubMed

Chrysotile asbestos is considered an environmental health hazard. It is postulated that the surface of chrysotile, with its inherent positive charge and chemical content of trace transition metals within the mineral is a causative factor of the concern. Weathering may reduce the negative health effects of chrysotile asbestos, by alteration of the outer brucite layer of the chrysotile. To assess the changes in the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos by simulated weathering, chrysotile was treated with oxalic, hydrochloric, and carbonic acids. Naturally occurring chrysotile, from a mine site and serpentinitic stream sediments from the Sumas River were analyzed and compared. Oxalic acid, a chelating acid, was the most effective at extracting the majority of the trace elements present in the chrysotile, reducing their positive surface charge and producing visible changes at the surface of the fibers as shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microsopy (FESEM). Carbonic acid had little effect on the surface properties. Stream environments had minor detectable effects on the surface properties on the chrysotile stream sediments. PMID:25072777

Holmes, Emma P; Lavkulich, L M Les

2014-10-15

246

Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Tebes, C.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

247

Naturally occurring singleton residues in AAV capsid impact vector performance and illustrate structural constraints  

PubMed Central

Summary Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus are attractive and versatile vehicles for in vivo gene transfer. The virus capsid is the primary interface with the cell that defines many pharmacological, immunological and molecular properties. Determinants of these interactions are often restricted to a limited number of capsid amino acids. In this study, a portfolio of novel AAV vectors was developed following a structure-function analysis of naturally occurring AAV capsid isolates. Singletons, which are particular residues on the AAV capsid that were variable in otherwise conserved amino acid positions were found to impact on vector's ability to be manufactured or to transduce. Data for those residues that mapped to monomer-monomer interface regions on the particle structure suggested a role in particle assembly. The change of singleton residues to the conserved amino acid resulted in the rescue of many isolates that were defective upon initial isolation. This led to the development of an AAV vector portfolio that encompasses 6 different clades and 3 other distinct AAV niches. Evaluation of the in vivo gene transfer efficiency of this portfolio following intravenous and intramuscular administration highlighted a clade-specific tropism. These studies further the design and selection of AAV capsids for gene therapy applications.

Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Breous, Ekaterina; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gao, Guangping; Xiao, Ru; Sandhu, Arbans; Johnston, Julie; Debyser, Zeger; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Wilson, James M.

2009-01-01

248

Characterization of Naturally Occurring Atrazine-Resistant Isolates of the Purple Non-Sulfur Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Six isolates of the purple non-sulfur bacteria, which upon primary isolation were naturally resistant to the herbicide atrazine, were characterized with respect to their taxonomic identity and the mechanism of their resistance. On the basis of electron microscopy, photopigment analysis, and other criteria, they were identified as strains of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, or Rhodocyclus gelatinosus. These isolates exhibited degrees of atrazine resistance which ranged from 1.5 to about 4 times greater than that of cognate reference strains (American Type Culture Collection) tested. Furthermore, all of the reference strains tested were more intrinsically resistant to atrazine than was Rhodobacter sphaeroides. No unique plasmids which might encode for herbicide degradation or inactivation were found in these isolates. Resistance to the herbicide in these isolates was not the result of diminished binding of the herbicide to the L subunit of the bacterial reaction center. Differences in herbicide resistance among the various species of this group may be the result of compositional and chemical differences in the individual reaction centers. However, the increase in atrazine resistance for the isolates characterized in this study probably occurs by undefined mechanisms and not necessarily by changes in the binding of the herbicide to the L subunit of the photosynthetic reaction center. Images

Brown, Alfred E.; Luttrell, Robin; Highfill, Claudia T.; Rushing, Ann E.

1990-01-01

249

Novel class of glutathione transferases from cyanobacteria exhibit high catalytic activities towards naturally occurring isothiocyanates  

PubMed Central

In the present paper, we report a novel class of GSTs (glutathione transferases), called the Chi class, originating from cyanobacteria and with properties not observed previously in prokaryotic enzymes. GSTs constitute a widespread multifunctional group of proteins, of which mammalian enzymes are the best characterized. Although GSTs have their origin in prokaryotes, few bacterial representatives have been characterized in detail, and the catalytic activities and substrate specificities observed have generally been very modest. The few well-studied bacterial GSTs have largely unknown physiological functions. Genome databases reveal that cyanobacteria have an extensive arsenal of glutathione-associated proteins. We have studied two cyanobacterial GSTs which are the first examples of bacterial enzymes that are as catalytically efficient as the best mammalian enzymes. GSTs from the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 and from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 were found to catalyse the conjugation of naturally occurring plant-derived isothiocyanates to glutathione at high rates. The cyanobacterial GSTs studied are smaller than previously described members of this enzyme family, but display many of the typical structural features that are characteristics of GSTs. They are also active towards several classical substrates, but at the same moderate rates that have been observed for other GSTs derived from prokaryotes. The cloning, expression and characterization of two cyanobacterial GSTs are described. The possible significance of the observed catalytic properties is discussed in the context of physiological relevance and GST evolution.

Wiktelius, Eric; Stenberg, Gun

2007-01-01

250

A quantitative analysis of microbially-induced calcite precipitation employing artificial and naturally-occurring sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbially-induced calcite precipitation is a strong candidate for the production of sustainable construction materials. The process employs the microbe Sporosarcina pasteurii as an agent to microbially mediate the precipitation of calcium carbonate to bind unconsolidated sediment. As this process can be achieved under ambient temperature conditions and can utilise a wide variety of easily-available sediments, potentially including waste materials, it is envisioned that this procedure could significantly reduce carbon-dioxide emissions in the construction industry. This study describes and quantifies the precipitation of calcite cement in a range of naturally-occurring sediments compared with a control matrix. The study establishes the optimum treatment time for effective cement precipitation in order to produce a material that meets the standards required for construction whilst keeping economic and environmental outlays at a minimum. The 'control sediment' employed industrial-grade glass beads with a grain size range of 595-1180 microns (16-30 US mesh). Sporosarcina pasteurii were mixed in a solution of urea and calcium chloride and then inoculated into the control sediment. The microbes attach to the surface of the sediment grains and employ urea as a source of energy to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. By so doing, they increase the pH of the solution allowing calcium carbonate to precipitate at the cell walls to act as nucleation points facilitating the precipitation of cements as a grain-coating and biocementing the unconsolidated sediment. The solution treatment was repeated at eight hour intervals with samples removed for detailed analysis after each every five consecutive treatments (i.e. 40 hours). The process was repeated to produce 20 samples with treatment times between 40 and 800 hours. Cemented samples were impregnated with blue epoxy and examined petrographically to monitor cement development. Modal analysis was undertaken on each cemented sample to establish the abundance and natures of precipitated cements. Samples were also examined via SEM to monitor cement distribution and quantify the thickness of cements on grain surfaces and at grain-on-grain contacts. Analysis established that precipitation of calcite continues until 400 hours (50 treatments) after which time there is only an insignificant precipitation of new calcite cement. This is inferred to result from the occlusion of porosity (from 40% to 10%) and observed calcite precipitation at grain-on-grain contacts, both factors reduce the permeability of the samples and, thus, inhibit the flow of solution through the medium. The precipitated calcite cement was found to be dominantly grain-rimming with a consistent thickness averaging 11 microns. A range of naturally-occurring sediments were collected from surface locations throughout the United Arab Emirates. Samples were submitted to a range of petrographic and geochemical analysis in order to quantify grain-size distribution, grain composition and bulk total carbonate content (7.5-94 wt%). Sub-samples of these sediments were established by sieving and the cementation potential of different size fractions was established. Following treatment, these samples were submitted to the same analysis as those employed for the control sediment. A relationship between both sediment grain-size characteristics and sediment grain composition to cement precipitation was established and is discussed.

Lokier, Stephen; Krieg Dosier, Ginger

2013-04-01

251

The effect of natural weathering on the chemical and isotopic compositions of biotites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of progressive natural weathering on the isotopic (Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ??D, ??18O) and chemical (REE, H2O+) compositions of biotite has been studied on a suite of migmatitic biotites from the Chad Republic. During the early stages of weathering the Rb-Sr system is strongly affected, the hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions change markedly, the minerals are depleted in light REE, the water content increases by a factor of two, and the K-Ar system is relatively little disturbed. During intensive weathering the K-Ar system is more strongly disturbed than the Rb-Sr system. Most of the isotopic and chemical modifications take place under nonequilibrium conditions and occur before newly formed kaolinite and/or smectite can be detected. These observations suggest that 1. (a) "protominerals" may form within the biotite structure during the initial period of weathering, and 2. (b) only when chemical equilibrium is approached in the weathering profile are new minerals able to form. ?? 1982.

Clauer, N.; O'Neil, J. R.; Bonnot-Courtois, C.

1982-01-01

252

Modeling the pulsed light inactivation of microorganisms naturally occurring on vegetable substrates.  

PubMed

Pulsed light (PL) is a fast non-thermal method for microbial inactivation. This research studied the kinetics of PL inactivation of microorganisms naturally occurring in some vegetables. Iceberg lettuce, white cabbage and Julienne-style cut carrots were subjected to increasing PL fluences up to 12J/cm(2) in order to study its effect on aerobic mesophilic bacteria determined by plate count. Also, sample temperature increase was determined by infrared thermometry. Survivors' curves were adjusted to several models. No shoulder but tail was observed. The Weibull model showed good fitting performance of data. Results for lettuce were: goodness-of-fit parameter RMSE=0.2289, fluence for the first decimal reduction ?=0.98±0.80J/cm(2) and concavity parameter p=0.33±0.08. Results for cabbage were: RMSE=0.0725, ?=0.81±0.23J/cm(2) and p=0.30±0.02; and for carrot: RMSE=0.1235, ?=0.39±0.24J/cm(2) and p=0.23±0.03. For lettuce, a log-linear and tail model was also suitable. Validation of the Weibull model produced determination coefficients of 0.88-0.96 and slopes of 0.78-0.99. Heating was too low to contribute to inactivation. A single low-energy pulse was enough to achieve one log reduction, with an ultrafast treatment time of 0.5ms. While PL efficacy was found to be limited to high residual counts, the achievable inactivation level may be considered useful for shelf-life extension. PMID:21645816

Izquier, Adriana; Gómez-López, Vicente M

2011-09-01

253

Naturally Occurring Glucokinase Mutations Are Associated with Defects in Posttranslational S-Nitrosylation  

PubMed Central

Posttranslational activation of glucokinase (GCK) through S-nitrosylation has been recently observed in the insulin-secreting pancreatic ?-cell; however, the function of this molecular mechanism in regulating the physiology of insulin secretion is not well understood. To more fully understand the function of posttranslational regulation of GCK, we examined two naturally occurring GCK mutations that map to residues proximal to the S-nitrosylated cysteine and cause mild fasting hyperglycemia (maturity-onset diabetes of the young; subtype glucokinase). The kinetics of recombinantly generated GCK-R369P and GCK-V367M were assessed in vitro. The GCK-R369P protein has greatly reduced catalytic activity (relative activity index 0.05 vs. 1.00 for wild type), whereas the GCK-V367M has near normal kinetics (relative activity index 1.26 vs. 1.00 for wild type). Quantitative imaging and biochemical assays were used to assess the effect of these mutants on the metabolic response to glucose, GCK activation, and S-nitrosylation of GCK in ?TC3 insulinoma cells. Expression of either mutant in ?TC3 cells did not affect the metabolic response to 5 mm glucose. However, expression of either mutant blocked the effects of insulin on glucose-stimulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduction, suggesting defects in posttranslational regulation of GCK. Each of these mutations blocked GCK activation, and prevented posttranslational cysteine S-nitrosylation. Our findings link defects in hormone-regulated GCK S-nitrosylation to hyperglycemia and support a role for posttranslational regulation of GCK S-nitrosylation as a vital regulatory mechanism for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

Ding, Shi-Ying; Tribble, Nicholas D.; Kraft, Catherine A.; Markwardt, Michele; Gloyn, Anna L.; Rizzo, Mark A.

2010-01-01

254

Prion Peptide Uptake in Microglial Cells - The Effect of Naturally Occurring Autoantibodies against Prion Protein  

PubMed Central

In prion disease, a profound microglial activation that precedes neurodegeneration has been observed in the CNS. It is still not fully elucidated whether microglial activation has beneficial effects in terms of prion clearance or whether microglial cells have a mainly detrimental function through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To date, no disease-modifying therapy exists. Several immunization attempts have been performed as one therapeutic approach. Recently, naturally occurring autoantibodies against the prion protein (nAbs-PrP) have been detected. These autoantibodies are able to break down fibrils of the most commonly used mutant prion variant PrP106-126 A117V and prevent PrP106-126 A117V-induced toxicity in primary neurons. In this study, we examined the phagocytosis of the prion peptide PrP106-126 A117V by primary microglial cells and the effect of nAbs-PrP on microglia. nAbs-PrP considerably enhanced the uptake of PrP106-126 A117V without inducing an inflammatory response in microglial cells. PrP106-126 A117V uptake was at least partially mediated through scavenger receptors. Phagocytosis of PrP106-126 A117V with nAbs-PrP was inhibited by wortmannin, a potent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, indicating a separate uptake mechanism for nAbs-PrP mediated phagocytosis. These data suggest the possible mechanisms of action of nAbs-PrP in prion disease.

Roettger, Yvonne; Zerr, Inga; Dodel, Richard; Bach, Jan-Philipp

2013-01-01

255

Regulation of IgA production by naturally occurring TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin-A has an irreplaceable role in the mucosal defence against infectious microbes. In human and mouse, IgA-producing plasma cells comprise approximately 20% of total plasma cells of peripheral lymphoid tissues, whereas more than 80% of plasma cells produce IgA in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). One of the most biologically important and long-standing questions in immunology is why this 'biased' IgA synthesis takes place in the MALT but not other lymphoid organs. Here we show that IgA class-switch recombination (CSR) is impaired in inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-deficient (iNOS-/-; gene also called Nos2) mice. iNOS regulates the T-cell-dependent IgA CSR through expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptor, and the T-cell-independent IgA CSR through production of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL, also called Tnfsf13) and a B-cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family (BAFF, also called Tnfsf13b). Notably, iNOS is preferentially expressed in MALT dendritic cells in response to the recognition of commensal bacteria by toll-like receptor. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of iNOS+ dendritic cells rescues IgA production in iNOS-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that the MALT dendritic cells are a TNF-alpha/iNOS-producing dendritic-cell subset, originally identified in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. The presence of a naturally occurring TNF-alpha/iNOS-producing dendritic-cell subset may explain the predominance of IgA production in the MALT, critical for gut homeostasis. PMID:17713535

Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yukiko; Iwata, Makoto; Takeuchi, Hajime; Ishikawa, Hiromichi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Shiohara, Tetsuo; Akira, Shizuo; Ohteki, Toshiaki

2007-08-23

256

Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of (E) - Methyl isoeugenol: A naturally occurring food flavour.  

PubMed

Application of naturally occurring (E) - methyl isoeugenol (MIE) as food flavour has been widely accepted despite the growing concerns over cardiovascular issue. Hence, we sought to investigate hypotensive property of MIE and the involvement of central and/or peripheral mechanism (s). Variation in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), baroreflex sensitivity of normotensive rats and vascular reactivity were recorded. MIE (1.11, 2.25 or 4.50mg/kg, iv) elicited dose-related decrease in MAP (-16.9±1.13; -19.0±4.18 or -27.2±3.65mmHg, respectively) and an increase in HR (17.4±1.79; 24.4±5.11 or 29.9±6.62 bmp, respectively). MIE 25 or 50mg/kg (p.o) reduced the SBP (-13.6±4.18 or -16.6±5.60mmHg, respectively) without altering baroreflex sensitivity. The hypotensive effect of MIE remained unaltered by WAY100635 (antagonist of 5-HT1A) and L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor). Intracerebroventricular injection of MIE did not change MAP. MIE elicited endothelium independent vasorelaxation (endothelium-intact vessels, Emax 92.5±1.75%; Endothelium-denuded vessels, Emax 91.4±2.79%). MIE blocked CaCl2 or BAY K8644 (L-type voltage gated calcium channel activator)-induced vascular contractions. Our findings showed evidence of hypotensive and vasorelaxation effects of MIE with involvement of calcium channel. PMID:24842837

Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Elaine F; de Oliveira, Thiago S; de Oliveira, Lanussy P; Akanmu, Moses A; Ghedini, Paulo C; Pedrino, Gustavo R; Costa, Elson A

2014-08-01

257

Residential Proximity to Naturally Occurring Asbestos and Mesothelioma Risk in California  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Little is known about environmental exposure to low levels of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) and malignant mesothelioma (MM) risk. Objectives: To conduct a cancer registry-based case control study of residential proximity to NOA with MM in California. Methods: Incident MM cases (n = 2,908) aged 35 yr or more, diagnosed between 1988 and 1997, were selected from the California Cancer Registry and frequency matched to control subjects with pancreatic cancer (n = 2,908) by 5-yr age group and sex. Control subjects were selected by stratified random sampling from 28,123 incident pancreatic cancers in the same time period. We located 93.7% of subjects at the house or street level at initial diagnosis. Individual occupational exposure to asbestos was derived from the longest held occupation, available for 74% of MM cases and 63% of pancreatic cancers. Occupational exposure to asbestos was determined by a priori classification and confirmed by association with mesothelioma. Main Results: The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for low, medium, and high probabilities of occupational exposures to asbestos were 1.71 (1.32–2.21), 2.51 (1.91–3.30), and 14.94 (8.37–26.67), respectively. Logistic regression analysis from a subset of 1,133 mesothelioma cases and 890 control subjects with pancreatic cancer showed that the odds of mesothelioma decreased approximately 6.3% for every 10 km farther from the nearest asbestos source, an odds ratio of 0.937 (95% confidence interval = 0.895–0.982), adjusted for age, sex, and occupational exposure to asbestos. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that residential proximity to NOA is significantly associated with increased risk of MM in California.

Pan, Xue-lei; Day, Howard W.; Wang, Wei; Beckett, Laurel A.; Schenker, Marc B.

2005-01-01

258

Antibacterial activities of naturally occurring compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activities of 18 naturally occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols, and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (a bovine isolate [NCTC 8578], a raw-milk isolate [806R], and a human isolate [ATCC 43015]) were evaluated using a macrobroth susceptibility testing method. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was grown in 4 ml Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase, 0.05% Tween 80 (or 0.2% glycerol), and 2 microg/ml mycobactin J supplemented with five concentrations of each test compound. The changes in the optical densities of the cultures at 600 nm as a measure of CFU were recorded at intervals over an incubation period of 42 days at 37 degrees C. Six of the compounds were found to inhibit the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde, with a MIC of 25.9 microg/ml, followed by cinnamon oil (26.2 microg/ml), oregano oil (68.2 microg/ml), carvacrol (72.2 microg/ml), 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (74 microg/ml), and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (90.4 microg/ml). With the exception of carvacrol, a phenolic compound, three of the four most active compounds are aldehydes, suggesting that the structure of the phenolic group or the aldehyde group may be important to the antibacterial activity. No difference in compound activity was observed between the three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains studied. Possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial effects are discussed. PMID:18676709

Wong, Stella Y Y; Grant, Irene R; Friedman, Mendel; Elliott, Christopher T; Situ, Chen

2008-10-01

259

Molecular analysis of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 strains from Uruguay: evidence for natural occurring recombination.  

PubMed

Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. Genomic structure consists of three major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 (rep gene) encodes replication-related proteins, ORF2 (cap gene) encodes the capsid protein and ORF3 encodes a protein putatively involved in virus-induced apoptosis. Based on cap gene sequences, PCV2 strains are classified into two main genotypes, PCV2a with five clusters (2A-2E) and PCV2b with three clusters (1A-1C). According to previous theoretical studies, PCV2 strains can eventually undergo intra and inter-genotype recombination, mainly within the rep gene. Ever since, several evidences of recombination in the field have been reported and confirmed this hypothesis. In South America, data regarding molecular characterization of PCV2 strains is still scant. Genotyping studies in the region have concluded that PCV2b is the predominant circulating genotype in the region and till now, no recombinant strains have ever been reported. In this work we thoroughly characterized at the molecular level Uruguayan PCV2 strains by extensive sequence data analysis. Moreover, recombination software tools were applied to explore and characterize eventual occurrence of natural recombination events. Two recombinant PCV2 strains were detected in this study, as a consequence of an inter-genotype recombination event between PCV2b-1A and PCV2a-2D, as the major and minor parent, respectively. According to recombination software analysis, in both cases the event occurred within the ORF1. Herein, extensive viral sequence dataset is provided, including the characterization of the first PCV2 recombinant strains ever reported in South America. Additionally, our results suggested a multi-centered source of PCV2 infection in Uruguay, which probably involved Brazilian and European origins. PMID:23806516

Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

2013-10-01

260

Functional Characterization of Nine Novel Naturally Occurring Human Melanocortin-3 Receptor Mutations  

PubMed Central

The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is a member of family A rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor. Mouse genetic studies suggested that MC3R and the related MC4R are non-redundant regulators of energy homeostasis. Lack of Mc3r leads to higher feed efficiency and fat mass. However, until now only a few MC3R mutations have been identified in humans and the role of MC3R in the pathogenesis of obesity was unclear. In the present study, we performed detailed functional studies on nine naturally occurring MC3R mutations recently reported. We found that all nine mutants had decreased cell surface expression. A260V, M275T, and L297V had decreased total expression whereas the other six mutants had normal total expression. Mutants S69C and T280S exhibited significant defects in ligand binding and signaling. The dramatic defects of T280S might be partially caused by decreased cell surface expression. In addition, we found mutants M134I and M275T had decreased maximal binding but displayed similar signaling properties as wild-type MC3R. All the other mutants had normal binding and signaling activities. Co-expression studies showed that all mutants except L297V did not affect wild-type MC3R signaling. Multiple mutations at T280 demonstrated the necessity of Thr for cell surface expression, ligand binding, and signaling. In summary, we provided detailed data of these novel human MC3R mutations leading to a better understanding of structure-function relationship of MC3R and the role of MC3R mutation in obesity.

Yang, Fan; Tao, Ya-Xiong

2012-01-01

261

Functional characterization of nine novel naturally occurring human melanocortin-3 receptor mutations.  

PubMed

The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is a member of family A rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors. Mouse genetic studies suggested that MC3R and the related MC4R are non-redundant regulators of energy homeostasis. Lack of Mc3r leads to higher feed efficiency and fat mass. However, until now only a few MC3R mutations have been identified in humans and the role of MC3R in the pathogenesis of obesity was unclear. In the present study, we performed detailed functional studies on nine naturally occurring MC3R mutations recently reported. We found that all nine mutants had decreased cell surface expression. A260V, M275T, and L297V had decreased total expression whereas the other six mutants had normal total expression. Mutants S69C and T280S exhibited significant defects in ligand binding and signaling. The dramatic defects of T280S might be partially caused by decreased cell surface expression. In addition, we found mutants M134I and M275T had decreased maximal binding but displayed similar signaling properties as wild-type MC3R. All the other mutants had normal binding and signaling activities. Co-expression studies showed that all mutants except L297V did not affect wild-type MC3R signaling. Multiple mutations at T280 demonstrated the necessity of Thr for cell surface expression, ligand binding, and signaling. In summary, we provided detailed data of these novel human MC3R mutations leading to a better understanding of structure-function relationship of MC3R and the role of MC3R mutation in obesity. PMID:22884546

Yang, Fan; Tao, Ya-Xiong

2012-11-01

262

Trophic activity of a naturally occurring truncated isoform of the P2X7 receptor.  

PubMed

P2X7 is the largest member of the P2X subfamily of purinergic receptors. A typical feature is the carboxyl tail, which allows formation of a large pore. Recently a naturally occurring truncated P2X7 splice variant, isoform B (P2X7B), has been identified. Here we show that P2X7B expression in HEK293 cells, a cell type lacking endogenous P2X receptors, mediated ATP-stimulated channel activity but not plasma membrane permeabilization, raised endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content, activated the transcription factor NFATc1, increased the cellular ATP content, and stimulated growth. In addition, P2X7B-transfected HEK293 cells (HEK293-P2X7B), like most tumor cells, showed strong soft agar-infiltrating ability. When coexpressed with full-length P2X7 (P2X7A), P2X7B coassembled with P2X7A into a heterotrimer and potentiated all known responses mediated by this latter receptor. P2X7B mRNA was found to be widely distributed in human tissues, especially in the immune and nervous systems, and to a much higher level than P2X7A. Finally, P2X7B expression was increased on mitogenic stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Altogether, these data show that P2X7B is widely expressed in several human tissues, modulates P2X7A functions, participates in the control of cell growth, and may help understand the role of the P2X7 receptor in the control of normal and cancer cell proliferation. PMID:20453110

Adinolfi, Elena; Cirillo, Maria; Woltersdorf, Ronja; Falzoni, Simonetta; Chiozzi, Paola; Pellegatti, Patrizia; Callegari, Maria Giulia; Sandonà, Doriana; Markwardt, Fritz; Schmalzing, Günther; Di Virgilio, Francesco

2010-09-01

263

Control system for detection of the illegal use of naturally occurring steroids in calves.  

PubMed

Within the scope of the National Plan for Hormone Control in The Netherlands, a study was performed to develop a system for control of the illegal use of three naturally occurring hormones [oestradiol-17 beta (E2-17 beta), testosterone (T), progesterone (P)] for fattening purposes in animal production. Using a specific high-performance liquid chromatographic-radioimmunoassay method, reference values were established for concentrations of E2-17 beta, T and P and some of their metabolites in blood plasma and urine from untreated male and female veal calves. E2-17 beta levels of both male and female calves were less than 0.01 microgram/l in blood plasma and less than 0.2 microgram/l in urine. For male veal calves levels of T and epitestosterone (epiT) in blood plasma and urine varied widely. The P levels were less than 0.1-0.3 micrograms/l in blood plasma and less than 0.6-10 micrograms/l in urine from both male and female calves. To investigate the effect of anabolic treatment on the hormone levels in plasma and excreta, male veal calves were injected, subcutaneously into the dewlap, with a solution containing 20 mg of E2-17 beta benzoate and 200 mg of T propionate in 5 ml of arachis oil. Only the levels of E2-17 beta and E2-17 alpha in blood plasma and excreta were elevated until about one week after injection, compared with the untreated control calves and the reference values. T and epiT levels were similar in plasma and excreta from both untreated and treated animals. PMID:1874847

Arts, C J; van Baak, M J; den Hartog, J M

1991-04-01

264

Staphylococcal Phenotypes Induced by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Membrane-Interactive Polyphenolic ?-Lactam Resistance Modifiers  

PubMed Central

Galloyl catechins, in particular (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), have the capacity to abrogate ?-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (-)-epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for ?-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation.

Palacios, Lucia; Rosado, Helena; Micol, Vicente; Rosato, Adriana E.; Bernal, Patricia; Arroyo, Raquel; Grounds, Helen; Anderson, James C.; Stabler, Richard A.; Taylor, Peter W.

2014-01-01

265

Novel psbA1 Gene from a Naturally Occurring Atrazine-Resistant Cyanobacterial Isolate  

PubMed Central

A naturally occurring atrazine-resistant cyanobacterial isolate, strain SG2, was isolated from an atrazine-containing wastewater treatment system at the Syngenta atrazine production facility in St. Gabriel, La. Strain SG2 was resistant to 1,000 ?g of atrazine per ml but showed relatively low resistance to diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea]. Analyses of 16S ribosomal DNA indicated that strain SG2 falls into the Synechocystis/Pleurocapsa/Microcystis group. Photosynthetically driven oxygen evolution in strain SG2 was only slightly inhibited (about 10%) by 2,000 ?g of atrazine per ml, whereas in the control strain Synechocystis 6803, oxygen evolution was inhibited 90% by 1,000 ?g of atrazine per ml. No atrazine accretion, mineralization, or metabolites were detected when strain SG2 was grown with [14C]atrazine. Strain SG2 contained three copies of the psbA gene, which encodes the D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center. Nucleotide sequence analyses indicated that the psbA2 and psbA3 genes encoded predicted proteins with the same amino acid sequence. However, the psbA1 gene product contained five extra amino acids, which were not found in PsbA proteins from five other cyanobacteria. Moreover, the PsbA1 protein from strain SG2 had an additional 13 amino acid changes compared to the PsbA2/PsbA3 proteins and contained 10 amino acid alterations compared to conserved residues found in other cyanobacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis indicated that the psbA1 gene and the psbA2/psbA3 gene(s) were expressed in photosynthetically grown cells in the presence of atrazine. These results suggest that strong selection pressure conferred by the continual input of atrazine has contributed to the evolution of a herbicide-resistant, yet photosynthetically efficient, psbA gene in a cyanobacterium.

Sajjaphan, Kannika; Shapir, Nir; Judd, Adam K.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

2002-01-01

266

Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations. PMID:10647985

Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

2000-02-01

267

Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

268

Zinc isotope variations in natural and cultured marine phytoplankton.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zn is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton. Zn distribution in the ocean is largely controlled by biological uptake, being drawn down from several nanomolar concentrations in the deep ocean to picomolar concentrations in the surface ocean. Zn isotopes may record this biological activity based on the preferential uptake of lighter Zn isotopes by phytoplankton. Marechal et. al. (2000) attribute a seasonal cycle in the Zn isotope composition of sediment trap material and global variations in the Zn isotope composition of manganese nodules to this biological fractionation. To better understand the processes controlling the distribution of Zn isotopes in the ocean, the isotopic composition of phytoplankton was investigated. In-situ plankton were collected by trace metal clean plankton tows from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In a region close to a continental source of Zn, approximately 300 km off the coast of Brazil (7.4 S, 31.4 W), the isotope composition of the plankton tow material closely resembles that of continental material. The isotopic composition of plankton tows from more remote locations in the open ocean may better record the effects of biological cycling. Additional samples from the Atlantic, as well as samples from the central Pacific near Hawaii and the North Pacific are being processed. This data may be used to better understand how biological processes control the global distribution of Zn isotopes in the oceans.

John, S. G.; Bergquist, B. A.; Boyle, E. A.

2004-12-01

269

C-reactive protein concentrations in serum of dogs with naturally occurring renal disease.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to investigate the relation between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and parameters of renal function in dogs with naturally occurring renal disease. Dogs were assigned to groups according to plasma creatinine concentration, urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/UC), and exogenous plasma creatinine clearance (P-Cl(Cr)) rates. Group A (healthy control dogs; n = 8): non-azotemic (plasma creatinine <125 µmol/l) and nonproteinuric (UP/UC <0.2), with P-Cl(Cr) rates >90 ml/min/m(2); group B (n = 11): non-azotemic, nonproteinuric dogs with reduced P-Cl(Cr) rates (50-89 ml/min/m(2)); group C (n = 7): azotemic, borderline proteinuric dogs (P-Cl(Cr) rates: 22-67 ml/min/m(2)); and group D (n = 6): uremic, proteinuric dogs (not tested for P-Cl(Cr)). The serum CRP concentrations were measured via commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CRP concentrations in the clinically healthy dogs (group A) ranged from 2.09 mg/l to 8.60 mg/l (median: 3.21 mg/l). In comparison with dogs of group A, median CRP concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) elevated in dogs of group B (17.6 mg/l, range: 17.0-19.2 mg/l), group C (24.8 mg/l, range: 18.0-32.5 mg/l), and group D (59.7 mg/l, range: 17.7-123 mg/l). Serum CRP was significantly related to P-Cl(Cr) (r = -0.83; P < 0.001), plasma creatinine (r = 0.81; P < 0.001), UP/UC (r = 0.70; P < 0.001), and leukocytes (r = 0.49; P < 0.01). The significant relations between serum CRP concentrations and biochemical parameters of kidney function in plasma and urine suggest that a stimulation of the acute phase response is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine renal disease. PMID:21908313

Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J; Kohn, Barbara

2011-07-01

270

Mechanisms of action of naturally occurring antibodies against ?-amyloid on microglia  

PubMed Central

Background Naturally occurring autoantibodies against amyloid-? (nAbs-A?) have been shown to exert beneficial effects on transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animals in vivo and on primary neurons in vitro. Not much is known about their effect on microglial cells. Our aim was to investigate the effect of nAbs-A? on amyloid-? (A?)-treated microglial cells in vitro with respect to cell viability, stress pathways, cytokine production and phagocytotic abilities and whether these effects can be conveyed to neurons. Methods Primary microglial cells isolated from Swiss Webster mouse mesencephalons on embryonic day 13.5 were pretreated with nAbs-A? and then treated with A? oligomers. After 3 hours, phagocytosis as well as western blot analysis were evaluated to measure the amount of phagocytized A?. Cell viability was analyzed using an MTT assay 24 hours after treatment. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants were analyzed with ELISAs and then we treated primary neuronal cells with these conditioned microglia supernatants. Twenty-four hours later we did a MTT assay of the treated neurons. We further investigated the effect of a single nAbs-A? administration on Tg2576 mice in vivo. Results Upon co-administration of A? and nAbs-A? no change in microglia viability was observed. However, there was an increase in phosphorylated p38 protein level, an increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 and an increase in A? uptake by microglial cells. Treatment of primary neurons with conditioned microglia medium led to a 10% improvement in cell viability when nAbs-A? were co-administered compared to A?-treated cells alone. We were unable to detect changes in cytokine production in brain lysates of Tg2576 mice. Conclusions We provide evidence on the mechanism of action of nAbs-A? on microglia in vitro. Interestingly, our in vivo data indicate that nAbs-A? administration should be considered as a therapeutic strategy in AD, since there is no inflammatory reaction.

2013-01-01

271

Visual deficits and retinotoxicity caused by the naturally occurring anthelmintics, Embelia ribes and Hagenia abyssinica.  

PubMed

The naturally occurring anthelmintics, Embelia ribes (Enkoko) and Hagenia abyssinica (Kosso), have been reported to possibly cause optic atrophy among the Ethiopian population. In this study we found retinal pathology and defects in visual behavior in chicks treated with Enkoko, Kosso, or embelin, a crystalline extract of E. ribes. The chicks were fed orally with a high dose of 0.25 g (5 g/kg) or a low dose of 0.025 g (0.5 g/kg) per day of Enkoko or Kosso, beginning on Day 2 of life. The high dose for Enkoko was administered for 1 or 5 days, while that for Kosso was administered for 1 or 9 days. For the low dose of both Enkoko and Kosso, the dosing regime was for a period of 1, 4, or 9 days. Embelin was administered at a dose of 0.001 g (0.02 g/kg) per day for 9 days. Control chicks were force fed an equivalent amount of chick feed. Treatment with Enkoko or Kosso significantly reduced the ability of chicks to detect a moving bead introduced into the peripheral field of vision. The degree of constriction of the visual field for detection was dependent upon the total amount of drug administered. Performance on a visual discrimination task, which required discrimination of feed grains from pebbles, was also impaired in chicks treated with total doses of 0.200 and 0.250 g of Enkoko or Kosso. Thus, the extent of deficit in visually guided tasks was found to be dose dependent. The visual deficits observed in Enkoko-treated chicks were mimicked by embelin, which suggests that embelin may be responsible for the visual defects. Anatomical evidence of degeneration of ganglion cells was found in retinae exposed to high doses of Enkoko (1.25 g) and Kosso (2.25 g). However, no retinal lesions were detected in chicks following treatment with cumulative doses of less than 0.25 g of Enkoko or Kosso. Similarly, retinal pathology was not observed in embelin-exposed retinae. PMID:4060151

Low, G; Rogers, L J; Brumley, S P; Ehrlich, D

1985-11-01

272

Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference  

SciTech Connect

A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Manufactured Housing Institute. The results of this research can lead to savings in annual losses of life and property by providing validated information to enable the advancement of code requirements and by developing engineering software that can predict and optimize wind resistance.

William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

2006-08-01

273

Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba

2011-12-01

274

Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites  

SciTech Connect

One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba [Department of Science, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, City of Aalishahr, Bushehr Province, Iran P.O.Box: 7519619555 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-12-26

275

AcuteToxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential public health issues related to exposure to natural asbestos deposits (commonly termed naturally occurring asbestos, NO A) has gained the regulatory and media spotlight in recent years. Arguably the most well known example is Libby, Montana, the site of the largest ...

276

Football Injuries Occurring on Natural Grass and Tartan Turf. A Comparison Study Covering 17 Years at the University of Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)

Keene, J. S.; And Others

277

Elemental, stable isotopic and biochemical characterization of soil organic matter alteration across a natural peatland gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatlands store around one third of global soil C and thus represent a key reservoir. To elucidate how these systems might respond to climate change, field- and laboratory-based experimental incubation studies are being conducted at sites across a natural peatland gradient in the boreonemoral zone of central Sweden (Ryggmossen). The site comprises four successional stages, from edge to centre; Swamp Forest (SF), Lagg Fen (LF), Bog Margin (BM) and Bog Plateau (BP). The well-preserved succession shows strong decreases in mineral cations and pH, and distinct changes in vegetation and water-table depth. As an underpinning to these experiments, comprehensive characterization of natural soil organic matter (SOM) alteration has been carried out through detailed analyses of vegetation and downcore profiles at contrasting topographic sites (hummock vs hollow) in each of the four locations. As illustrated in Figure 1, while some similarities occur in downcore trends, contrasts are observed in C and N elemental and stable isotopic compositions, between stages and, in some cases, between microtopographic settings. Downcore trends and intersite differences are also observed in biochemical yields and molecular composition (carbohydrates, amino acids, phenols, lipids and D/L amino acid ratios). These reflect SOM decay and alteration combined with the effects of contrasting hydrologic, redox and nutrient regimes and differing vegetation and microbial inputs at each of the study sites. Multivariate analysis is used to to elucidate compositional patterns that characterize and delineate progressive SOM decay, specific vegetation types, and the effects of contrasting environmental conditions at the different sites. Figure 1. A. Organic carbon content (wt %), B. Atomic ratio of organic C to total N, C. Stable C isotopic composition of organic C (d13Corg), and D. Stable N isotopic composition of total nitrogen (d15N), all for core profiles from contrasting settings (hummock and hollow) at locations spanning a peatland gradient. Site locations are defined in the text.

Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Belyea, L.; Laing, C.; Allton, K.; Abbott, G.; Muhammad, A.

2010-12-01

278

Investigating Tungsten Concentrations and Isotopic Compositions of Natural Water Samples from the Carson River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that W-isotopes may fractionate in nature1; however, the magnitude and cause of the isotopic variations are largely unknown and unconstrained. In this study, the isotopic compositions of the NIST 3163 W standard, W ore minerals, and 15 natural surface waters from Nevada's Carson River Basin were analyzed by MC-ICP-MS using external bracketing with NIST 3163 and the IUPAC 184W/183W for mass bias correction. Chemical separation procedures were developed to purify W from natural matrices and tested to assure fractionation was not introduced during column chemistry. The W isotopic compositions of these samples were measured and compared to the accepted IUPAC composition of natural W. Samples of wolframite (Fe, MnWO4) and hubnerite (MnWO4) have compositions similar to the IUPAC value but vary from the isotopic composition of NIST 3163 - particularly in 182W/183W. The isotopic compositions of the natural waters, except for an extremely evaporated sample from Soda Lake, are similar to the NIST standard. This evaporative lake, formed by a maar, has a unique chemical composition compared to other surface waters with high W (800 ± 20 ng/g) and As (1665 ± 17 ng/g) concentrations; and relatively low Fe (5.00 ± 0.13 ng/g) and Mn (0.52 ± 0.07 ng/g). These results support recent observations of natural W isotopic variation and imply that W-isotope compositions may be useful for environmental applications of stable isotope geochemistry. 1. Irisawa, K. and Hirata, T. (2006) Tungsten isotopic analysis on six geochemical reference materials using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry coupled with a rhenium-external correction technique. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 21, 1387-1395.

Wasserman, N. L.; Williams, R. W.; Kayzar, T. M.; Schorzman, K. C.

2012-12-01

279

Sulphur isotopic and chemical compositions of the natural waters in the Chuncheon area, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of Chinese sources to the acid deposition in neighbouring countries in Far East Asia has been disputed. This study is to examine the isotopic composition of the S in the natural waters in the Chuncheon area to see if the isotopic composition can be an indicator of the pollution sources in the area. Meteoric water sampled between September

Jae-Young Yu

2004-01-01

280

NATURAL MERCURY ISOTOPES AS TRACERS OF SOURCES, CYCLING, AND DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY  

EPA Science Inventory

This research centers on the use of mercury isotope systematics as a new way of investigating natural and anthropogenic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere and of the atmospheric processes that affect transportation and deposition. Given the fact that isotope systematics of ...

281

Synthesis of the Naturally Occurring Phytanyl Diether Analogs of Phosphatidyl Glycerophosphate and Phosphatidyl Glycerol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diastereomers of the diphytanyl glycerol ether analogs of phosphatidyl glycerophosphate and phosphatidyl glycerol have been synthesized chemically and compared with the respective natural isomer isolated from the extremely halophilic bacterium, Haloba...

C. N. Joo M. Kates

1968-01-01

282

Oxygen isotope signatures of transpired water vapor: the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions.  

PubMed

The oxygen isotope signature of water is a powerful tracer of water movement from plants to the global scale. However, little is known about the short-term variability of oxygen isotopes leaving the ecosystem via transpiration, as high-frequency measurements are lacking. A laser spectrometer was coupled to a gas-exchange chamber directly estimating branch-level fluxes in order to evaluate the short-term variability of the isotopic composition of transpiration (?E ) and to investigate the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions in cork-oak trees (Quercus suber) during distinct Mediterranean seasons. The measured ?(18) O of transpiration (?E ) deviated from isotopic steady state throughout most of the day even when leaf water at the evaporating sites was near isotopic steady state. High agreement was found between estimated and modeled ?E values assuming non-steady-state enrichment of leaf water. Isoforcing, that is, the influence of the transpirational ?(18) O flux on atmospheric values, deviated from steady-state calculations but daily means were similar between steady state and non-steady state. However, strong daytime isoforcing on the atmosphere implies that short-term variations in ?E are likely to have consequences for large-scale applications, for example, partitioning of ecosystem fluxes or satellite-based applications. PMID:24909361

Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Piayda, Arndt; Werner, Christiane

2014-09-01

283

Review of research on impacts to biota of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides in produced water to the marine environment.  

PubMed

Produced water has been described as the largest volume waste stream in the exploration and production process of oil and gas. It is accompanied by discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides raising concerns over the potential radiological impacts of produced water on marine biota. In the Northern European marine environment, radioactivity in produced water has received substantial attention owing to the OSPAR Radioactive Substances Strategy which aims at achieving 'concentrations in the environment near background values for naturally occurring radioactive substances'. This review provides an overview of published research on the impacts to biota from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water by the offshore oil and gas industry. In addition to summarising studies and data that deal directly with the issue of dose and effect, the review also considers studies related to the impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. The review clearly illustrates that only a limited number of studies have investigated possible impacts on biota from naturally occurring radionuclides present in produced water. Hence, although these studies indicate that the risk to the environment from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water is negligible, the substantial uncertainties involved in the assessments of impact make it difficult to be conclusive. With regard to the complexity involved in the problem under consideration there is a pressing need to supplement existing data and acquire new knowledge. Finally, the present work identifies some knowledge gaps to indicate future research requirements. PMID:23022586

Hosseini, Ali; Brown, Justin E; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark

2012-11-01

284

Characterization of calcium isotopes in natural and synthetic barite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral barite (BaSO 4) accommodates calcium in its crystal lattice, providing an archive of Ca-isotopes in the highly stable sulfate mineral. Holocene marine (pelagic) barite samples from the major ocean basins are isotopically indistinguishable from each other (? 44/40Ca = -2.01 ± 0.15‰) but are different from hydrothermal and cold seep barite samples (? 44/40Ca = -4.13 to -2.72‰). Laboratory precipitated (synthetic) barite samples are more depleted in the heavy Ca-isotopes than pelagic marine barite and span a range of Ca-isotope compositions, ? 44/40Ca = -3.42 to -2.40‰. Temperature, saturation state, aBa/aSO42-, and aCa 2+/ aBa 2+ each influence the fractionation of Ca-isotopes in synthetic barite; however, the fractionation in marine barite samples is not strongly related to any measured environmental parameter. First-principles lattice dynamical modeling predicts that at equilibrium Ca-substituted barite will have much lower 44Ca/ 40Ca than calcite, by -9‰ at 0 °C and -8‰ at 25 °C. Based on this model, none of the measured barite samples appear to be in isotopic equilibrium with their parent solutions, although as predicted they do record lower ? 44/40Ca values than seawater and calcite. Kinetic fractionation processes therefore most likely control the extent of isotopic fractionation exhibited in barite. Potential fractionation mechanisms include factors influencing Ca 2+ substitution for Ba 2+ in barite (e.g. ionic strength and trace element concentration of the solution, competing complexation reactions, precipitation or growth rate, temperature, pressure, and saturation state) as well as nucleation and crystal growth rates. These factors should be considered when investigating controls on isotopic fractionation of Ca 2+ and other elements in inorganic and biogenic minerals.

Griffith, Elizabeth M.; Schauble, Edwin A.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Paytan, Adina

2008-12-01

285

Characterization of calcium isotopes in natural and synthetic barite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral barite (BaSO4) accommodates calcium in its crystal lattice, providing an archive of Ca-isotopes in the highly stable sulfate mineral. Holocene marine (pelagic) barite samples from the major ocean basins are isotopically indistinguishable from each other (?44\\/40Ca=?2.01±0.15‰) but are different from hydrothermal and cold seep barite samples (?44\\/40Ca=?4.13 to ?2.72‰). Laboratory precipitated (synthetic) barite samples are more depleted in

Elizabeth M. Griffith; Edwin A. Schauble; Thomas D. Bullen; Adina Paytan

2008-01-01

286

Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for (210)Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. (228)Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena. PMID:22782172

da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R; Godoy, Maria Luisa D P; Santos, Eliane E; Hacon, Sandra S

2012-07-11

287

Naturally Occurring Adenovirus-Induced Respiratory Disease in Two Guinea Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Respiratory disease is a common cause of morbidity in the guinea pig, and is chiefly of bacterial origin (5). Although a variety of viral diseases do occur in the guinea pig, there has been only one previous report of an adenovirus-induced respiratory dis...

L. H. Brennecke T. M. Dreier W. S. Stokes

1982-01-01

288

Traces Of Oil Products And Naturally Occurring Hydrocarbons In The Lake Koumoundourou Of Aspropirgos, Attiki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present work an investigation is made about the existence of petroleum and natural hydrocarbons in water samples of Lake Koumoundourou. The samples were collected from different points of the lake, inside the two barriers that were constructed by ELDA, as well as from the outlet of the lake to the sea. The analyses were made using gas chromatography.

T. Mimides; M. Psychoyou; A. Sgoumpopoulou; S. Rizos

289

OXA-134, a Naturally Occurring Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D ?-Lactamase from Acinetobacter lwoffii ?  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter lwoffii, a species whose natural habitat is the human skin, intrinsically possesses a chromosomal gene encoding a carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D ?-lactamase, OXA-134. This species may therefore constitute a reservoir for carbapenemase genes that may spread among other Acinetobacter species.

Figueiredo, Samy; Poirel, Laurent; Seifert, Harald; Mugnier, Pauline; Benhamou, Dan; Nordmann, Patrice

2010-01-01

290

Trigonelline, a naturally occurring constituent of green coffee beans behind the mutagenic activity of roasted coffee?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trigonelline and amino acids are natural components in green coffee beans. Model systems mimicking coffee roasting were used to produce heated samples of trigonelline, amino acids and glucose. Trigonelline and amino acids were heated separately or in combinations for 20 min at 250°C. The results of bacteria mutation assays (Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, YG 1024 and YG 1029) showed

X Wu; K Skog; M Jägerstad

1997-01-01

291

Evaluation of the age of landfill gas methane in landfill gas-natural gas mixtures using co-occurring constituents.  

PubMed

At a municipal solid waste landfill in southern California (USA) overlying a natural gas reservoir, methane was detected at concentrations of up to 40% (by volume) in perimeter soil gas probes. Stable isotope and (14)C values of methane together with gas composition (major components and volatile organic compounds) data were evaluated to assess the relative contributions of landfill gas and natural gas to the measured methane concentrations. The data was further used to estimate the residence time of the landfill gas in the probes. Results showed that up to 37% of the measured methane was derived from landfill gas. In addition, the landfill gas in the probe samples has undergone extensive alteration due to dissolution of carbon dioxide in pore water. Data further indicates that the measured methane was released from the waste approximately 1.2 to 9.4 years ago, rather than representing evidence of an ongoing release. PMID:23660592

Kerfoot, Henry B; Hagedorn, Benjamin; Verwiel, Mark

2013-06-01

292

Naturally occurring spinal hyperostosis in dogs as a model for human spinal disorders.  

PubMed

Both spondylosis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are prevalent in humans and are considered distinct entities. Nowadays, the term spondylosis is in the biomedical literature mostly used when concurrently degenerative disc disease is present. In companion animals, many reports on spondylosis, often without intervertebral disc degeneration, are described. The nomenclature and the definitions of both spondylosis and DISH in biomedical and veterinary literature should be more in line to facilitate comparison. Spondylosis and DISH occur in dogs spontaneously and can co-occur in one animal. Specifically, Boxers may serve as translational disease models for the elucidation of the gene(s) involved in the (etio)pathogenesis of spondylosis and DISH or serve as a test population for newly developed treatment options. PMID:24936035

Kranenburg, Hendrik-Jan C; Hazewinkel, Herman A W; Meij, Björn P

2014-01-01

293

Self diffusion of network formers (silicon and oxygen) in naturally occurring basaltic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Self diffusion coefficients (D*) for silicon and oxygen in anhydrous basaltic liquid [O/(Si+Al) = 2.5] were measured at 1 and 2 GPa and temperatures between 1320 and 1600{degrees}C. Simple diffusion couples were composed of isotopically normal basaltic glass synthesized from chemical reagents mated to chemically identical glass enriched in {sup 18}O and {sup 30}Si. Concentrations of {sup 18}O and {sup 30}Si across the interfacial region of the couples were analyzed by ion microprobe. At 1 and 2 GPa, D{sub o}* is consistently larger than D{sub Si}* for a given diffusion couple, but only at the highest temperature (1600{degrees}C) is the difference outside the small uncertainties for the analytical measurements. At 1 GPa the self diffusivities for both Si and O are well-described by the Arrhenius relationship 1n D{sub Si,O}* = (-12.5 {+-} 0.2) - (170000 {+-} 2000)/RT, where T is temperature in K, R is the gas constant in J K{sup -1} mole{sup -1}, and D* is expressed in m{sup 2} s{sup -1}. Self diffusion coefficients at 2 GPa are a factor of 1.5 greater and at 1400{degrees}C the activation volume (V{sub a}) is -6.7 cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1}. The similarity in self diffusion coefficients, small activation energies (<50% of the Si-O bonding energy), and negative activation volumes for Si and O self-diffusion in basaltic liquid suggest that network former diffusion is a largely cooperative process involving local contraction of the anionic structure. An evaluation of the Eyring {eta}-D relationship implies a mean translation distance for network former diffusion that is 2-3 times the diameter of the oxygen ion and of the order of the Si-Si separation distance. 43 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Lesher, C.E.; Tinker, D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Hervig, R.L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1996-02-01

294

Fate and bioaccumulation of soil-associated low-level naturally occurring radioactivity following disposal into a marine ecosystem. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The fate of radium (Ra) and other naturally occurring uranium-series isotopes associated with soils disposed in seawater was examined using the Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory (MERL) controlled marine ecosystems. Thirty-seven kilograms of a soil containing approximately 400 pCi Ra-226/g from an inactive uranium ore processing plant site in Middlesex, New Jersey, were added to each of two mesocosms over five days in mid-September 1984. Radionuclide activity in these and two control mesocosms was observed for three months after the soil additions. Radioactivity in the soil appeared to be confined to discrete soil particles rather than being distributed equally on the soil particles, suggesting the source of the radioactivity was remnant ore particles.

Hunt, C.D.

1986-10-01

295

Blimp1?exon7: A naturally occurring Blimp1 deletion mutant with auto-regulatory potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blimp-1 is a master regulator of terminal B cell differentiation and plays a pivotal role in various developmental processes. In addition to full length Blimp-1, a Blimp-1 mRNA lacking exon 7 (Blimp-1?7) has been described to occur in murine B cells. The activity and function of the mutant mRNA-encoded protein (Blimp-1?7), lacking three crucial zinc fingers necessary for DNA interaction,

Doris Schmidt; Arnab Nayak; Julia E. Schumann; Anneliese Schimpl; Ingolf Berberich; Friederike Berberich-Siebelt

2008-01-01

296

A naturally occurring nanomaterial from the Sundew (Drosera) for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In recent years advances have been made in the design of novel materials for tissue engineering through the use of polysaccharides. This study evaluated the ability of a naturally secreted polysaccharide adhesive from the Sundew (Drosera capensis) as a support for cell growth. The Sundew adhesive has several advantages including its high elasticity and antibiotic nature. By coating glass cover slips with the Sundew adhesive, a network of nanofibers was generated that was capable of promoting attachment and differentiation of a model neuronal cell line, PC-12. We also demonstrated the potential of this material for repairing bone and soft tissue injuries, by testing attachment of osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Finally, it was determined that the Sundew biomaterial was stable through testing by atomic force microscopy and prolonged cell growth. This work has proven the capabilities of using a nanomaterial derived from the Sundew adhesive for the purpose of tissue engineering. PMID:22064887

Lenaghan, S C; Serpersu, K; Xia, L; He, W; Zhang, M

2011-12-01

297

Electron microscopy of tubular assemblies associated with naturally occurring bovine rotavirus.  

PubMed

Three types of regularly constructed assembly have been observed by electron microscopy of rotavirus-containing faeces from naturally infected cattle. Two of the structures, designated rotatube 1 and rotatube 2 respectively, are tubular in nature, and the third, designated rotatube 3, takes the form of large relatively disorganized sheets of material exhibiting, in some areas, tubular characteristics. Rotatube 1 is a 'wide' tube of approximately 80 nm diameter, the wall of which is composed of a surface lattice of hexagonally arranged subunits. Rotatube 2 is a 'narrow' tube, half the diameter of the wide tube, and does not exhibit a strictly hexagonal surface lattice. The sheets of rotatube 3 material are composed of subunits arranged on an hexagonal lattice identical with that of rotatube 1. The dimensions and general structural characteristics of the three types of assembly indicate that they are composed of rotavirus capsid protein. PMID:6300306

Chasey, D; Labram, J

1983-04-01

298

Facile and efficient synthesis of naturally occurring carbasugars (+)-pericosines A and C.  

PubMed

An efficient synthesis of antitumor marine natural product (+)-pericosine A was achieved from (-)-quinic acid in 11.7% overall yield, which is 20 times better than our previously reported synthesis. The crucial steps of this synthesis include the regio- and stereoselective bromohydrination of an unstable diene and the ring opening of an epoxide. This synthetic route was applicable to a synthesis of (+)-pericosine C and also to a synthesis of (-)-pericosine C. PMID:19514797

Usami, Yoshihide; Ohsugi, Marie; Mizuki, Koji; Ichikawa, Hayato; Arimoto, Masao

2009-06-18

299

Adjuvant Activity of Naturally Occurring Monophosphoryl Lipopolysaccharide Preparations from Mucosa-Associated Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Natural heterogeneity in the structure of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces differential effects on the innate immune response. Gram-negative bacterial species produce LPS structures that differ from the classic endotoxic LPS structures. These differences include hypoacylation and hypophosphorylation of the diglucosamine backbone, both differences known to decrease LPS toxicity. The effect of decreased toxicity on the adjuvant properties of many of these LPS structures has not been fully explored. Here we demonstrate that two naturally produced forms of monophosphorylated LPS, from the mucosa-associated bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Prevotella intermedia, function as immunological adjuvants for antigen-specific immune responses. Each form of mucosal LPS increased vaccination-initiated antigen-specific antibody titers in both quantity and quality when given simultaneously with vaccine antigen preparations. Interestingly, adjuvant effects on initial T cell clonal expansion were selective for CD4 T cells. No significant increase in CD8 T cell expansion was detected. MyD88/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TRIF/TLR4 signaling pathways showed equally decreased signaling with the LPS forms studied here as with endotoxic LPS or detoxified monophosphorylated lipid A (MPLA). Natural monophosphorylated LPS from mucosa-associated bacteria functions as a weak but effective adjuvant for specific immune responses, with preferential effects on antibody and CD4 T cell responses over CD8 T cell responses.

Chilton, Paula M.; Hadel, Diana M.; To, Thao T.

2013-01-01

300

Solubilization of manganese dioxide-bound copper by naturally occurring organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Sorption of metals onto manganese oxides is an important mechanism for retarding migration in soils and sediments. Subsequent influx of natural organic compounds can bring about metal release, thereby increasing metal mobility and bioavailability. This paper examines the release of Cu from a synthetic MnO[sub 2] phase. When natural organic compounds possessing only reductant characteristics (e.g., hydroquinone and pyruvate) are introduced, Cu release is linked to the progress of the MnO[sub 2] reductive dissolution reaction: Mn[sup II] generated in the reduction step competes effectively with Cu for a diminishing number of sorption sites. Organic compounds capable of forming stable Cu complexes in solution (e.g., oxalate and citrate) cause additional Cu release that can surpass release by reduction processes alone. Additional experiments are described in which the reductant and complexant properties of natural organic matter samples are evaluated as they pertain to the release of MnO[sub 2]-bound Cu. 61 refs., 8 figs.

Godtfredsen, K.L.; Stone, A.T. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

1994-08-01

301

Naturally occurring populations of Bemisia tabaci, biotype B and associated natural enemies in agro-ecosystem in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B was first found in southern China in 1994 and has since then become a pest of increasing importance throughout the nation. The population dynamics of this invasive species and the effect of natural enemies on its population dynamics were studied in commercial cotton fields during the summers of 2003 through 2005

Kejian Lin; Kongming Wu; Yongjun Zhang; Yuyuan Guo

2008-01-01

302

Preparation, characterization, and cation exchange selectivity of synthetic and topotactically altered naturally occurring trioctahedral micas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large quantity of high level nuclear waste held in underground stainless steel storage tanks around the country has necessitated the need for inorganic ion exchange materials with the ability to selectively remove radioactive species such as 137Cs and 90Sr in the presence of large concentrations of competing cations. Sodium expandable micas, such as sodium fluorophlogopite and K-depleted phlogopite have shown promise for this purpose. During this research highly charged sodium fluorophlogopite micas, Nax(Mg3)[AlxSi4-x]O 10F2·yH2O, with layer charges of -2, -3, and -4 per unit cell were synthesized from a dry mix of poorly crystalline kaolinite, Mg(NO3)2, and NaF. Additional silicon was also added to the reaction mixture in the form of amorphous SiO2 to increase the Si:Al ratio as needed. Talc was also utilized for the first time as Si and Mg sources in the synthesis of Na-2-mica. Potassium-depleted phlogopite, K1-xNax(Mg3)[AlSi3]O 10(OH)2, was prepared by conventional and microwave assisted equilibration of <45mum phlogopite mica with a solution containing sodium tetraphenylborate. The synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and wet chemical techniques. Three synthetic sodium fluorophlogopite micas and one K-depleted phlogopite sample were selected for ion exchange studies. Ion exchange isotherms for the synthetic sodium fluorophlogopite micas were obtained for Cs+, Sr2+, Ba2+, and Co2+. For the K-depleted phlogopite ion exchange isotherms for Cs+ and Sr2+ were determined. The ion exchange studies indicated that only the Na-2-mica was selective for Cs+, all three micas were selective for Sr2+. All three mica also appeared to be highly selective for both Ba2+ and Co2+. The ion exchange studies indicated that the K-depleted phlogopite was highly selective for both Cs+ and Sr 2+. The ion selectivity of all of these micas indicates that they may be useful not only for removal of radioactive isotopes from the nuclear waste stream, but also removal of transition metal cations from industrial wastes.

Stout, Stephen Anthony

303

Isolation and characterization of a naturally occurring parainfluenza 3 virus variant.  

PubMed Central

A parainfluenza 3 virus variant which failed to react with parainfluenza 3 virus-specific monoclonal anti-bodies from two commercial sources was isolated from a 14-month-old boy. Analysis of the coding region of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene identified 36 nucleotide changes and 4 amino acid changes compared with a consensus sequence derived from strains isolated from 1957 through 1983. Two unique amino acid changes occurred at positions 174 and 283, which are close to identified epitopes in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. Ongoing viral surveillance to detect variants is important, particularly in regard to vaccine development.

Swierkosz, E M; Erdman, D D; Bonnot, T; Schneiderheinze, C; Waner, J L

1995-01-01

304

When a natural disaster occurs: lessons learned in meeting students' needs.  

PubMed

Across the nation, weather-related natural disasters-tropical storms, floods, tornadoes, and earthquakes-struck even areas where weather concerns are not paramount on the minds of most people. These natural disasters heightened awareness that all geographic areas are susceptible to aberrant weather conditions. The purpose of this article was to relate the lessons learned by one academic health center in meeting students' emergency preparedness and disaster recovery needs following a major hurricane in fall 2008. To gauge students' storm-related needs, a Hurricane Needs Survey (HNS) was conducted in spring 2009, 7 months after the hurricane. Students responded to 26 structured response items and 3 open-ended questions. Five hundred fifteen surveys were completed, constituting a response rate of 37.2%. Data were analyzed by creating frequencies to profile students' hurricane experiences. Results indicated that all students left the island under mandatory evacuation orders; most stayed with their families, and most experienced moderate material losses. For some students, the evacuation process and life after the storm contributed to ongoing problems, worries, and academic performance issues. Qualitative content analysis was used to derive themes from the students' narrative responses to the HNS open-ended questions about their perceptions of the extent to which the University of Texas Medical Branch met their needs. When students' hurricane response comments were analyzed, three major themes emerged: being prepared, needing to be connected, and returning to normalcy. The major lessons learned are that the emergency preparation of students requires greater specificity and that discussion about poststorm recovery expectations is essential. Following a natural disaster, students experience more distress than may be readily apparent. PMID:22142912

Watson, Pamela G; Loffredo, Vincent J; McKee, John C

2011-01-01

305

A convenient and biogenetic type synthesis of few naturally occurring chromeno dihydrochalcones and their in vitro antileishmanial activity.  

PubMed

2',2'-Dimethyl chromeno dihydrochalcones are very rare in nature as plant secondary metabolites. Recently we have reported three such compounds from the plant Crotalaria ramosissima. Chromeno dihydrochalcones contain a 2',2'-dimethyl benzopyran system, which are frequently encountered in many natural products and exhibit a variety of biological activities. We here report the strategy to conveniently synthesize naturally occurring chromeno dihydrochalcones by biogenetic type pyridine or Amberlyst-15 catalyzed chromenylation of dihydrochalcones and in vitro antileishmanial activity of chromeno dihydrochalcones and their intermediates. PMID:15225696

Narender, Tadigoppula; Shweta; Gupta, Suman

2004-08-01

306

Identification of the naturally occurring isomer of zearalenol produced by Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum' in rice culture.  

PubMed Central

One diastereomer of trans-zearalenol [2,4-dihydroxy-6-(6,10-dihydroxy-trans-1-undecenyl)-benzoic acid-mu-lactone] was isolated from cultures of Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum.' This strongly estrogenic metabolite was identified by analysis of its mass spectrum and its behavior in thin-layer, high-pressure liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic systems. The concentration of zearalenol in cultures was 563 mu g/g, or 7% of the 8,000-mu g/g zearalenone content, while the two diastereomers of 8'-hydroxyzearalenone each occurred at 3% of the zearalenone level. Of the two possible diastereomers of zearalenol, the one occurring in cultures was identical to the low-melting-point (171 degrees C) isomer (alpha) obtained by synthesis. In the rat uterus bioassay, the alpha zearalenol isomer was three times more estrogenic than zearalenone while the beta isomer was equal in activity in zearalenone. The two diastereomers of zearalenol can be distinguished from each other by the intensity of the m/e+ 302 fragment of the mass spectrum of the pure underivatized compound.

Hagler, W M; Mirocha, C J; Pathre, S V; Behrens, J C

1979-01-01

307

Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

2011-01-01

308

The Effect of Weathering on Ecopersistence, Reactivity, and Potential Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Asbestos and Asbestiform Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms underlying asbestos toxicity mainly rely on experiments performed on “laboratory” fibers, but little data is available on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). Human exposure to NOA is subject to their ecopersistence and the modulation of their potential toxicity following weathering. The effect of weathering on three fibrous minerals from the Italian Western Alps, chrysotile, tremolite, and balangeroite—a Fe-rich asbestiform

Sergio Enrico Favero-Longo; Francesco Turci; Maura Tomatis; Roberto Compagnoni; Rosanna Piervittori; Bice Fubini

2009-01-01

309

Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

310

Health Consultation: Sapphire Valley Gem Mine Naturally Occurring Asbestos Site, Jackson County, North Carolina, September 18, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The N.C. Division of Public Health (DPH) understands the concerns with the potential for breathing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) at the former Sapphire Valley Gem Mine. DPH's top priority is to make sure the community and other persons that may have ...

2009-01-01

311

Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

2009-01-01

312

Some observations on naturally occurring neoplasms of domestic fowls in the State of Victoria, Australia (1977–87)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 10 years to November 1987, 33 different types of naturally occurring neoplasms were diagnosed in 2281 domestic fowls submitted for necropsy examination. The most prevalent type was lymphoma (1825\\/2281 = 80%) including two cases in chickens from a flock free from Marek's disease virus, exogenous avian leukosis viruses and reticuloen?dotheliosis virus; the remaining lymphomas were diagnosed on gross

R. L. Reece

1996-01-01

313

Biochemical changes in the jejunal mucosa of dogs with a naturally occurring enteropathy associated with bacterial overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcellular biochemical features of a naturally occurring enteropathy in the dog associated with bacterial overgrowth have been examined. Affected animals comprised a group of 10 German Shepherd dogs with raised serum folate and reduced vitamin B12 concentrations, mild steatorrhoea, reduced xylose absorption, and normal exocrine pancreatic function. Culture of duodenal juice showed bacterial overgrowth with mixed flora, most frequently

R M Batt; M W Carter; T J Peters

1984-01-01

314

Sequestering carbon dioxide into complex structures of naturally occurring gas hydrates.  

PubMed

Large amounts of CH4 in the form of solid hydrates are stored on continental margins and in permafrost regions. If these CH4 hydrates could be converted into CO2 hydrates, they would serve double duty as CH4 sources and CO2 storage sites. We explore here the swapping phenomenon occurring in structure I (sI) and structure II (sII) CH4 hydrate deposits through spectroscopic analyses and its potential application to CO2 sequestration at the preliminary phase. The present 85% CH4 recovery rate in sI CH4 hydrate achieved by the direct use of binary N2+CO2 guests is surprising when compared with the rate of 64% for a pure CO2 guest attained in the previous approach. The direct use of a mixture of N2+CO2 eliminates the requirement of a CO2 separation/purification process. In addition, the simultaneously occurring dual mechanism of CO2 sequestration and CH4 recovery is expected to provide the physicochemical background required for developing a promising large-scale approach with economic feasibility. In the case of sII CH4 hydrates, we observe a spontaneous structure transition of sII to sI during the replacement and a cage-specific distribution of guest molecules. A significant change of the lattice dimension caused by structure transformation induces a relative number of small cage sites to reduce, resulting in the considerable increase of CH4 recovery rate. The mutually interactive pattern of targeted guest-cage conjugates possesses important implications for the diverse hydrate-based inclusion phenomena as illustrated in the swapping process between CO2 stream and complex CH4 hydrate structure. PMID:16908854

Park, Youngjune; Kim, Do-Youn; Lee, Jong-Won; Huh, Dae-Gee; Park, Keun-Pil; Lee, Jaehyoung; Lee, Huen

2006-08-22

315

Wedelolactone, a Naturally Occurring Coumestan, Enhances Interferon-? Signaling through Inhibiting STAT1 Protein Dephosphorylation*  

PubMed Central

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) transduces signals from cytokines and growth factors, particularly IFN-?, and regulates expression of genes involved in cell survival/death, proliferation, and migration. STAT1 is activated through phosphorylation on its tyrosine 701 by JAKs and is inactivated through dephosphorylation by tyrosine phosphatases. We discovered a natural compound, wedelolactone, that increased IFN-? signaling by inhibiting STAT1 dephosphorylation and prolonging STAT1 activation through specific inhibition of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), an important tyrosine phosphatase for STAT1 dephosphorylation. More interestingly, wedelolactone inhibited TCPTP through interaction with the C-terminal autoinhibition domain of TCPTP. We also found that wedelolactone synergized with IFN-? to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Our data suggest a new target for anticancer or antiproliferation drugs, a new mechanism to regulate PTPs specifically, and a new drug candidate for treating cancer or other proliferation disorders.

Chen, Zhimin; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Shen, Shensi; Zhang, Haohao; Ma, Xiuquan; Liu, Jingli; Kuang, Shan; Yu, Qiang

2013-01-01

316

Antitumor, immunomodulatory and anti-HIV effect of mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone.  

PubMed

Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-beta-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources was shown to have in vivo growth-inhibitory activity against ascitic fibrosarcoma in Swiss mice. Following in vivo or in vitro treatment, it also enhanced tumor cell cytotoxicity of the splenic cells and peritoneal macrophages of normal and tumor-bearing mice. In vitro treatment of the splenic cells of tumor-bearing mice with mangiferin resulted in augmented killing of tumor cells, both resistant and sensitive to natural killer cells. Mangiferin was also found to antagonize in vitro the cytopathic effect of HIV. The drug appears to act as a potent biological response modifier with antitumor and antiviral effect. PMID:8957579

Guha, S; Ghosal, S; Chattopadhyay, U

1996-01-01

317

Naturally occurring plant polyphenols as potential therapies for inherited neuromuscular diseases.  

PubMed

There are several lines of laboratory-based evidence emerging to suggest that purified polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol, found naturally in red grapes, epigallocatechin galate from green tea and curcumin from turmeric, might be useful for the treatment of various inherited neuromuscular diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Here, we critically examine the scientific evidence related to the known molecular effects that these polyphenols have on different models of inherited neuromuscular disease, with particular attention to problems with the validity of in vitro evidence. We also present proteomic evidence that polyphenols have in vitro effects on cells related to metal ion chelation in cell-culture media. Although their precise mechanisms of action remain somewhat elusive, polyphenols could be an attractive approach to therapy for inherited neuromuscular disease, especially since they may be safer to use on young children, compared with some of the other drug candidates. PMID:24215348

Fuller, Heidi R; Humphrey, Emma L; Morris, Glenn E

2013-11-01

318

Efficacy of two iodine teat dips based on reduction of naturally occurring new intramammary infections.  

PubMed

The efficacy of 2 teat dips, product 1 (Della Care with 5 to 8 ppm of free iodine, used as a positive control) and product 2 (New Della Care with 12 to 16 ppm of free iodine), was compared using a natural exposure trial on dairy cattle. The trial was based on National Mastitis Council guidelines and performed over 9 mo. Both teat dips contained 0.25% iodine. Product 2 reduced the infection rate 57.6% for major pathogens and 53.7% for minor pathogens, compared with the positive control. Product 2 gave highly significant reductions for Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Corynebacterium bovis. Teat skin, teat ends, and teat hyperkeratosis were evaluated during trial. No significant difference in teat condition was observed between these 2 products. PMID:15591409

Foret, C J; Corbellini, C; Young, S; Janowicz, P

2005-01-01

319

Solid-state NMR in the analysis of drugs and naturally occurring materials.  

PubMed

This article presents some of the solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR provides structural information on powder amorphous solids for which single-crystal diffraction structures cannot be obtained. NMR is non-destructive; the powder sample may be used for further studies. Quantitative results can be obtained, although solid-state NMR spectra are not normally quantitative. As compared with other techniques, MAS NMR is insensitive and requires a significant amount of the powder sample (2-100mg) to fill the 1.3-7 mm ZrO2 rotor. This is its main drawback, since natural compounds isolated from plants, microorganisms or cell cultures are difficult to obtain in quantities higher than a few milligrams. Multinuclear MAS NMR routinely uses (1)H and (13)C nuclei, less frequently (15)N, (19)F, (31)P, (77)Se, (29)Si, (43)Ca or (23)Na. The article focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of SSNMR, the studies were aimed to control over manufacturing processes (e.g. crystallization and milling) investigation of chemical and physical stability of solid forms both as pure drug and in a formulated product. SSNMR is used in combination with some other analytical methods (DSC, XRD, FT-IR) and theoretical calculations of NMR parameters. Biologically active compounds, such as amino acids and small peptides, steroids and flavonoids were studied by SSNMR methods (part 4) providing valuable structural information. The SSNMR experiments performed on biopolymers and large natural products like proteins, cellulose and lipid layers are commented upon briefly in part 5. PMID:24173236

Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

2014-05-01

320

Naturally occurring mutations to HCV protease inhibitors in treatment-na?ve patients  

PubMed Central

Background Protease inhibitors (PIs) to treat hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection have been approved and others are under development. Results The aims of this study were to illustrate natural polymorphisms in the HCV protease and measure the frequency of PI resistance mutations in different HCV genotypes from PI-naïve patients. Direct sequencing of HCV NS3/4A protease was performed in 156 HCV patients naïve to PIs who were infected with genotype 1a (n?=?31), 1b (n?=?39), 2 (n?=?30), 3 (n?=?33) and 4 (n?=?23). Amino acid (aa) substitutions associated with HCV PI resistance were found in 17/156 (10.8%) sequences. Mutations V36L, T54S, V55A/I, and Q80K/L were observed in 29% of patients with genotype 1a, and V55F, Q80L/N and M175L in 10% of patients with genotype 1b. The mutation V158M was found in 3% of patients with genotype 2, D168Q was present in 100% of patients with genotype 3 and D168E was observed in 13% of patients with genotype 4. In addition, multiple aa polymorphisms not associated with PI resistance were detected in patients with genotypes 1a, 1b and 4. Conclusions Although major PI resistance mutations were not detected, other resistance mutations conferring low level resistance to PIs together with a number of natural polymorphisms were observed in proteases of PI naïve HCV patients. A more extensive analysis is needed to better evaluate the impact of baseline resistance and compensatory mutations in the efficacy of HCV PI treatment.

2012-01-01

321

Genetic Background and GxE Interactions Modulate the Penetrance of a Naturally Occurring Wing Mutation in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Many genes involved in producing complex traits are incompletely penetrant. One such example is vesiculated, an X-linked gene in Drosophila melanogaster that results in wing defects. To examine the genetic architecture of a complex trait (wings containing vesicles), we placed a naturally occurring variant into multiple autosomal backgrounds and quantified penetrance and expressivity at a range of developmental temperatures. We found significant epistasis, genotype-by-environment interactions, and maternal effects. Sex and temperature effects were modulated by genetic background. The severity of wing phenotypes also varied across different genetic backgrounds, and expressivity was positively correlated with penetrance. We also found evidence of naturally segregating suppressors of vesiculated. These suppressors were present on both the second and third chromosomes, and complex interactions were observed. Taken together, these findings indicate that multiple genetic and environmental factors modulate the phenotypic effects of a naturally occurring vesiculated allele.

Lachance, Joseph; Jung, Lawrence; True, John R.

2013-01-01

322

Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent in MCF-7 than in MDA-MB-231. However, very little change in the expression of Bid was observed. Alteration in Bcl-2 Bax ratio resulted in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspases 3 and 9 which are in agreement with apoptotic index values. Sulphoraphane therefore can be regarded as a potent inducer of apoptosis due to HSP modulation in breast cancer cells.

Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa [Department of Environmental Carcinogenesis and Toxicology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India)] [Department of Environmental Carcinogenesis and Toxicology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India); Biswas, Jaydip [Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India)] [Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India); Roy, Madhumita, E-mail: mitacnci@yahoo.co.in [Department of Environmental Carcinogenesis and Toxicology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India)] [Department of Environmental Carcinogenesis and Toxicology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India)

2012-10-12

323

Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma.  

PubMed

Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. PMID:24128326

Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

2014-01-01

324

Naturally occurring ERAP1 haplotypes encode functionally distinct alleles with fine substrate specificity  

PubMed Central

The aminopeptidase, ERAP1, trims peptides for MHC class I presentation, influencing the degree and specificity of CD8+ T cell responses. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the exons encoding ERAP1 are associated with autoimmune diseases and cervical carcinoma, but it is not known whether they act independently or as disease-associated haplotypes. We sequenced ERAP1 from 20 individuals and show that SNP occur as distinct haplotypes in the human population, and that these haplotypes encode functionally distinct ERAP1 alleles. Using a wide range of substrates, we are able to demonstrate that for any given substrate, distinct ERAP1 alleles can have “normal”, “hypo-”, or “hyper-” functional; and that each allele has a trend bias towards one of these three activities. Thus, the repertoire of peptides presented at the cell surface for recognition by CTL is likely to depend on the precise combination of both MHC class I and ERAP1 alleles expressed within an individual, and has important implications for predisposition to disease.

Reeves, Emma; Edwards, Christopher J.; Elliott, Tim; James, Edward

2013-01-01

325

Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon. PMID:22951302

Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

2013-01-16

326

Phylogeny and Virulence of Naturally Occurring Type III Secretion System-Deficient Pectobacterium Strains?  

PubMed Central

Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers.

Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T.; Charkowski, Amy O.

2009-01-01

327

Naturally Occurring Enzyme Activity Variation in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. I. Sources of Variation for 23 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

The genetic component of variation of enzyme activity levels in Drosophila melanogaster was investigated by using 48 second- and 48 third-chromosome isogenic substitution lines derived from natural populations. The results confirm those of our earlier experiments with the same lines and extend them to a number of additional enzymes. All 23 enzymes show a significant genetic component to the variation in one or both sets of lines and only a small part of this variation is accounted for by variation among the lines in the amount of tissue per fly. The magnitude of line effects is, in most cases, considerably larger than the magnitude of environmental and measurement error effects, and the line effects are approximately continuous in distribution. Variation in the geographic origin and karyotype of the chromosomes generally does not contribute to the line component of variation, but allozymes provide an important source of variation for a few of the enzymes. Many of the enzymes show evidence for variation of activity modifiers that are not linked to the structural locus of the enzyme.

Laurie-Ahlberg, C. C.; Wilton, A. N.; Curtsinger, J. W.; Emigh, T. H.

1982-01-01

328

Naturally Occurring Compounds Elicit HIV-1 Replication in Chronically Infected Promonocytic Cells  

PubMed Central

Since antiretroviral therapy suppresses but does not eradicate HIV-1 infection, methods to purge viral reservoirs are required. Many strategies involve the reactivation of chronically HIV infected cells to induce the expression of integrated viral genome. In this study, five bioactive compounds, the plant derivatives 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), and curcumin (Cur) and the synthetic stigmasterol analogs (22S,23S)-22,23-dihydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (compound 1) and (22S,23S)-3?-bromo-5?,22,23-trihydroxystigmastan-6-one (compound 2), were evaluated for their ability to elicit HIV replication in promonocytic (U1) and lymphocytic (H9+) HIV-1 chronically infected cells. The results revealed that natural compounds CDM, NDGA, and Cur were able to increase HIV-1 p24 antigen, determined by ELISA, only in latently infected promonocytic cells. CDM would reactivate HIV from latency by modulating the release of IL-6 and TNF-?, since the amount of both cytokines measured through ELISA significantly increased in U1 treated cells. Besides, NDGA increased ROS production, which might be related to the increase on p24 level observed in NDGA treated U1. These findings suggest that CDM, NDGA, and Cur might be candidates for further studies on latency-reversing therapeutics to eliminate latently HIV-1 reservoirs.

Barquero, Andrea Alejandra; Davola, Maria Eugenia; Riva, Diego Ariel; Mersich, Susana Esther; Alche, Laura Edith

2014-01-01

329

Resorcylic acid lactones as the protein kinase inhibitors , naturally occuring toxins.  

PubMed

Resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) are polyketide natural products with a large macrocyclic ring fused to a resorcylic acid residue. Some RALs contain an ?,?-unsaturated ketone in the macrocycle. So far 46 kinases have been identified that could be potentially targeted by this family of compounds. RALs are of interest for their modulation of growth, and tentatively for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. RALs containing a cis-enone are susceptible to Michael addition reactions with the cysteine residue in the kinase nucleotide binding site, and thus serve as potent inhibitors of several protein kinases - they therefore represent a unique pharmacophore. Notably, this moiety has been shown to be effective also in vivo. This mini-review focuses on the structure and biological effects of the most important RALs, namely zearalenone, hypothemycin, pochonins, lasiodiplodins, aigialomycins, cochlicomycins, zaenols, and paecilomycins. Finally, the review also deals with radicicol, which is a nanomolar inhibitor of the chaperone Hsp90, whose suppression leads to a combinatorial block of cancer-causing pathways. PMID:24070207

Patocka, Jiri; Soukup, Ondrej; Kuca, Kamil

2013-11-01

330

Correlation of Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Resistance to DEB025 with Capsid Amino Acid Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

DEB025 (alisporivir) is a synthetic cyclosporine with inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). It binds to cyclophilin A (CypA) and blocks essential functions of CypA in the viral replication cycles of both viruses. DEB025 inhibits clinical HIV-1 isolates in vitro and decreases HIV-1 virus load in the majority of patients. HIV-1 isolates being naturally resistant to DEB025 have been detected in vitro and in nonresponder patients. By sequence analysis of their capsid protein (CA) region, two amino acid polymorphisms that correlated with DEB025 resistance were identified: H87Q and I91N, both located in the CypA-binding loop of the CA protein of HIV-1. The H87Q change was by far more abundant than I91N. Additional polymorphisms in the CypA-binding loop (positions 86, 91 and 96), as well as in the N-terminal loop of CA were detected in resistant isolates and are assumed to contribute to the degree of resistance. These amino acid changes may modulate the conformation of the CypA-binding loop of CA in such a way that binding and/or isomerase function of CypA are no longer necessary for virus replication. The resistant HIV-1 isolates thus are CypA-independent.

Gallay, Philippe A.; Ptak, Roger G.; Bobardt, Michael D.; Dumont, Jean-Maurice; Vuagniaux, Gregoire; Rosenwirth, Brigitte

2013-01-01

331

Electrosensory interference in naturally occurring aggregates of a species of weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia virescens.  

PubMed

The detection and identification of behaviorally relevant signals in the presence of competing signals in the environment is a major challenge of animal sensory systems. In weakly electric fish such as Eigenmannia virescens, the interactions between the autogenous electric field and the electric fields of nearby conspecifics can have profound effects on the perception of other behaviorally relevant electrosensory information. To better understand the natural signals that the nervous system of Eigenmannia experiences during the processing of electrosensory information, we examined the electrosensory milieu of Eigenmannia in the wild and in the laboratory. Recordings of the electric fields of Eigenmannia were made in 'black' and 'white' waters near the Napo River in eastern Ecuador. Fourier analysis revealed that Eigenmannia typically experience the electric fields of three to five conspecifics during the day and night in each habitat. The median difference in electric organ discharge frequencies between nearby Eigenmannia during the day was 23 Hz in black water habitats, 41 Hz in white water, and 37 Hz at night in both habitats: these signals are known to activate tuberous electroreceptors and downstream CNS circuits. There was no correlation between the number of individual Eigenmannia detected at recording sites and electric organ discharge frequencies. Further, Eigenmannia apparently do not maximize the frequency differences between conspecifics. In laboratory studies fish were preferentially observed in aggregates of two fish or more. Aggregate sizes observed in the laboratory were similar to those in the wild. PMID:16099058

Tan, Eric W; Nizar, Jonathan M; Carrera-G, Erika; Fortune, Eric S

2005-10-14

332

Naturally occurring substances and their role in chemo-protective effects.  

PubMed

Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural, synthetic or biological chemical agents to reverse, suppress or prevent carcinogenic progression of invasive cancer. Carcinogenesis is a complex multi-step process; therefore, it is necessary to attack cell proliferation, stimulate apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis. There have been more than 60 randomised trials using chemopreventive potential agents. The success of several recent clinical trials in preventing cancer in high-risk populations suggests that chemoprevention is a rational and appealing strategy. In this review, we describe the conceptual basis for the chemoprevention of cancer, proven concepts of efficiency and current trends in the use of chemopreventive agents according to place and mechanism of action. We classify chemopreventive substances into seven groups based on their chemical structure and their effects, namely, deltanoids (paracalcitriol), retinoids (13-cis retinoic acid), non-steroidal anti-rheumatics (Deguelin), antiestrogens (genistein), polyphenols (curcumin), sulphur containing compounds (sulforaphane) and terpenes (lycopene). Chemoprevention is one of several promising strategies for reducing the incidence of malignant tumours or helping to prolong the time before recurrence. PMID:24592727

Bilecová-Rabajdová, Miroslava; Birková, Anna; Urban, Peter; Gregová, Kristina; Durovcová, Eva; Mareková, Mária

2013-12-01

333

Naturally occurring anti-IFN-gamma autoantibody and severe infections with Mycobacterium cheloneae and Burkholderia cocovenenans.  

PubMed

Recently various genetic defects in immunity mediated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) have been described, including mutations in the IFN-gamma receptor 1 (IFN-gammaR1) and receptor 2 (IFN-gammaR2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT 1), and interleukin 12 receptor beta 1 (IL-12Rbeta1), and IL-12 p40 genes. These mutations are associated with the occurrence of severe infections with intracellular pathogens especially nontuberculous mycobacteria and vaccine-associated bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Here we report data on a previously healthy adult patient primarily presenting with severe infections with Burkholderia cocovenenans and subsequently Mycobacterium cheloneae. We found a strong inhibitory anti-IFN-gamma activity in the patient's plasma and identified a high-affinity neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma autoantibody. Unfortunately, the patient died due to severe sepsis before we knew the nature of the inhibitory activity. The application of alternative therapeutic approaches such as intravenous immunoglobulin or immunoadsorption may have been beneficial in this case. Screening for neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma autoantibodies should supplement testing for IFN-gamma and IL-12 pathway defects in patients with recurrent infections with intracellular pathogens, especially with nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:12947000

Höflich, Conny; Sabat, Robert; Rosseau, Simone; Temmesfeld, Bettina; Slevogt, Hortense; Döcke, Wolf-Dietrich; Grütz, Gerald; Meisel, Christian; Halle, Elke; Göbel, Ulf B; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Suttorp, Norbert

2004-01-15

334

Original mechanism of failure initiation revealed through modelling of naturally occurring microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated to reveal original mechanisms of failure resistance, we developed a material model that encompasses most reoccurring microstructural features of natural composites. The interesting result of the work is a notion that material failure is governed by the quality of interactions between hierarchical levels in the material microstructure. With intelligent use of the structure, these interactions can be tuned to create a powerful synergetic effect on the material failure behaviour. For example, while exploring different mechanisms of failure initiation in composites with bimodal size reinforcements (an indirect way to model two levels of hierarchy simultaneously) we found that failure initiation could be shifted from stress concentration sites of the higher level to the lower level. One could say that the material behaviour became insensitive to the presence of reinforcements on the higher level—a phenomenon that is counterintuitive to what is commonly known. The new mechanism of failure initiation could only be activated in composites with a highly controlled structural organization—in the studied case, reinforcements of the lower level needed to establish lamellar pathways between reinforcements of the higher level. These pathways lead to formation of an intriguing network-like microstructure. Intelligent communication between reinforcements in such a network created the necessary synergy to change the failure initiation mechanism in a discontinuous fashion. Another finding was that by establishing such a network, tensile stresses near dangerous stress concentration sites were locally transformed into compressive stresses. Resemblance of the revealed mechanism to phenomena on the nano-scale was also discussed. In the course of this work a new method was developed to investigate interactions between reinforcements and their collective input into effective and local properties of a composite. The reinforcement phase was modelled with the use of rigid-line inhomogeneities.

Gorbatikh, Larissa; Lomov, Stepan V.; Verpoest, Ignaas

2010-05-01

335

Tartan Turf on trial. A comparison of intercollegiate football injuries occurring on natural grass and Tartan Turf.  

PubMed

We retro- and prospectively compared collegiate football injuries that occurred on the grass and Tartan Turf (3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota) fields at the University of Wisconsin. Retrospective injury data were obtained from questionnaires returned by 235 of 450 athletes that competed from 1960 to 1973. Prospective injury data were obtained by examination of athletes injured from 1975 through 1977. Although the number of injuries occurring on each playing surface were not significantly different, the type and severity of injuries were significantly different. We found that significantly more serious sprains and torn ligaments occurred on grass than occurred on Tartan Turf. There were significantly more scrapes (minor injuries) on the Tartan Turf than on the grass. We conclude that we may be prematurely returning to natural grass playing surfaces, and--to the detriment of the athlete--ending production of one synthetic turf that helped reduce major injuries. PMID:7356798

Keene, J S; Narechania, R G; Sachtjen, K M; Clancy, W G

1980-01-01

336

Nuclear genomic control of naturally occurring variation in mitochondrial function in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells that play a crucial role in cellular survival and function. Mitochondrial function is under the control of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. While the latter has been the focus of most genetic research, we remain largely ignorant about the nuclear-encoded genomic control of inter-individual variability in mitochondrial function. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster as our model organism to address this question. Results We quantified mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiration rates and P:O ratio in mitochondria isolated from the thoraces of 40 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. We found significant within-population genetic variability for all mitochondrial traits. Hence, we performed genome-wide association mapping and identified 141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with differences in mitochondrial respiration and efficiency (P ?1?×?10-5). Gene-centered regression models showed that 2–3 SNPs can explain 31, 13, and 18% of the phenotypic variation in state 3, state 4, and P:O ratio, respectively. Most of the genes tagged by the SNPs are involved in organ development, second messenger-mediated signaling pathways, and cytoskeleton remodeling. One of these genes, sallimus (sls), encodes a component of the muscle sarcomere. We confirmed the direct effect of sls on mitochondrial respiration using two viable mutants and their coisogenic wild-type strain. Furthermore, correlation network analysis revealed that sls functions as a transcriptional hub in a co-regulated module associated with mitochondrial respiration and is connected to CG7834, which is predicted to encode a protein with mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein activity. This latter finding was also verified in the sls mutants. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the genetic factors regulating natural variation in mitochondrial function in D. melanogaster. The integrative genomic approach used in our study allowed us to identify sls as a novel hub gene responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in muscle sarcomere and to provide evidence that sls might act via the electron transfer flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex.

2012-01-01

337

Naturally occurring and stress induced tubular structures from mammalian cells, a survival mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background Tubular shaped mammalian cells in response to dehydration have not been previously reported. This may be due to the invisibility of these cells in aqueous solution, and because sugars and salts added to the cell culture for manipulation of the osmotic conditions inhibit transformation of normal cells into tubular shaped structures. Results We report the transformation of normal spherical mammalian cells into tubular shaped structures in response to stress. We have termed these transformed structures 'straw cells' which we have associated with a variety of human tissue types, including fresh, post mortem and frozen lung, liver, skin, and heart. We have also documented the presence of straw cells in bovine brain and prostate tissues of mice. The number of straw cells in heart, lung tissues, and collapsed straw cells in urine increases with the age of the mammal. Straw cells were also reproduced in vitro from human cancer cells (THP1, CACO2, and MCF7) and mouse stem cells (D1 and adipose D1) by dehydrating cultured cells. The tubular center of the straw cells is much smaller than the original cell; houses condensed organelles and have filamentous extensions that are covered with microscopic hair-like structures and circular openings. When rehydrated, the filaments uptake water rapidly. The straw cell walls, have a range of 120 nm to 200 nm and are composed of sulfated-glucose polymers and glycosylated acidic proteins. The transformation from normal cell to straw cells takes 5 to 8 hr in open-air. This process is characterized by an increase in metabolic activity. When rehydrated, the straw cells regain their normal spherical shape and begin to divide in 10 to 15 days. Like various types of microbial spores, straw cells are resistant to harsh environmental conditions such as UV-C radiation. Conclusion Straw cells are specialized cellular structures and not artifacts from spontaneous polymerization, which are generated in response to stress conditions, like dehydration. The disintegrative, mobile, disruptive and ubiquitous nature of straw cells makes this a possible physiological process that may be involved in human health, longevity, and various types of diseases such as cancer.

Wu, Yonnie; Laughlin, Richard C; Henry, David C; Krueger, Darryl E; Hudson, JoAn S; Kuan, Cheng-Yi; He, Jian; Reppert, Jason; Tomkins, Jeffrey P

2007-01-01

338

APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR WATERSHED INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental isotopes include naturally-occurring nuclides that can be applied as tracers within watersheds (Sidle, 1998). Recent advances in mass spectroscopy may supplant many traditional and costly hydrometric techniques. It is now possible, for example, to utilize isotopes a...

339

Synthesis and insecticidal activity of novel hydrazone compounds derived from a naturally occurring lignan podophyllotoxin against Mythimna separata (Walker).  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, a series of novel hydrazone derivatives of podophyllotoxin, which is a naturally occurring aryltetralin lignan and isolated as the main secondary metabolite from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum species, were synthesized and evaluated as insecticidal agents against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) in vivo at 1mg/mL. Especially compounds 8i, 8j, 8t, and 8u showed the more potent insecticidal activity with the final mortality rates greater than 60%. PMID:24810569

Wang, Yi; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Chun; Xu, Hui

2014-06-15

340

Removal of lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials by extraction with naturally occurring oils or synthetic substitutes thereof  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of removing lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials comprising blood plasma and fractions thereof containing the lipid soluble process chemicals. The lipid soluble process chemical is a virus attenuating solvent having a high flash point, a detergent, or a mixture thereof. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the lipid soluble process chemicals into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure. Also described is a method of removing lymphokine inducing phorbol esters from lympholkine-containing biological material. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the phorbol esters into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure so as to remove 80% or more of the phorbol esters.

Woods, K.R.; Orme, T.W.

1988-12-06

341

Iron complexing activity of mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone, inhibits mitochondrial lipid peroxidation induced by Fe 2+-citrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone, has been described as having antidiabetic, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. In this study we report for the first time the iron-complexing ability of mangiferin as a primary mechanism for protection of rat liver mitochondria against Fe2+-citrate induced lipid peroxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and antimycin A-insensitive oxygen consumption were used as quantitative measures of

Gilberto Pardo Andreu; René Delgado; Jesus A. Velho; Carlos Curti; Anibal E. Vercesi

2005-01-01

342

Membrane disruption and enzyme inhibition by naturally-occurring and modified chacotriose-containing Solanum steroidal glycoalkaloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally-occurring 3?-O-chacotriosides of solasodine (solamargine), of its 22S, 25S isomer tomatidenol (?-solamarine), and of solanidine (chaconine), as well as ring E- and F-modified derivatives of solamargine were prepared and assayed in order to assess the relevance of aglycone structural features to membrane-disruption and enzyme-inhibitory activities of the related glycoalkaloids. A ring E-opened dihydro-derivative of solasodine (the chacotrioside of dihydrosolasodine A)

James G. Roddick; Martin Weissenberg; Anna L. Leonard

2001-01-01

343

Inhibitory effect of ODN, a naturally occurring processing product of diazepam binding inhibitor, on secretagogues-induced insulin secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI1–86) is a peptide that is present in large amounts in the intestine and pancreas and which inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release from both perfused pancreas and isolated islets in low nanomolar concentrations. Here, DBI33–50 (also known as ODN, octadecaneuropeptide), one of the naturally occurring processing products of DBI1–86, and certain synthetic modified derivatives, have been shown to

P. De Stefanis; F. Impagnatiello; A. Berkovich; A. Guidotti

1995-01-01

344

Laboratory methods for evaluating migrated high molecular weight hydrocarbons in marine sediments at naturally occurring oil seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study has been conducted to determine the best methods for the detection of C10–C40 hydrocarbons at naturally occurring oil seeps in marine sediments. The results indicate that a commercially available method using n-C6 to extract sediments and gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) to screen the resulting extract is effective at recognizing the presence of migrated hydrocarbons at concentrations

Graham A. Logan; Michael A. Abrams; Nicola F. Dahdah; Emmanuelle Grosjean

2009-01-01

345

Laccase-catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications  

PubMed Central

Summary Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single?electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low?molecular?weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase?catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase?involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase?catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono? or poly?phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical?mediated coupling or cross?linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical?scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase?associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase?catalysed biosynthetic pathways and associated applications in fine chemical syntheses.

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2012-01-01

346

The p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Mediates Neuronal Apoptosis and Is Essential for Naturally Occurring Sympathetic Neuron Death  

PubMed Central

Abstract. To determine whether the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays a role in naturally occurring neuronal death, we examined neonatal sympathetic neurons that express both the TrkA tyrosine kinase receptor and p75NTR. When sympathetic neuron survival is maintained with low quantities of NGF or KCl, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which does not activate Trk receptors on sympathetic neurons, causes neuronal apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of c-jun. Function-blocking antibody studies indicate that this apoptosis is due to BDNF-mediated activation of p75NTR. To determine the physiological relevance of these culture findings, we examined sympathetic neurons in BDNF?/? and p75NTR?/? mice. In BDNF?/? mice, sympathetic neuron number is increased relative to BDNF+/+ littermates, and in p75NTR?/? mice, the normal period of sympathetic neuron death does not occur, with neuronal attrition occurring later in life. This deficit in apoptosis is intrinsic to sympathetic neurons, since cultured p75NTR?/? neurons die more slowly than do their wild-type counterparts. Together, these data indicate that p75NTR can signal to mediate apoptosis, and that this mechanism is essential for naturally occurring sympathetic neuron death.

Bamji, Shernaz X.; Majdan, Marta; Pozniak, Christine D.; Belliveau, Daniel J.; Aloyz, Raquel; Kohn, Judi; Causing, Carrie G.; Miller, Freda D.

1998-01-01

347

Isotopic exchange reactions occurring in the hydrogenation of (1,5-cyclooctadiene)dialkylplatinum(II) complexes over platinum black  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the reactivity of platinum-surface alkyls with two types of deuterium-labeling experiments. In the first, the extent of deuterium incorporation into cyclooctane during reduction of CODPt(R/sup D/)/sub 2/ (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; R/sup D/ = a deuterium-labeled alkyl group) complexes with dihydrogen over platinum black is determined as a function of the structure of R/sup D/ and the position of the deuterium label in it. Reduction of CODPt(CD/sub 2/CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/ yields cyclooctane containing substantially more deuterium than that obtained by reduction of CODPt(CH/sub 2/CD/sub 3/)/sub 2/ yields cyclooctane containing substantially more deuterium than that obtained by reduction of CODPt(CH/sub 2/CD/sub 3/)/sub 2/. Reduction of CODPt(CD/sub 2/C(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/)/sub 2/ yields cyclooctane containing less deuterium than that obtained by reduction of CODPt(CD/sub 2/CH/sub 2/CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/. The quantity of deuterium incorporated into cyclooctane from reduction of complexes of the type CODPt(CH/sub 2/C(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/CD/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (n = 1-3) decreases from n = 1 to 3. The second type of experiment compares the isotopic compositions of alkanes obtained by reduction of CODPtR/sub 2/ complexes with D/sub 2/ over platinum black with that of the same alkanes from reduction of the corresponding alkenes with D/sub 2/. The relative rates of exchange with surface hydrogen (deuterium) and reductive elimination for the platinum surface ethyl species produced from deuteriogenation of CODPt(CH/sub 2/CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and ethylene are similar. Propanes from deuteriogenation of CODPt(CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and CODPt(CH(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 2/ contain deuterium principally at C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/, respectively.

Miller, T.M.; Whitesides, G.M.

1988-05-11

348

Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling  

SciTech Connect

Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals, comprised primarily of pharmaceutical, industrial and some natural products developed under an FDA-MDL cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA). The predictive performance for this group of dietary natural products and the control group was 97% sensitivity and 80% concordance. Specificity was marginal at 53%. This study finds that the in silico QSAR analysis employing this software's rodent carcinogenicity database is capable of identifying the rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring organic molecules found in the human diet with a high degree of sensitivity. It is the first study to demonstrate successful QSAR predictive modeling of naturally occurring carcinogens found in the human diet using an external validation test. Further test validation of this software and expansion of the training data set for dietary chemicals will help to support the future use of such QSAR methods for screening and prioritizing the risk of dietary chemicals when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent.

Valerio, Luis G. [Division of Biotechnology and GRAS Notice Review, US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Additive Safety, HFS-255, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)]. E-mail: luis.valerio@FDA.HHS.gov; Arvidson, Kirk B. [Division of Food Contact Notifications, US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 7Office of Food Additive Safety, HFS-255, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Chanderbhan, Ronald F. [Division of Biotechnology and GRAS Notice Review, US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Additive Safety, HFS-255, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Contrera, Joseph F. [US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States)

2007-07-01

349

Chemical method for nitrogen isotopic analysis of ammonium at natural abundance.  

PubMed

We report a new chemical method to determine the (15)N natural abundance (?(15)N) for ammonium (NH4(+)) in freshwater (e.g., precipitation) and soil KCl extract. This method is based on the isotopic analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O). Ammonium is initially oxidized to nitrite (NO2(-)) by hypobromite (BrO(-)) using previously established procedures. NO2(-) is then quantitatively converted into N2O by hydroxylamine (NH2OH) under strongly acid conditions. The produced N2O is analyzed by a commercially available purge and cryogenic trap system coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (PT-IRMS). On the basis of a typical analysis size of 4 mL, the standard deviation of ?(15)N measurements is less than 0.3‰ and often better than 0.1‰ (3 to 5 replicates). Compared to previous methods, the technique here has several advantages and the potential to be used as a routine method for (15)N/(14)N analysis of NH4(+): (1) substantially simplified preparation procedures and reduced preparation time particularly compared to the methods in which diffusion or distillation is involved since all reactions occur in the same vial and separation of NH4(+) from solution is not required; (2) more suitability for low volume samples including those with low N concentration, having a blank size of 0.6 to 2 nmol; (3) elimination of the use of extremely toxic reagents (e.g., HN3) and/or the use of specialized denitrifying bacterial cultures which may be impractical for many laboratories. PMID:24654992

Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Tu, Ying; Pan, Yuepeng

2014-04-15

350

Upper limits for the existence of long-lived isotopes of roentgenium in natural gold  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive search for isotopes of a superheavy element (SHE) in natural gold materials has been performed with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, which is based on a 3-MV tandem accelerator. Because the most likely SHE in gold is roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111), the search concentrated on Rg isotopes. Two different mass regions were explored: (i) For the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 261}Rg and {sup 265}Rg, abundance limits in gold of 3x10{sup -16} were reached (no events observed). This is in stark contrast to the findings of Marinov et al.[Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 18, 621 (2009)], who reported positive identification of these isotopes with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry in the (1-10)x10{sup -10} abundance range. (ii) Theoretical models of SHEs predict a region of increased stability around the proton and neutron shell closures of Z = 114 and N = 184. We therefore investigated eight heavy Rg isotopes, {sup A}Rg, A = 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, and 296. For six isotopes no events were observed, setting limits also in the 10{sup -16} abundance range. For {sup 291}Rg and {sup 294}Rg we observed two and nine events, respectively, which results in an abundance in the 10{sup -15} range. However, pileup of a particularly strong background in these cases makes a positive identification as Rg isotopes--even after pileup correction--unlikely.

Dellinger, F.; Kutschera, W.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Winkler, G. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

2011-01-15

351

Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes  

PubMed Central

The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

2012-01-01

352

Natural variation of magnesium isotopes in mammal bones and teeth from two South African trophic chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic fractionations accompanying element transfer through terrestrial ecosystems have the potential to shed light on ecological interactions between primary producers and consumers, but with the exception of carbon and nitrogen this potential has barely been exploited. Here, the magnesium stable isotope composition of bones and teeth of extant mammals from Kruger National Park (KNP) and Western Cape (WC), South Africa was measured for the first time. The nature of the geological substrate proves to be a major determinant of the ecosystem isotope baseline, as indicated by the lighter magnesium isotope ratios measured in WC mammals (ranging from -1.58‰ to -0.79‰) compared to those from KNP mammals (ranging from -1.01‰ to -0.04‰). Therefore, comparisons between the isotope signatures of taxa must be restricted to a pre-defined geographic area with a homogeneous substrate. In both parks, Mg shows slight enrichment in heavier isotopes from herbivores to carnivores. Plant remains trapped in the dentition of herbivores provide direct evidence of dietary source and, when available, were measured. In KNP only, ?26Mg of plant remains is systematically lighter than the values for herbivore teeth. These results invite further exploration of the variability of Mg isotopes in vertebrate ecosystems in order to test whether magnesium, a bio-essential element present in relatively large proportions in bone and teeth apatite, may serve as an additional trophic tracer to nitrogen, which is a constituent of collagen that rapidly degrades after burial.

Martin, Jeremy E.; Vance, Derek; Balter, Vincent

2014-04-01

353

Contrasts in growth and water sources in co-occurring Mediterranean riparian tree species: Evidence from tree ring isotopes and dendrochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riparian trees have growth responses to varying water sources that are more subtle than those of their upland counterparts, but differences in water use between co-occurring riparian species are not easily discerned by conventional dendrochronology. While tree ring isotopes have been developed as a useful tool for understanding past climate (temperature and precipitation) at the growth limits for particular species, relatively little research has investigated responses in tree growth in water-rich environments, where co-occurring tree species may express differential adaptation to water availability and shifting water sources. Better understanding of such subtle adaptations will improve predictions of the response of lowland riparian forests to climate changes that manifest as shifts in: regional ground water tables; the spatial/temporal distribution of precipitation; or volumes and timing of streamflow. We use an approach that combines dendrochronology and tree ring isotopes (?18O) to discern the relationships between tree growth and water sources for two contrasting, co-occurring Mediterranean riparian species-- Fraxinus excelsior and Populus nigra. We developed growth time series via two methods (one de-trended for climate) and extracted alpha-cellulose from tree rings to assess relative responses to water stress via ?18O, and we analyzed these data alongside streamflow and precipitation data for the Ain River basin in France. We find that both species exhibit decreased growth during drought years, but F. excelsior demonstrates more consistent annual growth than P. nigra. In contrast, oxygen isotopic values in P. nigra have low interannual variability compared with ?18O in F. excelsior. These differences suggest contrasting patterns of water use by these co-occurring species, wherein F. excelsior functions as an opportunist, scavenging water from the vadose zone where and when it cannot access groundwater. In contrast, the P. nigra demonstrates consistent groundwater usage (consistent with its moniker-obligate phreatophyte) and tends to struggle in drought years. These observations are consistent with ancillary data on rooting depths which show that F. excelsior maintains its roots above the gravel layer, where it can extract soil water from precipitation or overbank flooding. In contrast, P. nigra roots deeply into the phreatic zone without maintaining significant vadose zone roots, and is therefore less adaptable to rapid declines in the water table. These factors suggest, in contrast to prior work, that poplars may be more sensitive to drought than ash trees. Such dynamics in water use between such co-occurring, yet contrasting riparian trees within a riparian floodplain may indicate the response in succession and stand composition to climate changes or major anthropogenic impacts.

Singer, M. B.; Dufour, S.; Stella, J. C.; Piégay, H.; Johnstone, L.; Wilson, R.

2011-12-01

354

Dual Infection and Superinfection Inhibition of Epithelial Skin Cells by Two Alphaherpesviruses Co-Occur in the Natural Host  

PubMed Central

Hosts can be infected with multiple herpesviruses, known as superinfection; however, superinfection of cells is rare due to the phenomenon known as superinfection inhibition. It is believed that dual infection of cells occurs in nature, based on studies examining genetic exchange between homologous alphaherpesviruses in the host, but to date, this has not been directly shown in a natural model. In this report, gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), better known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV), was used in its natural host, the chicken, to determine whether two homologous alphaherpesviruses can infect the same cells in vivo. MDV shares close similarities with the human alphaherpesvirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV), with respect to replication in the skin and exit from the host. Recombinant MDVs were generated that express either the enhanced GFP (eGFP) or monomeric RFP (mRFP) fused to the UL47 (VP13/14) herpesvirus tegument protein. These viruses exhibited no alteration in pathogenic potential and expressed abundant UL47-eGFP or -mRFP in feather follicle epithelial cells in vivo. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, it was evident that these two similar, but distinguishable, viruses were able to replicate within the same cells of their natural host. Evidence of superinfection inhibition was also observed. These results have important implications for two reasons. First, these results show that during natural infection, both dual infection of cells and superinfection inhibition can co-occur at the cellular level. Secondly, vaccination against MDV with homologous alphaherpesvirus like attenuated GaHV-2, or non-oncogenic GaHV-3 or meleagrid herpesvirus (MeHV-1) has driven the virus to greater virulence and these results implicate the potential for genetic exchange between homologous avian alphaherpesviruses that could drive increased virulence. Because the live attenuated varicella vaccine is currently being administered to children, who in turn could be superinfected by wild-type VZV, this could potentiate recombination events of VZV as well.

Jarosinski, Keith W.

2012-01-01

355

Automated determination of silicon isotope natural abundance by the acid decomposition of cesium hexafluosilicate.  

PubMed

A procedure for the automated determination of isotopic abundances of silicon from biogenic and lithogenic particulate matter and from dissolved silicon in fresh or saltwaters is reported. Samples are purified using proven procedures through the reaction of Si with acidified ammonium molybdate, followed by precipitation with triethylamine and combustion of the precipitate to yield silicon dioxide. The silicon dioxide is converted to cesium hexafluosilicate by dissolution in hydrogen fluoride and the addition of cesium chloride. Isotopic analysis is accomplished by decomposing the cesium hexafluosilicate with concentrated sulfuric acid to generate silicon tetrafluoride gas. Silicon tetrafluoride is purified cryogenically and analyzed on a gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Yields of silicon tetrafluoride are >99.5%. The procedure can be automated by modifying commercial inlet systems designed for carbonate analysis. The procedure is free of memory effects and isotopic biases. Reproducibility is +/-0.03-0.10 per thousand for a variety of natural and synthetic materials. PMID:16944891

Brzezinski, Mark A; Jones, Janice L; Beucher, Charlotte P; Demarest, Mark S; Berg, Howard L

2006-09-01

356

ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY - ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes. Analytical capabilities at IHL include light stable isotope radio mass...

357

Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation to the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental samples collected in the Mosquito Creek Lake area were used to characterize water quality in relation to the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine and to establish baseline water quality. Mosquito Creek Lake (a manmade reservoir) and the shallow bedrock aquifers near the lake are major sources of potable water in central Trumbull County. The city of Warren relies on the lake as a sole source of potable water. Some of the lake bottom may be in direct hydraulic connection with the underlying aquifers. The city of Cortland, along the southeastern shore of the lake, relies on the Cussewago Sandstone aquifer as a sole source of potable water. This aquifer subcrops beneath the glacio-fluvial sediments that underlie the lake. Nearly all residential homes around the lake, with the exception of homes in the city of Cortland, rely on domestic supply wells as a source of potable water. Oil and natural gas exploration and production have been ongoing in the Mosquito Creek Lakearea since the discovery of the historic Mecca Oil Pool in the Mississippian Berea and Cussewago Sandstones in 1860. Since the late 1970' s, the major drilling objective and zone of production is the Lower Silurian Clinton sandstone. The oil and natural gas resources of the Mosquito Creek Lake area, including reservoir pressure, production history, and engineering and abandonment practices are described in this report. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the historic Mecca oil and natural gas are very different than those of the Clinton sandstone oil and natural gas. Gas chromatograms show that Mecca oil samples are extensively altered by biodegradation, whereas Clinton sandstone oils are not. Extensive alteration of Mecca oil is consistent with their occurrence at very shallow depths (less than 100 ft below land surface) where microbial activity can affect their composition. Also, the carbon-isotope composition of dissolved methane gas from Berea and Cussewago Sandstone water samples indicates that the gas is microbially generated, whereas the Clinton sandstone gases are thermogenically generated. Methane gas, in addition to crude oil, occurs naturally in the shallow Berea and Cussewago Sandstone aquifers in the Mosquito Creek Lake area and concentrations of dissolved methane are significant in the city of Cortland public-supply wells and in the domestic-supply wells near the southern shore of the lake. Water associated with oil and gas in the Clinton sandstone is a brine with high concentrations of chloride. Water from the Berea and Cussewago Sandstones, however, is fresh and potable. The contrasting geochemical characteristics are important for addressing water-quality issues that relate to oil and natural gas development in the Mosquito Creek area. A reexamination of the geologic framework and results of a subsurface-gas survey show that crude oil in the historic Mecca Oil Pool probably does not seep into Mosquito Creek Lake. Environmental samples show no evidence of any measurable release of oil, gas, or brine from the deeper Clinton sandstone oil and gas wells to the shallow aquifers, the lake, or lake tributaries. Brine is not associated with the hydrocarbons in the shallow Berea-Cussewago aquifer system and therefore cannot be a source of brine contamination. A mixing diagram constructed for dissolved bromide and chloride in surface water and water-supply wells shows no demonstrable mixing of these water resources with brine from the Clinton sandstone. There is some notable salinity in surface waters; however, the water is bromide poor, and a mixing diagram indicates that some local ground waters are influenced by halite solutions, presumably derived from leaching of road salt or from septic effluent.

Barton, G. J.; Burruss, R. C.; Ryder, R. T.

1998-01-01

358

Mechanistic insights into the formation of chloroform from natural organic matter using stable carbon isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloroform can be naturally formed in terrestrial environments (e.g. forest soils, peatland) by chlorination of natural organic matter (NOM). Recently, it was demonstrated that natural and anthropogenic chloroform have a distinctly different carbon isotope signature that makes it possible to identify its origin in soil and groundwater. In order to evaluate the contribution of different functional groups to chloroform production and factors controlling the isotopic composition of chloroform, carbon isotope trends during chlorination of model compounds, soil organic matter (SOM) and humic acids were evaluated, and apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs) quantified. Phenol and propanone were selected as model compounds representing common functional groups in NOM. Chlorination was induced by hypochlorous acid to mimic natural chlorination. The pH ranged between 4 and 8 to cover typical soil conditions. For each model compound and pH, different AKIEs were observed. For phenol, the AKIE was normal at pH 4 (1.0156 ± 0.0012) and inverse at pH 8 (0.9900 ± 0.0007). For 2-propoanol, an opposite pH dependence was observed with an inverse AKIE at pH 4 (0.9935 ± 0.0007) and a normal AKIE at pH 8 (1.0189 ± 0.0016). The variations of the AKIE values suggest that the rate-limiting step of the reaction is either the re-hybridization of the carbon atom involved in chloroform formation or the hydrolysis of trichloroacetyl intermediates depending on the nature of functional group and pH. The chloroform formation from humic acid and SOM gives rise to small isotope variations. A comparison of the isotopic trends of chloroform formed from humic acid and SOM with those found for the model compounds suggest that opposed AKIE associated with the chlorination of phenolic and ketone moieties of NOM partly compensate each other during chlorination of NOM indicating that different types of functional groups contribute to chloroform formation.

Breider, Florian; Hunkeler, Daniel

2014-01-01

359

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Washington State: Swift Creek at the Intersection of Science, Law, and Risk Perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northwestern corner of Washington state, a large landslide on Sumas Mountain deposits more than 100,000 cubic yards of soil containing asbestos fibers and heavy metals into Swift Creek every year. Engineers predict that asbestos-laden soils will slide into Swift Creek for at least the next 400 years. Swift Creek joins the Sumas River, which crosses the border into Canada, serving as an international delivery system for asbestos-laden soils. When the rivers flood, as happens regularly, they deliver asbestos into field, yards, and basements. The tools available to address the Swift Creek situation are at odds with the scope and nature of the problem. Asbestos regulation primarily addresses occupational settings, where exposures can be estimated. Hazardous waste regulation primarily addresses liability for abandoned waste products from human activities. Health and environmental issues relating to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are fundamentally different from either regulatory scheme. Liability is not a logical lever for a naturally occurring substance, the existence of which is nobody's fault, and exposures to NOA in the environment do not necessarily resemble occupational exposures. The gaps and flaws in the legal regime exacerbate the uncertainties created by uncertainties in the science. Once it is assumed that no level of exposure is safe, legal requirements adopted in very different contexts foreclose the options for addressing the Swift Creek problem. This presentation will outline the applicable laws and how they intersect with issues of risk perception, uncertainty and politics in efforts to address the Swift Creek NOA site.

Melious, J. O.

2012-12-01

360

Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece  

SciTech Connect

West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R. [Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of West Macedonia, Department of Pollution Control Technologies, Koila, Kozani, 50100 (Greece)

2008-08-07

361

An Isotope Fractionation - Reactive Transport Model to Assess Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While compound-specific isotope analysis has been used successfully to demonstrate in situ degradation of chlorinated solvents, it suffers from uncertainty resulting from geological heterogeneity and variability in redox conditions. The primary objective of this project was to create an Isotope Fractionation - Reactive Transport Model (IF-RTM) capable of simultaneously simulating multiple isotopes within a complex reaction network, in this case C, Cl and H isotopes during the sequential degradation of chlorinated ethenes, and with heterogeneous environmental conditions. This IF-RTM can then be used as a tool to quantitatively assess contaminant mass destruction through natural attenuation processes, potentially reducing the required monitoring effort, informing remediation or mitigation efforts, and providing insight into the relative impacts of mass attenuation mechanisms. A greater level of model confidence can be obtained by incorporating isotope fractionation into the model output, rather than the usual concentration only approach. A model code capable of simulating concentration changes and isotope fractionation of multiple isotopes (C, Cl, H) during reductive dechlorination and aerobic degradation has been developed using the biogeochemical speciation and transport modelling programme PHREEQC-2. This model is novel not only because it simulates multiple isotopes, but also because it also incorporates secondary isotope effects in the simulation of chlorine isotope fractionation. Microcosm data, including a dataset representing the first a comprehensive, three-isotope (C, Cl, H) characterisation of the TCE reductive dechlorination sequence will be presented and have been used to calibrate/validate this model. The model was found to be capable of simulating the carbon, chlorine and hydrogen isotope fractionation patterns and change in concentration for TCE and its degradation products throughout the reductive dechlorination process. In the next stage of this project solute transport capability will be added to the model by modifying it to be used with a reactive multi-component transport model such as PHAST. The final IF-RTM product will have the capability of simulating changes in concentrations of the parent compound (e.g. PCE) and its degradation products (e.g. VC) and the isotope ratios (of C, Cl and H) of each compound in 3D space. This IF-RTM can also be modified to include fractionation resulting from physical processes such as hydrodynamic dispersion. The developed model will be tested on a large dataset collected at a contaminated field site, namely the TCE plume at Hill AFB, UT.

Stack, P.; Kuder, T.; Vanderford, M.; Philp, P.; van Breukelen, B.

2012-04-01

362

Subcutaneous 5-Azacitidine Treatment of Naturally Occurring Canine Urothelial Carcinoma: A Novel Epigenetic Approach to Human Urothelial Carcinoma Drug Development  

PubMed Central

Purpose We determined the efficacy, biological activity, pharmacokinetics and safety of the hypomethylating agent 5-azacitidine (Celgene Corp., Summit, New Jersey) in dogs with naturally occurring invasive urothelial carcinoma. Materials and Methods We performed a preclinical phase I trial in dogs with naturally occurring invasive urothelial carcinoma to examine once daily subcutaneous administration of 5-azacitidine in 28-day cycles at doses of 0.10 to 0.30 mg/kg per day according to 2 dose schedules, including days 1 to 5 (28-day cohort) or days 1 to 5 and 15 to 19 (14-day cohort). Clinical efficacy was assessed by serial cystosonography, radiography and cystoscopy. Urinary 5-azacitidine pharmacokinetic analysis was also done. Pretreatment and posttreatment peripheral blood mononuclear cell and invasive urothelial carcinoma DNA, respectively, was analyzed for global and gene specific [CDKN2A (p14ARF)] methylation changes. Results Enrolled in the study were 19 dogs with naturally occurring invasive urothelial carcinoma. In the 28-day cohort the maximum tolerated dose was 0.20 mg/kg per day with higher doses resulting in grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in 4 of 6 dogs. In the 14-day cohort the maximum tolerated dose was 0.10 mg/kg per day with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia seen in 2 of 3 dogs treated at higher doses. No grade 3 or 4 nonhematological toxicity was observed during either dosing schedule. Of 18 dogs evaluable for tumor response partial remission, stable disease and progressive disease were observed in 4 (22.2%), 9 (50.0%) and 4 (22.2%), respectively. Consistent 5-azacitidine levels (205 to 857 ng/ml) were detected in urine. Pretreatment and posttreatment methylation analysis revealed no significant correlation with clinical response. Conclusions Subcutaneous 5-azacitidine showed promising clinical activity in a canine invasive urothelial carcinoma model, thus meriting further development in humans with urothelial carcinoma.

Hahn, Noah M.; Bonney, Patty L.; Dhawan, Deepika; Jones, David R.; Balch, Curtis; Guo, Zhongmin; Hartman-Frey, Corie; Fang, Fang; Parker, Heidi G.; Kwon, Erika M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Knapp, Deborah W.

2012-01-01

363

Additional Evidence That Transaldolase Exchange, Isotope Discrimination During the Triose-Isomerase Reaction, or Both Occur in Humans  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine whether deuterium enrichment on carbons 5 and 3 (C5/C3) in plasma glucose is influenced by processes other than gluconeogenesis and, if so, whether these processes are altered by type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, 10 obese diabetic and 10 obese nondiabetic subjects were infused intravenously with [3,5-2H2] galactose enriched at a C5-to-C3 ratio of 1.0 as well as the enrichment of deuterium on C5 and C3 of plasma glucose, measured with nuclear magnetic resonance using the acetaminophen glucuronide method. RESULTS The ratio of deuterium enrichment on C5 and C3 of glucose was <1 (P < 0.001) in all of the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, resulting in a means ± SE C5-to-C3 ratio that did not differ between groups (0.81 ± 0.01 vs. 0.79 ± 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS That the C5-to-C3 glucose ratio is <1 indicates that transaldolase exchange, selective retention of deuterium at the level of the triose-isomerase reaction, or both occur in humans. This also indicates that the net effect of these processes on the C5-to-C3 ratio is the same in people with and without type 2 diabetes. The possible effects of transaldolase exchange or selective retention of deuterium (or tritium) at the level of the triose-isomerase reaction on tracee labeling and tracer metabolism should be considered when the deuterated water method is used to measure gluconeogenesis or [3-3H] glucose is used to measure glucose turnover in humans.

Basu, Rita; Chandramouli, Visvanthan; Schumann, William; Basu, Ananda; Landau, Bernard R.; Rizza, Robert A.

2009-01-01

364

In vitro activity of Brazilian medicinal plants, naturally occurring naphthoquinones and their analogues, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Fourteen extracts from Brazilian traditional medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases were used to look for potential antimicrobial activity against multiresistant bacteria of medical importance. Staphylococcus aureus strains were susceptible to extracts of Punica granatum and Tabebuia avellanedae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the total extracts and of additional fractions of these plants were determined by employing strains of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus, including isolates of the PFGE clone A, which is prevalent in Brazil and two ATCC reference strains. A mixture of ellagitannins isolated from P. granatum and two naphthoquinones isolated from T. avellanedae demonstrated antibacterial activity against all S. aureus strains tested. Semi-synthetic furanonaphthoquinones (FNQs) showed lower MICs than those exhibited by natural occurring naphthoquinones. The results indicate that these natural products can be effective potential candidates for the development of new strategies to treat MRSA infections. PMID:12636992

Machado, T B; Pinto, A V; Pinto, M C F R; Leal, I C R; Silva, M G; Amaral, A C F; Kuster, R M; Netto-dosSantos, K R

2003-03-01

365

Isotopic studies of rare gases in terrestrial samples and natural nucleosynthesis. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is concerned with research in rare gas mass spectrometry. We read the natural record that isotopes of the rare gases provide. We study fluids using a system (RARGA) that is sometimes deployed in the field. In 1990 there was a strong effort to...

1990-01-01

366

Isotopic studies of rare gases in terrestrial samples and natural nucleosynthesis. DOE annual report, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is concerned with research in rare gas mass spectrometry. We read the natural record that isotopes of the rate gases provide. We study fluids using a system (RARGA) that is sometimes deployed in the field. In 1990 there was a strong effort to...

J. H. Reynolds

1991-01-01

367

Negative ion ESI–MS analysis of natural yellow dye flavonoids—An isotopic labelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are amongst the most commonly used natural yellow colourants in paintings, as lakes, and in historical textiles as mordant dyes. In this paper, evidence from isotopically labelled substrates is used to propose negative ion electrospray collision induced decomposition mechanisms of flavones, flavonols and an isoflavone. These mechanisms include a retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation (observed for flavones and flavonols) and an M-122

Hamish McNab; Ester S. B. Ferreira; Alison N. Hulme; Anita Quye

2009-01-01

368

Negative ion ESI-MS analysis of natural yellow dye flavonoids--An isotopic labelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are amongst the most commonly used natural yellow colourants in paintings, as lakes, and in historical textiles as mordant dyes. In this paper, evidence from isotopically labelled substrates is used to propose negative ion electrospray collision induced decomposition mechanisms of flavones, flavonols and an isoflavone. These mechanisms include a retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation (observed for flavones and flavonols) and an M-122

Hamish McNab; Ester S. B. Ferreira; Alison N. Hulme; Anita Quye

2009-01-01

369

Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically-light bone calcium. In contrast, little shift was seen in patients who exercised during bed rest, consistent with the expectation that exercise should inhibit bone resorption. Most intriguingly, an opposite-sense shift was seen in patients who were administered aledronate, a drug which inhibits bone resorption. We hypothesize that these patients entered a state of positive bone mineral balance despite initiation of bed rest. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism confirms that the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Calcium isotope analysis of urine and soft tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

2004-12-01

370

Isotopic disequilibrium effects in leaching of natural uraninite and thorianite  

SciTech Connect

Fractional leach rates of /sup 228/Th that are greater than those of /sup 232/Th from natural uraninite and thorianite have been interpreted by Eyal and Fleischer in terms of ..cap alpha..-decay damage to the crystal lattice. An alternative interpretation proposed here is that the enhanced leaching of /sup 228/Th is due to its presence as interstitial ions.

Vance, E.R.; Gascoyne, M.

1987-09-01

371

Isotopic disequilibrium effects in leaching of natural uraninite and thorianitc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractional leach rates of 228Th that are greater than those of 232Th from natural uraninite and thorianite have been interpreted by Eyal and Fleischer in terms of ?-decay damage to the crystal lattice. An alternative interpretation proposed here is that the enhanced leaching of 228Th is due to its presence as interstitial ions.

Vance, E. R.; Gascoyne, M.

1987-09-01

372

Using stable isotopes of water and strontium to investigate the hydrology of a natural and a constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands cannot exist without water, but wetland hydrology is difficult to characterize. In this study, water sources and mass transfer processes in a natural and constructed wetland complex were investigated using isotopes of water and strontium. Water isotope profiles in the saturated zone revealed that the natural wetland and one site in the constructed wetland were primarily fed by ground

Randall J. Hunt; D. P. Krabbenhoft; T. D. Bullen; Carol Kendall

1998-01-01

373

Characteristics of helium isotopes in natural gas and its tectonic implication in Bohai Bay Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis on helium isotopes in natural gas in Bohai Bay Basin showed their mantle-origin indicated by high3He\\/4He ratio. The span of3He\\/4He ratio increased from west to east. This pattern implied a close relationship to the local tectonic setting. Bohai Bay Basin\\u000a experienced intensive neo-tectonic activities in the Cenozoic. Widespread faulted-depressions and strong volcanic eruptions\\u000a manifested its extensional tectonics. Abiogenic natural

Weiwei Ding; Jinxin Dai; Shufeng Yang; Hanlin Chen

2006-01-01

374

Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ?375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?Sr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?Sr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§ Karl T. Schroeder,§ and Harry M. Edenborn

2012-02-24

375

Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of 375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?{sub Sr}{sup SW} = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?{sub Sr}{sup SW} is the deviation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10{sup 4}); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Kirby, Carl S.; Hammack, Richard W.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Edenborn, Harry M.

2012-03-20

376

Geochemical and strontium isotope characterization of produced waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction.  

PubMed

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ~375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?(Sr)(SW) = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?(Sr) (SW) is the deviation of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10(4)); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters. PMID:22360406

Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Kirby, Carl S; Hammack, Richard W; Schroeder, Karl T; Edenborn, Harry M

2012-03-20

377

A Naturally-Occurring Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitor Derived from Garcinia indica Impairs Newly Acquired and Reactivated Fear Memories  

PubMed Central

The study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the consolidation and reconsolidation of traumatic fear memories has progressed rapidly in recent years, yet few compounds have emerged that are readily useful in a clinical setting for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we use a combination of biochemical, behavioral, and neurophysiological methods to systematically investigate the ability of garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree (Garcina indica), to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a widely studied rodent model of PTSD. We show that local infusion of garcinol into the rat lateral amygdala (LA) impairs the training and retrieval-related acetylation of histone H3 in the LA. Further, we show that either intra-LA or systemic administration of garcinol within a narrow window after either fear conditioning or fear memory retrieval significantly impairs the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory and associated neural plasticity in the LA. Our findings suggest that a naturally-occurring compound derived from the diet that regulates chromatin function may be useful in the treatment of newly acquired or recently reactivated traumatic memories.

Maddox, Stephanie A.; Watts, Casey S.; Doyere, Valerie; Schafe, Glenn E.

2013-01-01

378

Naturally occurring phenolic acids modulate TPA-induced activation of EGFR, AP-1, and STATs in mouse epidermis.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in epithelial carcinogenesis and appears to be involved in STATs activation. In this study we investigated the possible interference of naturally occurring phenolic acids with EGFR, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) pathways activated by topical application of tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Balb/c mice epidermis. Pretreatment with tannic or chlorogenic acid resulted in a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of EGFR Y-1068 and Y-1173 tyrosine residues, which was accompanied by reduced activation of AP-1. Tannic acid decreased also the c-Jun AP-1 subunit level and binding to TPA response element (TRE) (3- and 2-fold in comparison with TPA-treated group respectively). Simultaneous reduction of JNK activity might be responsible for reduced activation of AP-1. In contrast to these more complex phenolics, protocatechuic acid increased the activity of JNK and was also the most efficient inhibitor of STATs activation. These results indicate that naturally occurring phenolic acids, by decreasing EGFR, AP-1, and STATs activation, may modulate other elements both upstream and downstream in these pathways and thus inhibit the tumor development. Although more complex phenolics affect mainly the EGFR/AP-1 pathway, STATs seem to be the most important targets for simple compounds, such as protocatechuic acid. PMID:24380573

Cichocki, Micha?; Da?ek, Mi?osz; Szama?ek, Mateusz; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

2014-01-01

379

A naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase inhibitor derived from Garcinia indica impairs newly acquired and reactivated fear memories.  

PubMed

The study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the consolidation and reconsolidation of traumatic fear memories has progressed rapidly in recent years, yet few compounds have emerged that are readily useful in a clinical setting for the treatment of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we use a combination of biochemical, behavioral, and neurophysiological methods to systematically investigate the ability of garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree (Garcina indica), to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a widely studied rodent model of PTSD. We show that local infusion of garcinol into the rat lateral amygdala (LA) impairs the training and retrieval-related acetylation of histone H3 in the LA. Further, we show that either intra-LA or systemic administration of garcinol within a narrow window after either fear conditioning or fear memory retrieval significantly impairs the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory and associated neural plasticity in the LA. Our findings suggest that a naturally-occurring compound derived from the diet that regulates chromatin function may be useful in the treatment of newly acquired or recently reactivated traumatic memories. PMID:23349897

Maddox, Stephanie A; Watts, Casey S; Doyère, Valérie; Schafe, Glenn E

2013-01-01

380

Analysis in natural time domain of geoelectric time series monitored prior two strong earthquakes occurred in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-time prediction of seismic phenomena is currently an important problem in the scientific community. In particular, the electromagnetic processes associated with seismic events take in great interest since the VAN method was implemented. The most important features of this methodology are the seismic electrical signals (SES) observed prior to strong earthquakes. SES has been observed in the electromagnetic series linked to EQs in Greece, Japan and Mexico. By mean of the so-called natural time domain, introduced by Varotsos et al. (2001), they could characterize signals of dichotomic nature observed in different systems, like SES and ionic current fluctuations in membrane channels. In this work we analyze SES observed in geoelectric time series monitored in Guerrero, México. Our analysis concern with two strong earthquakes occurred, on October 24, 1993 (M=6.6) and September 14, 1995 (M=7.3). The time series of the first one displayed a seismic electric signal six days before the main shock and for the second case the time series displayed dichotomous-like fluctuations some months before the EQ. In this work we present the first results of the analysis in natural time domain for the two cases which seems to be agreeing with the results reported by Varotsos. P. Varotsos, N. Sarlis, and E. Skordas, Practica of the Athens Academy 76, 388 (2001).

Ramírez-Rojas, A.; Flores-Marquez, L. E.

2009-12-01

381

Antimony Isotope Variations in Natural Systems Determined by MC-ICP-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sb has two stable isotopes of mass 121 and 123 with average abundance of 57.362% and 42.638% respectively and to date no geochemical or cosmochemical investigations of the variations of these isotopes have been attempted. In fact, the development of Sb isotope measurements for biogeochemical studies is challenging as Sb isotopes have a low percentage mass differences (1.6%) precluding large mass fractionation and Sb is a trace element below 100 ng/g for most geological samples and below 100 ng/l for seawater. However, it is anticipated that the redox changes of Sb(V) and Sb(III) species as well as biological activity and Sb volatilization or transport in hydrothermal systems can produce significant isotope fractionation in natural systems. The isotopic analyses of Sb have been performed using a continuous flow hydride generation system coupled to a Micromass MC-ICP-MS and the instrumental mass fractionation is corrected using a standard-sample bracketing approach. Total Sb, as well as Sb(III) and Sb(V) aqueous species are chemically purified prior to HG-MC-ICP-MS analysis. Using this analytical scheme, the minimum Sb required per analysis is 10 ng and the estimated external precision of the 123Sb/121Sb isotope ratio is 0.4 ? -units (2? ). The data are reported relative to our internal standards (MERCK elemental standard solution). The isotopic fractionation factors between the coexisting species Sb(III) and Sb(V) have been investigated both on-line and after chemical separation. For the kinetic reduction experiment of Sb(V), the reducing agent used was KI as classically used for Sb(V) reduction and we obtained an instantaneous fractionation factor of 8.6 ? -units. For off-line experiments, we separated Sb(III) from a partially oxidized Sb solution and obtained a fractionation factor ranging from 5 to 6 ? -units. Preliminary results on Sb isotopic composition of selected terrestrial materials including seawater, soils, sediments and hydrothermal sulfides have been determined and show a variation of 20 ? -units, which is 50 times higher than the analytical precision. This demonstrates the existence of natural variations of the Sb isotopic composition, which can be analyzed at the ng level by MC-ICP-MS. For seawater and Mn-nodules, we obtained negative Sb isotopic composition between -2 and 0 ? -units which contrast with the composition of continental sediments, ranging from 1 to 4.8 ? -units. Highly fractionated Sb isotopes (between -2.5 to 13.5 ? -units) characterise seafloor hydrothermal sulfides and in particular the alteration products of black smokers as well as low temperature sulfides in near vent locations. This suggests that redox change from reduced environment in hydrothermal fluid to oxidized environment in seawater and subsequent Sb redox change is the major parameter controlling the Sb isotopes signatures. Possible scavenging of Sb from seawater in hydrothermal deposits may also combine to produce such variations. The natural variations of Sb isotopes obtained in this study highlight the potential use of this element as a tracer in hydrothermal and environmental systems and probably also in other fields of cosmochemistry and biogeochemistry.

Ludden, J.; Rouxel, O.; Fouquet, Y.

2001-12-01

382

Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436  

SciTech Connect

Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)] [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)] [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

2013-07-01

383

Vincristine modulates the expression of Ki67 and apoptosis in naturally occurring canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).  

PubMed

We investigated eight adult dogs that were brought to veterinary clinics with a history of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT). Our goal was to demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis and the cessation of cell proliferation at every phase of scheduled chemotherapy for naturally occurring TVT. Tissue samples were collected immediately after weekly treatments with vincristine sulfate and processed for histological purposes. Sections 5 ?m thick were stained by the TUNEL reaction for apoptosis and immunostained for Ki67 as a proliferation marker. We observed that after vincristine applications, tumor cell proliferation ceased and apoptosis increased. Ki67 HSCORE values were significantly lowered after the first and second treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent compared to controls, whereas TUNEL HSCORE values were significantly higher after two applications of vincristine compared to controls. Our results suggest that scheduled vincristine sulfate applications stabilize the induction of tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and preventing cell proliferation. PMID:22404564

Özalp, G R; Zik, B; Bastan, A; Peker, S; Özdemir-Salci, E S; Bastan, I; Darbaz, I; Salar, S; Karakas, K

2012-07-01

384

Virulence of South African isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum. Part 2: naturally occurring NAD-independent field isolates.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring NAD-independent variants of Haemophilus paragallinarum, which have been isolates from poultry showing clinical signs of infectious coryza, were used to determine their virulence using a newly developed challenge model for infectious coryza. It was established that the NAD-independent isolates belonging to a particular serogroup, were less virulent when compared to the virulence of the NAD-dependent isolates from the same serogroup. It was shown that the virulence of the NAD-independent isolates belonging to serogroup C and serogroup A were very similar to each other. This differs to the results obtained with NAD-dependent isolates reported on previously, in which the serogroup C isolates were found to be more virulent then the serogroup A isolates. PMID:12234004

Bragg, R R

2002-06-01

385

Characterization of Contaminant Transport using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria - Final Report - 05/01/1997 - 04/30/2001  

SciTech Connect

The interactions of mixed wastes containing radionuclides with solid rock surface and the mobility of the radionuclides in aquifer systems depend not only on the chemistry of the nuclides and the physico-chemical effects of radioactive decay, but also on the site-specific hydrogeology. Thus, to characterize contaminant transport, it is best to cross-check figures derived from any small-scale laboratory experiments over limited times with that obtained from field-oriented, natural analog studies. We propose such a study using the naturally-occurring U and Th decay-series disequilibria. The work of ours and other researchers have shown that the parent/daughter disequilibrium patterns existing in groundwater systems can be modeled in terms of local nuclide mass balance to arrive at such information as the rock-water contact time (fluid flow) and rates of contaminant transport, taking into account the retardation effect due to nuclide/rock interaction contaminants at INEL by grouping them into three categories, represented by isotopes of (1) Th and Pa, (2) U and (3) Ra. Mass spectrometric measurements of these elements will be emphasized in order to minimize sample size requirements and to maximize precision. Results will form the data base for a model code for computing: (1) Fluid residence time (transport rates) in the basalt aquifers at various locations, (2) The in-situ adsorption and desorption rate constants, as well as the retardation factors, of various radionuclide wastes, and (3) Rock dissolution rate and its relation to preferential flow and contamination transport in the fractured rock.

Murrell, Michael T.; Ku, Teh-Lung

2001-04-30

386

Geospatial analysis of naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions and children's respiratory health across a demographically diverse cityscape.  

PubMed

The motor-vehicle is accountable for emitting a substantial concoction of air quality objective pollutants and carcinogenic hydrocarbons within close proximity to urbanised residential districts. The spatial extent of health impacts associated with road-transport pollutants have traditionally been explored through the examination of artificially created buffers, defined by subjective distances from specified major road links. Within this paper an alternative approach is presented using boundary statistics, which describe naturally occurring shifts of magnitude in socio-environmental and health outcomes across the wider urban area. In contrast, previous distance-threshold investigations have used arbitrarily sized buffers placed upon predetermined locations in response to environmental attributes, without considering the combined influence of additional social burdens. The demographically diverse City of Leicester, situated within the heart of the United Kingdom's major road-transport network, was selected to showcase such methods. Descriptive multilevel modelling strategies accommodating for generalised spatial structures across Leicester, globally associated issues of deprivation, road-transport emissions and ethnic minorities with increased respiratory risks. Getis-Ord Gi* spatial pattern recognition statistics identified the existence of localised variations, with inner city neighbourhoods tending to house children of ethnic minority groups whom experience disproportionately large environmental and respiratory health burdens. Crisp polygon wombling boundary detection across Leicester appeared to broadly complement the Gi* statistics, identifying naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions to result in elevated children's respiratory admissions within a distance of 283 m (P < 0.05). The designated threshold was identified to reduce in relation to certain ethnic groups, thus suggesting environmental injustices likely prevail within the model British multicultural City of Leicester. The study's findings have applications within healthcare management and urban planning for locating vulnerable populaces and for minimising health risks in future road network designs. PMID:23453321

Jephcote, Calvin; Chen, Haibo

2013-04-01

387

Functional characterization of naturally occurring melittin peptide isoforms in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.  

PubMed

Insect-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have diverse effects on antimicrobial properties and pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation and anticancer properties. Naturally occurring genetic polymorphism have a direct and/or indirect influence on pharmacological effect of AMPs, therefore information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurring in natural AMPs provides an important clue to therapeutic applications. Here we identified nucleotide polymorphisms in melittin gene of honey bee populations, which is one of the potent AMP in bee venoms. We found that the novel SNP of melittin gene exists in these two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Nine polymorphisms were identified within the coding region of the melittin gene, of which one polymorphism that resulted in serine (Ser) to asparagine (Asp) substitution that can potentially effect on biological activities of melittin peptide. Serine-substituted melittin (Mel-S) showed more cytotoxic effect than asparagine-substituted melittin (Mel-N) against E. coli. Also, Mel-N and Mel-S had different inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory factors such as IL-6 and TNF-? in BV-2 cells. Moreover, Mel-S showed stronger cytotoxic activities than Mel-N peptide against two human ovarian cancer cell lines. Using carbon nanotube-based transistor, we here characterized that Mel-S interacted with small unilamellar liposomes more strongly than Mel-N. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that there exist different characteristics of the gene frequency and the biological activities of the melittin peptide in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and A. cerana. PMID:24512991

Park, Doori; Jung, Je Won; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Si Young; Kim, Boyun; Jin, Hye Jun; Kim, Jiyoung; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Ki Won; Song, Yong Sang; Hong, Seunghun; Womack, James E; Kwon, Hyung Wook

2014-03-01

388

Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.  

PubMed

Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water. PMID:24355687

Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

2014-01-15

389

Naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of lipopolysaccharide- and Escherichia coli-induced systemic inflammation  

PubMed Central

The natural switch from fever to hypothermia observed in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation is a phenomenon that continues to puzzle clinicians and scientists. The present study was the first to evaluate in direct experiments how the development of hypothermia vs. fever during severe forms of systemic inflammation impacts the pathophysiology of this malady and mortality rates in rats. Following administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 18 mg/kg) or of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate (5 × 109 or 1 × 1010 CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. The infiltration of the lungs by neutrophils was similarly suppressed in E. coli-infected rats of the hypothermic group. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased bacterial burden in the liver. Furthermore, the hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in rats of the hypothermic group. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ dysfunction and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. By demonstrating that naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) or septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation, this study provides new grounds for the management of this deadly condition.

Liu, Elaine; Lewis, Kevin; Al-Saffar, Hiba; Krall, Catherine M.; Singh, Anju; Kulchitsky, Vladimir A.; Corrigan, Joshua J.; Simons, Christopher T.; Petersen, Scott R.; Musteata, Florin M.; Bakshi, Chandra S.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Sellati, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

390

Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. Participants’ appraisals of the negative impact of LEs reported at age 15 were statistically adjusted using investigator-based ratings to control for objective differences across LEs. Higher appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were associated with both past and current depressive and anxiety disorders at age 15 and predicted subsequent first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders occurring between ages 15 and 20. In addition, appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were particularly elevated among those experiencing both a depressive and anxiety disorder over the course of the study. The findings suggest that systematically elevated appraisals of the negative impact of LEs is a predisposing factor for depression and anxiety disorders and may represent a specific risk factor for co-morbid depression and anxiety in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Keywords: depression; anxiety; stress appraisals; prospective study;

Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

391

Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by {gamma}- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. {chi}{sup 2} test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan [Department of Physics, Mizoram University: Tanhril Campus, Aizawl-796004, Mizoram (India)

2011-10-20

392

Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by ?- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. ?2 test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

2011-10-01

393

Ecological physiology of Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5, a naturally occurring cyanobacterium deficient in nitrate assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world.

Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

2001-01-01

394

Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

Bergamaschi, B. A.; Fram, M. S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G. R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.

2000-01-01

395

The effect of weathering on ecopersistence, reactivity, and potential toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos and asbestiform minerals.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying asbestos toxicity mainly rely on experiments performed on "laboratory" fibers, but little data is available on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). Human exposure to NOA is subject to their ecopersistence and the modulation of their potential toxicity following weathering. The effect of weathering on three fibrous minerals from the Italian Western Alps, chrysotile, tremolite, and balangeroite-a Fe-rich asbestiform mineral-was investigated by mimicking more than 100 yr of physical (freezing-thawing/wetting-drying cycles in a climatic chamber) and biochemical forces (incubation with oxalic acid). Ion release, evaluated by means of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and variation in chemical composition, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), indicated that weathering modified the fibers in the series: chrysotile > balangeroite > tremolite. Kinetics of ion release from the fibers (Mg, Fe, and Si) revealed different ion removal pathways. Tremolite was poorly affected. Chrysotile preferentially released cations up to a plateau, with physical and biochemical forces acting competitively. Conversely, for balangeroite, upon which weathering forces acted synergistically, the initial loss of ions facilitated further dissolution and more Si than Mg was released, suggesting an ongoing collapse of the crystal structure. Depletion of redox-reactive ions produced a significant reduction in fiber-derived *OH radicals (EPR, spin-trapping technique), but the fibrous nature was always retained. Despite weathered fibers appearing less toxic than "stored/laboratory" ones, NOA is to be considered far from safe because of fibrous nature and residual surface reactivity. Risk assessment needs to consider the effect of weathering on exposures. Both tremolite and balangeroite may contaminate, in some areas, chrysotile asbestos. However, in contrast to tremolite, balangeroite exhibits a low ecopersistence, similar to chrysotile behavior. Any contribution of balangeroite to chrysotile toxicity will thus be related to its quantitative