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Sample records for naturally occurring type

  1. Cytotoxicity of Naturally Occurring Isoquinoline Alkaloids of Different Structural Types.

    PubMed

    Chlebek, Jakub; Doskocil, Ivo; Hulcová, Daniela; Breiterová, Katerina; Šafratová, Marcela; Havelek, Radim; Habartová, Klára; Hošt'álková, Anna; Volštátová, Tereza; Cahlíková, Lucie

    2016-06-01

    Forty-six isoquinoline alkaloids, of eleven structural types isolated in our laboratory, have been evaluated for their cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and Hep-G2 cancer cells), as well as against normal human lung fibroblast cells. Only scoulerine, aromoline, berbamine and parfumidine showed significant cytotoxic effects, but only scoulerine was active against both Caco-2 and Hep-G2 cells (IC50 values 6.44 ± 0.87 and 4.57 ± 0.42, respectively). Unfortunately, except for parfumidine, the other active alkaloids were also cytotoxic to the normal human lung fibroblast cells. PMID:27534109

  2. Naturally occurring chemical carcinogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products are chemicals found in nature which have unique pharmacological effects. Humans are exposed to many of these bioactive naturally occurring chemicals via the air breathed, the water drunk and the food eaten. Exposure also occurs in clinical settings. Naturally occurring chemicals ...

  3. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    is commonly located within fractures, shear-bands or shear-planes, developed during late retrograde metamorphic history, 3. Tremolite-actinolite-type asbestos is abundant both in ultramafic and mafic rocks, 4. Natural asbestos occur in few places within the external zones of the Alps, especially within hercynian ophiolitic massifs or concentrated in late Alpine fractures affecting leptyno-amphibolic lithologies.

  4. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  5. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    PubMed

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning. PMID:3086679

  6. Phylogeny and Virulence of Naturally Occurring Type III Secretion System-Deficient Pectobacterium Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T.; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2009-01-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers. PMID:19411432

  7. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  8. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants Are Parasitic Genotypes in a Wild-Type Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population of Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Delia; Castillejo, Juan I.; Caballero, Primitivo

    1998-01-01

    A wild-type nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolate from Spodoptera exigua from Florida (Se-US2) is a variant of the SeMNPV type strain since it has a unique DNA profile but is closely related to other known geographical isolates of SeMNPV. It consists of several genotypic variants, of which seven were identified in a Se-US2 virus stock by a modification of the in vivo cloning method developed by Smith and Crook (Virology 166:240–244, 1988). The US2A variant was the most prevalent genotype, and it was designated the prototype Se-US2 variant, while four of the variants (US2B, US2D, US2F, and US2H) were found at low frequency. US2C and US2E were also very abundant, and their diagnostic bands were easily observed in wild-type isolate restriction endonuclease patterns. The analysis of each variant, compared to the prototype US2A, showed that US2B and US2H presented minor differences, while US2D and US2F contained slightly larger insertions or deletions. Variants US2C and US2E contained major deletions of 21.1 and 14 kb, respectively, mapping at the same genomic region (between 14.5 and 30.2 map units [m.u.] and between 12.8 and 23 m.u., respectively). This is the first report of such deletion mutants in a natural baculovirus population. Variants US2A, US2B, US2D, US2F, and US2H were isolated as pure genotypes, but we failed to clone US2C and US2E in vivo. When these two variants appeared without apparent contamination with any other variant, they lost their pathogenicity for Spodoptera exigua larvae. A further biological characterization showed evidence that these two naturally occurring deletion mutants act as parasitic genotypes in the virus population. Bioassay data also demonstrated that pure US2A is significantly more pathogenic against second-instar S. exigua larvae than the wild-type isolate. The need for precise genotypic characterization of a baculovirus prior to its development as a bioinsecticide is discussed. PMID:9797293

  9. Characterization of naturally occurring cutaneous neurofibromatosis in Holstein cattle. A disorder resembling neurofibromatosis type 1 in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, E. A.; Doran, S. E.; Riddell, M. G.; Herrera, G. A.; Tennyson, G. S.; D'Andrea, G.; Whitley, R. D.; Collins, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis in cattle is typically a noncutaneous disease. A small group of cows in a Holstein dairy herd developed cutaneous neurofibromatosis. This unique condition was investigated and compared with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in humans. All cutaneous lesions but one were consistent with neurofibromas in noncutaneous sites in cattle and neurofibromas in patients with NF1. One bovine lesion was classified as a neurofibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy supported Schwannian differentiation in benign and malignant lesions. Linkage analysis with a polymorphism in the bovine NF1 gene confirmed that two affected animals from the same sire inherited the same paternal NF1 allele. Bovine cutaneous neurofibromatosis is a naturally occurring disease in this group of animals, characterized by skin tumors morphologically identical to those of NF1. An informative polymorphism at the NF1 locus of two animals and their sire suggests this disorder may be caused by hereditary mutations at the bovine NF1 locus. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7977647

  10. Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Tropones and Tropolones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Song, Wangze; Schienebeck, Casi M.; Zhang, Min; Tang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Tropones and tropolones are an important class of seven-membered non-benzenoid aromatic compounds. They can be prepared directly by oxidation of seven-membered rings. They can also be derived from cyclization or cycloaddition of appropriate precursors followed by elimination or rearrangement. This review discusses the types of naturally occurring tropones and tropolones and outlines important methods developed for the synthesis of tropone and tropolone natural products. PMID:25400298

  11. INACTIVATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ENTEROVIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project was to compare the kinetics of chlorine inactivation of a naturally-shed virus and its tissue culture grown counterpart. Since inactivation studies require purified preparation possessing high infectivity titer and low chlorine demand a major part of this...

  12. Studies on pathology, cytokine gene expression and molecular typing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis of naturally occurring Johne's disease in bullocks.

    PubMed

    Narnaware, S D; Periasamy, S; Tripathi, B N

    2016-06-01

    Pathology of Johne's disease (JD) in bullocks (castrated, adult male cattle) is rarely studied. Here, we report the pathology and cytokine gene expression of naturally occurring JD in bullocks. The small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes collected from 404 bullocks, aged between 5 and 10years, were examined for JD lesions and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). A total of 8.7% bullocks exhibited JD lesions, which were classified into multibacillary-diffuse granulomatous (n=2), paucibacillary-focal granulomatous (n=18) and paucibacillary-diffuse lymphocytic (n=15) lesions. The tissue cytokine gene expression profiles in all three forms of lesions corroborated with different immuno-pathological processes of JD in bullocks. The molecular typing and gene sequencing identified Map isolates from bullocks as bison type. PMID:27234539

  13. Effect of Naturally Occurring Organic Matter (NOOM) Type and Source on NOOM Adsorption onto Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles under Varying Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhayem, Mohamed Erhayem Omar

    In many studies, different humic acid sources and naturally occurring organic matter (NOOM) types are used interchangeably to evaluate the effect of organic matter on geochemical processes in the environment. This research looks more specifically at the effect of humic acid source and different fractions of NOOM on NOOM adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and how NOOM adsorption affects the fate and transport of nano-TiO2, as a function of pH, ionic strength and electrolyte. For NOOM source, seven HAs were studied, including soil HA (SHA), freshwater sedimentary HA (FSDHA) and estuarine sedimentary HA (ESDHA) all originating from the state of Florida. For NOOM type, three NOOM were studied, including Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), fulvic acid (SRFA), and natural organic matter (SRNOM), all from the same source. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the NOOM adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and the sedimentation of NOOM-coated and uncoated nano-TiO 2. Synchronous scan fluorescence (SSF) spectroscopy was used to provide more information about NOOM adsorption onto nano-TiO2. Selected samples of NOOM-coated and uncoated nano-TiO2 were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  14. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  15. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-06-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  16. Naturally occurring products in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Sankari, Leena S.; Malathi, L.; Krupaa, Jayasri R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases and are becoming an important research area for drug discovery. These products, especially phytochemicals have been extensively studies and have exhibited anti-carcinogenic activities by interfering with the initiation, development and progression of cancer through the modulation of various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This concept is gaining attention because it is a cost-effective alternative to cancer treatment. In this article, we have discussed some of the naturally occurring products used in cancer treatment. PMID:26015704

  17. Medicinal significance of naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Muna Ali

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive natural products are serendipitous drug candidates, which stimulate synthetic approaches for improving and supporting drug discovery and development. Therefore, the search for bioactive metabolites from different natural sources continues to play an important role in fashioning new medicinal agents. Several cyclic peptides were produced by organisms, such as β-defensins, gramicidin S, and tyrocidine A, and exhibited a wide range of bioactivities, such as antiviral activity against HIV-1, influenza A viruses, or antibacterial activity. Cyclic tetrapeptides are a class of natural products that were found to have a broad range of biological activities, promising pharmacokinetic properties, as well as interesting conformational dynamics and ability of slow inter-conversion to several different structures. Cyclooligopeptides, particularly medium ring-sized peptides, were obtained from marine microorganisms and exhibited a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial and anti-dinoflagellate activities, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory activity against enzyme sortase B. Most of the naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides are obtained from fungi. Some natural cyclic tetrapeptides were found to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC), which regulate the expression of genes. These compounds are very useful as cancer therapeutics. Various analogues of the natural cyclotetrapeptides were successfully synthesized to find novel lead compounds for pharmacological and biotechnological applications. Therefore, in this review, previously reported novel natural cyclotetrapeptides are briefly discussed, along with their important biological activities as drug candidates, together with their promising therapeutic properties. Moreover, their future perspective in drug discovery as potential therapeutic agents will be determined. PMID:27300506

  18. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  19. A Naturally Occurring Null Variant of the NMDA Type Glutamate Receptor NR3B Subunit Is a Risk Factor of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Yano-Umeda, Satomi; Saneyoshi, Takeo; Takeda, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Hypofunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the significance of a common human genetic variation of the NMDAR NR3B subunit that inserts 4 bases within the coding region (insCGTT) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The cDNA carrying this polymorphism generates a truncated protein, which is electrophysiologically non-functional in heterologous expression systems. Among 586 schizophrenia patients and 754 healthy controls, insCGTT was significantly overrepresented in patients compared to controls (odds ratio = 1.37, p = 0.035). Among 121 schizophrenia patients and 372 healthy controls, genetic analyses of normal individuals revealed that those carrying insCGTT have a predisposition to schizotypal personality traits (F1,356 = 4.69, p = 0.031). Furthermore, pre-pulse inhibition, a neurobiological trait disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, was significantly impaired in patients carrying insCGTT compared with those with the major allele (F1,116 = 5.72, p = 0.018, F1,238 = 4.46, p = 0.036, respectively). These results indicate that a naturally occurring null variant in NR3B could be a risk factor of schizophrenia. PMID:25768306

  20. Naturally occurring anti M complicating ABO grouping.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Safoorah; Dantes, Roelyn; Varghese, Sunu; Al Hakawati, Imadeddin

    2011-01-01

    Anti M is considered a naturally occurring antibody that is usually active at temperatures below 37°C and is thus of no clinical significance. This antibody, if present in an individual, can lead to a discrepancy between forward and reverse ABO grouping and thus creates diagnostic difficulties for blood bank staff. We report a case of a 58-year-old lady who had an unexpected reaction in reverse grouping due to anti M that posed a problem for us in the interpretation of results of her blood group. We also reviewed the literature to find out the significance of such discrepancy in blood grouping. PMID:21393909

  1. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  2. At last! The single-crystal X-ray structure of a naturally occurring sample of the ilmenite-type oxide FeCrO3.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cruz, María Ana; Elizalde-González, María de la Paz; Escudero, Roberto; Bernès, Sylvain; Silva-González, Rutilo; Reyes-Ortega, Yasmi

    2015-10-01

    A natural single crystal of the ferrimagnetic oxide FeCrO3, which was found in an opencast mine situated in the San Luis Potosí State in Mexico, has been characterized in order to elucidate some outstanding issues about the actual structure of this material. The single-crystal X-ray analysis unambiguously shows that transition metal cations are segregated in alternating layers normal to the threefold crystallographic axis, affording a structure isomorphous to that of ilmenite (FeTiO3), in the space group R3̅. The possible occurrence of cation antisite and vacancy defects is below the limit of detection available from X-ray data. Structural and magnetic results are in agreement with the coherent slow intergrowth of magnetic phases provided by the two antiferromagnetic corundum-type parent oxides Fe2O3 (hematite) and Cr2O3 (eskolaite). Our results are consistent with the most recent density functional theory (DFT) studies carried out on digital FeCrO3 [Sadat Nabi & Pentcheva (2011). Phys. Rev. B, 83, 214424], and suggest that synthetic samples of FeCrO3 might present a cation distribution different to that of the ilmenite structural type. PMID:26428405

  3. Tetrahedral boron in naturally occurring tourmaline

    SciTech Connect

    Tagg, S.L.; Cho, H.; Dyar, M.D.; Grew, E.S.

    1999-09-01

    Evidence for boron in both trigonal and tetrahedral coordination has been found in {sup 11}B magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of natural, inclusion-free specimens of aluminum-rich lithian tourmaline from granitic pregmatites.

  4. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  5. Naturally occurring hydroxytyrosol: synthesis and anticancer potential.

    PubMed

    Bernini, R; Merendino, N; Romani, A; Velotti, F

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that polyphenols, a group of secondary plant metabolites occurring mainly in the plant kingdom, may have a protective effect against some chronic degenerative diseases such as cancer. Polyphenols are part of the human diet, being present in vegetal food and beverages. Among them, an olive biophenol named hydroxytyrosol [2-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol, HTyr] has recently received particular attention because of its antioxidant, antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, which have the potential to specifically counteract all cancer hallmarks, thus representing the expectant biological activities underlying the anti-tumor properties of this polyphenol. After a description of the synthetic procedures to prepare pure HTyr, this review takes into consideration the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of HTyr as the result of its antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. In particular, the review is focused on the current knowledge of the main cellular and molecular mechanisms used by HTyr to affect carcinogenesis, highlighting the specific oncogenic and inflammatory signaling pathways potentially targeted by HTyr. PMID:23244583

  6. Analyzing effects of naturally occurring missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Miteva, Maria A; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Single-point mutation in genome, for example, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or rare genetic mutation, is the change of a single nucleotide for another in the genome sequence. Some of them will produce an amino acid substitution in the corresponding protein sequence (missense mutations); others will not. This paper focuses on genetic mutations resulting in a change in the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein and how to assess their effects on protein wild-type characteristics. The existing methods and approaches for predicting the effects of mutation on protein stability, structure, and dynamics are outlined and discussed with respect to their underlying principles. Available resources, either as stand-alone applications or webservers, are pointed out as well. It is emphasized that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind these effects due to these missense mutations is of critical importance for detecting disease-causing mutations. The paper provides several examples of the application of 3D structure-based methods to model the effects of protein stability and protein-protein interactions caused by missense mutations as well. PMID:22577471

  7. Active experiments, magnetospheric modification, and a naturally occurring analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Recently, a scheme has been proposed which would modify the magnetosphere by injecting plasma near the equator beyond the plasmapause and initiating wave-particle instabilities. The expected effects have been examined theoretically. Injection of plasma into this region is also a naturally occurring phenomenon produced by the cross-tail electric fields which are associated with geomagnetic activity. For further investigation of magnetospheric instabilities, the advantages of examining artificially injected plasma (control of time and location of injection and of the volume of plasma injected) contrast with the advantages of studying natural enhancements (no extra payload, frequent occurrence). Thus, the two types of experiments are complementary. In preliminary studies of natural plasma enhancements both ULF and ELF emissions have been observed. The ELF noise is consistent with generation by the electron cyclotron instability.

  8. Deterioration of plasticity and metabolic homeostasis in the brain of the UCD-T2DM rat model of naturally occurring type-2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rahul; Zhuang, Yumei; Cummings, Bethany P.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Graham, James L.; Havel, Peter J.; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming a pressing issue based on emerging reports that T2DM can also adversely impact mental health. We have utilized the UCD-T2DM rat model in which the onset of T2DM develops spontaneously across time and can serve to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes in humans. An increased insulin resistance index and plasma glucose levels manifested the onset of T2DM. There was a decrease in hippocampal insulin receptor (InR) signaling in the hippocampus, which correlated with peripheral insulin resistance index along the course of diabetes onset (r=−0.56, p< 0.01). T2DM increased the hippocampal levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE; a marker of lipid peroxidation) in inverse proportion to the changes in the mitochondrial regulator PGC-1α. Disrupted energy homeostasis was further manifested by a concurrent reduction in energy metabolic markers, including TFAM, SIRT1, and AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, T2DM influenced brain plasticity as evidenced by a significant reduction of BDNF-TrkB signaling. These results suggest that the pathology of T2DM in the brain involves a progressive and coordinated disruption of insulin signaling, and energy homeostasis, with profound consequences for brain function and plasticity. All the described consequences of T2DM were attenuated by treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide. Similar results to those of liraglutide were obtained by exposing T2DM rats to a food energy restricted diet, which suggest that normalization of brain energy metabolism is a crucial factor to counteract central insulin sensitivity and synaptic plasticity associated with T2DM. PMID:24840661

  9. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  10. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  11. Application of the Commission's recommendations to naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2015-06-01

    Since publication of the 2007 Recommendations (ICRP Publication 103), the International Commission on Radiological Protection has focused on preparing a series of publications dedicated to different types of existing exposure situations, such as radon exposure, cosmic exposure in aviation, and exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The publication related to NORM will present the main types of corresponding activities, and describe the characteristics of NORM exposure. It will also develop a conceptual framework for the practical application of the Commission's system to NORM exposure. In particular, the publication will explain why NORM activities are generally considered to be existing exposure situations, and when some of them should be managed as planned exposure situations. It will indicate when the workers should be considered as occupationally exposed. It will also provide recommendations regarding application of the three principles of radiological protection. The need to consider the justification of the re-use or recycling of residues carefully will be highlighted. Guidance will be provided for selection of the reference level, and for implementation of the optimisation process through a graded approach including both prevention and mitigation of exposures. Flexibility will be recommended for the application of dose limits, notably when the situation is managed as a planned exposure situation. PMID:25816272

  12. Biophysical characterization of naturally occurring titin M10 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Rudloff, Michael W; Woosley, Alec N; Wright, Nathan T

    2015-01-01

    The giant proteins titin and obscurin are important for sarcomeric organization, stretch response, and sarcomerogenesis in myofibrils. The extreme C-terminus of titin (the M10 domain) binds to the N-terminus of obscurin (the Ig1 domain) in the M-band. The high-resolution structure of human M10 has been solved, along with M10 bound to one of its two known molecular targets, the Ig1 domain of obscurin-like. Multiple M10 mutations are linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2J (LGMD2J) and tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD). The effect of the M10 mutations on protein structure and function has not been thoroughly characterized. We have engineered all four of the naturally occurring human M10 missense mutants and biophysically characterized them in vitro. Two of the four mutated constructs are severely misfolded, and cannot bind to the obscurin Ig1 domain. One mutation, H66P, is folded at room temperature but unfolds at 37°C, rendering it binding incompetent. The I57N mutation shows no significant structural, dynamic, or binding differences from the wild-type domain. We suggest that this mutation is not directly responsible for muscle wasting disease, but is instead merely a silent mutation found in symptomatic patients. Understanding the biophysical basis of muscle wasting disease can help streamline potential future treatments. PMID:25739468

  13. Naturally-occurring chemical analogues for repository-derived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1996-12-01

    Studies of natural systems are a valuable means of gaining information on the behavior of elements and radionuclides in the geosphere or biosphere that may be used to support performance assessments for radioactive waste repositories. However, these natural system studies face the problem that some of the chemical and isotopic species that occur in radioactive wastes do not occur naturally. Therefore, when attempting to study transport processes for these species other, naturally-occurring species must be examined as {open_quote}chemical analogues{close_quote} for the waste species. Chemical analogues are chosen on the basis of some similarity with the chemical behavior of the waste species in relevant physico-chemical environments. This is a tricky procedure and each system must be considered on a case-by-case basis, although some guidelines can be established and these are given here.

  14. Assembly of naturally occurring glycosides, evolved tactics, and glycosylation methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Biao; Sun, Jiansong; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2012-08-21

    Glycosylation of proteins and lipids is critical to many life processes. Secondary metabolites (or natural products), such as flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, and antibiotics, are also frequently modified with saccharides. The resulting glycosides include diverse structures and functions, and some of them have pharmacological significance. The saccharide portions of the glycosides often have specific structural characteristics that depend on the aglycones. These molecules also form heterogeneous "glycoform" mixtures where molecules have similar glycosidic linkages but the saccharides vary in the length and type of monosaccharide unit. Thus, it is difficult to purify homogeneous glycosides in appreciable amounts from natural sources. Chemical synthesis provides a feasible access to the homogeneous glycosides and their congeners. Synthesis of a glycoside involves the synthesis of the aglycone, the saccharide, the connection of these two parts, and the overall manipulation of protecting groups. However, most synthetic efforts to date have focused on the aglycones, treating the attachment of saccharides onto the aglycones as a dispensable topic. The synthesis of the aglycone and the synthesis of the saccharide belong to two independent categories of chemistry, and different types of the aglycones and saccharides pose as specific synthetic subjects in their own disciplines. The only reaction that integrates the broad chemistry of glycoside synthesis is the glycosidic bond formation between the saccharide and the aglycone. Focusing on this glycosylation reaction in this Account, we string together our experience with the synthesis of the naturally occurring glycosides. We briefly describe the synthesis of 18 glycosides, including glycolipids, phenolic glycosides, steroid glycosides, and triterpene glycosides. Each molecule represents a prototypical structure of a family of the natural glycosides with interesting biological activities, and we emphasize the general

  15. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets. PMID:23467094

  16. URBAN STORMWATER TRACING WITH THE NATURALLY OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the naturally-occurring deuterium isotope assist the tracing of water components during wet-weather flows in an urban watershed. A transect of installations in the vadose and saturated zones was completed in the vicinity of a small stream and storm sewer. High-r...

  17. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  18. Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.

    PubMed

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-01-01

    The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis. PMID:24957317

  19. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

  20. Addressing Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mining companies deal with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) issues on their sites in two ways, avoidance and management. Avoidance simply means that to the extent practical, new mines are located in areas where NOA is unlikely to occur. Where mines are located in areas where NOA may be present, mines implement management procedures to identify and control potential sources of NOA. Management practices may include procedures set forth in regulations such as California's Air Toxicity Control Measure that deals with surface mining, voluntary procedures, or a combination of both. The mining industry generally recognizes that addressing NOA issues is a cost of doing business.;

  1. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  2. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

  3. Synthetic muscle promoters: activities exceeding naturally occurring regulatory sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.

  4. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  5. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  6. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  7. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. PMID:25816274

  8. Purifying food-grade, naturally occurring CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Nobles, J.E.; Stancik, J.W.

    1983-12-26

    Technology to purify naturally occurring CO/sub 2/ into products suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and food grade CO/sub 2/ markets has been commercially demonstrated in a 20 MMscfd (1,100 ton/day) CO/sub 2/ processing facility owned and operated by Columbia Hydrocarbon Corp. The unit demonstrates that it is technically and economically feasible to process low grade natural gas to produce pipeline specification natural gas, raw CO/sub 2/, and food grade CO/sub 2/. The Selexol treating facility is located on a reclaimed coal strip mine with very restricted plot area. Only compression and dehydration equipment for the CO/sub 2/ is located there. The CO/sub 2/ is transported by pipeline to the Marmet site, approx. 7 miles away. This site contains the facilities for purifying the CO/sub 2/ and for storage.

  9. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2014-01-01

    Background Directly Acting Antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C (HCV) therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV positive and negative individuals with recent HCV. Methods The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from fifty genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Results Twelve percent of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (ie < 20%) but above a threshold of 1%. Resistance variants (< 1%) were observed at most sites associated with DAA resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Conclusions Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites, and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. PMID:25105742

  10. Macaques exhibit a naturally-occurring depression similar to humans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17-22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  11. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia. PMID:21515621

  12. Interaction between manufactured gold nanoparticles and naturally occurring organic macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Diegoli, Sara; Manciulea, Adriana L; Begum, Shakiela; Jones, Ian P; Lead, Jamie R; Preece, Jon A

    2008-08-25

    The increasing exploitation of nanomaterials into many consumer and other products is raising concerns as these nanomaterials are likely to be released into the environment. Due to our lack of knowledge about the environmental chemistry, transport and ecotoxicology of nanomaterials, it is of paramount importance to study how natural aquatic colloids can interact with manufactured gold nanoparticles as these interactions will determine their environmental fate and behaviour. In this context, our work aims to quantify the effect of naturally occurring riverine macromolecules--International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) Suwannee River Humic Acid Standard (SRHA)--on citrate- and acrylate-stabilized gold nanoparticles. The influence of SRHA on the stability of the gold colloids was studied as a function of pH by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At high ionic strengths (0.1 M), extensive and rapid aggregation occurred, while more subtle effects were observed at lower ionic strength values. Evidence was found that SRHA enhances particle stability at extreme pH values (ionic strength<0.01 M) by substituting and/or over-coating the original stabilizer on the gold nanoparticle surface, thus affecting surface charge and chemistry. These findings have important implications for the fate and behaviour of nanoparticles in the environment and their ecotoxicity. PMID:18534664

  13. Dry-Heat Inactivation Kinetics of Naturally Occurring Spore Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bond, W. W.; Favero, M. S.; Petersen, N. J.; Marshall, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-three soil samples were collected from areas of the United States where major spacecraft assembly and launch facilities are in operation. Soil samples were treated with ethyl alcohol, ultrasonic energy, and gross filtration. The resultant suspensions consisted of viable, naturally occurring bacterial spores and were used to inoculate stainless-steel strips. The strips were suspended in a forced air oven and assays were made at 5-min intervals for the number of viable spores. Most survivor curves were nonlinear. Subsequently, spore crops of heat-sensitive and heat-resistant soil isolates were found to have linear survivor curves at 125 C which were unaffected by the presence or absence of sterile soil particles from the parent sample. When two spore crops, one of which was heat-resistant and the other heat-sensitive, were mixed, the resultant nonlinear curves were unaffected by the presence or absence of sterile parent soil. Therefore, the survivor curves obtained originally with the soils were the result of heterogeneous spore populations rather than of protection afforded by soil particles in our test system. These results question the rationale both of assuming logarithmic death and of using decimal-reduction values obtained with subcultured standard reference spores in the derivation of dry-heat sterilization cycles for items contaminated with naturally occurring spore populations. PMID:5498605

  14. Macaques Exhibit a Naturally-Occurring Depression Similar to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17–22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  15. Nature of type 1 Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shklovskiy, I. S.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of type 1 supernovae (SN 1) is discussed through a comparison of observational evidence and theoretical perspectives relating to both type 1 and 2 supernovae. In particular two hypotheses relating to SN 1 phenomenon are examined: the first proposing that SN 1 are components of binary systems in which, at a comparatively late stage of evolution, overflow of the mass occurs; the second considers pre-SN 1 to be recently evolved stars with a mass greater than 1.4 solar mass (white dwarfs). In addition, an explanation of the reduced frequency of flares of SN 1 in spiral galaxies as related to that in elliptical galaxies is presented.

  16. Designing a Nanotube Using Naturally Occurring Protein Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Zheng, Jie; Nussinov, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Here our goal is to carry out nanotube design using naturally occurring protein building blocks. Inspection of the protein structural database reveals the richness of the conformations of proteins, their parts, and their chemistry. Given target functional protein nanotube geometry, our strategy involves scanning a library of candidate building blocks, combinatorially assembling them into the shape and testing its stability. Since self-assembly takes place on time scales not affordable for computations, here we propose a strategy for the very first step in protein nanotube design: we map the candidate building blocks onto a planar sheet and wrap the sheet around a cylinder with the target dimensions. We provide examples of three nanotubes, two peptide and one protein, in atomistic model detail for which there are experimental data. The nanotube models can be used to verify a nanostructure observed by low-resolution experiments, and to study the mechanism of tube formation. PMID:16683021

  17. Vampire bat reproductive control by a naturally occurring phytooestrogen.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Hector; Pérez-Rivero, Juan-José; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; de-Paz, Octavio; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Rabies transmission by wild animals has not being controlled satisfactorily. One major rabies vector to humans and cattle is the hematophagous vampire bat Desmodus rotundus whose distribution is still increasing in the Americas. Of all of the strategies currently in place to control this vector, none of them are really specific and some have ecological impacts. In the present study we used a naturally occurring phytoestrogen on a small vampire bat colony. After collection, bats were fed bovine blood containing 200 microg coumestrol for a 30-day period. After treatment, gonads were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Data indicate that coumestrol adversely affects gonad histology and has a possible impact on the fertility of both male and female vampire bats. PMID:17394795

  18. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-15

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all-atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. PMID:26841080

  19. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all‐atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841080

  20. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  1. Metabolic mechanism of phenyllactic acid naturally occurring in Chinese pickles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Ning, Yawei; Liu, Dou; Yan, Aihong; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Shijie; Miao, Ming; Zhu, Hong; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    Phenyllactic acid, a phenolic acid phytochemical with the antimicrobial activity, was rarely reported in food besides honey and sourdough. This study evidenced a new food source of phenyllactic acid and elucidated its metabolic mechanism. Phenyllactic acid naturally occurred in Chinese pickles with concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.30 mM in 23 pickle samples including homemade and commercial ones. Then, lactic acid bacteria capable of metabolizing phenyllactic acid were screened from each homemade pickle and a promising strain was characterized as Lactobacillus plantarum. Moreover, the investigation of the metabolic mechanism of phenyllactic acid in pickles suggested that the yield of phenyllactic acid was positively related to the content of phenylalanine in food, and the addition of phenylalanine as precursor substance could significantly promote the production of phenyllactic acid. This investigation could provide some insights into the accumulation of phenyllactic acid in pickle for long storage life. PMID:25976820

  2. Fenugreek: a naturally occurring edible spice as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Shabbeer, Shabana; Sobolewski, Michelle; Anchoori, Ravi Kumar; Kachhap, Sushant; Hidalgo, Manuel; Jimeno, Antonio; Davidson, Nancy; Carducci, Michael A; Khan, Saeed R

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, various dietary components that can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer have been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72 h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines (PCa). When tested at higher doses (15-20 ug/mL), FE continued to be growth inhibitory to PCa cell lines but not to either primary prostate or hTert-immortalized prostate cells. At least part of the growth inhibition is due to induction of cell death, as seen by incorporation of Ethidium Bromide III into cancer cells exposed to FE. Molecular changes induced in PCa cells are: in DU-145 cells: downregulation of mutant p53, and in PC-3 cells upregulation of p21 and inhibition of TGFbeta induced phosphorylation of Akt. The surprising finding of our studies is that death of cancer cells occurs despite growth stimulatory pathways being simultaneously upregulated (phosphorylated) by FE. Thus, these studies add another biologically active agent to our armamentarium of naturally occurring agents with therapeutic potential. PMID:19197146

  3. Sequestering Naturally Occurring Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capron, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide has been found as shallow as 1,500 meters in seafloor ooze. Did the liquid carbon dioxide originate from volcanic activity? Or did bacteria convert organic matter, which started as atmospheric carbon dioxide, into methane and liquid carbon dioxide? At typical ocean temperatures carbon dioxide coming out of solution below 600 meters will be liquid. Therefore, one likely mechanism for generating liquid carbon dioxide in seafloor ooze is the bacterial decomposition of organic matter. This paper examines quantitative and qualitative bacterial decomposition of aquatic biomass, with an emphasis on assessing and demonstrating feasibility. Calculations suggest natural processes sequestering liquid carbon dioxide in the seafloor can be sustainably increased to decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. First, algae growing on the ocean surface absorb carbon dioxide. The algae are then gathered into a submerged container. Naturally occurring bacteria will digest the algae producing methane, liquid carbon dioxide, and ammonium. The ammonium can be recycled as a nutrient for growing more algae. Bacterial decomposition continues in dilute solutions with any biomass. The process does not require any particular biomass. Also, concentrating the biomass by removing water is not essential. The buoyancy provided by water allows relatively inexpensive tension fabric structures to contain the dilute algae and decomposition products. Calculations based on algae growth in open ponds and experience with bacterial decomposition at 1 to 5 bar pressures suggest the economics of the associated macro-algae growing and harvesting can favor increasing ocean species diversity.

  4. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. PMID:27404718

  5. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-12-31

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth`s crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine {open_quotes}concentrations{close_quotes}, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn`t be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930`s, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980`s. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed.

  6. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet were studied using the modal frequency technique. The evolution of the modal spectrum was obtained for a jet with a Reynolds number based on a diameter of 400,000 for both laminar and turbulent nozzle boundary layers. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing rapidly but dominating only the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal was observed closer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Target modes for efficient excitation of the jet were determined and two cases of excitation were studied. First, a jet was excited simultaneously by two helical modes, m equals plus 1 and m equals minus 1 at a Strouhal number based on jet diameter of 0.15 and the axisymmetric mode, m equals 0 at a jet diameter of 0.6. Second, m equals plus one and m equals minus 1 at jet diameter equals 0.3 and m equals 0 at jet diameter equals 0.6 were excited simultaneously. The downstream evolution of the hydrodynamic modes and the spreading rate of the jet were documented for each case. Higher jet spreading rates, accompanied by distorted jet cross sections were observed for the cases where combinations of axisymmetric and helical forcings were applied.

  7. Solution of naturally-occurring glasses in the geological environment

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, B.P.

    1982-12-01

    As part of a study to investigate the feasibility of putting nuclear wastes in glass containers and burying them on land or dumping them in the ocean, we have made a study of the amount of solution experienced by naturally occurring glasses from two land sites and thirty-four deep-sea sites. The glasses used in this study are microtektites from three strewn fields (Australasian, Ivory Coast, and North American) and from the Zhamanshin impact crater in southern Siberia. The microtektites range in age from 0.7 to 35 m.y. and they have a wide range in composition. Although several criteria for determining the amount of solution were considered, most of the conclusions are based on two criteria: (1) width of cracks, and (2) elevation of silica-rich inclusions above the adjacent microtektite surface. The amount of solution was determined for about 170 microtektites; and measured amounts of solution range from 0.2 to at least 28 {mu}m, but most are less than 5 {mu}m. There appears to be no systematic relationship between age and amount of solution. 21 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Naturally occurring murine norovirus infection in a large research institution.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Kathy A; Green, Kim Y; Copeland, Michelle; Barron, Elyssa; Mandel, Myrna; Faucette, Lawrence J; Williams, Elizabeth M; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Elkins, William R; Ward, Jerrold M

    2007-07-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered infectious agent in mice and may be the most common naturally occurring infection of laboratory mice in North America. In 2005, we surveyed the Swiss Webster female sentinel mice in our institute's research facilities. Of the 4 facilities surveyed, 3 had sentinel mice that were positive for MNV antibodies, whereas our largest facility (which only receives mice directly from select vendors or by embryo rederivation directly into the facility) was apparently MNV-free. However, testing of sentinel mice in this large facility 1 y later found that 2% of the animals had developed MNV-specific antibodies. In a recently opened fifth facility, a serologic survey in 2006 identified MNV-antibody-positive Tac:SW sentinel mice that had received bedding from experimental mice on the same rack quadrant. Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction analysis of feces from the cages of these mice showed evidence for shedding of MNV. These sentinel mice were used to study the fecal excretion, antibody development, gross lesions upon necropsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry of the viral infection. None of the MNV-antibody-positive sentinel mice exhibited clinical signs or gross lesions, but these mice excreted virus in feces and developed antibodies to MNV. Histopathologic lesions consisted only of a few hepatic inflammatory foci in each liver section, some of which were immunoreactive with antibodies to MNV. MNV viral antigens also were present in the mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:17645294

  9. Antimicrobial evaluation of selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Mara; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the antimicrobial activity of eight selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Results showed a moderate antimicrobial activity. The most active compounds were 3-(4-geranyloxyphenyl)-1-ethanol (4) and 3-(4-isopentenyloxyphenyl)-1-propanol (5) that were tested on mature and in-formation biofilms of all micro-organisms, moreover the cytotoxic activity was evaluated. Except for S. epidermidis, both compounds reduced significantly (p < 0.05) the microbial biofilm formation at 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC, in particular, compounds 4 and 5 at each concentration, inhibited E. coli biofilm formation to a greater extent, the biofilm formation was never more than 44% in respect to the control, moreover both compounds showed a low cytotoxic effect. Oxyprenylated derivatives may be of great interest for the development of novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies and the synthesis of semi-synthetic analogues with anti-biofilm efficacy. PMID:27498831

  10. Identifying Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities: A Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Yamashita, Takashi; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Guided by the concept of “aging in place” and potential policy implications, the study analyzed naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs; 40% or greater house owners and renters aged 65 years and older) and whether there were spatiotemporal patterns in Ohio between 2000 and 2010. Method Data were derived from the 2000 and 2010 census tracts. Geovisualization was used to visually examine the distribution of NORCs in 2000 and 2010. Global Moran’s I was used to quantify the spatial distribution of NORCs in Ohio and Local Moran’s I was used to identify clusters of NORCs (i.e., hot spots). Results The number of NORCs slightly decreased despite the overall increase of the older population from 2000 to 2010. NORCs were identified in one of the 3 most populous counties (i.e., Cuyahoga) and its neighboring counties. A number of hot spots were identified in Cuyahoga County (among Ohio’s most populous and NORC-rich counties), both in 2000 and 2010. There were different patterns including emerging, disappearing, and enduring NORCs and disproportionate distributions of NORCs across the state between 2000 and 2010. Discussion Locating NORCs could aid governments to create “aging in place” sensitive policies to address issues of independence, social care, health care, volunteerism, and community participation. PMID:24958694

  11. Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation in naturally occurring ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, R. E.; Poulsen, T.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Klein, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon, and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope—IceCube. Located in Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occurring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high-precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in apparent neutrino direction. In closing, we also describe a simple experiment to test this formalism and calculate the impact of anisotropy on light yields from lead tungstate crystals as used, for example, in the CMS calorimeter at the CERN LHC.

  12. Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helly, John J.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2004-09-01

    Hypoxia in the ocean influences biogeochemical cycling of elements, the distribution of marine species and the economic well being of many coastal countries. Previous delineations of hypoxic environments focus on those in enclosed seas where hypoxia may be exacerbated by anthropogenically induced eutrophication. Permanently hypoxic water masses in the open ocean, referred to as oxygen minimum zones, impinge on a much larger seafloor surface area along continental margins of the eastern Pacific, Indian and western Atlantic Oceans. We provide the first global quantification of naturally hypoxic continental margin floor by determining upper and lower oxygen minimum zone depth boundaries from hydrographic data and computing the area between the isobaths using seafloor topography. This approach reveals that there are over one million km 2 of permanently hypoxic shelf and bathyal sea floor, where dissolved oxygen is <0.5 ml l -1; over half (59%) occurs in the northern Indian Ocean. We also document strong variation in the intensity, vertical position and thickness of the OMZ as a function of latitude in the eastern Pacific Ocean and as a function of longitude in the northern Indian Ocean. Seafloor OMZs are regions of low biodiversity and are inhospitable to most commercially valuable marine resources, but support a fascinating array of protozoan and metazoan adaptations to hypoxic conditions.

  13. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted. PMID:27433836

  14. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug. PMID:26974691

  15. Role of naturally occurring gas hydrates in sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    McIver, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrates have the potential to store enormous volumes of both gas and water in semi-solid form in ocean-bottom sediments and then to release that gas and water when the hydrate's equilibrium condition are disturbed. Therefore, hydrates provide a potential mechanism for transporting large volumes of sediments. Under the combined low bottom-water temperatures and moderate hydrostatic pressures that exist over most of the continental slopes and all of the continental rises and abyssal plains, hydrocarbon gases at or near saturation in the interstitial waters of the near-bottom sediments will form hydrates. The gas can either be autochthonous, microbially produced gas, or allochthonous, catagenic gas from deeper sediments. Equilibrium conditions that stabilize hydrated sediments may be disturbed, for example, by continued sedimentation or by lowering of sea level. In either case, some of the solid gas-water matrix decomposes. Released gas and water volume exceeds the volume occupied by the hydrate, so the internal pressure rises - drastically if large volumes of hydrate are decomposed. Part of the once rigid sediment is converted to a gas- and water-rich, relatively low density mud. When the internal pressure, due to the presence of the compressed gas or to buoyancy, is sufficiently high, the overlying sediment may be lifted and/or breached, and the less dense, gas-cut mud may break through. Such hydrate-related phenomena can cause mud diapirs, mud volcanos, mud slides, or turbidite flows, depending on sediment configuration and bottom topography. 4 figures.

  16. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  17. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  18. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    SciTech Connect

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  19. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  20. Naturally occurring muscle pain during exercise: assessment and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Cook, D B; O'Connor, P J; Eubanks, S A; Smith, J C; Lee, M

    1997-08-01

    The objectives were: (i) to present a method for assessing muscle pain during exercise, (ii) to provide reliability and validity data in support of the measurement tool, (iii) to test whether leg muscle pain threshold during exercise was related to a commonly used measure of pain threshold pain during test, (iv) to examine the relationship between pain and exertion ratings, (v) to test whether leg muscle pain is related to performance, and (vi) to test whether a large dose of aspirin would delay leg muscle pain threshold and/or reduce pain ratings during exercise. In study 1, seven females and seven males completed three 1-min cycling bouts at three different randomly ordered power outputs. Pain was assessed using a 10-point pain scale. High intraclass correlations (R from 0.88 to 0.98) indicated that pain intensity could be rated reliably using the scale. In study 2, 11 college-aged males (age 21.3 +/- 1.3 yr) performed a ramped (24 W.min-1) maximal cycle ergometry test. A button was depressed when leg muscle pain threshold was reached. Pain threshold occurred near 50% of maximal capacity: 50.3 (+/- 12.9% Wmax), 48.6 (+/- 14.8% VO2max), and 55.8 (+/- 12.9% RPEmax). Pain intensity ratings obtained following pain threshold were positively accelerating function of the relative exercise intensity. Volitional exhaustion was associated with pain ratings of 8.2 (+/- 2.5), a value most closely associated with the verbal anchor "very strong pain." In study 3, participants completed the same maximal exercise test as in study 2 as well as leg cycling at 60 rpm for 8 s at four randomly ordered power outputs (100, 150, 200, and 250 W) on a separate day. Pain and RPE ratings were significantly lower during the 8-s bouts compared to those obtained at the same power outputs during the maximal cycle test. The results suggest that noxious metabolites of muscle contraction play a role in leg muscle pain during exercise. In study 4, moderately active male subjects (N = 19) completed

  1. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  2. Going Wild: Lessons from Naturally Occurring T-Lymphotropic Lentiviruses

    PubMed Central

    VandeWoude, Sue; Apetrei, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    Over 40 nonhuman primate (NHP) species harbor species-specific simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Similarly, more than 20 species of nondomestic felids and African hyenids demonstrate seroreactivity against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigens. While it has been challenging to study the biological implications of nonfatal infections in natural populations, epidemiologic and clinical studies performed thus far have only rarely detected increased morbidity or impaired fecundity/survival of naturally infected SIV- or FIV-seropositive versus -seronegative animals. Cross-species transmissions of these agents are rare in nature but have been used to develop experimental systems to evaluate mechanisms of pathogenicity and to develop animal models of HIV/AIDS. Given that felids and primates are substantially evolutionarily removed yet demonstrate the same pattern of apparently nonpathogenic lentiviral infections, comparison of the biological behaviors of these viruses can yield important implications for host-lentiviral adaptation which are relevant to human HIV/AIDS infection. This review therefore evaluates similarities in epidemiology, lentiviral genotyping, pathogenicity, host immune responses, and cross-species transmission of FIVs and factors associated with the establishment of lentiviral infections in new species. This comparison of consistent patterns in lentivirus biology will expose new directions for scientific inquiry for understanding the basis for virulence versus avirulence. PMID:17041142

  3. The Frequency, Nature, and Effects of Naturally Occurring Appearance-Focused Social Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and weight-related cognitions. During their daily activities, women reporting body dissatisfaction (n = 53) and women reporting body satisfaction (n = 34) recorded their reactions to comparison information.…

  4. Virological and serological findings in dogs with naturally occurring distemper.

    PubMed

    Elia, Gabriella; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Larocca, Vittorio; Martella, Vito; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-03-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. The unpredictable and variable course of CDV-related disease may hamper correct diagnosis of infection and makes it crucial the collection of samples suitable for laboratory confirmation. In the present study we were able to follow the disease in two dogs infected naturally, collecting different biological matrices during the entire period of infection. By real time RT-PCR, viral RNA was detected and quantified, suggesting that urine and rectal swabs would be useful for ante-mortem diagnosis of distemper in dogs, regardless of the clinical stage and form of the illness. PMID:25512131

  5. Polyomavirus and Naturally Occuring Neuroglial Tumors in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor).

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Patricia A; Brostoff, Terza; Church, Molly E; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Woolard, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Polyomavirus (PyV) infections are widespread in human populations and, although generally associated with silent persistence, rarely cause severe disease. Among diseases convincingly associated with natural PyV infections of humans, there are remarkably different tissue tropisms and outcomes, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, transient or progressive nephropathy, and cancer. The variable character and unpredictable outcomes of infection attest to large gaps in our basic understanding of PyV biology. In particular, the rich history of research demonstrating the oncogenic potential of PyVs in laboratory animals begs the question of why cancer is not more often associated with infection. Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV), discovered in 2010, is consistently identified in neuroglial tumors in free-ranging raccoons in the western United States. Exposure to RacPyV is widespread, and RacPyV is detected in tissues of raccoons without tumors. Studying the relationship of RacPyV with its natural host is a unique opportunity to uncover cogent cellular targets and protein interactions between the virus and its host. Our hypothesis is that RacPyV, as an intact episome, alters cellular pathways within neural progenitor cells and drives oncogenesis. PMID:26912716

  6. Structures and Properties of Naturally Occurring Polyether Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Jacek; Brzezinski, Bogumil

    2013-01-01

    Polyether ionophores represent a large group of natural, biologically active substances produced by Streptomyces spp. They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. Several of polyether ionophores are widely used as growth promoters in veterinary. Polyether antibiotics show a broad spectrum of bioactivity ranging from antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and tumour cell cytotoxicity. Recently, it has been shown that some of these compounds are able to selectively kill cancer stem cells and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, they are recognized as new potential anticancer drugs. The biological activity of polyether ionophores is strictly connected with their molecular structure; therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of their formula, molecular structure, and properties. PMID:23586016

  7. Probing zeolite syntheses to determine natural occurances of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Song, S.; Fang, J.

    2003-12-01

    In this study, zeolites were synthesized from different glasses to probe the occurrence of zeolites in nature. The experiments were carried out with synthetic glass systems of Na2O.Al2O3.nSiO2, CaO.Al2O3.nSiO2, xNa2O.(1-x)CaO.Al2O3.nSiO2 and xNa2O.(1-x)K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2 in alkaline solutions of NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3, NH4OH, NaOH (+) NaCl and NaOH (+) KOH at temperatures ranging from 110›J to 210›J and with autogeneous pressures in the autoclaves. Synthetic products were examined by an X-ray powder diffractometer, a scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer, and an electron microprobe. The minerals synthesized included zeolites, i.e., thomsonite, gismondine, amicite, garronite, gobbinsite, analcime, phillipsite, merlinoite, chabazite and mordenite; artificial synthetic zeolites, and feldspars. Chemical analyses indicated that the composition of synthetic zeolites is profoundly influenced by the composition of the initial glasses, especially the SiO2/Al2O3 ratios and cations. On the other hand, the influence of Na+ and K+ have over the formation of zeolites in solution, other ions, such as CO32- were involved in the preventing of the formation of Ca-zeolites. Comparing the experimental results with natural occurrences suggests that thomsonite, gismondine and amicite are usually found in ultrabasic and basic rocks; garronite and gobbinsite in basic to intermediate rocks; analcime, phillipsite, and chabazite in basic to acid rocks; merlinoite in high-potassium rocks; and mordenite in acid rocks. In addition, Ca-zeolites including thomsonite, gismondine and garronite are favored in fresh water environments, and alkali zeolites including gobbinsite, phillipsite, and analcime are most abundant in saline lake and deep sea conditions.

  8. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2007-11-01

    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

  9. Isolation and Spectral Analysis of Naturally Occurring Thiarubrine A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Juan; Morton, Melita; Downum, Kelsey; O'Shea, Kevin E.

    2001-06-01

    We have designed an experiment in which students isolate and characterize thiarubrine A, a pseudo-antiaromatic 1,2-dithia-3,5-cyclohexadiene derivative. Thiarubrines are an important class of compounds which have recently received attention because of their unusual reactivity, unique biological activity, and potential medicinal applications. They possess a distinctive red color and structure features that are particularly useful for demonstrating UV-vis, NMR, and IR spectral analyses. A crude mixture containing thiarubrine A is obtained by methanol (liquid-solid) extraction of the roots of short ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Alternatively, these compounds can be isolated from numerous taxa within the family Asteraceae. Thiarubrine A possesses alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl functionality, which is useful in illustrating the utility of IR and NMR in the characterization of natural products. The long wavelength UV-vis absorption band of thiarubrine is indication of the nonplanarity of dithiin ring and provides an excellent opportunity to discuss the concepts of aromaticity, conjugation, and molecular orbital theory.

  10. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-01

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Reb ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. ["On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows," Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  11. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-15

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Re{sub b} ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. [“On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows,” Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  12. Naturally-occurring dimers of flavonoids as anticarcinogens.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Andrew G; Pomilio, Alicia B

    2013-10-01

    Biflavonoids are dimers of flavonoid moieties linked by a C-C or C-O-C bond. Simple, complex, rearranged, natural and ketalized Diels-Alder adducts, benzofuran derivatives, and spirobiflavonoids are some of the structural groups of biflavonoids. These compounds are mainly distributed in the Gymnosperms, Angiosperms (monocots and dicots), ferns (Pteridophyta), and mosses (Bryophyta). Biflavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, vasorelaxant, anticlotting, among others. This work is focused on probably the most potentially relevant biological activity of biflavonoids, the anticancer activity and the involved mechanisms of action, such as induction of apoptosis [inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases; effects on NF-κB family of transcription factors; activation of caspase(s); inhibition effects on bcl-2 expression, and upregulation of p53 and caspase-3 gene expression]; inhibition of angiogenesis [anti-proliferative effects; activation of Rho-GTPases and ERK signaling pathways; inhibition of FASN activity]; inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing; inhibition of human DNA topoisomerases I and II-α; anti-inflammatory/ immunoregulatory effects [inhibition of XO; inhibition of proinflammatory enzymes, such as PLA2 and COX; effects on cytokines mediated COX-2 and iNOS expression]; modulation of immune response; inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation; antioxidant and analgesic activities in relation to the anticarcinogen behavior. For that reason the structures and anticarcinogenic activities of 83 biflavonoids are thoroughly discussed. The results of this work indicate that biflavonoids strongly affect the cancer cells with little effect on normal cell proliferation, suggesting a therapeutic potential against cancer. PMID:23796246

  13. Biotransformations of Plutonium and Uranium by Naturally-Occurring Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Boukhalfa, Hakim; Icopini, Gary A.; Lack, Joe G.; Reilly, Sean D.; Hersman, Larry E.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; John, Seth G.; Neu, Mary P.

    2004-03-17

    DOE sites are contaminated by radionuclides and toxic metals, which are in contact with organic contaminants, reactive minerals, and diverse populations of microorganisms. Actinide species to be stabilized or mobilized in situ via direct and indirect chemical, biological, and geochemical processes. Actinide contamination tends to be broadly dispersed and present at low concentrations and therefore prohibitively costly to remove using conventional methods. Pu contamination is particularly challenging because of personnel exposure concerns and a lack of disposal sites. Bacterial bioremediation is a preferable treatment approach. Given that the radionuclides of most concern to the NABIR program are generally more mobile in their oxidized forms (e.g. Pu(VI), Pu(V), U(VI), Tc(VII), Cr(VI)), proposed biostabilization strategies are generally based upon either in situ sequestration of the oxidized form (e.g. actinide biosorption and bioaccumulation within exopolymers and biofilms) or biomineralization of the reduced form (e.g., direct or indirect production of insoluble hydroxides by DMRB). The feasibility of these approaches is affected by the speciation of actinides under environment conditions. For example, actinides can form complexes with co-contaminants (e.g. EDTA) or natural chelators like siderophores and biopolymers. Resulting complexes can interact with bacteria in several ways to yield biostabilized products or more mobile species that could persist. They are investigating how organic chelators affect the speciation and biotransformation of U and Pu. Previously, they reported how these siderophores bind, desorb and solubilize radionuclides. Here they present new results on EDTA complexation, siderophore-mediated Pu accumulation by aerobic bacteria, and initial studies of Pu reduction by DMRB.

  14. Potent In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Naturally Occurring Acetylenic Acids▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Ashfaq, M. Khalid; Babu, K. Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; ElSohly, Hala N.; Manly, Susan P.; Clark, Alice M.

    2008-01-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C16 to C20: 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 μM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 μmol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies. PMID:18458131

  15. Naturally occurring reassortant infectious bursal disease virus in northern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Lizhou; Wang, Nian; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Li, Kai; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-05-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of the family of Birnavirideae. The co-evolution of genome segments is a major evolutionary feature for IBDV. However, in recent years, some strains exhibited markedly different genetic relationships for segments A and B. In this study, we firstly isolated a new type of reassortment IBDV strain named IBD13HeB01 from northern China. The full-length genomes of segments A and B were cloned and identified. Sequence analysis revealed that IBD13HeB01 was a segment-reassortment strain, whose segment A was derived from very virulent strain and segment B from attenuated IBDV. In addition, the virulence of IBD13HeB01 strain was evaluated using SPF chickens. This study is not only beneficial for further understanding of the viral evolution but also suggests the potential risk of application of the live vaccines of IBDV. PMID:25869881

  16. Widespread elimination of naturally occurring neuronal death in Bax-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    White, F A; Keller-Peck, C R; Knudson, C M; Korsmeyer, S J; Snider, W D

    1998-02-15

    The proapoptotic molecule BAX is required for death of sympathetic and motor neurons in the setting of trophic factor deprivation. Furthermore, adult Bax-/- mice have more motor neurons than do their wild-type counterparts. These findings raise the possibility that BAX regulates naturally occurring cell death during development in many neuronal populations. To test this idea, we assessed apoptosis using TUNEL labeling in several well-studied neural systems during embryonic and early postnatal development in Bax-/- mice. Remarkably, naturally occurring cell death is virtually eliminated between embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) and postnatal day 1 (PN1) in most peripheral ganglia, in motor pools in the spinal cord, and in the trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex. Additionally, reduction, although not elimination, of cell death was noted throughout the developing cerebellum, in some layers of the retina, and in the hippocampus. Saving of cells was verified by axon counts of dorsal and ventral roots, as well as facial and optic nerves that revealed 24-35% increases in axon number. Interestingly, many of the supernumerary axons had very small cross-sectional areas, suggesting that the associated neurons are not normal. We conclude that BAX is a critical mediator of naturally occurring death of peripheral and CNS neurons during embryonic life. However, rescue from naturally occurring cell death does not imply that the neurons will develop normal functional capabilities. PMID:9454852

  17. Use of DNA arrays to identify a mutation in the negative regulator, csrR, responsible for the high virulence of a naturally occurring type M3 group A streptococcus clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Uchiyama, Takehiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2006-06-15

    We previously reported that type M3 group A streptococcus (GAS) showed a wide range of 50% lethal dose values in mice. Analysis using DNA arrays indicated that the most virulent strain, M3-f, expressed significantly higher levels of the products of several virulence genes than did the other M3 isolates. Sequencing of the csrS, csrR, luxS, and rgg genes in the isolates showed that the M-3f csrR gene contained a specific point mutation. Disruption of wild-type (wt) csrR in an M3 strain increased its virulence and the expression of hyaluronic acid, whereas complementation with wt but not type M3-f csrR attenuated these changes. Expression experiments showed that type M3-f CsrR counteracted the effects of wt CsrR. Although wt CsrR bound to the hasA promoter region, type M3-f CsrR did not. Thus, the high virulence of the type M3-f strain is associated with the decreased binding of type M3-f CsrR to its target sequences. PMID:16703511

  18. Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-04-01

    This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose. PMID:20336233

  19. Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F.

    2008-07-01

    The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural

  20. Football Injuries Occurring on Natural Grass and Tartan Turf. A Comparison Study Covering 17 Years at the University of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, J. S.; And Others

    A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)

  1. The first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, rapalexins A and B, are cruciferous phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Zheng, Qing-An; Gadagi, Ravi S

    2007-01-28

    The discovery of the first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, indole-3-isothiocyanates, their first synthesis, antimicrobial activity and proposed biogenetic origin in canola plants are reported. PMID:17220973

  2. Long-Term Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Male Fischer 344 Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysot...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF CASEINS CROSSLINKED BY A NATURALLY OCCURRING CROSSLINKING AGENT-GENIPIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing economic and environmental pressures demand more effective utilization of natural resources. Genipin, a naturally occurring crosslinking agent obtained from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, has recently attracted much attention due to its low cytotoxicity compared to traditional crossli...

  4. INFLUENCE OF EASILY DEGRADABLE NATURALLY OCCURRING CARBON SUBSTRATES ON BIODEGRADATION OF MONOSUBSTITUTED PHENOLS BY AQUATIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of readily degradable, naturally occurring carbon substrates on the biodegradation of several monosubstitued phenols (m-cresol, m-aminophenol, p-chlorophenol) was examined. The natural substrate classes used were amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. Samples ...

  5. Alaska, Naturally Occurring Asbestos: Experiences, Policy and 2012 Limitation of Liability Legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargesheimer, J.; Perkins, R.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in mineral deposits in Alaska. There are many regions in Alaska that have minerals in surface rocks that may contain asbestos and asbestos has been discovered in many locations in Alaska. Gravel is constantly in demand for heavy construction projects, but some remote localities in Alaska do not have gravel sources that are NOA-free. Determining if NOA can be safely used in heavy construction materials and what can or should be done with NOA materials that are already in place are complex questions. Answers will depend on the amount and type of asbestos mineral, how it is handled in processing, and how it is maintained - all subject to regulation and control of operations. The State of Alaska recently enacted legislation (HB 258) providing, among other things, "… immunity for the state and for landowners, extractors, suppliers, transporters, and contractors for certain actions or claims arising in connection with the use of gravel or aggregate material containing naturally occurring asbestos in certain areas." Implementation of the law and interim regulations and guidance should enable use of NOA for heavy construction materials in Alaska, but as with any new law, it will take some time to understand its full scope and effect.

  6. Encapsulation of piceatannol, a naturally occurring hydroxylated analogue of resveratrol, by natural and modified cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Matencio, Adrián; García-Carmona, Francisco; López-Nicolás, José Manuel

    2016-05-18

    In this work, an in-depth study of the interaction between piceatannol (a type of stilbene with high biological activity) and different natural and modified cyclodextrins (CDs) is made, using steady state fluorescence. This bioactive molecule forms a 1 : 1 complex with all the natural (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) and modified (HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD and M-β-CD) CDs tested. Among natural CDs, the interaction of piceatannol with β-CD was the most efficient. However, the modified CDs showed higher encapsulation constants (KF) than β-CD, except M-β-CD; the highest KF being found for HP-β-CD (14 048 ± 702 M(-1)). The encapsulation of piceatannol in the internal cavity of CDs showed a strong dependence on pH and temperature. The interaction between HP-β-CD and piceatannol was less effective in the pH region where the stilbene begins to suffer the deprotonation of its hydroxyl group. Moreover, the values of KF decreased as the system temperature increased. To obtain information on the mechanism involved in the piceatannol affinity for CD, the thermodynamic parameters of the complexation (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) were studied, the results showed a negative entropy (-3.7 ± 0.2 J mol(-1) K(-1)), enthalpy (-24.6 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and Gibbs free energy change at 25 °C (-23.5 ± 1.2 J mol(-1)). Finally, molecular docking calculations provided further insights into how the different interactions influence the complexation constant. A high degree of correlation was observed between the computed scores and experimental values. PMID:27142512

  7. A naturally occurring deletion mutant of figwort mosaic virus (caulimovirus) is generated by RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Richins, R D; Shepherd, R J

    1991-09-01

    A naturally occurring deletion mutant is observed in plants infected with figwort mosaic virus (FMV), a caulimovirus. The encapsidated mutant genome is formed spontaneously in association with two different strains of FMV in four host plant species. The mutant also appears when cloned wild-type viral DNA is used as the inoculum. The deletion mutant alone is not infectious and it appears unable to replicate after its formation, even in the presence of wild-type virus. The gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was inserted at different positions in the deletion mutant genome, and subsequent transient assays showed that gene expression of the mutant occurs despite the deletion. Sequence analyses of the mutant genome revealed a deletion of 1237-bp segment encompassing a major portion of the coat protein gene and the 5' end of the downstream reverse transcriptase gene. This deletion is associated with consensus signals for RNA splicing including the conserved 5' and 3' splice sites plus surrounding sequences, putative branch point(s) for lariat formation, and an extremely high adenosine content (41%) of the removed fragment. This suggests that splicing of the FMV full-length transcript has occurred prior to reverse transcription and this accounts for the presence and accumulation of encapsidated DNAs with the same deletion. PMID:1871973

  8. Segregation of naturally occurring mitochondrial DNA variants in a mini-pig model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within cells and tissues, the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form and can harbour naturally occurring variants. Whilst high variant load can cause mitochondrial disease, naturally occurring mtDNA variants likely persist at low levels across generations of ...

  9. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    PubMed

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004). PMID:26670035

  10. Glycosphingolipid analysis in a naturally occurring ovine model of acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Hein, Leanne; Rozaklis, Tina; Adams, Melissa; Duplock, Stephen; Snel, Marten; Hemsley, Kim; Kuchel, Tim; Smith, Nicholas; Hopwood, John J

    2016-07-01

    Gaucher disease arises from mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene which encodes an enzyme required for the lysosomal catabolism of glucosylceramide. We have identified a naturally occurring mutation in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene in sheep that leads to Gaucher disease with acute neurological symptoms. Here we have examined the clinical phenotype at birth and subsequently quantified lipids in Gaucher lamb brain, in order to characterise the disorder. Enzyme activity assessments showed that a reduction in β-glucocerebrosidase activity to 1-5% of wild-type occurs consistently across newborn Gaucher lamb brain regions. We analyzed glucosylceramide, glucosylsphingosine, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and ganglioside profiles in brain, liver, and spleen, and observed 30- to 130-fold higher glucosylceramide, and 500- to 2000-fold higher glucosylsphingosine concentrations in Gaucher diseased lambs compared to wild-type. Significant increases of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and gangliosides [GM1, GM2, GM3] concentrations were also detected in the brain. As these glycosphingolipids are involved in many cellular events, an imbalance or disruption of the cell membrane lipid homeostasis would be expected to impair normal neuronal function. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of glycosphingolipids in various brain regions in a large animal model of neuronal disease, which permits the mechanistic investigation of lipid deregulation and their contribution to neurodegenerative process. PMID:26976737

  11. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM): a matter of wide societal implication.

    PubMed

    Pescatore, C; Menon, S

    2000-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are ubiquitous on Earth and their radioactivity may become concentrated as a result of human activities. Numerous industries produce concentrated radioactivity in their by-products: the coal industry, petroleum extraction and processing, water treatment, etc. The present reference system of radiation protection does not provide a complete framework for the coherent management of all types of radioactively contaminated materials. Inconsistencies in waste management policy and practice can be noted across the board, and especially vis-à-vis the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear industry. This article reviews the present societal approach to manage materials that are radioactive but are often not recognised as being such, and place the management of radioactive materials from the nuclear industry in perspective. PMID:11302258

  12. DECIPHERING NATURALLY-OCCURRING PB CONTAMINATION IMPACTING DRINKING WATER WELLS: SHAKER VILLAGE CATCHMENT, MAINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace Pb concentrations in groundwater within glacial deposits across Maine fluctuate considerably. Deciphering the distribution and sources of naturally occurring Pb in groundwater with only the use of conventional anomaly identification techniques presents a challenge. In a rep...

  13. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  14. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler rinsate could survive in cold storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105/ml naturally occu...

  15. Concentrations of the naturally occurring radionucleides Pb-210, Po-210, and Ra-226 in aquatic fauna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Study reveals naturally occurring radionuclides are ubiquitous and contribute a substantial fraction of the natural radiation dose to humans and various biota. Measurements may be useful in ecological and other biological problems such as tracing food chains of animals and study of the metabolism of these elements.

  16. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Galindo, C; Mougin, L; Fakhi, S; Nourreddine, A; Lamghari, A; Hannache, H

    2007-01-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz and clays constitute the main composition of the inorganic matrix. Pyrite crystals are also present. A selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and alpha-counting, was performed to assess the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides. Leaching results indicate that 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 228Th have multiple modes of occurrence in the shale. U is interpreted to have been concentrated under anaerobic conditions. An integrated isotopic approach showed the preferential mobilization of uranium carried by humic acids to carbonate and apatite phases. Th is partitioned between silicate minerals and pyrite. PMID:17098337

  17. Effect of calcitonin pretreatment on naturally occurring intervertebral disc degeneration in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Tian, Faming; Wang, Wenya; Yan, Jinyin; Liu, Huanjiang; Liu, Binbin; Song, Huiping; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our previous study suggested protective effects of calcitonin (CT) on experimental osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to provide evidence of whether CT pretreatment could prevent naturally occurring intervertebral disc degeneration in guinea pigs. Methods: Forty-two 3 months old female guinea pigs were randomly assigned into 2 groups as follows: Twenty-four were treated by normal saline as control group and sacrificed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age (6 animals at each time point), the other 18 were received salmon CT (8 ug/kg/day, everyday) treatment at 3 months of age and sacrificed at the age of 6, 9 and 12 months respectively. Van Gieson stain and the histological score were used to identify the histological changes of the lumbar intervertebral discs. The disc height and vertebral body height were measured. Immunohistochemistry measurements for glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1 expressions were performed. Bone quality and microstructural changes in the L3-6 lumbar vertebral bodies were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD), micro-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. Results: Histological analysis indicated significantly higher disc degeneration scores in 9-month-old guinea pigs in comparison with younger animals, and grew higher with increasing age. CT treatment significantly reduced the histological score, and increased the disc height and the ratio to vertebral body height in 12 months old animals, as well as upregulated the glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen and inhibited the MMP-1 expression. Micro-CT analysis showed decreased percent bone volume (BV/TV) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), structural model index (SMI) in 12 months old animals in comparison with the younger animals. Markedly increased BV/TV and decreased Tb.Sp were observed in CT treated animals when compared with control animals. The biomechanical properties including maximum load, maximum stress, yield stress and

  18. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have

  19. Diversity of Opines and Opine-Catabolizing Bacteria Isolated from Naturally Occurring Crown Gall Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L. W.; Chilton, W. S.; Canfield, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    The diversity of opines from 43 naturally occurring crown gall tumors on several plant species was analyzed for the presence of agropine, chrysopine, iminodiacid, an unidentified leucinopine-like iminodiacid (IDA-B), mannopine, octopine, nopaline, DL- and LL-succinamopine, leucinopine and heliopine. Opine utilization patterns of agrobacteria and fluorescent pseudomonads resident in a tumor were then analyzed and compared for agreement with the opine isolated from that tumor. Nopaline was the most common opine found and was detected in tumors from cherry, blackberry, grape, and plum. Octopine was not found, although octopine-catabolizing bacteria were isolated from several tumors. A new, previously undescribed iminodiacid of the succinamopine-leucinopine type (provisionally designated IDA-B) was isolated from tumors of wild blackberry. Field tumors from apple, blueberry and grape yielded no detectable opines, even though opine-utilizing bacteria were present. Bacterial isolates from plum and cherry showed the best correspondence between the opine in tumors (nopaline) and the presence of bacteria that catabolized that opine. However, several unusual opine catabolic combinations were identified, including isolates that catabolized a variety of opines but were nonpathogenic. More variability was observed among isolates from field tumors on the remaining plant species. We isolated novel mannopine-nopaline type agrobacteria from field tumors of cherry, plum and blackberry that induced tumors containing either mannopine (plus agropine) or nopaline, but not both. Epidemiologically, the galled plants from an area were not of clonal origin (same Ti plasmid), indicating that the field tumors from a small area were incited by more than one type of Ti plasmid. PMID:16535484

  20. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-08-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  1. A preliminary evaluation of naturally occurring radioactivity concentration levels across the State of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Shams, H; Bajoga, A D; Alazemi, N; Bradley, D A; Regan, P H

    2016-03-01

    An evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a surface radiological map of the State of Kuwait. Soil samples were collected from twelve locations across Kuwait and analysed using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The (226)Ra and (235)U specific activity concentrations have been determined and used to estimate the (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratios which are found to be comparable to that expected for naturally occurring uranium material. PMID:26717795

  2. Recent progress regarding the bioactivities, biosynthesis and synthesis of naturally occurring resorcinolic macrolides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Jiang, Cheng-shi; Zhang, Zai-long; Ma, Wen-quan; Guo, Yue-wei

    2014-01-01

    Macrolides, which comprise a family of lactones with different ring sizes, belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Resorcinolic macrolides, an important subgroup, possess interesting structures and exhibit a wide variety of bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-bacteria, and anti-malaria activities, etc. This review summarizes progress in isolation, bioactivity studies, biosynthesis, and representative chemical syntheses of this group of macrolides in recent decades, encompassing 63 naturally occurring macrolides published in 120 articles. PMID:24464049

  3. Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    TEH-LUNG KU

    2001-06-01

    Study the migration of nuclear waste contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Radioactive disequilibria among members of these decay-series nuclides can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting.

  4. A study of the dry heat resistance of naturally occurring organisms widely dispersed on a surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garst, D. M.; Lindell, K. F.

    1971-01-01

    Although Bacillus subtilis var. niger is the standard test organism for NASA planetary quarantine sterilization studies, it was found that some naturally occurring soil organisms are more heat resistant. The separation of these organisms from soil particles is described. Experiments are discussed which were designed to show that the heat resistance is a natural characteristic of the organisms, rather than a condition induced by the clumping effect of agglomerated particles and organisms.

  5. Studies of two naturally occurring compounds which effect release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes. [Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two naturally occurring compounds which effect the release of neurotransmitter from synaptosomes have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Iotrochotin (IOT) isolated from wound exudate of the Caribbean purple bleeder sponge promotes release in a manner that is independent of the extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ ion concentration. Leptinotarsin (LPT-d), a protein taken from hemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, stimulates Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release. IOT is slightly acidic and has a molecular weight of approximately 18 kD. (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine which has been introduced into synaptosomes as (/sup 3/H)choline can be released by IOT. The toxin releasable pool of labelled neurotransmitter is not depleted by depolarization of the synaptosomes with high potassium, and therefore seems to be primarily extravesicular. LPT-d is a larger protein (molecular weight = 45 kD) than IOT, and seems to effect primarily vesicular release by opening at least one type of presynaptic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel. The facilitatory effects of the toxin on synaptosomal release can be inhibited by inorganic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, but are not generally affected by organic antagonists.

  6. Naturally-occurring TGR5 agonists modulating glucagon-like peptide-1 biosynthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Calderwood, Danielle; Gillespie, Anna; Mirza, Bushra; Green, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    Selective GLP-1 secretagogues represent a novel potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined the GLP-1 secretory activity of the ethnomedicinal plant, Fagonia cretica, which is postulated to possess anti-diabetic activity. After extraction and fractionation extracts and purified compounds were tested for GLP-1 and GIP secretory activity in pGIP/neo STC-1 cells. Intracellular levels of incretin hormones and their gene expression were also determined. Crude F. cretica extracts stimulated both GLP-1 and GIP secretion, increased cellular hormone content, and upregulated gene expression of proglucagon, GIP and prohormone convertase. However, ethyl acetate partitioning significantly enriched GLP-1 secretory activity and this fraction underwent bioactivity-guided fractionation. Three isolated compounds were potent and selective GLP-1 secretagogues: quinovic acid (QA) and two QA derivatives, QA-3β-O-β-D-glycopyranoside and QA-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(28→1)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester. All QA compounds activated the TGR5 receptor and increased intracellular incretin levels and gene expression. QA derivatives were more potent GLP-1 secretagogues than QA. This is the first time that QA and its naturally-occurring derivatives have been shown to activate TGR5 and stimulate GLP-1 secretion. These data provide a plausible mechanism for the ethnomedicinal use of F. cretica and may assist in the ongoing development of selective GLP-1 agonists. PMID:26820940

  7. Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Darren J.; Childs, Bennett G.; Durik, Matej; Wijers, Melinde E.; Sieben, Cynthia J.; Zhong, Jian; Saltness, Rachel; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Versoza, Grace C.; Pezeshki, Abdul-Mohammad; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Miller, Jordan D.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a stress-induced irreversible growth arrest often characterized by p16Ink4a expression and a distinctive secretory phenotype, prevents the proliferation of preneoplastic cells and has beneficial roles in tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs over time and have been speculated to play a role in aging. To explore the physiological relevance and consequences of naturally occurring senescent cells, we used a previously established transgene, INK-ATTAC, to induce apoptosis in p16Ink4a-expressing cells of wild-type mice by injection of AP20187 twice a week starting at one year of age. Here we show that compared to vehicle alone, AP20187 treatment extended median lifespan in both male and female mice of two distinct genetic backgrounds. Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive cells delayed tumorigenesis and attenuated age-related deterioration of several organs without apparent side effects, including kidney, heart and fat, where clearance preserved the functionality of glomeruli, cardio-protective KATP channels, and adipocytes, respectively. Thus, p16Ink4a-positive cells that accumulate during adulthood negatively influence lifespan and promote age-dependent changes in multiple organs, and their therapeutic removal may be an attractive approach to extend healthy lifespan. PMID:26840489

  8. Polyhydroxyester films obtained by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation of natural occurring fatty polyhydroxyacids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Jose; Heredia-Guerrero, José; Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Barthel, Markus; Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Free-standing polyesters films from mono and polyhydroxylated fatty acids (C16 and C18) have been obtained by non-catalyzed melt-condensation polymerization in air at 150°C. Chemical characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C MAS-NMR) has confirmed the formation of the corresponding esters and the occurrence of hydroxyl partial oxidation which extent depends on the type of hydroxylation of the monomer (primary or secondary). Generally, polyester films obtained are hydrophobic, insoluble in common solvents, amorphous and infusible as revealed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In ?-polyhydroxy acids, esterification reaction with primary hydroxyls is preferential and, therefore, the structure can be defined as linear with variable branching depending on the amount of esterified secondary hydroxyls. The occurrence side oxidative reactions like the diol cleavage are responsible for chain cross-linking. Films are thermally stable up to 200-250°C though this limit can be extended up to 300°C in the absence of ester bonds involving secondary hydroxyls. By analogy with natural occurring fatty polyesters (i.e. cutin in higher plants) these polymers are proposed as biodegradable and non-toxic barrier films or coatings to be used, for instance, in food packing

  9. Recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin-ISCOM matrix adjuvanted vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, V. Michael; Ball, Louise M.; Hess, John F.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, blinded, controlled field trial was conducted during summer 2006 in a northern California, USA, herd of beef cattle to evaluate the efficacy of a recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin subunit vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK; pinkeye). A convenience sample comprised of 127 steers were administered a subcutaneous dose of either adjuvant alone (ISCOM matrices; control group) or recombinant M. bovoculi cytotoxin carboxy terminus adjuvanted with ISCOM matrices (MbvA group) and were boostered 21 days later. The steers were examined once weekly for 15 weeks for evidence of IBK. No significant difference in the cumulative proportion of corneal ulcerations was detected between groups. Compared to the control calves, the MbvA vaccinates had significantly higher increases in serum neutralizing titers to M. bovoculi hemolysin between week 0 and week 6. The prevalence of M. bovis isolations was higher from ulcerated eyes of calves vaccinated with MbvA as compared to control calves. Vaccination of calves against the carboxy terminus of M. bovoculi RTX toxin resulted in significant increases in serum hemolysin neutralizing titers and may modulate organism type cultured from ulcerated eyes of calves in herds where both M. bovis and M. bovoculi exist. Use of M. bovoculi antigens alone in vaccines to prevent IBK may not be beneficial in herds where IBK is associated with both M. bovoculi and M. bovis. PMID:20217228

  10. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Paul A.; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X*Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  11. A naturally occurring variant of endothelial lipase associated with elevated HDL exhibits impaired synthesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert J.; Edmondson, Andrew C.; Griffon, Nathalie; Hill, Theophelus B.; Fuki, Ilia V.; Badellino, Karen O.; Li, Mingyao; Wolfe, Megan L.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Human endothelial lipase (EL) is a member of a family of lipases and phospholipases that are involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. EL displays a preference to hydrolyze lipids in HDL. We report here that a naturally occurring low frequency coding variant in the EL gene (LIPG), glycine-26 to serine (G26S), is significantly more common in African-American individuals with elevated HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. To test the hypothesis that this variant results in reduced EL function, we extensively characterized and compared the catalytic and noncatalytic functions of the G26S variant and wild-type (WT) EL. While the catalytic-specific activity of G26S EL is similar to WT EL, its secretion is markedly reduced. Consistent with this observation, we found that carriers of the G26S variant had significantly reduced plasma levels of EL protein. Thus, this N-terminal variant results in reduced secretion of EL protein, plausibly leading to increased HDL-C levels. PMID:19411705

  12. Naturally occurring p16(Ink4a)-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan.

    PubMed

    Baker, Darren J; Childs, Bennett G; Durik, Matej; Wijers, Melinde E; Sieben, Cynthia J; Zhong, Jian; Saltness, Rachel A; Jeganathan, Karthik B; Verzosa, Grace Casaclang; Pezeshki, Abdulmohammad; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Miller, Jordan D; van Deursen, Jan M

    2016-02-11

    Cellular senescence, a stress-induced irreversible growth arrest often characterized by expression of p16(Ink4a) (encoded by the Ink4a/Arf locus, also known as Cdkn2a) and a distinctive secretory phenotype, prevents the proliferation of preneoplastic cells and has beneficial roles in tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs over time, and have been speculated to have a role in ageing. To explore the physiological relevance and consequences of naturally occurring senescent cells, here we use a previously established transgene, INK-ATTAC, to induce apoptosis in p16(Ink4a)-expressing cells of wild-type mice by injection of AP20187 twice a week starting at one year of age. We show that compared to vehicle alone, AP20187 treatment extended median lifespan in both male and female mice of two distinct genetic backgrounds. The clearance of p16(Ink4a)-positive cells delayed tumorigenesis and attenuated age-related deterioration of several organs without apparent side effects, including kidney, heart and fat, where clearance preserved the functionality of glomeruli, cardio-protective KATP channels and adipocytes, respectively. Thus, p16(Ink4a)-positive cells that accumulate during adulthood negatively influence lifespan and promote age-dependent changes in several organs, and their therapeutic removal may be an attractive approach to extend healthy lifespan. PMID:26840489

  13. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paul A; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X(*)Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  14. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  15. BIODEGRADATION - MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION (MNA) FOR OXYGENATES: HOW IT EVOLVED, WHY IT OCCURS AND STABLE ISOTOPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organisms that degrade MtBE under anaerobic conditions are evolved to acquire energy for growth by using molecular hydrogen and carbonate ion to cleave methyl ether bonds. Methyl ether bonds are common in nature and the bond also occurs in MTBE. MTBE in contaminated ground...

  16. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM GROUNDWATER USING NATURALLY OCCURRING IRON OXIDES IN RURAL REGIONS OF MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have found that the iron oxide particles produced by grinding naturally occurring iron ores are very effective in removing arsenic from water. The arsenic adsorption isothermal of the particles h...

  17. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  18. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  19. Subject Reaction to Human-Caused and Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belford, Susan; Gibbs, Margaret

    While research has shown that people are adversely psychologically affected by knowledge that their communities have been toxically contaminated, it has been suggested that those who see a disaster as naturally occurring tend to be less adversely affected than those who see a disaster as caused by human acts. To examine this issue, questionnaires…

  20. Naturally occurring vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Whisker growth of germanium sulfide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Larson, R.R.; Dwornik, E.J.

    1974-01-01

    The first naturally occurring terrestrial example of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been observed in condensates from gases released by burning coal in culm banks. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis indicate that the crystals consist of elongated rods (??? 100 ??m) of germanium sulfide capped by bulbs depleted in germanium. ?? 1974.

  1. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  2. Tasks, Teacher Feedback, and Learner Modified Output in Naturally Occurring Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura; Revesz, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Tasks and interactional feedback have received much attention in instructed second language acquisition research in recent years. However, little research exists that has investigated feedback and task factors together during naturally occurring teacher-student interaction in classroom settings. To bridge this gap, the current study explored the…

  3. Antibacterial Activities of Naturally occurring Compounds against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activities of 19 naturally-occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), a bovine isolate NCTC 8578, a raw ...

  4. THE ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING AMOEBA-RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A. Isolation of ARB from naturally-occurring amoebae and identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing.

    Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  5. Measurements for the Development of a Simulated Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material

    PubMed Central

    Pibida, L.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen different commercially available samples containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (i.e., natural uranium, thorium, radium and potassium) were investigated, including zircon sand, cat litter, roofing tiles, ice melt and fertilizer among others. A large variation in isotopic composition was observed across the measured samples. As a result of this observation, a need was identified to develop and implement the use of a simulated NORM sample to serve as a reference standard sample containing naturally occurring radioactive elements. The purpose of the simulated NORM sample would be to simulate typical samples containing NORM to be used for testing radiation detection instruments against ANSI/IEEE and IEC document standards requirements. The design and construction of the proposed new simulated NORM sample and the subsequent energy spectra characterization measurements are presented as part of this work. PMID:26900520

  6. Biomining with bacteriophage: selectivity of displayed peptides for naturally occurring sphalerite and chalcopyrite.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Susan B; Hewitt, Jeff; Macgillivray, Ross T A; Dunbar, W Scott

    2009-02-01

    During mineral processing, concentrates of sulfide minerals of economic interest are formed by froth flotation of fine ore particles. The method works well but recovery and selectivity can be poor for ores with complex mineralogy. There is considerable interest in methods that improve the selectivity of this process while avoiding the high costs of using flotation chemicals. Here we show the first application of phage biotechnology to the processing of economically important minerals in ore slurries. A random heptapeptide library was screened for peptide sequences that bind selectively to the minerals sphalerite (ZnS) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). After several rounds of enrichment, cloned phage containing the surface peptide loops KPLLMGS and QPKGPKQ bound specifically to sphalerite. Phage containing the peptide loop TPTTYKV bound to both sphalerite and chalcopyrite. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), the phage was characterized as strong binders compared to wild-type phage. Specificity of binding was confirmed by immunochemical visualization of phage bound to mineral particles but not to silica (a waste mineral) or pyrite. The current study focused primarily on the isolation of ZnS-specific phage that could be utilized in the separation of sphalerite from silica. At mining sites where sphalerite and chalcopyrite are not found together in natural ores, the separation of sphalerite from silica would be an appropriate enrichment step. At mining sites where sphalerite and chalcopyrite do occur together, more specific phage would be required. This bacteriophage has the potential to be used in a more selective method of mineral separation and to be the basis for advanced methods of mineral processing. PMID:18767194

  7. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations. PMID:10647985

  8. Interaction of flavonoids, the naturally occurring antioxidants with different media: A UV-visible spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseem, Bushra; Shah, S. W. H.; Hasan, Aurangzeb; Sakhawat Shah, S.

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative parameters for interaction of flavonoids—the naturally occurring antioxidants, with solvents and surfactants are determined using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The availability of flavonoids; kaempferol, apigenin, kaempferide and rhamnetin in micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is reflected in terms of partition coefficient, Kc. Thermodynamic calculations show that the process of transfer of flavonoid molecules to anionic micelles of SDS is energy efficient. A distortion in flavonoid's morphology occurs in case of kaempferol and apigenin in surfactant and water, exhibited in terms of a new band in the UV region of electronic spectra of these flavonoids. The partition coefficients of structurally related flavonoids are correlated with their antioxidant activities.

  9. Size dependent fluorescence tuning of naturally occurring betacyanin with silver nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Light absorption and scattering of metal nano partilces occur in very narrow range of wavelengths. This is also dependent on the geometry and shape of metal nano particles. It is also known that scattering is related to (volume)2 and absorption is related to the volume of the spherical metal nano particles. In our work we show that using this principle metal nano particles enable fluorescence tuning of dyes. In our experiment we show such tuning in naturally occurring betacyanin extracted from red beetroot. We also show that such tuning is dependent on the size variation of the silver nano particles.

  10. Isolation of Naturally Occurring Viruses of the Murine Leukemia Virus Group in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Janet W.; Rowe, Wallace P.; Capps, Worth I.; Huebner, Robert J.

    1969-01-01

    A tissue culture cell system for isolation and identification of members of the murine leukemia virus group (the complement fixation for murine leukemia test) was modified to permit the isolation of naturally occurring virus from leukemic and normal mice. The important factors for increasing the sensitivity of the test were the use of National Institutes of Health (NIH) strain Webster Swiss embryo cell cultures and the selection of rat-immune sera having complement-fixing antibodies to tissue culture antigens of both the Gross and FMR subgroups. In all, 163 strains of mouse leukemia virus, from 11 inbred mouse strains, have been isolated. Representative virus isolates were shown to possess the properties of the murine leukemia virus group; i.e., they were chloroform-sensitive, noncytopathic agents which replicated in mouse embryo tissue culture and produced group-reactive, complement-fixing antigen and budding C-type particles visible by electron microscopy. These viruses could serve as helpers in the rescue of Moloney sarcoma virus genome from non-producer hamster sarcoma cells, yielding pseudotypes. All of the 19 field isolates tested were neutralized by Gross passage A antiserum but not by potent antisera to the Moloney, Rauscher, and Friend strains. Virus was recovered regularly from embryos and from the plasma and spleen of adult mice of high leukemic strains. In low leukemic mouse strains, different patterns of virus detection were observed. In C3H/He mice, virus was occasionally present in embryos and was found in 40% of adult spleens. BALB/c mice were virus-negative as fetuses or weanlings, but spleens of more than half of the mice over 6 months of age yielded virus. NIH mice have never yielded virus. In reciprocal matings between AKR and BALB/c mice, virus recovery from embryos was maternally determined. The development of tissue culture isolation procedures made possible for the first time the application of classical infectious disease methods to the

  11. Structural consequences of chromophore formation and exploration of conserved lid residues amongst naturally occurring fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Matthew H.; Li, Binsen; Shahid, Ramza; Peshkepija, Paola; Zimmer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods were used to generate the lowest energy conformations of the immature precyclized forms of the 28 naturally occurring GFP-like proteins deposited in the pdb. In all 28 GFP-like proteins, the beta-barrel contracts upon chromophore formation and becomes more rigid. Our prior analysis of over 260 distinct naturally occurring GFP-like proteins revealed that most of the conserved residues are located in the top and bottom of the barrel in the turns between the β-sheets (Ong et al. 2011) [1]. Structural analyses, molecular dynamics simulations and the Anisotropic Network Model were used to explore the role of these conserved lid residues as possible folding nuclei. Our results are internally consistent and show that the conserved residues in the top and bottom lids undergo relatively less translational movement than other lid residues, and a number of these residues may play an important role as hinges or folding nuclei in the fluorescent proteins.

  12. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  13. Naturally Occurring Differences in CENH3 Affect Chromosome Segregation in Zygotic Mitosis of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Shamoni; Tan, Ek Han; West, Allan; Franklin, F. Chris H.; Comai, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The point of attachment of spindle microtubules to metaphase chromosomes is known as the centromere. Plant and animal centromeres are epigenetically specified by a centromere-specific variant of Histone H3, CENH3 (a.k.a. CENP-A). Unlike canonical histones that are invariant, CENH3 proteins are accumulating substitutions at an accelerated rate. This diversification of CENH3 is a conundrum since its role as the key determinant of centromere identity remains a constant across species. Here, we ask whether naturally occurring divergence in CENH3 has functional consequences. We performed functional complementation assays on cenh3-1, a null mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana, using untagged CENH3s from increasingly distant relatives. Contrary to previous results using GFP-tagged CENH3, we find that the essential functions of CENH3 are conserved across a broad evolutionary landscape. CENH3 from a species as distant as the monocot Zea mays can functionally replace A. thaliana CENH3. Plants expressing variant CENH3s that are fertile when selfed show dramatic segregation errors when crossed to a wild-type individual. The progeny of this cross include hybrid diploids, aneuploids with novel genetic rearrangements and haploids that inherit only the genome of the wild-type parent. Importantly, it is always chromosomes from the plant expressing the divergent CENH3 that missegregate. Using chimeras, we show that it is divergence in the fast-evolving N-terminal tail of CENH3 that is causing segregation errors and genome elimination. Furthermore, we analyzed N-terminal tail sequences from plant CENH3s and discovered a modular pattern of sequence conservation. From this we hypothesize that while the essential functions of CENH3 are largely conserved, the N-terminal tail is evolving to adapt to lineage-specific centromeric constraints. Our results demonstrate that this lineage-specific evolution of CENH3 causes inviability and sterility of progeny in crosses, at the same time producing

  14. Pyrethroid insecticides: A naturally occurring toxin. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of pyrethrum and pyrethroid insecticides. Topics examine toxicity to fish, worms, flies, mosquitoes, and moths. Chemical residue on crops, the transportation of pyrethrum from soils to crops, and pyrethrum accumulation in ponds and lakes are among the topics discussed. Naturally occurring and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are included. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Segregation of Naturally Occurring Mitochondrial DNA Variants in a Mini-Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Cagnone, Gael; Tsai, Te-Sha; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Rossello, Fernando; Powell, David R; Rohrer, Gary; Cree, Lynsey; Trounce, Ian A; St John, Justin C

    2016-03-01

    The maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form within cells and harbors sequence variants (heteroplasmy). While a single mtDNA variant at high load can cause disease, naturally occurring variants likely persist at low levels across generations of healthy populations. To determine how naturally occurring variants are segregated and transmitted, we generated a mini-pig model, which originates from the same maternal ancestor. Following next-generation sequencing, we identified a series of low-level mtDNA variants in blood samples from the female founder and her daughters. Four variants, ranging from 3% to 20%, were selected for validation by high-resolution melting analysis in 12 tissues from 31 animals across three generations. All four variants were maintained in the offspring, but variant load fluctuated significantly across the generations in several tissues, with sex-specific differences in heart and liver. Moreover, variant load was persistently reduced in high-respiratory organs (heart, brain, diaphragm, and muscle), which correlated significantly with higher mtDNA copy number. However, oocytes showed increased heterogeneity in variant load, which correlated with increased mtDNA copy number during in vitro maturation. Altogether, these outcomes show that naturally occurring mtDNA variants segregate and are maintained in a tissue-specific manner across generations. This segregation likely involves the maintenance of selective mtDNA variants during organogenesis, which can be differentially regulated in oocytes and preimplantation embryos during maturation. PMID:26819245

  16. California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) Update of the Schools Naturally Occurring Asbestos Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, M.

    2012-12-01

    Prior to acquisition and/or construction of prospective school sites, the California Education Code mandates that school districts complete environmental assessments and cleanups for prospective new or expanding school sites in order to qualify for state funding. If prospective school sites are determined to have environmental contamination from hazardous materials, including naturally occurring hazardous materials such as naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), where there may be unacceptable potential health risks, the school sites must be properly mitigated prior to occupancy for protection of human health and the environment. NOA is of special concern for schools, because children who are exposed to asbestos may be at increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases over time. In order to protect human health, the Department of Toxic Substances Control's (DTSC) goals at school sites are to: 1) identify the presence of NOA in school site soils using exposure-reducing soil thresholds; 2) manage potential NOA exposures using mitigation measures to reduce generation of airborne asbestos fibers from soils on school sites; and 3) ensure long-term monitoring and protection of mitigation measures via Operations & Maintenance activities. DTSC is currently in the process of revising its Interim Guidance Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) at School Sites - September 2004. The revisions include: 1) updating the guidance to consider incremental sampling for use at NOA sites in consultation with DTSC's project manager and technical staff, and 2) documenting a tiered approach to addressing high and low activity areas on a school.

  17. The sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring quinones. Experimental studies in guinea pigs. II. Benzoquinones.

    PubMed

    Schulz, K H; Garbe, I; Hausen, B M; Simatupang, M H

    1979-05-01

    Experimental studies on the sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring benzoquinones, isolated from plants and woods have been carried out in guinea pigs of the Pirbright white strain. Seven compounds were available: primin, three dalbergiones, mansonia quinone (mansonone A), 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone and rapanone. With five of these substances (primin, mansonone A, three dalbergiones) guinea pigs could be sensitized. Primin, the allergen of Primula obconica Hance (primrose) proved to be the most effective one of all quinones tested in this and the preceding studies. As a similar but weaker sensitizer R-3, 4-dimethoxydalbergione from Machaerium scleroxylon Tul. (Pao ferro, Caviuna vermelha) could be identified. The results obtained with mansonone A, a sesquiterpenoid quinone from Mansonia altissima A. Chev. demonstrate that even naturally occurring orthoquinones are capable of inducing contact allergy. Allergic cross reactions could be obtained between all chemically related mansonones A-F. The results are in good accordance with the view that the sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring quinones depends on the fundamental quinoid structure and the length, position and configuration of the aliphatic side-chain. PMID:464645

  18. Cellular targets and mechanistic strategies of remyelination-promoting IgMs as part of the naturally occurring autoantibody repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Watzlawik, Jens O; Wootla, Bharath; Painter, Meghan M; Warrington, Arthur E; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins with germline sequences occur in invertebrates and vertebrates and are named naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs). NAbs may target foreign antigens, self- or altered self-components and are part of the normal immunoglobulin repertoire. Accumulating evidence indicates that naturally occurring antibodies can act as systemic surveillance molecules, which tag, damaged or stressed cells, invading pathogens and toxic cellular debris for elimination by the immune system. In addition to acting as detecting molecules, certain types of NAbs actively signal in different cell types with a broad range of responses from induction of apoptosis in cancer cells to stimulation of remyelination in glial cells. This review emphasizes functions and characteristics of NAbs with focus on remyelination-promoting mouse and human antibodies. Human remyelination-promoting NAbs are potential therapeutics to combat a wide spectrum of disease processes including demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. We will highlight the identified glycosphingolipid (SL) antigens of polyreactive remyelination-promoting antibodies and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. The nature of the identified antigens suggests a lipid raft-based mechanism for remyelination-promoting antibodies with SLs as most essential raft components. However, accumulating evidence also suggests involvement of other antigens in stimulation of remyelination, which will be discussed in the text. PMID:24053345

  19. Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally Occurring U-Series Disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, Michael; Ku, Teh-Lung

    1999-06-01

    The main goal of the research is to understand the migratory behavior of radioactive contaminants in subsurface fractured systems by using naturally occurring U-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Naturally-occurring uranium- and thorium-series radioactive disequilibria can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of radioactive contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. This study will also provide an improved understanding of the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of radioactive contaminants. We intend to produce a realistic model of radionuclide migration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer beneath the INEEL by evaluating the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in rock minerals and sorbed phases, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibrium and a statistical analysis based model code for the calculation of in-situ retardation factors of radionuclides and rock/water interaction time scales.

  1. Naturally occurring amino acid derivatives with herbicidal, fungicidal or insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Lamberth, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Several naturally occurring amino acid derivatives display significant activities against weeds, fungi and insects: some of them have been even commercialized and are applied as crop protection agents. The 53 most important amino acid natural products with such efficacy are presented in this review together with their natural source, mode of action and biological activity. The diversity of the manifold bacterial, fungal and plantal sources of these compounds is impressive as well as their completely different structural scaffolds, ranging from cyclopeptides via unique non-proteinogenic amino acids to peptidyl nucleosides, the broad range of target enzymes from several different biochemical pathways, which they inhibit and also the plethora of different weeds, fungi and insects they are able to control. PMID:26801938

  2. Intraspecific variation in testis asymmetry in birds: evidence for naturally occurring compensation

    PubMed Central

    Calhim, Sara; Birkhead, Tim R.

    2009-01-01

    In many taxa, the left and right testes often differ in size. The compensation hypothesis states that one testis of the pair serves as a ‘back-up’ for any reduced function in the other and provides a mechanism to explain intraspecific variation in degree and direction of gonad asymmetry. Although testis asymmetry is common in birds, evidence for natural testis compensation is unknown. Using a novel quantitative approach that can be applied to any bilateral organ or structure, we show that testis compensation occurs naturally in birds and can be complete when one testis fails to develop. Owing to a recurrent risk of testis impairment and an evolutionary trade-off between natural and sexual selections acting on the arrangement of internal organs in species with abdominal and/or seasonal testes, compensation adds an important, but neglected, dimension to measures of male reproductive investment. PMID:19324740

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Arsenolipids: Naturally Occurring Arsenic Compounds in Fish and Algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic-containing lipids (arsenolipids) are natural products present in fish and algae. Because these compounds occur in foods, there is considerable interest in their human toxicology. We report the synthesis and characterization of seven arsenic-containing lipids, including six natural products. The compounds comprise dimethylarsinyl groups attached to saturated long-chain hydrocarbons (three compounds), saturated long-chain fatty acids (two compounds), and monounsaturated long chain fatty acids (two compounds). The arsenic group was introduced through sodium dimethylarsenide or bis(dimethylarsenic) oxide. The latter route provided higher and more reproducible yields, and consequently, this pathway was followed to synthesize six of the seven compounds. Mass spectral properties are described to assist in the identification of these compounds in natural samples. The pure synthesized arsenolipids will be used for in vitro experiments with human cells to test their uptake, biotransformation, and possible toxic effects. PMID:24683287

  4. IMAGE Observations of Sounder Stimulated and Naturally Occurring Fast Z mode Cavity Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Taylor, C.; Reddy, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report first observations of sounder stimulated and naturally occurring fast Z mode (ZM) cavity noise detected by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite. The fast Z mode cavity noise is a banded, structure-less radio emission trapped inside fast Z mode cavities, which are characterized by a minimum (fz,min) in fast Z mode cut-off frequency (fz) along a geomagnetic field line [Gurnett et al., JGR, 1983]. Fast Z mode waves reflect at fz ~ f, where f is the wave frequency. Waves in the frequency range fz,min < f < fz,max, where fz,max is the maximum fz above fz,min altitude, are trapped within the cavity as they bounce back and forth between reflection altitudes (fz ~ f) above and below the fz,min altitude. These trapped waves will be observed by a satellite passing through the cavity. The observed cavity noise lower cutoff is at the local Z mode cut-off frequency (fz,Sat) and the upper cut-off is presumably close to fz,max. The cavity noise is observed typically inside the plasmasphere. Comparison of cavity noise as observed on the plasmagram obtained during active sounding with that observed on the dynamic spectra obtained from the interspersed passive wave measurements indicate that the cavity noise is either stimulated by transmissions from the sounder (RPI) or is of natural origin. The sounder stimulated noise is often accompanied by fast Z mode echoes. The naturally occurring cavity noise is observed on both the plasmagram and the dynamic spectra. We believe the stimulated cavity noise is generated due to scattering from small-scale irregularities of waves transmitted by RPI. One potential candidate for the source of naturally occurring Z mode cavity noise is the ring current electrons that can generate fast ZM waves via higher order cyclotron resonance [Nishimura et al., Earth Planets Space, 2007].

  5. Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes. PMID:24375470

  6. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Gul, Rahmat; Ara, Tauseef; Hussain, Manzur

    2012-09-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in latrite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)), internal hazard index (H(in)), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E(eff)) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications. PMID:22355168

  7. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses. PMID:12748987

  9. Arrest types and co-occurring disorders in persons with schizophrenia or related psychoses.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Patrick J; Christopher, Paul P; Druhn, Nicholas; Roy-Bujnowski, Kristen M; Grudzinskas, Albert J; Fisher, William H

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the patterns of criminal arrest and co-occurring psychiatric disorders among individuals with schizophrenia or related psychosis that were receiving public mental health services and had an arrest history. Within a 10-year period, 65% of subjects were arrested for crimes against public order, 50% for serious violent crimes, and 45% for property crimes. The presence of any co-occurring disorder increased the risk of arrest for all offense categories. For nearly all offense types, antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorders conferred the greatest increase in risk for arrest. Among anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with a greater risk of arrest for serious violent crimes but not other offense types. Criminal risk assessments and clinical management in this population should focus on co-occurring antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorders in addition to other clinical and non-clinical factors. PMID:22270830

  10. Naturally occurring somatic motoneuron death in a teleost angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, H; Yoshida, M; Uematsu, K

    1999-05-28

    Naturally occurring somatic motoneuron death in a teleost angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, was investigated histochemically and electron microscopically. The number of motor axons in the ventral root, which corresponds to the motoneuron number in spinal hemisegment, was rapidly increased beyond the adult value within 3 days after hatching, and then decreased to reach the adult value within a few weeks. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) histochemistry, which detects fragmented nuclear DNA characteristic to apoptotic cells, showed that the apoptotic cells are located in the motor column of the cord in the larvae at specific developmental stages. Electron microscopic observations of the spinal cells further confirmed the motoneuron apoptosis. The present data suggest that the massive death of somatic motoneurons at certain ontogenic stages which has been known to occur in higher vertebrates also takes place in fish. PMID:10400233

  11. Naturally-occurring expressive suppression in daily life depletes executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Franchow, Emilie I; Suchy, Yana

    2015-02-01

    The depleting impact of experimentally manipulated expressive suppression (ES) on cognition (especially executive functioning and related processes) has been well established (Baumeister, 2002a). However, the impact of ES that occurs naturally in the course of daily life has not been examined. Sixty two adults (M = 22.89 years old) completed questions about recent ES burden (over the past 2 weeks and on the test day) and completed cognitive measures assessing executive functioning, working memory, and speed of information processing. Individuals with higher-than-usual burden of ES on the test day exhibited poorer executive performance and those with high ES over the past 2 weeks exhibited poorer processing speed above and beyond depression, suggesting that ES burden as it occurs in the course of daily life is associated with compromised cognitive performance. PMID:25111882

  12. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  13. Naturally occurring levels of elements in fishes as determined by PIXE and XRF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallandini, L.; Giacobini, F.; Turchetto, M.; Galassini, S.; Liu, Q. X.; Shao, H. R.; Moschini, G.; Moro, R.; Gialanella, G.; Ghermandi, G.; Cecchi, R.; Injuk, J.; Valković, V.

    1989-04-01

    Naturally occurring levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sb, Sr and Pb were measured in the gills, liver and muscles of fishes ( Zosterisessor ophiocephalus Pall) in the northwestern region of the Adriatic Sea. The overall performance of PIXE and XRF methods was tested by the analysis of standard reference materials. The mean concentration values for elements were calculated from the distribution of experimentally determined concentration values. The obtained data are discussed in the framework of metal metabolism and toxicology.

  14. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Rodushkin, I.; Halicz, L.; Segal, I.; Pape, A.; Miller, H. W.; Kolb, D.; Brandt, R.

    2007-08-15

    Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  15. Editing the genome to introduce a beneficial naturally occurring mutation associated with increased fetal globin.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Beeke; Funnell, Alister P W; Norton, Laura J; Pearson, Richard C M; Wilkinson-White, Lorna E; Lester, Krystal; Vadolas, Jim; Porteus, Matthew H; Matthews, Jacqueline M; Quinlan, Kate G R; Crossley, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders resulting from defects in the adult globin genes are among the most common inherited diseases. Symptoms worsen from birth as fetal γ-globin expression is silenced. Genome editing could permit the introduction of beneficial single-nucleotide variants to ameliorate symptoms. Here, as proof of concept, we introduce the naturally occurring Hereditary Persistance of Fetal Haemoglobin (HPFH) -175T>C point mutation associated with elevated fetal γ-globin into erythroid cell lines. We show that this mutation increases fetal globin expression through de novo recruitment of the activator TAL1 to promote chromatin looping of distal enhancers to the modified γ-globin promoter. PMID:25971621

  16. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  17. Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) Naturally Occurring Asbestos Regulations and Enforcement Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.

    2012-12-01

    BAAQMD has been delegated local enforcement of the Naturally-Occurring Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations, Section 93105, Title 17, California Code of Regulation ("NOA ATCM") by the state Air Resource Board. BAAQMD will present an overview of how BAAQMD administers and enforces the NOA ATCM, as well as a discussion of various issues that have arisen at NOA projects BAAQMD has overseen, and steps that have been taken in the interest of protecting the public health.

  18. Naturally occurring bioactive Cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids in fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2014-10-15

    This article focuses on the occurrence and biological activities of cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids obtained from fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants. Naturally occurring CBC alkaloids are of particular interest because many of these compounds display important biological activities and possess antitumour, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and immunosuppressive properties. Therefore, these compounds are of great interest in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Fermentation and production of CBC alkaloids by fungi and/or fungal endophytes is also discussed. This review presents the structures and describes the activities of 98 CBC alkaloids. PMID:25442265

  19. Intramolecular nitrone dipolar cycloadditions: control of regioselectivity and synthesis of naturally-occurring spirocyclic alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Alastair J; Adams, Joseph P; Bond, Andrew D; Holmes, Andrew B; Press, Neil J; Roughley, Stephen D; Ryan, John H; Saubern, Simon; Smith, Catherine J; Turnbull, Michael D; Newton, Annabella F

    2012-12-01

    The intramolecular nitrone dipolar cycloaddition of in situ-generated nitrones such as compound 26 has been used for the synthesis of cyclic isoxazolidines 27 and 29. The regioselectivity of the intramolecular cycloaddition depends on the nature of the terminal substituent on the dipolarophile. The influence of the substituent on the regioselectivity of the cycloaddition has been examined using several model systems and two methods of nitrone formation. These studies demonstrated that the cyano-substituent plays a special role in favouring the formation of the 6,6,5-ring fused adduct 27 under thermodynamically controlled conditions. The utility of the cyclo-adduct 57 (see Scheme 12) as a precursor for the naturally occurring histrionicotoxins is illustrated by the synthesis of three "unsymmetrical" (i.e. with each side chain bearing different functional groups) members of the histrionicotoxin family HTX-259A, HTX-285C and HTX-285E (2, 3 and 4 respectively). PMID:23051904

  20. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    [HIV-1] and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection. PMID:26491161

  1. Naturally occurring asbestos in eastern Australia: a review of geological occurrence, disturbance and mesothelioma risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Potential asbestos-bearing rocks account for about 0.2% of the land area of eastern Australia. The main mode of occurrence is as narrow cross fibre and slip fibre veins of chrysotile asbestos in serpentinised ophiolite complexes along the boundaries of major tectonic domains. Smaller deposits of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos occur in metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks associated with the Macquarie Volcanic Arc in New South Wales. Amphibole asbestos is also known from Proterozoic and Palaeozoic amphibolite and from Devonian basalt. Natural asbestos-bearing materials in eastern Australia have been disturbed by mining, road construction, agriculture and forestry, urban development and through natural weathering processes. Persons most at risk of potential exposure to asbestos from natural sources include: farmers who work or live in areas where asbestos-bearing materials may be routinely disturbed by agricultural activities; construction workers involved in large-scale earthwork projects in areas underlain by asbestos-bearing rocks; and quarry workers who unwittingly disturb asbestos-bearing materials. Government authorities and private enterprise need to take geological factors into account to reduce the likelihood of unplanned disturbance of natural asbestos-bearing materials.

  2. Molecular- and nm-scale Investigation of the Structure and Compositional Heterogeneity of Naturally Occurring Ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismasu, C.; Michel, F. M.; Stebbins, J. F.; Tcaciuc, A. P.; Brown, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    Ferrihydrite is a hydrated Fe(III) nano-oxide that forms in vast quantities in contaminated acid mine drainage environments. As a result of its high surface area, ferrihydrite is an important environmental sorbent, and plays an essential role in the geochemical cycling of pollutant metal(loid)s in these settings. Despite its environmental relevance, this nanomineral remains one of the least understood environmental solids in terms of its structure (bulk and surface), compositional variations, and the factors affecting its reactivity. Under natural aqueous conditions, ferrihydrite often precipitates in the presence of several inorganic compounds such as aluminum, silica, arsenic, etc., or in the presence of organic matter. These impurities can affect the molecular-level structure of naturally occurring ferrihydrite, thus modifying fundamental properties that are directly correlated with solid-phase stability and surface reactivity. Currently there exists a significant gap in our understanding of the structure of synthetic vs. natural ferrihydrites, due to the inherent difficulties associated to the investigation of these poorly crystalline nanophases. In this study, we combined synchrotron- and laboratory-based techniques to characterize naturally occurring ferrihydrite from an acid mine drainage system situated at the New Idria mercury mine in California. We used high-energy X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis to elucidate quantitative structural details of these samples. We have additionally used scanning transmission X-ray microscopy high resolution imaging (30 nm) to evaluate the spatial relationship of major elements Si, Al, and C within ferrihydrite. Al, Si and C K-edge near- edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to obtain short-range structural information. By combining these techniques we attain the highest level of resolution permitted by current analytical

  3. AAV-Mediated Cone Rescue in a Naturally Occurring Mouse Model of CNGA3-Achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L.; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A.; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

  4. Naturally occurring H-DNA-forming sequences are mutagenic in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring DNA sequences can form noncanonical structures such as H-DNA, which are abundant and regulate the expression of several disease-linked genes. Here, we show that H-DNA-forming sequences are intrinsically mutagenic in mammalian cells. This finding suggests that DNA is a causative factor in mutagenesis and not just the end product. By using the endogenous H-DNA-forming sequence found in the human c-myc promoter, mutation frequencies in a reporter gene were increased ≈20-fold over background in COS-7 cells. H-DNA-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) were detected near the H-DNA locus. The structures of the mutants revealed microhomologies at the breakpoints, consistent with a nonhomologous end-joining repair of the DSBs. These results implicate H-DNA-induced DSBs in c-myc gene translocations in diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma and t(12;15) BALB/c plasmacytomas, where most breakpoints are found near the H-DNA-forming site. Thus, our findings suggest that H-DNA is a source of genetic instability resulting from DSBs and demonstrate that naturally occurring DNA sequences are mutagenic in mammals, perhaps contributing to genetic evolution and disease. PMID:15342911

  5. Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores. [Viking spacecraft dry heat decontamination simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puleo, J. R.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Peeler, J. T.; Oxborrow, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5- and 15-h cycles at 125 C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 0.001 to 0.0001) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

  6. Human prostacyclin receptor structure and function from naturally-occurring and synthetic mutations.

    PubMed

    Stitham, Jeremiah; Arehart, Eric J; Gleim, Scott R; Douville, Karen L; Hwa, John

    2007-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is released by vascular endothelial cells and serves as a potent vasodilator, inhibitor of platelet aggregation (anti-thrombotic), and moderator of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation-migration-differentiation (anti-atherosclerotic). These actions are mediated via a seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), known as the human prostacyclin receptor or hIP. Animal studies using prostacyclin receptor knock-out (IP-/-) mice have revealed increased propensities towards thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis, restenosis, as well as reperfusion injury. Of further importance has been the world-wide withdrawal of selective COX-2 inhibitors, due to their discriminating suppression of COX-2-derived PGI2 and its cardioprotective effects, leading to increased cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and thrombotic stroke. Over the last decade, mutagenesis studies of the IP receptor, in conjunction with in vitro functional assays and molecular modeling, have provided critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of both agonist binding and receptor activation. Most recently, the discovery of naturally-occurring and dysfunctional mutations within the hIP has provided additional insights into the proposed cardioprotective role of prostacyclin. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent findings regarding hIP receptor structure-function that have developed through the study of both synthetic and naturally-occurring mutations. PMID:17164137

  7. Naturally occurring human urinary peptides for use in diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Good, David M; Zürbig, Petra; Argilés, Angel; Bauer, Hartwig W; Behrens, Georg; Coon, Joshua J; Dakna, Mohammed; Decramer, Stéphane; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F; Ehrich, Jochen H H; Eitner, Frank; Fliser, Danilo; Frommberger, Moritz; Ganser, Arnold; Girolami, Mark A; Golovko, Igor; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haubitz, Marion; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Jankowski, Joachim; Jahn, Holger; Jerums, George; Julian, Bruce A; Kellmann, Markus; Kliem, Volker; Kolch, Walter; Krolewski, Andrzej S; Luppi, Mario; Massy, Ziad; Melter, Michael; Neusüss, Christian; Novak, Jan; Peter, Karlheinz; Rossing, Kasper; Rupprecht, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P; Schiffer, Eric; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Tarnow, Lise; Theodorescu, Dan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Vanholder, Raymond; Weissinger, Eva M; Mischak, Harald; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Because of its availability, ease of collection, and correlation with physiology and pathology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics/peptidomics. However, the lack of comparable data sets from large cohorts has greatly hindered the development of clinical proteomics. Here, we report the establishment of a reproducible, high resolution method for peptidome analysis of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins, ranging from 800 to 17,000 Da, using samples from 3,600 individuals analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS. All processed data were deposited in an Structured Query Language (SQL) database. This database currently contains 5,010 relevant unique urinary peptides that serve as a pool of potential classifiers for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. As an example, by using this source of information, we were able to define urinary peptide biomarkers for chronic kidney diseases, allowing diagnosis of these diseases with high accuracy. Application of the chronic kidney disease-specific biomarker set to an independent test cohort in the subsequent replication phase resulted in 85.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results indicate the potential usefulness of capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS for clinical applications in the analysis of naturally occurring urinary peptides. PMID:20616184

  8. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained by NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.

  9. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility`s operations will also be presented.

  10. Drosophila TRPA1 channel is required to avoid the naturally occurring insect repellent citronellal

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ronderos, David S.; Lee, Youngseok; Akitake, Bradley; Woodward, Owen M.; Guggino, William B.; Smith, Dean P.; Montell, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Summary Plants produce naturally occurring insect repellents, such as citronellal, which is the main component of citronellal oil and is among the most widely-used-naturally-occurring insect repellents. However, the molecular pathways through which insects sense botanical repellents are unknown. Here, we showed that Drosophila used two pathways for direct avoidance of citronellal. The olfactory co-receptor, Or83b, which is required for the response to the synthetic repellent DEET, contributed to citronellal repulsion, and was essential for citronellal-evoked action potentials. Mutations affecting the Ca2+-permeable cation channel, TRPA1 resulted in a comparable defect in avoiding citronellal vapor. The TRPA1-dependent aversion to citronellal relied on a G protein/phospholipase C (PLC) signaling cascade, rather than direct detection of citronellal by TRPA1. Loss of TRPA1, Gq or PLC caused an increase in the frequency of citronellal-evoked action potentials in olfactory receptor neurons. Absence of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel, Slowpoke, resulted in a similar impairment in citronellal avoidance, and an increase in the frequency of action potentials. These results suggest that TRPA1 is required for activation of a BK channel to modulate citronellal-evoked action potentials, and for aversion to citronellal. In contrast to Drosophila TRPA1, Anopheles gambiae TRPA1 was directly and potently activated by citronellal, thereby raising the possibility that mosquito TRPA1 may be a target for developing improved repellents to reduce insect-borne diseases such as malaria. PMID:20797863

  11. Naturally Occurring Human Urinary Peptides for Use in Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Good, David M.; Zürbig, Petra; Argilés, Àngel; Bauer, Hartwig W.; Behrens, Georg; Coon, Joshua J.; Dakna, Mohammed; Decramer, Stéphane; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Ehrich, Jochen H. H.; Eitner, Frank; Fliser, Danilo; Frommberger, Moritz; Ganser, Arnold; Girolami, Mark A.; Golovko, Igor; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haubitz, Marion; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Jankowski, Joachim; Jahn, Holger; Jerums, George; Julian, Bruce A.; Kellmann, Markus; Kliem, Volker; Kolch, Walter; Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Luppi, Mario; Massy, Ziad; Melter, Michael; Neusüss, Christian; Novak, Jan; Peter, Karlheinz; Rossing, Kasper; Rupprecht, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P.; Schiffer, Eric; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Tarnow, Lise; Theodorescu, Dan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Vanholder, Raymond; Weissinger, Eva M.; Mischak, Harald; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Because of its availability, ease of collection, and correlation with physiology and pathology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics/peptidomics. However, the lack of comparable data sets from large cohorts has greatly hindered the development of clinical proteomics. Here, we report the establishment of a reproducible, high resolution method for peptidome analysis of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins, ranging from 800 to 17,000 Da, using samples from 3,600 individuals analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS. All processed data were deposited in an Structured Query Language (SQL) database. This database currently contains 5,010 relevant unique urinary peptides that serve as a pool of potential classifiers for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. As an example, by using this source of information, we were able to define urinary peptide biomarkers for chronic kidney diseases, allowing diagnosis of these diseases with high accuracy. Application of the chronic kidney disease-specific biomarker set to an independent test cohort in the subsequent replication phase resulted in 85.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results indicate the potential usefulness of capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS for clinical applications in the analysis of naturally occurring urinary peptides. PMID:20616184

  12. Monitoring Natural Occurring Asbestos in ophiolite sequences and derived soils: implication with human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Bloise, Andrea; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on soils that developed on serpentinite-metabasite bedrocks, which could potentially be rich in asbestos minerals and, as a consequence, have a negative impact on agricultural activity and on environmental quality. In order to investigate the natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) on the surface of the soil formed from serpentinites and metabasite, we selected a study area located in Sila Piccola (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy), where previous studies highlighted the presence of asbestiform minerals within the large ophiolitic sequences that crop out (Punturo et al., 2015; Bloise et al., 2015). Agricultural soil samples have been collected mainly close to urban centres and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (TEM-EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Results pointed out as all the collected soil samples contain serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile), asbestos amphiboles, clays, chlorite, muscovite, plagioclase and iron oxides in various amounts. Electron microscope images of the soils show that their contain a variety of aggregating agents such as organic matter and clay in which individual fibres of chrysotile and tremolite-actinolite are trapped. The investigation showed that both serpentinite and metabasite rocks act as a perennial source of contamination for the agriculture lands because of the high amount of tremolite-actinolite found in the studied soil samples developed on such lithotypes. Even if asbestiform minerals usually occur in aggregates which cannot be suspended in the air, agricultural activities such as plowing can destroy these soil aggregates with the creation of dust containing inhalable asbestos fibres that evolve into airborne increasing the exposure of population to them. Since the dispersion of fibres could be associated with

  13. Laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong‐Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon‐Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single‐electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low‐molecular‐weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase‐involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase‐catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono‐ or poly‐phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical‐mediated coupling or cross‐linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical‐scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase‐associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase

  14. Laccase-catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-05-01

    Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low-molecular-weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase-catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase-involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase-catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono- or poly-phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical-mediated coupling or cross-linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical-scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase-associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase-catalysed biosynthetic pathways and associated

  15. Reactive Neurogenesis in Response to Naturally Occurring Apoptosis in an Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Tracy A.; Thatra, Nivretta M.; Lee, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal birth and death are tightly coordinated to establish and maintain properly functioning neural circuits. Disruption of the equilibrium between neuronal birth and death following brain injury or pharmacological insult often induces reactive, and in some cases regenerative, neurogenesis. Many neurodegenerative disorders are not injury-induced, however, so it is critical to determine if and how reactive neurogenesis occurs under noninjury-induced neurodegenerative conditions. Here, we used a model of naturally occurring neural degradation in a neural circuit that controls song behavior in Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and examined the temporal dynamics between neuronal birth and death. We found that during seasonal-like regression of the song, control nucleus HVC (proper name), caspase-mediated apoptosis increased within 2 d following transition from breeding to nonbreeding conditions and neural stem-cell proliferation in the nearby ventricular zone (VZ) increased shortly thereafter. We show that inhibiting caspase-mediated apoptosis in HVC decreased neural stem-cell proliferation in the VZ. In baseline conditions the extent of neural stem-cell proliferation correlated positively with the number of dying cells in HVC. We demonstrate that as apoptosis increased and the number of both recently born and pre-existing neurons in HVC decreased, the structure of song, a learned sensorimotor behavior, degraded. Our data illustrate that reactive neurogenesis is not limited to injury-induced neuronal death, but also can result from normally occurring degradation of a telencephalic neural circuit. PMID:25253853

  16. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city. PMID:26919836

  17. Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

    2013-06-01

    The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium. PMID:23519083

  18. Automatic NMR-based identification of chemical reaction types in mixtures of co-occurring reactions.

    PubMed

    Latino, Diogo A R S; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the (1)H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants) and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the (1)H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps) produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF), the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure elucidation of

  19. Automatic NMR-Based Identification of Chemical Reaction Types in Mixtures of Co-Occurring Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Latino, Diogo A. R. S.; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the 1H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants) and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the 1H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps) produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF), the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure elucidation of the

  20. Bioavailability of metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in naturally occurring vegetation: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Nandhini, S

    2006-05-01

    A pilot scale study was conducted to find out the different forms of metals if fly ash (FA) and bioaccumulation of these metals in the naturally growing vegetation on FA dumps. The total, acid extractable, bioavailable and water soluble fraction of metals of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and Pb, and their bioaccumulation coefficients (BAC) on naturally growing vegetation were determined. FA samples had a neutral pH, low electrical conductivity, low organic C and trace amounts of N and P. The relative abundance of total metals in FA were found in the order Fe >Mn >Zn >Ni >Co>Cu. The concentration of bioavailable (DTPA) metals depend on the type and nature of coal used in thermal power stations. In the water the extract solution, only Fe and Zn were found above detection limits. After one year only four species of naturally occurring herbaceous vegetation were found growing and Cynodon dactylon (grass) covered almost entire surface of the FA. Iron accumulated to the greatest extent in vegetation followed by Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Co. The sequence of BAC for different metals were Fe (202)>Mn(90)>Zn (63)>Pb(49)>Ni(41)>Cu(24). The experimental study revealed that Cynodon grass could be used for remediation of fly ash without any amendments, as this grass species act as metal excluder type. PMID:16779594

  1. Beneficial Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Naturally Occurring Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E.; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X107 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  2. Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X10(7) autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05) although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved) histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003) and crimp pattern (p<0.05), lower cellularity (p<0.007), DNA content (p<0.05), vascularity (p<0.03), water content (p<0.05), GAG content (p<0.05), and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02). Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair in

  3. The effect of various naturally occurring metal-binding compounds on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.C.; McCafferty, E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are of considerable interest as possible corrosion inhibitors because of increased attention on the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. A hydroxamate yeast siderophore (rhodotorulic acid), a catecholate bacterial siderophore (parabactin), an adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and two metal-binding compounds isolated from the tomato and sunflower roots, namely, chlorogenic and caffeic acid, respectively, were adsorbed from solution onto pure aluminum (99.9995%) and their effect on the critical pitting potential and polarization resistance in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl was measured. These measurements were made using anodic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. The catechol-containing siderophore has an inhibitive effect on the critical pitting potential of aluminum in 0.1 M NaCl and increases the polarization resistance of the metal over time. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel is also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  4. The corrosion inhibition of iron and aluminum by various naturally occurring biological molecules

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, E.; Hansen, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Biological polymers that exhibit a strong affinity for metal surfaces are increasingly becoming the focus of research toward the development of environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. This paper deals with the use of various naturally occurring organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors for iron or aluminum. Among the organic molecules considered are catecholate and hydroxamate siderophores isolated from bacteria, the adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. FTIR analysis, anodic polarization curves, and AC impedance measurements were used to determine the adsorption and effectiveness of the various organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors. Parabactin, a catecholate siderophore, was effective in inhibiting both the corrosion of iron in hydrochloric acid and the pitting of aluminum in 0.1 M sodium chloride. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel was also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  5. Partitioning of naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) in Marcellus Shale produced fluids influenced by chemical matrix.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew W; Johns, Adam J; Eitrheim, Eric S; Knight, Andrew W; Basile, Madeline; Bettis, E Arthur; Schultz, Michael K; Forbes, Tori Z

    2016-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) associated with unconventional drilling produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale have raised environmental concerns. However, few investigations into the fundamental chemistry of NORM in Marcellus Shale produced fluids have been performed. Thus, we performed radiochemical experiments with Marcellus Shale produced fluids to understand the partitioning behavior of major radioelements of environmental health concern (uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), lead (Pb), and polonium (Po)). We applied a novel radiotracer, (203)Pb, to understand the behavior of trace-levels of (210)Pb in these fluids. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated U, Th, and Po are particle reactive in Marcellus Shale produced fluids and Ra and Pb are soluble. Sediment partitioning experiments revealed that >99% of Ra does not adsorb to sediments in the presence of Marcellus Shale produced fluids. Further experiments indicated that although Ra adsorption is related to ionic strength, the concentrations of heavier alkaline earth metals (Ba, Sr) are stronger predictors of Ra solubility. PMID:26952871

  6. Biomimetic Nitration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Formation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Conjugated Nitrodienes

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitro-conjugated linoleic acids (NO2-cLA), endogenous nitrodiene lipids which act as inflammatory signaling mediators, were isolated and single isomers purified from the biomimetic acidic nitration products of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Structures were elucidated by means of detailed NMR and HPLC–MS/MS spectroscopic analysis and the relative double bond configurations assigned. Additional synthetic methods produced useful quantities and similar isomeric distributions of these unusual and reactive compounds for biological studies and isotopic standards, and the potential conversion of nitro-linoleic to nitro-conjugated linoleic acids was explored via a facile base-catalyzed isomerization. This represents one of the few descriptions of naturally occurring conjugated nitro dienes (in particular, 1-nitro 1,3-diene), an unusual and highly reactive motif with few biological examples extant. PMID:24350701

  7. Some Nutritional Characteristics of a Naturally Occurring Alga (Microcystis sp.) in a Guatemalan Lake

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Flores, Antonio; Molina, Mario R.; Almengor, Leticia; Bressani, Ricardo

    1977-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of an alga (Microcystis sp.) that occurs naturally in a Guatemalan lake were determined. The sun-dried material proved to have a high protein content (55.6%) and to be a possible good source of calcium and phosphorus (1, 169.1 and 633.4 mg/100 mg, respectively). Amino acid analysis showed that total sulfur amino acids were the most deficient ones, giving a protein score of 42 to the material. The in vitro protein digestibility of the material was 69.5%. Biological trials demonstrated that when the material was offered as the only protein source, very low consumption and a high mortality rate were obtained whether or not the diet was supplemented with 0.4% dl-methionine. However, when the material supplied 25% of the total protein of a corn-algae diet, the protein quality of the cereal was significantly improved (P < 0.05). PMID:16345191

  8. Behavioral responses of western corn rootworm larvae to naturally occurring and synthetic hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Arnason, J T; Philogéne, B J; Atkinson, J; Morand, P

    1992-07-01

    Hydroxamic acids have been shown to be toxic to many pest insects and pathogens. In this study, the behavioral responses of western corn rootworm larvae to naturally occurring and synthetic hydroxamic acids were investigated. In a choice test between corn roots treated with hydroxamic acids and roots treated with distilled water (control), western corn rootworm larvae chose to burrow into the control roots significantly more often than compoundtreated roots. In addition, when corn roots were treated with different hydroxamic acids in a designed searching-behavior test, neonate larvae of western corn rootworm responded by significantly reducing the number of turns, while the area searched and locomotor rate significantly increased. The responses were dependent on the concentrations of the test compounds. These results suggested that hydroxamic acids were acting as behavior-modifying and possibly feeding-deterrent chemicals. PMID:24254140

  9. Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised exclusively of naturally occurring antimicrobials and EDTA: antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-05-12

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways. PMID:24702678

  10. Alertness and clear thinking as characteristics of high naturally occurring autonomic nervous system arousal.

    PubMed

    Schubert, D S

    1977-10-01

    Studies of the effect of induced mood on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) suggested that naturally occurring mood might also covary with the ANS. Ss were 13 men and women aged 20 to 70. Fatigue, confusion, and depression were measured on the Profile of Mood States, while barometric pressure and the ANS indices of heart rate and body temperature were also recorded. Fatigue and confusion each showed negative relationships to both heart rate and body temperature. Barometric pressure showed a suggestively positive relationship to the mood of depression. Hypothalamic serotonin concentration was suggested as a central factor producing the covariations between the mood indices (alertness and clear thinking) and the ANS measures. PMID:21943

  11. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans; , Carl B.

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  12. El Dorado Air Quality Management District's Approach to Dealing With Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in El Dorado County made headlines with the discovery significant amounts of tremolite/actinolite asbestos in areas where residents had built, or were in the process of building, homes and residences. The El Dorado Air Quality Management District has been involved in all aspects of dealing with NOA from the very beginning of its discovery, from overseeing the rehabilitation of school sites to expanding and rewriting fugitive dust rules at construction sites. A discussion of best management practices which have been developed will be given, as well as how the El Dorado Air Quality Management District has worked to educate members of the public, as well as workers in the field, about NOA to aid in maintaining the health and safety of the public.

  13. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis. PMID:21425681

  14. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained bymore » NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.« less

  15. Differential susceptibility to colorectal cancer due to naturally occurring gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Aaron C.; Akter, Sadia; Hanson, Marina M.; Busi, Susheel B.; Parker, Taybor W.; Schehr, Rebecca J.; Hankins, Miriam A.; Ahner, Carin E.; Davis, Justin W.; Franklin, Craig L.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating the human microbiome have identified particular bacterial species that correlate with the presence of colorectal cancer. To evaluate the role of qualitatively different but naturally occurring gut microbiota and the relationship with colorectal cancer development, genetically identical embryos from the Polyposis in Rat Colon (Pirc) rat model of colorectal cancer were transferred into recipients of three different genetic backgrounds (F344/NHsd, LEW/SsNHsd, and Crl:SD). Tumor development in the pups was tracked longitudinally via colonoscopy, and end-stage tumor burden was determined. To confirm vertical transmission and identify associations between the gut microbiota and disease phenotype, the fecal microbiota was characterized in recipient dams 24 hours pre-partum, and in Pirc rat offspring prior to and during disease progression. Our data show that the gut microbiota varies between rat strains, with LEW/SsNHsd having a greater relative abundance of the bacteria Prevotella copri. The mature gut microbiota of pups resembled the profile of their dams, indicating that the dam is the primary determinant of the developing microbiota. Both male and female F344-Pirc rats harboring the Lewis microbiota had decreased tumor burden relative to genetically identical rats harboring F344 or SD microbiota. Significant negative correlations were detected between tumor burden and the relative abundance of specific taxa from samples taken at weaning and shortly thereafter, prior to observable adenoma development. Notably, this naturally occurring variation in the gut microbiota is associated with a significant difference in severity of colorectal cancer, and the abundance of certain taxa is associated with decreased tumor burden. PMID:26378041

  16. Naturally-occurring antisperm antibodies in men: interference with fertility and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, F; Romano, R; Santucci, R; La Verghetta, G; D'Abrizio, P; Francavilla, S

    1999-02-01

    Naturally-occurring antisperm antibodies in men are a relative cause of infertility, being the fertility impairment related with the degree of sperm autoimmunization. The impairment of sperm penetration through the cervical mucus represents the best established mechanism of the antibody interference with fertility. Another mechanism may involve complement-mediated sperm injury and opsonizing effect through the female genital tract. Finally, sperm-bound antibodies can interfere with sperm functions involved in the fertilization process, mainly in the sperm-zona pellucida interaction. While some mechanisms of the antibody-interference with fertility depend only on the degree of sperm autoimmunization (e.g., inhibition of cervical mucus penetration), other mechanisms (e.g., interference with gametes interaction) could or could not occur depending on the relevance in the fertilization process of the specific antigen(s) recognized by antisperm antibodies, which are policlonal in nature. Intrauterine insemination is an effective treatment when sperm autoimmunization is low or moderate, mainly if combined with corticosteroid treatment and superovulated cycles. On the contrary, its effectiveness in cases of high degree of sperm autoimmunization is controversial. The resort to "high tech" procedures is mandatory when other less invasive approaches have failed or they may also be chosen as a first-choice method in cases of high degree of sperm autoimmunization. Since in most reports the fertilization rate with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) was significantly lower in the presence of sperm-bound antibodies than in the case of other indications, the likelihood of fertilization is higher with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI), where the reported fertilization rates are similar to those in other indications, or even higher. PMID:9924142

  17. Naturally-Occurring Marine Brominated Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “brominated indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051

  18. The effect of inoculum volume on the microbiologic detection of naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer B; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; DeGraves, Fred J

    2010-09-01

    Currently no standard definitions for the diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection (IMI) exist. As a result, criteria applied in research to diagnose S. aureus IMIs have varied making comparisons between published works difficult. The goal of the current study was to define the optimal inoculum volume used in the diagnosis of naturally occurring S. aureus IMIs. Microbiologic results from 2 field studies examining S. aureus IMIs were used to examine the effects of inoculum volume on the microbiologic detection of S. aureus. A total of 1,583 milk samples were included in the analysis, and the results of using a 0.01-ml and a 0.1-ml inoculum are presented. Using a 0.01-ml inoculum resulted in a sensitivity of 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.6-93%) and a specificity of 99.4% (95% CI: 98.6-99.8%). Using the larger 0.1-ml inoculum resulted in a sensitivity of 96.8% (95% CI: 95.2-97.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95% CI: 98.4-99.7%). All false-positive samples were from S. aureus-negative quarters in S. aureus-positive cows. There were no false-positive cultures from S. aureus-negative cows. Of the false-negative samples, the majority (77%) were from 6 of the 34 S. aureus-positive quarters. Results from the current study of naturally occurring S. aureus IMIs support the hypothesis that, when using quarter level milk samples, a S. aureus IMI is most accurately diagnosed using a 0.1-ml inoculum. Regardless of inoculum volume, a single quarter sample culture that is positive with S. aureus (>or=1 colony-forming unit) is sufficient to diagnose a S. aureus IMI. PMID:20807927

  19. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  20. Characterization of contaminant transport using naturally-occurring U-series disequilibria. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, M.; Ku, T.L.

    1998-06-01

    'The goal of the research is to study the migratory behavior of contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium- and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Naturally occurring U- and Th-series disequilibria can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. The authors are developing a realistic model of contaminant migration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer beneath the INEEL by evaluating the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to: (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in rock minerals and sorbed phases, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibria and a statistical analysis-based model code for the calculation of in-situ retardation factors of radionuclides and rock/water interaction time scales. This study will also provide an improved understanding of the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of contaminants. This report summarizes results after 20 months of a 36-month project. Studies performed at LANL include analysis of the long-lived nuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 231}Pa by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Studies performed at the Univ. of Southern California include the measurement of short-lived naturally occurring radionuclides by decay-counting techniques and the development of models to predict the migration behavior of these radionuclides. Initial efforts began with analysis of 31, 0.5L water samples obtained through routine sampling by USGS and INEEL personnel. One significant observation from these data is that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are highest in waters that emanate from local recharge

  1. A Naturally Occurring Single Amino Acid Replacement in Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Increases Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E.; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C.; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M.; Olsen, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype–patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  2. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  3. Naturally Occurring Mutations in the MPS1 Gene Predispose Cells to Kinase Inhibitor Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Gurden, Mark D; Westwood, Isaac M; Faisal, Amir; Naud, Sébastien; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; McAndrew, Craig; Wood, Amy; Schmitt, Jessica; Boxall, Kathy; Mak, Grace; Workman, Paul; Burke, Rosemary; Hoelder, Swen; Blagg, Julian; Van Montfort, Rob L M; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-08-15

    Acquired resistance to therapy is perhaps the greatest challenge to effective clinical management of cancer. With several inhibitors of the mitotic checkpoint kinase MPS1 in preclinical development, we sought to investigate how resistance against these inhibitors may arise so that mitigation or bypass strategies could be addressed as early as possible. Toward this end, we modeled acquired resistance to the MPS1 inhibitors AZ3146, NMS-P715, and CCT251455, identifying five point mutations in the kinase domain of MPS1 that confer resistance against multiple inhibitors. Structural studies showed how the MPS1 mutants conferred resistance by causing steric hindrance to inhibitor binding. Notably, we show that these mutations occur in nontreated cancer cell lines and primary tumor specimens, and that they also preexist in normal lymphoblast and breast tissues. In a parallel piece of work, we also show that the EGFR p.T790M mutation, the most common mutation conferring resistance to the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib, also preexists in cancer cells and normal tissue. Our results therefore suggest that mutations conferring resistance to targeted therapy occur naturally in normal and malignant cells and these mutations do not arise as a result of the increased mutagenic plasticity of cancer cells. PMID:26202014

  4. A Naturally Occurring Bovine Tauopathy Is Geographically Widespread in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Martin; Piccardo, Pedro; Ritchie, Diane L.; Ironside, James W.; Green, Alison J. E.; McGovern, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Many human neurodegenerative diseases are associated with hyperphosphorylation and widespread intra-neuronal and glial associated aggregation of the microtubule associated protein tau. In contrast, animal tauopathies are not reported with only senescent animals showing inconspicuous tau labelling of fine processes albeit significant tau aggregation may occur in some experimental animal disease. Since 1986, an idiopathic neurological condition of adult cattle has been recognised in the UK as a sub-set of cattle slaughtered as suspect bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. This disorder is characterised by brainstem neuronal chromatolysis and degeneration with variable hippocampal sclerosis and spongiform change. Selected cases of idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis (IBNC) were identified from archive material and characterised using antibodies specific to several tau hyperphosphorylation sites or different isoforms of the tau microtubule binding region. Labelling was also carried out for alpha synuclein, ubiquitin, TDP43, Aβ1–42, Aβ1–40. Widespread tau labelling was identified in all IBNC brains examined and with each of seven tau antibodies recognising different hyperphosphorylated sites. Labelling with each antibody was associated with dendrites, neuronal perikarya and glia. Thus IBNC is a sporadic, progressive neurological disease predominantly affecting aged cattle that occurs throughout the UK and is associated with hyperphosphorylation of tau, a rare example of a naturally-occurring tauopathy in a non-primate species. Secondary accumulation of alpha synuclein and ubiquitin was also present. The neuropathology does not precisely correspond with any human tauopathy. The cause of IBNC remains undetermined but environmental factors and exposure to agrochemicals needs to be considered in future aetiological investigations. PMID:26091261

  5. Controls on chemistry and diagenesis of naturally occurring iron-oxide phases

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy W. Hinman; J. Michelle Kotler; Beizhan Yan; Aaron Tenesch; Richard V. Morris; Daphne L. Stoner; Jill R. Scott

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to (i) document chemical and mineralogical compositions in two naturally acidic drainages over a 1 m soil profile, (ii) document organic and inorganic signatures representative of past chemical or biological processes in the soils, and (iii) determine whether mineralogical and chemical differences are a consequence of differences in original composition, depositional conditions, or diagenesis. Two sites were studied: Paymaster Creek in the Heddleston Mining District near Lincoln, Montana and the New World Mining District near Cooke City, Montana. The oldest deposits at both naturally acidic sites pre-date human mining activity by several thousand years, although there is recent human activity at both sites. Both sites have streams with high dissolved Fe and moderately low pH and actively accumulate schwertmannite on streambeds. Soil deposits away from the streambed at Paymaster Creek contained goethite with adsorbed sulfate, but no schwertmannite, suggesting either that the original conditions precluded schwertmannite precipitation or that diagenesis occurred rapidly converting the schwertmannite to goethite. The New World Mining District site showed the expected profile, which is a gradual transition from schwertmannite- and goethite-bearing soils to goethite-only soils. Concentrations of Cr, As and other trace elements shown to retard diagenesis were higher at the New World site than at the Paymaster site.

  6. Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2014-07-01

    Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild. PMID:24582737

  7. In silico prediction of the cosmetic whitening effects of naturally occurring lead compounds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Pedro; Tong, Henry H Y

    2012-10-01

    The identification of tyrosinase inhibitors is important, not only for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders, such as melasma, but also for the production of cosmetic whitening effects. The aim of this study was the in silico prediction of the naturally occurring lead compounds in three commonly used skin-whitening herbs: Ampelopsis japonica, Lindera aggregata, and Ginkgo biloba. The active ingredients responsible for the whitening effect of these herbs remain largely unknown. The tyrosinase binding affinities and skin permeation, skin irritancy, and corrosive properties of43 natural constituents of the three herbs were predicted by docking simulations using Surflex-Dock and the QSAR-based Dermal Permeability Coefficient Program (DERMWIN) and Skin Irritation Corrosion Rules Estimation Tool (SICRET) implemented in Toxtree. Nine constituents of the three herbs were found to have more advanced binding energies than the gold standard whitening agents, arbutin and kojic acid, but 40 were indicative of at least one skin sensitization alert, and many exhibited poor skin permeability. Linderagalactone c and (+)-n-methyllaurotetanine were found to have the strongest prospects for use in topical formulations, as they achieved high predicted tyrosinase binding scores and displayed good skin permeation properties and minimal potential for skin sensitization and irritation. PMID:23156992

  8. Acoustic surface perception from naturally occurring step sounds of a dexterous hexapod robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneyitoglu Ozkul, Mine; Saranli, Afsar; Yazicioglu, Yigit

    2013-10-01

    Legged robots that exhibit dynamic dexterity naturally interact with the surface to generate complex acoustic signals carrying rich information on the surface as well as the robot platform itself. However, the nature of a legged robot, which is a complex, hybrid dynamic system, renders the more common approach of model-based system identification impractical. The present paper focuses on acoustic surface identification and proposes a non-model-based analysis and classification approach adopted from the speech processing literature. A novel feature set composed of spectral band energies augmented by their vector time derivatives and time-domain averaged zero crossing rate is proposed. Using a multi-dimensional vector classifier, these features carry enough information to accurately classify a range of commonly occurring indoor and outdoor surfaces without using of any mechanical system model. A comparative experimental study is carried out and classification performance and computational complexity are characterized. Different feature combinations, classifiers and changes in critical design parameters are investigated. A realistic and representative acoustic data set is collected with the robot moving at different speeds on a number of surfaces. The study demonstrates promising performance of this non-model-based approach, even in an acoustically uncontrolled environment. The approach also has good chance of performing in real-time.

  9. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences.

    PubMed

    Kendall, G M; Wakeford, R; Athanson, M; Vincent, T J; Carter, E J; McColl, N P; Little, M P

    2016-03-01

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matérn correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matérn model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matérn model. PMID:26880257

  10. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash. PMID:24813148

  11. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous

  12. Floral visitation and reproductive traits of Stamenoid petals, a naturally occurring floral homeotic variant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Ziermann, Janine; Ritz, Markus S; Hameister, Steffen; Abel, Christian; Hoffmann, Matthias H; Neuffer, Barbara; Theissen, Günter

    2009-11-01

    Homeotic changes played a considerable role during the evolution of flowers, but how floral homeotic mutants initially survive in nature has remained enigmatic. To better understand the evolutionary potential of floral homeotic mutants, we established as a model system Stamenoid petals (Spe), a natural variant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae). In the flowers of Spe plants, petals are transformed into stamens, whereas all other floral organs are unaffected. In contrast with most other homeotic mutants, the Spe variant occurs in relatively stable populations in the wild. In order to determine how the profound change in floral architecture influences plant performance in the wild, we performed common garden experiments running over 3 years. Here, we show that Spe and wild-type plants attract the same assemblage of floral visitors: mainly hoverflies, wild bees and thrips. However, floral visitation is about twice as frequent in wild-type plants as in Spe plants. Nevertheless, the numbers of seeds per fruit were about the same in both variants. Wild-type plants produced more flowers, fruits and seeds per plant than Spe plants, whereas the germination capacity of Spe seeds was higher than that of the wild-type. Determination of volatile composition revealed monoterpenes and 3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde, which were detected only in wild-type flowers, presumably because they are produced only by petals. Our data indicate that the similar fitness of Spe and wild-type C. bursa-pastoris in the field results from complex compensation between plant architecture and germination capacity. In contrast, flower structure and floral visitation are only of minor importance, possibly because C. bursa-pastoris is mainly self-pollinating. PMID:19784670

  13. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masao; Hata, Junya; Akaihata, Hidenori; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis using a resected sample demonstrated that the present case belonged to the cluster group of RCC. PMID:26793589

  14. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masao; Hata, Junya; Akaihata, Hidenori; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis using a resected sample demonstrated that the present case belonged to the cluster group of RCC. PMID:26793589

  15. Potential health risk in areas with high naturally-occurring cadmium background in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhang; Xiao, Tangfu; Baveye, Philippe C; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Li, Huajun

    2015-02-01

    In various parts of the world, high cadmium (Cd) concentrations in environment are not related to anthropogenic contamination but have natural origins. Less is known about health risks that arise under these conditions. This study aimed to discuss the pollution of Cd with natural sources, and to investigate the concentration of Cd in food crops and the urine of inhabitants in an area of southwestern China. The results showed that the arable soils are moderately contaminated by Cd (I(geo)=1.51) relative to the local background, with a high ecological risk (Er=218). The chemical fractions of Cd in soils with natural sources are probably controlled by parent materials and mostly in residual phase. The average Cd concentrations were 0.68 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) in local vegetables, 0.04 mg kg(-1) in rice, and 0.14 μg L(-1) in water. Leafy vegetable tends to accumulate more Cd than the other crops. The calculated Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) had a much higher value (4.33) for Cd, suggesting that Cd represents a significant potential risk to the local population. The urinary Cd concentrations (mean at 3.92 μg L(-1) for male and 4.85 μg L(-1) for female) of inhabitants in the study area were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from the control area (mean at 0.8 μg L(-1) for male and 0.42 μg L(-1) for female). Male and female test subjects had similar urinary Cd levels (p>0.05), but age seemed to lead to an increase in Cd in the urine. These findings show that naturally-occurring Cd in local soils is taken up appreciably by local food crops, and that dietary exposure of Cd through vegetable ingestion is a major exposure pathway for local populations, and a potential risk to public health in the study area. PMID:25463862

  16. Naturally occurring tyrosinase inhibitors: mechanism and applications in skin health, cosmetics and agriculture industries.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Shoukat; Kang, Moonkyu; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2007-09-01

    Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants and is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products. The inadequacy of current conventional methods to prevent tyrosinase action encourages researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for food and cosmetics. This article presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, biochemical characteristics, type of inhibitions, activators from various natural sources with its clinical and industrial importance in recent prospects is discussed in this paper. PMID:17605157

  17. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  18. Bordetella pertussis Naturally Occurring Isolates with Altered Lipooligosaccharide Structure Fail To Fully Mature Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Veerman, Rosanne E.; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Deuss, Anna J. M.; Schuijt, Tim J.; Sloots, Arjen; Kuipers, Betsy; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.; van der Ley, Peter; Mooi, Frits R.; Han, Wanda G. H.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different B. pertussis clinical isolates. By using HEK-Blue cells transfected with different pattern recognition receptors, we found that 3 out of 19 clinical isolates failed to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These findings were confirmed by using the monocytic MM6 cell line. Although incubation with high concentrations of these 3 strains resulted in significant activation of the MM6 cells, it was found to occur mainly through interaction with TLR2 and not through TLR4. When using live bacteria, these 3 strains also failed to activate TLR4 on HEK-Blue cells, and activation of MM6 cells or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was significantly lower than activation induced by the other 16 strains. Mass spectrum analysis of the lipid A moieties from these 3 strains indicated an altered structure of this molecule. Gene sequence analysis revealed mutations in genes involved in lipid A synthesis. Findings from this study indicate that B. pertussis isolates that do not activate TLR4 occur naturally and that this phenotype may give this bacterium an advantage in tempering the innate immune response and establishing infection. Knowledge on the strategies used by this pathogen in evading the host immune response is essential for the improvement of current vaccines or for the development of new ones. PMID:25348634

  19. Clostridium botulinum type E occurs and grows in the alga Cladophora glomerata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, massive avian die-offs from Clostridium botulinum type E infection have occurred in the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) area of Lake Michigan. These outbreaks have been coincidental with massive blooms of the green algae Cladophora, mostly Cladophora glomerata. We tested the hypothesis that Clostridium botulinum type E can grow under suitable conditions in these algal mats. In a lab mesocosm study, Cladophora from four outbreak-impacted beaches from SLBE were compared with four unimpacted beaches in the Milwaukee–Racine area for bontE gene of Clostridium botulinum. Frequency of the bontE gene was higher after incubation (25 °C for up to 6 weeks) of Cladophora from impacted vs. the unimpacted area. Since no type E gene was detected initially in Cladophora from any of the eight locations, we infer that the increased occurrence of type E gene arose from spore germination or vegetative Clostridium growth within the existing algal mats of SLBE. Moreover, we found that the congener Clostridium perfringens readily grows in mesocosms containing Cladophora.

  20. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P < .05). Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities. PMID:15515590

  1. Persistence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria and bacteriophage fractions of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Calero-Cáceres, William; Muniesa, Maite

    2016-05-15

    The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is a serious global health concern. ARGs from bacteria can be mobilized by mobile genetic elements, and recent studies indicate that phages and phage-derived particles, among others, could play a role in the spread of ARGs through the environment. ARGs are abundant in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of water bodies and for successful transfer of the ARGs, their persistence in these environments is crucial. In this study, three ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M and sul1) that naturally occur in the bacterial and phage fractions of raw wastewater were used to evaluate the persistence of ARGs at different temperatures (4 °C, 22 °C and 37 °C) and pH values (3, 7 and 9), as well as after various disinfection treatments (thermal treatment, chlorination and UV) and natural inactivation in a mesocosm. Gene copies (GC) were quantified by qPCR; then the logarithmic reduction and significance of the differences between their numbers were evaluated. The ARGs persisted for a long time with minimal reductions after all the treatments. In general, they showed greater persistence in the bacteriophage fraction than in the bacterial fraction. Comparisons showed that the ARGs persisted under conditions that reduced culturable Escherichia coli and infectious coliphages below the limit of detection. The prevalence of ARGs, particularly in the bacteriophage fraction, poses the threat of the spread of ARGs and their incorporation into a new bacterial background that could lead to the emergence of new resistant clones. PMID:26978717

  2. Radiological impact of dietary intakes of naturally occurring radionuclides on Pakistani adults.

    PubMed

    Akhter, P; Rahman, K; Orfi, S D; Ahmad, N

    2007-02-01

    Daily dietary intakes of three naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K were estimated for the adult population of Pakistan using neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), respectively. The daily intakes of (232)Th ranged from 4 to 29 mBq, (238)U ranged from 17 to 82 mBq and (40)K ranged from 51 to 128 Bq. The geometric means of these intakes were 10 mBqd(-1) for (232)Th, 33 mBqd(-1) for (238)U and 78.5 Bqd(-1) for (40)K. The measured values give annual committed effective doses of 0.80, 0.53 and 178.75 microSvyr(-1) for (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, respectively to Pakistani population. The net radiological impact of these radionuclides is 180.08 microSvyr(-1). This value gives cancer risk factor of 4.5 x 10(-4) and loss of life expectancy of 0.87 days only. Whereas ICRP cancer risk factor for general public is 2.5 x 10(-3) and total risk involve from the all natural radiation sources based on global average annual radiation dose of 2.4 mSvyr(-1) is 6.0 x 10(-3). The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase of cancer risk from daily Pakistani diet is only a minor fraction of ICRP values. Therefore, the diet does not pose any significant health hazard and is considered radiologically safe for human consumption. PMID:17034921

  3. Long-term toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, Jaime M; McGee, Marie A; Nyska, Abraham; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Gavett, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON) were compared in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats 15 mo after exposure. Rat-respirable fractions of LA and SM displayed greater mean lengths and aspect ratios than ED and ON. After a single intratracheal (IT) instillation (0.5 or 1.5 mg/rat), persistent changes in ventilatory parameters and a significant increase in lung resistance at baseline and after methacholine aerosol dosing were found only in rats exposed to 1.5 mg SM. High-dose ED significantly elevated bronchoalveolar lavage lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein levels, while high-dose SM increased γ-glutamyl transferase and LDH activities. A moderate degree of lung interstitial fibrosis after exposure to 1.5 mg SM persisted 15 mo after exposure, unchanged from previous findings at 3 mo. LA induced mild fibrosis, while ED and ON produced minimal and no apparent fibrosis, respectively. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was observed 15 mo after exposure to LA or ED. Data demonstrated that SM, given by bolus IT dosing on an equivalent mass basis, induced greater pulmonary function deficits, airway hyperresponsiveness, and interstitial fibrosis than other NOA, although unlike LA and ED, no apparent evidence for carcinogenicity was found. All NOA samples except ON cleavage fragments produced some degree of long-term toxicity. PMID:26818398

  4. Infrared spectroscopic examination of the interaction of urea with the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byler, D.M.; Gerasimowicz, W.V.; Stockette, V.M.; Eberl, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has shown for the first time that the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite can absorb urea, (NH2)2CO, under ambient conditions from either aqueous or ethanolic solutions. The two strongest NH stretching bands at 3441 and 3344 cm-1 in pure, solid urea shift to higher frequency (about 3504 and 3401 cm-1) after absorption. Two of the four urea bands in the 1800-1300 cm-1 range (at 1683 and 1467 cm-1) undergo marked downward shifts to about 1670 and 1445 cm-1. The other two bands show little change in frequency. The strong band at 1602 cm-1, however, diminishes in intensity to little more than an ill-defined shoulder on the 1626-cm-1 peak. When clinoptilolite is heated to 450 ??C and then treated with molten urea (ca. 140 ??C) for several minutes, and finally washed twice with ethanol to remove excess unreacted urea, further changes become apparent in the spectrum of the urea-treated clinoptilolite. The two NH stretching bands broaden without significant change in frequency. Two new bands appear in the midfrequency range at 1777 (weak) and 1719 (medium strong) cm-1. Of the four original midfrequency peaks, the one at 1602 cm-1 is now absent. Two others (1627 and 1440 cm-1) exhibit little change, while the fourth has broadened and shifted down to 1663 cm-1, where it appears as a shoulder on the band at 1627 cm-1. Both treatments clearly induce interaction between urea and the zeolite which seems to result in significant modifications in the nature of the hydrogen bonding of the substrate. ?? 1991.

  5. Global DNA hypomethylation occurs in the early stages of intestinal type gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Cravo, M; Pinto, R; Fidalgo, P; Chaves, P; Glória, L; Nobre-Leitão, C; Costa Mira, F

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global DNA hypomethylation has been found in the premalignant stages of some neoplasms and has been implicated as an important factor for tumour progression. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether DNA hypomethylation occurs during the process of gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: Gastric specimens were obtained from 49 patients and histologically classified as: normal 10, superficial gastritis 14, chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia 15, and intestinal type of gastric carcinoma 10. Global DNA methylation was assessed by incubating DNA with (3H)-S-adenosylmethionine and Sss1 methylase. A higher incorporation of (3H) methyl groups reflects a lower degree of intrinsic methylation. RESULTS: A graduated increase in (3H) methyl group incorporation into DNA was found over the range extending from normal gastric mucosa, to superficial gastritis and to chronic atrophic gastritis (136,556 (24,085) v 235,725 (38,636) v 400,998 (26,747 dpm/micrograms/DNA respectively; p = 0.0002). No further increase was found in specimens from patients with carcinoma. No differences were found between extent of DNA methylation in neoplastic or non-neoplastic mucosa from patients with gastric carcinoma. Hypomethylation of DNA increased substantially with severe atrophy (p = 0.01) or with type III intestinal metaplasia (p = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Global DNA hypomethylation occurs in the early stages of gastric carcinogenesis, and it may be a novel biomarker of gastric neoplasia, useful in monitoring the response to chemopreventive agents. PMID:8949650

  6. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  7. Colonial cell disaggregation and intracellular microcystin release following chlorination of naturally occurring Microcystis.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiang; Wert, Eric C

    2016-09-15

    Colonial cell disaggregation and release of intracellular microcystin were evaluated following chlorine treatment of naturally occurring Microcystis. Microscopic observations of water samples collected from Lake Mead, Nevada, USA, confirmed the presence of colonial Microcystis with cells protected by an outer sheath up to 30 μm thick. During chlorination, two stages of cell decomposition were observed, stage 1: colonial cell disaggregation, and stage 2: unicellular degradation. Following a [Cl2]0:DOC0 ratio of 0.15 (t = 20 min, pH = 8.2-8.5) in unfiltered Lake Havasu samples, total particle count increased from (1.0 ± 0.11) × 10(5) to 4.2 × 10(5) particles/mL and fluorescent particle count increased from (1.2 ± 0.50) × 10(4) to 1.2 × 10(5) particles/mL, illustrating colonial cell disaggregation. Although total and fluorescent particles increased, the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) decreased from 81 μg/L to 72 μg/L, and continued to decrease at higher [Cl2]0:DOC0 ratios. The preliminary second order rate constant for the reaction between Microcystis and chlorine in natural waters was estimated using either Chl-a (k = 15 M(-1) s(-1)) or fluorescence particle count (k = 38 M(-1) s(-1)) as an indicator of cell damage following colonial disaggregation (i.e., at [Cl2]0:DOC0 ratio ≥0.15). Complete release of intracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was observed in both Lake Havasu and Lake Mead samples when applying a [Cl2]0:DOC0 ratio of 0.30 (t = 20 min), which was equivalent to a chlorine exposure of 8 min-mg/L for Lake Havasu samples. With chlorination, DOC increased by 3-18% indicating release of either colony-bound or cell-bound DOC. The results demonstrated the ability of chlorine to disaggregate/inactivate natural Microcystis colonies, and identified oxidation conditions resulting in complete release of intracellular MC-LR. PMID:27240297

  8. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  9. A molecular informed poroelastic model for organic-rich, naturally occurring porous geocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfared, Siavash; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2016-03-01

    Molecular simulation results on organic maturity (mature and immature kerogen as the two asymptotic cases) are introduced into a continuum micromechanics based model for organic-rich shales. Through a fundamental functional relationship that constrains microporous kerogen density and elasticity variable spaces and within the framework of effective media theory; the model bridges the gap between asymptotic cases of organic maturity with texture as the overriding theme, specifically a matrix/inclusion (Mori-Tanaka) texture for immature systems and a granular (self-consistent) texture for mature ones. The utility of the molecular results merged into a continuum framework is demonstrated by estimating kerogen's microporosity (< 2 nm) from nanoindentation measurements. The effect of burial and diagenetic processes on the effective poroelasticity of these porous, naturally occurring geocomposites are captured by introduction of imperfect interfaces. Finally, the performance of the model is fully characterized by ranking the normalized contribution of uncertainty of input to the overall behavior and parameters of interest to geophysicists and geomechanicians such as degree of anisotropy and in situ stresses.

  10. A Naturally-Occurring Transcript Variant of MARCO Reveals the SRCR Domain is Critical for Function

    PubMed Central

    Novakowski, Kyle E.; Huynh, Angela; Han, SeongJun; Dorrington, Michael G.; Yin, Charles; Tu, Zhongyuan; Pelka, Peter; Whyte, Peter; Guarné, Alba; Sakamoto, Kaori; Bowdish, Dawn M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a Class A Scavenger Receptor (cA-SR) that recognizes and phagocytoses of a wide variety of pathogens. Most cA-SRs that contain a C-terminal Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) domain use the proximal collagenous domain to bind ligands. In contrast, for the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO in phagocytosis, adhesion and pro-inflammatory signalling is less clear. The discovery of a naturally-occurring transcript variant lacking the SRCR domain, MARCOII, provided the opportunity to study the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO. We tested whether the SRCR domain is required for ligand binding, promoting downstream signalling, and enhancing cellular adhesion. Unlike cells expressing full-length MARCO, ligand binding was abolished in MARCOII-expressing cells. Furthermore, co-expression of MARCO and MARCOII impaired phagocytic function, indicating that MARCOII acts as a dominant negative variant. Unlike MARCO, expression of MARCOII did not enhance Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to bacterial stimulation. MARCO-expressing cells were more adherent and exhibited a dendritic-like phenotype, while MARCOII-expressing cells were less adherent and did not exhibit changes in morphology. These data suggest the SRCR domain of MARCO is the key domain in modulating ligand binding, enhancing downstream pro-inflammatory signalling, and MARCO-mediated cellular adhesion. PMID:26888252

  11. Naturally occurring toxic factors in plants and animals used as food.

    PubMed

    Strong, F M

    1966-03-19

    Toxic components of natural foodstuffs are discussed, with special reference to lathyrogens, pressor amines, azoxyglycosides, and labile sulfur compounds. The osteolathyrogen, gamma-glutamyl-beta-aminopropionitrile, in sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus) seeds induces skeletal deformities and aortic rupture, probably by interfering with normal maturation of collagen fibres. Neurolathyrism in man may be caused by beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid, a neurotoxin recently identified in Lathyrus sativus seeds. Histamine, tyramine, noradrenaline, serotonin and other pressor amines occur in fruits and fermented foods such as bananas, pineapples, cheese and wine. Consumption of such foods by patients taking monoamine oxidase-inhibiting drugs (e.g. tranylcypromine) may produce serious hypertensive crises. Cycad nuts, widely used as human food in tropical and subtropical areas, contain a potent carcinogen, methyl azoxymethanol, which is more or less removed prior to use by leaching in water. Consumption of plants of the onion, cabbage and cress families introduces into the body such toxic chemicals as benzyl cyanide, goitrin and thiocyanates. The lachrymatory substance in onions is propenyl sulfenic acid. PMID:5905948

  12. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  13. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E.; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P.; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Currie, Peter D.; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K.; Cole, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237

  14. Relationships of phytomacrofauna to surface area in naturally occurring macrophyte stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Poe, Thomas P.; French, John R. P., III; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1988-01-01

    Most studies of the relationships between freshwater macrophytes and phytomacrofauna, or the macroinvertebrates associated with the macrophytes, have been based on individual plant collections or samples from monotypic plant stands. We describe the phytomacrofauna assemblages within naturally occurring, taxonomically mixed stands, and consider how macrophyte surface area and plant morphology influenced phytomacrofauna diversity and abundance. Samples of submersed macrophytes and phytomacrofauna were collected April-November 1979 in Anchor Bay of Lake St. Clair. Only the portions of macrophytes within the water column and invertebrates from above the sediment were considered. Densities of phytomacrofauna were not consistently related to fluctuations in macrophyte surface area, indicating that the use of macrophyte structure by the invertebrates changed during the year. Both the abundance and species richness of the phytomacrofauna were strongly related to macrophyte species richness reflecting the response of the invertebrates to the structural heterogeneity in taxonomically mixed stands. Vertically heterogeneous stands with an understory of Chara and an overstory of vascular macrophytes, for example, were likely to contain more invertebrates than stands with only one macrophyte taxon.

  15. Rubemamine and Rubescenamine, Two Naturally Occurring N-Cinnamoyl Phenethylamines with Umami-Taste-Modulating Properties.

    PubMed

    Backes, Michael; Obst, Katja; Bojahr, Juliane; Thorhauer, Anika; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Paetz, Susanne; Reichelt, Katharina V; Krammer, Gerhard E; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ley, Jakob P

    2015-10-01

    Sensory screening of a series of naturally occurring N-cinnamoyl derivatives of substituted phenethylamines revealed that rubemamine (9, from Chenopodium album) and rubescenamine (10, from Zanthoxylum rubsecens) elicit strong intrinsic umami taste in water at 50 and 10 ppm, respectively. Sensory tests in glutamate- and nucleotide-containing bases showed that the compounds influence the whole flavor profile of savory formulations. Both rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) at 10-100 ppm dose-dependently positively modulated the umami taste of MSG (0.17-0.22%) up to threefold. Among the investigated amides, only rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) are able to directly activate the TAS1R1-TAS1R3 umami taste receptor. Moreover, both compounds also synergistically modulated the activation of TAS1R1-TAS1R3 by MSG. Most remarkably, rubemamine (9) was able to further positively modulate the IMP-enhanced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 response to MSG ∼ 1.8-fold. Finally, armatamide (11), zanthosinamide (13), and dioxamine (14), which lack intrinsic umami taste in vivo and direct receptor response in vitro, also positively modulated receptor activation by MSG about twofold and the IMP-enhanced MSG-induced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responses approximately by 50%. In sensory experiments, dioxamine (14) at 25 ppm in combination with 0.17% MSG exhibited a sensory equivalent to 0.37% MSG. PMID:26375852

  16. What should a radiation regulator do about naturally occurring radioactive material?

    PubMed

    Loy, J

    2015-06-01

    The standard regulatory framework of authorisation, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, and regulation making is directed principally towards ensuring the regulatory control of planned exposure situations. Some mining and industrial activities involving exposures to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), such as uranium mining or the treatment and conditioning of NORM residues, may fit readily within this standard framework. In other cases, such as oil and gas exploration and production, the standard regulatory framework needs to be adjusted. For example, it is not sensible to require that an oil company seek a licence from the radiation regulator before drilling a well. The paper discusses other approaches that a regulator might take to assure protection and safety in such activities involving exposures to NORM, including the use of conditional exemptions from regulatory controls. It also suggests some areas where further guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection on application of the system of radiological protection to NORM would assist both regulators and operators. PMID:25816273

  17. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the South Western oil wells of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khodashenas, Alireza; Roayaei, Emad; Abtahi, Seyed Mojtaba; Ardalani, Elham

    2012-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to find out the concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in an oil production unit, an evaporation pond, and a drilling site in the Khuzestan province, in south west Iran the 4th largest oil producing country in the world. The nuclides (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples and (226)Ra was analyzed in both soil and water. The (232)Th ranged between 8.7 and 403 Bq kg(-1), while the minimum concentration for (40)K was much larger, i.e. 82 Bq kg(-1) and its maximum concentration was 815 Bq kg(-1). Soil samples indicated very low concentrations of (226)Ra, typically between 10.6 and 42.1 Bq kg(-1) with some exceptions of 282, 602, and even 1480 Bq kg(-1). Also, the range for (226)Ra in water was less from 0.1 to a maximum 30.3 Bq L(-1). Results show that on average, NORM concentrations in these areas are lower in comparison with the usual concentration levels in typical oil and gas fields, but despite this fact, necessary measures have to be taken in order to minimize the environmental impact of radioactive materials. PMID:22321893

  18. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. PMID:25816275

  19. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established. PMID:26686009

  20. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET-PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different -OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H-atom abstraction from 4'-OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B-ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  1. Aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine encapsulated in liposomes: activity against naturally occurring dog breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Martha S T; Lucci, Carolina M; Longo, João Paulo F; Galera, Paula D; Simioni, Andreza R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Tedesco, Antônio C; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2012-04-01

    Breast tumors represent the most common malignant tumors. Current treatments for humans and pets rely on tumor excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, which may affect both cancer cells and normal cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved treatment modality for a variety of cancers and was recently recommended as a first-line treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers for humans. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of PDT using aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine that is encapsulated in liposomes and LED as a light source to kill naturally occurring female dog breast cancer in vitro. The cytotoxicity behavior of the encapsulated photosensitizer in the dark and under irradiation using the 670 nm laser were investigated using classical trypan blue and MTT cell viability tests, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining to label organelles, and cell morphology. Cell morphology was evaluated using light and electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate a reduced cell viability that is associated with morphologic alterations. The neoplasic cell destruction was predominantly mediated via a necrotic process, which was assayed using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. These findings were confirmed using light and electronic microscopy. The photosensitizer or laser irradiation alone did not induce cytotoxicity or morphological alterations, indicating the safety and efficacy of PDT with chloro-aluminum-phthalocyanine that was encapsulated in liposomes for the treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro. PMID:22515076

  2. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model.

    PubMed

    Don, Emily K; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A; Guillemin, Gilles J; Currie, Peter D; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K; Cole, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237

  3. Anabolic and Antiresorptive Modulation of Bone Homeostasis by the Epigenetic Modulator Sulforaphane, a Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Roman; Maurizi, Antonio; Roschger, Paul; Sturmlechner, Ines; Khani, Farzaneh; Spitzer, Silvia; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Karlic, Heidrun; Dudakovic, Amel; Klaushofer, Klaus; Teti, Anna; Rucci, Nadia; Varga, Franz; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2016-03-25

    Bone degenerative pathologies like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, promotes osteoblast differentiation by epigenetic mechanisms. SFN enhances active DNA demethylation viaTet1andTet2and promotes preosteoblast differentiation by enhancing extracellular matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblastic markers (Runx2,Col1a1,Bglap2,Sp7,Atf4, andAlpl). SFN decreases the expression of the osteoclast activator receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteocytes and mouse calvarial explants and preferentially induces apoptosis in preosteoclastic cells via up-regulation of theTet1/Fas/Caspase 8 and Caspase 3/7 pathway. These mechanistic effects correlate with higher bone volume (∼20%) in both normal and ovariectomized mice treated with SFN for 5 weeks compared with untreated mice as determined by microcomputed tomography. This effect is due to a higher trabecular number in these mice. Importantly, no shifts in mineral density distribution are observed upon SFN treatment as measured by quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Our data indicate that the food-derived compound SFN epigenetically stimulates osteoblast activity and diminishes osteoclast bone resorption, shifting the balance of bone homeostasis and favoring bone acquisition and/or mitigation of bone resorptionin vivo Thus, SFN is a member of a new class of epigenetic compounds that could be considered for novel strategies to counteract osteoporosis. PMID:26757819

  4. Acute phase proteins in naturally occurring respiratory disease of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Idoate, Ignacio; Vander Ley, Brian; Schultz, Loren; Heller, Meera

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three acute phase proteins (APP) [haptoglobin (HPT), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and transferrin (Tf)] in feedlot cattle with naturally occurring respiratory disease diagnosed by a calf health scoring chart (CHSC). Seventy-seven beef calves were observed for signs of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) during the first 28 days after arrival at the feedlot. Fourteen cases and pen matched controls were selected based on the CHSC. BRD cases were defined as a score of ≥ 5, while controls were defined as a score ≤ 4. The mean CHSC score in cases was 6.9 which was significantly greater than the controls 2.8 (P < 0.01). Mean plasma LBP and HPT concentrations were significantly greater in cases than controls (P < 0.01). Our study results show that measurement of HPT and LBP could be useful in detecting respiratory disease in feedlot conditions. Transferrin concentrations between the two groups were not statistically different. PMID:25599608

  5. Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.

  6. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Grimes, Craig D; Czora, Cody S

    2016-01-01

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. PMID:27172198

  7. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  8. Treatment of graft-versus-host disease with naturally occurring T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Trzonkowski, Piotr; Dukat-Mazurek, Anna; Bieniaszewska, Maria; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Dobyszuk, Anita; Juścińska, Jolanta; Dutka, Magdalena; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Hellmann, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    A significant body of evidence suggests that treatment with naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) is an appropriate therapy for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). GvHD is a major complication of bone marrow transplantation in which the transplanted immune system recognizes recipient tissues as a non-self and destroys them. In many cases, this condition significantly deteriorates the quality of life of the affected patients. It is also one of the most important causes of death after bone marrow transplantation. Tregs constitute a population responsible for dominant tolerance to self-tissues in the immune system. These cells prevent autoimmune and allergic reactions and decrease the risk of rejection of allotransplants. For these reasons, Tregs are considered as a cellular drug in GvHD. The results of the first clinical trials with these cells are already available. In this review we present important experimental facts which led to the clinical use of Tregs. We then critically evaluate specific requirements for Treg therapy in GvHD and therapies with Tregs currently under clinical investigation, including our experience and future perspectives on this kind of cellular treatment. PMID:23813436

  9. A naturally occurring contrast agent for OCT imaging of smokers' lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Whiteman, Suzanne C.; Gey van Pittius, Daniel; El Haj, Alicia J.; Spiteri, Monica A.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2005-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers great potential for clinical applications in terms of its cost, safety and real-time imaging capability. Improvement of its resolution for revealing sub-layers or sub-cellular components within a tissue will further widen its application. In this study we report that carbon pigment, which is frequently present in the lungs of smokers, could be used as a contrast agent to improve the OCT imaging of lung tissue. Carbon produced an intense bright OCT image at a relatively deep location. The parallel histopathological section analysis confirmed the presence of carbon pigment in such tissues. The underlying mechanism of the OCT image formation has been discussed based on a model system in which carbon particles were dispersed in agar gel. Calculations and in-depth intensity profiles of OCT revealed that higher refractive index particles with a size close to or smaller than the wavelength would greatly increase backscattering and generate a sharp contrast, while a particle size several times larger than the wavelength would absorb or obstruct the light path. The naturally occurring contrast agent could provide a diagnostic biomarker of lung tissue in smokers. Furthermore, carbon under such circumstances, can be used as an effective exogenous contrast agent, with which specific components or tissues exhibiting early tumour formation can be optically labelled to delineate the location and boundary, providing potential for early cancer detection and its treatment.

  10. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  11. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of white matter damage after naturally-occurring spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter M; Jeffery, Nick D

    2006-04-01

    Detailed analysis of the structural changes that follow human clinical spinal cord injury is limited by difficulties in achieving adequate tissue fixation. This study bypasses this obstacle by examining the spinal cord from paraplegic domestic animals, enabling us to document the ultrastructural changes at different times following injury. In all but one case, injury resulted from a combination of contusion and compression. There was infarction and hemorrhage, followed by gray matter destruction and the rapid development of a variety of white matter changes including axon swelling and myelin degeneration. Axons greater than 5 microm in diameter were more susceptible to degenerative changes, whereas smaller axons, particularly those in the subpial region, were relatively well preserved. Demyelinated axons were seen within 2 weeks after injury and, at later time points, both Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte remyelination was common. More subtle white matter abnormalities were identified by examining sagittal sections, including focal accumulation of organelles in the axoplasm and partial and paranodal myelin abnormalities. These observations serve to validate observations from experimental models of spinal contusion but also highlight the complexity of naturally occurring (ie, clinical) spinal injury. They also raise the possibility that focal abnormalities such as paranodal demyelination may contribute to early axonal dysfunction and possibly to progressive tissue damage. PMID:16768749

  12. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  13. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Grimes, Craig D.; Czora, Cody S.

    2016-01-01

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP. These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. PMID:27172198

  14. Detection of cultured and uncultured Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Luisa; Chiarini, Luigi; Dalmastri, Claudia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Tabacchioni, Silvia

    2005-11-01

    The species composition of a Burkholderia cepacia complex population naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere was investigated by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered from maize root slurry on the two selective media Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine (PCAT) and trypan blue tetracycline (TB-T) and subjected to identification by a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of the recA gene. DNA extracted directly from root slurry was examined by means of nested PCR to amplify recA gene with species-specific B. cepacia complex primers and to obtain a library of PCR amplified recA genes. Using the culture-dependent method the species Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia ambifaria and Burkholderia pyrrocinia were identified, whereas using the culture-independent method also the species Burkholderia vietnamiensis was detected. The latter method also allowed us to highlight a higher diversity within the B. cenocepacia species. In fact, by using the culture-independent method the species B. cenocepacia recA lineages IIIA and IIID besides B. cenocepacia recA lineage IIIB were detected. Moreover, higher heterogeneity of recA RFLP patterns was observed among clones assigned to the species B. cenocepacia than among B. cenocepacia isolates from selective media. PMID:16232288

  15. Speech versus Song: Multiple Pitch-Sensitive Areas Revealed by a Naturally Occurring Musical Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

    2013-01-01

    It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory–motor integration. PMID:22314043

  16. Microbial utilization of naturally occurring hydrocarbons at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site

    SciTech Connect

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W. )

    1989-11-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California; depth, 2,000 m) is a site of hydrothermal activity in which petroliferous materials is formed by thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter. We investigated certain components of these naturally occurring hydrocarbons as potential carbon sources for a specific microflora at these deep-sea vent sites. Respiratory conversion of (1-{sup 14}C)hexadecane and (1(4,5,8)-{sup 14}C)naphthalene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was observed at 4{degree}C and 25{degree}C, and some was observed at 55{degree}C, but none was observed at 80{degree}C. Bacterial isolates were capable of growing on both substrates as the sole carbon source. All isolates were aerobic and mesophilic with respect to growth on hydrocarbons but also grew at low temperatures (4 to 5{degree}C). These results correlate well with previous geochemical analyses, indicating microbial hydrocarbon degradation, and show that at least some of the thermally produced hydrocarbons at Guaymas Basin are significant carbon sources to vent microbiota.

  17. Preparation of peptide thioesters from naturally occurring sequences using reaction sequence consisting of regioselective S-cyanylation and hydrazinolysis.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Rin; Tsuda, Yusuke; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Shigenaga, Akira; Imanishi, Miki; Futaki, Shiroh; Otaka, Akira

    2016-11-01

    The vital roles of peptide/protein thioesters in protein chemistry, including chemical or semi-synthesis of proteins, have encouraged studies on the development of methods for the preparation of such chemical units. Biochemical protocols using intein or sortase have proved to be useful in protein chemistry as methods suitable for naturally occurring sequences, including recombinant proteins. Although chemical protocols are potential options for thioester preparation, only a few are applicable to naturally occurring sequences, because standard chemical protocols require an artificial chemical device for producing thioesters. In this context, the chemical preparation of thioesters based on a reaction sequence consisting of regioselective S-cyanylation and hydrazinolysis was investigated. Regioselective S-cyanylation, which is required for cysteine-containing thioesters, was achieved with the aid of a zinc-complex formation of a CCHH-type zinc-finger sequence. Free cysteine residues that are not involved in complex formation were selectively protected with a 6-nitroveratryl group followed by S-cyanylation of the zinc-binding cysteine. Hydrazinolysis of the resulting S-cyanopeptide and subsequent photo-removal of the 6-nitroveratryl group yielded the desired peptide hydrazide, which was then converted to the corresponding thioester. The generated thioester was successfully used in N-to-C-directed one-pot/sequential native chemical ligation using an N-sulfanylethylanilide peptide to give a 64-residue peptide toxin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 531-546, 2016. PMID:26501985

  18. A quantitative analysis of microbially-induced calcite precipitation employing artificial and naturally-occurring sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen; Krieg Dosier, Ginger

    2013-04-01

    Microbially-induced calcite precipitation is a strong candidate for the production of sustainable construction materials. The process employs the microbe Sporosarcina pasteurii as an agent to microbially mediate the precipitation of calcium carbonate to bind unconsolidated sediment. As this process can be achieved under ambient temperature conditions and can utilise a wide variety of easily-available sediments, potentially including waste materials, it is envisioned that this procedure could significantly reduce carbon-dioxide emissions in the construction industry. This study describes and quantifies the precipitation of calcite cement in a range of naturally-occurring sediments compared with a control matrix. The study establishes the optimum treatment time for effective cement precipitation in order to produce a material that meets the standards required for construction whilst keeping economic and environmental outlays at a minimum. The 'control sediment' employed industrial-grade glass beads with a grain size range of 595-1180 microns (16-30 US mesh). Sporosarcina pasteurii were mixed in a solution of urea and calcium chloride and then inoculated into the control sediment. The microbes attach to the surface of the sediment grains and employ urea as a source of energy to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. By so doing, they increase the pH of the solution allowing calcium carbonate to precipitate at the cell walls to act as nucleation points facilitating the precipitation of cements as a grain-coating and biocementing the unconsolidated sediment. The solution treatment was repeated at eight hour intervals with samples removed for detailed analysis after each every five consecutive treatments (i.e. 40 hours). The process was repeated to produce 20 samples with treatment times between 40 and 800 hours. Cemented samples were impregnated with blue epoxy and examined petrographically to monitor cement development. Modal analysis was undertaken on each cemented

  19. Computed Tomography Imaging of Solid Tumors Using a Liposomal-Iodine Contrast Agent in Companion Dogs with Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Sato, Amy F.; Starosolski, Zbigniew A.; Berg, John; Vail, David M.

    2016-01-01

    and large tumors in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer. The study warrants future work to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Liposomal-I agent in various types of naturally occurring canine tumors. PMID:27031614

  20. Relative Resistance of HLA-B to Downregulation by Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Nef Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Toyoda, Mako; Jia, Xiaofei; Kuang, Xiaomei T.; Mwimanzi, Francis; Mwimanzi, Philip; Walker, Bruce D.; Xiong, Yong; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brockman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Nef binds to the cytoplasmic region of HLA-A and HLA-B and downregulates these molecules from the surface of virus-infected cells, thus evading immune detection by CD8+ T cells. Polymorphic residues within the HLA cytoplasmic region may affect Nef’s downregulation activity. However, the effects of HLA polymorphisms on recognition by primary Nef isolates remain elusive, as do the specific Nef regions responsible for downregulation of HLA-A versus HLA-B. Here, we examined 46 Nef clones isolated from chronically HIV-1 subtype B-infected subjects for their ability to downregulate various HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C molecules on the surface of virus-infected cells. Overall, HLA-B exhibited greater resistance to Nef-mediated downregulation than HLA-A, regardless of the cell type examined. As expected, no Nef clone downregulated HLA-C. Importantly, the differential abilities of patient-derived Nef clones to downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B correlated inversely with the sensitivities of HIV-infected target cells to recognition by effector cells expressing an HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell receptor. Nef codon function analysis implicated amino acid variation at position 202 (Nef-202) in differentially affecting the ability to downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B, an observation that was subsequently confirmed by experiments using Nef mutants constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The in silico and mutagenesis analyses further suggested that Nef-202 may interact with the C-terminal Cys-Lys-Val residues of HLA-A, which are absent in HLA-B. Taken together, the results show that natural polymorphisms within Nef modulate its interaction with natural polymorphisms in the HLA cytoplasmic tails, thereby affecting the efficiency of HLA downregulation and consequent recognition by HIV-specific T cells. These results thus extend our understanding of this complex pathway of retroviral immune evasion. PMID:26787826

  1. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  2. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The Kd values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The Kd values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  3. Managing for Successful Control of Naturally Occurring Asbestos During Large Scale Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, R.; Harnish, D.; Cavanaugh, J.; Kendall, K.; Virdee, A.; Ludlam, D.

    2012-12-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company recently completed environmental remediation and civil grading of a 35-acre site in San Francisco Bay Area, and the project became recognized with local agencies as having excellent controls systems for naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA). The project began in 2010 and was completed in 2012, and involved excavating and grading over 100,000 tons of soil containing NOA. The work was subject to requirements by state, local and regional agencies, including an asbestos dust mitigation plan for the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. Effective control of NOA is attributed to management approaches combined with effective monitoring and state-of-the-art controls. Management Planning. The contract for construction specified NOA compliance management and controls, including having a NOA-control "czar" ultimately responsible for effective mitigation. An important element was daily pre-planning for excavation/grading that involved both the NOA mitigation experts and construction staff. Personnel Planning and Training. All construction personnel were trained before work regarding NOA hazards and mitigations. Daily tailboards with all construction personnel included discussions of the NOA controls integral to the daily work. Supervision. A NOA mitigation compliance leader was assigned to each excavation operation, responsible for continuously monitoring wind direction and work to ensure mitigation met requirements, and that disturbed areas were hydrosealed or covered. Adaptive Management - Daily and weekly debriefs occurred with those responsible for NOA controls to evaluate effectiveness, and identify improvements needed. If a monitoring result exceeded the project trigger level, work shut down and a root-cause analysis was performed to determine appropriate corrective actions. Deviations of results from background were researched as to cause, and any adjustments identified. Nearby non-project activities were monitored, as they occasionally

  4. Detection of human papillomavirus type 10 DNA in eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis occurring in Clouston's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J A; Rohwedder, A; Daulat, S; Schwartz, J; Schaller, J

    1999-02-01

    Syringofibroadenomatosis is often associated with an underlying condition such as diabetes mellitus or hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. By reason of these associations, a reactive or hamartomatous cause is suspected. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman with Clouston's syndrome in whom progressive multiple palmoplantar syringofibroadenomas developed over a 10-year period. The syringofibroadenomas formed flat-topped papules simulating verruca plana; the widespread distribution and chronic progressive course resembled epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Contiguous with the syringofibroadenoma's characteristic epithelial-stromal proliferation were epidermal changes of verruca plana. Evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was verified by immunolabeling with antibodies to bovine papillomavirus type 1 and detection of HPV 10 viral DNA by means of polymerase chain reaction. Rather than a hamartomatous process, these findings suggest that syringofibroadenomas occurring in the setting of Clouston's syndrome could represent an HPV-induced epithelial proliferation. PMID:10025758

  5. The nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents experienced many different types of teasing in physical education. Victims of teasing felt hurt and experienced uncomfortable feelings due to social comparisons. Overweight students who were not teased reported a variety of reasons. Teachers lacked awareness of and strategies to handle teasing of overweight students. There is a need to implement preventive policies and rules to eliminate weight-related teasing and create inclusive physical education environments. PMID:22808717

  6. Naturally Occurring Carbazole Alkaloids from Murraya koenigii as Potential Antidiabetic Agents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Om P S; Mishra, Akansha; Maurya, Ranjani; Saini, Deepika; Pandey, Jyotsana; Taneja, Isha; Raju, Kanumuri S R; Kanojiya, Sanjeev; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Srivastava, Mahendra N; Wahajuddin, M; Tamrakar, Akhilesh K; Srivastava, Arvind K; Yadav, Prem P

    2016-05-27

    This study identified koenidine (4) as a metabolically stable antidiabetic compound, when evaluated in a rodent type 2 model (leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice), and showed a considerable reduction in the postprandial blood glucose profile with an improvement in insulin sensitivity. Biological studies were directed from the preliminary in vitro evaluation of the effects of isolated carbazole alkaloids (1-6) on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in L6-GLUT4myc myotubes, followed by an investigation of their activity (2-5) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of koenidine (4) on GLUT4 translocation was mediated by the AKT-dependent signaling pathway in L6-GLUT4myc myotubes. Moreover, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of compounds 2 and 4 clearly showed that compound 4 was 2.7 times more bioavailable than compound 2, resulting in a superior in vivo efficacy. Therefore, these studies suggested that koenidine (4) may serve as a promising lead natural scaffold for managing insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:27136692

  7. Naturally occurring and stress induced tubular structures from mammalian cells, a survival mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Laughlin, Richard C; Henry, David C; Krueger, Darryl E; Hudson, JoAn S; Kuan, Cheng-Yi; He, Jian; Reppert, Jason; Tomkins, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    dehydration. The disintegrative, mobile, disruptive and ubiquitous nature of straw cells makes this a possible physiological process that may be involved in human health, longevity, and various types of diseases such as cancer. PMID:17705822

  8. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance. PMID:26467890

  9. Effects of Naturally Occuring Arginine 14 Deletion on Phospholamban Conformational Dynamics and Membrane Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Soller, Kailey J.; Ha, Kim N.; Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLN) is a single-pass membrane protein that regulates the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Phosphorylation of PLN at Ser16 reverses its inhibitory function under β-adrenergic stimulation, augmenting Ca2+ uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle contractility. PLN exists in two conformations; a T state, where the cytoplasmic domain is helical and absorbed on the membrane surface, and an R state, where the cytoplasmic domain is unfolded and membrane detached. Previous studies from our group have shown that the PLN conformational equilibrium is crucial to SERCA regulation. Here, we used a combination of solution and solid-state NMR techniques to compare the structural topology and conformational dynamics of monomeric PLN (PLNAFA) with that of the PLNR14del, a naturally occurring deletion mutant that is linked to the progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. We found that the behavior of the inhibitory transmembrane domain of PLNR14del is similar to that of the native sequence. In contrast, the conformational dynamics of R14del both in micelles and lipid membranes are enhanced. We conclude that the deletion of Arg14 in the cytoplasmic region weakens the interactions with the membrane and shifts the conformational equilibrium of PLN toward the disordered R state. This conformational transition is correlated with the loss-of-function character of this mutant and is corroborated by SERCA’s activity assays. These findings further support our hypothesis that SERCA function is fine-tuned by PLN conformational dynamics and begin to explain the aberrant regulation of SERCA by the R14del mutant. PMID:25251363

  10. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Hower, James C; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Taggart, Ross K; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and enrichment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in coal combustion residuals (CCRs) from different coal source basins have not been fully characterized in the United States. Here we provide a systematic analysis of the occurrence of NORM ((232)Th, (228)Ra, (238)U, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals and associated CCRs from the Illinois, Appalachian, and Powder River Basins. Illinois CCRs had the highest total Ra ((228)Ra + (226)Ra = 297 ± 46 Bq/kg) and the lowest (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio (0.31 ± 0.09), followed by Appalachian CCRs (283 ± 34 Bq/kg; 0.67 ± 0.09), and Powder River CCRs (213 ± 21 Bq/kg; 0.79 ± 0.10). Total Ra and (228)Ra/(226)Ra variations in CCRs correspond to the U and Th concentrations and ash contents of their feed coals, and we show that these relationships can be used to predict total NORM concentrations in CCRs. We observed differential NORM volatility during combustion that results in (210)Pb enrichment and (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios greater than 1 in most fly-ash samples. Overall, total NORM activities in CCRs are 7-10- and 3-5-fold higher than NORM activities in parent coals and average U.S. soil, respectively. This study lays the groundwork for future research related to the environmental and human health implications of CCR disposal and accidental release to the environment in the context of this elevated radioactivity. PMID:26328894

  11. Forecasting Seizures Using Intracranial EEG Measures and SVM in Naturally Occurring Canine Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Patterson, Edward E.; Vite, Charles; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Crepeau, Daniel; Stead, Matt; Howbert, J. Jeffry; Cherkassky, Vladimir; Wagenaar, Joost B.; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Management of drug resistant focal epilepsy would be greatly assisted by a reliable warning system capable of alerting patients prior to seizures to allow the patient to adjust activities or medication. Such a system requires successful identification of a preictal, or seizure-prone state. Identification of preictal states in continuous long- duration intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings of dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy was investigated using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The dogs studied were implanted with a 16-channel ambulatory iEEG recording device with average channel reference for a mean (st. dev.) of 380.4 (+87.5) days producing 220.2 (+104.1) days of intracranial EEG recorded at 400 Hz for analysis. The iEEG records had 51.6 (+52.8) seizures identified, of which 35.8 (+30.4) seizures were preceded by more than 4 hours of seizure-free data. Recorded iEEG data were stratified into 11 contiguous, non-overlapping frequency bands and binned into one-minute synchrony features for analysis. Performance of the SVM classifier was assessed using a 5-fold cross validation approach, where preictal training data were taken from 90 minute windows with a 5 minute pre-seizure offset. Analysis of the optimal preictal training time was performed by repeating the cross validation over a range of preictal windows and comparing results. We show that the optimization of feature selection varies for each subject, i.e. algorithms are subject specific, but achieve prediction performance significantly better than a time-matched Poisson random predictor (p<0.05) in 5/5 dogs analyzed. PMID:26241907

  12. Estimated trichloroethene transformation rates due to naturally occurring biodegradation in a fractured-rock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of trichloroethene (TCE) mass transformed by naturally occurring biodegradation processes in a fractured rock aquifer underlying a former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) site in West Trenton, New Jersey, were estimated. The methodology included (1) dividing the site into eight elements of equal size and vertically integrating observed concentrations of two daughter products of TCE biodegradation–cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and chloride–using water chemistry data from a network of 88 observation wells; (2) summing the molar mass of cis-DCE, the first biodegradation product of TCE, to provide a probable underestimate of reductive biodegradation of TCE, (3) summing the molar mass of chloride, the final product of chlorinated ethene degradation, to provide a probable overestimate of overall biodegradation. Finally, lower and higher estimates of aquifer porosities and groundwater residence times were used to estimate a range of overall transformation rates. The highest TCE transformation rates estimated using this procedure for the combined overburden and bedrock aquifers was 945 kg/yr, and the lowest was 37 kg/yr. However, hydrologic considerations suggest that approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr is the probable range for overall TCE transformation rates in this system. Estimated rates of TCE transformation were much higher in shallow overburden sediments (approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr) than in the deeper bedrock aquifer (approximately 20 to 0.15 kg/yr), which reflects the higher porosity and higher contaminant mass present in the overburden. By way of comparison, pump-and-treat operations at the NAWC site are estimated to have removed between 1,073 and 1,565 kg/yr of TCE between 1996 and 2009.

  13. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phalen, D.N.; Drew, M.L.; Contreras, C.; Roset, K.; Mora, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  14. Protective effect of naturally occurring anti-HER2 autoantibodies on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Yukiko; Shimoda, Masafumi; Kagara, Naofumi; Naoi, Yasuto; Tanei, Tomonori; Shimomura, Atsushi; Shimazu, Kenzo; Kim, Seung Jin; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2016-05-01

    Anti-HER2-autoantibodies (HER2-AAbs) are found in breast cancer patients as well as healthy individuals. However, the clinical relevance of the antibodies is unknown. We established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high sensitivity and quantified serum HER2-AAbs in 100 healthy women, 100 untreated patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 500 untreated patients with invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). The associations between the levels of HER2-AAbs and breast cancer risk, and recurrence-free survival, were examined. High levels of HER2-AAbs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of DCIS (odds ratio [OR] 0.19, P = 4.6 × 10(-7)) or IBC (OR 0.31, P = 3.7 × 10(-7)). Subgroup analysis of IBC revealed a stronger association of HER2-AAbs with a reduced risk of the hormone receptor (HR)(-)/HER2(+) subtype (OR 0.12) than the other subtypes (HR(+)/HER2(-) [OR = 0.32], HR(+)/HER2(+) [OR 0.38], and HR(-)/HER2(-) [OR 0.29]). When we set the cutoff of HER2-AAbs at 20 ng/mL, recurrence-free survival of HER2-AAb-positive patients (N = 74) was significantly better than that of HER2-AAb-negative patients (N = 426) (P = 0.015). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that HER2-AAbs, as well as histological grade, were independently and significantly (P = 0.0065 and 0.049, respectively) associated with recurrence-free survival. Our exploratory study suggests a protective effect of naturally occurring HER2-AAbs on the development of primary and recurrent breast cancer. Further studies on HER2-AAbs are warranted. PMID:27113738

  15. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects. PMID:26875187

  16. Identification of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Michelle R.; Pluhar, G. Elizabeth; Ohlfest, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Dogs with naturally occurring cancer represent an important large animal model for drug development and testing novel immunotherapies. However, poorly defined immunophenotypes of canine leukocytes have limited the study of tumor immunology in dogs. The accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is known to be a key mechanism of immune suppression in tumor-bearing mice and in human patients. We sought to identify MDSCs in the blood of dogs with cancer. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs with advanced or early stage cancer and from age-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Suppressive function was tested in T cell proliferation and cytokine elaboration assays. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify potential mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression. PBMCs from dogs with advanced or metastatic cancer exhibited a significantly higher percentage of CD11b+CD14−MHCII− cells compared to dogs diagnosed with early stage non-metastatic tumors and healthy dogs. These CD11b+ CD14−MHCII− cells constitute a subpopulation of activated granulocytes that co-purify with PBMCs, display polymorphonuclear granulocyte morphology, and demonstrate a potent ability to suppress proliferation and IFN-γ production in T cells from normal and tumor-bearing donors. Furthermore, these cells expressed hallmark suppressive factors of human MDSC including ARG1, iNOS2, TGF-β and IL-10. In summary our data demonstrate that MDSCs accumulate in the blood of dogs with advanced cancer and can be measured using this three-marker immunophenotype, thereby enabling prospective studies that can monitor MDSC burden. PMID:22428007

  17. Naturally occurring diallyl disulfide inhibits the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in boiled pork juice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S J; Jenq, S N; Lee, H

    1996-05-01

    Three heterocyclic aromatic amines, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, have been found in boiled pork juice. We have investigated the effect of naturally occurring organosulfur compounds, which are present in garlic and onion, on mutagen formation in boiled pork juice. Six organosulfur compounds - diallyl disulfide (DAD), dipropyl disulfide (DPD), diallyl sulfide (DAS), allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl mercaptan (AM) and cysteine - were added separately to the pork juice before reflux boiling and then the mutagenicity of each sample was examined with the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of S9 mix. All six compounds were found to inhibit the mutagenicity of boiled pork juice. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed with DAD and DPD, and this was 111-fold higher than that of the lowest, cysteine. To elucidate the inhibitory effect of DAD on mutagen formation in boiled pork juice, the major mutagenic fractions were monitored after HPLC separation by their mutagenicity with S. typhimurium TA98. By comparing the retention times of authentic IQ compounds from boiled pork juice with those following the addition of DAD, we showed that the mutagenicity of three major fractions was significantly inhibited compared with those same fractions in boiled pork juice alone. In addition, the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in the boiled pork juice with and without the addition of DAD were quantified and identified by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the reduction in the total amount of MRPs (pyridines, pyrazines, thiophenes and thiazoles) in boiled pork juice after boiling for 12 h is correlated with their mutagenicity. Among the MRPs, tetrahydrothiophene-3-one exhibited the strongest correlation. These data suggest that the inhibition of IQ mutagen formation by DAD is mediated through the

  18. Initial evaluation of nighttime restlessness in a naturally occurring canine model of osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    Knazovicky, David; Tomas, Andrea; Motsinger-Reif, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) can lead to significant disruption of sleep and increased restlessness. Our objective was to assess whether naturally occurring canine OA is associated with nighttime restlessness and so has potential as a model of OA-associated sleep disturbance. The study was designed as a two-part prospective masked, placebo-controlled study using client-owned dogs (Part A n = 60; Part B n = 19). Inclusion criteria consisted of OA-associated joint pain and mobility impairment. The primary outcome measure for both parts was nighttime accelerometry. In Part B, quality of sleep was assessed using a clinical metrology instrument (Sleep and Night Time Restlessness Evaluation Score, SNoRE). Part A included dogs receiving two weeks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) preceded with two weeks of no treatment. Part B was a crossover study, with NSAID/placebo administered for two weeks followed by a washout period of one week and another two weeks of NSAID/placebo. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences between baseline and treatment. There were no significant changes in accelerometry-measured nighttime activity as a result of NSAID administration. SNoRE measures indicated significant improvements in aspects of the quality of nighttime sleep that did not involve obvious movement. These results reflect the few similar studies in human OA patients. Although accelerometry does not appear to be useful, this model has potential to model the human pain-related nighttime sleep disturbance, and other outcome measures should be explored in this model. PMID:25722957

  19. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    PubMed

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:26037957

  20. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  1. Residential Proximity to Naturally Occurring Asbestos and Mesothelioma Risk in California

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue-lei; Day, Howard W.; Wang, Wei; Beckett, Laurel A.; Schenker, Marc B.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Little is known about environmental exposure to low levels of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) and malignant mesothelioma (MM) risk. Objectives: To conduct a cancer registry-based case control study of residential proximity to NOA with MM in California. Methods: Incident MM cases (n = 2,908) aged 35 yr or more, diagnosed between 1988 and 1997, were selected from the California Cancer Registry and frequency matched to control subjects with pancreatic cancer (n = 2,908) by 5-yr age group and sex. Control subjects were selected by stratified random sampling from 28,123 incident pancreatic cancers in the same time period. We located 93.7% of subjects at the house or street level at initial diagnosis. Individual occupational exposure to asbestos was derived from the longest held occupation, available for 74% of MM cases and 63% of pancreatic cancers. Occupational exposure to asbestos was determined by a priori classification and confirmed by association with mesothelioma. Main Results: The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for low, medium, and high probabilities of occupational exposures to asbestos were 1.71 (1.32–2.21), 2.51 (1.91–3.30), and 14.94 (8.37–26.67), respectively. Logistic regression analysis from a subset of 1,133 mesothelioma cases and 890 control subjects with pancreatic cancer showed that the odds of mesothelioma decreased approximately 6.3% for every 10 km farther from the nearest asbestos source, an odds ratio of 0.937 (95% confidence interval = 0.895–0.982), adjusted for age, sex, and occupational exposure to asbestos. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that residential proximity to NOA is significantly associated with increased risk of MM in California. PMID:15976368

  2. Efficacy of enrofloxacin in the treatment of naturally occurring acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Suojala, L; Simojoki, H; Mustonen, K; Kaartinen, L; Pyörälä, S

    2010-05-01

    The efficacy of the combination of systemic enrofloxacin (5mg/kg twice with a 24-h interval, first dose i.v., second dose s.c.) and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent ketoprofen (3mg/kg i.m. or 4 mg/kg per os daily for 1 to 3 d) treatment was compared with antiinflammatory treatment only in dairy cows with naturally occurring acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. A total of 132 cows with acute clinical mastitis and with confirmed growth of E. coli in a pretreatment milk sample were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Response to treatment was evaluated clinically and by bacteriological culturing and determination of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity on d 2 and 21 posttreatment. Enrofloxacin treatment did not increase bacteriological (90.5% of treated vs. 86.8% of nontreated cured) or clinical cure (46.7% of treated vs. 57.1% of nontreated cured), cow survival (95.3% of treated vs. 92.7% of nontreated), or quarter milk production assessed 21 d posttreatment (21.8 vs. 29.3% return to preinfection level for nontreated cows), nor did it decrease mammary gland tissue damage estimated using determination of milk NAGase activity (24.0+/-0.3 vs. 18.3+/-1.3 pmol of 4-methylumbelliferone per min per microL for nontreated cows). Treatment did not influence the number of study cows remaining in the herd after 6 mo (71.9% of treated vs. 80.6% of nontreated). The only significant effects of enrofloxacin were enhancing the bacteriological cure (odds ratio=3.32 for treated cows) and decreasing the clinical cure (odds ratio=0.05 for treated cows) on d 2 posttreatment. Our results did not support the use of enrofloxacin to treat acute clinical E. coli mastitis. PMID:20412909

  3. Naturally-occurring forelimb lameness in the horse results in significant compensatory load redistribution during trotting.

    PubMed

    Maliye, Sylvia; Voute, Lance C; Marshall, John F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to quantify the compensatory response to naturally-occurring forelimb lameness on load redistribution. Data from lameness investigations using an inertial sensor based system to monitor the response to forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia were reviewed. Horses with primary forelimb lameness were grouped for analysis as (1) all horses combined (n= 28), (2) forelimb-only lameness (n= 8/28), (3) forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness (n= 14/28), (4) forelimb-ipsilateral hindlimb lameness (n= 6/28). The effect of diagnostic anaesthesia on measures of head and pelvic movement asymmetry was determined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed between forelimb and hindlimb variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia resulted in a decrease in pelvic movement asymmetry among all horses and the forelimb-only and forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness groups. Pelvic movement asymmetry associated with the contralateral hindlimb decreased by a median of 38% (interquartile range [IQR] 10-65%), 43% (IQR 28-60%) and 28% (IQR 12-67%) in all horses, forelimb-only and forelimb-contralateral hindlimb groups respectively (P< 0.05). Maximum pelvic height difference (PDMax) significantly decreased in all horses combined and the forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness group by a median of 66% (IQR 24-100%) and 78% (IQR 27-100%, P< 0.01), respectively. Change in head movement asymmetry and vector sum was significantly positively correlated with PDMax in all horses combined and the forelimb-contralateral hindlimb group (P< 0.05). Forelimb lameness had a significant effect on hindlimb and pelvic movement in horses with clinical lameness resulting in compensatory load redistribution and decreased push-off from the contralateral hindlimb. PMID:25862395

  4. Zinc and cadmium adsorption to aluminum oxide nanoparticles affected by naturally occurring ligands.

    PubMed

    Stietiya, M Hashem; Wang, Jim J

    2014-03-01

    Nanoparticles of aluminum oxide (AlO) are efficient in removing Cd, Zn, and other heavy metals from wastewaters and soil solutions due to their high specific surface area and surface area to volume ratio. Naturally occurring ligands, such as phosphate (PO), citrate, and humic acid (HA), may affect the efficiency of AlO nanoparticles in adsorption of Cd and Zn. The objective of this study was to investigate Zn and Cd adsorption to AlO nanoparticles as influenced by PO, citrate, and HA. Adsorption of Zn and Cd was performed in mono-metal and binary-metal systems at pH 6.5 with initial metal concentration of 1.0 mmol L and varying ligand concentration at a solid:solution ratio of 1:1000. Adsorption isotherms showed that Zn had higher affinity to the AlO nanoparticle surface than Cd and that adsorption of Zn and Cd in the binary-metal system was lower than in the respective mono-metal systems. Phosphate and HA enhanced Zn and Cd adsorption in all systems, whereas citrate reduced Zn adsorption in the mono-metal system by 25% and increased adsorption in the other metal systems. Removal of Zn or Cd from the systems was generally accompanied by enhanced removal of PO and HA, which may indicate enhanced adsorption due to ternary complex formation or metal-ligand precipitation. Phosphate was the most effective among the three ligands in enhancing Zn and Cd adsorption. Overall, AlO nanoparticles are suitably used for Zn and Cd adsorption, which can be significantly enhanced by the presence of PO or HA and to a lesser degree by citrate at low concentrations. PMID:25602651

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in Naturally Occurring Canine Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amanda R.; Welsh, C. Jane; Young, Colin; Spoor, Erich; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Griffin, John F.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Canine intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) is a common, naturally occurring form of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is increasingly being used in pre-clinical evaluation of therapies. Although IVDH bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to lesion morphology, imaging features, and post-SCI treatment, limited data are available concerning secondary injury mechanisms. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines, and chemokines in dogs with acute, surgically treated, thoracolumbar IVDH (n=39) and healthy control dogs (n=21) to investigate early inflammatory events after SCI. A bioplex system was used to measure interleukin (IL)-2, -6, -7, -8, -10, -15, and -18, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)-like protein, IFN-γ-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the CSF of healthy and SCI dogs were compared and, in SCI dogs, were correlated to the duration of SCI, behavioral measures of injury severity at the time of sampling, and neurological outcome 42 days post-SCI as determined by a validated ordinal score. IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in SCI cases than healthy controls (p=0.0013) and was negatively correlated with the duration of SCI (p=0.042). CSF MCP-1 and KC-like protein were positively correlated with CSF microprotein concentration in dogs with SCI (p<0.0001 and p=0.004). CSF MCP-1 concentration was negatively associated with 42-day postinjury outcome (p<0.0001). Taken together, these data indicate that cytokines and chemokines present after SCI in humans and rodent models are associated with SCI pathogenesis in canine IVDH. PMID:24786364

  6. Tumour-Associated Transplantation Antigens of Neoplasms Induced by a Naturally Occurring Murine Sarcoma Virus (FBJ-MSV)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David B.; Moore, Michael

    1973-01-01

    FBJ osteosarcoma virus (FBJ-MSV) isolated originally from a spontaneously arising osteosarcoma in a CF1 mouse is the only known naturally occurring murine sarcoma virus (MSV). It is unique among strains of MSV in producing primarily sarcomata in mice. The capacity of tumour cells transformed in vivo by this agent to elicit specific transplantation immunity in syngeneic hosts was investigated. A low level of resistance (104-105 cells) was consistently induced by implantation of x-irradiated (15,000 rad) tumours or surgical excision of developing subcutaneous grafts. By contrast intraperitoneal inoculation of virus containing cellfree extracts of FBJ-MSV sarcomata was a far less effective immunization procedure. Confirmatory evidence for the antigenicity of these neoplasms was obtained in tests in which preincubation of tumour cells with lymphoid cells from specifically immune donors inhibited in vivo outgrowth of the FBJ-MSV cells in untreated syngeneic recipients. The induction of host resistance to FBJ-MSV cells by immunization with identical and independently-induced FBJ-MSV tumours established that FBJ-MSV cells possess common cell surface antigenic specificities in a manner analogous to those of experimental neoplasms induced by other oncogenic DNA and RNA viruses. Since FBJ-MSV cells release infectious virus it was not possible in this system to establish whether the tumour-rejection antigen was cellular or virion in nature. The antigenic weakness of FBJ-MSV cells in syngeneic hosts is comparable with that of virus-induced murine leukaemias of the Gross (G) or “wild” type subgroup to which category FBJ-MSV also belongs. These features suggest that FBJ-MSV exemplifies naturally occurring sarcomagenic viruses more closely than those of the Friend-Moloney-Rauscher-Graffi (FMRGr) subgroup which in general induce highly antigenic neoplasms. PMID:4516007

  7. The Nature and Types of Search Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crombie, Alastair

    1985-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the search conference--a participatory planning methodology--by exploring its roots in direct realism and characterizing it as a theory-building activity. Develops a classification matrix based on the nature of the task (problem solving or futures creative) and type of system (organizations, communities, ecologies,…

  8. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip; Roy, Madhumita

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent

  9. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000μg/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur isotopic signatures in pyrite and dissolved sulfate and the correlation between dissolved sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations suggest that sulfide oxidation is the dominant process controlling arsenic release to groundwater. However, arsenic-bearing oxyhydroxides can potentially provide another arsenic source if reducing conditions develop or if they are transported as colloids in the aquifer. Analysis of well data indicates that the intersection of the SCH with static water levels measured in residential wells is strongly correlated with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. Field and laboratory data suggest that the most severe arsenic contamination is caused by localized borehole interactions of air, water, and sulfides. Although arsenic contamination is caused by oxidation of naturally occurring sulfides, it is influenced by water-level fluctuations caused by municipal well pumping or climate changes, which can shift geographic areas in which contamination occurs. Résumé De fortes concentrations en arsenic, jusqu'à 12000μg/L, ont été mesurées dans l'eau souterraine d'un aquifère gréseux captif, dans l'est du Wisconsin. La principale source d'arsenic est un horizon à cimentation secondaire (SCH) comportant des sulfures, dont l'épaisseur, la morphologie et les concentrations en arsenic sont variables. L'arsenic est présent dans la pyrite et dans la marcassite, de même que dans des oxy-hydroxydes de fer, mais non pas dans une phase séparée d'arsénopyrite. Les signatures isotopiques du soufre presque identiques dans la

  10. Collection, isolation and enrichment of naturally occurring magnetotactic bacteria from the environment.

    PubMed

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K; Lin, Wei; Lower, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are aquatic microorganisms that were first notably described in 1975 from sediment samples collected in salt marshes of Massachusetts (USA). Since then MTB have been discovered in stratified water- and sediment-columns from all over the world. One feature common to all MTB is that they contain magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bound magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or greigite (Fe3S4) or both. In the Northern hemisphere, MTB are typically attracted to the south end of a bar magnet, while in the Southern hemisphere they are usually attracted to the north end of a magnet. This property can be exploited when trying to isolate MTB from environmental samples. One of the most common ways to enrich MTB is to use a clear plastic container to collect sediment and water from a natural source, such as a freshwater pond. In the Northern hemisphere, the south end of a bar magnet is placed against the outside of the container just above the sediment at the sediment-water interface. After some time, the bacteria can be removed from the inside of the container near the magnet with a pipette and then enriched further by using a capillary racetrack and a magnet. Once enriched, the bacteria can be placed on a microscope slide using a hanging drop method and observed in a light microscope or deposited onto a copper grid and observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using this method, isolated MTB may be studied microscopically to determine characteristics such as swimming behavior, type and number of flagella, cell morphology of the cells, shape of the magnetic crystals, number of magnetosomes, number of magnetosome chains in each cell, composition of the nanomineral crystals, and presence of intracellular vacuoles. PMID:23183960

  11. Collection, Isolation and Enrichment of Naturally Occurring Magnetotactic Bacteria from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K.; Lin, Wei; Lower, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are aquatic microorganisms that were first notably described in 19751 from sediment samples collected in salt marshes of Massachusetts (USA). Since then MTB have been discovered in stratified water- and sediment-columns from all over the world2. One feature common to all MTB is that they contain magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bound magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or greigite (Fe3S4) or both3, 4. In the Northern hemisphere, MTB are typically attracted to the south end of a bar magnet, while in the Southern hemisphere they are usually attracted to the north end of a magnet3,5. This property can be exploited when trying to isolate MTB from environmental samples. One of the most common ways to enrich MTB is to use a clear plastic container to collect sediment and water from a natural source, such as a freshwater pond. In the Northern hemisphere, the south end of a bar magnet is placed against the outside of the container just above the sediment at the sediment-water interface. After some time, the bacteria can be removed from the inside of the container near the magnet with a pipette and then enriched further by using a capillary racetrack6 and a magnet. Once enriched, the bacteria can be placed on a microscope slide using a hanging drop method and observed in a light microscope or deposited onto a copper grid and observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using this method, isolated MTB may be studied microscopically to determine characteristics such as swimming behavior, type and number of flagella, cell morphology of the cells, shape of the magnetic crystals, number of magnetosomes, number of magnetosome chains in each cell, composition of the nanomineral crystals, and presence of intracellular vacuoles. PMID:23183960

  12. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  13. Elevated Bacterial Abundance in Laboratory-Grown and Naturally Occurring Frost Flowers Under Late Winter Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, J. S.; Deming, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Sea ice has been identified as an important microbial habitat, with bacteria and other microbes concentrated in the brine inclusions between ice crystals. Frost flowers, thought to draw brine from underlying sea ice, have not been characterized from a microbial standpoint. To test whether frost flowers serve as an upward vector of bacteria contained within sea ice brines we grew frost flowers in a freezer laboratory (air temperature of -21°C) from saline water spiked with the mesophilic (and thus passive under experimental conditions) bacterium Halomonas pacifica. Salinity of melted samples was measured and bacterial abundance determined by epifluorescent microscopy. Bacterial counts scaled to ice-melt volume averaged 2.82 x 106 ml-1 for frost flowers, compared to 9.47 x 105 ml-1 for underlying ice (3 x higher). Bacterial counts also correlated significantly with salinity (maximum value of 62.5 psu) for frost flowers, brine skim, and ice (df = 17, r = 0.59, p < 0.0001). Segregation coefficients were calculated to describe the efficiency of transport of both cells and salt from the starting solution into frost flowers. From these coefficients an enrichment index was calculated to test for bacterial concentration into frost flowers at a different rate than salt. Analysis with a Student’s T-test (df = 24, t = 0.306, p = .76) indicated that cells and salt were not transported into frost flowers with a significantly different efficiency. To test these findings in the field we then collected frost flowers (and related samples) from new sea ice near Barrow, Alaska in April 2009. Bacterial counts were significantly elevated (again, a 3-fold increase) in natural frost flowers (mean = 2.73 x 105 ml-1) compared to underlying sea ice (mean = 8.46 x 104 cells ml-1). For all field samples collected (frost flowers, underlying brine skim and sea ice, as well as snow), bacterial abundance correlated significantly with salinity (maximum value 124 psu, df = 40, r = 0.60, p < 0

  14. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had “negative-type” mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas

  15. Mechanisms of action of naturally occurring antibodies against β-amyloid on microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring autoantibodies against amyloid-β (nAbs-Aβ) have been shown to exert beneficial effects on transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animals in vivo and on primary neurons in vitro. Not much is known about their effect on microglial cells. Our aim was to investigate the effect of nAbs-Aβ on amyloid-β (Aβ)-treated microglial cells in vitro with respect to cell viability, stress pathways, cytokine production and phagocytotic abilities and whether these effects can be conveyed to neurons. Methods Primary microglial cells isolated from Swiss Webster mouse mesencephalons on embryonic day 13.5 were pretreated with nAbs-Aβ and then treated with Aβ oligomers. After 3 hours, phagocytosis as well as western blot analysis were evaluated to measure the amount of phagocytized Aβ. Cell viability was analyzed using an MTT assay 24 hours after treatment. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants were analyzed with ELISAs and then we treated primary neuronal cells with these conditioned microglia supernatants. Twenty-four hours later we did a MTT assay of the treated neurons. We further investigated the effect of a single nAbs-Aβ administration on Tg2576 mice in vivo. Results Upon co-administration of Aβ and nAbs-Aβ no change in microglia viability was observed. However, there was an increase in phosphorylated p38 protein level, an increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in Aβ uptake by microglial cells. Treatment of primary neurons with conditioned microglia medium led to a 10% improvement in cell viability when nAbs-Aβ were co-administered compared to Aβ-treated cells alone. We were unable to detect changes in cytokine production in brain lysates of Tg2576 mice. Conclusions We provide evidence on the mechanism of action of nAbs-Aβ on microglia in vitro. Interestingly, our in vivo data indicate that nAbs-Aβ administration should be considered as a therapeutic strategy in AD, since there is no

  16. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference

    SciTech Connect

    William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was

  17. Dual Infection and Superinfection Inhibition of Epithelial Skin Cells by Two Alphaherpesviruses Co-Occur in the Natural Host

    PubMed Central

    Jarosinski, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Hosts can be infected with multiple herpesviruses, known as superinfection; however, superinfection of cells is rare due to the phenomenon known as superinfection inhibition. It is believed that dual infection of cells occurs in nature, based on studies examining genetic exchange between homologous alphaherpesviruses in the host, but to date, this has not been directly shown in a natural model. In this report, gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), better known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV), was used in its natural host, the chicken, to determine whether two homologous alphaherpesviruses can infect the same cells in vivo. MDV shares close similarities with the human alphaherpesvirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV), with respect to replication in the skin and exit from the host. Recombinant MDVs were generated that express either the enhanced GFP (eGFP) or monomeric RFP (mRFP) fused to the UL47 (VP13/14) herpesvirus tegument protein. These viruses exhibited no alteration in pathogenic potential and expressed abundant UL47-eGFP or -mRFP in feather follicle epithelial cells in vivo. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, it was evident that these two similar, but distinguishable, viruses were able to replicate within the same cells of their natural host. Evidence of superinfection inhibition was also observed. These results have important implications for two reasons. First, these results show that during natural infection, both dual infection of cells and superinfection inhibition can co-occur at the cellular level. Secondly, vaccination against MDV with homologous alphaherpesvirus like attenuated GaHV-2, or non-oncogenic GaHV-3 or meleagrid herpesvirus (MeHV-1) has driven the virus to greater virulence and these results implicate the potential for genetic exchange between homologous avian alphaherpesviruses that could drive increased virulence. Because the live attenuated varicella vaccine is currently being administered to children, who in turn could be superinfected

  18. Mortality of one-week-old chickens during naturally occurring Marek's disease virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a serious economic disease of chickens which occurs worldwide. MD can present as one of several forms, with the most commonly occurring forms being the lymphoproliferative diseases. Under experimental conditions, an early mortality syndrome has been recognized following infec...

  19. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2011-12-26

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  20. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2011-12-01

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  1. Evaluation of multiple schedules with naturally occurring and therapist-arranged discriminative stimuli following functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Shamlian, Kenneth D; Fisher, Wayne W; Steege, Mark W; Cavanaugh, Brenna M; Samour, Kristina; Querim, Angie C

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have shown that (a) functional communication training (FCT) is effective for reducing problem behavior, and (b) multiple schedules can facilitate reinforcer schedule thinning during FCT. Most studies tha have used multiple schedules with FCT have included therapist-arranged stimuli (e.g., colored cards) as the discriminative stimuli (S(D) s), but recently, researchers have evaluated similar multiple-schedule training procedures with naturally occurring S(D) s (e.g., overt therapist behavior). The purposes of the current study were to compare the effects of arranged and naturally occurring S(D) s directly during (a) acquisition of discriminated functional communication responses (FCRs) and (b) generalization of discriminated FCRs when we introduced the multiple schedules in novel contexts in which the naturally occurring stimuli were either relatively easy or difficult to discriminate. Results showed that (a) 2 of 3 participants acquired discriminated responding of the FCR more rapidly with arranged than with naturally occurring stimuli, (b) 2 of 3 participants showed resurgence of problem behavior , and (c) 2 of 3 participants showed greater generalization of discriminated responding to novel contexts with arranged stimuli than with naturally occurring stimuli. We discuss these results relative to the conditions under which naturally occurring and arranged S(D) s may promote rapid and generalized treatment gains. PMID:26790565

  2. AcuteToxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential public health issues related to exposure to natural asbestos deposits (commonly termed naturally occurring asbestos, NO A) has gained the regulatory and media spotlight in recent years. Arguably the most well known example is Libby, Montana, the site of the largest ...

  3. Nuclear genomic control of naturally occurring variation in mitochondrial function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells that play a crucial role in cellular survival and function. Mitochondrial function is under the control of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. While the latter has been the focus of most genetic research, we remain largely ignorant about the nuclear-encoded genomic control of inter-individual variability in mitochondrial function. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster as our model organism to address this question. Results We quantified mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiration rates and P:O ratio in mitochondria isolated from the thoraces of 40 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. We found significant within-population genetic variability for all mitochondrial traits. Hence, we performed genome-wide association mapping and identified 141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with differences in mitochondrial respiration and efficiency (P ≤1 × 10-5). Gene-centered regression models showed that 2–3 SNPs can explain 31, 13, and 18% of the phenotypic variation in state 3, state 4, and P:O ratio, respectively. Most of the genes tagged by the SNPs are involved in organ development, second messenger-mediated signaling pathways, and cytoskeleton remodeling. One of these genes, sallimus (sls), encodes a component of the muscle sarcomere. We confirmed the direct effect of sls on mitochondrial respiration using two viable mutants and their coisogenic wild-type strain. Furthermore, correlation network analysis revealed that sls functions as a transcriptional hub in a co-regulated module associated with mitochondrial respiration and is connected to CG7834, which is predicted to encode a protein with mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein activity. This latter finding was also verified in the sls mutants. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the genetic factors regulating natural variation in mitochondrial function in D

  4. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    can be used to bring some of Norman?s high-arsenic wells into compliance with the new arsenic standard, the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a three-year research project in 2003 with participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oklahoma State University, and the City of Norman. The primary objectives of the project are to: (1) determine where naturally occurring arsenic is entering wells by collecting water samples at different depths, (2) investigate the utility of new methods for collecting water-quality data in a pumping well, (3) better understand the stratigraphy and composition of aquifer rocks, (4) assess 10 wells for the possibility of arsenic remediation by well modification, and (5) evaluate the effectiveness of well modification in bringing marginal wells into compliance with the new arsenic MCL. The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence of arsenic in ground water near Norman, Oklahoma, and available options for reducing arsenic concentrations in produced ground water.

  5. The naturally occurring furanones: formation and function from pheromone to food.

    PubMed

    Colin Slaughter, J

    1999-08-01

    Three closely related 4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanones have been found in a range of highly cooked foodstuffs where they are important flavour compounds with aroma threshold values as low as 20 micrograms kg-1 water (approximately 0.14 mumol l-1). The compounds are formed mainly as a result of the operation of the Maillard reactions between sugars and amino acids during heating but one compound, 5-(or 2)-ethyl-2-(or 5)-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, appears in practice to be produced by yeast, probably from a Maillard intermediate, during the fermentation stages in the production of soy sauce and beer. The compounds are also important in the flavour of strawberry, raspberry, pineapple and tomato but the route of biosynthesis is unknown. Two 3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanones, emoxyfuranone and sotolon, which are produced spontaneously from amino acids such as threonine and 4-hydroxy-L-leucine are major contributors to meaty and spicy/nutty flavours in foods. The biosynthesis of 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) and 5-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (erythroascorbic acid) from sugars in plants and yeast, respectively, has been characterized to the enzymic level. After treatment with chlorine, humic waters contain a range of chloro-furanones, some of which, particularly 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), are powerful mutagens. The furanones which occur in foods are also mutagenic to bacteria and cause DNA damage in laboratory tests. However, these compounds are, in practice, very effective anti-carcinogenic agents in the diets of animals which are being treated with known cancer-inducing compounds such as benzo[alpha]pyrene or azoxymethane. Two of the food-derived furanones have antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. A biological function has been discovered for some of the furanones besides vitamin C. 5-Methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone is a male pheromone in the cockroach Eurycolis

  6. Type I natural killer T cells: naturally born for fighting

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jin-quan; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Lan; He, Yu-ling

    2010-01-01

    Type І natural killer T cells (NKT cells), a subset of CD1d-restricted T cells with invariant Vαβ TCR, are characterized by prompt production of large amounts of Th1 and/or Th2 cytokines upon primary stimulation through the TCR complex. The rapid release of cytokines implies that type І NKT cells may play a critical role in modulating the upcoming immune responses, such as anti-tumor response, protection against infection, and autoimmunity. As a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, type І NKT cells differentiate and mature upon stimulations to achieve and maintain a homeostasis. Orchestrating with other arms of adaptive immunity, type І NKT cells show strong cytotoxic effects in response to various tumors in a direct and/or indirect manner(s). This review will focus primarily on type І NKT cell development, homeostasis, and effector functions, especially in anti-tumor immunity, and followed by their potential applications in treatment of cancers. PMID:20694020

  7. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism. PMID:27374523

  8. Vitamin B12 Production and Depletion in a Naturally Occurring Eutrophic Lake1

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Paul A.; Morita, Richard Y.

    1972-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 within Upper Klamath Lake was surveyed at approximately monthly intervals during a period from September 1968 to November 1969. High concentrations (up to 1.8 μg/g of dry sediment) characteristically occurred at the water-sediment interface, with a sharp decline below this area. A heavy bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred from the latter part of May through October 1969. B12 concentrations of the uppermost sediments, from all but one sampling site, increased gradually through the bloom, followed by a drastic increase during the die-off period. B12 is probably not a limiting factor for primary productivity, since sufficient levels of this vitamin were found to occur throughout the year. Of 42 cultures isolated from Upper Klamath Lake water and sediments, 20 were found capable of producing 50 pg or more of B12/ml of medium. Phytoplankton samples were found to contain up to 5 μg of B12/g of dry material. Degradation of B12 occurred in sterilized as well as fresh sediment samples. PMID:4622828

  9. Preschool Children's Interest in Babies: Observations in Naturally-Occurring Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    Previous research in laboratory settings has found that preschool girls show more interest in babies than do preschool boys. To validate these findings in natural settings, 71 children at 3 and 5 years of age were observed by their parents as the children interacted with babies in their daily lives. Each child was observed with three different…

  10. First report of the natural occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in peanuts in Haiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  11. First Report of the Natural Occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Peanuts in Haiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  12. Single-born marmosets without hemopoietic chimerism: naturally occurring and induced.

    PubMed

    Gengozian, N; Batson, J S

    1975-01-01

    Marmosets have a high frequency of fraternal twinning, and placental vascular anastomoses between the twin fetuses invariably lead to hemopoietic chimerism. The occasional finding of chimerism in single-born marmosets suggested that in a twin pregnancy one fetus had undergone resorption after contributing hemopoietic stem cells to its twin. In this study non-chimeric single-born marmosets were produced by fallopian tube ligation or surgical relocation of one ovary in breeding females. Further, in an examination of hemopoietic cells from over 50 single-born young from nonoperated females, chimerism occurred less frequently than what one would expect if resorption of a co-twin had occurred after a functional anastomosis had been established. PMID:808628

  13. A naturally occurring nanomaterial from the Sundew (Drosera) for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lenaghan, S C; Serpersu, K; Xia, L; He, W; Zhang, M

    2011-12-01

    In recent years advances have been made in the design of novel materials for tissue engineering through the use of polysaccharides. This study evaluated the ability of a naturally secreted polysaccharide adhesive from the Sundew (Drosera capensis) as a support for cell growth. The Sundew adhesive has several advantages including its high elasticity and antibiotic nature. By coating glass cover slips with the Sundew adhesive, a network of nanofibers was generated that was capable of promoting attachment and differentiation of a model neuronal cell line, PC-12. We also demonstrated the potential of this material for repairing bone and soft tissue injuries, by testing attachment of osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Finally, it was determined that the Sundew biomaterial was stable through testing by atomic force microscopy and prolonged cell growth. This work has proven the capabilities of using a nanomaterial derived from the Sundew adhesive for the purpose of tissue engineering. PMID:22064887

  14. Naturally occurring variation in tadpole morphology and performance linked to predator regime

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James B; Saenz, Daniel; Adams, Cory K; Hibbitts, Toby J

    2015-01-01

    Divergent natural selection drives a considerable amount of the phenotypic and genetic variation observed in natural populations. For example, variation in the predator community can generate conflicting selection on behavioral, life-history, morphological, and performance traits. Differences in predator regime can subsequently increase phenotypic and genetic variations in the population and result in the evolution of reproductive barriers (ecological speciation) or phenotypic plasticity. We evaluated morphology and swimming performance in field collected Bronze Frog larvae (Lithobates clamitans) in ponds dominated by predatory fish and those dominated by invertebrate predators. Based on previous experimental findings, we hypothesized that tadpoles from fish-dominated ponds would have small bodies, long tails, and large tail muscles and that these features would facilitate fast-start speed. We also expected to see increased tail fin depth (i.e., the tail-lure morphology) in tadpoles from invertebrate-dominated ponds. Our results support our expectations with respect to morphology in affecting swimming performance of tadpoles in fish-dominated ponds. Furthermore, it is likely that divergent natural selection is playing a role in the diversification on morphology and locomotor performance in this system. PMID:26357533

  15. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. PMID:25233215

  16. Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    To support risk assessment efforts, a comparative study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of different types of fibers encountered in EPA clean-up efforts. Physico-chemical properties, and consequentially toxicity, are likely to be different among various fib...

  17. Thermal Conductivity Of Natural Type IIa Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Jan; Vining, Cronin; Zoltan, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Report describes application of flash diffusivity method to measure thermal conductivity of 8.04 x 8.84 x 2.35-mm specimen of natural, white, type-IIa diamond at temperatures between 500 and 1,250 K. Provides baseline for comparison to isotopically pure (12C) diamond. Results used as reference against which diamond films produced by chemical-vapor deposition at low pressures can be compared. High thermal conductivity of diamond exploited for wide variety of applications, and present results also used to estimate heat-conduction performances of diamond films in high-temperature applications.

  18. When a natural disaster occurs: lessons learned in meeting students' needs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Pamela G; Loffredo, Vincent J; McKee, John C

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation, weather-related natural disasters-tropical storms, floods, tornadoes, and earthquakes-struck even areas where weather concerns are not paramount on the minds of most people. These natural disasters heightened awareness that all geographic areas are susceptible to aberrant weather conditions. The purpose of this article was to relate the lessons learned by one academic health center in meeting students' emergency preparedness and disaster recovery needs following a major hurricane in fall 2008. To gauge students' storm-related needs, a Hurricane Needs Survey (HNS) was conducted in spring 2009, 7 months after the hurricane. Students responded to 26 structured response items and 3 open-ended questions. Five hundred fifteen surveys were completed, constituting a response rate of 37.2%. Data were analyzed by creating frequencies to profile students' hurricane experiences. Results indicated that all students left the island under mandatory evacuation orders; most stayed with their families, and most experienced moderate material losses. For some students, the evacuation process and life after the storm contributed to ongoing problems, worries, and academic performance issues. Qualitative content analysis was used to derive themes from the students' narrative responses to the HNS open-ended questions about their perceptions of the extent to which the University of Texas Medical Branch met their needs. When students' hurricane response comments were analyzed, three major themes emerged: being prepared, needing to be connected, and returning to normalcy. The major lessons learned are that the emergency preparation of students requires greater specificity and that discussion about poststorm recovery expectations is essential. Following a natural disaster, students experience more distress than may be readily apparent. PMID:22142912

  19. Naturally Occurring Incompatibilities between Different Culex pipiens pallens Populations as the Basis of Potential Mosquito Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy as a

  20. Naturally occurring radioactive material from the aluminium industry--a case study: the Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M

    2006-12-01

    The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in samples of bauxite, alumina and aluminium dross tailings industrial waste (used to produce two types of alums) using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. The bauxite and alumina are imported by Egyptalum (The Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt) from Guinea and India. The activity concentrations in the bauxite range from 29 +/- 1 to 112 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and 151 +/- 8 to 525 +/- 12 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, with mean values of 62 +/- 8 and 378 +/- 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. With respect to alumina and tail, the mean values are 5.7 +/- 1.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and 7.2 +/- 1.6 and 10.7 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th. Potassium-40 was not detected in any of the studied samples. The measured activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in bauxite are higher than the world average while in alumina and tail they are lower. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and members of the public, the Ra equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to natural radionuclides at 1 m above the ground surface were calculated. The external gamma-radiation doses received by the Egyptalum workers are 97, 409, 8.5 and 12.7 microSv y(-1) for the Guinean and Indian bauxite, the alumina and tail, respectively, which is well below the recommended allowed dose of 1 mSv y(-1) for non-exposed workers. PMID:17146126

  1. Comparison of reactive transport model predictions for natural attenuation processes occurring at chlorinated solvent contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, H. M.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of an analytical model and numerical model, namely BIOCLOR and HYDRODEOCHEM, for a test scenario involving the natural attenuations of dissolved solvent at chlorinated contaminated site are compared. Two models make same predictions for PCE, TCE and DCE and considerable different predictions for VC and ETH for the case of all species having identical retardation factors. Significant discrepancies between two models are observed for all species when retardation coefficients are considered to be different for all species. These differences can be attributed to the basic assumption that all the species have the same retardation factors embedded in BIOCHLOR.

  2. A Naturally Occurring GIP Receptor Variant Undergoes Enhanced Agonist-Induced Desensitization, Which Impairs GIP Control of Adipose Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Sameer; Patel, Rajesh T.; Bruno, Joanne; Panhwar, Muhammad Siyab; Wen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), an incretin hormone secreted from gastrointestinal K cells in response to food intake, has an important role in the control of whole-body metabolism. GIP signals through activation of the GIP receptor (GIPR), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Dysregulation of this pathway has been implicated in the development of metabolic disease. Here we demonstrate that GIPR is constitutively trafficked between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments of both GIP-stimulated and unstimulated adipocytes. GIP induces a downregulation of plasma membrane GIPR by slowing GIPR recycling without affecting internalization kinetics. This transient reduction in the expression of GIPR in the plasma membrane correlates with desensitization to the effects of GIP. A naturally occurring variant of GIPR (E354Q) associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in humans responds to GIP stimulation with an exaggerated downregulation from the plasma membrane and a delayed recovery of GIP sensitivity following cessation of GIP stimulation. This perturbation in the desensitization-resensitization cycle of the GIPR variant, revealed in studies of cultured adipocytes, may contribute to the link of the E354Q variant to metabolic disease. PMID:25047836

  3. Examining the impact of thought substitution on intentional forgetting in induced and naturally occurring dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; Ridout, Nathan

    2016-07-30

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if natural and induced dysphoria is associated with impaired forgetting and, whether a thought-substitution strategy would ameliorate any observed deficits. Study 1: 36 dysphoric & 36 non-dysphoric participants learnt a series of emotional word pairs. Participants were subsequently presented with some of the cues and were asked to recall the targets or prevent the targets from coming to mind. Half of the participants were provided with substitute words to recall instead of the original targets (aided suppression). At final memory testing, participants were asked to recall the targets to all cues. Dysphoric participants exhibited impaired forgetting, even when using a thought substitution strategy. Non-dysphoric participants, however, were able to use substitutes to suppress words. Study 2: 50 healthy participants initially completed the aided condition of the forgetting task. Participants were then given a positive or negative mood-induction, followed by another version of the forgetting task. Although all participants showed a forgetting effect prior to the mood-induction, only the positive group was successful at forgetting after the mood induction. Taken together, these findings do not support the utility of thought-substitution as an aid to forgetting in individuals in a naturally or induced dysphoric mood. PMID:27209358

  4. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    PubMed

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment. PMID:27093125

  5. Naturally occurring diversity helps to reveal genes of adaptive importance in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Gentzbittel, Laurent; Andersen, Stig U.; Ben, Cécile; Rickauer, Martina; Stougaard, Jens; Young, Nevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes challenge plants and drive adaptation to new conditions, suggesting that natural biodiversity may be a source of adaptive alleles acting through phenotypic plasticity and/or micro-evolution. Crosses between accessions differing for a given trait have been the most common way to disentangle genetic and environmental components. Interestingly, such man-made crosses may combine alleles that never meet in nature. Another way to discover adaptive alleles, inspired by evolution, is to survey large ecotype collections and to use association genetics to identify loci of interest. Both of these two genetic approaches are based on the use of biodiversity and may eventually help us in identifying the genes that plants use to respond to challenges such as short-term stresses or those due to global climate change. In legumes, two wild species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, plus the cultivated soybean (Glycine max) have been adopted as models for genomic studies. In this review, we will discuss the resources, limitations and future plans for a systematic use of biodiversity resources in model legumes to pinpoint genes of adaptive importance in legumes, and their application in breeding. PMID:25954294

  6. ELASTOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF NATURALLY OCCURING TENDON AND LIGAMENT INJURIES OF THE EQUINE DISTAL LIMB.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Meghann; Redding, W Rich; Labens, Raphael; Davis, Weston; Daniel, Thomas M; Griffith, Emily; Seiler, Gabriela S

    2015-01-01

    Compression elastography is an ultrasonographic technique that estimates tissue strain and may have utility in diagnosing and monitoring soft tissue injuries in the equine athlete. Recently, elastography has been proven to be a feasible and repeatable imaging modality for evaluating normal tendons and ligaments of the equine distal forelimb. The purposes of this prospective study were to investigate the ability of elastography to detect spontaneously occurring lesions of equine tendons and ligaments diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gray-scale ultrasound (US) and to characterize the differences in the elastographic appearance of acute vs. chronic injuries. Fifty seven horses with a total of 65 lesions were evaluated. Images were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Acute lesions were found to be significantly softer (P < 0.0001) than chronic lesions (P < 0.0001) and the stiffness of lesions increased with progression of healing (P = 0.0138). A negative correlation between lesion hypoechogenicity and softness was appreciated with more hypoechoic lesions appearing softer (P = 0.0087) and more hyperechoic regions harder (P = 0.0002). A similar finding occurred with increased signal intensity on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and proton density (PD) MRI sequences correlating with increased softness on elastography (P = 0.0164). Using US and MRI as references, commonly encountered soft tissue injuries of the equine distal limb could be detected with elastography. However, elastography was limited for detecting small, proximal injuries of the hindlimb proximal suspensory ligament. Elastographic evaluation of equine tendons and ligaments may allow better characterization of lesion chronicity and severity, and sequential examinations may optimize lesion management, rehabilitation, and return to training. PMID:26304065

  7. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  8. A naturally occurring variant of the human prion protein completely prevents prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Emmanuel A.; Smidak, Michelle; Grimshaw, Andrew; Houghton, Richard; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Hamdan, Shyma; Richard-Londt, Angela; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Brandner, Sebastian; Alpers, Michael; Whitfield, Jerome; Mead, Simon; Wadsworth, Jonathan D.F.; Collinge, John

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions, transmissible agents causing lethal neurodegenerative diseases, are composed of assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrP) 1. A novel PrP variant, G127V, was under positive evolutionary selection during the epidemic of kuru, an acquired prion disease epidemic of the Fore population in Papua New Guinea, and appeared to provide strong protection against disease in the heterozygous state2. We have now investigated the protective role of this variant and its interaction with the common worldwide M129V PrP polymorphism; V127 was seen exclusively on a M129 PRNP allele. Here we demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing both variant and wild type human PrP are completely resistant to both kuru and classical CJD prions (which are closely similar) but can be infected with variant CJD prions, a human prion strain resulting from exposure to BSE prions to which the Fore were not exposed. Remarkably however, mice expressing only PrP V127 were completely resistant to all prion strains demonstrating a different molecular mechanism to M129V, which provides its relative protection against classical CJD and kuru in the heterozygous state. Indeed this single amino acid substitution (G→V) at a residue invariant in vertebrate evolution is as protective as deletion of the protein. Further study in transgenic mice expressing different ratios of variant and wild type PrP indicates that not only is PrP V127 completely refractory to prion conversion, but acts as a potent dose-dependent inhibitor of wild type prion propagation. PMID:26061765

  9. A naturally occurring variant of the human prion protein completely prevents prion disease.

    PubMed

    Asante, Emmanuel A; Smidak, Michelle; Grimshaw, Andrew; Houghton, Richard; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Hamdan, Shyma; Richard-Londt, Angela; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Alpers, Michael; Whitfield, Jerome; Mead, Simon; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2015-06-25

    Mammalian prions, transmissible agents causing lethal neurodegenerative diseases, are composed of assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrP). A novel PrP variant, G127V, was under positive evolutionary selection during the epidemic of kuru--an acquired prion disease epidemic of the Fore population in Papua New Guinea--and appeared to provide strong protection against disease in the heterozygous state. Here we have investigated the protective role of this variant and its interaction with the common, worldwide M129V PrP polymorphism. V127 was seen exclusively on a M129 PRNP allele. We demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing both variant and wild-type human PrP are completely resistant to both kuru and classical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) prions (which are closely similar) but can be infected with variant CJD prions, a human prion strain resulting from exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions to which the Fore were not exposed. Notably, mice expressing only PrP V127 were completely resistant to all prion strains, demonstrating a different molecular mechanism to M129V, which provides its relative protection against classical CJD and kuru in the heterozygous state. Indeed, this single amino acid substitution (G→V) at a residue invariant in vertebrate evolution is as protective as deletion of the protein. Further study in transgenic mice expressing different ratios of variant and wild-type PrP indicates that not only is PrP V127 completely refractory to prion conversion but acts as a potent dose-dependent inhibitor of wild-type prion propagation. PMID:26061765

  10. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells. PMID:26747991

  11. Solid-state NMR in the analysis of drugs and naturally occurring materials.

    PubMed

    Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This article presents some of the solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR provides structural information on powder amorphous solids for which single-crystal diffraction structures cannot be obtained. NMR is non-destructive; the powder sample may be used for further studies. Quantitative results can be obtained, although solid-state NMR spectra are not normally quantitative. As compared with other techniques, MAS NMR is insensitive and requires a significant amount of the powder sample (2-100mg) to fill the 1.3-7 mm ZrO2 rotor. This is its main drawback, since natural compounds isolated from plants, microorganisms or cell cultures are difficult to obtain in quantities higher than a few milligrams. Multinuclear MAS NMR routinely uses (1)H and (13)C nuclei, less frequently (15)N, (19)F, (31)P, (77)Se, (29)Si, (43)Ca or (23)Na. The article focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of SSNMR, the studies were aimed to control over manufacturing processes (e.g. crystallization and milling) investigation of chemical and physical stability of solid forms both as pure drug and in a formulated product. SSNMR is used in combination with some other analytical methods (DSC, XRD, FT-IR) and theoretical calculations of NMR parameters. Biologically active compounds, such as amino acids and small peptides, steroids and flavonoids were studied by SSNMR methods (part 4) providing valuable structural information. The SSNMR experiments performed on biopolymers and large natural products like proteins, cellulose and lipid layers are commented upon briefly in part 5. PMID:24173236

  12. Predation and Parasitism Rates on Sentinel and Naturally Occurring Egg Masses of the Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal changes in egg predation and parasitism rates on sentinel and naturally occurring (wild) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg predation and parasitism were significantly ...

  13. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  14. A novel Arometic compound acts synergistically with a naturally occurring monoterpene to elicit strong behavioral responses in Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inscent, Inc. has developed methodologies for rapidly screening potential ligands of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) isolated from the antennae of target insects. These novel ligands, referred to as Arometics, mimic naturally-occurring odorants and may function as super-stimuli because of their strong ...

  15. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  16. The Case of an In-Home Recreation Program for an Older Adult in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an in-home therapeutic recreation (TR) program with an elderly woman living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) by a fourth-year TR student. The program helped meet her physical, social, and cognitive needs and re-stimulate her interests. Results suggest that in-home TR can be beneficial, and TR…

  17. The Nature, Occurring Contexts, and Psychological Implications of Weight-Related Teasing in Urban Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents…

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIOUS ISOLATES OF A NATURALLY OCCURRING RECOMBINANT AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS USING BIOLOGICAL ASSAYS AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we have isolated a naturally occurring recombinant avian leukosis virus (ALV) containing the envelope of ALV-B and LTR of ALV-J from commercial layer flocks affected with myeloid leukosis. Seven new isolates of the recombinant ALV, isolated from the same flock, were characterized using bio...

  19. Naturally occurring ERAP1 haplotypes encode functionally distinct alleles with fine substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Emma; Edwards, Christopher J; Elliott, Tim; James, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) trims peptides for MHC class I presentation, influencing the degree and specificity of CD8(+) T cell responses. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the exons encoding ERAP1 are associated with autoimmune diseases and cervical carcinoma, but it is not known whether they act independently or as disease-associated haplotypes. We sequenced ERAP1 from 20 individuals and show that single-nucleotide polymorphisms occur as distinct haplotypes in the human population and that these haplotypes encode functionally distinct ERAP1 alleles. Using a wide range of substrates, we are able to demonstrate that for any given substrate distinct ERAP1 alleles can be "normal," "hypofunctional," or "hyperfunctional" and that each allele has a trend bias toward one of these three activities. Thus, the repertoire of peptides presented at the cell surface for recognition by CTL is likely to depend on the precise combination of both MHC class I and ERAP1 alleles expressed within an individual, and has important implications for predisposition to disease. PMID:23733883

  20. Relationships between molecular structure and theology for xanthan, a naturally occurring, bacteria-produced cellulose derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Southwick, J.G.; Jamieson, A.M.; Blackwell, J.

    1983-01-01

    Quasielastic light scattering and other physical chemical techniques were used to compare the conformation and intermolecular interactions of xanthan in water, aqueous sodium chloride, and urea solutions. The results show that xanthan has a disordered conformation when dissolved in salt-free 4 M urea solutions, after they were maintained at 90/sup 0/C for 3 h and then cooled to room temperature. This conformation is similar to that observed previously only in low-ionic-strength solutions at higher temperature following disruption of the ordered low-temperature form. Anomalous behavior is seen for xanthan as a function of ionic strength, in that the hydrodynamic radius increases with increasing ionic strength, whereas a decrease is typical for polyelectrolytes. These observations suggest that aggregation of rod-like chains, similar to that seen for other stiff-chain polymers, occurs for xanthan in salt solutions, where the charged groups of the polyelectrolyte are screened by the salt ions. This aggregation may explain some of the high values of the molecular weight reported in the literature. 19 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Diagnostic features in 10 naturally occurring cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Brown, Cathy A

    2014-11-01

    The current report describes the diagnostic features in 10 cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis with minimal renal and hepatic changes that may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Most affected dogs were less than 6 months of age and had a biochemical profile consistent with hepatorenal dysfunction. Clinical signs consisted of vomiting, depression, icterus, dehydration, diarrhea, and anorexia. All dogs died or were humanely euthanized within 3-7 days after the onset of clinical disease. Necropsy findings included pulmonary edema with hemorrhages, icterus, renal and hepatic pallor and swelling, and gastric edema with hemorrhage. Despite severe azotemia, histological changes in the kidneys were subtle in all dogs, and included mild renal tubular simplification, with single-cell necrosis and attenuation, along with minimal interstitial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage. Hepatic lesions included scattered hepatocellular single-cell necrosis and hepatocellular dissociation. Prominent extrarenal lesions typically associated with uremia including vascular fibrinoid necrosis in multiple organs, pulmonary mineralization with occasional fibrinosuppurative exudation, and gastric mineralization were also present. Postmortem diagnostic confirmation was based on the detection of leptospiral antigen on fresh renal samples by fluorescent antibody test and on the demonstration of intact spirochetes in sections of kidneys using immunohistochemical staining. Acute fatal canine leptospirosis occurred as a fulminant hepatorenal disease affecting mainly young dogs, and the diagnosis was dependent on the recognition of the subtle renal changes with confirmation via fluorescent antibody testing or immunohistochemical staining. PMID:25274745

  2. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. PMID:24128326

  3. Naturally Occurring Class A ß-Lactamases from the Burkholderia cepacia Complex ▿

    PubMed Central

    Poirel, Laurent; Rodriguez-Martinez, José-Manuel; Plésiat, Patrick; Nordmann, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomally encoded ß-lactamases from the Burkholderia cepacia complex species (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia) were characterized. Cloning and sequencing identified an Ambler class A ß-lactamase (PenB) from B. cenocepacia. It shares 82% amino acid identity with the PenA ß-lactamases previously identified from B. multivorans 249. Its expression was dependent upon a LysR-type regulatory protein. Its narrow-spectrum hydrolysis activity mostly included penicillins but also included expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam at lower levels. In that study, Pen-like ß-lactamases (PenC, PenD, PenE, PenF) that shared 63 to 92% identity with PenB from B. cenocepacia were identified from other Burkholderia species. The corresponding ß-lactamase genes might be used as genetic tools for accurate Burkholderia species identification. PMID:19075063

  4. Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

  5. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  6. Bone remodeling adjacent to total hip replacements: A naturally occurring material design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, Timothy P.; Hamilton, James J.

    1993-10-01

    The reaction of bone to orthopedic implants is an example of a self-adjusting material which changes from a ‘normal state’ to an altered state, based on the mechanical features of the implant and the loads applied to it. The changes in bone around cemented and uncemented femoral total hip components are well documented, and many numerical characterizations of the material reaction to stress have attempted to mimic the natural remodeling process. In this study we review the development of a simple material remodeling rule which yields a stable structure which is optimal and which allows a unique solution. We then use this algorithm to assess the effect of prosthesis stiffness and the presence of a compliant layer on bone remodeling around these implants. An axisymmetric model for axial loading is used to model changes in bone density through the thickness of the cancellous bone around the implants. With cortical remodeling left out of the simulation, the simulations showed density distributions that agreed in general with the results in the literature, and showed a marked difference in response if a compliant layer was added to the prosthesis.

  7. Laboratory studies using naturally occurring "green rust" to aid metal mine water remediation.

    PubMed

    Bearcock, Jenny M; Perkins, William T; Pearce, Nicholas J G

    2011-06-15

    Green rust, an Fe (II) and (III) oxyhydroxy salt, can alter the aqueous oxidation state, mobility and toxicity, of inorganic contaminants and thus could have applications in water treatment. This paper discusses a series of stirred, open batch experiments designed to evaluate green rust, and its oxidised equivalent in this context comparing it to a ferrihydrite/goethite 'ochre'. Natural green rust was added to different mine waters as either a wet, reduced material or a dry, partially oxidised material. Experiments showed that the addition of either form accelerated the removal of potentially harmful elements from solution. Within one hour Fe, Al and Cu were completely removed from mine waters with initial concentrations of 80, 70 and 8.5mg/L, respectively, and Zn was reduced from 60 to <5mg/L. These experiments show the potential of green rust in mine water treatment, especially as it is able to remove problematic elements such as Al and Zn. The material is effective even after being dried and mostly oxidised. Changes to the pH and ORP of the mine waters and surface catalysis are the suggested mechanisms of accelerated removal of contaminants. PMID:21497995

  8. Electrosensory interference in naturally occurring aggregates of a species of weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia virescens.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric W; Nizar, Jonathan M; Carrera-G, Erika; Fortune, Eric S

    2005-10-14

    The detection and identification of behaviorally relevant signals in the presence of competing signals in the environment is a major challenge of animal sensory systems. In weakly electric fish such as Eigenmannia virescens, the interactions between the autogenous electric field and the electric fields of nearby conspecifics can have profound effects on the perception of other behaviorally relevant electrosensory information. To better understand the natural signals that the nervous system of Eigenmannia experiences during the processing of electrosensory information, we examined the electrosensory milieu of Eigenmannia in the wild and in the laboratory. Recordings of the electric fields of Eigenmannia were made in 'black' and 'white' waters near the Napo River in eastern Ecuador. Fourier analysis revealed that Eigenmannia typically experience the electric fields of three to five conspecifics during the day and night in each habitat. The median difference in electric organ discharge frequencies between nearby Eigenmannia during the day was 23 Hz in black water habitats, 41 Hz in white water, and 37 Hz at night in both habitats: these signals are known to activate tuberous electroreceptors and downstream CNS circuits. There was no correlation between the number of individual Eigenmannia detected at recording sites and electric organ discharge frequencies. Further, Eigenmannia apparently do not maximize the frequency differences between conspecifics. In laboratory studies fish were preferentially observed in aggregates of two fish or more. Aggregate sizes observed in the laboratory were similar to those in the wild. PMID:16099058

  9. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  10. Interactions between natural-occurring landscape conditions and land use influencing the abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, micropterus dolomieu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interactions between natural landscape features and land use influenced the abundance of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in Missouri, USA, streams. Stream segments were placed into one of four groups based on natural-occurring watershed characteristics (soil texture and soil permeability) predicted to relate to smallmouth bass abundance. Within each group, stream segments were assigned forest (n = 3), pasture (n = 3), or urban (n = 3) designations based on the percentages of land use within each watershed. Analyses of variance indicated smallmouth bass densities differed between land use and natural conditions. Decision tree models indicated abundance was highest in forested stream segments and lowest in urban stream segments, regardless of group designation. Land use explained the most variation in decision tree models, but in-channel features of temperature, flow, and sediment also contributed significantly. These results are unique and indicate the importance of natural-occurring watershed conditions in defining the potential of populations and how finer-scale filters interact with land use to further alter population potential. Smallmouth bass has differing vulnerabilities to land-use attributes, and the better the natural watershed conditions are for population success, the more resilient these populations will be when land conversion occurs.

  11. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  12. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  13. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  14. Microbial interactions with naturally occurring hydrophobic sediments: Influence on sediment and associated contaminant mobility.

    PubMed

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Lawrence, J R

    2016-04-01

    The erosion, transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants are known to be influenced by both particle characteristics and the flow dynamics imparted onto the sediment. The influential role of bitumen containing hydrophobic sediments and the microbial community on sediment dynamics are however less understood. This study links an experimental evaluation of sediment erosion with measured sediment-associated contaminant concentrations and microbial community analysis to provide an estimate of the potential for sediment to control the erosion, transport and fate of contaminants. Specifically the paper addresses the unique behaviour of hydrophobic sediments and the role that the microbial community associated with hydrophobic sediment may play in the transport of contaminated sediment. Results demonstrate that the hydrophobic cohesive sediment demonstrates unique transport and particle characteristics (poor settling and small floc size). Biofilms were observed to increase with consolidation/biostabilization times and generated a unique microbial consortium relative to the eroded flocs. Natural oil associated with the flocs appeared to be preferentially associated with microbial derived extracellular polymeric substances. While PAHs and naphthenic acid increased with increasing shear (indicative of increasing loads), they tended to decrease with consolidation/biostabilization (CB) time at similar shears suggesting a chemical and/or biological degradation. PAH and napthenic acid degrading microbes decreased with time as well, which may suggest that there was a reduced pool of PAHs and naphthenic acids available resulting in their die off. This study emphasizes the importance that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health incorporate the sediment (suspended and bed sediment) and biological (biofilm) compartments and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict contaminant

  15. Functional properties of a naturally occurring isoform of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Russwurm, M; Behrends, S; Harteneck, C; Koesling, D

    1998-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the target enzyme of the signalling molecule NO, contains one prosthetic haem group and consists of an alpha and a beta subunit. So far, only the alpha1beta1 heterodimer has been shown to exist in different cells and tissues, and most biochemical studies of sGC have been performed with the alpha1 beta1 heterodimer. Here we demonstrate for the first time the natural occurrence of the alpha2 subunit on the protein level. The alpha2 subunit co-precipitated with the beta1 subunit from human placenta, showing the existence of the alpha2 beta1 isoform in vivo. The new enzyme was expressed in and purified from cells from the Spodoptera frugiperda ovary cell line Sf 9. Spectral analysis showed that the alpha2 beta1 heterodimer contains a prosthetic haem group revealing the same characteristics as the haem in the alpha1 beta1 form. The kinetic properties of both isoforms and sensitivity towards NO were indistinguishable. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a selective inhibitor of sGC, abolished NO-stimulated activity of both heterodimers. The new NO-independent activator, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), increased the maximal NO-stimulated activity of the new isoform, caused a leftward-shift in the NO concentration-response curve and turned CO into an effective activator, as it did for the alpha1 beta1 heterodimer (200-fold activation). In summary, the differences in primary structure of both alpha subunits are contrasted by their functional similarity. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the physiological purpose of the new isoform. PMID:9742221

  16. Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis in Drosophila Melanogaster by Individual Naturally Occurring P Elements

    PubMed Central

    Rasmusson, K. E.; Raymond, J. D.; Simmons, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Individual P elements that were genetically isolated from wild-type strains were tested for their abilities to repress two aspects of hybrid dysgenesis: gonadal dysgenesis and mutability of a double-P element-insertion allele of the singed locus (sn(w)). These elements were also characterized by Southern blotting, polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing. Three of the elements were 1.1-kb KP elements, one was a 1.2-kb element called D50, and one was a 0.5-kb element called SP. These three types of elements could encode polypeptides of 207, 204, and 14 amino acids, respectively. Gonadal dysgenesis was repressed by two of the KP elements (denoted KP(1) and KP(6)) and by SP, but not by the third KP element (KP(D)), nor by D50. Repression of gonadal dysgenesis was mediated by a maternal effect, or by a combination of zygotic and maternal effects generated by the P elements themselves. The mutability of sn(w) was repressed by the KP(1) and KP(6) elements, by D50 and by SP, but not by KP(D); however, the SP element repressed sn(w) mutability only when the transposase came from complete P elements and the D50 element repressed it only when the transposase came from the modified P element known as Δ2-3. In all cases, repression of sn(w) mutability appeared to be mediated by a zygotic effect of the isolated P element. Each of the isolated elements was also tested for its ability to suppress the phenotype of a P-insertion mutation of the vestigial locus (vg(21-3)). D50 was a moderate suppressor whereas SP and the three KP elements had little or no effect. These results indicate that each isolated P element had its own profile of repression and suppression abilities. It is suggested that these abilities may be mediated by P-encoded polypeptides or by antisense P RNAs initiated from external genomic promoters. PMID:8384145

  17. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role. PMID:19276043

  18. Use of naturally occurring peptides for neuropathic spinal cord injury pain.

    PubMed

    Hama, Aldric; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2013-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by intractable pain as well as loss of motor and visceral control. As part of an overall strategy in patient rehabilitation and improvement in quality of life, pain management is crucial. Interestingly, SCI patients report pain below the level of injury that has characteristics of neuropathic-type pain. Preclinical studies suggest that a key substrate that underlies the symptoms of neuropathic pain such as spontaneous pain and below-level cutaneous hypersensitivity is aberrant activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons. While pharmacotherapies for peripheral neuropathic pain exist, these treatments may lead to adverse side effects in SCI patients, such as muscle weakness and constipation, which may exacerbate existing dysfunctions. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies are needed. One way to limit the adverse effects associated with systemically administered drugs is intrathecal delivery. Intrathecal delivery also directs drug to dorsal horn neurons. Another way to reduce the severity of side effects and to potentially enhance drug efficacy is to utilize combination drug therapy. While the conopeptide ziconotide has demonstrated clinical efficacy for severe chronic pain, a limitation of this drug is its potential for significant side effects. Combinations of conopeptides with currently available drugs as well as with other conopeptides could be an effective means of reducing neuropathic SCI pain. PMID:23721309

  19. Nutritional stability of various naturally occurring monoglutamate derivatives of folic acid.

    PubMed

    O'Broin, J D; Temperley, I J; Brown, J P; Scott, J M

    1975-05-01

    The nutritional stabilities of four major dietary folates were studied as their corresponding monoglutamates and were compared to pteroylglutamate (folic acid) itself. The study of the monoglutamyl rather than polyglutamyl forms was justified since the former are formed during the course of digestion and also addition of extra glutamyl residues is unlikely to affect the types of nutritional instability associated with these derivatives. Since ability to support growth in Lactobacillus casei is known to reflect nutritional activity in man this organism was used in the stability studies. It was found that pteroylglutamate and 5-formyltetrahydropteroylglutamate had nutritional stabilities of the order of weeks although the stability of the former was decreased by phosphate. Surprisingly 10-formyltetrahydropteroylglutamate was nutritionally more stable than expected, possibly due to its conversion to the more stable oxidized 10-formylpteroylglutamate or to the reduced 5-formyl derivative. In contrast 5-methyltetrahydropteroylglutamate was much less stable nutritionally than expected.Unsubstituted tetrahydropteroylglutamate was most unstable nutritionally but in contrast to the other derivatives examined it was more stable under acidic than basic conditions. Ascorbate was found to be a far superior stabilizing agent than 2-mercaptoethanol at comparable concentrations. PMID:236647

  20. Acute and chronic disease associated with naturally occurring T-2 mycotoxicosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ferreras, M C; Benavides, J; García-Pariente, C; Delgado, L; Fuertes, M; Muñoz, M; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V

    2013-02-01

    A flock of approximately 1,000 sheep were exposed intermittently to food contaminated with T-2 toxin (T-2), a potent type-A trichothecene mycotoxin produced primarily by Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae. In the acute stage of the intoxication, affected sheep developed anorexia, decreased water consumption, ruminal atony, soft faeces and apathy. One hundred and ninety of the exposed sheep died. The main gross lesions observed in animals dying during the acute disease were rumenitis and ulcerative abomasitis, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, necrosis of the exocrine pancreas, myocarditis and intense oedema of the skin and brain. Sheep developing the chronic stage of disease showed weight loss and reproductive inefficiency and the main pathological features observed in animals dying during this stage were gastrointestinal inflammation, myocardial fibrosis and necrotic and suppurative lesions in the oral cavity. Opportunistic infections (e.g. mycotic mastitis or parasitic pneumonia) were also identified in these animals. Increased serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were observed, most likely related to heart lesions. T-2 toxins were detected in all samples of the diet of these animals that were analyzed. The changes in the sheep reported here are similar to those described previously in experimental studies. Lesions observed in the present animals suggest an additional cardiotoxic effect of T-2 in sheep. PMID:22819015

  1. Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid, is an orally effective intestinal anti-inflammatory agent

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Petrosino, Stefania; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Coppola, Diana; Battista, Giovanni; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) acts via several targets, including cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) ion channels, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and orphan G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GRR55), all involved in the control of intestinal inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of PEA in a murine model of colitis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Inflammation was assessed by evaluating inflammatory markers/parameters and by histology; intestinal permeability by a fluorescent method; colonic cell proliferation by immunohistochemistry; PEA and endocannabinoid levels by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry; receptor and enzyme mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS DNBS administration caused inflammatory damage, increased colonic levels of PEA and endocannabinoids, down-regulation of mRNA for TRPV1 and GPR55 but no changes in mRNA for CB1, CB2 and PPARα. Exogenous PEA (i.p. and/or p.o., 1 mg·kg−1) attenuated inflammation and intestinal permeability, stimulated colonic cell proliferation, and increased colonic TRPV1 and CB1 receptor expression. The anti-inflammatory effect of PEA was attenuated or abolished by CB2 receptor, GPR55 or PPARα antagonists and further increased by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PEA improves murine experimental colitis, the effect being mediated by CB2 receptors, GPR55 and PPARα, and modulated by TRPV1 channels. PMID:25205418

  2. Naturally Occurring Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase without tRNA-dependent Pre-transfer Editing*

    PubMed Central

    Cvetesic, Nevena; Dulic, Morana; Bilus, Mirna; Sostaric, Nikolina; Lenhard, Boris; Gruic-Sovulj, Ita

    2016-01-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in having a tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing activity. Alongside the typical bacterial IleRS (such as Escherichia coli IleRS), some bacteria also have the enzymes (eukaryote-like) that cluster with eukaryotic IleRSs and exhibit low sensitivity to the antibiotic mupirocin. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ileS1 and ileS2 genes of contemporary bacteria are the descendants of genes that might have arisen by an ancient duplication event before the separation of bacteria and archaea. We present the analysis of evolutionary constraints of the synthetic and editing reactions in eukaryotic/eukaryote-like IleRSs, which share a common origin but diverged through adaptation to different cell environments. The enzyme from the yeast cytosol exhibits tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing analogous to E. coli IleRS. This argues for the presence of this proofreading in the common ancestor of both IleRS types and an ancient origin of the synthetic site-based quality control step. Yet surprisingly, the eukaryote-like enzyme from Streptomyces griseus IleRS lacks this capacity; at the same time, its synthetic site displays the 103-fold drop in sensitivity to antibiotic mupirocin relative to the yeast enzyme. The discovery that pre-transfer editing is optional in IleRSs lends support to the notion that the conserved post-transfer editing domain is the main checkpoint in these enzymes. We substantiated this by showing that under error-prone conditions S. griseus IleRS is able to rescue the growth of an E. coli lacking functional IleRS, providing the first evidence that tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing in IleRS is not essential for cell viability. PMID:26921320

  3. Widespread presence of naturally occurring perchlorate in high plains of Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rajagopalan, S.; Anderson, T.A.; Fahlquist, L.; Rainwater, K.A.; Ridley, M.; Jackson, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) occurrence in groundwater has previously been linked to industrial releases and the historic use of Chilean nitrate fertilizers. However, recently a number of occurrences have been identified for which there is no obvious anthropogenic source. Groundwater from an area of 155 000 km2 in 56 counties in northwest Texas and eastern New Mexico is impacted by the presence of ClO4-. Concentrations were generally low (<4 ppb), although some areas are impacted by concentrations up to 200 ppb. ClO4- distribution is not related to well type (public water system, domestic, agricultural, or water-table monitoring) or aquifer (Ogallala, Edward Trinity High Plains, Edwards Trinity Plateau, Seymour, or Cenozoic). Results from vertically nested wells strongly indicate a surface source. The source of ClO4- appears to most likely be atmospheric deposition. Evidence supporting this hypothesis primarily relates to the presence of ClO 4- in tritium-free older water, the lack of relation between land use and concentration distribution, the inability of potential anthropogenic sources to account for the estimated mass of ClO4-, and the positive relationship between conserved anions (e.g., IO3-, Cl-, SO4-2) and ClO4-. The ClO4- distribution appears to be mainly related to evaporative concentration and unsaturated transport. This process has led to higher ClO4- and other ion concentrations in groundwater where the water table is relatively shallow, and in areas with lower saturated thickness. Irrigation may have accelerated this process in some areas by increasing the transport of accumulated salts and by increasing the number of evaporative cycles. Results from this study highlight the potential for ClO4- to impact groundwater in arid and semiarid areas through long-term atmospheric deposition. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  4. Self-attenuation as a function of gamma ray energy in naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Millsap, D W; Landsberger, S

    2015-03-01

    Self-attenuation correction factors were experimentally determined using radioactive point sources in combination with a subject material of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) obtained from oil exploration waste products. The self-attenuation correction factors were taken across a range of gamma ray energies from 41.73 to 1408.0keV. It is noted that the greatest amount of self-attenuation occurs in the energy regime below 200keV and rises to near zero attenuation at higher energies for these types of samples. For the 46.5keV gamma ray of (210)Pb there can be an underestimation of 62%. PMID:25527897

  5. A naturally-occurring new lead-based halocuprate(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Mark D.; Rumsey, Michael S.; Kleppe, Annette K.

    2016-06-01

    Pb2Cu(OH)2I3 is a new type of halocuprate(I) that is a framework of alternating [Pb4(OH)4]4+ and [Cu2I6]4- units. The structure has been determined in orthorhombic space group Fddd to R1=0.037, wR2=0.057, GoF=1.016. Unit cell parameters are a=16.7082(9) Å, b=20.8465(15) Å, c=21.0159(14) Å, V=7320.0(8) Å3 (Z=32). There is no synthetic counterpart. The structure is based upon a cubane-like Pb4(OH)4 nucleus that is coordinated to sixteen iodide ions. Cu+ ions are inserted into pairs of adjacent edge-sharing tetrahedral sites in the iodide motif to form [Cu2I6]4- groups. The Raman spectrum of Pb2Cu(OH)2I3 has two O-H stretching modes and as such is consistent with space group Fddd, with two non-equivalent OH groups, rather than the related space group I41/acd which has only one non-equivalent OH group. Consideration of the 18-electron rule implies that there is a Cu=Cu double bond, which may be consistent with the short Cu…Cu distance of 2.78 Å, although the dearth of published data on the interpretation of Cu…Cu distances in halocuprate(I) compounds does not allow a clear-cut interpretation of this interatomic distance. The orthorhombic structure is compared with that of the synthetic halocuprate(I) compound Pb2Cu(OH)2BrI2 with space group I41/acd and having chains of corner-linked CuI4 tetrahedra rather than isolated Cu2I6 pairs. The paired motif found in Pb2Cu(OH)2I3 cannot be achieved in space group I41/acd and, conversely, the chain motif cannot be achieved in space group Fddd. As such, the space group defines either a chain or an isolated-pair motif. The existence of Pb2Cu(OH)2I3 suggests a new class of inorganic halocuprate(I)s based upon the Pb4(OH)4 group.

  6. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants of the Pig-Specific, Intestinal Crypt Epithelial Cell Protein CLCA4b without Apparent Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Binder, Stefanie; Van Hook, Matthew J.; Thoreson, Wallace B.; Gruber, Achim D.; Mundhenk, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The human CLCA4 (chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated) modulates the intestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients via an as yet unknown pathway. With the generation of new porcine CF models, species-specific differences between human modifiers of CF and their porcine orthologs are considered critical for the translation of experimental data. Specifically, the porcine ortholog to the human CF modulator gene CLCA4 has recently been shown to be duplicated into two separate genes, CLCA4a and CLCA4b. Here, we characterize the duplication product, CLCA4b, in terms of its genomic structure, tissue and cellular expression patterns as well as its in vitro electrophysiological properties. The CLCA4b gene is a pig-specific duplication product of the CLCA4 ancestor and its protein is exclusively expressed in small and large intestinal crypt epithelial cells, a niche specifically occupied by no other porcine CLCA family member. Surprisingly, a unique deleterious mutation of the CLCA4b gene is spread among modern and ancient breeds in the pig population, but this mutation did not result in an apparent phenotype in homozygously affected animals. Electrophysiologically, neither the products of the wild type nor of the mutated CLCA4b genes were able to evoke a calcium-activated anion conductance, a consensus feature of other CLCA proteins. The apparently pig-specific duplication of the CLCA4 gene with unique expression of the CLCA4b protein variant in intestinal crypt epithelial cells where the porcine CFTR is also present raises the question of whether it may modulate the porcine CF phenotype. Moreover, the naturally occurring null variant of CLCA4b will be valuable for the understanding of CLCA protein function and their relevance in modulating the CF phenotype. PMID:26474299

  7. Soil-to-Crop Transfer Factors of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Stable Elements for Long-Term Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2007-07-01

    A soil-to-crop transfer factor, TF, is a key parameter that directly affects the internal dose assessment for the ingestion pathway, however, obtaining TFs of various long-lived radionuclides occurred during operation of nuclear power plants is difficult because most of them could not be found in natural environments. In this study, therefore, we collected crops and their associated soils throughout Japan and measured more than 50 elements to obtain TFs under equilibrium conditions. The TFs were calculated for 42 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tl, Pb, Th and U) from their concentrations in both crop and soil samples. The TF is defined as the concentration of an isotope in a crop (in Bq/kg or mg/kg dry weight) divided by the concentration of the isotope in soil (in Bq.kg or mg/kg dry weight). Probability distributions of TFs for 62 upland field crops were usually log-normal type so that geometric means (GMs) were calculated. The values for the elements of interest from the viewpoint of long-term dose assessment were 2.5E-02 for Se, 7.9E-02 for Sr, 3.1E-03 for Cs, 4.2E-04 for Th and 4.6E-04 for U. Leafy vegetable showed the highest TFs for all the elements among the crop groups. It was clear that these data were usually within the 95% confidence limits of TFs compiled by IAEA in Technical Report Series 364. (authors)

  8. The Naturally Occurring Luteinizing Hormone Surge Is Diminished in Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Ovary1

    PubMed Central

    Jayes, Friederike L.; Burns, Katherine A.; Rodriguez, Karina F.; Kissling, Grace E.; Korach, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Female ESR2-null mice (betaERKO) display defects in ovarian function and are subfertile. Follicular maturation is impaired and explains smaller litters, but betaERKO also produce fewer litters, which may be partially due to inadequate ovulatory signals. To test this, the amplitude and timing of the naturally occurring luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was measured in individual intact betaERKO and wild-type (WT) mice. Vaginal cytology was evaluated daily, and blood samples were taken from mice in proestrus. The amplitude of the LH surge was severely blunted in betaERKO mice compared to WT, but pituitary LH levels revealed no differences. The betaERKO mice did not produce a preovulatory estradiol surge. To determine if the smaller LH surges and the reduced number of litters in betaERKO were due to the lack of ESR2 in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or due to the absence of ESR2 in the ovary, ovaries were transplanted from WT into betaERKO mice and vice versa. The size of the LH surge was reduced only in mice lacking ESR2 within the ovary, and these mice had fewer litters. Fertility and size of the LH surge were rescued in betaERKO mice receiving a WT ovary. These data provide the first experimental evidence that the LH surge is impaired in betaERKO females and may contribute to their reduced fertility. ESR2 is not necessary within the pituitary and hypothalamus for the generation of a normal LH surge and for normal fertility, but ESR2 is essential within the ovary to provide proper signals. PMID:24337314

  9. A comprehensive analysis and functional characterization of naturally occurring non-synonymous variants of nuclear receptor PXR.

    PubMed

    Rana, Manjul; Devi, Suneeta; Gourinath, Samudrala; Goswami, Ravinder; Tyagi, Rakesh K

    2016-09-01

    Pregnane & Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) acts as a xenosensing transcriptional regulator of many drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters of the 'detoxification machinery' that coordinate in elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics from the cellular milieu. It is an accepted view that some individuals or specific populations display considerable differences in their ability to metabolize different drugs, dietary constituents, herbals etc. In this context we speculated that polymorphisms in PXR gene might contribute to variability in cytochrome P450 (CYP450) metabolizing enzymes of phase I, drug metabolizing components of phase II and efflux components of the detoxification machinery. Therefore, in this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive functional analysis of seventeen naturally occurring non-synonymous variants of human PXR. When compared, we observed that some of the PXR SNP variants exhibit distinct functional and dynamic responses on parameters which included transcriptional function, sub-cellular localization, mitotic chromatin binding, DNA-binding properties and other molecular interactions. One of the unique SNP located within the DNA-binding domain of PXR was found to be functionally null and distinct on other parameters. Similarly, some of the non-synonymous SNPs in PXR imparted reduced transactivation function as compared to wild type PXR. Interestingly, PXR is reported to be a mitotic chromatin binding protein and such an association has been correlated to an emerging concept of 'transcription memory' and altered transcription output. In view of the observations made herein our data suggest that some of the natural PXR variants may have adverse physiological consequences owing to its influence on the expression levels and functional output of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The present study is expected to explain not only the observed inter-individual responses to different drugs but may also highlight the mechanistic details and

  10. Removal of lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials by extraction with naturally occurring oils or synthetic substitutes thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.R.; Orme, T.W.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of removing lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials comprising blood plasma and fractions thereof containing the lipid soluble process chemicals. The lipid soluble process chemical is a virus attenuating solvent having a high flash point, a detergent, or a mixture thereof. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the lipid soluble process chemicals into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure. Also described is a method of removing lymphokine inducing phorbol esters from lympholkine-containing biological material. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the phorbol esters into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure so as to remove 80% or more of the phorbol esters.

  11. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G. . E-mail: luis.valerio@FDA.HHS.gov; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.; Contrera, Joseph F.

    2007-07-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals

  12. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Washington State: Swift Creek at the Intersection of Science, Law, and Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melious, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern corner of Washington state, a large landslide on Sumas Mountain deposits more than 100,000 cubic yards of soil containing asbestos fibers and heavy metals into Swift Creek every year. Engineers predict that asbestos-laden soils will slide into Swift Creek for at least the next 400 years. Swift Creek joins the Sumas River, which crosses the border into Canada, serving as an international delivery system for asbestos-laden soils. When the rivers flood, as happens regularly, they deliver asbestos into field, yards, and basements. The tools available to address the Swift Creek situation are at odds with the scope and nature of the problem. Asbestos regulation primarily addresses occupational settings, where exposures can be estimated. Hazardous waste regulation primarily addresses liability for abandoned waste products from human activities. Health and environmental issues relating to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are fundamentally different from either regulatory scheme. Liability is not a logical lever for a naturally occurring substance, the existence of which is nobody's fault, and exposures to NOA in the environment do not necessarily resemble occupational exposures. The gaps and flaws in the legal regime exacerbate the uncertainties created by uncertainties in the science. Once it is assumed that no level of exposure is safe, legal requirements adopted in very different contexts foreclose the options for addressing the Swift Creek problem. This presentation will outline the applicable laws and how they intersect with issues of risk perception, uncertainty and politics in efforts to address the Swift Creek NOA site.

  13. Natural Progression of Canine Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Elizabeth D; Yi, Haiqing; Austin, Stephanie L; Thurberg, Beth L; Young, Sarah P; Fyfe, John C; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa) is caused by a deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme activity. Hepatomegaly, muscle degeneration, and hypoglycemia occur in human patients at an early age. Long-term complications include liver cirrhosis, hepatic adenomas, and generalized myopathy. A naturally occurring canine model of GSD IIIa that mimics the human disease has been described, with progressive liver disease and skeletal muscle damage likely due to excess glycogen deposition. In the current study, long-term follow-up of previously described GSD IIIa dogs until 32 mo of age (n = 4) and of family-owned GSD IIIa dogs until 11 to 12 y of age (n = 2) revealed that elevated concentrations of liver and muscle enzyme (AST, ALT, ALP, and creatine phosphokinase) decreased over time, consistent with hepatic cirrhosis and muscle fibrosis. Glycogen deposition in many skeletal muscles; the tongue, diaphragm, and heart; and the phrenic and sciatic nerves occurred also. Furthermore, the urinary biomarker Glc4, which has been described in many types of GSD, was first elevated and then decreased later in life. This urinary biomarker demonstrated a similar trend as AST and ALT in GSD IIIa dogs, indicating that Glc4 might be a less invasive biomarker of hepatocellular disease. Finally, the current study further demonstrates that the canine GSD IIIa model adheres to the clinical course in human patients with this disorder and is an appropriate model for developing novel therapies. PMID:26884409

  14. Distribution of the PBC-specific- (M2) and the naturally-occurring mitochondrial antigen- (NOMAg) systems in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, P; Klein, R; Becker, E W; Berg, P A

    1992-01-01

    In previous studies it was demonstrated that antibodies in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and their relatives can recognize two different antigen systems in the ATPase fraction prepared from beef heart mitochondria, namely the PBC-related M2- and the naturally occurring mitochondrial antigen (NOMAg)-related epitopes. Since separation of these two antigen systems could not be achieved using mammalian mitochondria, mitochondria from a wide spectrum of plants were analysed with respect to the presence of mitochondrial antigens. Mitochondria from 29 species of plants were prepared and tested by ELISA and Western blot using marker sera from patients with PBC reacting in the Western blot with M2a,b,c,d (alpha-ketoacid-dehydrogenase complex) and NOMAg-specific sera recognizing the three major epitopes epsilon, zeta, and eta at 65, 61 and 58 kD. Naturally occurring mitochondrial antibody (NOMA)-positive marker sera reacted in the ELISA with mitochondria from all plants, and the zeta/eta positive sera gave also a positive reaction at 61/58 kD in the Western blot while the epsilon epitope could not be visualized by this method. In contrast, the M2 antigen was detected preferentially in lower plants such as algae, fungi, and ferns. Analysing these data with respect to the evolution of proteins one would have to assume that the M2 antigen was lost in most higher plants or underwent some structural alterations. Furthermore, considering the fact that the M2- and the NOMAg-related epitopes could be only partially separated, i.e. there were no plant mitochondria showing only M2 but no NOMAg, one could speculate that anti-M2 antibodies are derived from the pool of naturally occurring antibodies. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1281057

  15. Naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase: synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and X-ray crystallographic studies.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaoan; Sun, Hongbin; Liu, Jun; Cheng, Keguang; Zhang, Pu; Zhang, Liying; Hao, Jia; Zhang, Luyong; Ni, Peizhou; Zographos, Spyros E; Leonidas, Demetres D; Alexacou, Kyra-Melinda; Gimisis, Thanasis; Hayes, Joseph M; Oikonomakos, Nikos G

    2008-06-26

    Twenty-five naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes, 15 of which were synthesized in this study, were biologically evaluated as inhibitors of rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa). From SAR studies, the presence of a sugar moiety in triterpene saponins resulted in a markedly decreased activity ( 7, 18- 20) or no activity ( 21, 22). These saponins, however, might find their value as potential natural prodrugs which are much more water-soluble than their corresponding aglycones. To elucidate the mechanism of GP inhibition, we have determined the crystal structures of the GPb-asiatic acid and GPb-maslinic acid complexes. The X-ray analysis indicates that the inhibitors bind at the allosteric activator site, where the physiological activator AMP binds. Pentacyclic triterpenes represent a promising class of multiple-target antidiabetic agents that exert hypoglycemic effects, at least in part, through GP inhibition. PMID:18517260

  16. Naturally occurring NS3 resistance-associated variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1: Their relevance for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Natalia; Betancour, Gabriela; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Hernández, Nelia; López, Pablo; Chiodi, Daniela; Sánchez, Adriana; Boschi, Susana; Fajardo, Alvaro; Sóñora, Martín; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 130-150 million infected individuals worldwide. HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment options in developing countries involve pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin as dual therapy or in combination with one or more direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) after treatment reveals the great variability of this virus leading to a great difficulty in developing effective antiviral strategies. Baseline RAVs detected in DAA treatment-naïve HCV-infected patients could be of great importance for clinical management and outcome prediction. Although the frequency of naturally occurring HCV NS3 protease inhibitor mutations has been addressed in many countries, there are only a few reports on their prevalence in South America. In this study, we investigated the presence of RAVs in the HCV NS3 serine protease region by analysing a cohort of Uruguayan patients with chronic hepatitis C who had not been treated with any DAAs and compare them with the results found for other South American countries. The results of these studies revealed that naturally occurring mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors exist in a substantial proportion of Uruguayan treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 enrolled in these studies. The identification of these baseline RAVs could be of great importance for patients' management and outcome prediction in developing countries. PMID:27449600

  17. Naturally occurring rhodopsin mutation in the dog causes retinal dysfunction and degeneration mimicking human dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Kijas, James W.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Pianta, Michael J.; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Miller, Brian J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2002-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by light and initiates the transduction cascade leading to night (rod) vision. Naturally occurring pathogenic rhodopsin (RHO) mutations have been previously identified only in humans and are a common cause of dominantly inherited blindness from retinal degeneration. We identified English Mastiff dogs with a naturally occurring dominant retinal degeneration and determined the cause to be a point mutation in the RHO gene (Thr4Arg). Dogs with this mutant allele manifest a retinal phenotype that closely mimics that in humans with RHO mutations. The phenotypic features shared by dog and man include a dramatically slowed time course of recovery of rod photoreceptor function after light exposure and a distinctive topographic pattern to the retinal degeneration. The canine disease offers opportunities to explore the basis of prolonged photoreceptor recovery after light in RHO mutations and determine whether there are links between the dysfunction and apoptotic retinal cell death. The RHO mutant dog also becomes the large animal needed for preclinical trials of therapies for a major subset of human retinopathies. PMID:11972042

  18. Assessment of naturally occurring covalent and total dimer levels in human IgG1 and IgG2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jane; Goetze, Andrew M; Flynn, Gregory C

    2014-03-01

    Antibody dimers, two self-associated monomers, have been detected on both recombinantly expressed and endogenous human IgG proteins. Nearly 10 years ago, Yoo et al. (2003) described low levels of IgG2 covalent dimer, in human serum, but did not quantify the levels. Here we quantify the total and covalent dimer levels of IgG2 and IgG1 in human blood, and study the origin of covalent dimer formation. Low levels (<1%) of total IgG1 and IgG2 dimers were measured in freshly prepared human plasma. Both IgG1 and IgG2 covalent dimers were also found in plasma. Whereas IgG1 covalent dimer levels were significantly reduced by steps intended to eliminate artifacts during sample preparation, IgG2 covalent dimer levels remain stable in such conditions. About 0.4% of IgG2 in plasma was in a covalent dimer form, yet very little (<0.03%) of IgG1 covalent dimer could be considered naturally occurring. IgG2 dimer also formed in vitro under conditions designed to mimic those in blood, suggesting that formation occurs in vivo during circulation. Thus, small amounts of covalent IgG2 dimer do appear to form naturally. PMID:24321397

  19. Distribution of injected technetium(99m)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in horses with naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Patricia; Valdés Vázquez, Miguel A; Dudhia, Jayesh; Fiske-Jackson, Andrew R; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G; Smith, Roger K W

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate immediate cell survival and distribution following different administration routes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into naturally occurring tendon injuries. Ten million MSCs, labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, were implanted into 13 horses with naturally occurring tendon or ligament injuries intra-lesionally, intravenously and by regional perfusion, and traced for up to 48 h using planar gamma scintigraphy. Labeling efficiencies varied between 1.8% and 18.5% (mean 9.3%). Cells were retained in the damaged area after intra-lesional administration but only 24% of cells were still present within the tendon after 24 h. After intravenous injection, cells largely distributed to the lung fields, with no detectable cells in the tendon lesions. Significant labeling of the tendon lesions was observed in 11/12 horses following regional perfusion but at a lower level to intra-lesional injection. The highest cell numbers were retained after intra-lesional injection, although with considerable cell loss, while regional perfusion may be a viable alternative for MSC delivery. Cells did not "home" to damaged tendon in large numbers after intravenous administration. Cells were detected in the lungs most frequently after intravascular administration, although with no adverse effects. Low cell retention has important implications for designing effective clinical therapies for human clinical use. PMID:23508674

  20. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system. PMID:26754957

  1. Naturally occurring tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell precursors in individuals with and without cancer.

    PubMed

    Karanikas, Vaios; Zamanakou, Maria; Soukou, Faye; Kerenidi, Theodora; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Germenis, Anastasios E

    2010-07-01

    Boosting pre-existing, naturally occurring cytolytic CD8(+) T-cell (CTLs) responses directed against class-I MHC-restricted peptides of tumor antigens, represents a primary goal of cancer immunotherapy. The number of pre-existing antitumor CTLs and their impaired function has been incriminated as the most likely candidates for the reduced clinical efficacy of these trials. This study was scheduled to determine possible differences in the frequency and the function of naturally occurring CTL precursors (pCTLs) against multiple peptides derived from the cancer-testis antigens MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A3, and the overexpressed antigen hTERT, in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients as compared with aged-matched healthy individuals. The cumulative frequency of circulating peptide-specific pCTLs was found significantly higher in the cancer patients, varied widely and was not affected by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Furthermore, this frequency was greatly different between the various tumor-antigen peptides. Under the light of recent evidence provided from animal models, these results indicate that the peptide-specific pCTL frequency might represent an important determinant for the fate of cancer immunotherapy. In addition, our results show that tumor-specific pCTLs of cancer patients can present functional differences regarding their proliferative capacity, intensity of multimer staining and lytic capacity, when compared with those of healthy individuals. Hence, our findings could have an important role for the design of improved immunotherapeutic approaches for lung cancer. PMID:20142837

  2. Molecular Imprint of Exposure to Naturally Occurring Genetic Variants of Human Cytomegalovirus on the T cell Repertoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Corey; Gras, Stephanie; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Bird, Nicola L.; Valkenburg, Sophie A.; Twist, Kelly-Anne; Burrows, Jacqueline M.; Miles, John J.; Chambers, Daniel; Bell, Scott; Campbell, Scott; Kedzierska, Katherine; Burrows, Scott R.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Khanna, Rajiv

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring variants of herpesviruses in clinical settings can have a dramatic impact on anti-viral immunity. Here we have evaluated the molecular imprint of variant peptide-MHC complexes on the T-cell repertoire during human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and demonstrate that primary co-infection with genetic variants of CMV was coincident with development of strain-specific T-cell immunity followed by emergence of cross-reactive virus-specific T-cells. Cross-reactive CMV-specific T cells exhibited a highly conserved public T cell repertoire, while T cells directed towards specific genetic variants displayed oligoclonal repertoires, unique to each individual. T cell recognition foot-print and pMHC-I structural analyses revealed that the cross-reactive T cells accommodate alterations in the pMHC complex with a broader foot-print focussing on the core of the peptide epitope. These findings provide novel molecular insight into how infection with naturally occurring genetic variants of persistent human herpesviruses imprints on the evolution of the anti-viral T-cell repertoire.

  3. New LMI-Based Passivity Criteria for Neutral-Type BAM Neural Networks with Randomly Occurring Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, R.; Anbuvithya, R.; Mathiyalagan, K.; Arunkumar, A.; Prakash, P.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we study the passivity analysis for a class of neutral-type BAM neural networks with time-varying delays and randomly occurring uncertainties as well as generalized activation functions. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach together with the construction of proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional involving triple integrals and augmented type constraint is implemented to derive a new set of sufficient conditions for obtaining the required result. More precisely, first we derive the passivity condition for BAM neural networks without uncertainties and then the result is extended to the case with randomly occurring uncertainties. In particular, the presented results depend not only upon discrete delay but also distributed time varying delay. The obtained passivity conditions are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities that can be easily solved by using the MATLAB-LMI toolbox. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed passivity criterion is demonstrated through numerical example.

  4. A Nonselective Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Enhances the Activity of Vinblastine in a Naturally-Occurring Canine Model of Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Ruple-Czerniak, Audrey; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Naughton, James F.; Fulkerson, Christopher M.; Honkisz, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy is expected to remain an important part of invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) treatment. Strategies to enhance chemotherapy efficacy are needed. Objective: To determine the chemotherapy-enhancing effects of a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor on vinblastine in a naturally-occurring canine model of invasive UC. Methods: With IACUC approval, privately-owned dogs with naturally-occurring histologically-diagnosed invasive UC, expected survival ≥6 weeks, and informed owner consent were randomly allocated to receive vinblastine (2.5 mg/m2 intravenously every 2 weeks) plus piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg daily per os) or vinblastine alone (same dose) with the option to receive piroxicam alone when vinblastine failed. Scheduled evaluations included physical exam, standard laboratory analyses, thoracic radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and standardized measurement of urinary tract tumors. Results: Dogs receiving vinblastine alone (n = 27) and vinblastine-piroxicam (n = 24) were similar in age, sex, breed, tumor stage, and grade. Remission occurred more frequently (P <  0.02) with vinblastine-piroxicam (58.3%) than with vinblastine alone (22.2%). The median progression free interval was 143 days with vinblastine alone and 199 days with the combination. Interestingly, the overall median survival time was significantly longer (P <  0.03) in dogs receiving vinblastine alone followed by piroxicam alone (n = 20, 531 days) than in dogs receiving the combination (299 days). Treatment was well tolerated in both arms. Conclusions: Piroxicam significantly enhanced the activity of vinblastine in dogs with UC where the cancer closely mimics the human condition, clearly justifying further study. The study suggest the potential importance of tracking COX inhibitor use in patients in clinical trials as COX inhibitors could affect treatment response. PMID:27376143

  5. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5’ cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila. PMID:26799957

  6. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products. PMID:26822920

  7. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  8. Positive selection of natural poly-reactive B cells in the periphery occurs independent of heavy chain allelic inclusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ying; Ji, Qiuhe; Lin, Ying; Fu, Meng; Gao, Jixin; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Xingbin; Feng, Lei; Liu, Yufeng; Han, Hua; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Natural autoreactive B cells are important mediators of autoimmune diseases. Receptor editing is known to play an important role in both central and peripheral B cell tolerance. However, the role of allelic inclusion in the development of natural autoreactive B cells is not clear. Previously, we generated μ chain (TgV(H)3B4I) and μ/κ chains (TgV(H/L)3B4) transgenic mice using transgene derived from the 3B4 hybridoma, which produce poly-reactive natural autoantibodies. In this study, we demonstrate that a considerable population of B cells edited their B cells receptors (BCRs) via light chain or heavy chain allelic inclusion during their development in TgV(H)3B4I mice. Additionally, allelic inclusion occurred more frequently in the periphery and promoted the differentiation of B cells into marginal zone or B-1a cells in TgV(H)3B4I mice. B cells from TgV(H/L)3B4 mice expressing the intact transgenic 3B4 BCR without receptor editing secreted poly-reactive 3B4 antibody. Interestingly, however, B cell that underwent allelic inclusion in TgV(H)3B4I mice also produced poly-reactive autoantibodies in vivo and in vitro. Our findings suggest that receptor editing plays a minor role in the positive selection of B cells expressing natural poly-reactive BCRs, which can be positively selected through heavy chain allelic inclusion to retain their poly-reactivity in the periphery. PMID:25993514

  9. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V3+ in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V3+/Vtot ratio, followed by determination of V3+ in the presence of V4+. The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100?? in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V3+-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe3+ is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. ?? 1985.

  10. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field. PMID:26293623

  11. Polarization dependent two-photon absorption spectroscopy on a naturally occurring biomarker (curcumin) in solution: A theoretical-experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiburcio-Moreno, Jose A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Diaz, Carlos; Echevarria, Lorenzo; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the theoretical-experimental analysis of the two-photon absorption (TPA) and two-photon circular-linear dichroism (TPCLD) spectra of (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (curcumin) in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The measurement of the full TPA spectrum of this molecule reveals a maximum TPA cross-section at 740 nm, i.e. more than 10 times larger than the maximum reported in the literature at 800 nm for the application of curcumin in bioimaging. The TPCLD spectrum exposes the symmetry of the main excited-states involved in the two-photon excitation process. TD-DFT calculations support the experimental results. These outcomes are expected to expand the application of natural-occurring dyes in bioimaging.

  12. Comment on ``Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, R. C.; de Laeter, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    In their article “Existence of Long-Lived Isomeric States in Naturally-Occuring Neutron-Deficient Th Isotopes” [Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303 (2007)], Marinov fail to demonstrate that basic mass spectrometric protocols, such as abundance sensitivity, linearity, and freedom from possible interferences, have been met. In particular, the claim that four isomeric states of Th have been discovered, using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS), with abundances from (1-10)×10-11 relative to Th232, cannot be accepted, given the known abundance sensitivities of other sector field mass spectrometers. Accelerator mass spectrometry is the only mass spectrometric methodology capable of measuring relative abundances of the magnitude claimed by Marinov

  13. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates.

    PubMed

    Wanty, R B; Goldhaber, M B

    1985-05-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V(3+) in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V(3+)/V(tot) ratio, followed by determination of V(3+) in the presence of V(4+). The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100 degrees in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V(3+)-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe(3+) is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. PMID:18963866

  14. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results. PMID:23602707

  15. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gbadago, J K; Faanhof, A; Darko, E O; Schandorf, C

    2011-09-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment. PMID:21865616

  16. Functional characterization of naturally occurring melittin peptide isoforms in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Park, Doori; Jung, Je Won; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Si Young; Kim, Boyun; Jin, Hye Jun; Kim, Jiyoung; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Ki Won; Song, Yong Sang; Hong, Seunghun; Womack, James E; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2014-03-01

    Insect-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have diverse effects on antimicrobial properties and pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation and anticancer properties. Naturally occurring genetic polymorphism have a direct and/or indirect influence on pharmacological effect of AMPs, therefore information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurring in natural AMPs provides an important clue to therapeutic applications. Here we identified nucleotide polymorphisms in melittin gene of honey bee populations, which is one of the potent AMP in bee venoms. We found that the novel SNP of melittin gene exists in these two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Nine polymorphisms were identified within the coding region of the melittin gene, of which one polymorphism that resulted in serine (Ser) to asparagine (Asp) substitution that can potentially effect on biological activities of melittin peptide. Serine-substituted melittin (Mel-S) showed more cytotoxic effect than asparagine-substituted melittin (Mel-N) against E. coli. Also, Mel-N and Mel-S had different inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory factors such as IL-6 and TNF-α in BV-2 cells. Moreover, Mel-S showed stronger cytotoxic activities than Mel-N peptide against two human ovarian cancer cell lines. Using carbon nanotube-based transistor, we here characterized that Mel-S interacted with small unilamellar liposomes more strongly than Mel-N. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that there exist different characteristics of the gene frequency and the biological activities of the melittin peptide in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and A. cerana. PMID:24512991

  17. Naturally Occurring Variation in the Glutathione-S-Transferase 4 Gene Determines Neurodegeneration After Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ström, Mikael; Lindblom, Rickard; Aeinehband, Shahin; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Lidman, Olle; Piehl, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Genetic factors are important for outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI), although exact knowledge of relevant genes/pathways is still lacking. We here used an unbiased approach to define differentially activated pathways between the inbred DA and PVG rat strains. The results prompted us to study further if a naturally occurring genetic variation in glutathione-S-transferase alpha 4 (Gsta4) affects the outcome after TBI. Results: Survival of neurons after experimental TBI is increased in PVG compared to the DA strain. Global expression profiling analysis shows the glutathione metabolism pathway to be the most regulated between the strains, with increased Gsta4 in PVG among top regulated transcripts. A congenic strain (R5) with a PVG genomic insert containing the Gsta4 gene on DA background displays a reversal of the strain pattern for Gsta4 expression and increased survival of neurons compared to DA. Gsta4 is known to effectively reduce 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a noxious by-product of lipid peroxidation. Immunostaining of 4-HNE was evident in both rat and human TBI. Intracerebral injection of 4-HNE resulted in neurodegeneration with increased levels of a marker for nerve injury in cerebrospinal fluid of DA compared to R5. Innovation: These findings provide strong support for the notion that the inherent capability of coping with increased 4-HNE after TBI affects outcome in terms of nerve cell loss. Conclusion: A naturally occurring variation in Gsta4 expression in rats affects neurodegeneration after TBI. Further studies are needed to explore if genetic variability in Gsta4 can be associated to outcome also in human TBI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 784–794. PMID:22881716

  18. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. Participants’ appraisals of the negative impact of LEs reported at age 15 were statistically adjusted using investigator-based ratings to control for objective differences across LEs. Higher appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were associated with both past and current depressive and anxiety disorders at age 15 and predicted subsequent first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders occurring between ages 15 and 20. In addition, appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were particularly elevated among those experiencing both a depressive and anxiety disorder over the course of the study. The findings suggest that systematically elevated appraisals of the negative impact of LEs is a predisposing factor for depression and anxiety disorders and may represent a specific risk factor for co-morbid depression and anxiety in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Keywords: depression; anxiety; stress appraisals; prospective study; PMID:21845380

  19. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions. PMID:26470235

  20. Radiation-induced Sarcomas Occurring in Desmoid-type Fibromatosis Are Not Always Derived From the Primary Tumor.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Arie J; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Wijers-Koster, Pauline; Coffin, Cheryl M; Lazar, Alexander J; Nout, Remi A; Rubin, Brian P; Gelderblom, Hans; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-12-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a rare, highly infiltrative, locally destructive neoplasm that does not metastasize, but recurs often after primary surgery. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is the pathogenic mechanism, caused by an activating mutation in exon 3 of CTNNB1 (85% of the sporadic patients). Radiotherapy is a frequent treatment modality with a local control rate of approximately 80%. In very rare cases, this may result in the development of radiation-induced sarcoma. It is unclear whether these sarcomas develop from the primary tumor or arise de novo in normal tissue. In 4 tertiary referral centers for sarcoma, 6 cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis that subsequently developed sarcoma after radiotherapy were collected. The DNA sequence of CTNNB1 exon 3 in the desmoid-type fibromatosis and the subsequent postradiation sarcoma was determined. Sarcomas developed 5 to 21 years after the diagnosis of desmoid-type fibromatosis and included 2 osteosarcomas, 2 high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma, and 1 undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma. Three patients showed a CTNNB1 hotspot mutation (T41A, S45F, or S45N) in both the desmoid-type fibromatosis and the radiation-induced sarcoma. The other 3 patients showed a CTNNB1 mutation in the original desmoid-type fibromatosis (2 with a T41A and 1 with an S45F mutation), which was absent in the sarcoma. In conclusion, postradiation sarcomas that occur in the treatment area of desmoid-type fibromatosis are extremely rare and can arise through malignant transformation of CTNNB1-mutated desmoid fibromatosis cells, but may also originate from CTNNB1 wild-type normal cells lying in the radiation field. PMID:26414222

  1. Impact of viral activators and epigenetic regulators on HIV-1 LTRs containing naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonia; Pirrone, Vanessa; Alexaki, Aikaterini; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Wigdahl, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration into host cell DNA, the viral promoter can become transcriptionally silent in the absence of appropriate signals and factors. HIV-1 gene expression is dependent on regulatory elements contained within the long terminal repeat (LTR) that drive the synthesis of viral RNAs and proteins through interaction with multiple host and viral factors. Previous studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) site I and Sp site III (3T, C-to-T change at position 3, and 5T, C-to-T change at position 5 of the binding site, respectively, when compared to the consensus B sequence) that are low affinity binding sites and correlate with more advanced stages of HIV-1 disease. Stably transfected cell lines containing the wild type, 3T, 5T, and 3T5T LTRs were developed utilizing bone marrow progenitor, T, and monocytic cell lines to explore the LTR phenotypes associated with these genotypic changes from an integrated chromatin-based microenvironment. Results suggest that in nonexpressing cell clones LTR-driven gene expression occurs in a SNP-specific manner in response to LTR activation or treatment with trichostatin A treatment, indicating a possible cell type and SNP-specific mechanism behind the epigenetic control of LTR activation. PMID:25629043

  2. Ecological Physiology of Synechococcus sp. Strain SH-94-5, a Naturally Occurring Cyanobacterium Deficient in Nitrate Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott R.; Castenholz, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world. PMID:11425713

  3. Diagnosis of a naturally occurring dual infection of layer chickens with fowlpox virus and gallid herpesvirus 1 (infectious laryngotracheitis virus).

    PubMed

    Diallo, Ibrahim S; Taylor, Jim; Gibson, John; Hoad, John; De Jong, Amanda; Hewitson, Glen; Corney, Bruce G; Rodwell, Barry J

    2010-02-01

    An outbreak of acute respiratory disease in layers was diagnosed as being of dual nature due to fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis using a multidisciplinary approach including virus isolation, histopathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The diagnosis was based on virus isolation of gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1) in chicken kidney cells and fowlpox virus (FWPV) in 9-day-old chicken embryonated eggs inoculated via the chorioallantoic membrane. The histopathology of tracheas from dead birds revealed intra-cytoplasmic and intra-nuclear inclusions suggestive of poxvirus and herpesvirus involvement. The presence of FWPV was further confirmed by electron microscopy, PCR and histology. All FWPV isolates contained the long terminal repeats of reticuloendotheliosis virus as demonstrated by PCR. GaHV-1 isolates were detected by PCR and were shown to have a different restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern when compared with the chicken embryo origin SA2 vaccine strain; however, they shared the same pattern with the Intervet chicken embryo origin vaccine strain. This is a first report of dual infection of chickens with GaHV-1 and naturally occurring FWPV with reticuloendotheliosis virus insertions. Further characterization of the viruses was carried out and the results are reported here. PMID:20390533

  4. Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2011-10-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by {gamma}- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. {chi}{sup 2} test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

  5. Ecological physiology of Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5, a naturally occurring cyanobacterium deficient in nitrate assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world.

  6. Two Types of Definites in Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Florian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the description and analysis of two semantically different types of definite articles in German. While the existence of distinct article paradigms in various Germanic dialects and other languages has been acknowledged in the descriptive literature for quite some time, the theoretical implications of their existence…

  7. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices. PMID:21892762

  8. A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally-occurring canine leishmaniosis, part I: vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Carbonell-Antoñanzas, M; Aiassa, E; Dhollander, S; Zagmutt, F J; Brodbelt, D C; Solano-Gallego, L

    2014-11-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic disease; however, the efficacy of available vaccines for the prevention of naturally-occurring Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs remains unclear. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of currently available vaccines to prevent naturally-occurring L. infantum infection in dogs. Four bibliographic databases (CAB Direct 2011, Web of Science 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine 2011 and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) were searched along with eight sets of conference proceedings and the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) database, from 1980 to November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised clinical trials (NRCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated vaccine efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search was conducted for all mitigations for CanL and yielded the title and abstract of 937 articles, from which 84 articles were screened based on full text. Twelve studies on vaccinations (five RCTs, seven NRCTs) were identified. Ten studies were at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, whilst two were at an unclear risk. The use of 200 μg ALM protein, Leishmune(®), CaniLeish(®), LiESAp with MDP, and ALM with BCG tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. The use of lyophilized protein vaccine significantly

  9. Expression of a naturally occurring angiotensin AT(1) receptor cleavage fragment elicits caspase-activation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cook, Julia L; Singh, Akannsha; DeHaro, Dawn; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N

    2011-11-01

    Several transmembrane receptors are documented to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. Our prior studies indicate that a population of the 7-transmembrane angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT(1)R) is cleaved in a ligand-augmented manner after which the cytoplasmic, carboxy-terminal cleavage fragment (CF) traffics to the nucleus. In the present report, we determine the precise cleavage site within the AT(1)R by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. Cleavage occurs between Leu(305) and Gly(306) at the junction of the seventh transmembrane domain and the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal domain. To evaluate the function of the CF distinct from the holoreceptor, we generated a construct encoding the CF as an in-frame yellow fluorescent protein fusion. The CF accumulates in nuclei and induces apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. All cell types show nuclear fragmentation and disintegration, as well as evidence for phosphotidylserine displacement in the plasma membrane and activated caspases. RASMCs specifically showed a 5.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in CF-induced active caspases compared with control and a 7.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in cleaved caspase-3 (Asp174). Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was upregulated 4.8-fold (P < 0.001) in CF expressing cardiomyoblasts and colocalized with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). CF expression also induces DNA laddering, the gold-standard for apoptosis in all cell types studied. CF-induced apoptosis, therefore, appears to be a general phenomenon as it is observed in multiple cell types including smooth muscle cells and cardiomyoblasts. PMID:21813711

  10. Purification and characterization of naturally occurring HIV-1 (South African subtype C) protease mutants from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Sibusiso B; Natarajan, Satheesh; Sharma, Vikas; Bhattacharyya, Neelakshi; Govender, Thavendran; Sayed, Yasien; Maguire, Glenn E M; Lin, Johnson; Kruger, Hendrik G

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in sub-Saharan Africa represent about 56% of global infections. Many studies have targeted HIV-1 protease for the development of drugs against AIDS. Recombinant HIV-1 protease is used to screen new drugs from synthetic compounds or natural substances. Along with the wild type (C-SA) we also over-expressed and characterized two mutant forms from patients that had shown resistance to protease inhibitors. Using recombinant DNA technology, we constructed three recombinant plasmids in pGEX-6P-1 and expressed them containing a sequence encoding wild type HIV protease and two mutants (I36T↑T contains 100 amino acids and L38L↑N↑L contains 101 amino acids). These recombinant proteins were isolated from inclusion bodies by using QFF anion exchange and GST trap columns. In SDS-PAGE, we obtained these HIV proteases as single bands of approximately 11.5, 11.6 and 11.7 kDa for the wild type, I36T↑Tand L38L↑N↑L mutants, respectively. The enzyme was recovered efficiently (0.25 mg protein/L of Escherichia coli culture) and had high specific activity of 2.02, 2.20 and 1.33 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) at an optimal pH of 5 and temperature of 37 °C for the wild type, I36T↑T and L38L↑N↑L, respectively. The method employed here provides an easy and rapid purification of the HIV-1(C-SA) protease from the inclusion bodies, with high yield and high specific activities. PMID:26917227

  11. Evaluation of the varying Naturally Occurring Asbestos mitigation measures at School and Commercial construction projects in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalika, S.

    2012-12-01

    In commercial development or K-12 school construction, project sites are often purchased and much of the planning process completed prior to an assessment of the soils proposed for excavation or potential offhaul. Geologic maps, while initially helpful for identifying potential hazards such as landslides and earthquake faults, are less helpful in the identification of naturally occurring hazardous minerals, such as the seven regulated minerals currently classified as asbestos. Geologic maps identify mafic and ultramafic bedrock zones; however, a skilled geologist with knowledge of asbestos hazards will further visualize the earth-shaping processes that may have resulted in the deposition of naturally occurring asbestos in locations outside mapped ultramafic zones including the base of an alluvial fan or within streambed channels. When sampled as an afterthought prior to disposal, property owners are surprised by the budget-crippling costs of waste handling and disposal of NOA, as well as mitigations required to protect the health of construction workers, the public, and future site occupants. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) continues to lead the way in evaluation and regulation of NOA, through development of the CARB 435 preparation and laboratory analytical method, local enforcement of the Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations (ATCM), and implementation of dust control measures to protect public health. A thorough site evaluation and construction design includes utilization of the sampling methods developed by the California Geological Survey, laboratory analytical methods within CARB 435, and mitigation measures required by CARB, DTSC, and OSHA for the protection of worker and public health after NOA is discovered. The site evaluation should additionally include an assessment of the future site usage, as regulations differ based on potential health affects to future occupants

  12. The immune checkpoint regulator PD-L1 is a specific target for naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Munir, Shamaila; Andersen, Gitte Holmen; Svane, Inge Marie; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-04-01

    Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an important regulator of T-cell responses and may consequently limit anticancer immunity. We have recently identified PD-L1-specific, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. In the present study, we develop these findings and report that CD4(+) helper T cells spontaneously recognize PD-L1. We examined the locality of a previously identified HLA-A*0201-restricted PD-L1-epitope for the presence of possible CD4(+) T-cell epitopes. Thus, we identified naturally occurring PD-L1-specific CD4(+) T cells among the peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients and - to lesser extents - healthy donors, by means of ELISPOT assays. PD-L1-specific CD4(+) T cells appeared to be TH17 cells exhibiting an effector T-cell cytokine profile. Hence, PD-L1-specific CD4(+) T cells released interferon γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in response to a long PD-L1-derived peptide. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the specific recognition of PD-L1 by CD4(+) T cells is MHC class II-restricted. Natural T-cell responses against PD-L1 are noteworthy as they may play a prominent role in the regulation of the immune system. Thus, cytokine release from PD-L1-specific CD4(+) T cells may surmount the overall immunosuppressive actions of this immune checkpoint regulator. Moreover, PD-L1-specific T cells might be useful for anticancer immunotherapy, as they may counteract common mechanisms of immune escape mediated by the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway. PMID:23734334

  13. The immune checkpoint regulator PD-L1 is a specific target for naturally occurring CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Shamaila; Andersen, Gitte Holmen; Svane, Inge Marie; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an important regulator of T-cell responses and may consequently limit anticancer immunity. We have recently identified PD-L1-specific, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. In the present study, we develop these findings and report that CD4+ helper T cells spontaneously recognize PD-L1. We examined the locality of a previously identified HLA-A*0201-restricted PD-L1-epitope for the presence of possible CD4+ T-cell epitopes. Thus, we identified naturally occurring PD-L1-specific CD4+ T cells among the peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients and - to lesser extents - healthy donors, by means of ELISPOT assays. PD-L1-specific CD4+ T cells appeared to be TH17 cells exhibiting an effector T-cell cytokine profile. Hence, PD-L1-specific CD4+ T cells released interferon γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in response to a long PD-L1-derived peptide. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the specific recognition of PD-L1 by CD4+ T cells is MHC class II-restricted. Natural T-cell responses against PD-L1 are noteworthy as they may play a prominent role in the regulation of the immune system. Thus, cytokine release from PD-L1-specific CD4+ T cells may surmount the overall immunosuppressive actions of this immune checkpoint regulator. Moreover, PD-L1-specific T cells might be useful for anticancer immunotherapy, as they may counteract common mechanisms of immune escape mediated by the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway. PMID:23734334

  14. Naturally occurring Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 infection in a Midwest United States mink (Mustela vison) ranch.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hildebrandt, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) causes acute respiratory disease in humans and a variety of animal species. The virus tends to remain within the species of origin; nonetheless, naturally occurring cross-species transmission of FLUAV has been periodically documented. Multiple cross-species transmissions of FLUAV have been reported from companion animals and captive wild animals, neither of which is historically considered as natural hosts of FLUAV. In the fall of 2010, mink (Mustela vison) inhabiting a 15,000-head mink farm in the Midwest United States experienced persistent severe respiratory distress and nose and/or mouth bleeding. Mink losses averaged approximately 10 animals per day. Six dead mink at 6 months of age were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic investigation. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that all 6 mink had hemorrhagic bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from lungs, probably accounting for hemorrhagic pneumonia. All animals tested negative for Canine distemper virus and Aleutian mink disease virus. Interestingly, FLUAV of H1N2 subtype, which contained the matrix gene of swine lineage, was detected in the lungs. Serological follow-up on mink that remained in the ranch until pelting also confirmed that the ranch had been exposed to FLUAV of H1 subtype (δ clade). The case study suggests that FLUAV should be included in the differential diagnosis when mink experience epidemics of respiratory disease. Since the source of FLUAV appeared to be uncooked turkey meat, feeding animals fully cooked ration should be considered as a preventive measure. PMID:22362526

  15. Antioxidant capacity of polychaetes occurring at a natural CO2 vent system: Results of an in situ reciprocal transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Ricevuto, E; Benedetti, M; Regoli, F; Spicer, J I; Gambi, M C

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is occurring at a fast rate, resulting in changes of carbonate chemistry in the oceans and in lowering of the pH. Previous studies have documented significant changes in the antioxidant defenses of marine species in response to OA. Here, selected polychaete species, Platynereis dumerilii, Polyophthalmus pictus and Syllis prolifera, were sampled from a natural CO2 vent system (pH = 7.3) and from a non-venting 'control' site (pH = 8.1), and reciprocally transplanted in these areas for 30 days. Total antioxidant capacity toward different forms of oxyradicals was compared in native and transplanted polychaetes: the aim was to assess whether the environmental conditions at the vent site would act as a prooxidant stressor, and the capability of polychaetes to modulate their antioxidant capacity to counteract a varied oxyradicals formation. None of the investigated species enhanced the antioxidant potential during the experiment. A significant reduction of the capability to neutralize different forms of oxyradicals was observed in P. pictus and, partially, in S. prolifera when transplanted from control to naturally-acidified conditions. On the other hand, populations of P. dumerilii originating from the vent and of S. prolifera from both control and acidified sites, showed higher constitutive antioxidant efficiency toward peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, which may allow them to cope with short-term and chronic exposure to higher oxidative pressure without further enhancement of antioxidant defenses. Since low pH - high pCO2 is the greatest environmental difference between the control and the vent sites, we suggest that the pro-oxidant challenge due to such peculiarities may have different biological consequences in different polychaete species. Some appear more susceptible to oxidative effects, while others acquire a long term acclimatization to vent conditions through the enhancement of their basal antioxidant protection. PMID:26392350

  16. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  17. Modeling the effects of naturally occurring organic carbon on chlorinated ethene transport to a public supply well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system.

  18. Modeling the effects of naturally occurring organic carbon on chlorinated ethene transport to a public supply well.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Francis H; Kauffman, Leon J; Widdowson, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system. PMID:24372440

  19. Modeling the Effects of Naturally Occurring Organic Carbon on Chlorinated Ethene Transport to a Public Supply Well†

    PubMed Central

    Chapelle, Francis H; Kauffman, Leon J; Widdowson, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system. PMID:24372440

  20. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Grande, Stuart W.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  1. Photoinduced chemical reactions on natural single crystals and synthesized crystallites of mercury(II) sulfide in aqueous solution containing naturally occurring amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bonamali; Ikeda, Shigeru; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2003-03-10

    Photoirradiation at >300 nm of aqueous suspensions of several natural crystal specimens and synthesized crystallites of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) induced deaminocyclization of optically active or racemic lysine into pipecolinic acid (PCA) under deaerated conditions. This is the first example, to the best of our knowledge, of photoinduced chemical reactions of natural biological compounds over natural minerals. It was found that the natural HgS crystals had activity higher than those of synthesized ones but lower than those of other sulfides of transition metals, e.g., CdS and ZnS, belonging to the same II-IV chalcogenides. In almost all of the photoreactions, decompostion of HgS occurred to liberate hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and Hg(2+), and the latter seemed to have undergone in-situ reductive deposition on HgS as Hg(0) after a certain induction period (24-70 h) during the photoirradiation, as indicated by the darkened color of the suspensions. The formation of PCA, presumably through combination of oxidation of lysine and reduction of an intermediate, cyclic Schiff base, could also be seen after a certain induction time of the Hg(0) formation. This was supported by the fact that the addition of small amount of Hg(2+) (0.5 wt % of HgS) increased the PCA yield by almost 2-fold. We also tried to elucidate certain aspects of the plausible stereochemical reactions in relation to the chiral crystal structure of HgS. Although, in some experiments, slight enantiomeric excess of the product PCA was observed, the excess was below or equal to the experimental error and no other supporting analytical data could not be obtained; we cannot conclude the enantiomeric photoproduction of PCA by the natural chiral HgS specimen. PMID:12611518

  2. Control of hypoglossal motoneurones during naturally occurring sleep and wakefulness in the intact, unanaesthetized cat: a field potential study.

    PubMed

    Fung, Simon J; Chase, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    The present electrophysiological study was designed to determine the discharge threshold of hypoglossal motoneurones during naturally occurring states of sleep and wakefulness in the intact, unanaesthetized cat. The antidromic field potential, which reflects the net level of membrane excitability of motoneurones and therefore their discharge threshold, was recorded in the hypoglossal nucleus following stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve. The amplitude of the antidromic field potential was larger during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep compared with REM sleep. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of the field potential when wakefulness was compared with NREM sleep (P = 0.103, df = 3, t = 2.324). However, there was a 46% reduction in amplitude during REM sleep compared with NREM sleep (P < 0.001, df = 10, t = 6.421) or wakefulness (P < 0.01, df = 4, t = -4.598). These findings indicate that whereas the excitability of motoneurones that comprise the hypoglossal motor pool is relatively constant during wakefulness and NREM sleep, their excitability is significantly reduced during REM sleep. This state-dependent pattern of control of hypoglossal motoneurones during REM sleep is similar to that reported for motoneurones in other motor nuclei at all levels of the neuraxis. The decrease in the evoked response of hypoglossal motoneurones, which reflects a significant increase in the discharge threshold of individual motoneurones, results in atonia of the lingual and related muscles during REM sleep. PMID:24605864

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for meniscal tears in dogs affected with naturally occuring cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Blond, Laurent; Thrall, Donald E; Roe, Simon C; Chailleux, Nadege; Robertson, Ian D

    2008-01-01

    A stifle magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol was developed based on the appearance of the cruciate ligaments and menisci in normal dogs. Proton density images were subjectively considered to have the highest likelihood of detecting a meniscal lesion. Following this initial evaluation, the accuracy of high-field MR imaging to detect meniscal tears in dogs was evaluated in 11 dogs suffering from naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Dogs underwent MR imaging of the affected stifle before surgery. MR imaging and surgical findings were assessed independently, and then compared. Five tears of the medial meniscus were correctly diagnosed with MR imaging and 19 normal menisci were accurately characterized as such, based on MR images. In one medial meniscus, changes consistent with meniscal degeneration were seen on MR images but this was not seen at surgery. With regard to the lateral meniscus, one false positive diagnosis of a tear was made and this likely represented a normal variation. One other lateral meniscus had changes consistent with meniscal degeneration but, as with the similar lesion seen in the medial meniscus, this was not confirmed surgically. The global sensitivity of MR imaging for the diagnosis of a meniscal tear was 100% and the specificity was 94%. High-field MR imaging is a reliable method to diagnose meniscal tears preoperatively and this may be useful in selecting the surgical approach to clinically abnormal joints and may decrease the need for arthrotomy. PMID:18833948

  4. Hospitalized dogs recovery from naturally occurring heatstroke; does serum heat shock protein 72 can provide prognostic biomarker?

    PubMed

    Bruchim, Yaron; Segev, Gilad; Kelmer, Efrat; Codner, Carolina; Marisat, Ahmad; Horowitz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Heatstroke is a serious illness in dogs characterized by core temperatures above 41°C with central nervous system dysfunction. Experimental heatstroke models have tried to correlate biomarker levels with the severity of the syndrome. Serum heat shock protein (eHSP70) levels were recently evaluated as a biomarker of heat tolerance and acclimation, their role as a marker of heatstroke is inconclusive. Here, we monitored eHSP70 levels in correlation with systemic biomarkers in 30 naturally occurring canine heatstroke cases. Thirty dogs diagnosed with environmental (33%) or exertional (66%) heatstroke admitted to hospital (0-14 h post-injury) were tested for biomarkers of organ damage and coagulation parameters. eHSP70 levels were measured upon admission and 4, 12, and 24 h later (T1, T2, and T3, respectively). No differences were found between exertional and environmental heatstroke cases. The eHSP profile demonstrated an inverted bell shape, with the lowest levels at the 12 h time point. A positive correlation between eHSP70, lactate, and aPPT was also noted at T2 in all the dogs in the study. Twenty-four h after presentation, eHSP70 levels returned to those measured upon admission, this change was only significant in the survivors. The obtained results suggest that eHSP72 level profile may be predictive of survival. PMID:26441274

  5. Distribution and inventories of some artificial and naturally occurring radionuclides in medium to coarse-grained sediments of the channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boust, Dominique

    1999-12-01

    Concentrations of artificial ( 60Co, 137Cs, 238Pu and 239,240Pu) and naturally occurring radionuclides ( 40K, 212Pb and 214Pb, daughter nuclides of the 232Th and 238U series) in bottom sediments of the Channel are reported. They are grain-size modulated but usual grain-size normalisation methods fail due to the strong heterogeneity of the sediment admixture and/or the occurrence of rock debris in the area of concern. When plotted versus distance from Cap La Hague, 60Co and Pu isotope concentrations display a maximum in the Central Channel, but 137Cs do not. This is further explained by the contribution of the releases from the La Hague plant relative to other radionuclide inputs, especially Atlantic inflow and direct atmospheric fallout. Apparent transit times from Cap La Hague are derived from Pu isotopic ratios and yield average sediment velocities ranging from some kilometres to some tens of kilometres per year. Sediment inventories of artificial radionuclides show that a significant part of the input of 60Co and Pu isotopes is immobilised in the Channel seabed while most of the 137Cs input has been evacuated by water mass circulation.

  6. Is there a role for naturally occurring cyanobacterial toxins in neurodegeneration? The beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) paradigm.

    PubMed

    Papapetropoulos, Spiridon

    2007-06-01

    The naturally occurring, non-essential amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been recently found in high concentrations in brain tissues of patients with tauopathies such as the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Parkinsonism-Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) in the South Pacific island of Guam and in a small number of Caucasian, North American patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. BMAA is produced by cyanobacteria that are present in all conceivable aquatic and/or terrestrial ecosystems and may be accumulated in living tissues in free and protein-bound forms through the process of biomagnification. Although its role in human degenerative disease is highly debated, there is mounting evidence in support of the neurotoxic properties of BMAA that may be mediated via mechanisms involving among others the regulation of glutamate. Glutamate-related excitotoxicity is among the most prominent factors in the etiopathogenesis of human neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the wide geographical distribution of cyanobacteria and the possible implications of BMAA neurotoxic properties in public health more research towards this direction is warranted. PMID:17296249

  7. A computer aided thermodynamic approach for predicting the formation of Z-DNA in naturally occurring sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, P. S.; Ellison, M. J.; Quigley, G. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ease with which a particular DNA segment adopts the left-handed Z-conformation depends largely on the sequence and on the degree of negative supercoiling to which it is subjected. We describe a computer program (Z-hunt) that is designed to search long sequences of naturally occurring DNA and retrieve those nucleotide combinations of up to 24 bp in length which show a strong propensity for Z-DNA formation. Incorporated into Z-hunt is a statistical mechanical model based on empirically determined energetic parameters for the B to Z transition accumulated to date. The Z-forming potential of a sequence is assessed by ranking its behavior as a function of negative superhelicity relative to the behavior of similar sized randomly generated nucleotide sequences assembled from over 80,000 combinations. The program makes it possible to compare directly the Z-forming potential of sequences with different base compositions and different sequence lengths. Using Z-hunt, we have analyzed the DNA sequences of the bacteriophage phi X174, plasmid pBR322, the animal virus SV40 and the replicative form of the eukaryotic adenovirus-2. The results are compared with those previously obtained by others from experiments designed to locate Z-DNA forming regions in these sequences using probes which show specificity for the left-handed DNA conformation.

  8. RP-HPLC method for the quantitative analysis of naturally occurring flavonoids in leaves of Blumea balsamifera DC.

    PubMed

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Ismail, Zhari; Karupiah, Sundram; Mohamed, Nornisah

    2005-09-01

    A selective and sensitive reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the quantitative analysis of five naturally occurring flavonoids of Blumea balsamifera DC, namely dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethyl ether (DQDE), blumeatin (BL), quercetin (QN), 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (THFE), and dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether (DQME). These compounds have been isolated using various chromatographic methods. The five compounds are completely separated within 35 min using an RP C18, Nucleosil column and with an isocratic methanol-0.5% phosphoric acid (50:50, v/v) mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The separation of the compounds is monitored at 285 nm using UV detection. Identifications of specific flavonoids are made by comparing their retention times with those of the standards. Reproducibility of the method is good, with coefficients of variation of 1.48% for DQME, 2.25% for THFE, 2.31% for QN, 2.23% for DQDE, and 1.51% for BL. The average recoveries of pure flavonoids upon addition to lyophilized powder and subsequent extraction are 99.8% for DQME, 99.9% for THFE, 100.0% for BL, 100.6% for DQDE, and 97.4% for QN. PMID:16212782

  9. Tethering naturally occurring peptide toxins for cell-autonomous modulation of ion channels and receptors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Tallon, Inés; Wen, Hua; Miwa, Julie M; Xing, Jie; Tekinay, Ayse B; Ono, Fumihito; Brehm, Paul; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2004-08-01

    The physiologies of cells depend on electrochemical signals carried by ion channels and receptors. Venomous animals produce an enormous variety of peptide toxins with high affinity for specific ion channels and receptors. The mammalian prototoxin lynx1 shares with alpha-bungarotoxin the ability to bind and modulate nicotinic receptors (nAChRs); however, lynx1 is tethered to the membrane via a GPI anchor. We show here that several classes of neurotoxins, including bungarotoxins and cobratoxins, retain their selective antagonistic properties when tethered to the membrane. Targeted elimination of nAChR function in zebrafish can be achieved with tethered alpha-bungarotoxin, silencing synaptic transmission without perturbing synapse formation. These studies harness the pharmacological properties of peptide toxins for use in genetic experiments. When combined with specific methods of cell and temporal expression, the extension of this approach to hundreds of naturally occurring peptide toxins opens a new landscape for cell-autonomous regulation of cellular physiology in vivo. PMID:15294139

  10. Biochemical changes in the jejunal mucosa of dogs with a naturally occurring enteropathy associated with bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Batt, R M; Carter, M W; Peters, T J

    1984-01-01

    The subcellular biochemical features of a naturally occurring enteropathy in the dog associated with bacterial overgrowth have been examined. Affected animals comprised a group of 10 German Shepherd dogs with raised serum folate and reduced vitamin B12 concentrations, mild steatorrhoea, reduced xylose absorption, and normal exocrine pancreatic function. Culture of duodenal juice showed bacterial overgrowth with mixed flora, most frequently including enterococci and Escherichia coli. Examination of peroral jejunal biopsies revealed predominantly minimal histological but distinct biochemical abnormalities in the mucosa. The specific activity of alkaline phosphatase was decreased, isopycnic density gradient centrifugation showing a marked loss particularly of the brush border component of enzyme activity. In contrast, gamma-glutamyl transferase activity was enhanced in brush border fragments of slightly increased modal density, but there were no changes in the activities of the carbohydrases, zinc-resistant alpha-glucosidase, maltase, sucrase, and lactase or of the peptidase, leucyl-2-naphthylamidase. Activities of lysosomal enzymes were increased and there was evidence for enhanced lysosomal fragility and mitochondrial disruption. The activities and density gradient distributions of marker enzymes for basal-lateral membranes, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes were essentially unaltered. These findings show that bacterial colonisation of the proximal small intestine may be associated with specific alterations in microvillus membrane proteins and provide biochemical evidence for intracellular damage to the enterocytes. PMID:6745719

  11. Discovery of naturally occurring aurones that are potent allosteric inhibitors of hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Haudecoeur, Romain; Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Yi, Wei; Fortuné, Antoine; Brillet, Rozenn; Belle, Catherine; Nicolle, Edwige; Pallier, Coralie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2011-01-01

    We have identified naturally occurring 2-benzylidenebenzofuran-3-ones (aurones) as new templates for non-nucleoside hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors. The aurone target site, identified by site-directed mutagenesis, is located in Thumb Pocket I of HCV RdRp. The RdRp inhibitory activity of 42 aurones was rationally explored in an enzyme assay. Molecular docking studies were used to determine how aurones bind to HCV RdRp and to predict their range of inhibitory activity. Seven aurone derivatives were found to have potent inhibitory effects on HCV RdRp, with IC50s below 5 μM and excellent selectivity. The most active aurone analogue was (Z)-2-((1-butyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-4,6-dihydroxybenzofuran-3(2H)-one (compound 51), with an IC50 of 2.2 μM. Their potent RdRp inhibitory activity, together with their low toxicity, make these molecules attractive candidate direct-acting anti-HCV agents. PMID:21699179

  12. Effects of synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on mitogen-induced proliferation of human peripheral-blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro; Kawashima, Etsuko; Akiba, Mitsuo )

    1989-01-01

    Examination was made of the effects of 17 synthetic and naturally occurring flavonoids on human lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A as a mitogen. Twelve of the flavonoids examined were mono-hydroxy of methoxy derivatives. The mitogen-induced response of lymphocytes was evaluated from the extent of the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into cells in vitro. All the compounds showed inhibitory effects; 4.5-77.7% of ({sup 3}H) thymidine incorporation was blocked by an 1.0 {mu}g/ml concentration. The viability of lymphocytes before and after treatment, as assessed by a dye exclusion test, indicated no change, and thus the flavonoids may inhibit DNA synthesis. The flavonoids possessing 5-hydroxyl, 5-methoxyl and 6-methoxyl groups, and those with cyclohexyl instead of phenyl substituent (i.e. 2-cyclohexyl-benzopyran-4-one), showed the greatest inhibition. The inhibitory effect of any one of them was less than one half that of prednisolone, but essentially the same or somewhat exceeding that of bredinine of azathioprine. It would thus appear that the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids may possibly arise in part from the inhibition of the proliferative response of lymphocytes.

  13. Molecular basis for the catalytic inactivity of a naturally occurring near-null variant of human ALOX15.

    PubMed

    Horn, Thomas; Ivanov, Igor; Di Venere, Almerinda; Kakularam, Kumar Reddy; Reddanna, Pallu; Conrad, Melanie L; Richter, Constanze; Scheerer, Patrick; Kuhn, Hartmut

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian lipoxygenases belong to a family of lipid-peroxidizing enzymes, which have been implicated in cardiovascular, hyperproliferative and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report that a naturally occurring mutation in the hALOX15 gene leads to expression of a catalytically near-null enzyme variant (hGly422Glu). The inactivity may be related to severe misfolding of the enzyme protein, which was concluded from CD-spectra as well as from thermal and chemical stability assays. In silico mutagenesis experiments suggest that most mutations at hGly422 have the potential to induce sterical clash, which might be considered a reason for protein misfolding. hGly422 is conserved among ALOX5, ALOX12 and ALOX15 isoforms and corresponding hALOX12 and hALOX5 mutants also exhibited a reduced catalytic activity. Interestingly, in the hALOX5 Gly429Glu mutants the reaction specificity of arachidonic acid oxygenation was shifted from 5S- to 8S- and 12R-H(p)ETE formation. Taken together, our data indicate that the conserved glycine is of functional importance for these enzyme variants and most mutants at this position lose catalytic activity. PMID:23958500

  14. Naturally occurring anti-band-3 antibodies and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.U.; Bussolino, F.; Flepp, R.; Fasler, S.; Stammler, P.; Kazatchkine, M.D.; Arese, P.

    1987-11-01

    Treatment of erythrocytes with the thiol-specific oxidant azodicarboxylic acid bis(dimethylamide) (diamide) enhances their phagocytosis by adherent monocytes. Phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes required that the cells were opsonized with whole serum, since complement inactivation abolished phagocytosis. Opsonization with whole serum containing 20-100 times the physiological concentration of naturally occurring anti-band-3- antibodies enhanced phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes. High inputs of anti-band-3 also restored phagocytosis of erythrocytes that had been incubated with complement-inactivated serum. Elevated concentrations of anti-spectrin antibodies were ineffective in whole and complement-inactivated serum. Specific recognition of diamide-treated erythrocytes by anti-band-3 antibodies may be due to generation of anti-band-3 reactive protein oligomers on intact diamide-treated erythrocytes. Generation of such oligomers was dose-dependent with respect to diamide. Bound anti-band-3 alone was not sufficient to mediate phagocytosis. It resulted in deposition of complement component C3b on the cells through activation of the alternative complement pathway in amounts exceeding that of bound antibodies by two orders of magnitude. Thus, anti-band-3 and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed erythrocytes, which simulate senescent erythrocytes with respect to bound antibody and complement.

  15. Fusion activity of African henipavirus F proteins with a naturally occurring start codon directly upstream of the signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Weis, Michael; Behner, Laura; Binger, Tabea; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian; Maisner, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Compared to the fusion proteins of pathogenic Nipah and Hendra viruses, the F protein of prototype African henipavirus GH-M74a displays a drastically reduced surface expression and fusion activity. A probable reason for limited F expression is the unusually long sequence located between the gene start and the signal peptide (SP) not present in other henipaviruses. Such a long pre-SP extension can prevent efficient ER translocation or protein maturation and processing. As its truncation can therefore enhance surface expression, the recent identification of a second in-frame start codon directly upstream of the SP in another African henipavirus F gene (GH-UP28) raised the question if such a naturally occurring minor sequence variation can lead to the synthesis of a pre-SP truncated translation product, thereby increasing the production of mature F proteins. To test this, we analyzed surface expression and biological activity of F genes carrying the second SP-proximal start codon of GH-UP28. Though we observed minor differences in the expression levels, introduction of the additional start codon did not result in an increased fusion activity, even if combined with further mutations in the pre-SP region. Thus, limited bioactivity of African henipavirus F protein is maintained even after sequence changes that alter the gene start allowing the production of F proteins without an unusually long pre-SP. PMID:25725148

  16. Cost of a naturally occurring two-amino acid deletion in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A in Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    Ballard, J William O; Melvin, Richard G; Lazarou, Michael; Clissold, Fiona J; Simpson, Stephen J

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a naturally occurring (DeltaTrp85, DeltaVal86) deletion from a protein subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) influenced cytochrome c oxidase activity, mRNA expression levels of electron transport chain genes, and aspects of adult female fitness in the fly Drosophila simulans. We modeled the tertiary structure of D. simulans cox7A containing the deletion by homology to the bovine cox7A structure and predicted that it would decrease the function of complex IV. This prediction led to the hypothesis that flies with the deletion would have lower cytochrome c oxidase activity and higher levels of mRNA expression from cox7A. This result was observed, but unexpectedly, elevated levels of mRNA expression were also observed in genes encoding subunits of complexes I, III, and IV. Together these data suggest that the deletion causes a high bioenergetic cost to the organism. To investigate the predicted cost at a physiological level, we assayed aspects of adult female fitness. Starvation sensitivity but not feeding rate was significantly influenced by the two-amino acid deletion. Further, we observed that carbohydrate and protein levels but not lipid levels were higher in the mutant flies. Together, these data show that quaternary structure modeling and biochemistry can be used to link the genotype with the organismal phenotype. PMID:20698788

  17. Assessment of public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials from mining and mineral processing activities of Tarkwa Goldmine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Faanu, Augustine; Ephraim, James H; Darko, Emmanuel O

    2011-09-01

    Studies have been carried out in a Goldmine in Ghana to determine the exposure of the public to naturally occurring radioactive materials from processing of gold ore. Direct gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis techniques were used to analyse soil, rock, water and dust samples from the mining environment. The mean activity concentrations measured for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil/rock samples were 15.2, 26.9 and 157.1 Bq kg( - 1), respectively. For the water samples, the mean activity concentrations were 0.54 and 0.41 Bq l( - 1)) and 7.76 Bq l( - 1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The mean activity concentrations measured in the dust samples were 4.90 and 2.75 μBq m( - 3) for (238)U and (232)Th, respectively. The total annual effective dose to the public was estimated to be 0.69 mSv. The results in this study compared well with typical world average values. The results indicate an insignificant exposure of the public from the activities of the Goldmine. PMID:21072583

  18. The sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring quinones. Experimental studies in guinea pigs. I. Naphthoquinones and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Schulz, K H; Garbe, I; Hausen, B M; Simatupang, M H

    1977-03-25

    Experimental studies on the sensitization capacity of naturally occurring naphthoquinones derived from plants and woods have been carried out with 6 compounds. With 4 of these substances (desoxylapachol, menadione, lapachenole andmacassar quinone) guinea pigs could be sensitized. Desoxylapachol, sensitizer from teak wood, and lapachenole, sensitizer from perobawood proved to be the most effective ones. Experiments with macassar quinone (oxidation product of a naphthalene constituent of macassar ebony) still demonstrate that even ortho-naphthoquinones are capable to induce contact allergy. Allergic cross reactions could be obtained with 9 out of 14 different napthoquinones. In animals sensitized with desoxylapachol menadione and lapachol showed the strongest eliciting effect. Furthermore the study demonstrated that the sensitizing effect of naphthoquinones depends on the length and position of the side chain attached to the quinoid ring as well as on the substitution of the carbon atom adjacent to the side chain bearing C-atom. With compounds substituted at this C-atom (e.g. position 3 of lapachol or didimethylallylnaphthoquinone) sensitization could not be obtained. PMID:857737

  19. Plasmid pEC156, a Naturally Occurring Escherichia coli Genetic Element That Carries Genes of the EcoVIII Restriction-Modification System, Is Mobilizable among Enterobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Werbowy, Olesia; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Type II restriction-modification systems are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Some of them are present in naturally occurring plasmids, which may facilitate the spread of these systems in bacterial populations by horizontal gene transfer. However, little is known about the routes of their dissemination. As a model to study this, we have chosen an Escherichia coli natural plasmid pEC156 that carries the EcoVIII restriction modification system. The presence of this system as well as the cis-acting cer site involved in resolution of plasmid multimers determines the stable maintenance of pEC156 not only in Escherichia coli but also in other enterobacteria. We have shown that due to the presence of oriT-type F and oriT-type R64 loci it is possible to mobilize pEC156 by conjugative plasmids (F and R64, respectively). The highest mobilization frequency was observed when pEC156-derivatives were transferred between Escherichia coli strains, Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii representing coliform bacteria. We found that a pEC156-derivative with a functional EcoVIII restriction-modification system was mobilized in enterobacteria at a frequency lower than a plasmid lacking this system. In addition, we found that bacteria that possess the EcoVIII restriction-modification system can efficiently release plasmid content to the environment. We have shown that E. coli cells can be naturally transformed with pEC156-derivatives, however, with low efficiency. The transformation protocol employed neither involved chemical agents (e.g. CaCl2) nor temperature shift which could induce plasmid DNA uptake. PMID:26848973

  20. Analysis of the mating-type loci of co-occurring and phylogenetically related species of Ascochyta and Phoma.

    PubMed

    Woudenberg, Joyce H C; De Gruyter, Johannes; Crous, Pedro W; Zwiers, Lute-Harm

    2012-05-01

    Ascochyta and Phoma are fungal genera containing several important plant pathogenic species. These genera are morphologically similar, and recent molecular studies performed to unravel their phylogeny have resulted in the establishment of several new genera within the newly erected Didymellaceae family. An analysis of the structure of fungal mating-type genes can contribute to a better understanding of the taxonomic relationships of these plant pathogens, and may shed some light on their evolution and on differences in sexual strategy and pathogenicity. We analysed the mating-type loci of phylogenetically closely related Ascochyta and Phoma species (Phoma clematidina, Didymella vitalbina, Didymella clematidis, Peyronellaea pinodes and Peyronellaea pinodella) that co-occur on the same hosts, either on Clematis or Pisum. The results confirm that the mating-type genes provide the information to distinguish between the homothallic Pey. pinodes (formerly Ascochyta pinodes) and the heterothallic Pey. pinodella (formerly Phoma pinodella), and indicate the close phylogenetic relationship between these two species that are part of the disease complex responsible for Ascochyta blight on pea. Furthermore, our analysis of the mating-type genes of the fungal species responsible for causing wilt of Clematis sp. revealed that the heterothallic D. vitalbina (Phoma anamorph) is more closely related to the homothallic D. clematidis (Ascochyta anamorph) than to the heterothallic P. clematidina. Finally, our results indicate that homothallism in D. clematidis resulted from a single crossover between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 sequences of heterothallic ancestors, whereas a single crossover event followed by an inversion of a fused MAT1/2 locus resulted in homothallism in Pey. pinodes. PMID:22014305

  1. Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Bullón, Pedro; Giampieri, Francesca; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ), mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26783837

  2. Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Bullón, Pedro; Giampieri, Francesca; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ), mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26783837

  3. Removal of methylene blue by two zeolites prepared from naturally occurring Egyptian kaolin as cost effective technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Tarek S.; Abdel Ghafar, Hany H.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Abd El-Maksoud, Islam H.

    2011-10-01

    The optimum condition as well as adsorption behavior of two zeolite types prepared from Egyptian kaolin (namely, zeolite A and zeolite X) with methylene blue (MB) are demonstrated in this study. This will be a step to remove such dyes from textile as well as dying industries. MB removal was investigated using synthetic solutions at initial concentrations 15 mg/L of MB at constant temperature and pH (25 ± 0.1 °C and 7.5 ± 0.2) respectively. The removal efficiency was determined at different contact times and different zeolite doses. The optimum contact times for the removal of MB were 60 min and 75 min for zeolite X and zeolite A, respectively. 0.6 g was the optimum dose for removal of MB with both zeolite types. The batch method has been employed, using MB concentration in solution ranging from 2 to 25 mg /L. The percentage removal and distribution coefficients ( Kd) were determined for the adsorption system as a function of sorbate concentration. The isothermal models investigated in this study show that adsorption ratios of MB on both zeolites match to Langmuir and Freundlich equation adding to that every equation constant has been calculated. According to the equilibrium studies, adsorption of zeolite X in higher concentrations is much better than that of zeolite A. Dublin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) shows physisorption endothermic adsorption process for both zeolites and also linear correlation of Redlich-Peterson and Tekman isothermal models were proved. These results show that zeolites prepared from naturally abundant Egyptian kaolin hold great potential to remove dying materials such as MB from wastewater. This will encourage using such low cost technique in removal of dyes from industrial wastewater.

  4. Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E; Swift, R N

    1981-09-15

    The airborne laser-induced spectral emission bands obtained simultaneously from water Raman backscatter and the fluorescence of chlorophyll and other naturally occurring waterborne pigments are reported here for the first time. The importance of this type data lies not only in its single-shot multispectral character but also in the application of the Raman line for correction or calibration of the spatial variation of the laser penetration depth without the need for in situ water attenuation measurements. The entire laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scatter emissions resulting from each separate 532-nm 10-nsec laser pulse are collected and spectrally dispersed in a diffraction grating spectrometer having forty photomultiplier tube detectors. Results from field experiments conducted in the North Sea and the Chesapeake Bay/Potomac River are presented. Difficulties involving the multispectral resolution of the induced emissions are addressed, and feasible solutions are suggested together with new instrument configurations and future research directions. PMID:20333121

  5. Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoge, F.E.; Swift, R.N.

    1981-09-15

    The airborne laser-induced spectral emission bands obtained simultaneously from water Raman backscatter and the fluorescence of chlorophyll and other naturally occuring waterborne pigments are reported here for the first time. The importance of this type data lies not only in its single-shot multispectral character but also in the application of the Raman line for correction or calibration of the spatial variation of the laser penetration depth without the need for in situ water attenuation measurements. The entire laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scatter emissions resulting from each separate 532-nm 10-nsec laser pulse are collected and spectrally dispersed in a diffraction grating spectrometer having forty photomultiplier tube detectors. Results from field experiments conducted in the North Sea and the Chesapeake Bay/Potomac River are presented. Difficulties involving the multispectral resolution of the induced emissions are addressed, and feasible solutions are suggested together with new instrument configurations and future research directions.

  6. Glycerol Dehydratases: Biochemical Structures, Catalytic Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications in 1,3-Propanediol Production by Naturally Occurring and Genetically Engineered Bacterial Strains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Zhong; Xu, Wu; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Bajpai, Rakesh K

    2016-07-01

    To date, two types of glycerol dehydratases have been reported: coenzyme B12-dependent and coenzyme B12-independent glycerol dehydratases. The three-dimensional structure of the former is a dimer of αβγ heterotrimer, while that of the latter is a homodimer. Their mechanisms of reaction are typically enzymatic radical catalysis. Functional radical in both the glycerol dehydratases is the adenosyl radical. However, the adenosyl radical in the former originates from coenzyme B12 by homolytic cleavage, and that in the latter from S-adenosyl-methionine. Until some years ago, Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718 was the only microorganism known to possess B12-independent glycerol dehydratase, but since then, several other bacteria with this unique capability have been identified. This article focuses on the glycerol dehydratases and on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by naturally occurring and genetically engineered bacterial strains containing glycerol dehydratase. PMID:27033090

  7. Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The airborne laser-induced spectral emission bands obtained simultaneously from water Raman backscatter and the fluorescence of chlorophyll and other naturally occurring waterborne pigments are reported here for the first time. The importance of this type data lies not only in its single-shot multispectral character but also in the application of the Raman line for correction or calibration of the spatial variation of the laser penetration depth without the need for in situ water attenuation measurements. The entire laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scatter emissions resulting from each separate 532-nm 10-nsec laser pulse are collected and spectrally dispersed in a diffraction grating spectrometer having forty photomultiplier tube detectors. Results from field experiments conducted in the North Sea and the Chesapeake Bay/Potomac River are presented. Difficulties involving the multispectral resolution of the induced emissions are addressed, and feasible solutions are suggested together with new instrument configurations and future research directions.

  8. Phase transitions and chain dynamics of surfactants intercalated into the galleries of naturally occurring clay mineral magadiite.

    PubMed

    Kharkov, Boris B; Corkery, Robert W; Dvinskikh, Sergey V

    2014-07-01

    We investigate conformational dynamics and phase transitions of surfactant molecules confined in the layered galleries of the organo-modified, natural polysilicate clay, magadiite. We have shown that our approach to studying this class of materials is capable of delivering detailed information on the molecular mobility of the confined molecules. From the analysis of the measured heteronuclear dipolar couplings, the orientational order parameters of the C-H bonds along the hydrocarbon chain have been determined. Three phases have been observed in the nanocomposite, characterized by distinct dynamical states of the surfactant. At room temperature, restricted mobility of the molecules led to the adoption of an essentially all-trans conformation by the chains. This behavior can be described by a model incorporating small-angle wobbling around the long molecular axes of the chains. Upon heating, dynamic transformation takes place, resulting in a rotator type solid phase where molecules in extended all-trans conformations undergo fast and unrestricted rotation about their respective symmetry axes. The second phase transition is associated with chain melting and the onset of translational dynamics and results in an essentially liquid-crystalline-like state of the organic component. The mobility of the surfactant is one of the key factors facilitating the efficient penetration of macromolecules in the process of preparing of polymer/organoclay nanocomposites. The exploration of dynamic properties of the functionalizing organic layer should provide important input into the improved design of new organic-inorganic hybrid materials. PMID:24921951

  9. A Naturally Occurring Defective DNA Satellite Associated with a Monopartite Begomovirus: Evidence for Recombination between Alphasatellite and Betasatellite

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Changjun; Xie, Yan; Zhao, Liling; Ren, He; Li, Zhenghe

    2013-01-01

    Monopartite begomoviruses and their associated satellites form unique disease complexes that have emerged as a serious threat to agriculture worldwide. It is well known that frequent recombination contributes to the diversification and evolution of geminiviruses. In this study, we identified a novel defective satellite molecule (RecSat) in association with Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (TbLCYNV) in a naturally infected tobacco plant. Sequence analysis showed that Recsat comprises 754 nucleotides in size and is a chimera involving alphasatellite and betasatellite sequences, containing both betasatellite-conserved region and alphasatellite stem-loop structure. Recombination analysis revealed that RecSat has arisen from three independent recombination events likely involving Tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite, Ageratum yellow vein China betasatellite and Tobacco curly shoot alphasatellite. Co-inoculation of RecSat with TbLCYNV induced symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by TbLCYNV alone in Nicotiana benthamiana. Southern blot hybridization showed that RecSat could be trans-replicated stably in N. benthamiana plants by TbLCYNV, and impaired the accumulation of helper virus and co-inoculated alphasatellite. Our results provide the first evidence for recombination between two distinct types of satellites among geminivirus complex and highlight recombination as a driving force for geminivirus evolution. PMID:24018984

  10. A comprehensive analysis of the naturally occurring polymorphisms in HIV-1 Vpr: Potential impact on CTL epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Alagarsamy; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy; Kannan, Aarthi; Boyd, Anne; Datta, Debduti; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S; Cristillo, Anthony; Collman, Ronald G; Morellet, Nelly; Sawaya, Bassel E; Murali, Ramachandran

    2008-01-01

    The enormous genetic variability reported in HIV-1 has posed problems in the treatment of infected individuals. This is evident in the form of HIV-1 resistant to antiviral agents, neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) involving multiple viral gene products. Based on this, it has been suggested that a comprehensive analysis of the polymorphisms in HIV proteins is of value for understanding the virus transmission and pathogenesis as well as for the efforts towards developing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This study, for the first time, describes an in-depth analysis of genetic variation in Vpr using information from global HIV-1 isolates involving a total of 976 Vpr sequences. The polymorphisms at the individual amino acid level were analyzed. The residues 9, 33, 39, and 47 showed a single variant amino acid compared to other residues. There are several amino acids which are highly polymorphic. The residues that show ten or more variant amino acids are 15, 16, 28, 36, 37, 48, 55, 58, 59, 77, 84, 86, 89, and 93. Further, the variant amino acids noted at residues 60, 61, 34, 71 and 72 are identical. Interestingly, the frequency of the variant amino acids was found to be low for most residues. Vpr is known to contain multiple CTL epitopes like protease, reverse transcriptase, Env, and Gag proteins of HIV-1. Based on this, we have also extended our analysis of the amino acid polymorphisms to the experimentally defined and predicted CTL epitopes. The results suggest that amino acid polymorphisms may contribute to the immune escape of the virus. The available data on naturally occurring polymorphisms will be useful to assess their potential effect on the structural and functional constraints of Vpr and also on the fitness of HIV-1 for replication. PMID:18721481

  11. Gait Changes Vary among Horses with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis Following Intra-articular Administration of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mustajab H.; Bommala, Prakash; Richbourg, Heather A.; Rademacher, Nathalie; Kearney, Michael T.; Lopez, Mandi J.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to reduce lameness associated with osteoarthritis (OA) are vital to equine health and performance. This study was designed to quantify response to autologous, intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in horses with OA. Kinetic gait analysis was performed on 12 horses with unilateral forelimb lameness and OA in the same limb before and after intra-articular anesthesia (IAA). Radiographs and kinetic data were obtained before and 6 and 16 weeks after PRP administration to same joint, 4 weeks after IAA. Statistical evaluations included filtration effect on platelet concentration, relationship between kinetic variable changes after IAA versus PRP in the affected limb, and associations between response to PRP and response to IAA, platelet concentration, and radiographic OA. A positive response to IAA or PRP was defined as ≥5% improvement in peak vertical force, vertical impulse, or breaking impulse of the affected limb. Out of 10 horses that responded to IAA, 3 responded to PRP at both time points and 4 responded at one. Of the two horses that did not respond to IAA, one responded to PRP at both time points. Filtration increased platelet concentration significantly. The relationship between kinetic variable alterations of the affected limb after IAA and PRP was not significant, and response to PRP was not associated with response to IAA, platelet concentration, or radiographic OA. Changes in kinetic variables following IAA in joints with naturally occurring OA provide a custom standard to assess intra-articular therapy. Kinetic gait changes after intra-articular PRP are variable in horses with moderate to severe forelimb OA. PMID:27148544

  12. Bovine papillomavirus E5 and E7 oncoproteins in naturally occurring tumors: are two better than one?

    PubMed

    Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Roperto, Franco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are oncogenic DNA viruses, which mainly induce benign lesions of cutaneous and/or mucosal epithelia in cattle. Thirteen (BPV 1-13) different viral genotypes have been characterized so far. BPVs are usually species-specific but BPV 1/2 may also infect equids as well as buffaloes and bison and cause tumors in these species. BPV-induced benign lesions usually regress, however occasionally they develop into cancer particularly in the presence of environmental carcinogenic co-factors. The major transforming protein of BPV is E5, a very short hydrophobic, transmembrane protein with many oncogenic activities. E5 contributes to cell transformation through the activation of the cellular β receptor for the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFβ-r), it also decreases cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) causing viral escape from immunosurveillance, and plays a role in the inhibition of the intracellular communication by means of aberrant connexin expression. E7 is considered as a weak transforming gene, it synergies with E5 in cell transformation during cancer development. E7 expression correlates in vivo with the over-expression of β1-integrin, which plays a role in the regulation of keratinocytes proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, E7 is involved in cell-mediated immune responses leading to tumour rejection, in anoikis process by direct binding to p600, and in invasion process by upregulation of Matrix metalloproteinase1 (MMP-1) expression. Studies on the role of BPV E5 and E7 oncoproteins in naturally occurring tumours are of scientific value, as they may shed new light on the biological role of these two oncogenes in cell transformation. PMID:23302179

  13. A novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in modified vaccinia virus ankara drives very early gene expression and potent immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wennier, Sonia T; Brinkmann, Kay; Steinhäußer, Charlotte; Mayländer, Nicole; Mnich, Claudia; Wielert, Ursula; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Hausmann, Jürgen; Chaplin, Paul; Steigerwald, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) has been shown to be suitable for the generation of experimental vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases, eliciting strong humoral and cellular immune responses. In viral vectored vaccines, strong recombinant antigen expression and timing of expression influence the quantity and quality of the immune response. Screening of synthetic and native poxvirus promoters for strong protein expression in vitro and potent immune responses in vivo led to the identification of the MVA13.5L promoter, a unique and novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in MVA composed of two 44 nucleotide long repeated motifs, each containing an early promoter element. The MVA13.5L gene is highly conserved across orthopoxviruses, yet its function is unknown. The unique structure of its promoter is not found for any other gene in the MVA genome and is also conserved in other orthopoxviruses. Comparison of the MVA13.5L promoter activity with synthetic poxviral promoters revealed that the MVA13.5L promoter produced higher levels of protein early during infection in HeLa cells and particularly in MDBK cells, a cell line in which MVA replication stops at an early stage before the expression of late genes. Finally, a recombinant antigen expressed under the control of this novel promoter induced high antibody titers and increased CD8 T cell responses in homologous prime-boost immunization compared to commonly used promoters. In particular, the recombinant antigen specific CD8 T cell responses dominated over the immunodominant B8R vector-specific responses after three vaccinations and even more during the memory phase. These results have identified the native MVA13.5L promoter as a new potent promoter for use in MVA vectored preventive and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:23951355

  14. A Novel Naturally Occurring Tandem Promoter in Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Drives Very Early Gene Expression and Potent Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wennier, Sonia T.; Brinkmann, Kay; Steinhäußer, Charlotte; Mayländer, Nicole; Mnich, Claudia; Wielert, Ursula; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Hausmann, Jürgen; Chaplin, Paul; Steigerwald, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) has been shown to be suitable for the generation of experimental vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases, eliciting strong humoral and cellular immune responses. In viral vectored vaccines, strong recombinant antigen expression and timing of expression influence the quantity and quality of the immune response. Screening of synthetic and native poxvirus promoters for strong protein expression in vitro and potent immune responses in vivo led to the identification of the MVA13.5L promoter, a unique and novel naturally occurring tandem promoter in MVA composed of two 44 nucleotide long repeated motifs, each containing an early promoter element. The MVA13.5L gene is highly conserved across orthopoxviruses, yet its function is unknown. The unique structure of its promoter is not found for any other gene in the MVA genome and is also conserved in other orthopoxviruses. Comparison of the MVA13.5L promoter activity with synthetic poxviral promoters revealed that the MVA13.5L promoter produced higher levels of protein early during infection in HeLa cells and particularly in MDBK cells, a cell line in which MVA replication stops at an early stage before the expression of late genes. Finally, a recombinant antigen expressed under the control of this novel promoter induced high antibody titers and increased CD8 T cell responses in homologous prime-boost immunization compared to commonly used promoters. In particular, the recombinant antigen specific CD8 T cell responses dominated over the immunodominant B8R vector-specific responses after three vaccinations and even more during the memory phase. These results have identified the native MVA13.5L promoter as a new potent promoter for use in MVA vectored preventive and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:23951355

  15. Phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Zhang, Ti; Forrest, W C; Yang, Qiuhong; Groer, Chad; Mohr, Eva; Aires, Daniel J; Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Flesner, Brian K; Henry, Carolyn J; Selting, Kimberly A; Tate, Deborah; Swarz, Jeffrey A; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Forrest, M Laird

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct a phase I-II clinical trial of hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate (HA-Pt) in dogs with naturally occurring malignant tumors. ANIMALS 18 healthy rats, 9 healthy mice, and 16 dogs with cancer. PROCEDURES HA-Pt was prepared and tested by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; DNA-platinum adduct formation and antiproliferation effects of cisplatin and HA-Pt were compared in vitro. Effects of cisplatin (IV) and HA-Pt (SC) in rodents were tested by clinicopathologic assays. In the clinical trial, dogs with cancer received 1 to 4 injections of HA-Pt (10 to 30 mg/m(2), intratumoral or peritumoral, q 3 wk). Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis; CBC, serum BUN and creatinine concentration measurement, and urinalysis were conducted before and 1 week after each treatment. Some dogs underwent hepatic enzyme testing. Tumors were measured before the first treatment and 3 weeks after each treatment to assess response. RESULTS No adverse drug effects were detected in pretrial assessments in rodents. Seven of 16 dogs completed the study; 3 had complete tumor responses, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had progressive disease. Three of 7 dogs with oral and nasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that completed the study had complete responses. Myelosuppression and cardiotoxicosis were identified in 6 and 2 dogs, respectively; none had nephrotoxicosis. Four of 5 dogs with hepatic enzymes assessed had increased ALT activities, attributed to diaquated cisplatin products in the HA-Pt. Pharmacokinetic data fit a 3-compartment model. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE HA-Pt treatment resulted in positive tumor responses in some dogs, primarily those with SCC. The adverse effect rate was high. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Oral SCC in dogs has characteristics similar to human head and neck SCC; these results could be useful in developing human treatments. PMID:27580113

  16. Staphylococcal Phenotypes Induced by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Membrane-Interactive Polyphenolic β-Lactam Resistance Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Lucia; Rosado, Helena; Micol, Vicente; Rosato, Adriana E.; Bernal, Patricia; Arroyo, Raquel; Grounds, Helen; Anderson, James C.; Stabler, Richard A.; Taylor, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Galloyl catechins, in particular (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (-)-epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation. PMID:24699700

  17. Gait Changes Vary among Horses with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis Following Intra-articular Administration of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mustajab H; Bommala, Prakash; Richbourg, Heather A; Rademacher, Nathalie; Kearney, Michael T; Lopez, Mandi J

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to reduce lameness associated with osteoarthritis (OA) are vital to equine health and performance. This study was designed to quantify response to autologous, intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in horses with OA. Kinetic gait analysis was performed on 12 horses with unilateral forelimb lameness and OA in the same limb before and after intra-articular anesthesia (IAA). Radiographs and kinetic data were obtained before and 6 and 16 weeks after PRP administration to same joint, 4 weeks after IAA. Statistical evaluations included filtration effect on platelet concentration, relationship between kinetic variable changes after IAA versus PRP in the affected limb, and associations between response to PRP and response to IAA, platelet concentration, and radiographic OA. A positive response to IAA or PRP was defined as ≥5% improvement in peak vertical force, vertical impulse, or breaking impulse of the affected limb. Out of 10 horses that responded to IAA, 3 responded to PRP at both time points and 4 responded at one. Of the two horses that did not respond to IAA, one responded to PRP at both time points. Filtration increased platelet concentration significantly. The relationship between kinetic variable alterations of the affected limb after IAA and PRP was not significant, and response to PRP was not associated with response to IAA, platelet concentration, or radiographic OA. Changes in kinetic variables following IAA in joints with naturally occurring OA provide a custom standard to assess intra-articular therapy. Kinetic gait changes after intra-articular PRP are variable in horses with moderate to severe forelimb OA. PMID:27148544

  18. Electrosynthesis and characterization of nanostructured polyquinone for use in detection and quantification of naturally occurring dsDNA.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Loreto A; Del Valle, María A; Armijo, Francisco

    2016-05-15

    The detection of naturally occurring desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has become a subject of study by the projections that would generate to be able to sense the genetic material for the detection of future diseases. Bearing this in mind, to provide new measuring strategies, in the current work the preparation of a low-cost electrode, modified with poly(1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone) nanowires using a SiO2 template, is carried out; the assembly is next modified by covalently attaching ssDNA strands. It must be noted that all this is accomplished by using solely electrochemical techniques, according to methodology developed for this purpose. SEM images of the modified surface show high order and homogeneity in the distribution of modified nanowires over the electrode surface. In turn, after the hybridization with its complementary strand, the voltammetric responses enable corroborating the linear relationship between hybridization at different DNA concentrations and normalized current response, obtaining a limit of detection (LOD) 5.7·10(-12)gL(-1) and limit of quantification (LOQ) 1.9·10(-11)gL(-1). The working dynamic range is between 1.4·10(-7) and 8.5·10(-9)gL(-1) with a correlation coefficient 0.9998. The successful obtaining of the modified electrode allows concluding that the high order reached by the nanostructures, guides the subsequent single strand of DNA (ssDNA) covalent attachment, which after hybridization with its complementary strand brings about a considerable current increase. This result allows foreseeing a guaranteed breakthrough with regard to the use of the biosensor in real samples. PMID:26710345

  19. The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act: planning for and response to bioterrorism and naturally occurring infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Sapsin, Jason W; Teret, Stephen P; Burris, Scott; Mair, Julie Samia; Hodge, James G; Vernick, Jon S

    2002-08-01

    The Center for Law and the Public's Health at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities drafted the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA or Model Act) at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Model Act provides state actors with the powers they need to detect and contain bioterrorism or a naturally occurring disease outbreak. Legislative bills based on the MSEHPA have been introduced in 34 states. Problems of obsolescence, inconsistency, and inadequacy may render current state laws ineffective or even counterproductive. State laws often date back to the early 20th century and have been built up in layers over the years. They frequently predate the vast changes in the public health sciences and constitutional law. The Model Act is structured to reflect 5 basic public health functions to be facilitated by law: (1) preparedness, comprehensive planning for a public health emergency; (2) surveillance, measures to detect and track public health emergencies; (3) management of property, ensuring adequate availability of vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and hospitals, as well as providing power to abate hazards to the public's health; (4) protection of persons, powers to compel vaccination, testing, treatment, isolation, and quarantine when clearly necessary; and (5) communication, providing clear and authoritative information to the public. The Model Act also contains a modernized, extensive set of principles and requirements to safeguard personal rights. Law can be a tool to improve public health preparedness. A constitutional democracy must balance the common good with respect for personal dignity, toleration of groups, and adherence to principles of justice. PMID:12150674

  20. Naturally occurring dominant resistance mutations to HCV protease and polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuntzen, Thomas; Timm, Joerg; Berical, Andrew; Lennon, Niall; Berlin, Aaron M.; Young, Sarah K.; Lee, Bongshin; Heckerman, David; Carlson, Jonathan; Reyor, Laura L.; Kleyman, Marianna; McMahon, Cory M.; Birch, Christopher; Wiesch, Julian Schulze zur; Ledlie, Timothy; Koehrsen, Michael; Kodira, Chinnappa; Roberts, Andrew D.; Lauer, Georg M.; Rosen, Hugo R.; Bihl, Florian; Cerny, Andreas; Spengler, Ulrich; Liu, Zhimin; Kim, Arthur Y.; Xing, Yanming; Schneidewind, Arne; Madey, Margaret A.; Fleckenstein, Jaquelyn F.; Park, Vicki M.; Galagan, James E.; Nusbaum, Chad; Walker, Bruce D.; Lake-Bakaar, Gerond V.; Daar, Eric S.; Jacobson, Ira M.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Edlin, Brian R.; Donfield, Sharyne M.; Chung, Raymond T.; Talal, Andrew H.; Marion, Tony; Birren, Bruce W.; Henn, Matthew R.; Allen, Todd M.

    2008-01-01

    Resistance mutations to HCV NS3 protease inhibitors in <1% of the viral quasispecies may still allow >1000-fold viral load reductions upon treatment, consistent with their reported reduced replicative fitness in vitro. Recently, however, an R155K protease mutation was reported as the dominant quasispecies in a treatment-naïve individual, raising concerns about possible full drug resistance. To investigate the prevalence of dominant STAT-C resistance mutations in the population we analyzed HCV genome sequences from 507 treatment-naïve HCV genotype 1 infected patients from the US, Germany and Switzerland. Phylogenetic sequence analysis and viral load data were used to identify the possible spread of replication competent, drug resistant viral strains in the population and to infer the consequences of these mutations upon viral replication in vivo. Mutations described to confer resistance to the protease inhibitors Telaprevir, BILN2061, ITMN-191, SCH6 and Boceprevir, the NS5B polymerase inhibitor AG-021541, and to the NS4A antagonist ACH-806 were observed mostly as sporadic, unrelated cases, at frequencies between 0.3% and 2.8% in the population, including two patients with possible multi-drug resistance. Collectively, however, 8.6% of the genotype 1a and 1.4% of the genotype 1b infected patients carried at least one dominant resistance mutation. Viral loads were high in the majority of these patients, suggesting that drug resistant viral strains might achieve replication levels comparable to non-resistant viruses in vivo. Conclusion: Naturally occurring dominant STAT-C resistance mutations are common in HCV genotype 1 infected treatment-naïve patients. Their influence on treatment outcome should further be characterized to evaluate possible benefits of drug resistance testing for individual tailoring of drug combinations when treatment options are limited due to previous non-response to peginterferon and ribavirin. PMID:19026009

  1. Identification and characterization of naturally occurring DSF-family quorum sensing signal turnover system in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Wang, Xing-Yu; Sun, Shuang; Yang, Li-Chao; Jiang, Bo-Le; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Molecules of the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-family are a class of quorum sensing (QS) signals used by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas. Studies during the last decade have outlined how Xanthomonas cells enter the QS phase. However, information on the mechanism underlying its exit from the QS phase is limited. RpfB has recently been reported as a fatty acyl-CoA ligase (FCL) that activates a wide range of fatty acids to their CoA esters in vitro. Here, we establish an improved quantification assay for DSF-family signals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). We first demonstrated that RpfB represents a naturally occurring DSF-family signal turnover system. RpfB effectively turns over DSF-family signals DSF and BDSF in vivo. RpfB FCL enzymatic activity is required for DSF and BDSF turnover. Deletion of rpfB slightly increased Xcc virulence in the Chinese radish and overexpression of rpfB significantly decreased virulence. We further showed that the expression of rpfB is growth phase-dependent, and its expression is significantly enhanced when Xcc cells enter the stationary phase. DSF regulates rpfB expression in a concentration-dependent manner. rpfB expression is also negatively regulated by the DSF signalling components RpfC, RpfG and Clp. The global transcription factor Clp directly binds to the AATGC-tgctgc-GCATC motif in the promoter region of rpfB to repress its expression. Finally, RpfB-dependent signal turnover system was detected in a wide range of bacterial species, suggesting that it is a conserved mechanism. PMID:26234930

  2. Periodontal regeneration in naturally occurring Class II furcation defects in beagle dogs after guided tissue regeneration with bioabsorbable barriers.

    PubMed

    Bogle, G; Garrett, S; Stoller, N H; Swanbom, D D; Fulfs, J C; Rodgers, P W; Whitman, S; Dunn, R L; Southard, G L; Polson, A M

    1997-06-01

    THE EFFICACY OF A BIOABSORBABLE polylactic acid based barrier was evaluated using naturally occurring buccal Class II furcation defects in beagle dogs. Sixteen furcation sites (8 control and 8 experimental) were treated in 6 adult animals. After full thickness flap reflection, exposed furcations and root surfaces were thoroughly root planed. In experimental sites a customized barrier was formed and fitted to cover the defect. Surgical flaps were replaced slightly coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. Animals were sacrificed at 6 months and specimens processed for histologic evaluation. Histologic and histometric analyses were done using 6 micrograms step serial sections in the buccal-lingual plane, corresponding to the buccal-lingual extent of the furcation. Results were: mean total defect experimental sites 1.92 mm; control sites 1.47 mm. Mean new cementum formation experimental sites 1.36 mm (71% of initial defect); control sites 0.25 mm (17% of initial defect). Mean new bone formation experimental sites 1.42 mm (74% of initial defect); control sites 0.20 mm (14% of initial defect). Mean junctional epithelium formation experimental sites 0.42 mm (22% of initial defect); control sites 1.21 mm (82% of initial defect). Statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences in all healing parameters favoring experimental (barrier-treated) sites. In this model, regeneration (new bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament) of 71% of the original defect in experimental sites and only 14% in control sites demonstrated a response that highly favored use of the barrier. PMID:9203097

  3. Influences of naturally occurring agents in combination with fluoride on gene expression and structural organization of Streptococcus mutans in biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The association of specific bioactive flavonoids and terpenoids with fluoride can modulate the development of cariogenic biofilms by simultaneously affecting the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and acid production by Streptococcus mutans, which enhanced the cariostatic effectiveness of fluoride in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated whether the biological actions of combinations of myricetin (flavonoid), tt-farnesol (terpenoid) and fluoride can influence the expression of specific genes of S. mutans within biofilms and their structural organization using real-time PCR and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results Twice-daily treatment (one-minute exposure) during biofilm formation affected the gene expression by S. mutans both at early (49-h) and later (97-h) stages of biofilm development. Biofilms treated with combination of agents displayed lower mRNA levels for gtfB and gtfD (associated with exopolysaccharides synthesis) and aguD (associated with S. mutans acid tolerance) than those treated with vehicle-control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, treatment with combination of agents markedly affected the structure-architecture of S. mutans biofilms by reducing the biovolume (biomass) and proportions of both EPS and bacterial cells across the biofilm depth, especially in the middle and outer layers (vs. vehicle-control, p < 0.05). The biofilms treated with combination of agents were also less acidogenic, and had reduced amounts of extracellular insoluble glucans and intracellular polysaccharides than vehicle-treated biofilms (p < 0.05). Conclusion The data show that the combination of naturally-occurring agents with fluoride effectively disrupted the expression of specific virulence genes, structural organization and accumulation of S. mutans biofilms, which may explain the enhanced cariostatic effect of our chemotherapeutic approach. PMID:19863808

  4. Characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Libyan oil pipe scale using a germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, A. S.; Shutt, A. L.; Regan, P. H.; Matthews, M. C.; Alsulaiti, H.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Radioactive scale formation in various oil production facilities is acknowledged to pose a potential significant health and environmental issue. The presence of such an issue in Libyan oil fields was recognized as early as 1998. The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) involved in this matter are radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) and their decay products, precipitating into scales formed on the surfaces of production equipment. A field trip to a number of onshore Libyan oil fields has indicated the existence of elevated levels of specific activity in a number of locations in some of the more mature oil fields. In this study, oil scale samples collected from different parts of Libya have been characterized using gamma spectroscopy through use of a well shielded HPGe spectrometer. To avoid potential alpha-bearing dust inhalation and in accord with safe working practices at this University, the samples, contained in plastic bags and existing in different geometries, are not permitted to be opened. MCNP, a Monte Carlo simulation code, is being used to simulate the spectrometer and the scale samples in order to obtain the system absolute efficiency and then to calculate sample specific activities. The samples are assumed to have uniform densities and homogeneously distributed activity. Present results are compared to two extreme situations that were assumed in a previous study: (i) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface proximal to the detector, simulating the sample lowest activity, and; (ii) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface distal to the detector, simulating the sample highest activity.

  5. Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Hopple, J.A.; Böhlke, J.K.; Peiser, H.S.; Rieder, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R.D., Jr.; Revesz, K.M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.

    2002-01-01

    laboratories comparable. The minimum and maximum concentrations of a selected isotope in naturally occurring terrestrial materials for selected chemical elements reviewed in this report are given below: Isotope Minimum mole fraction Maximum mole fraction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2H 0 .000 0255 0 .000 1838 7Li 0 .9227 0 .9278 11B 0 .7961 0 .8107 13C 0 .009 629 0 .011 466 15N 0 .003 462 0 .004 210 18O 0 .001 875 0 .002 218 26Mg 0 .1099 0 .1103 30Si 0 .030 816 0 .031 023 34S 0 .0398 0 .0473 37Cl 0 .240 77 0 .243 56 44Ca 0 .020 82 0 .020 92 53Cr 0 .095 01 0 .095 53 56Fe 0 .917 42 0 .917 60 65Cu 0 .3066 0 .3102 205Tl 0 .704 72 0 .705 06 The numerical values above have uncertainties that depend upon the uncertainties of the determinations of the absolute isotope-abundance variations of reference materials of the elements. Because reference materials used for absolute isotope-abundance measurements have not been included in relative isotope abundance investigations of zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium, ranges in isotopic composition are not listed for these elements, although such ranges may be measurable with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry. This report is available at the url: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014222.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic multi-type hazards for loess territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanova, Nadira; Zakirova, Zulfiya

    2013-04-01

    developing of mining manufactures and their waste located in the foothill areas with high seismic risk and where manifested of dangerous geological processes as landslide, collapse, mud stream, rock falls and toxic contamination; 3) development of urbanization with manifestation of difference engineering geological processes in loess soil on the based of constructions in cities (collapse, liquefaction). That example of cascade effects when natural and anthropogenic multi type hazards in loess was the Gissar earthquake (1989) in Tajikistan when the earthquake of rather moderate intensity (M=5.2; H=5-7 km; I=7 - MSK scale) was triggered several landslides and mudslides connected with liquefaction of wetted loess and can cause a large number of human victims. In the pre 20 years steady irrigation of the slope area occurred for cotton field. This moistening has increase and the water content of the soil to wet 24-28%, up to a depth of 20-30 m that increased the vulnerability of this territory. The interactions between different natural hazards, include triggered, especially earthquakes, landslides, collapses, liquefaction in loess soil with taking account of anthropogenic hazard influence was investigate.