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Sample records for naturally weathered exxon

  1. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted.

  3. Effects of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil on mallard reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    A one-generation reproductive toxicity study and a direct eggshell application toxicity study were conducted using the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess the toxicity of naturally weathered North Slope crude oil (WEVC), obtained following the Exxon Valdez spill. In the reproductive study, birds were fed diets containing 0, 200, 2,000, and 20,000 mg of WEVC/kg diet. No significant differences (p {le} 0.05) in mortality, body weight, food consumption, reproductive parameters, or hatchling parameters were observed. Significant decreases in mean serum phosphorus, serum total protein, albumin, bilirubin, and calcium concentrations were observed in high-dose-group females; no differences were noted among males. Eggshell strength and thickness in the high-dose group were significantly reduced compared to controls. Trends toward increased liver weights and decreased spleen weights were observed in WEVC-treated birds. Applications of WEVC to developing eggs showed it to be less toxic than unweathered North Slope crude oil. Doses covering up to one-third of the shell area of developing mallard eggs (92 mg) resulted in no effects on developing embryos. Eggs treated with the control material, petrolatum, were adversely affected by applications covering approximately one-sixth of the eggshell (24 mg), suggesting inhibition of gas exchange. Neither material affected hatchling survival or growth.

  4. Distribution and weathering of crude oil residues on shorelines 18 years after the Exxon Valdez spill.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Bragg, James R; Atlas, Ronald M

    2008-12-15

    In 2007, a systematic study was conducted to evaluate the form and location of residues of oil buried on Prince William Sound (PWS) shorelines, 18 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS). We took 678 sediment samples from 22 sites that were most heavily oiled in 1989 and known to contain the heaviest subsurface oil (SSO) deposits based on multiple studies conducted since 2001. An additional 66 samples were taken from two sites, both heavily oiled in 1989 and known to be active otter foraging sites. All samples were analyzed for total extractable hydrocarbons (TEH), and 25% were also analyzed for saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon weathering parameters. Over 90% of the samples from all sites contained light or no SSO at all. Of samples containing SSO, 81% showed total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) losses greater than 70%, relative to cargo oil, with most having >80% loss. Samples with SSO were observed in isolated patches sequestered by surface boulder and cobble armoring. Samples showing lowest TPAH loss correlated strongly with higher elevations in the intertidal zones. Of the 17 atypical, less-weathered samples having less than 70% loss of TPAH (>30% remaining), only two were found sequestered in the lower intertidal zone, both at a single site. Most of the EVOS oil in PWS has been eliminated due to natural weathering. Some isolated SSO residues remain because they are sequestered and only slowly affected by natural weathering processes that normally would bring about their rapid removal. Even where SSO patches remain, most are highly weathered, sporadically distributed at a small number of sites, and widely separated from biologically productive lower intertidal zones where most foraging by wildlife occurs. PMID:19174894

  5. Slightly weathered Exxon Valdez oil persists in Gulf of Alaska beach sediments after 16 years.

    PubMed

    Short, Jeffrey W; Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Maselko, Jacek M; Pella, Jerome J; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Payne, James R; Driskell, William B; Rice, Stanley D

    2007-02-15

    Oil stranded by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted in subsurface sediments of exposed shores for 16 years. With annualized loss rates declining from approximately 68% yr(-1) prior to 1992 to approximately 4% yr(-1) after 2001, weathering processes are retarded in both sediments and residual emulsified oil ("oil mousse"), and retention of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prolonged. The n-alkanes, typically very readily oxidized by microbes, instead remain abundant in many stranded emulsified oil samplesfrom the Gulf of Alaska. They are less abundant in Prince William Sound samples, where stranded oil was less viscous. Our results indicate that, at some locations, remaining subsurface oil may persist for decades with little change. PMID:17593726

  6. Slightly weathered Exxon Valdez oil persists in Gulf of Alaska beach sediments after 16 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, J.W.; Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Maselko, J.M.; Pella, J.J.; Lindeberg, M.R.; Payne, J.R.; Driskell, W.B.; Rice, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Oil stranded by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted in subsurface sediments of exposed shores for 16 years. With annualized loss rates declining from ∼68% yr-1 prior to 1992 to ∼4% yr-1 after 2001, weathering processes are retarded in both sediments and residual emulsified oil (“oil mousse”), and retention of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prolonged. The n-alkanes, typically very readily oxidized by microbes, instead remain abundant in many stranded emulsified oil samples from the Gulf of Alaska. They are less abundant in Prince William Sound samples, where stranded oil was less viscous. Our results indicate that, at some locations, remaining subsurface oil may persist for decades with little change.

  7. Chemical comparison of weathered spilled oil and Exxon/Valdez hold oil from an occupational health standpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ho, Chen-h.; Guerin, M.R.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon/Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef located off the coast of Alaska, and 11 million gallons of Northslope Alaska crude oil were spilled into Prince William Sound. More than 11,000 workers and uncounted volunteers participated in the clean up operation. The exposure of cleanup workers to spilled oil over several months of cleanup operations suggests the need for an assessment of any unusual occupational health hazards. To address this issue, weathered spilled oil and hold oil were subjected to biodirected chemical fractionation and target chemical analyses. Potential inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact hazards were investigated. The characterization methods of the DOE/Office of Health and Environmental Research Synthetic Fuels Program were applied to samples related to the spill to permit inter-comparability with that data base. Two oil spills were obtained for characterization. Exxon/Valdez hold oil collected directly from the hold of the tanker was provided by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Also provided was a 75-days old weathered spilled oil sampled on June 6, 1989, from a skimmer collecting oil washed off of Knight Island. Because 40 wt % of the weathered oil consisted of non-oil materials such as sand, entrapped water, and leaves, an oil fraction was prepared by suspending the oil benzene/chloroform drying with anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtering, and removing the solvent by rotary evaporation. The tests conducted here suggest that there is no unusual human health hazard associated with the weathered Exxon/Valdez spilled oil in the context of other petroleum crude oils. Clearly, the volatile organics in the freshly spilled oil present a potential inhalation hazard, but such a threat is considerably mitigated by weathering. The polar neutral chemical class fraction increases notably during weathering, but does not appear to represent an increased genotoxic hazard. 20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Nearshore transport of hydrocarbons and sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 3b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, D.M.; Gibeaut, J.C.; Short, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sediment traps were deployed in nearshore subtidal areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) to monitor particulate chemistry and mineralogy. Complemented by benthic sediment chemistry and core sample stratigraphy at the study sites, results were compared to historical trends and data from other Exxon Valdez studies. These results clearly indicate the transport of oil-laden sediments from oiled shorelines to adjacent subtidal sediments. The composition of hydrocarbons adsorbed to settling particulates at sites adjacent to oiled shorelines matched the PAH pattern of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil.

  9. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, E.M. )

    1987-01-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the ricks permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of th causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between dissolution, crack-corrosion, and the expansion-contraction cycles triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  10. Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic. PMID:17447564

  11. Fate and toxicity of spilled oil from the Exxon Valdez. Subtidal study number 4. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Three separate papers are represented in this final report; Toxicity of intertidal and subtidal sediments contaminated by the Exxon Valdez oil spill; Comparative toxicities of polar and non-polar organic fractions from sediments affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska; and Fate of the oil spilled from the T/V Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  12. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from Exxon Nuclear MOFP, Richland, Washington, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Exxon Nuclear Company Mixed Oxide Fabrication Plant (MOFP), Richland, Washington. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, high straight-line winds, and floods. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values most likely to occur offsite are also given.

  13. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety.

  14. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. F.

    2003-12-01

    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  15. Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on bald eagles. Bird study number 4. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.D.; Schempf, P.F.; Bernatowicz, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    We estimated that about 8000 bald eagles (Halieetus leucocephalus) inhabited the area affected by the spill at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conducted a 3-year study to determine effects of the spill on the bald eagle population and reproduction and survival of adults and fledglings. The greatest injuries to bald eagles occurred in 1989 and were manifested by direct mortality of bald eagles throughout the spill area and significantly reduced reproduction in PWS. We could not discern negative effects on the population or reproduction of eagles after 1989.

  16. Clay-oil flocculation and its role in natural cleansing in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, J.R.; Yang, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Natural interactions of fine mineral particles with residue oil and seawater, in a process called clay-oil flocculation, were found to create solids-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions on shoreline sediments at numerous locations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez spill. In laboratory tests using oiled sediment samples from Prince William Sound, these emulsions were shown to facilitate natural cleansing and dispersion of oil from sediments by moving water. To investigate the effect of flocculation on natural cleansing, studies were conducted to determine the hydrodynamic energy needed for seawater to remove flocculated oil residues from sediments sampled from shorelines. Water was pumped at different velocities through a column packed with oiled sediment, and the amount and composition of oil removed from the sediment were measured as functions of water velocity and sediment movement. In separate tests, oil removal was observed in a wave tank that generated wave heights less than and greater than needed to move sediments. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Database management. Fish/shellfish study number 30

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    In order to evaluate the extent of damage and injury to natural resources as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, the following types of data would need to be synthesized and carefully managed: (1) historical baseline data to establish conditions prior to the spill; (2) data generated by damage assessment projects to establish damage and extent of injury; and (3) data generated by ongoing monitoring projects to determine the effectiveness of restoration programs. The project was implemented to facilitate access to historical datasets maintained by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and to address the need to preserve the raw data generated by selected damage assessment projects associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  18. The Nature of Reduction in Space Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, D. S.; Allen, C. C.

    1993-07-01

    Space weathering is a broad term that includes a number of complex effects of the exposure of materials to the environment of space. The processes that drive space weathering include micrometeorite impact, radiation from the Sun and cosmic rays, and exposure to the vacuum of space. One of the important effects caused by these processes is the tendency for chemical reduction of oxide and silicate materials (including glasses), with accompanying loss of oxygen and production of reduced metal. Such chemical reduction and accompanying metal production may have an important influence on the chemistry of the outermost volume of individual grains as well as on the optical properties of this material. Hapke [1] discussed five processes that have been suggested for producing submicroscopic iron metal in the lunar soil: (1) shock reduction, (2) heating in a thermal blanket in vacuum, (3) shock heating of solar-wind-impregnated grains, (4) coatings deposited by solar wind sputtering, and (5) coatings deposited by impact vaporization. As noted by Hapke, "Processes (1) and (2) have been refuted by laboratory experiments. Processes (4) and (5) have produced submicroscopic iron metal in laboratory simulations. Although no experiments have been done to simulate process (3), it is widely accepted." We have been performing experimental reduction of simulated and actual lunar materials [2-5] and have shown that, under conditions of exposure to hydrogen at elevated temperatures, reduction of FeO readily occurs in ilmenite and lunar composition glass, and occurs at a slower rate in pyroxene and olivine. Even plagioclase feldspar containing minor FeO is readily reduced with formation of metallic iron blebs on surfaces [4]. A comparison of natural lunar samples to hydrogen-reduced samples or simulants in which we are searching for reduction evidence in various soil phases is underway. Preliminary data for mature soils show, in agreement with earlier results, that reduced iron produced in

  19. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on bottomfish and shellfish in Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study 18

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Trawl surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound and adjacent waters in 1989 and 1990 to assess impacts of the Exxon Valdex oil spill on commercial species of bottomfish and shellfish. The surveys (1) determined abundance, distribution, and year-class strength of important bottomfish and shellfish species and (2) assessed the incidence and distribution of oil contamination in fish bile.

  20. Surveys of sea otters in the Gulf of Alaska in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeGange, A.R.; Douglas, D.C.; Monson, D.H.; Robbins, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Alaska west of Prince William Sound were surveyed by helicopter in the spring of 1989 at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the following fall. Estimated population sizes did not significantly decline between spring and fall for areas with comparable survey data. No significant (p>0.05) shifts of sea otter distributions in heavily, lightly and unoiled areas were detected between spring and fall surveys.

  1. Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, M.; Byrd, G.V.

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse impacts to breeding storm-petrels in 1989.

  2. Formation of halloysite from feldspar: Low temperature, artificial weathering versus natural weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parham, W.E.

    1969-01-01

    Weathering products formed on surfaces of both potassium and plagioclase feldspar (An70), which were continuously leached in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus for 140 days with 7.21 of distilled water per day at a temperature of approximately 78 ??C, are morphologically identical to natural products developed on potassium feldspars weathered under conditions of good drainage in the humid tropics. The new products, which first appear as tiny bumps on the feldspar surface, start to develop mainly at exposed edges but also at apparently random sites on flat cleavage surfaces. As weathering continues, the bumps grow outward from the feldspar surface to form tapered projections, which then develop into wide-based thin films or sheets. The thin sheets of many projections merge laterally to form one continuous flame-shaped sheet. The sheets formed on potassium feldspars may then roll to form tubes that are inclined at a high angle to the feldspar surface. Etch pits of triangular outline on the artificially weathered potassium feldspars serve as sites for development of continuous, non-rolled, hollow tubes. It is inferred from its morphology that this weathering product is halloysite or its primitive form. The product of naturally weathered potassium feldspars is halloysite . 4H2O. The flame-shaped films or sheets formed on artificially weathered plagioclase feldspar do not develop into hollow tubes, but instead give rise to a platy mineral that is most probably boehmite. These plates form within the flame-shaped films, and with continued weathering are released as the film deteriorates. There is no indication from this experiment that platy pseudohexagonal kaolinite forms from any of these minerals under the initial stage of weathering. ?? 1969.

  3. Dispute over Exxon Valdez cleanup data gets messy

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1993-05-07

    Scientists from NOAA and Exxon dispute whether the Prince William Sound ecosystem is recovering from the Exxon Valdez spill. NOAA scientists claim that the Sound is still staggering from a major ecological blow and that crude oil weathering products are contaminating vast numbers of Alaskan wildlife. Exxon scientists claim that most of the biota of the Sound is returning to full strength and is largely free of oil from the spill. At the heart of the dispute is the technique of hydrocarbon fingerprinting to identify the source of crude. Exxon scientists claim that government scientists do not know how to interpret the data, and that what they claim is contamination from Valdez crude actually comes from other sources, such as diesel soot from the smokestacks of ships used to collect fish for study. NOAA scientists claim that hydrocarbon fingerprinting is an inappropriate method for tracking oil-spill damage to biota, due to the varied ways in which living organisms metabolize petroleum.

  4. 75 FR 36664 - Exxon Valdez

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: July 22, 2010, at 9:30 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council......

  5. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on black oystercatchers breeding in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Bird study number 12. Restoration study number 17. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    Black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) were studied in central Prince William Sound, Alaska, to determine the effects that the Exxon Valdez oil spill had on their population, reproductive biology, and behavioral ecology. Estimates of direct mortality of black oystercatchers varied widely among the methods used to assess losses and ranged from 4% to 57% of the population inhabitating the spill zone; mortality probably did not exceed 20% of the population. Although the black oystercatcher population appears to be recovering in some areas of the Sound, delayed reproduction in the species precludes determination of the total effect of the spill on the population until at least 1994.

  6. Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

  7. Population levels and reproductive performance of murres based on observations at breeding colonies four years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Restoration study number 11. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dragoo, D.E.; Byrd, G.V.; Roseneau, D.G.; Cooper, J.A.; Dewhurst, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    An assessment of the damage to murre populations and reproductive performance due to the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was conducted from 1989 to 1991. In 1992, we continued monitoring these parameters at three murre (Uria aalge and U. lomvia) nesting colonies located in the path of the oil in an effort to begin measuring recovery. Numbers of murres were significantly reduced at all three study colonies following the spill. We found no recovery to prespill numbers. Timing of breeding and productivity of murres at the Barren Islands and Puale Bay returned to near normal levels in 1992.

  8. Scaling in nature: From DNA through heartbeats to weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Bunde, A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ivanov, P. Ch.; Peng, C.-K.; Stanley, H. E.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this talk is to describe some recent progress in applying scaling concepts to various systems in nature. We review several systems characterized by scaling laws such as DNA sequences, heartbeat rates and weather variations. We discuss the finding that the exponent α quantifying the scaling in DNA in smaller for coding than for noncoding sequences. We also discuss the application of fractal scaling analysis to the dynamics of heartbeat regulation, and report the recent finding that the scaling exponent α is smaller during sleep periods compared to wake periods. We also discuss the recent findings that suggest a universal scaling exponent characterizing the weather fluctuations.

  9. Assessment of injury to river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Terrestrial mammal study number 3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Faro, J.B.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Duffy, L.K.

    1994-03-01

    River otters (Lutra canadensis) were killed by direct effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, but the magnitude of that loss is unknown due to lack of pre-spill data. A time lag in spill effects is reflected by the reduction in species richness and diversity in the summer diets of otters in oiled areas between 1989 and 1990. Otters from oiled areas had higher haptoglobin levels in both 1990 and 1991. Male otters captured in oiled areas in 1990 had significantly lower body mass than otters from nonoiled areas. Otters from oiled areas had home ranges that were twice as large as those from a non-spill area. Differences in rates of fecal deposition between oiled and nonoiled latrine sites in 1989 suggest otters used heavily oiled areas less often. Otters avoided shorelines with shallow slopes on the oiled area, whereas they strongly preferred these slopes on nonoiled sites, suggesting that otters lost habitat as a result of the spill.

  10. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murres: A perspective from observations at breeding colonies. Bird study number 3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nysewander, D.R.; Dippel, C.H.; Byrd, G.V.; Knudtson, E.P.

    1993-04-01

    The authors surveyed murres (Uria spp.) annually from 1989 through 1991 at breeding colonies within the trajectory of the oil to determine whether numbers had declined and to evaluate the effects of oil on nesting phenology and reproductive success, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. The colonies the authors surveyed contained the majority of the estimated 200,000 murres attending colonies in the affected area, and they found reduced numbers at all study colonies following the spill. In addition, nesting was delayed and productivity rates were far below normal following the spill. In contrast, numbers of murres did not decline and reproductive parameters were normal at 2 colonies the authors surveyed outside the trajectory.

  11. Population, reproduction and foraging of pigeon guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, K.L.; Kuletz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, we studied pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) breeding just 30 km from the grounding site. The post-spill population was 43% less than the pre-spill population, but we could not attribute the entire decline to the spill because a decline in the PWS guillemot population may have predated the spill. However, relative declines in the population were greater along oiled shorelines, suggesting that the spill was responsible for some of the decline. The most likely explanation for the few effects observed is that oil was present on the surface waters of the study area for a relatively short period before the guillemots returned to begin their annual reproductive activities.

  12. Age distributions of sea otters found dead in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-15. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, D.H.; Ballachey, B.

    1995-06-01

    Age distribution of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches in western Prince William Sound Alaska, from 1976 to 1984, were compared to those of sea otters found dead from 1989 to 1993, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The age distribution of sea otters recovered in western Prince William Sound prior to the spill was bimodal and composed of primarily young and old animals. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered immediately following the spill indicates significant losses occurred within a segment of the population which normally experiences very low mortality. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered in 1990-1991 may be evidence of a prolonged, spill-related effect on the western Prince William Sound sea otter population.

  13. Marine bird populations of Prince William Sound, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosiewski, S.P.; Laing, K.K.

    1994-06-01

    We estimated the summer and winter abundance of marine birds in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, examined changes in population size between pre-spill and post-spill surveys, and compared pre- to post-oil spill population trends in the oiled zone of the Sound relative to trends in the unoiled zone. Ninety-nine species of birds were observed on surveys. Estimated populations of 15 to 32 species/species groups demonstrated declines over the 17-19 year period between pre- and post-spill surveys. However, because of the long time period between surveys, we could not directly associate overall population declines with the oil spill.

  14. Petroleum hydrocarbon-induced injury to subtidal marine sediment resources. Subtidal study number 1a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    To determine the distribution of oil in subtidal sediments after the Exxon Valdez oil spill we sampled sediments at six depths (0, 3, 6, 20, 40 and 100 m) at 53 locations in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska from 1989 to 1991. Results are based on 1278 sediment samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In 1989, the oil concentration was greatest in the Sound at 0 m. Outside the Sound, Exxon Valdez oil occurred at Chugach Bay, Hallo Bay, Katmai Bay, and Windy Bay in 1989. Hydrocarbons often matched Exxon Valdez oil less closely, oil was more patchily distributed, and the oil concentration decreased in sediments after 1989.

  15. Injury to crabs outside Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study number 22. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, J.L.; O`Clair, C.E.

    1995-09-01

    Commercial Dungeness crab fisheries exist near Kodiak Island and the eastern Alaska Peninsula. Both areas lie within the trajectory of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Thirty nine sites in the region were sampled in 1989 and 1990 to assess petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of crab tissues and benthic sediments with which crabs were associated. Female crabs were found in small numbers at 15 sites. Eight of these sites exhibited low levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments. Only two of the eight sites showed oil contamination that could be linked convincingly to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. None of the crab tissue samples showed evidence of contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons.

  16. Biodegradability of lingering crude oil 19 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Venosa, Albert D; Campo, Pablo; Suidan, Makram T

    2010-10-01

    In 2001 and 2003, geospatial surveys of lingering oil were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) resulting in a prediction of significant acreage being contaminated with substantial subsurface oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). In 2007, other researchers developed a mass weathering index (MWI) based on the degree of weathering of PAHs normalized to conserved biomarkers: if the degree of weathering of oil is 70% or more, further attempts at bioremediation would be unjustified. The objective of our study was to measure the biodegradability of the 19-year lingering oil in laboratory microcosms. Samples of beach substrate were collected from representative sites in PWS contaminated with oil residues of varying weathering states according to the MWI model. Enough sacrificial microcosms were set up to accommodate two treatments for each site (natural attenuation and biostimulation). Results indicated that lingering oil is biodegradable. Nutrient addition stimulated biodegradation compared to natural attenuation in all treatments regardless of the degree of weathering. The most weathered oil according to the MWI was the most biodegradable. Substantial biodegradation occurred in the natural attenuation microcosms due to the high sediment Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), which served as a nitrogen source for biodegradation. Most of the observed biodegradation was due to the presence of dissolved oxygen. Nitrogen was a limiting factor but oxygen was the predominant one. PMID:20806905

  17. Experiments to determine drift patterns and rates of recovery of sea otter carcasses following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doroff, A.M.; DeGange, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate efforts to recover sea otter (Enhydra lutris) carcasses following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The first study was implemented during sea otter rescue and carcass recovery activities to assess the probability of carcass recovery. Twenty-five previously recovered sea otter carcasses were marked with flipper tags and released near northern Kodiak Island between 27 May and 3 June 1989. Five were recovered, for a recovery rate of 20%. In the second study, 30 radio-monitored floats designed to assess drift characteristics of floating sea otter carcasses were deployed in early summer 1990. During a 43-day monitoring period, 27 were known to have washed ashore, 25 in Prince William Sound (PWS) and two on the Gulf of Alaska coast of Montague Island. These studies suggest that many more sea otters may have died from the spill than were recovered, and that some sea otters succumbing to oil exposure in PWS could have drifted outside of PWS and never been recovered.

  18. Intersection model for estimating sea otter mortality from the Exxon Valdez oil spill along the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-5. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The authors developed an analytical model (intersection model) to estimate the exposure of sea otters (Enhydra lutris), to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The authors applied estimated and assumed exposure dependent mortality rates to the Kenai Peninsula sea otter population to provide examples of the application of the model in estimating sea otter mortality. The intersection model requires three distinct types of data: (1) distribution, abundance, and movements of oil, (2) abundance and distribution of sea otters, and (3) sea otter mortality rates relative to oil exposure. Initial output of the model is an estimate of exposure of otters to oil. Exposure is measured in amount and duration of oil near an otter`s observed location (intersections). The authors provide two examples of the model using different assumptions about the relation between exposure and mortality. Because of an apparent non-linear relation between the degree of oiling and survival of otters from rehabilitation, output from the authors` examples are likely biased.

  19. Biomarkers of damage to sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following potential exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Marine mammal study 6-1. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.

    1995-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate several biomarkers of genotoxic damage in sea otters that had potentially been exposed to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Thirteen adult male sea otters were captured in eastern (unoiled) Prince William Sound, and 14 in western (oiled) Prince William Sound in September and October 1991. Blood lymphocytes, sperm and testicular cells were collected from the otters for flow cytometric analyses to measure: (1) DNA content of lymphocytes, (2) nuclear chromatin structure of sperm, and (3) subpopulations of cell types in the testis. Additionally, sperm cells were examined by light microscopy for morphological abnormalities. The DNA content of blood lymphocytes from sea otters in the oiled vs. unoiled areas was not significantly different, although there was greater variation among samples from the oiled area. One measure of sperm cell quality was poorer for male sea otters from the unoiled area, and may have been associated with differences in the age and breeding status of the two groups sampled. Other measures of sperm and testicular cells did not differ between areas.

  20. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

  1. On the Nature of People's Reaction to Space Weather and Meteorological Weather Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarova, O. V.; Dimitrova, S.

    2009-12-01

    Our environment includes many natural and artificial agents affecting any person on the Earth in one way or other. This work is focused on two of them - weather and space weather, which are permanently effective. Their cumulative effect is proved by means of the modeling. It is shown that combination of geomagnetic and solar indices and weather strength parameter (which includes six main meteorological parameters) correlates with health state significantly better (up to R=0.7), than separate environmental parameters do. The typical shape of any health characteristics' time-series during human body reaction to any negative impact represents a curve, well-known in medicine as a General Adaptation Syndrome curve by Hans Selye. We demonstrate this on the base of blood pressure time-series and acupunctural experiment data, averaged by group. The first stage of adaptive stress-reaction (resistance to stress) is sometimes observed 1-2 days before geomagnetic storm onset. The effect of "outstripping reaction to magnetic storm", named Tchizhevsky- Velkhover effect, had been known for many years, but its explanation was obtained recently due to the consideration of the near-Earth space plasma processes. It was shown that lowfrequency variations of the solar wind density on a background of the density growth can stimulate the development of the geomagnetic filed (GMF) variations of the wide frequency range. These variations seem to have "bioeffective frequencies", resonant with own frequencies of body organs and systems. The mechanism of human body reaction is supposed to be a parametrical resonance in low-frequency range (which is determined by the resonance in large-scale organs and systems) and a simple forced resonance in GHz-range of variations (the resonance of micro-objects in the organism such as DNA, cell membranes, blood ions etc.) Given examples of mass-reaction of the objects to ULF-range GMF variations during quiet space weather time prove this hypothesis.

  2. Biotite weathering in a natural forest setting near Derome, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh-Brunstad, Z.; Negrich, K.; Hassenkam, T.; Wallander, H.; Stipp, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Chemical weathering is a key process in non-nitrogen nutrient acquisition by microbes, fungi and plants. Biotite is commonly the major source of potassium, magnesium and iron. A unique opportunity arose to study natural weathering of biotite by mixed conifer and hardwood forest vegetation and associated microbes and fungi at an abandoned mine site. After the mining stopped over 30 years ago biotite was left behind in piles and the forest vegetation progressively colonized the site. Samples were collected from the top 40 cm of the biotite piles in a vicinity of pine, spruce and birch trees and included some young seedlings. Macroscopic observations documented abundant hyphal growth between the sheets of biotite. We hypothesized that fungal hyphae grow between the sheets to explore the nutrient source and weather the biotite leaving hyphal-sized etched channels on the basal surfaces. Biotite surfaces were examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in their natural state and after removing the biological material from the mineral surfaces. The ESEM images show extensive hyphal colonization and patchy biofilm cover of the entire biotite surface on and within the sheets and at the edges of the particles. Fungal hyphae did not attach strongly to the basal surfaces of the biotite flakes as a result of small particles on the surfaces and the uneven micro-topography. The AFM images illustrate a complex microbial community around the fungal hyphae and detailed fungal morphology. High resolution AFM images show unique globular features of diameter 10-100 nm on all biofilm surfaces. However, removal of the biological material resulted in smooth and un-etched surfaces indicating that either our removal techniques are too invasive and destroy the surface layers of interest, or the etching of the basal surface is not the main mechanism for chemical weathering and base-cation nutrient immobilization in this natural setting

  3. Simulation of Natural Acid Sulfate Weathering in an Alpine Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, R. L.; Miller, William R.; McHugh, John; Catts, John G.

    1992-09-01

    Streams with acidic sulfate compositions (pH less than 3.5) are naturally generated in the alpine Geneva Creek Basin of the southern Rocky Mountains, an area underlain by Proterozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks that are intruded by Tertiary felsic stocks with associated pyritic alteration. These naturally acidic waters are similar in composition to more familiar man-made acid mine waters or to surface waters acidified by sulfate precipitation. Detailed study of the stream compositions has revealed the principal reactions driving the weathering process and was used to estimate the relative effects of snowpack ionic input versus the solute contribution from acid attack in soil zones and groundwater. In the Geneva Creek Basin, atmospheric sources of solute represent a minor component to the stream water composition, except for chloride, which can be used to determine the fraction of contribution. The weathering process is a balance between oxidation of sulfides, dissolution of silicates, formation of the clay minerals vermiculite, kaolinite, and smectite, carbonate neutralization, and precipitation of ferric and aluminum oxyhydroxides and aluminum sulfate. The chemical analyses of snow samples, multiple samples of water from Geneva Creek and its tributaries, and the composition of primary and secondary minerals identified in the basin serve as input to a mass balance geochemical model, which facilitates the interpretation of the principal geochemical processes.

  4. Lightning: Nature's Probe of Severe Weather for Research and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Lightning, the energetic and broadband electrical discharge produced by thunderstorms, provides a natural remote sensing signal for the study of severe storms and related phenomena on global, regional and local scales. Using this strong signal- one of nature's own probes of severe weather -lightning measurements prove to be straightforward and take advantage of a variety of measurement techniques that have advanced considerably in recent years. We briefly review some of the leading lightning detection systems including satellite-based optical detectors such as the Lightning Imaging Sensor, and ground-based radio frequency systems such as Vaisala's National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), long range lightning detection systems, and the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) networks. In addition, we examine some of the exciting new research results and operational capabilities (e.g., shortened tornado warning lead times) derived from these observations. Finally we look forward to the next measurement advance - lightning observations from geostationary orbit.

  5. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to Prince William Sound spot shrimp. Subtidal study number 5. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    Since the grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez caused an oil spill on March 24, 1989, four surveys have been conducted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) to assess possible damage done by the oil spill to spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros. The surveys were conducted November 1989, March 1990, and November 1990 as Fish/Shellfish Study 15, then November 1991 as Subtidal Study 5. The report incorporates results of all surveys, but emphasizes November surveys and their analysis.

  6. Shoreline oiling conditions in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Owens, E.H.; Stoker, S.W.; McCormick, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Exxon conducted comprehensive, systematic shoreline surveys in cooperation with federal and state authorities to obtain information on the distribution and magnitude of shoreline oiling and to identify natural and cultural resources requiring special protection. Similar joint surveys were performed during the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992 on all Prince william Sound and Gulf of Alaska shorelines that were suspected of having remnants of weathered oil and that would benefit from further cleanup. In the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found, chiefly in small scattered zones in coarse cobble/boulder sediments in the upper intertidal or supratidal zones. In 1991, about one-third of the subdivisions in Prince William Sound with surface oil also contained some subsurface oil. The areal extent of this subsurface oil declined by nearly 70% between 1991 and 1992, from about 37,000 m{sup 2} to about 12,000 m{sup 2}. Moreover, where subsurface oil remained in 1992, it was present in lesser amounts. Rates of oil removal were greatest on coastal sections treated early in the spring and summer of 1989. Where shoreline treatment was delayed, the subsequent rate of removal of oil from the shore by natural processes was slower. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide to weather resources includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources. Related disciplines are indicated, age levels are specified, and a student activity is included. (LRW)

  8. Climate and weather risk in natural resource models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Nathaniel Henry

    This work, consisting of three manuscripts, addresses natural resource management under risk due to variation in climate and weather. In three distinct but theoretically related applications, I quantify the role of natural resources in stabilizing economic outcomes. In Manuscript 1, we address policy designed to effect the risk of cyanobacteria blooms in a drinking water reservoir through watershed wide policy. Combining a hydrologic and economic model for a watershed in Rhode Island, we solve for the efficient allocation of best management practices (BMPs) on livestock pastures to meet a monthly risk-based as well as mean-based water quality objective. In order to solve for the efficient allocations of nutrient control effort, we optimize a probabilistically constrained integer-programming problem representing the choices made on each farm and the resultant conditions that support cyanobacteria blooms. In doing so, we employ a genetic algorithm (GA). We hypothesize that management based on controlling the upper tail of the probability distribution of phosphorus loading implies different efficient management actions as compared to controlling mean loading. We find a shift to more intense effort on fewer acres when a probabilistic objective is specified with cost savings of meeting risk levels of up to 25% over mean loading based policies. Additionally, we illustrate the relative cost effectiveness of various policies designed to meet this risk-based objective. Rainfall and the subsequent overland runoff is the source of transportation of nutrients to a receiving water body, with larger amounts of phosphorus moving in more intense rainfall events. We highlight the importance of this transportation mechanism by comparing policies under climate change scenarios, where the intensity of rainfall is projected to increase and the time series process of rainfall to change. In Manuscript 2, we introduce a new economic groundwater model that incorporates the gradual shift

  9. Identification of hydrocarbon sources in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Page, D.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.; Bence, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods and improved analytical methods make possible the quantitative discrimination of the multiple sources of hydrocarbons in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska. These methods measure an extensive range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at detection levels that are as much as two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by standard Environmental Protection Agency methods. Nineteen hundred thirty six subtidal sediment samples collected in the sound and the eastern Gulf of Alaska in 1989, 1990, and 1991 were analyzed. Fingerprint analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data reveal a natural background of petrogenic and biogenic PAH. Exxon Valdez crude, its weathering products, and diesel fuel refined from Alaska North Slope crude are readily distinguished from the natural seep petroleum background and from each other because of their distinctive PAH distributions. Mixing models were developed to calculate the PAH contributions from each source to each sediment sample. These calculations show that most of the seafloor in PWS contains no detectable hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill, although elevated concentrations of PAH from seep sources are widespread. In those areas where they were detected, spill hydrocarbons were generally a small increment to the natural petroleum hydrocarbon background. Low levels of Exxon Valdez crude residue were present in 1989 and again in 1990 in nearshore subtidal sediments off some shorelines that had been heavily oiled. By 1991 these crude residues were heavily degraded and even more sporadically distributed. 58 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. HRTEM study comparing naturally and experimentally weathered pyroxenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, J.F.; Ferruzzi, G.G.; Casey, W.H.; Westrich, H.R.

    1995-01-01

    The mineralogy and chemistry of both naturally and experimentally weathered MnSiO{sub 3} chain silicate minerals (rhodonite and pyroxmangite) were compared. In natural MnSiO{sub 3}, high-resolution transmission-electron microscope observations reveal that alteration begins at grain boundaries and planar defects parallel to the silicate chains that represent junctions between regions with different chain periodicities. Dissolution along these defects results in elongate etch pits that may be partly filled by smectite. Smectite (Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 2}Zn{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.1}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}) also develops in larger etches at grain boundaries. The Zn apparently released by weathering of coexisting sphalerite, may facilitate crystallization of manganese-smectite; rhodochrosite is also an initial product. X-ray diffraction patterns from highly altered materials reveal only rhodochrosite and quartz. Simplified reactions are H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(aq) + 4 MnSiO{sub 3}(s) = Mn{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}(s) + MnCO{sub 3}(s) accompanied by 3H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(aq) + Mn{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}(s) = 3 MnCO{sub 3}(s) + 4SiO{sub 2}(s) + 4H{sub 2}O. Pyroxenoid dissolution is incongruent under experimental conditions. A 3-7 nm-thick layer of amorphous silica is present at the mineral surface after {approximately}2000 h of reaction in acidic and near-neutral pH solutions that were undersaturated with respect to bulk amorphous silica. This thin layer of polymeric silica, which is absent on unreacted grains, is interpreted to have formed largely by incongruent dissolution at the mineral surface as protons in solution rapidly exchange for near-surface Mn. The layer may also contain silica readsorbed back onto the surface from solution. The net result is that silica from the pyroxenoid is redistributed directly into reaction products. Upon aging in air for a year, leached layers partially recrystallize.

  11. Climate and weather risk in natural resource models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Nathaniel Henry

    This work, consisting of three manuscripts, addresses natural resource management under risk due to variation in climate and weather. In three distinct but theoretically related applications, I quantify the role of natural resources in stabilizing economic outcomes. In Manuscript 1, we address policy designed to effect the risk of cyanobacteria blooms in a drinking water reservoir through watershed wide policy. Combining a hydrologic and economic model for a watershed in Rhode Island, we solve for the efficient allocation of best management practices (BMPs) on livestock pastures to meet a monthly risk-based as well as mean-based water quality objective. In order to solve for the efficient allocations of nutrient control effort, we optimize a probabilistically constrained integer-programming problem representing the choices made on each farm and the resultant conditions that support cyanobacteria blooms. In doing so, we employ a genetic algorithm (GA). We hypothesize that management based on controlling the upper tail of the probability distribution of phosphorus loading implies different efficient management actions as compared to controlling mean loading. We find a shift to more intense effort on fewer acres when a probabilistic objective is specified with cost savings of meeting risk levels of up to 25% over mean loading based policies. Additionally, we illustrate the relative cost effectiveness of various policies designed to meet this risk-based objective. Rainfall and the subsequent overland runoff is the source of transportation of nutrients to a receiving water body, with larger amounts of phosphorus moving in more intense rainfall events. We highlight the importance of this transportation mechanism by comparing policies under climate change scenarios, where the intensity of rainfall is projected to increase and the time series process of rainfall to change. In Manuscript 2, we introduce a new economic groundwater model that incorporates the gradual shift

  12. Early marine salmon injury assessment in Prince William sound. Fish/shellfish study number 4a. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Willette, T.M.; Carpenter, G.; Shields, P.; Carlson, S.R.

    1994-11-01

    The authors investigated the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and evaluated natural environmental effects on the migration, growth, and survival of juvenile pink salmon during the first two months of marine residence in Prince William Sound using coded-wire tagged juveniles released from hatcheries in 1989-1991. Juveniles from Koernig Hatchery migrated from the nearby moderately-oiled area to the lightly-oiled southern coast of Knight Island in 1989; similar migration was not observed in 1990 and 1991. Exposure to hydrocarbons appeared to reduce the juvenile growth rate by 0.76 to 0.94% body weight per day in 1989, and was associated with a significantly greater (P<.05) frequency of cytochrome P4501A enzyme induction in moderately-oiled areas. Growth rate reduction likely caused a 1.7 to 2.2% reduction in survival to the adult stage among fish reared in oiled areas.

  13. Winds and Weather, Teacher's Edition. Probing the Natural World/3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Dept. of Science Education.

    The teacher's edtion for the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study Level III unit entitled "Winds and Weather" provides instructions for teachers for examining some principles underlying thermal convention, weather observation, closed systems, moisture and cloud formation, the heated-air model, and fronts. A brief introduction dealing with…

  14. Communicating Environmental Uncertainty: The Nature of Weather Forecasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Richard W.; Riebsame, William E.

    1979-01-01

    Traces the path of weather forecasts from the time they are made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration until the time they are received by the public through the mass media. The purpose of the article is to provide geography teachers with basic information on weather forecasts, interpretation of forecast terms, and indications…

  15. Run reconstruction and life-history model. Fish/shellfish study number 28. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, H.J.; Templin, W.D.; Collie, J.S.; Quinn, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill resulted in contaminants of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) habitat, including freshwater spawning areas in southwestern Prince William Sound (PWS). The authors estimated the loss of returning wild adult pink salmon in 1990-1992, and speculated about this loss in 1993-1994. The primary cause of death was direct poisoning in the embryo stage of development. These studies have low statistical power to detect oil spill effects in the pre- and post- emergent fry and ocean life stages, therefore the true extent of the injury may be understated. The egg-mortality levels increased in the oiled areas in the 1991 and 1992 brood years. The authors also report on a run-reconstruction model, a deterministic model that assumed Markovian transition probabilities for the migration of each individual stock. The authors` most important finding is that of excessive harvest rates on pink salmon stocks in the northern and northwestern part of PWS.

  16. Injury to deep benthos. Subtidal study number 2b (air/water study number 2). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the possible injury by petroleum, derived from the Exxon Valdez oil spill to benthic infaunal resources within Prince William Sound in water deeper than 20 m. Analyses of benthic biological data collected from 14 bays in Prince William Sound in 1990 at 40, 100 and > 100 m, by univariate and multivariate techniques, demonstrated no obvious disturbance effects on the benthic biota 16 months after the oil spill. In all multivariate analyses, the major environmental variables related to the composition of benthic assemblages were sediment parameters such as percent silt, clay, mud, percent water and amount of nitrogen and carbon in sediment. Although limited amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons and presence of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were detected at some sites at 40 and 100 m in 1989 and 1990, minor or no impact was sustained by benthic fauna of the deep benthos within the Sound.

  17. Herring Bay experimental and monitoring studies. Restoration study number 102. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Highsmith, R.C.; Stekoll, M.S.; van Tamelen, P.; Hooten, A.J.; Deysher, L.

    1993-10-01

    Intertidal studies were established in 1990 in Herring Bay, Prince William Sound in response to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill and have continued through the 1992 field season. Examination of the dominant intertidal alga, Fucus gardneri, has shown that larger plants were removed from the intertidal in areas affected by the spill/clean-up. Where Fucus cover was reduced, an increase in the abundance of ephemeral alage often occurred. Populations of intertidal grazing invertebrates, such as limpets and periwinkles showed reduced densities at oiled sites. Initially, barnacle recruitment was lower in quadrats on tar-covered rocks, compared to scraped quadrats, but differences disappeared at most sites over time. However, Fucus germlings and filamentous algae contineud to have lower densities and percent cover on oiled than non-oiled substrates. Recovery is taking place in lower and middle intertidal zones and normal community interactions are returning.

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbons in near-surface seawater of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill I: Chemical sampling and analysis. Air/water study number 3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Short, J.W.; Harris, P.M.

    1996-04-01

    We sampled 32 locations during each of three sampling periods between 31 March through 8 May 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, for hydrocarbons in seawater at depths of 1-m and 5-m following the grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez on 24 March 1989. Samples were analyzed for 22 alkane and 43 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analytes. The results show that Exxon Valdez crude oil PAHs were available to subsurface marine fauna the first few weeks following grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, especially in near-shore, near-surface waters that are biologically productive. Measured PAH concentrations, however, were well below those acutely toxic to marine fauna.

  19. Alaska's response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, D.D.; Kendziorek, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The primary lesson of the Exxon Valdez spill is that oil spill prevention and response technologies need substantial, sustained research and development. There must be adequate amounts of equipment in place in time to properly respond to an oil spill. Management systems need to be improved so they effectively use these technologies. The combination of inadequate technology, insufficient amounts of response equipment, and ineffective management of the available resources produced serious problems in the initial response. Exxon eventually deployed large amounts of equipment and personnel. By the time the long-term shoreline treatment phase began, Exxon had also improved the management of its operations. However, at that point, much of the damage had already occurred. The extent of injury to natural resource is now being assessed through scientific studies. Based on the results of these studies, the final step in the response will be restoration projects which are now in the planning stage. In light of the experience with the Exxon Valdez spill, state and federal laws have been strengthened to provide better prevention measures, response planning, and in-region cleanup capacity. As with most pollution problems, prevention - through both management and technology - should be the first line of defense.

  20. Pathological studies of sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-11. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, B.E.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sea otters were captured and taken to rehabilitaion centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Records of 21 oiled otters that died within 10 days of arrival at the centers were reviewed to define the laboratory abnormalities and clinical syndromes associated with these deaths. Tissues from 51 oiled and 6 unoiled sea otters that died in the centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 oiled otters found dead shortly after the spill. Nucropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that were collected and frozen following the oil spill. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema and gastric erosion and hemorrhage were common in oiled animals, and were less frequent in unoiled animals. Tissues from 6 sea otters collected from a nonoiled area were examined, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  1. EXXON Valdez Hindcast (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-03

    Once installed, the 'HindCast Player' HyperCard stack displays the spill trajectory of the EXXON Valdez oil spill in the Prince William Sound in March of 1989. The product, 'Exxon Valdez Hind Cast' contains one compressed file and one documentation file. The file containing the documentation is named 'Read.me', and the compressed file is named Exxon HindCasts'. The compressed folder contains a moov file called 'EXXON Valdez', a HyperCard Stack called, 'HindCast Player v/2', and Apples QuickTime(TM) extension file.

  2. Recovery of sediments in the lower intertidal and subtidal environment. Restoration project 93047-1. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-05-01

    Sediments were collected at ten locations in Prince William Sound in July 1993 to determine the geographical and bathymetric distribution of oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in the low intertidal zone and subtidal region. The authors sampled sediments at mean lower low water (0 m) and at five subtidal depths from 3 to 100 m. No Exxon Valdez oil was found in sediments at 0 m where the greatest mean intertidal concentration of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons excluding perylene (54 ng/g) was observed at Moose Lips Bay. Subtidal sediments showed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon composition patterns similar to Exxon Valdez oil at three sites, Herring Bay, Northwest Bay and Sleepy Bay. Contamination of sediments by Exxon Valdez oil reached a depth of 20 m at Northwest Bay and Sleepy Bay. In deep sediments (> or = 40 m) the authors found no evidence of weathered Exxon Valdez oil.

  3. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, James R.; Prince, Roger C.; Harner, E. James; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future.

  4. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed action analyzed in this final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is to restore, insofar as possible, the injured natural resources and thereby the services they provide that were affected by the Exxon Valdex oil spill (EVOS). The purpose of this document is to analyze the effects of proposed uses of the remaining funds (approximately $620 million as of February 1994, after final reimbursements) in accomplishing the mission of the Trustee Council.

  5. Ecological significance of residual exposures and effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H

    2006-07-01

    An ecological significance framework is used to assess the ecological condition of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in order to address the current management question: 17 y following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are there any remaining and continuing ecologically significant exposures or effects on the PWS ecosystem caused by EVOS? We examined the extensive scientific literature funded by the Exxon Valdez Trustees or by ExxonMobil to assess exposures and effects from EVOS. Criteria to assess ecological significance include whether a change in a valued ecosystem component (VEC) is sufficient to affect the structure, function, and/or health of the system and whether such a change exceeds natural variability. The EVOS occurred on 24 March 1989, releasing over 250,000 barrels of crude oil into PWS. Because PWS is highly dynamic, the residual oil was largely eliminated in the first few years, and now only widely dispersed, highly weathered, or isolated small pockets of residual contamination remain. Many other sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in PWS from past or present human activities or natural oil seeps. Multiple-lines-of-evidence analyses indicate that residual PAHs from EVOS no longer represent an ecologically significant exposure risk to PWS. To assess the ecological significance of any residual effects from EVOS, we examined the literature on more than 20 VECs, including primary producers, filter feeders, fish and bird primary consumers, fish and bird top predators, a bird scavenger, mammalian primary consumers and top predators, biotic communities, ecosystem-level properties of trophodynamics and biogeochemical processes, and landscape-level properties of habitat mosaic and wilderness quality. None of these has any ecologically significant effects that are detectable at present, with the exception of 1 pod of orcas and possibly 1 subpopulation of sea otters; however, in both those cases, PWS-wide populations appear to have

  6. Weathering Natural Disasters with a Net of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Faster and more efficient coverage on television and the Internet is increasingly exposing children to traumatic images of natural devastation both at home and abroad. Natural disasters, such as the wildfires in California or the trauma caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, have become commonplace. Catastrophic events like these serve as…

  7. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Assessment of injury to harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and adjacent areas following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study number 5. Restoration study number 73. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The goal of the project was to determine whether the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) had a measurable impact on harbor seals, Phocavitulina richardsi, in Prince William Sound (PWS) and adjacent areas. During the EVOS, harbor seals were exposed to oil both in the water and on land. The study was designed to investigate and quantify, as possible, the effects of oil and the disturbance associated with cleanup on distribution, abundance, and health of harbor seals in the affected area.

  8. Exxon Valdez oil spill: State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Effects of pink salmon (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) escapement level on egg retention, preemergent fry, and adult returns to the kodiak and chignik management areas caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Fish/shellfish study numbers 7b and 8b. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-01

    As a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, commercial salmon fishing in and around the Kodiak and Chignik areas was severely restricted throughout the 1989 season. Consequently, pink salmon escapements for these areas greatly exceeded targeted escapement objectives. Investigations were conducted within the Kodiak and Chignik Management Areas during 1989 and 1990 to determine if negative impacts on future odd-year brood line pink salmon production occurred as a result of overescapement in 1989.

  9. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses. PMID

  10. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to demersal rockfish and shallow reef habitats in Prince William Sound, 1989-1991. Subtidal study number 6. Fish/shellfish study number 17. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Demersal rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in Prince William Sound were studied from 1989 through 1991 to assess injury due to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Injury was assessed by establishing the exposure of rockfish to petroleum hydrocarbons and then determining if any histopathological lesions occurred with increased frequency in fish from sites with oil-exposed fish.

  11. Decadal climatic variability and regional weather simulation: stochastic nature of forest fuel moisture and climatic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsinko, Y.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.

    2014-12-01

    Natural range of variability of forest fire frequency is of great interest due to the current changing climate and seeming increase in the number of fires. The variability of the annual area burned in Canada has not been stable in the 20th century. Recently, these changes have been linked to large scale climate cycles, such as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phases and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The positive phase of the PDO was associated with the increased probability of hot dry spells leading to drier fuels and increased area burned. However, so far only one historical timeline was used to assess correlations between the natural climate oscillations and forest fire frequency. To counteract similar problems, weather generators are extensively used in hydrological and agricultural modeling to extend short instrumental record and to synthesize long sequences of daily weather parameters that are different from but statistically similar to historical weather. In the current study synthetic weather models were used to assess effects of alternative weather timelines on fuel moisture in Canada by using Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index moisture codes and potential fire frequency. The variability of fuel moisture codes was found to increase with the increased length of simulated series, thus indicating that the natural range of variability of forest fire frequency may be larger than that calculated from available short records. It may be viewed as a manifestation of a Hurst effect. Since PDO phases are thought to be caused by diverse mechanisms including overturning oceanic circulation, some of the lower frequency signals may be attributed to the long term memory of the oceanic system. Thus, care must be taken when assessing natural variability of climate dependent processes without accounting for potential long-term mechanisms.

  12. Modeling the evolution of natural cliffs subject to weathering: 1. Limit analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utili, S.; Crosta, G. B.

    2011-03-01

    Retrogressive landsliding evolution of natural slopes subjected to weathering has been modeled by assuming Mohr-Coulomb material behavior and by using an analytical method. The case of weathering-limited slope conditions, with complete erosion of the accumulated debris, has been modeled. The limit analysis upper-bound method is used to study slope instability induced by a homogeneous decrease of material strength in space and time. The only assumption required in the model concerns the degree of weathering within the slope, and for this we assumed and tested different weathering laws. By means of this method, the evolution of cliffs subject to strong weathering conditions (weathering-limited conditions) was predicted. The discrete succession of failures taking place was modeled taking into account the geometry assumed by slopes as a consequence of previous mass movements. The results have been compared with published data from long-term slope monitoring and show a good match between experimental observations and analytical predictions. The retrogressive evolution of the slope occurs with decreasing size of the unstable blocks, following a logarithmic volume-frequency relationship. A nonlinear relationship is found between mass flux and average slope gradient. A set of normalized solutions is presented both by nomograms and tables for different values of slope angle, cohesion, and internal friction angle.

  13. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated about 1,500 miles of Alaska`s coastline. It killed birds, mammals, and fish, and disrupted the ecosystem in the path of the oil. The Exxon Valdez Restoration Plan provides long-term guidance for restoring the resources and services injured by the oil spill. It contains policies for making restoration decisions and describes how restoration activities will be implemented.

  14. Assessment of injury to harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska and adjacent areas following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study number 5. (Restoration study number 73). Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.J.; Lowry, L.F.

    1994-05-01

    In the weeks following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) harbor seals, Phocavitulina richardsi, swam through oil and inhaled aromatic hydrocarbons as they breathed at the air/water interface. Concentrations of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile clearly indicated that most seals from oiled areas had been exposed to hydrocarbons. Before the EVOS, harbor seals in Prince William Sound were declining at an average annual rate of 12% in both oiled and unoiled areas. Aerial surveys in 1989 indicated a 43% decline at oiled sites versus an 11% decline at unoiled sites. By 1992, there were still 34% fewer seals at oiled sites than before the spill.

  15. Effect of short-term natural weathering on MSWI and wood waste bottom ash leaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gori, M; Bergfeldt, B; Pfrang-Stotz, G; Reichelt, J; Sirini, P

    2011-05-15

    Short term natural weathering was applied on municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incinerator bottom ash (BA). The materials were analysed at different steps of treatment and characterized for chemical and mineralogical composition. Both short and long term leaching behaviour of main elements and heavy metals were investigated as well. Lead, zinc and copper were the main heavy metals to be released. After 12 weeks of treatment the concentration of leached zinc decreased. Lead concentration was not found to be influenced by pH and decreased only for the biomass samples. Weathering did not have beneficial effects on copper leaching, which was well described by complexation processes with DOC. The findings from the experimental campaign indicated that weathering reactions improved the mineral stability of the analysed materials but, in contrast with previous works, the treatment was not sufficient to guarantee pH stability and to comply with leaching law limits. PMID:21420787

  16. Degradation assessment of natural weathering on low density polyethylene/thermoplastic soya spent powder blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Ragunathan, S.; Ismail, H.

    2015-07-01

    Soya spent powder was blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE) ranging from 5-25 wt%. Glycerol was added to soya spent powder (SSP) for preparation of thermoplastic soya spent powder (TSSP). Then, the blends were exposed to natural weathering for 6 months. The susceptibility of the LDPE/soya spent powder blends based on its tensile, morphological properties and structural changes was measured every three months. The tensile strength of LDPE/TSSP blends after 6 months of weathering was the lowest compared to the other blends whereas LDPE/SSP blends after 6 months of weathering demonstrated the lowest elongation at break (Eb). Large pore can be seen on the surface of 25 wt% of LDPE/SSP blends.

  17. Assessment of injuries to killer whales in Prince William Sound. Marine mammal study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlheim, M.E.; Matkin, C.O.

    1993-12-01

    Photo-identification studies of individual killer whales inhabiting Prince William Sound were collected from 1989-91 to determine the impact of the spill on whale abundance and distribution. Concurrent photo-identification studies were also conducted in Southeast Alaska to determine if PWS killer whales were displaced to other areas. Despite increased effort, the number of encounters with PWS killer whales appears to be decreasing. The authors assume, that the whales are dead from natural causes, a result of interactions with fisheries, from the spill, or a combination of these causes.

  18. The Exxon Valdez oil spill; The environmental health response to man-made disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, R.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental health professions faced many challenges in 1989, among them the protection of public health in the wake of both natural and man-made disasters. Following hurricanes in the Caribbean and southeast United States, the earthquake in northern California and the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, environmental health officials and consultants were confronted with extraordinary problems concerning housing, drinking water, hazardous materials spills, solid waste management, waste water management and sanitation. This article discusses the environmental health response to one of these events - the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  19. 77 FR 60454 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... renewal of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory committee. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires a public advisory...

  20. 78 FR 54669 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: October 3, 2013...-5011. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee was created...

  1. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  2. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to salmon eggs and preemergent fry in Prince William sound. Restoration study number 60c. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The study is a continuing project designed to monitor recovery of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha populations in Prince William Sound that were impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The report covers the work and findings for the period March 1, 1992 - February 28, 1993. Embryo mortality and embryo to preemergent fry survival were examined in intertidal and upstream areas of oil contaminated and unaffected (control) streams. Each of four stream zones in 31 streams were sampled for embryos and preemergent fry.

  3. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Impact of the oil spill on juvenile pink and chum salmon and their prey in critical nearshore habitats. Fish/shellfish study number 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on juvenile pink and chum salmon during their initial period of residency in nearshore marine habitats of western Prince William Sound. In oiled locations, both pink and chum salmon fry in the nearshore marine environment observations and laboratory experiments indicated that ingestion of whole oil or oil-contaminated prey was an important route of contamination.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons in near-surface seawater of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill II: Analysis of caged mussels. Air/water study number 3. Subtidal study number 3a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Short, J.W.; Harris, P.M.

    1995-07-01

    Mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were deployed at 22 locations inside Prince William Sound and 16 locations outside the Sound at depths of 1, 5 and 25 m for 2 to 8 weeks to determine the biological availability and persistence of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez Oil (EVO) spill. Four successive deployments were made in 1989, and two each in 1990 and 1991. Mussels were analyzed for 27 alkane and 43 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analytes. PAH concentrations derived from EVO in mussels decreased with depth, time, and distance from heavily oiled beaches. Hydrocarbon accumulation derived from EVO by deployed mussels indicates petroleum hydrocarbons were available to subsurface marine fauna the summer following the spill, which may be a route of oil ingestion exposure by fauna at high trophic levels.

  5. Impact of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez on survival and growth of dolly varden and cutthroat trout in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Fish/shellfish study number 5 (restoration study number 90). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hepler, K.R.; Hansen, P.A.; Bernard, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    Five emigrating populations of Dolly Varden and cutthroat trout were intercepted in 1989-1991 during seaward migration to Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill; two into the spill area, three into non-spill areas. Study populations were comprised of tagged adults and subadults. Survival rates were estimated with log-linear models of capture histories of tagged fish. We used a two-stage simulation based on bootstrapping and Monte Carlo techniques to compare average survival rates in study populations that were and were not associated with spilled oil. Growth and survival rates were significantly lower in study populations associated with spilled oil. Results are consistent with the occurrence of a deleterious impact on growth and survival of emigrating species, although unable to be confirmed as results emanated from observation, not experiment.

  6. Hydrocarbons in hair, livers and intestines of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) found dead along the path of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in hair, liver and intestinal samples taken from dead sea otters (Enhydra lutris) collected in spring and summer 1989 from Prince William Sound, the Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island, along the path of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hair showed significant differences in hydrocarbon concentrations among the three locations, but few significant differences were noted for liver or intestine samples. The highest concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in hair samples from Prince William Sound. Hydrocarbon concentrations in intestine and liver samples from the three locations were generally similar and low, suggesting that uptake into the tissues was limited, or that hydrocarbons within the tissues had been metabolized by the time samples were collected.

  7. Weathering products of basic rocks as sorptive materials of natural radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Omelianenko, B.I.; Niconov, B.S.; Ryzhov, B.I.; Shikina, N.D.

    1994-06-01

    The principal requirements for employing natural minerals as buffer and backfill material in high-level waste (HLW) repositories are high sorptive properties, low water permeability, relatively high thermal conductivity, and thermostability. The major task of the buffer is to prevent the penetration of radionuclides into groundwater. The authors of this report examined weathered basic rocks from three regions of Russia in consideration as a suitable radioactive waste barrier.

  8. The Role of Hydrology in the Persistence of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufadel, M.; Li, H.; Sharifi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated around 800 kilometers of shoreline in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Despite extensive cleanup efforts and nearly 20 years of natural weathering, subsurface oil residues persist in patches in some beaches. The hydrogeological mechanism causing the oil persistence was not fully understood due to the complex surface and groundwater interactions in the intertidal zone including tides, inland freshwater recharge, sediment heterogeneity, seawater density-effect and beach landforms. Based on field data and numerical simulations, we show that the persistence of oil is due to the two-layered structure (a high-permeability surface layer underlain by a low-permeability layer) in conjunction with a small freshwater recharge. The surface layer probably provided the oil a temporary storage for its slow, continuous filling of the lower layer whenever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers due to small freshwater recharge from inland. The oil did not seem to have penetrated the lower layer at locations where the freshwater recharge was large. The persistence seems to be due to the lack of oxygen resulting from the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. This was not considered in prior studies dealing with the spill. This study has implications on locating and bioremediating spilled oil on tidal gravel beaches widely distributed around the world, especially in mid- and high-latitude regions.

  9. Cold weather operating guidelines and experience for natural draft cooling towers on the American Electric Power system

    SciTech Connect

    Michell, F.L.; Drew, D.H.

    1996-10-01

    American Electric Power`s more than 30 years of experience in operating natural draft cooling towers during freezing winter weather conditions is discussed in the paper. Design features incorporated into the specifications for major rebuild/repack projects for crossflow and counterflow towers to facilitate cold weather operation are also reviewed.

  10. Lithium isotopes in large rivers reveal the cannibalistic nature of modern continental weathering and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, Mathieu; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Bouchez, Julien; Calmels, Damien; Galy, Valier; Hilton, Robert G.; Louvat, Pascale; France-Lanord, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The erosion of major mountain ranges is thought to be largely cannibalistic, recycling sediments that were deposited in the ocean or on the continents prior to mountain uplift. Despite this recognition, it has not yet been possible to quantify the amount of recycled material that is presently transported by rivers to the ocean. Here, we have analyzed the Li content and isotope composition (δLi7) of suspended sediments sampled along river depth profiles and bed sands in three of the largest Earth's river systems (Amazon, Mackenzie and Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers). The δLi7 values of river-sediments transported by these rivers range from +5.3 to -3.6‰ and decrease with sediment grain size. We interpret these variations as reflecting a mixture of unweathered rock fragments (preferentially transported at depth in the coarse fraction) and present-day weathering products (preferentially transported at the surface in the finest fraction). Only the finest surface sediments contain the complementary reservoir of Li solubilized by water-rock interactions within the watersheds. Li isotopes also show that river bed sands can be interpreted as a mixture between unweathered fragments of igneous and sedimentary rocks. A mass budget approach, based on Li isotopes, Li/Al and Na/Al ratios, solved by an inverse method allows us to estimate that, for the large rivers analyzed here, the part of solid weathering products formed by present-day weathering reactions and transported to the ocean do not exceed 35%. Li isotopes also show that the sediments transported by the Amazon, Mackenzie and Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems are mostly sourced from sedimentary rocks (>60%) rather than igneous rocks. This study shows that Li isotopes in the river particulate load are a good proxy for quantifying both the erosional rock sources and the fingerprint of present-day weathering processes. Overall, Li isotopes in river sediments confirm the cannibalistic nature of erosion and weathering.

  11. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  12. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  13. Novel predictors of soil genesis following natural weathering processes of bauxite residues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Huang, Ling; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei

    2016-02-01

    Bauxite residue often has chemical and physical limitations to support plant growth, and improving its matrix properties is crucial to support sustainable vegetation in the long term. Spontaneous vegetation colonization on deposits in Central China, over a period of 20 years, has revealed that natural weathering processes may convert bauxite residue to a soil-like medium. Residue samples from different stacking ages were collected to determine the effect of natural processes on matrix properties over time. It was demonstrated that natural processes decreased pH (10.98 to 9.45), electrical conductivity (EC) (3.73 to 0.36 mS/cm), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) (72.51 to 28.99 %), while increasing bulk density (1.91 to 1.39 g/cm(3)), improving the mean weight diameter (MWD) of water-stable aggregates (0.24 to 0.52 mm), and the proportion of >0.25-mm water-stable aggregates (19.91 to 50.73 %). The accumulation of organic carbon and the reduction of ESP and exchangeable Na had positive effects on soil aggregate formation, while exchangeable Ca and Mg were significantly beneficial to aggregation of water-stable aggregates. Climate, stacking time, and biological factors appear to improve the structure of bauxite residue. Our findings demonstrate soil genesis occurring following natural weathering processes of bauxite residues over time. PMID:26452661

  14. Fingerprinting hydrocarbons in the biological resources of the Exxon Valdez spill area

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    A procedure has been developed that discriminates Exxon Valdez crude from other sources of hydrocarbons found in Prince Williams Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The procedure uses polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to fingerprint sample extracts. The relative abundances of alkylated phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, and chrysenes are used to differentiate Exxon Valdez crude and its weathering products from other hydrocarbons. Saturate fraction distributions are used to confirm the PAH identification whenever possible. The procedure has been applied to the more than 1,500 PAH analyses of tissues reported by the Oil Spill Health Task Force, formed after the spill to assess subsistence food safety, and nearly 4,700 PAH analyses of biological samples in PWSOIL, the government`s damage-assessment chemistry database. These two datasets constitute the largest collection of hydrocarbon analyses of biological samples form the spill-impact zone. 70 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Survey and evaluation of instream habitat and stock restoration techniques for wild pink and chum salmon. Restoration study number 105-1 (restoration project 93063). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Willette, T.M.; Dudiak, N.C.; Honnold, S.G.; Carpenter, G.; Dickson, M.

    1995-08-01

    This project is the result of a three-year survey of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impact area to identify appropriate and cost-effective instream habitat restoration techniques for salmon, including spawning channels and improvement of fish passage through fish ladders or step-pool structures to overcome physical or hydrological barriers. Additional wild salmon stock rehabilitation measures include stream-side incubation boxes, remote egg-taking, incubation at existing hatcheries for fry stocking in oil-impacted streams, and fry rearing. Study results include the identification of the most promising instream habitat restoration projects in each of the spill-impacted areas.

  16. Technical report: Marine mammals study number 6. Movements of weanling and adult female sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-12. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    Ninety-six adult female sea otters and 64 weanling sea otters were instrumented with implanted radio-transmitters in Prince William Sound during 1989-1990 and monitored until November, 1991. Observations of the movements of adult female and weanling sea otters in prince William Sound indicated no tendency for individuals to emigrate from, or immigrate to, the area affected by oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. This finding indicates that the study groups of sea otters categorized as `western Prince William Sound oil-spill treatment` otters and `eastern Prince William Sound control` otters are indeed distinct groups of individuals. No tendency was observed for recently weaned sea otters to exhibit a preference for habitat units based on the likelihood that they would encounter spilled oil therein. Finally, data reported suggest that the recovery of the sea otter population in the oil spill affected region of Prince William Sound will likely be a direct function of the rates of survival and reproduction of the sea otters in the affected habitat with little or no influence from emigration or immigration.

  17. Exxon's Hondo Field goes on stream - at last

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, H.M.

    1981-05-04

    After more than 10 years of frustrating regulatory delays and an outlay of $600 million, Exxon Co. USA has brought on stream its rich Hondo Oil Field in the Santa Ynez Unit of California's Santa Barbara Channel. The first wells on Hondo Platform A are delivering crude into a storage and treating vessel anchored nearby. The first carrier tanker arrived in mid-April 1981, to take on the first cargo of produced oil. The crude will travel in 5 dedicated shuttle tankers through the Panama Canal to Exxon's Baytown, Texas Refinery. Seventeen wells have been drilled so far from the 945 ft tall platform, installed in 850 ft of water near the western end of the channel. That water depth ranks second in US offshore development to a platform in the Gulf of Mexico. By the end of this year Hondo Field will be producing 30,000 bpd. In 1982, when 24 wells are producing and 4 injection wells are returning water and natural gas to the reservoir, production will rise to its peak of 35,000 to 40,000 bpd.

  18. Natural Aerosol Feedback Effects During Extreme Weather Events For North East U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astitha, M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The predictability of extreme weather events associated with high wind speed and precipitation is significant due to the impacts in human lives and the environment. As storm occurrences of various types and intensities have become more frequent in the Northeastern part of the United States, the need for improving the numerical prediction of those storms has emerged. In this work, we investigate the role of natural aerosols in the atmospheric conditions during extreme weather events, using regional atmospheric modeling systems. We explore how natural aerosols (dust, sea salt) influence the accuracy of the numerical prediction in real-time as well as in hind-cast mode by including the radiative feedback and the explicit treatment of cloud condensation nuclei. Two research activities are associated with the objectives described herein that will be presented and discussed. Real-time operational forecasts for NE U.S. are produced using two atmospheric modeling systems: WRF and RAMS/ICLAMS. The use of two modeling systems was chosen in the view of assessing the uncertainty of atmospheric variables by implementing two different and, at the same time, similarly configured modeling systems. Past storm cases that affected the region have been analyzed covering the period from 2001 to 2013 ranging from thunderstorms, snow/ice storms to typical winter storms and hurricanes. To accomplish that, we used the two models to create an ensemble that informs other research activities related to infrastructure resiliency and adaptation. In addition, we analyzed several past storm cases including the natural aerosol feedback effects and measure the responsiveness of the prediction as well as the differences in the storm intensity. The second activity that relates to the objectives of this work is the participation in the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology EXperiment (IPHEx) that supports the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. We performed daily weather forecasts for the

  19. Recalcitrance and degradation of petroleum biomarkers upon abiotic and biotic natural weathering of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Radović, Jagoš R; Carmichael, Catherine A; Valentine, David L; Reddy, Christopher M

    2014-06-17

    Petroleum biomarkers such as hopanoids, steranes, and triaromatic steroids (TAS) are commonly used to investigate the source and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment based on the premise that these compounds are resistant to biotic and abiotic degradation. To test the validity of this premise in the context of the Deepwater Horizon disaster, we investigated changes to these biomarkers as induced by natural weathering of crude oil discharged from the Macondo Well (MW). For surface slicks collected from May to June in 2010, and other oiled samples collected on beaches in the northern Gulf of Mexico from July 2010 until August 2012, hopanoids with up to 31 carbons as well as steranes and diasteranes were not systematically affected by weathering processes. In contrast, TAS and C32- to C35-homohopanes were depleted in all samples relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (C30-hopane). Compared to MW oil, C35-homohopanes and TAS were depleted by 18 ± 10% and 36 ± 20%, respectively, in surface slicks collected from May to June 2010, and by 37 ± 9% and 67 ± 10%, respectively, in samples collected along beaches from April 2011 through August 2012. Based on patterns of relative losses of individual compounds, we hypothesize biodegradation and photooxidation as main degradation processes for homohopanes and TAS, respectively. This study highlights that (i) TAS and homohopanes can be degraded within several years following an oil spill, (ii) the use of homohopanes and TAS for oil spill forensics must account for degradation, and (iii) these compounds provide a window to parse biodegradation and photooxidation during advanced stages of oil weathering. PMID:24831878

  20. Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Veblen, David R.; Blum, Alex E.; Chipera, Stephen J.

    2006-09-01

    Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone at Black Mesa, Arizona, was characterized with high-resolution transmission and analytical electron microscope (HRTEM-AEM) and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). Here, we report the first HRTEM observation of a 10-nm thick amorphous layer on naturally weathered K-feldspar in currently slightly alkaline groundwater. The amorphous layer is probably deficient in K and enriched in Si. In addition to the amorphous layer, the feldspar surfaces are also partially coated with tightly adhered kaolin platelets. Outside of the kaolin coatings, feldspar grains are covered with a continuous 3-5 μm thick layer of authigenic smectite, which also coats quartz and other sediment grains. Authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth and etch pits were also found on feldspar grains. These characteristics of the aged feldspar surfaces accentuate the differences in reactivity between the freshly ground feldspar powders used in laboratory experiments and feldspar grains in natural systems, and may partially contribute to the commonly observed apparent laboratory-field dissolution rate discrepancy. At Black Mesa, feldspars in the Navajo Sandstone are dissolving at ˜10 5 times slower than laboratory rate at comparable temperature and pH under far from equilibrium condition. The tightly adhered kaolin platelets reduce the feldspar reactive surface area, and the authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth reduces the feldspar reactivity. However, the continuous smectite coating layer does not appear to constitute a diffusion barrier. The exact role of the amorphous layer on feldspar dissolution kinetics depends on the origin of the layer (leached layer versus re-precipitated silica), which is uncertain at present. However, the nanometer thin layer can be detected only with HRTEM, and thus our study raises the possibility of its wide occurrence in geological systems. Rate laws and proposed mechanisms should consider the

  1. Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Chen; Veblen, D.R.; Blum, A.E.; Chipera, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone at Black Mesa, Arizona, was characterized with high-resolution transmission and analytical electron microscope (HRTEM-AEM) and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). Here, we report the first HRTEM observation of a 10-nm thick amorphous layer on naturally weathered K-feldspar in currently slightly alkaline groundwater. The amorphous layer is probably deficient in K and enriched in Si. In addition to the amorphous layer, the feldspar surfaces are also partially coated with tightly adhered kaolin platelets. Outside of the kaolin coatings, feldspar grains are covered with a continuous 3-5 ??m thick layer of authigenic smectite, which also coats quartz and other sediment grains. Authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth and etch pits were also found on feldspar grains. These characteristics of the aged feldspar surfaces accentuate the differences in reactivity between the freshly ground feldspar powders used in laboratory experiments and feldspar grains in natural systems, and may partially contribute to the commonly observed apparent laboratory-field dissolution rate discrepancy. At Black Mesa, feldspars in the Navajo Sandstone are dissolving at ???105 times slower than laboratory rate at comparable temperature and pH under far from equilibrium condition. The tightly adhered kaolin platelets reduce the feldspar reactive surface area, and the authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth reduces the feldspar reactivity. However, the continuous smectite coating layer does not appear to constitute a diffusion barrier. The exact role of the amorphous layer on feldspar dissolution kinetics depends on the origin of the layer (leached layer versus re-precipitated silica), which is uncertain at present. However, the nanometer thin layer can be detected only with HRTEM, and thus our study raises the possibility of its wide occurrence in geological systems. Rate laws and proposed mechanisms should consider the

  2. Coded wire tag studies on Prince William Sound salmon, 1989-1991. Fish/shellfish study number 3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharr, S.; Peckham, C.J.; Sharp, D.G.; Peltz, L.; Smith, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, wild and hatchery juvenile pink salmon were coded wire tagged to evaluate damages and improve management strategies. Tagging rates were sufficiently high to allow adequate numbers of marks to be recovered in the fishery catches, brood stock, and streams. Results indicated that 5.3 million (24%) of the 22.5 million pink salmon caught in 1989 were of wild origin. There were no significant differences in survival rates for pink salmon originating from oiled and unoiled streams in 1990 or 1991. In additon to meeting damage assessment objectives, the coded wire tagging program has furnished information critical to management decisions associated with restoration of damaged wild salmon stocks.

  3. Histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-10. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared oiled, were in danger of becoming oiled, or were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Tissues from 51 oiled sea otters and from 6 unoiled sea otters that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 sea otters found dead with external oil present shortly after the spill. Necropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that had been collected and frozen in the period following the oil spill. Tissues from 6 apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by the oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  4. Detection of sea otters in boat-based surveys of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-19. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Udevitz, M.S.; Bodkin, J.L.; Costa, D.P.

    1995-05-01

    Boat-based surveys were used to monitor the Prince William Sound sea otter population before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Population and loss estimates could be obtained from these surveys by direct expansion from the counts in the surveyed transects under the assumption that all otters in those transects were observed. The authors conducted a pilot study using ground-based observers in conjunction with the August 1990 survey of marine mammals and birds to investigate the validity of this assumption. The proportion of otters detected by boat crews was estimated by comparing boat and ground-based observations on 22 segments of shoreline transects. Overall, the authors estimated that only 70% of the otters in surveyed shoreline transects were detected by the boat crews. These results suggest that unadjusted expansions of boat survey transect counts will underestimate sea otter population size and that loss estimates based on comparisons of unadjusted population estimates will be biased.

  5. Assessment of oil spill impacts on fishery resources: Measurement of hydrocarbons and their metabolites, and their effects, in important species. NRDA project subtidal 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Collier, T.K.; Krone, C.A.; Krahn, M.M.; Johnson, L.L.

    1995-09-01

    Studies were conducted from 1989 to 1991 to assess injury to fisheries resources related to the Exxon Valdz oil spill. These studies were designed to determine exposure of fish to petroleum-derived compounds, specifically aromatic hydrocarbons, and assess possible effects. Over 4000 fish were collected from >50 sites in Prince William Sound, Lower Cook Inlet, and embayments along the Kenai and Alaska Peininsulas. Biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) and hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities were measured, and used to determine degree of exposure of fish to aromatic compounds. The results showed continuing exposure through 1991 of several benthic fish species, which suggested persistent petroleum contamination of subtidal sediments. While major histopathological and reproductive effects were not documented, the potential impact on fishery resources of long-term exposure to petroleum, albeit at moderate to low levels, could not be determined from these studies.

  6. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, Hps; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, Wo Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions. PMID:25674417

  7. Comparison of surface water chemistry and weathering effects of two lake basins in the Changtang Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhaofei; Jiang, Liguang; Yao, Zhijun; Wang, Junbo; Ju, Jianting

    2016-03-01

    The geochemistry of natural waters in the Changtang Nature Reserve, northern Tibet, can help us understand the geology of catchments, and provide additional insight in surface processes that influence water chemistry such as rock weathering on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, severe natural conditions are responsible for a lack of scientific data for this area. This study represents the first investigation of the chemical composition of surface waters and weathering effects in two lake basins in the reserve (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco and Lake Longwei Co). The results indicate that total dissolved solids (TDS) in the two lakes are significantly higher than in other gauged lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, reaching 20-40g/L, and that TDS of the tectonic lake (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco) is significantly higher than that of the barrier lake (Lake Longwei Co). Na(+) and Cl(-) are the dominant ions in the lake waters as well as in the glacier-fed lake inflows, with chemical compositions mainly affected by halite weathering. In contrast, ion contents of inflowing rivers fed by nearby runoff are lower and concentrations of dominant ions are not significant. Evaporite, silicate, and carbonate weathering has relatively equal effects on these rivers. Due to their limited scope, small streams near the lakes are less affected by carbonate than by silicate weathering. PMID:26969064

  8. Novel natural and anthropogenic physical mechanisms of weather and climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, Nikolai; Avakyan, Sergei

    2010-05-01

    stimulated perturbations reaches a half of million of square kilometers. Every time perturbations of lesser scale are observed in magnetic conjugate area. In accordance with our calculations the rate of ionization and excitation of ionosphere in the conjugate point and hence, generation of microwave radiation from Rydberg states reaches 10 % of the effect in the point of the transmitter work. We suggest three-stage radio-optical trigger mechanism for the ionospheric microwaves influence on the weather and climate. The first stage is an increase in generation of the microwave radiation which penetrates from the ionosphere to the earth surface. The second stage is a change in the proportion of water vapour to water clusters caused by increased microwave radiation. The third stage is a change of the atmosphere transparence in the absorption bands of water vapour and clusters. The atmosphere transparence due to cloudiness (usually optically thin (warming) clouds from solar flares and corpuscular of both natural and technological precipitations) determines fluxes of solar irradiance coming down as well as fluxes of the thermal radiation coming out from the underlying surface. The maximum of secular cycles of solar activity was observed in eighties of last century. Since 1985 the total solar irradiance and ionizing radiation fluxes have been decreasing but geomagnetic activity (aa - index) has been going up till 2003. Only during the last few years geomagnetic activity also started decreasing. This means that negative trends have begun both for solar and geomagnetic activities, and also there is a positive trend of GCR since 1998 which participate in generation of optically thick (cooling) clouds. We suppose that according to our mechanism the natural global warming will go down to lower levels.

  9. Natural occurrence and stability of pyrochlore in carbonatites, related hydrothermal systems, and weathering environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, G.R.; Mariano, A.N.

    1996-08-01

    Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric (defect) pyrochlores crystallize during the magmatic and late magmatic-hydrothermal phases of carbonatite emplacement (T > 450--550 C, P < 2 kb). Defect pyrochlores can also form at low temperatures in laterite horizons during weathering. After crystallization, pyrochlore is subject to alteration by hydrothermal fluids (T {approximately} 550--200 C) and ground water. Alteration occurs primarily by ion exchange of low valence A-site cations together with O, F, and OH ions. The high valence cations Th and U are generally immobile; however, the authors have documented one example of hydrothermal alteration involving loss of U together with cation exchange at the B-site in samples from Mountain Pass, California. During laterite accumulation, the cation exchange rate of pyrochlore greatly exceeds the rate of matrix dissolution. The exceptional durability of pyrochlore in natural environments is related to the stability of the B-site framework cations. In carbonatites, defect pyrochlores may contain significant amounts of Si (up to 7.6 wt% SiO{sub 2}) which is negatively correlated with Nb.

  10. Composition of weathering crusts on sandstones from natural outcrops and architectonic elements in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Mariola; Alexandrowicz, Zofia; Rzepa, Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    This work presents mineralogical and chemical characteristics of weathering crusts developed on sandstones exposed to various air pollution conditions. The samples have been collected from sandstone tors in the Carpathian Foothill and from buildings in Kraków. It has been stated that these crusts differ in both fabric and composition. The sandstone black crust from tors is rich in organic matter and composed of amorphous silica. Sulphate incrustations accompanied by dust particles have been only sometimes observed. Beneath the black crust, a zone coloured by iron (oxyhydr)oxides occurs. The enrichment of the surface crust in silica and iron compounds protects the rock interior from atmospheric impact. The sandstones from architectonic details are also covered by a thin carbon-rich black crust, but they are visibly loosened. Numerous salts, mainly gypsum and halite, crystallise here, thus enhancing deterioration of the rock. Moreover, spherical particles originated from industrial emissions are much more common. Gypsum in natural outcrops, forms isolated and well-developed crystals, whilst these found on the architectonic details are finer and densely cover the surface. Such diversity reflects various concentrations of acid air pollutants in solutions. PMID:25037099

  11. Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines in the ground and under the sea, and in general all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of the natural electromagnetic field. The resulting currents in the networks (commonly named geomagnetically induced currents, GIC), are produced by the conductive and/or inductive coupling and can compromise or even disrupt system operations and, in extreme cases, cause power blackouts, railway signalling mis-operation, or interfere with pipeline corrosion protection systems. To properly model the GIC in order to mitigate their impacts it is necessary to know the frequency dependence of the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations which naturally span a wide frequency range. For that, the general equations of the electromagnetic induction in a multi-layered infinitely long cylinder (representing cable, power line wire, rail or pipeline) embedded in uniform media have been solved utilising methods widely used in geophysics. The derived electromagnetic fields and currents include the effects of the electromagnetic properties of each layer and of the different types of the surrounding media. This exact solution then has been used to examine the electromagnetic response of particular samples of long conducting structures to the external electromagnetic wave for a wide range of frequencies. Because the exact solution has a rather complicated structure, simple approximate analytical formulas have been proposed, analysed and compared with the results from the exact model. These approximate formulas show good coincidence in the frequency range spanning from geomagnetic storms (less than mHz) to pulsations (mHz to Hz) to atmospherics (kHz) and above, and can be recommended for use in space weather applications.

  12. Exxon officials rate Valdez waste management plan a success

    SciTech Connect

    Fahys, J. )

    1990-02-01

    There was a time last spring when the Exxon Valdez oil spill cleanup drifted to a halt as officials wondered how to dispose skimmers filled with oil water collected from Prince William Sound. Barges were full; off-loading gear was failing; and there was no place to dump the cargo. The disposal delay was a brief episode in what many call a successful waste management operation. Houston-based Exxon USA designed its cleanup program and achieved its goals despite such setbacks as public outcry over incineration plans. This paper reports on what Exxon officials had to say about the waste management plan.

  13. Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    A summary presentation to inform discussion of the recently announced acquisition of XTO Energy Inc. by Exxon Mobil Corporation, a transaction which is reportedly $41 billion in value. "Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc" presents non-proprietary company-level oil and gas production and reserve data and the relevant U.S. aggregate data published by the Energy Information Administration.

  14. Natural attenuation of weathered oil using aquatic plants in a farm in Southeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Cruz, María Del Carmen; Trujillo-Narcía, Antonio; Trujillo-Rivera, Eduardo A; Arias-Trinidad, Alfredo; Mendoza-López, María Remedios

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in field for three years to assess the sustainability of aquatic plants Leersia hexandra, Cyperus articulatus, and Eleocharis palustris for use in the removal of total hydrocarbons of weathered oil in four areas contaminated with 60916-119373 mg/kg of hydrocarbons. The variables evaluated were coverage of plant, dry matter, density of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and the removal of total weathered oil. The variables showed statistical differences (p = 0.05) due to the effects of time and the amount of oil in the soil. The three aquatic plants survived on the farm during the 36-month evaluation. The grass L. hexandra yielded the greatest coverage of plant but was inhibited by the toxicity of the oil, which, in contrast, stimulated the coverage of C. articulatus. The rhizosphere of L. hexandra in control soil was more densely colonized by N-fixing bacteria, while the density of phosphate and potassium solubilizing rhizobacteria was stimulated by exposure to oil. C. articulatus coverage showed positive relationship with the removal of weathered oil; positive effect between rhizosphere and L. hexandra grass coverage was also identified. These results contributed to the removal of weathered oil in Gleysols flooded and affected by chronic discharges of crude oil. PMID:26939740

  15. Progress toward filling the weather and climate forecast needs of agricultural and natural resource management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several recent developments prompted a review of the current availability of free and official weather, climate, and hydroclimate forecasts for rural locations in the U.S., compared to the situation a decade ago. These developments included a surge in interest among research and operational meteoro...

  16. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Student Guide: Winds and Weather. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the student's text of one of the units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). The chapters contain basic information about weather, its measurement and predictions, activities related to the subject, and optional excursions. A section of introductory notes to the student discusses how to use…

  17. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Winds and Weather. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of one of eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). This unit focuses on weather, its measurement and prediction. Optional excursions are given for students who wish to study a topic in greater depth on an individualized basis. An introduction describes the…

  18. 77 FR 33763 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee... to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989. Public Advisory Committee members will be selected...

  19. 75 FR 14622 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: April 19, 2010, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Office,...

  20. 76 FR 37141 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of... Interior, Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: July 26, 2011, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee...

  1. 75 FR 61771 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee...), following the recommendation and approval of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, and in consultation... the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court...

  2. 76 FR 15332 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: April 13, 2011, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Office,...

  3. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  4. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carls, M.G.; Babcock, M.M.; Harris, P.M.; Irvine, G.V.; Cusick, J.A.; Rice, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from <60 mg/g in reference beds to 62,258 mg/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 253 mg/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 mg/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites.

  5. Natural Weathering and Sea Water Effects on the Durability of Glass Fiber Reinforced Vinylester: Fractographic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merah, Nesar; Nizamuddin, Seyed; Khan, Zafarullah; Al-Sulaiman, Faleh; Mehdi, Moeid

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the effects of harsh outdoor weather and warm sea water on the tensile behavior of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Vinylester (GFRV) pipe materials destined for sea water handling and transportation. The effect of Dhahran’s outdoor weather for exposure periods ranging from 3 to 36 months revealed an improvement in tensile strength when compared with the as received GFRV sample. A significant increasing trend of tensile strength from 3 to 12 months was noted. This is attributed mainly to the post curing effects resulting in higher cross linking density. After 12 months of exposure the tensile strength showed a decreasing trend, but remaining still higher than the average tensile strength of as received (baseline) GFRV sample. Similar results of enhanced tensile strength were noted after immersion of GFRV pipes in warm Gulf sea water for 12 months. Fractographic analysis was performed on the tensile tested GFRV samples using optical microscope followed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The characterization of the controlling failure mechanisms involved from fracture initiation to fracture propagation through the gage section of the specimen were predicted and were justified by correlating the optical and SEM pictures.

  6. Absorbance and color change of LLDPE samples exposed to natural weathering in Aguascalientes City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Mota, R.; Soto-Bernal, J. J.; Rosales-Candelas, I.; Vega-Dúran, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    The degradation of weather exposed linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) specimens, with and without pigments, in Aguascalientes City, Ags. Mexico, during 269 days, was studied. Spectroscopic methods, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and colorimetry, were used to determine the degradation of the specimens. The material used is not pure since they are samples of finished product that contain additives such as anti-oxidants, stabilizers, catalysts. One of the samples contains orange color pigment and the other sample is colorless. The plots describing the absorption bands attributable to the polymeric material show a similar profile in both samples. The bands attributable to pigment do show a considerable decrease in absorbance. The results suggest that the orange pigment has been degrading, as it can also be observed in the color change, while the polymeric material doesn't show any degradation.

  7. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. PMID:16524600

  9. Severe Weather Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Karol

    Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

  10. Performance evaluation of two protective treatments on salt-laden limestones and marble after natural and artificial weathering.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Barbara; Pinna, Daniela; Porcinai, Simone

    2014-02-01

    Salt crystallization is a major damage factor in stone weathering, and the application of inappropriate protective products may amplify its effects. This research focuses on the evaluation of two protective products' performance (organic polydimethylsiloxane and inorganic ammonium oxalate (NH4)2(COO)2·H2O) in the case of a salt load from behind. Experimental laboratory simulations based on salt crystallization cycles and natural weathering in an urban area were carried out. The effects were monitored over time, applying different methods: weight loss evaluation, colorimetric and water absorption by capillarity measurements, stereomicroscope observations, FTIR and SEM-EDS analyses. The results showed minor impact exerted on the short term on stones, particularly those treated with the water repellent, by atmospheric agents compared to salt crystallization. Lithotypes with low salt load (Gioia marble) underwent minor changes than the heavily salt-laden limestones (Lecce and Ançã stones), which were dramatically damaged when treated with polysiloxane. The results suggest that the ammonium oxalate treatment should be preferred to polysiloxane in the presence of soluble salts, even after desalination procedures which might not completely remove them. In addition, the neo-formed calcium oxalate seemed to effectively protect the stone, improving its resistance against salt crystallization without occluding the pores and limiting the superficial erosion caused by atmospheric agents. PMID:23996736

  11. Mercury flux from naturally enriched bare soils during simulated cold weather cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Nicholas E.; Glassford, Shannon M.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2016-03-01

    Elemental mercury flux released from terrestrial surfaces is a critical area of research due to mercury's potent toxicity and persistency on a global scale. However, there is significant uncertainty surrounding mercury flux in colder environments. The objective of this research was to investigate and identify the potential mechanisms responsible for the release of elemental mercury flux from bare soils in cold weather temperature cycling under simulated laboratory conditions. Seasonal cycling scenarios, including freeze-thaw and sub-zero, were utilized to simulate Fall, Winter, and Spring. The results for both freeze-thaw and sub-zero cycles indicated that there are separate and distinct mechanisms present that promote elemental mercury flux at temperatures below 0°C. During the freeze-thaw cycles, the amount of flux released was linked to the amount of energy leaving and entering the system, respectively. During the sub-zero cycles, flux spikes were produced by the thin surface layer of soil and corresponded to air temperature minimums rather than soil temperature minimums. This rapid drop in temperature was speculated to force mercury from the ice structure, due to further freezing of the liquid water content, increasing the mercury concentration within the remaining water and creating a pathway that encourages volatilization to the atmosphere. This was not observed in the thin layer clean soil trials. Additionally, as the soil water content approached a field capacity of approximately 20%, the flux pattern was suppressed during freeze-thaw cycles, as the number of available interstitial pore spaces decreased. However, this pattern was not observed during sub-zero cycling, as the largest response was triggered with the highest water content.

  12. Natural restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, K.S.

    1993-02-01

    After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

  13. Report on SARS backfit evaluation, Exxon Donor Solvent Plant, Baytown, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.F. Jr.

    1980-07-02

    This report provides information on observations, findings, and conclusions arising from a site visit to the Exxon Donor Solvent Plant, Baytown, Texas. That visit was to provide technical assistance and professional services to the DOE/ASFE/OPTA Project Officer regarding verification of his initial determination that this pilot plant is exempt from the SARS backfit requirement (DOE Order 5481.1). A secondary purpose was to obtain further information regarding the occupational safety and health plans and procedures at this new pilot plant facility. It is concluded that a well planned and implemented occupational safety and health program exists at the Exxon Donor Solvent Plant. Excellent manuals regarding general safety requirements and protection against carcinogens have been prepared and distributed. A Safe Operations Committee is in effect as is a Risk Management Committee. Adequate safety and industrial hygiene staff has been assigned and an excellent medical surveillance program has been established. Adequate compliance with environmental codes, standards, and regulations is being achieved. Although this plant is not subject to SARS because of the nature of the contract, adequate documentation exists in any case to exempt it from the SARS backfit requirement.

  14. NATURAL ARSENIC CONTAMINATION OF HOLOCENE ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS BY LINKED TECTONIC, WEATHERING, AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linked tectonic, geochemical, and biologic processes lead to natural arsenic contamination of groundwater in Holocene alluvial aquifers, which are the main threat to human health around the world. These groundwaters are commonly found a long distance from their ultimate source of...

  15. Bioremediation of marine oil spills: when and when not--the Exxon Valdez experience.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Ronald; Bragg, James

    2009-03-01

    In this article we consider what we have learned from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in terms of when bioremediation should be considered and what it can accomplish. We present data on the state of oiling of Prince William Sound shorelines 18 years after the spill, including the concentration and composition of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) sampled by systematic shoreline surveys conducted between 2002 and 2007. Over this period, 346 sediment samples were analysed by GC-MS and extents of hydrocarbon depletion were quantified. In 2007 alone, 744 sediment samples were collected and extracted, and 222 were analysed. Most sediment samples from sites that were heavily oiled by the spill and physically cleaned and bioremediated between 1989 and 1991 show no remaining SSOR. Where SSOR does remain, it is for the most part highly weathered, with 82% of 2007 samples indicating depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Total PAH) of >70% relative to EVOS oil. This SSOR is sequestered in patchy deposits under boulder/cobble armour, generally in the mid-to-upper intertidal zone. The relatively high nutrient concentrations measured at these sites, the patchy distribution and the weathering state of the SSOR suggest that it is in a form and location where bioremediation likely would be ineffective at increasing the rate of hydrocarbon removal. PMID:21261915

  16. Color changes in objects in natural scenes as a function of observation distance and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Romero, Javier; Luzón-González, Raúl; Nieves, Juan L; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the changes in the color of objects in natural scenes due to atmospheric scattering according to changes in the distance of observation. Hook-shaped curves were found in the chromaticity diagram when the object moved from zero distance to long distances, where the object chromaticity coordinates approached the color coordinates of the horizon. This trend is the result of the combined effect of attenuation in the direct light arriving to the observer from the object and the airlight added during its trajectory. Atmospheric scattering leads to a fall in the object's visibility, which is measurable as a difference in color between the object and the background (taken here to be the horizon). Focusing on color difference instead of luminance difference could produce different visibility values depending on the color tolerance used. We assessed the cone-excitation ratio constancy for several objects at different distances. Affine relationships were obtained when an object's cone excitations were represented both at zero distance and increasing distances. These results could help to explain color constancy in natural scenes for objects at different distances, a phenomenon that has been pointed out by different authors. PMID:22016233

  17. Exxon Valdez oil spill: Fate and effects in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.G.; Butler, J.N.; Hughes, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held in Atlanta, Georgia on April 26--28, 1993. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the transport and environmental effects, effects on fisheries and wildlife and remediation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  18. Monitoring lingering oil from the Exxon Valdez spill on Gulf of Alaska armored beaches and mussel beds sixteen years post-spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Final Rept. ; Prepared in Cooperation With Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Inst. of Arctic Biology. Sponsored By National Marine Fisheries Service, Juneau, Ak. AlaskaFisheries Science Center. ; Stranded Exxon Valdez Oil Has Persisted for 16 Years At Boulder-Armored Beach Sites Along National Park Coastlines Bordering the Gulf of Alaska. These Sites Are Up to 640 Km From the Spill Origin and Were Contaminated By Oil Mousse, a Viscous Water-in-Oil Emulsion. Although Surface Oil Has Continued to Decline, Subsurface Oiling Persists in Patches. Especially Striking Is the General Lack of Weathering of Stranded Oil on Armored Beaches Over the Last 16 Years. At Three of the Four Sites Where Oil Was Sampled in 2005, the Oil Was Compositionally Similar to 11-Day Old Exxon Valdez Oil, Even After 16 Years. The Formation of Mousse Allowed Less-Weathered Oil to Be Transported Long Distances. The Sequestration of the Oil Beneath a Boulder Armor, Coupled With the Stability of the Boulder Armoring (Investigated By Examining Movement of Marked Boulders), Had Contributed to the Lengthy Persistence of This Stranded Oil. Opportunistic Sampling of Several Previously Studied Oiled Mussel Beds Indicates Continued Contamination of At Least One of the Sites By Not Very Weathered Exxon Valdez Oil. Long-Term Persistence of Oil in These Habitats Should Cause Reconsideration of Response Activities After Spills, and May Influence the Environmental Sensitivity Indices Applied to These Habitats. 

  19. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  20. Status of intertidal infaunal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Allan K; Shigenaka, Gary; Coats, Douglas A

    2014-07-15

    Intertidal infaunal communities were sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska from 1990-2000 to evaluate impacts and recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Initial findings suggested that the spill and cleanup depressed abundances of all taxonomic groups. By 1992, abundances of major taxonomic categories at disturbed sites had either converged or paralleled populations at Unoiled sites. Abundances of littleneck clams, Leukoma (Protothaca) staminea, slowly increased at Treated sites and converged with Unoiled sites by 2000. Infaunal population differences positively correlated with fine-grained sediments at Treated sites. We believe that sediment fines removal during cleanup, and subsequent slow natural replenishment, impeded the return of the environment to pre-spill conditions. This suggests physical recovery of spill-affected beaches is an important precursor to biological recovery. PMID:24923812

  1. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  2. 33 CFR 147.815 - ExxonMobil Hoover Floating OCS Facility safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ExxonMobil Hoover Floating OCS Facility safety zone. 147.815 Section 147.815 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Floating OCS Facility safety zone. (a) Description. The ExxonMobil Hoover Floating OCS Facility,...

  3. 33 CFR 147.815 - ExxonMobil Hoover Floating OCS Facility safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ExxonMobil Hoover Floating OCS Facility safety zone. 147.815 Section 147.815 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Floating OCS Facility safety zone. (a) Description. The ExxonMobil Hoover Floating OCS Facility,...

  4. 33 CFR 147.1106 - Exxon Santa Ynez offshore storage and treatment vessel mooring safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exxon Santa Ynez offshore storage and treatment vessel mooring safety zone. 147.1106 Section 147.1106 Navigation and Navigable Waters... § 147.1106 Exxon Santa Ynez offshore storage and treatment vessel mooring safety zone. (a)...

  5. Ecological Disaster and Rhetorical Response: Exxon's Communications in the Wake of the Valdez Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    Examines Exxon's communication efforts in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster. Identifies communication practices that damaged the corporation's credibility, antagonized the public, and contributed to the public perception of its corporate arrogance. Notes that the Valdez spill makes a good case for classroom study. (PRA)

  6. 77 FR 32978 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public...

  7. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  8. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  9. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  10. ENHANCEMENT OF BIODEGRADATION OF ALASKAN WEATHERED CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS BY INDIGENOUS MICROBIOTA WITH THE USE OF FERTILIZERS AND NUTRIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biodegradability studies of the Alaskan weathered crude oil were undertaken as part of the bioremediation project for the shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska, contaminated by the Exxon oil spill. he purpose of the studies was to evaluate the capability of the i...

  11. The Natural Enrichment of Stable Cesium in Weathered Micaceous Materials and Its Implications for 137Cs Sorption.

    SciTech Connect

    ELLIOTT, W CRAWFORD; KAHN, BERND; ROSSON, ROBERT; WAMPLER, J MARION; ROSE, SETH E; KROGSTAD, EIRIK J; KAPLAN, DANIEL; ZAUNBRECHER, LAURA

    2011-11-14

    In this exploratory project, we are testing two interrelated hypotheses about the sorption of Cs within weathered micaceous materials in subsurface regolith materials from the Savannah River Site (SRS) located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: 1) that stable cesium has become significantly enriched relative to potassium in subsurface micaceous particles as a result of chemical weathering processes; and 2) that the Cs so present is sufficient to be a major factor determining the ability of the subsurface materials to take up and hold 137Cs. To test these hypotheses, we collected by hand augur soil samples corresponding to soils representative at the SRS: upland regolith (Fuquay series); soils formed on Tobacco Road Sandstone; and, soils formed on Quaternary Alluvium. From our data, the quantification of the amounts of stable cesium concentrated in various sites within 2:1 phyllosilicates by natural processes is highly relevant toward understanding the future sorption of 137Cs by the mica, illite, vermiculite, and hydroxyl interstratified vermiculite (HIV) phases present in the subsurface at and in proximity to SRS. Studying sorption and fixation of Cs in these micaceous phases interlayers potentially leads to increased knowledge to the extent that stable Cs resists exchange with ion exchange cations (Mg, NH4, or even alkyl ammonium compounds) and to the extent that Cs can become fixed over the long term. Such knowledge will help in the development of 137Cs remediation strategies for the long-term, which is a critical aspect of the SBR goals. We characterized the mineralogy, K-Ar ages of the soil and soil clay fractions (before and after acid treatment), and alkali element chemistry (K, Rb, Cs) of the clay fractions of soils collected from these three different types of soils. The clay fractions of the Fuquay soils are composed of kaolinite, and hydroxy interstratified vermiculite (HIV). Kaolinite, HIV, quartz, gibbsite and illite are found in the quaternary soils

  12. Weather & Weather Maps. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

    This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)

  13. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Carls, M G; Babcock, M M; Harris, P M; Irvine, G V; Cusick, J A; Rice, S D

    2001-03-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from < 60 micrograms/g in reference beds to 62,258 micrograms/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 523 micrograms/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 micrograms/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites. PMID:11468815

  14. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  15. Overview of Best Practices in Mitigating the Impact of Natural Disasters and Extreme Weather Phenomena on European Aviation - The MOWE-IT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlhausen, Thorsten; Kreuz, Michael; Temme, Annette; Nokkala, Marko; Nurmi, Pertti; Perrels, Adriaan; Hyvarinen, Otto; Yuga, Ilkka; Pylkko, Pirkko; Kral, Stephan; Schaetter, Frank; Bartsch, Mariana; Wiens, Marcus; Michaelides, Silas; Tymvios, Filippos; Papadakis, Matheos; Athanasatos, Spyros

    2014-05-01

    The European transport system has shown various degrees of vulnerability to external shocks such as severe weather events, which have partially or, in some cases, totally shut down part of the transport system. Under climate change conditions, the identification of Best Practices within the European area and the proposal of short, medium and long term solutions in order to deal with induced disruptions are vital to upkeep the efficiency and integrity of the European transport network. The MOWE-IT (Management of weather events in the transport system) project is a continuation of the work performed in up-to-date European projects such as the EWENT, WEATHER and ECCONET projects. Its aim is to identify such existing best practices and to develop methodologies in order to assist transport operators, authorities and transport system users to mitigate the impact of natural disasters and extreme weather phenomena on transport system performance. While the MOWE-IT project covers a wide number of transportation modes such as road, rail, marine transport, aviation and inland waterways, in this current work, an overview of the project's work performed in the aviation sector in Europe is presented. The MOWE-IT project is funded by the European Union, under its 7th Framework Programme (TRANSPORT SUPPORT ACTIONS).

  16. K-ras oncogene DNA sequences in pink salmon in streams impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill: no evidence of oil-induced heritable mutations.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Dunina, Yelena; Baker, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    It was hypothesized in previous studies that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, induced heritable mutations and resulted in mortality of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryos. In one of these studies, laboratory exposure of pink salmon embryos to crude oil resulted in apparent mutation-induction in exon 1 and exon 2 of the K-ras oncogene, but no fish from the area impacted by the oil spill were analyzed. We assessed K-ras exon 1 and exon 2 DNA sequences in pink salmon from five streams that were oiled and five streams that were not oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, and two streams with natural oil seeps and one stream without seeps on the Alaska Peninsula. Of the 79 fish analyzed for exon 1 and the 89 fish analyzed for exon 2, none had the nucleotide substitutions representing the mutations induced in the laboratory study. Other variable nucleotides occurred in similar proportions in oiled and non-oiled streams and probably represent natural allelic variation. These data do not support the hypothesis that heritable mutations in the K-ras gene were induced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill or oil seeps. PMID:12211696

  17. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    Some existing alternative applications of coal fly ash such as cement manufacturing; road construction; landfill; and concrete and waste stabilisation use fresh ash directly collected from coal-fired power generating stations. Thus, if the rate of usage continues, the demand for fresh ash for various applications will exceed supply and use of weathered dry disposed ash will become necessary alternative. As a result it's imperative to understand the chemistry and pH behaviour of some metals inherent in dry disposed fly ash. The bulk chemical composition as determined by XRF analysis showed that SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were the major oxides in fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ashes. The unsaturated weathered ashes are relatively depleted in CaO, Fe2O3, TiO2, SiO2, Na2O and P2O5 due to dissolution and hydrolysis caused by chemical interaction with ingressing CO2 from the atmosphere and infiltrating rain water. Observed accumulations of Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, K2O, Na2O and SO3 and Zn, Zr, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co in the lower layers indicate progressive downward movement through the ash dump though at a slow rate. The bulk mineralogy of unsaturated weathered dry disposed ash, as determined by XRD analysis, revealed quartz and mullite as the major crystalline phases; while anorthite, hematite, enstatite, lime, calcite, and mica were present as minor mineral phases. Pore water chemistry revealed a low concentration of readily soluble metals in unsaturated weathered ashes in comparison with fresh ash, which shows high leachability. This suggests that over time the precipitation of transient minor secondary mineral phases; such as calcite and mica might retard residual metal release from unsaturated weathered ash. Chloride and sulphate species of the water soluble extracts of weathered ash are at equilibrium with Na+ and K+; these demonstrate progressive leaching over time and become supersaturated at the base of unsaturated weathered ash. This suggests that the ash dump does not

  18. Monitoring Recovery of Prince William Sound, Alaska, Following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Bioavailability of PAH in Offshore Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Jerry M.; Boehm, Paul D.; Kropp, Roy K.; Stubblefield, William A.; Page, David S.

    2004-11-02

    We determined the bioavailability to sediment dwelling marine worms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with offshore sediments from 3 spill path and 3 non-spill path areas of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The PAHs in sediments from 4 sites sampled in 2001 were primarily from a regional natural petrogenic background derived from organic-rich shales and natural oil seeps associated with sources southeast of PWS. Pyrogenic (combustion) PAHs, primarily from former human and industrial activities, were more abundant than petrogenic PAHs in nearshore sediments from 2 bays associated with past and current human activities. We performed sediment bioaccumulation tests with the six sediments and polychaete worms according to standard EPA protocols. All the PAHs had a very low bioavailability, as indicated by low values for biota/sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) in the worms. Mean BSAFs for total PAHs (sum of 41 analyte groups) ranged from 0.002 to 0.009. The worms exposed to spill path and non-spill path sediments bioaccumulated small amounts of 4- and 5-ring PAHs, particularly fluoranthene and pyrene; these higher molecular weight PAHs are responsible for induction of mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activity in marine fish, birds, and mammals. These results may help to explain in part why fish from throughout PWS exhibit induced MFO activity. Elevated levels of MFO activity cannot be used as evidence of recent exposure by marine fish, birds, and mammals in the sound to Exxon Valdez oil.

  19. Exxon Valdez oil spill environmental restoration series. Irregular report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdex ran aground on a well-marked reef in Prince William Sound. Within a few hours 10.8 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil had leaked into one of the most bountiful and diverse marine ecosystems in the world. This environmental disaster resulted in a court settlement that included $900 million to be administered by the joint state and federal Exxon Valdex Oil Spill Trustee council for damage assessment and restoration. The National Technical Information Service is making these studies available to the public as they are released by the Trustee Council. Of particular interest to oil companies, environmental groups, education institutions and large public libraries, this peer-reviewed collection will include about 70 damage assessment reports followed by 40 to 50 restoration study documents each year through the year 2001. The initial damage assessment papers are due for release in May 1995. NTIS is offering the material both on demand when each study is released and also as a standing order. By choosing the standing order plan, customers save handling cost and ensure automatic shipping of the entire series as soon as each report is available.

  20. Connecting the Pioneers, Current Leaders and the Nature and History of Space Weather with K-12 Classrooms and the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C.; Thompson, B. J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Barbier, B.; Odenwald, S.; Spadaccini, J.; James, N.; Stephenson, B.; Davis, H. B.; Major, E. R.; Space Weather Living History

    2011-12-01

    The Space Weather Living History program will explore and share the breakthrough new science and captivating stories of space environments and space weather by interviewing space physics pioneers and leaders active from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the present. Our multi-mission project will capture, document and preserve the living history of space weather utilizing original historical materials (primary sources). The resulting products will allow us to tell the stories of those involved in interactive new media to address important STEM needs, inspire the next generation of explorers, and feature women as role models. The project is divided into several stages, and the first stage, which began in mid-2011, focuses on resource gathering. The goal is to capture not just anecdotes, but the careful analogies and insights of researchers and historians associated with the programs and events. The Space Weather Living History Program has a Scientific Advisory Board, and with the Board's input our team will determine the chronology, key researchers, events, missions and discoveries for interviews. Education activities will be designed to utilize autobiographies, newspapers, interviews, research reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, websites, diaries, letters, and artworks. With the help of a multimedia firm, we will use some of these materials to develop an interactive timeline on the web, and as a downloadable application in a kiosk and on tablet computers. In summary, our project augments the existing historical records with education technologies, connect the pioneers, current leaders and the nature and history of space weather with K-12 classrooms and the general public, covering all areas of studies in Heliophysics. The project is supported by NASA award NNX11AJ61G.

  1. Weather it's Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostrom, A.; Lashof, D.

    2004-12-01

    For almost two decades both national polls and in-depth studies of global warming perceptions have shown that people commonly conflate weather and global climate change. Not only are current weather events such as anecdotal heat waves, droughts or cold spells treated as evidence for or against global warming, but weather changes such as warmer weather and increased storm intensity and frequency are the consequences most likely to come to mind. Distinguishing weather from climate remains a challenge for many. This weather 'framing' of global warming may inhibit behavioral and policy change in several ways. Weather is understood as natural, on an immense scale that makes controlling it difficult to conceive. Further, these attributes contribute to perceptions that global warming, like weather, is uncontrollable. This talk presents an analysis of data from public opinion polls, focus groups, and cognitive studies regarding people's mental models of and 'frames' for global warming and climate change, and the role weather plays in these. This research suggests that priming people with a model of global warming as being caused by a "thickening blanket of carbon dioxide" that "traps heat" in the atmosphere solves some of these communications problems and makes it more likely that people will support policies to address global warming.

  2. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Record Book, Teacher's Edition: Winds and Weather. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of the Record Book for the unit "Winds and Weather" of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). The correct answers to the questions from the student text are recorded. An introductory note to the teacher explains how to use the book. Answers are included for the activities…

  3. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Record Book, Student Guide: Winds and Weather. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the student's edition of the Record Book for "Winds and Weather" of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). Space is provided for answers to the questions from the text as well as for the optional excursions and the self evaluation. An introductory note to the student explains how to use the book.…

  4. RBSP Space Weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

  5. The impact of igneous bedrock weathering on the Mo isotopic composition of stream waters: Natural samples and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegelin, Andrea R.; Nägler, Thomas F.; Pettke, Thomas; Neubert, Nadja; Steinmann, Marc; Pourret, Olivier; Villa, Igor M.

    2012-06-01

    River waters have been shown to be systematically enriched in the heavy molybdenum (Mo) isotopes when compared to typical granites and basalts, which generally possess Mo isotopic compositions (δMo) of around 0‰. This inconsistency has been used to argue against weathering of crustal rocks as the cause for heavy riverine δMo signatures. Incongruent dissolution of primary bedrock, however, may be an important process by which the anomalous Mo signatures of the river dissolved load are produced. This study therefore investigates the effect of igneous crustal rock weathering on the aquatic δMo signal by comparing stream water and bedrock Mo isotope data to results of bulk rock leach experiments. For this purpose, stream water and bedrock (orthogneiss, granite, basalt), as well as soil and vegetation samples were collected in a small catchment in the French Massif Central. In accordance with the results of earlier studies on riverine Mo, both streams are isotopically heavier (δMo = 0.5-1.1‰) than the typical granites and basalts. The excellent agreement of these data with those of Mo released during experimental leaching of the basalt bedrock (0.6-1.0‰) identifies a predominance of basalt weathering over the stream water Mo geochemistry, while other processes (i.e. soil formation, secondary mineral precipitation and adsorption) are subordinate in this catchment. Given that the basalt bulk rock δMo reflects a value typical for crustal magmatic rocks (ca. 0.1‰), Mo isotope fractionation during the incongruent dissolution of basalt can explain the observed isotopically heavy aquatic Mo signatures. Laser ablation analyses demonstrate that the volumetrically minor magmatic sulfides can be highly enriched in Mo and mass balance calculations identify the sulfide melt inclusions as the principal Mo source for the leach solutions. These data suggest that the magmatic sulfides possess a distinctly heavier δMo signature than the coexisting silicate melt. In this

  6. Cellular physiological assessment of bivalves after chronic exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil using a novel molecular diagnostic biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Downs, Craig A; Shigenaka, Gary; Fauth, John E; Robinson, Charles E; Huang, Arnold

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cellular physiological status of the bivalves Mya arenaria and Mytilus trossulus in an area experiencing a 10-yr chronic exposure of spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil in Prince William Sound. Bivalves were collected from well-characterized oiled and unoiled sites. We used a novel biotechnology (Environmental Cellular Diagnostic System) to determine (i) if bivalves were physiologically stressed, (ii) the nature of the altered physiological state, and (iii) whether the bivalves were responding to an exposure of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Molecular diagnostic analysis indicated that bivalves at the oiled site were experiencing both oxidative and xenobiotic stress, resulting in increased protein turnover and chaperone activity. Bivalves from the impacted area were responding specifically to a PAH-xenobiotic exposure and accumulating protein-PAH adducts. Finally, species-specific responses were observed that could be related to the habitat preferences of each species. We conclude that bivalves inhabiting a site impacted by crude oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill showed clear indications of cellular physiological stress. PMID:12144276

  7. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Chemistry and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, P.D.; Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Stubblefield, W.A.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes chemical and toxicological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program that was designed to assess recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989. The program is an application of the sediment quality triad approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in the sound and projected forward in time. It combined one-time sampling of 64 randomly chosen study sites representing four major habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites), with periodic sampling at 12 subjectively chosen fixed sites. Sediment samples--or when conditions required, filter-wipes from rock surfaces--were collected in each of three intertidal zones and from subtidal stations up to 30-m deep. Oil removal was generally quite rapid: by 1991 the concentration of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez had been dramatically reduced on the majority of shorelines by both natural processes and cleanup efforts. Acute sediment toxicity from oil (as measured by standard toxicity tests) was virtually absent by 1990--91, except at a small number of isolated locations. The petroleum residues had degraded below the threshold of acute toxic effects. Measurable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels are, in general, well below those conservatively associated with adverse effects, and biological recovery has been considerably more rapid than the removal of the last chemical remnants. 55 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Exxon Valdez restoration plan. summary of the final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Exxon Valdez Trustee Council issued a draft Restoration Plan in November of 1993. The draft Restoration Plan provides long-term guidance for restoring the resources and services injured by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill of March 24, 1989. This final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the draft Restoration Plan as the Proposed Action - Alternative 5, and four other alternatives that provide different policies and emphasis than the proposed action.

  9. The Drenchwater deposit, Alaska: An example of a natural low pH environment resulting from weathering of an undisturbed shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Drenchwater shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit and the immediate vicinity, on the northern flank of the Brooks Range in north-central Alaska, is an ideal example of a naturally low pH system. The two drainages, Drenchwater and False Wager Creeks, which bound the deposit, differ in their acidity and metal contents. Moderately acidic waters with elevated concentrations of metals (pH ??? 4.3, Zn ??? 1400 ??g/L) in the Drenchwater Creek drainage basin are attributed to weathering of an exposed base-metal-rich massive sulfide occurrence. Stream sediment and water chemistry data collected from False Wager Creek suggest that an unexposed base-metal sulfide occurrence may account for the lower pH (2.7-3.1) and very metal-rich waters (up to 2600 ??g/L Zn, ??? 260 ??g/L Cu and ???89 ??g/L Tl) collected at least 2 km upstream of known mineralized exposures. These more acidic conditions produce jarosite, schwertmannite and Fe-hydroxides commonly associated with acid-mine drainage. The high metal concentrations in some water samples from both streams naturally exceed Alaska state regulatory limits for freshwater aquatic life, affirming the importance of establishing base-line conditions in the event of human land development. The studies at the Drenchwater deposit demonstrate that poor water quality can be generated through entirely natural weathering of base-metal occurrences, and, possibly unmineralized black shale.

  10. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

  11. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  12. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  13. Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    This video provides a narrated exploration of the history and affects of space weather. It includes information the earth's magnetic field, solar radiation, magnetic storms, and how solar winds affect electronics on earth, with specific information on how space weather affects space exploration in the future.

  14. Weathering and the fallout plume of heavy oil from strong petroleum seeps near Coal Oil Point, CA.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Christopher; Reddy, Christopher M; Peacock, Emily; Nelson, Robert K; Washburn, Libe; Valentine, David L

    2009-05-15

    The Coal Oil Point (COP) seeps offshore Goleta, CA, are estimated to release 20-25 tons of oil daily, providing an ideal natural laboratory to investigate the fate of oil in the coastal ocean. To address the long-term fate of COP oil, we collected 15 sediment samples down current from the seeps and quantified petroleum content and individual biomarkers using traditional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Similarities in the distributions of hopane biomarkers link the oil in the sediments to fresh seep oil (n=5) and underlying reservoirs (n=3), although sediment oil is heavily weathered. The spatial distribution of oil forms a plume along the continental shelf that we suggest represents a chronic fallout pattern for heavy oil from the persistent surface slicks; average surface currents appear to modulate the distribution of the fallout over a period of 0.4-5 days. The extent of hydrocarbon loss is consistent for all sediments, indicating a common limit to oil weathering with contributions from evaporation, biodegradation, and dissolution. Considering the amount of oil and quantity of sediment impacted, we estimate a sediment oil burden of 0.3 x 10(12) to 3 x 10(12) g in the study area, equivalent to 8-80 spills of the Exxon Valdez accident of 1989. PMID:19544852

  15. Waste glass weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

  16. Mussel bed restoration and monitoring. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project 95090: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, M.M.; Harris, P.M.; Carls, M.G.; Brodersen, C.C.; Rice, S.D.

    1998-12-01

    Many mussel beds in the spill area, particularly those on soft sediment, were not cleaned immediately after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Surveys documented the geographic extent (primarily Prince William Sound and the Kenai Peninsula) and intensity of oiling. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined naturally from 1992--1995 in some, but not all beds. Distribution of oil in sediments was related to tidal elevation, depth, and grain size. Oil concentration in mussels correlated with that in sediment. Mussel condition was adversely affected by oil; prevalence of digestive gland metaplasia, brown cells, and hemocytic infiltrates in gonads increased, and storage cell abundance decreased. However, some physiological responses (byssal thread production, condition index, feeding rate, or glycogen content) in mussels contaminated 3--4 years were not correlated with oil concentration. Bed restoration caused immediate reductions in oil concentration in surface sediment, but these sediments were later partially recontaminated by remaining oil. Restoration efficacy was less evident in mussels; concentration declined in one-half of the beds after restoration, but density declines were similar in untreated reference beds.

  17. Recovery of seabirds following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Following the Exxon Valdez oilspill in March 1989, over 35,000 dead birds were retrieved. Model analyses suggested that actual seabird mortality could have been in the hundreds of thousands, prompting concerns about severe and persistent impacts on populations of several species, especially murres (Uria spp.). Recovery for some populations was projected to take decades. The findings of several studies conducted following the oil spill, however, indicate that these concerns may not be justified. These studies examined colony attendance and reproduction of murres as well as habitat utilization for the prevalent species in Prince William Sound and along the Kenai Peninsula. Surveys of attendance by birds at murre breeding colonies in 1991 indicated no overall differences from prespill attendance levels when colonies were grouped by the degree of oiling in the vicinity. At a large colony in the Barren Islands, where damage was described as especially severe, counts of murres were generally similar to historical estimates made in the late 1970s. In 1990 and 1991, murres breeding at the Barren Islands colony also produced young at levels that were within the range of natural (prespill) variation for this site. Incidental observations indicated that several other species reproduced successfully in oiled areas in Prince William Sound and along the Kenai Peninsula following the spill. 161 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  19. Weatherizing America

    ScienceCinema

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

    2013-05-29

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  20. Weatherizing America

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2009-01-01

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  1. Corporate philanthropy and conflicts of interest in public health: ExxonMobil, Equatorial Guinea, and malaria.

    PubMed

    Shah, Naman K

    2013-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea, the most prosperous country in Africa, still bears a large malaria burden. With massive wealth from oil reserves, and nearly half its population living in island ecotypes favourable for malaria control, only poor governance can explain continued parasite burden. By financially backing the country's dictator and other officials through illicit payments, the oil company ExxonMobil contributed to the state's failure. Now ExxonMobil, having helped perpetuate malaria in Equatorial Guinea, gives money to non-governmental organizations, charitable foundations, and universities to advocate for and undertake malaria work. How, and on what terms, can public health engage with such an actor? We discuss challenges in the identification and management of conflicts of interest in public health activities. We reviewed the business and foundation activities of ExxonMobil and surveyed organizations that received ExxonMobil money about their conflict of interest policies. Reforms in ExxonMobil's business practices, as well as its charitable structure, and reforms in the way public health groups screen and manage conflicts of interest are needed to ensure that any relationship ultimately improves the health of citizens. PMID:23172050

  2. HRTEM investigations between minerals, fluids and lithobiontic communities during natural weathering. Progress report, September 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, J.F.; Barker, W.W.

    1994-02-01

    HRTEM and AEM analysis of riebeckite and acmite from the interiors of moderately weathered syenite reveals that interaction of these minerals with surficial fluids resulted in the almost complete removal of Na, Ca, and Si. Fe remained relatively immobile, forming arrays of semi-oriented nanocrystalline ferrihydrite and goethite at the primary mineral-secondary mineral interface. The goethite intimately contacts an irregularly corroded amphibole surface. Smectite occurs sporadically as isolated crystallites a few layers thick which are surrounded by goethite. No obvious structural alignment between clay and amphibole or pyroxene was seen. Data suggest that almost all Si is transported in solution to more open regions between islands of nanocrystalline goethite, where it crystallizes as an Fe - rich smectite. Alteration assemblages in wider channels are comprised of euhedral goethite crystals that, within a submicron-sized area, range in size from 5--40 manometers. Sub-grain boundary structures and the porosity distribution suggests evolution of particle size by coarsening. Optical microscopy demonstrates intimate contact between lichen thalli and mineral surfaces. Lichen thalli exploit cracks and open cleavages to extend several millimeters within mineral interiors. Preliminary TEM data suggest the alteration assemblage consists of a polymer-bound mass of chemically complex aluminosilicates.

  3. Comparison of two shoreline assessment programs conducted for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, E.J.; Gilfillan, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    Two large shoreline assessment studies conducted in 1990 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill used different design strategies to determine the impact of oiling on shoreline biota. One of the studies, the Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment (CHIA) conducted for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Council, used matched pairs of sites, normal population distributions for biota, and meta-analysis. The power of the CHIA study to detect oiling impacts depends on being able to identify and select appropriate pairs of sites for comparison. The CHIA study also increased the oiling signal by focusing on moderate to heavily oiled sites. The Shoreline Ecology Program (SEP), conducted for Exxon, used a stratified-random-sampling study design, normal and non-normal population distributions and covariates. The SEP study was able to detect oiling impacts by using a sufficient number of sites and widely spaced transects.

  4. Space Weather Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop will focus on what space weather is about and its impact on society. An overall picture will be "painted" describing the Sun's influence through the solar wind on the near-Earth space environment, including the aurora, killer electrons at geosynchronous orbit, million ampere electric currents through the ionosphere and along magnetic field lines, and the generation of giga-Watts of natural radio waves. Reference material in the form of Internet sites will be provided so that teachers can discuss space weather in the classroom and enable students to learn more about this topic.

  5. Dissolution rate of borosilicate glass SON68: A method of quantification based upon interferometry and implications for experimental and natural weathering rates of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Steefel, Carl I.

    2015-05-01

    Rates of glass dissolution from laboratory and field studies are often considered to be irreconcilable, although potential causes for the difference, such as solution saturation state and increasing surface area from progressive weathering, have not been explored in depth. The dissolution rate of SON68 glass, the non-radioactive analog of the French R7T7 composition, was determined in a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) system at 90 °C and pH 9 over a silica-saturation interval. Dissolution rates were determined on both powdered and monolithic specimens by assaying the concentration of elements released from glass to effluent solution. In addition, rates of 12 monolithic specimens were quantified using a Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) method. The method entails measuring the difference in height between a reference and reaction surface. The height difference is proportional to the dissolution rate. By adjusting the relative position of the reacted surface to average surface roughness, the effects of surface area on the dissolution rate can be minimized. Values of the dissolution rate, based upon chemical assay of the effluent solution on the one hand, and VSI methods on the other, were compared. In general, rates determined by the two methods are within a factor of 2×. The difference in rates may be due to the presence of a reaction layer that develops on the glass surface, resulting in an underestimation of the height difference measurement. The dissolution rates of SON68 glass in silica-saturated solutions were then compared to rates previously determined on basalt glass in natural weathering environments (Gordon and Brady, 2002, Chem. Geol. 190, 113-122). When adjusted for differences in temperature and pH, the ranges of borosilicate and basalt glass dissolution rates overlap, indicating that laboratory and field rates can be reconciled and that the principal control on glass dissolution is solution saturation with respect to amorphous silica.

  6. Economic aspects of technological accidents: An evaluation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on southcentral Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of natural disasters to generate short-term economic benefits for impacted populations has become an accepted social science notion. The economic dimensions of human-made disasters have not received sufficient examination to justify a conclusive determination. Two analyses are conducted to examine the economic aspects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the communities of southcentral Alaska. First, a stochastic time-series model is employed to forecast the aggregate earnings that would have been achieved in the absence of the oil spill. This evaluation indicates that while the accident's proceeds were not distributed evenly across all communities in the affected region, this catastrophic event generated substantial aggregate monetary benefits in the short term. This analysis is followed by an examination of the oil spill's ex-vessel revenue impacts on each of southcentral Alaska's major fishery products (chinook, sockeye, coho, pink, chum, king crab, tanner crab, Dungeness crab, Pacific herring sac roe, Pacific halibut, and sablefish). The economic boom motivated by the oil spill obscured a decline in the profitability of commercial fishing and exacerbated deterioration of international market conditions for the region's fishery products. The accident reduced ex-vessel revenue for southcentral Alaska's commercial fishers during 1989 by an estimated amount between $6.1-$43.6 million. This analysis indicates that the oil spill's ex-vessel revenue impacts in 1990 were between $11.2-$44.9 million. In both years ex-vessel revenue reductions were greatest for sockeye and pink salmon, while increased ex-vessel prices for Pacific halibut and sablefish marginally mitigated these declines. Employing 1988 as a baseline, these amounts represent between 1.6-11.1 percent of the ex-vessel value of southcentral Alaska's commercial fishing economy. This evaluation provides a bounded interval in which one measure of the accident's economic dimensions can be considered.

  7. Geomorphic factors related to the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline; Hayes, Miles O.; Irvine, Gail V.; Short, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill has persisted along shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska, for more than two decades as both surface and subsurface oil residues. To better understand the distribution of persistent subsurface oil and assess the potential need for further restoration, a thorough and quantitative understanding of the geomorphic factors controlling the presence or absence of subsurface oil is required. Data on oiling and geomorphic features were collected at 198 sites in Prince William Sound to identify and quantify the relationships among these geomorphic factors and the presence and absence of persistent subsurface oil. Geomorphic factors associated with the presence of subsurface oil were initial oil exposure, substrate permeability, topographic slope, low exposure to waves, armoring on gravel beaches, tombolos, natural breakwaters, and rubble accumulations. Geomorphic factors associated with the absence of subsurface oil were impermeable bedrock; platforms with thin sediment veneer; fine-grained, well-sorted gravel beaches with no armor; and low-permeability, raised bay-bottom beaches. Relationships were found between the geomorphic and physical site characteristics and the likelihood of encountering persistent subsurface oiling at those sites. There is quantitative evidence of more complex interactions between the overall wave energy incident at a site and the presence of fine-scale geomorphic features that may have provided smaller, local wave energy sheltering of oil. Similarly, these data provide evidence for interactions between the shoreline slope and the presence of angular rubble, with decreased likelihood for encountering subsurface oil at steeply sloped sites except at high-angle sheltered rubble shoreline locations. These results reinforce the idea that the interactions of beach permeability, stability, and site-specific wave exposure are key drivers for subsurface oil persistence in exposed and intermittently exposed mixed

  8. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR H-COAL AND EXXON DONOR SOLVENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the control technology of two coal liquefaction processes, H-Coal and Exxon Donor Solvent. The effluent streams were characterized and quantified for both processes and plants (pilot and conceptualized commercial). The gaseous-, liquid...

  9. Information Technology Utilization in Emergency Management at Exxon Research and Engineering Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soled, E. H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This description of the role of the Information Services Division of Exxon Research and Engineering Division in emergency management covers the information technology developed and used for internally generated and published information, and how this information is used to prevent emergencies and deal with them should they actually occur. (EM)

  10. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH FOUR DIFFERENT EXXON LUBRICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density data for the refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea (or R-236ea) and four lubricants supplied by Exxon Corporation. Such data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for ...

  11. Biodegradability Of Lingering Crude Oil 19 Years After The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 and 2003, geospatial surveys of lingering oil were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) resulting in a prediction of significant acreage being contaminated with substantial subsurface oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). In 2007, other researchers d...

  12. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES, LESSONS AND RESULTS FROM THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  13. The Early Years: The Wonders of Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the wonders of winter weather, as it often inspires teachers' and students' interest in collecting weather data, especially if snow falls. Beginning weather data collection in preschool will introduce children to the concepts of making regular observations of natural phenomena, recording the observations (data),…

  14. Weather control

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1980-09-05

    Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to produce rain are the most successful weather modification techniques. Both are used extensively and with varying degrees of success in the United States and around the world. Cloud seeding, though, is not effective in easing the harshness of a drought, such as the one that hit the Southwest, Midwest and Great Plains this summer.

  15. National Weather Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lightning Safe Boating Rip Currents Thunderstorms and Tornadoes Space Weather Sun (Ultraviolet Radiation) Safety Campaigns Wind Drought ... Outlook Hurricanes Fire Weather Outlooks UV Alerts Drought Space Weather NOAA Weather Radio NWS CAP Feeds PAST ...

  16. The January 2009 anomalous precipitation associated with the “Tail-end of the Cold Front” weather system in Northern and Eastern Mindanao (Philippines): Natural hazards, impacts and risk reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Yumul, Graciano P., Jr.; Servando, Nathaniel T.; Dimalanta, Carla B.

    2011-03-01

    In the first half of January 2009, the southern Philippine island of Mindanao was overwhelmed by numerous natural disasters caused by the passage of the tail-end of the cold front. This otherwise ordinary weather condition was accompanied by unusually heavy precipitation sustained over a period of several days. This triggered numerous landslides and caused many drainage systems to swell, flooding huge tracts of low lying areas that have not experienced similar events in the recent past. Many communities were caught unprepared for the calamity. The amount and extent of damage reflect both the magnitude of the natural disaster itself and the community's nominal level of disaster-preparedness. In view of the increasing atmospheric moisture levels and the likelihood that global warming will affect the weather patterns, there is a possibility that similar weather disturbances can become more frequent. Therefore, there is an urgent need for disaster risk management programs to be developed or enhanced at the local community level especially in areas most vulnerable to weather-related natural hazards, in light of changing global climatic patterns.

  17. Smooth Sailing for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a cooperative venture with NASA's Stennis Space Center, WorldWinds, Inc., developed a unique weather and wave vector map using space-based radar satellite information and traditional weather observations. Called WorldWinds, the product provides accurate, near real-time, high-resolution weather forecasts. It was developed for commercial and scientific users. In addition to weather forecasting, the product's applications include maritime and terrestrial transportation, aviation operations, precision farming, offshore oil and gas operations, and coastal hazard response support. Target commercial markets include the operational maritime and aviation communities, oil and gas providers, and recreational yachting interests. Science applications include global long-term prediction and climate change, land-cover and land-use change, and natural hazard issues. Commercial airlines have expressed interest in the product, as it can provide forecasts over remote areas. WorldWinds, Inc., is currently providing its product to commercial weather outlets.

  18. THE GEM EXPERIENCE: WEATHER GENERATOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN THE USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weather data are critical information for strategic natural resource and environmental planning because weather directly influences virtually all natural phenomena. Unfortunately, historical records for situations and locations of interest are often either unavailable or of insufficient duration to...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA BASE FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME II. SYNTHOIL, H-COAL, AND EXXON DONOR SOLVENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume is an environmental characterization of three selected coal liquefaction systems: Synthoil, H-Coal, and Exxon Donor Solvent. It documents and evaluates existing environmentally significant data. System characterization includes an integrated multimedia assessment of d...

  20. Hydrocarbon composition and toxicity of sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D; Stubblefield, William A; Parker, Keith R; Gilfillan, Edward S; Neff, Jerry M; Maki, Alan W

    2002-07-01

    An 1-year study of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill found that spill residues on the oiled shorelines rapidly lost toxicity through weathering. After 1990, toxicity of sediments remained at only a few heavily oiled, isolated locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA), as measured by a standard amphipod bioassay using Rhepoxynius abronius. Data from 648 sediment samples taken during the 1990 to 1993 period were statistically analyzed to determine the relationship between the total concentration of 39 parent and methyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (defined as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [TPAH]) and amphipod mortality and the effect of oil weathering on toxicity. A logistic regression model yielded estimates of the lower threshold, LC10 (lethal concentration to 10% of the population), and LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of 2,600, 4,100, and 10,750 ng/g TPAH (dry wt), respectively. Estimates of the threshold and LC50 values in this field study relate well to corresponding sediment quality guideline (SQG) values reported in the literature. For sediment TPAH concentrations >2,600 ng/g, samples with high mortality values (>90%) had relatively high fractions of naphthalenes and those with low mortality (<20%) had relatively high fractions of chrysenes. By 1999, the median sediment TPAH concentration of 117 ng/g for the post-1989 worst-case sites studied were well below the 2,600 ng/g toxicity threshold value, confirming the lack of potential for long-term toxic effects. Analysis of biological community structure parameters for sediment samples taken concurrently found that species richness and Shannon diversity decreased with increasing TPAH above the 2,600 ng/g threshold, demonstrating a correspondence between sediment bioassay results and biological community effects in the field. The low probability of exposure to toxic concentrations of weathered spill residues at the worst-case sites sampled in this study is consistent with the

  1. Natural Terrestrial Sequestration Potential of Highplains Prairie to Subalpine Forest and Mined-Lands Soils Derived from Weathering of Tertiary Volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, D. B.; Burchell, A.; Robinson, R.; Odell, S.; Dick, R. P.; Johnson, C. A.; Hidinger, J.; Rathke, D.

    2007-12-01

    There is now widespread agreement that, if the climate is to be stabilized, then net greenhouse gas emissions must be greatly reduced (IPCC, 2007). The need to reduce net CO2 emissions plus the possible economic and environmental ramifications of not addressing climate change have stimulated important atmospheric carbon mitigation actions, as well as, studies to understand and quantify potential carbon sinks. Soils represent a potentially large and environmentally significant natural carbon reservoir. Increasing the natural terrestrial sequestration potential (NTS) of soils is among the seven, "Sokolow CO2 stabilization wedges' or carbon management strategies needed to thwart doubling of atmospheric CO2. Additionally, high plains to subalpine temperate soils tend to be less susceptible to baseline C pool declines due to global warming than are warmer regions and are important ecosystems in which to quantify soil carbon storage capacity. To examine the potential of magnesium silicate-bearing soils to sequester additional carbon, we sampled 60 high plains prairie to subalpine forest soil horizons derived from weathering of Tertiary-age dacite-andesite- basalt compositions in Colorado, U.S.A.: the San Luis Valley, San Juan Volcanic Field, Grand Mesa, White River- Roan Plateau (Flat Tops), Rocky Mountain National Park, Front Range and propylitically-altered terrain in the western San Juan Volcanic field containing secondary magnesium silicates (chlorite-species). Data for C, N, O (total conc., isotopes), metals, major and trace elements, Hg, S, microbial enzymes (β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and 14C radiocarbon dates are reported. Samples demonstrate variable but elevated C relative to average global soil C. In particular, the propylitically-altered rocks have a high instantaneous ANC in laboratory tests (> 20 kg/ton CaCO3 equivalent) and derivative forest soils containing low-temperature charcoal "burn" horizons have high total

  2. Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, λ, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter

  3. Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, J.E.; Yeager, T.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Brown, E.J. ); Prince, R.C.; Grossman, M.J. ); Clark, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    The effort to clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameter associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation.

  4. Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, J E; Prince, R C; Clark, J C; Grossman, M J; Yeager, T R; Braddock, J F; Brown, E J

    1991-09-01

    The effort of clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameters associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of the three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation. PMID:1662935

  5. Heated Rack For Weathering Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F.; Willis, Paul B.

    1989-01-01

    Outdoor photothermal aging reactor (OPTAR) simple device exposing polymer specimens to both heat and natural sunlight. Intended to provide accelerated aging data for service life of polymers used in outdoor environments. In principle, OPTAR accelerates (but does not initiate) degradation of polymers resulting from sunlight and other weathering effect (eg. rain, wind, ozone). Aging of tested material accelerated, but under almost-natural conditions.

  6. Assessment of the potential for long-term toxicological effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on birds and mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper assesses the potential for direct long-term toxicological effects of exposures to oils in birds and mammals by tracing exposures and effects form the initial cute phases through the sub-chronic to the eventual long-term exposures. The immediate effects of oil spills are physical, the oil acting on the plumage of birds or the fur of mammals. This causes a loss of entrained air and a concomitant reduction in buoyancy and thermal insulation. Animals that escape the immediate impacts may be isolated from their food supply and often ingest large amounts of oil while attempting to clean themselves. At the comparatively high dose levels involved, these exposures can result in toxicologically significant responses in many organ systems. In the course of an oil pollution incident, the amounts of biologically available oils decrease steadily, and simultaneously the composition of the oils shifts towards those components that have low volatility, and that resist photo- and bio-degradation. As this occurs, the primary pathways of exposure change from direct intakes to indirect routes involving the food supply. Although laboratory studies often report finding some adverse effects, the dose rates employed in many of these studies are extremely high when compared with those that are potentially available to animals in the wild, and very few actually use weathered oils. An assessment of the toxicological literature and of the available empirical data on the Exxon Valdez oil spill leads to the conclusion that long-term sub-lethal toxic effects of crude oils on wildlife in such marine spills appear to be very unlikely. 111 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Assessing the damage caused by Deepwater Horizon: not just another Exxon Valdez.

    PubMed

    Perrons, Robert K

    2013-06-15

    In light of the high stakes of the Deepwater Horizon civil trial and the important precedent-setting role that the case will have on the assessment of future marine disasters, the methodologies underpinning the calculations of damage on both sides will be subjected to considerable scrutiny. Despite the importance of the case, however, there seems to be a pronounced lack of convergence about it in the academic literature. Contributions from scientific journals frequently make comparisons to the Ixtoc I oil spill off the coast of Mexico in 1979; the legal literature, by stark contrast, seems to be much more focused on the Exxon Valdez spill that occurred off the shores of Alaska in 1989. This paper accordingly calls for a more thorough consideration of other analogs beyond the Exxon Valdez spill-most notably, the Ixtoc I incident-in arriving at an assessment of the damage caused by the Deepwater Horizon disaster. PMID:23602264

  8. Overview of studies to determine injury caused by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill to marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughlin, T.R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Wright, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Marine mammal damage assessment studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill concentrated on sea otters, harbor seals, Steller sea lions, killer whales, and humpback whales. Sea otter and harbor seals were the most affected marine mammal; it was estimated that several thousand otters and several hundred harbor seals died within months of the spill. Steller sea lion, harbor seal, and sea otter numbers were monitored using aerial surveys. Studies of humpback whales and killer whales used photoidentification techniques to determine changes in abundance, distribution, mortality, and natality. Tissues from animals found dead in spill and control areas were analyzed for hydrocarbon levels. Sea otters, sea lions and harbor seals had elevated hydrocarbon levels, but only sea otters and harbor seals showed population declines associated with the spill. Humpback whales were not severely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Killer whale numbers in the resident AB pod declined after the spill. Coincidental evidence supports the oil spill as the causative agent.

  9. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.; Schmidt, J.

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  10. Catastrophes and conservation: Lessons from sea otters and the Exxon Valdez

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, J.A. )

    1991-12-13

    In this commentary, the author considers the effort to save sea otters after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Despite immense expenditures, the emerging facts lead to two conclusions: population losses were poorly documented, and few animals were saved. These findings cast doubt on our ability to protect sea otters from future spills and lead to troubling questions about how to recognize and document the effects of catastrophic events, and, ultimately, the utility of highly visible and expensive efforts to save wildlife from perceived environmental catastrophes. On 24 March 1989, the Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in northeastern Prince William Sound, spilling more than 10 million gallons of crude oil. Catastrophic losses were expected and a monumental effort was made to save sea otters. The Exxon Valdez spill spread over a linear distance of more than 700 kilometers and soiled an estimated 5,300 kilometers of shoreline. While cleaning up and capturing oiled wildlife for rehabilitation, 878 sea otter carcasses were recovered - a minimal estimate of loss. However, many animals killed by the spill undoubtedly were not found. Losses have been estimated from pre- and post-spill surveys, although these surveys shed little light on the population-level effect, mainly because the size and distribution of the population just prior to the spill is poorly known. This is because a comprehensive survey of Prince William Sound and adjacent waters was not done immediately after the spill but before oil dispersed into southwestern Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska. Thus, although the Exxon Valdez spill undoubtedly killed many sea otters and may have reduced populations substantially, available data lack the power to demonstrate population changes.

  11. Does natural weathering change the stable isotope composition (²H, ¹³C, ¹⁵N, ¹⁸O and ³⁴S) of cattle hair?

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Karl; Rossmann, Andreas; Schäufele, Rudi; Schwertl, Michael; Monahan, Frank J; Schnyder, Hans

    2011-12-30

    Stable isotope analysis of hair has found applications in many fields of science because it provides a temporally resolved, fairly stable isotopic archive of mammalian individuals. We investigated whether this hair archive is modified by natural weathering while attached to a living animal. We analyzed the tail switch hairs of one suckler cow, sampled seven times over a period of four annual summer pasture-winter stall feeding cycles. We compared relative isotope ratios (δ²H, δ¹³C, δ¹⁵N, δ¹⁸O and δ³⁴S) of sections of hair that grew simultaneously but were exposed to natural weathering conditions over different periods of time. Natural wear caused a loss of mass of approx. 0.13% day⁻¹, with no apparent effect of environmental conditions. Changes in δ²H, δ¹³C, δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O were below the detection limit, indicating that hair is a reliable archive for the isotopes of these elements. In contrast, δ³⁴S values increased during the grazing period by about 1‰, with exposure to UV radiation appearing to have a major influence on this result. The δ³⁴S values decreased during the subsequent stall period, probably due to abrasion. Seasonal variation in δ³⁴S may indicate alternating environments that differ in their weathering conditions. PMID:22468330

  12. State-by-state analysis of the employment impacts of low-income weatherization programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodberg, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    The report analyzes the state-by-state employment impact of spending the entire amount of each state's grant on weatherizing the homes of low-income families through the DOE Low-Income Weatherization Program. It estimates the potential number of work years on employment in support industries and the conventional energy sector. It also estimates the multiplier effect of the savings achieved and the multi-year employment impact of energy conservation measures. The report finds that the states could create over 710,000 work-years of employment by devoting the entire share of the $1.5 billion Exxon distribution to low-income weatherization during the 20-year life of the investments. The responding of energy savings over the 20-year period will generate five new jobs for every job created in the initial year of direct and indirect spending. 6 references, 4 tables.

  13. In situ exposure of herring embryos in Prince William Sound two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Kocan, R.; Brown, E.; Baker, T.

    1995-12-31

    In order to evaluate long-term residual toxicity, artificially spawned Pacific herring (Clupea pallasl) embryos were deployed at 5 oiled and 5 unoiled sites in Prince William Sound two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Embryos were exposed at 1.5 m and 4.5 m below mean low water for 8--10 d post fertilization. The embryos were then retrieved and transported to the laboratory for hatching and evaluation under controlled conditions, Endpoints were (1) embryo survival, (2) live hatch, (3) deformed larvae and (4) larval dry weight. The oiled sites produced significantly (P < 0.01) more deformed larvae (63.3%) than did the unoiled sites (51.3%), but there was a lower hatching success at the unoiled sites which resulted in no overall difference in normal live larvae produced between oiled and unoiled sites. The mean dry weight of newly hatched larvae from the oiled sites (78 {micro}g/larva) was significantly lower than those from the unoiled sites (97 {micro}g/larva) at all depths (P < 0.01). Increased larval deformities and reduced hatching weight is consistent with what has been reported by several investigators for herring larvae experimentally and naturally exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. Based on the data, there appeared to be differences between the previously oiled and unoiled sites relative to herring development, but it is not clear whether this was due to residual oil effects or parental effects.

  14. Density and productivity of bald eagles in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.M.; Ritchie, R.J.; Cooper, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Helicopter surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) to assess the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the reproductive success and densities of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) one and two years after the spill (1990 and 1991). Densities of bald eagles were compared between an oiled area in southwestern PWS and an unoiled area in northern PWS. In all surveys (four in 1990, one in 1991) densities of eagles in the oiled areas generally were similar to or higher than those in the unoiled area. Reproductive success was compared between nesting territories that were oiled within 1 km of nests and nesting territories that were unoiled. In 1990, all measures of nest productivity, nest occupancy, and nesting success were similar between oiled and unoiled territories. In 1991, however, the number of young per successful nest was lower in oiled territories. The number of successful nests was slightly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in oiled territories but was significantly lower in 1991 in unoiled territories. Comparisons of nest occupancy and nesting success could not be made in 1991 because early surveys were not conducted. Differences between areas, territories, and years could not be attributed to oil, but rather appeared to be related to natural annual variability. Overall, no demonstrable effects of the oil spill on eagle density or reproduction could be detected in PWS one and two years after the spill. 70 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Survey design, statistical analysis, and basis for statistical inferences in coastal habitat injury assessment: Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, L.L.; Erickson, W.P.; Strickland, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment study was to document and quantify injury to biota of the shallow subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal zones throughout the shoreline affected by oil or cleanup activity associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The results of these studies were to be used to support the Trustee`s Type B Natural Resource Damage Assessment under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). A probability based stratified random sample of shoreline segments was selected with probability proportional to size from each of 15 strata (5 habitat types crossed with 3 levels of potential oil impact) based on those data available in July, 1989. Three study regions were used: Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet/Kenai Peninsula, and Kodiak/Alaska Peninsula. A Geographic Information System was utilized to combine oiling and habitat data and to select the probability sample of study sites. Quasi-experiments were conducted where randomly selected oiled sites were compared to matched reference sites. Two levels of statistical inferences, philosophical bases, and limitations are discussed and illustrated with example data from the resulting studies. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Checklists Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... emergency instructions National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radio receiver for listening to National Weather Service ...

  17. Weather in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of TV weather forecasting introduces this article which features several hands-on science activities involving observing, researching, and experimenting with the weather. A reproducible worksheet on the reliability of weather forecasts is included. (IAH)

  18. Forecasting the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

  19. Examining natural rock varnish and weathering rinds with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for application to ChemCam on Mars.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Nina L; Clegg, Samuel M; Wiens, Roger C; McInroy, Rhonda E; Newsom, Horton E; Deans, Matthew D

    2012-03-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument is traveling to Mars as part of ChemCam on the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Martian rocks have weathered exteriors that obscure their bulk compositions. We examine weathered rocks with LIBS in a martian atmosphere to improve interpretations of ChemCam rock analyses on Mars. Profile data are analyzed using principal component analysis, and coatings and rinds are examined using scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Our results show that LIBS is sensitive to minor compositional changes with depth and correctly identifies rock type even if the series of laser pulses does not penetrate to unweathered material. PMID:22410929

  20. Space Weathering of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    Space weathering is defined as any process that wears away and alters surfaces, here confined to small bodies in the Solar System. Mechanisms which possibly alter asteroid and comet surfaces include solar wind bombardment, UV radiation, cosmic ray bombardment, micrometeorite bombardment. These processes are likely to contribute to surface processes differently. For example, solar wind bombardment would be more important on a body closer to the Sun compared to a comet where cosmic ray bombardment might be a more significant weathering mechanism. How can we measure the effects of space weathering? A big problem is that we don't know the nature of the surface before it was weathered. We are in a new era in the study of surface processes on small bodies brought about by the availability of spatially resolved, color and spectral measurements of asteroids from Galileo and NEAR. What processes are active on which bodies? What physics controls surface processes in different regions of the solar system? How do processes differ on different bodies of different physical and chemical properties? What combinations of observable parameters best address the nature of surface processes? Are there alternative explanations for the observed parameters that have been attributed to space weathering? Should we retain the term, space weathering? How can our understanding of space weathering on the Moon help us understand it on asteroids and comets? Finally, we have to leave behind some presuppositions, one being that there is evidence of space weathering based on the fact that the optical properties of S-type asteroids differs from those of ordinary chondrites.

  1. Evaluation of the condition of Prince William sound shorelines following the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent shoreline treatment. Volume 2. 1992 biological monitoring survey. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.P.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Lees, D.C.; Hague, P.J.; Cumberland, H.L.

    1993-10-01

    It has been estimated that some 40 percent (4.4 million gallons) of the crude oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez on March 24, 1989, was deposited on beaches in Prince William Sound. During and after shoreline cleanup activities, concerns were raised regarding the potential effects on intertidal habitats and biota of shoreline treatments, especially those using high-pressure hot-water washes. The overall objectives of this study have been to evaluate recovery of important intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats and resources from the effects of oiling and shoreline treatment and to assess the influence of high-pressure hot-water treatments on the nature and rates of recovery.

  2. Determining mineral weathering rates based on solid and solute weathering gradients and velocities: Application to biotite weathering in saprolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical weathering gradients are defined by the changes in the measured elemental concentrations in solids and pore waters with depth in soils and regoliths. An increase in the mineral weathering rate increases the change in these concentrations with depth while increases in the weathering velocity decrease the change. The solid-state weathering velocity is the rate at which the weathering front propagates through the regolith and the solute weathering velocity is equivalent to the rate of pore water infiltration. These relationships provide a unifying approach to calculating both solid and solute weathering rates from the respective ratios of the weathering velocities and gradients. Contemporary weathering rates based on solute residence times can be directly compared to long-term past weathering based on changes in regolith composition. Both rates incorporate identical parameters describing mineral abundance, stoichiometry, and surface area. Weathering gradients were used to calculate biotite weathering rates in saprolitic regoliths in the Piedmont of Northern Georgia, USA and in Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Solid-state weathering gradients for Mg and K at Panola produced reaction rates of 3 to 6 x 10-17 mol m-2 s-1 for biotite. Faster weathering rates of 1.8 to 3.6 ?? 10-16 mol m-2 s-1 are calculated based on Mg and K pore water gradients in the Rio Icacos regolith. The relative rates are in agreement with a warmer and wetter tropical climate in Puerto Rico. Both natural rates are three to six orders of magnitude slower than reported experimental rates of biotite weathering. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. STEREO Space Weather and the Space Weather Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Webb, D F.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is first and foremost a solar and interplanetary research mission, with one of the natural applications being in the area of space weather. The obvious potential for space weather applications is so great that NOAA has worked to incorporate the real-time data into their forecast center as much as possible. A subset of the STEREO data will be continuously downlinked in a real-time broadcast mode, called the Space Weather Beacon. Within the research community there has been considerable interest in conducting space weather related research with STEREO. Some of this research is geared towards making an immediate impact while other work is still very much in the research domain. There are many areas where STEREO might contribute and we cannot predict where all the successes will come. Here we discuss how STEREO will contribute to space weather and many of the specific research projects proposed to address STEREO space weather issues. We also discuss some specific uses of the STEREO data in the NOAA Space Environment Center.

  4. Temperature dependence of basalt weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojun; Hartmann, Jens; Derry, Louis A.; West, A. Joshua; You, Chen-Feng; Long, Xiaoyong; Zhan, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Li, Gen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Tao; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Ji, Junfeng; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The homeostatic balance of Earth's long-term carbon cycle and the equable state of Earth's climate are maintained by negative feedbacks between the levels of atmospheric CO2 and the chemical weathering rate of silicate rocks. Though clearly demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory dissolution experiments, the temperature dependence of silicate weathering rates, hypothesized to play a central role in these weathering feedbacks, has been difficult to quantify clearly in natural settings at landscape scale. By compiling data from basaltic catchments worldwide and considering only inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), here we show that the rate of CO2 consumption associated with the weathering of basaltic rocks is strongly correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) as predicted by chemical kinetics. Relations between temperature and CO2 consumption rate for active volcanic fields (AVFs) are complicated by other factors such as eruption age, hydrothermal activity, and hydrological complexities. On the basis of this updated data compilation we are not able to distinguish whether or not there is a significant runoff control on basalt weathering rates. Nonetheless, the simple temperature control as observed in this global dataset implies that basalt weathering could be an effective mechanism for Earth to modulate long-term carbon cycle perturbations.

  5. Fun with Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana

    2007-01-01

    This three-part weather-themed lesson for young learners connects weather, clothing, and feelings vocabulary. The target structures covered are: asking about the weather; comparing weather; using the modal auxiliary, should; and the question word, when. The lessons utilize all four skills and include such activities as going outside, singing,…

  6. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  7. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  8. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigielski, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1) "Ocean…

  9. BIOREMEDIATION AS A TECHNOLOGY: EXPERIENCES WITH THE EXXON VALDEZ SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results from our oil spill bioremediation project have demonstrated convincingly that fertilizers can be applied to oiled beaches to overcome nutrient limitations, thereby enhancing biodegradation of the oil. n Prince William Sound, the natural biodegradation rate of oil on t...

  10. Harlequin duck population recovery following the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill: Progress, process and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Bowman, T.D.; Trust, K.A.; Ballachey, B.E.; Dean, T.A.; Jewett, S.C.; O'Clair, C. E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck Histrionicus histrionicus populations during 1995 to 1998. We evaluated potential constraints on full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil; (2) food limitation; and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the 'Exxon Valdez' spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 yr after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998; (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995 to 1998; (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995 to 1997; and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery will also be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to

  11. Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m−2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the

  12. Occupational health aspects of unusual work schedules: a review of Exxon's experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Brief, R.S.; Scala, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Today more than 300,000 persons in the US work unusually long shifts (longer than eight hours per day) during which they are exposed to airborne toxicants. This paper reviews Exxon's experience in managing the various potential occupational health problems associated with such work schedules. A review of mathematical approaches to modifying exposure limits for such shifts is included; special emphasis is placed on the potential role of circadian rhythm effects as they serve to affect the physiological adjustment of workers to these schedules. A listing of the kinds of physical ailments which have been associated with unusual work schedules is included also. A fairly thorough list of references accompanies the text.

  13. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil from Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Elashvili, I; Valdes, J J; Kamely, D; Chakrabarty, A M

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30 degrees C and above. PMID:1367420

  14. Research Spotlight: Why has oil from the Exxon Valdez persisted so long on beaches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill released more than 11 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska, polluting 800 kilometers of beaches. In some areas the spilled oil has persisted on beaches more than 20 years later. To examine the factors affecting the persistence of oil from the spill, Xia et al conducted field studies and numerical modeling of the hydrogeological characteristics of a shallow bedrock beach on Knight Island in western Prince William Sound, the area most heavily polluted by the spill. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009179, 2010)

  15. Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Charles H; Rice, Stanley D; Short, Jeffrey W; Esler, Daniel; Bodkin, James L; Ballachey, Brenda E; Irons, David B

    2003-12-19

    The ecosystem response to the 1989 spill of oil from the Exxon Valdez into Prince William Sound, Alaska, shows that current practices for assessing ecological risks of oil in the oceans and, by extension, other toxic sources should be changed. Previously, it was assumed that impacts to populations derive almost exclusively from acute mortality. However, in the Alaskan coastal ecosystem, unexpected persistence of toxic subsurface oil and chronic exposures, even at sublethal levels, have continued to affect wildlife. Delayed population reductions and cascades of indirect effects postponed recovery. Development of ecosystem-based toxicology is required to understand and ultimately predict chronic, delayed, and indirect long-term risks and impacts. PMID:14684812

  16. Oil, seabirds, and science: The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    When an environmental accident creates a potential conflict between science and environmental advocacy, science may suffer. When the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on the morning of 24 March 1989, it aroused widespread concern about possible environmental concern about possible environmental devastation. Within hours, some 41 million liters of crude oil were released into the marine ecosystem, making this spill the largest in US history. Eventually, oil was found more than 900 km from the spill site, and roughly 2100 km of shoreline were contaminated with oil (Neff et al. 1995). 46 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Introduced predator removal from islands. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, G.V.; Bailey, E.P.; Stahl, W.

    1996-05-01

    In order to restore black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) and pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), 2 species injured by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill, the introduced predator, artic fox (Alopex lagopus), was removed from 2 islands near the western edge of the trajectory of the oil. Surveys indicated that although adequate nesting habitat was available at Simeonof and Chernabura, oystercatcher and guillemot population densities were much lower than at nearby fox-free islands. Elimination of foxes is expected to dramatically increase populations of these injured species as well as other native birds.

  18. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.; Elashvili, I.; Valdes, J.J.; Kamely, D.; Chakrabarty, A.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30{degree}C and above.

  19. Long-term ecosystem repsonse to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, C.H.; Rice, S.D.; Short, J.W.; Esler, Daniel; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Irons, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The ecosystem response to the 1989 spill of oil from the Exxon Valdez into Prince William Sound, Alaska, shows that current practices for assessing ecological risks of oil in the oceans and, by extension, other toxic sources should be changed. Previously, it was assumed that impacts to populations derive almost exclusively from acute mortality. However, in the Alaskan coastal ecosystem, unexpected persistence of toxic subsurface oil and chronic exposures, even at sublethal levels, have continued to affect wildlife. Delayed population reductions and cascades of indirect effects postponed recovery. Development of ecosystem-based toxicology is required to understand and ultimately predict chronic, delayed, and indirect long-term risks and impacts.

  20. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  1. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  2. Exxon Valdez oil spill seabird restoration workshop. Held in Victoria, British Columbia in February 1990. Restoration project 95038. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report. Pacific Seabird Group technical Pub. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Warheit, K.I.; Harrison, C.S.; Divoky, G.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Pacific Seabird Group implemented a workshop designed to provide recommendations on restoration options for seabirds injured by EVOS (Exxon Valdez Oil Spill). The workshop produced criteria to be used to determine if the population effects resulting from a spill are a concern, and to establish a priority list for restoration activities. Specific operational goals for restoration activities were recorded.

  3. Field applications of the piscine anaphase aberration test: lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Hose, J E; Brown, E D

    1998-03-20

    Several large-scale genotoxicity assessments have been performed in coastal marine areas that have demonstrated either localized or widespread genetic effects resulting from human activity. One common assessment method is the anaphase aberration test, a measurement of abnormal chromosome division, using embryolarval fishes. It can be used to detect the presence of mutagens within a poorly characterized complex mixture or monitor specific genotoxins and is easily adapted for laboratory screening. One comprehensive marine genotoxicity assessment was conducted using Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS), AK in late March 1989. In early May, genetic damage was detected at many sites within the oil trajectory and was correlated with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons characteristic of Exxon Valdez oil (EVO) in intertidal mussels. Effects were related spatially and temporally to oil exposure. Anaphase aberration rates decreased throughout May and June 1989, and by 1991, genotoxicity was undetectable. The abundance of the 1989 herring year class in PWS is significantly reduced; this is the first reported example linking genotoxicity to subsequent population level effects. This review describes the methodology for the anaphase aberration test using fish eggs, its applications for large-scale assessments and supportive laboratory studies, and its limitations for prediction of higher level effects on populations. PMID:9672658

  4. Geochemical changes in crude oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez supertanker into Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.

    1994-01-01

    North Slope crude oil spilled from the T/V Exxon Valdez in March 1989 and contaminated about 500 km of Prince William Sound shoreline. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in oil samples collected in August 1990 and June 1992 from beaches on six islands impacted by the spill have been compared with the hydrocarbons from North Slope crude oil taken from the stricken tanker. Degradation processes have changed the physical appearance of this residual spilled oil; the beached oil as collected ranged from a light brown color, to a heavy black viscous oil, to a black, powder-like residue. In these physically different samples, terpane, sterane, and aromatic sterane distributions, as well as carbon isotope values, are similar and correlate with the original Exxon Valdez oil. On the other hand, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, and many of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are present in the original crude oil are dramatically altered in the oil samples collected from the beaches.

  5. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lance, B K; Irons, D B; Kendall, S J; McDonald, L L

    2001-04-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwaka Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilize shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  6. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  7. EFFECTIVENESS AND REGULATORY ISSUES IN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES WITH THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  8. Social Disruption and Psychological Stress in an Alaskan Fishing Community: The Impact of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; And Others

    Technological accidents such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 create man-made disaster situations that threaten community survival and the well-being and quality of life of community residents. This paper focuses on the social and psychological impact of the 1989 oil spill on Cordova, an isolated Alaskan community with high economic…

  9. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  10. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…