Science.gov

Sample records for nawabshah sindh pakistan

  1. Literacy, Income Generation, and Poverty Alleviation in Sindh Pakistan and Its Impact on Economic Development, Human Resource Development in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Rural poverty in Sindh, Pakistan, has been artificially created by low prices of wheat, fixed by the federal government's price control board. Agriculture and agro-based industries account for 80 percent of the country's labor force. Among the consequences of this price control are low margins of profit to the farming community; low capacity to…

  2. The Tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) From Sindh Province, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-01-01

    Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480

  3. The tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-01-01

    Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480

  4. Technology and Distance Education: Sharing Experience in Sindh, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Female literacy in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world. In 1981, the literacy rate was 16 percent for females, and 7.3 percent for rural women. Distance education can effect many social changes. Females would be the main beneficiaries because it is not socially acceptable for girls to leave home for education; parents do not like…

  5. Effect of Teaching of Algebra through Social Constructivist Approach on 7th Graders' Learning Outcomes in Sindh (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilyas, Bhutto Muhammad; Rawat, Khalid Jamil; Bhatti, Muhammad Tariq; Malik, Najeeb

    2013-01-01

    It is a bitter reality that the curricula and traditional pedagogy prevailing in public schools of Pakistan in general and Sindh in particular do not incorporate the algebraic concepts properly. Both the content and the presentation therein cannot be considered up to the mark, thereby making "Algebra" a tough and dry subject. This…

  6. Characterization of drought and its assessment over Sindh, Pakistan during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Shahzada; Ullah, Kalim; Gao, Shouting

    2015-10-01

    Drought is one of the complex meteorological disasters affecting water resources, agriculture, livestock, and socioeconomic patterns of a region. Although drought prediction is difficult, it can be monitored based on climatological information. In this study, we provide high spatiotemporal resolution drought climatology, using observational, gridded precipitation data (0.5°×0.5°) from the Global Precipitation Climatological Center and soil moisture data from the Climate Prediction Center for the 60-yr period 1951-2010. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) based on a fitted Gamma distribution and Run method has been calculated from the regional drought identification model (ReDIM) for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months. The results show strong temporal correlations among anomalies of precipitation, soil moisture, and SPI. Analysis of long-term precipitation data reveals that the drought vulnerability concentrates on monsoon season (July-September), which contributes 72.4% and 82.1% of the annual precipitation in northern and southern Sindh, respectively. Annual and seasonal analyses show no significant changes in the observed precipitation. The category classification criteria are defined to monitor/forecast drought in the selected area. Further analysis identifies two longest episodes of drought, i.e., 1972-1974 and 2000-2002, while 1969, 1974, 1987, and 2002 are found to be the most severe historical drought years. A drought hazard map of Sindh was developed, in which 10 districts are recognized as highly vulnerable to drought. This study helps to explain the time, duration, intensity, and frequency of meteorological droughts over Sindh as well as its neighboring regions, and provides useful information to disaster management agencies and forecasters for assessing both the regional vulnerability of drought and its seasonal predictability in Pakistan.

  7. Characterization of Drought and Its Assessment over Sindh, Pakistan During 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Shahzada

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the complex meteorological disasters, which can affect water resources, agriculture, livestock, and socioeconomic patterns of a region. Although drought prediction is difficult, it can be monitored based on climatological information. In this study, we provide high spatial and temporal resolution drought climatology, using observational, gridded precipitation data (0.5°X 0.5°) from the Global Precipitation Climatological Center and soil moisture from the Climate Prediction Centre for the 60-yr period 1951-2010. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) based on a fitted Gamma distribution and Run Method has been calculated from the regional drought identification model (ReDIM) on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months. The results show strong temporal correlations among anomalies of precipitation, soil moisture, and SPI. Analysis of long-term precipitation data reveals that the drought vulnerability concentrates on monsoon season (July-September), which contributes 72.4% and 82.1% of annual precipitation in northern and southern Sindh, respectively. Annual and seasonal analyses show no significant changes in the observed precipitation. The category classification criteria are defined to monitor/forecast drought in the selected area. Further analysis identifies two longest episodes of drought, i.e., 1972-1974 and 2000-2002, while 1969, 1974, 1987, and 2002 are found to be the most severe historical drought years. A drought hazard map of Sindh was developed, in which 10 districts are recognized as highly vulnerable to drought. This study helps in explaining the time, duration, intensity, and frequency of meteorological droughts over Sindh as well as its neighboring regions, and provides useful information to disaster management agencies and forecasters for assessing both the regional vulnerability of drought and its seasonal predictability in Pakistan.

  8. Arsenic Exposure in Children through Drinking Water in Different Districts of Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Mustafa, Muhammad Ayaz; Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Mughal, Mirza Junaid; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2016-09-01

    A cross sectional study has been conducted during 2007-2010 for the assessment of arsenic (As) contamination in drinking water, and its impact on the health of local public belongs to five districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The toxic risk assessment of As in different areas of Sindh province based upon its concentration in drinking water and scalp hair of boys and girls of age group 5-10 and 11-15 years. The total and inorganic As species in drinking water samples of four districts Hyderabad, Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu were determined by advance pre-concentration methodologies. The resulting data indicated that the dominant inorganic As species in municipal treated (Hyaderabad) and hand pumps (Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah and Dadu) water samples were arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), respectively. The total As concentrations in hand pumps water samples of Dadu district were 6.0- to 35-fold higher than the World Health Organization permissible limit of (10 μg/L) for drinking water. Whereas, total As in hand pump water samples of Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, and Nawab shah were found in the range of 26.0-98.2, 18.0-50.6, and 52.3-85.2 μg/L, respectively. However, municipal treated water samples of Hyderabad were within recommended level (As <10 μg/L). The content of total As in children of both genders and age group belonging to Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu was found to be significantly high as compared to those children residing in Hyderabad district. The Pearson coefficient of correlation r values between As levels in hand pump water and scalp hair samples of children belonging to Sukkur, Naushehro Firoze, Nawab shah, and Dadu were observed in the range of 0.65-0.75, 0.75-0.82, 0.80-0.90, and 0.95-0.98, respectively. The results of As toxicity risk assessment based on hazard quotient indicated that Dadu district has high carcinogenic exposure risk for children. Moreover, it is concluded that the children

  9. A case study of outsourced primary healthcare services in Sindh, Pakistan: is this a real reform?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since a decade, low and middle income countries have a rising trend of contracting their primary healthcare services to NGOs. In Pakistan, public sector often lacks capacity to effectively & equitably manage the healthcare services. It led the government to outsource the administration of primary health care services to a semi-autonomous government entity i.e. Peoples’ Primary Healthcare Initiative (PPHI). This small scale study has assessed the quality of healthcare services at the contracted Basic Health Units (BHUs) with the PPHI and compared it with those managed by the local district government in the province of Sindh. Methods A cross-sectional mix methods survey was conducted in November 2011. Two BHUs of each type were selected from the districts Karachi and Thatta in Sindh province. BHUs were selected randomly and a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the study participants at the two study sites. Focus group discussions were conducted with patients visiting the facility while in-depth interviews were conducted with service providers. An observation based resource availability checklist was also administered. Results There was a significant difference between the PPHI and the district government administered BHUs with regard to infrastructure, availability of essential medicines, basic medical appliances, mini-lab facilities and vehicles for referrals. These BHUs were found to have sufficient number of trained clinical staff and no punctuality and retention issues whatsoever. The district government administered BHUs presented a dismal picture in all the aspects. Conclusion Out-sourcing of primary healthcare facilities has resulted in significantly improved certain aspects quality and responsiveness of primary healthcare services. This strategy is likely to achieve an efficient and perhaps an equitable healthcare delivery in low and middle income countries where governments have limited capacity to manage healthcare services. PMID

  10. Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

    Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine

  11. Flaviviruses as a Cause of Undifferentiated Fever in Sindh Province, Pakistan: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Erum; Farooqi, Joveria Q.; Barr, Kelli L.; Prakoso, Dhani; Nasir, Amna; Kanji, Akbar; Shakoor, Sadia; Malik, Faisal Riaz; Hasan, Rumina; Lednicky, John A.; Long, Maureen T.

    2016-01-01

    Arboviral diseases are expanding worldwide, yet global surveillance is often limited due to diplomatic and cultural barriers between nations. With human encroachment into new habitats, mosquito-borne viruses are also invading new areas. The actual prevalence of expanding arboviruses is unknown in Pakistan due to inappropriate diagnosis and poor testing for arboviral diseases. The primary objective of this study was to document evidence of flavivirus infections as the cause of undifferentiated fever in Pakistan. Through a cooperative effort between the USA and Pakistan, patient exposure to dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was examined in Sindh Province for the first time in decades. Initial results from the 2015 arbovirus season consisting of a cross-sectional study of 467 patients in 5 sites, DENV NS1 antigen was identified in 63 of the screened subjects, WNV IgM antibodies in 16 patients, and JEV IgM antibodies in 32 patients. In addition, a number of practical findings were made including (1) in silico optimization of RT-PCR primers for flavivirus strains circulating in the Middle East, (2) shipping and storage of RT-PCR master mix and other reagents at ambient temperature, (3) Smart phone applications for the collection of data in areas with limited infrastructure, and (4) fast and reliable shipping for transport of reagents and specimens to and from the Middle East. Furthermore, this work is producing a group of highly trained local scientists and medical professionals disseminating modern scientific methods and more accurate diagnostic procedures to the community. PMID:26909342

  12. Flaviviruses as a Cause of Undifferentiated Fever in Sindh Province, Pakistan: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Khan, Erum; Farooqi, Joveria Q; Barr, Kelli L; Prakoso, Dhani; Nasir, Amna; Kanji, Akbar; Shakoor, Sadia; Malik, Faisal Riaz; Hasan, Rumina; Lednicky, John A; Long, Maureen T

    2016-01-01

    Arboviral diseases are expanding worldwide, yet global surveillance is often limited due to diplomatic and cultural barriers between nations. With human encroachment into new habitats, mosquito-borne viruses are also invading new areas. The actual prevalence of expanding arboviruses is unknown in Pakistan due to inappropriate diagnosis and poor testing for arboviral diseases. The primary objective of this study was to document evidence of flavivirus infections as the cause of undifferentiated fever in Pakistan. Through a cooperative effort between the USA and Pakistan, patient exposure to dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was examined in Sindh Province for the first time in decades. Initial results from the 2015 arbovirus season consisting of a cross-sectional study of 467 patients in 5 sites, DENV NS1 antigen was identified in 63 of the screened subjects, WNV IgM antibodies in 16 patients, and JEV IgM antibodies in 32 patients. In addition, a number of practical findings were made including (1) in silico optimization of RT-PCR primers for flavivirus strains circulating in the Middle East, (2) shipping and storage of RT-PCR master mix and other reagents at ambient temperature, (3) Smart phone applications for the collection of data in areas with limited infrastructure, and (4) fast and reliable shipping for transport of reagents and specimens to and from the Middle East. Furthermore, this work is producing a group of highly trained local scientists and medical professionals disseminating modern scientific methods and more accurate diagnostic procedures to the community. PMID:26909342

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure. PMID:26739008

  14. Toxic Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Males Through Drinking Water in Tharparkar Region of Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Atif Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Mariam Shezadi; Ali, Jamshed; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Naeemullah

    2016-07-01

    Humans are exposed to arsenic (As) through air, drinking water, and food. The arsenic (As) hazardous quotient was calculated on the basis of its concentration in drinking water of different origin and scalp hair of male subjects (n = 313), residents of different exposed and non-exposed areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The total As was determined in water and scalp hair samples, while As species were determined in water samples by advance extraction methodologies. The total As concentrations in drinking water of less-exposed (LE) and high-exposed (HE) areas was found to be 2.63 to 4.46 and 52 to 235, fold higher than the permissible limit, respectively, than recommended by World Health Organization (2004) for drinking water. While the levels of As in drinking water of non-exposed (NE) areas was within the permissible limit. The resulted data indicated that the dominant species was As(+5) in groundwater samples. The levels of As in scalp hair samples of male subjects of two age groups (18-30 and 31-50 years), belonging to NE, LE, and HE areas, ranged from 0.26 to 0.69, 0.58 to 1.34, and 15.6 to 60.9 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between As levels in drinking water and scalp hair was observed in HE area (r = 0.86-0.90, p < 0.001) as compared to those subjects belonging to LE area. A toxicity risk assessment was calculated as hazard quotient (HQ), which indicates that the study subjects of HE area have significantly higher values of HQ than LE. The population of As exposed areas is at high risk of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenesis effects. PMID:26606915

  15. Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Bhutto, Abdul Manan; Baloch, Javed Hussain; Soomro, Farooq Rahman; Kawamura, Yuta; Nakao, Ryo; Aoshima, Keisuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

    2012-07-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors. PMID:22246369

  16. Two new species of Cossinae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) from Sindh Province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2016-01-01

    The Cossidae fauna of Pakistan is still poorly studied, with only a few species reported: Eremocossus foedus (Swinhoe, 1884), Aholcocerus ronkayorum Yakovlev, 2006, Cossulus griseatellus Yakovlev, 2006 and Phragmataecia gurkoi Yakovlev, 2007. The carpenter moths of Zeuzera Latreille, 1804 (Zeuzera sp. and Z. multistrigata Moore, 1881) have been reported in pest management publications from Pakistan (Mushtaque & Baloch 1981; Gul & Wali-ur-Rehman 1999; Viqar et al. 2005). The distribution of known cossid species of Pakistan is treated by Yakovlev (2011) without indicating specific localities. Mushtaque and Baloch (1981) report Z. multistrigata caterpillars feeding on the roots of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabidaceae), which needs to be confirmed. Otherwise Zeuzera species have been observed only feeding on woody plants (Yakovlev 2012). PMID:27396015

  17. Geochemistry and quality parameters of dug and tube well water of Khipro, District Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Erum; Huda, Syed Nawaz-ul; Naseem, Shahid; Hamza, Salma; Kaleem, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Thirty-nine (23 dug and 16 tube well) samples were geochemically evaluated and investigated to ascertain the quality of water in Khipro, Sindh. The analytical results exhibited abundance of major cations and anions in Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- sequence. Stiff diagram showed dug well sample have high Na-Cl and moderate Mg-SO4 content as compared to tube well samples. Majority of dug well samples appeared as Na-Cl type on Piper diagram while tube well samples are mixed type. Gibbs diagram reflected evaporation as a dominant phenomenon in dug well; however, tube well samples are declined toward rock dominance. Process of ion exchange was witnessed from Na+ versus Cl- and Ca2+ + Mg2+ versus HCO3 - + SO4 2- plots. Principal component analysis also discriminates dug well and tube well water by means of positive and negative loading based on physical and chemical composition of the groundwater. Studied and computed parameters like pH, EC, TDS, TH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, sodium adsorption ratio, magnesium adsorption ratio, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Na%, Kelly's ratio, and permeability index were compared with WHO to evaluate studied water for drinking and agricultural purposes. Except Na+ and K+, all chemical constrains are within the allowed limits, set by WHO for drinking water. Similarly, most of the groundwater is moderately suitable for irrigation uses, with few exceptions.

  18. Geochemical factors controlling the occurrence of high fluoride groundwater in the Nagar Parkar area, Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Tahir; Naseem, Shahid; Usmani, Tanzil Haider; Bashir, Erum; Khan, Farooque Ahmed; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal

    2009-11-15

    Fluoride concentrations in groundwater near Nagar Parkar in the Thar Desert of southeastern Pakistan range from 1.13 to 7.85 mg/l, and roughly 78% of the samples contain fluoride in concentrations that exceed the drinking water standard of 1.5mg/l set by WHO. The groundwater is alkaline (pH 7.1-8.4), brackish (TDS 449-15,933 mg/l), and classified as Na-Cl type water. This prevailing chemical character reflects the influence of saltwater intrusion, high evaporation rates, and ion exchange. Groundwater is also supersaturated with respect to calcite, which promotes the removal of Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-) from solution. As a result, groundwater is generally undersaturated with respect to fluorite, the mineral that typically controls the upper limit of fluoride concentrations. This study examines a number of geochemical parameters in an effort to discover the controls on fluoride concentrations in groundwater. High fluoride concentrations are associated with high TDS, high pH, high Na concentrations, and high sodium absorption ratios (SAR). This suggests that elevated fluoride levels are the result of enhanced fluorite solubility due to Ca depletion and high ionic strength and the release of fluoride from colloid surfaces under high pH conditions. Contrary to what has been found in other studies, sample depth and water temperature do not appear to have a significant role in the distribution of fluoride within the groundwater. PMID:19586721

  19. Insight into implementation of facility-based integrated management of childhood illness strategy in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akber Pradhan, Nousheen; Rizvi, Narjis; Sami, Neelofar; Gul, Xaher

    2013-01-01

    Background Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy has been proven to improve health outcomes in children under 5 years of age. Pakistan, despite being in the late implementation phase of the strategy, continues to report high under-five mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, and malnutrition – the main targets of the strategy. Objective The study determines the factors influencing IMCI implementation at public-sector primary health care (PHC) facilities in Matiari district, Sindh, Pakistan. Design An exploratory qualitative study with an embedded quantitative strand was conducted. The qualitative part included 16 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with stakeholders which included planners and policy makers at a provincial level (n=5), implementers and managers at a district level (n=3), and IMCI-trained physicians posted at PHC facilities (n=8). Quantitative part included PHC facility survey (n=16) utilizing WHO health facility assessment tool to assess availability of IMCI essential drugs, supplies, and equipments. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the textual information, whereas descriptive frequencies were calculated for health facility survey data. Results The major factors reported to enhance IMCI implementation were knowledge and perception about the strategy and need for separate clinic for children aged under 5 years as potential support factors. The latter can facilitate in strategy implementation through allocated workforce and required equipments and supplies. Constraint factors mainly included lack of clear understanding of the strategy, poor planning for IMCI implementation, ambiguity in defined roles and responsibilities among stakeholders, and insufficient essential supplies and drugs at PHC centers. The latter was further substantiated through health facilities’ survey findings, which indicated that none of the facilities had 100% stock of essential supplies and drugs. Only one out of all 16 surveyed

  20. Exposure of children to arsenic in drinking water in the Tharparkar region of Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif Gul; Ali, Jamshed; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-02-15

    Humans can be exposed to arsenic (As) through air, drinking water, and food. The aim of this study was to calculate the hazard quotient (HQ) of As, based on its concentration in drinking water and the scalp hair of children (males) belonging to two age groups (5-10 and 11-14 years) who consumed water contaminated with different concentrations of As. The water samples were collected from As-exposed and nonexposed areas, which were classified as low-exposed (LE), high-exposed (HE), and nonexposed (NE) areas. The total concentration of inorganic As (iAs) and its species (As(III) and As(V)) in water samples of all selected areas was determined by advanced extraction methods. For purposes of comparison, the total As level was also determined in all water samples. The resulting data indicated that the predominant inorganic As species in groundwater samples was arsenate (As(V)). The As concentrations in drinking water of LE and HE areas were found to be 2.6-230-fold higher than the permissible limit for drinking water established by the World Health Organization (2004). However, the As levels in drinking water of the NE area was within the permissible limit (<10 μg/L). The As levels in the scalp hair samples from boys of NE, LE, and HE areas ranged from 0.16 to 0.36, 0.36 to 0.83, and 11.5 to 31.9 mg/kg, respectively. A significant, positive correlation was observed between the As levels in drinking water and scalp hair samples of children from the HE area, compared with the other two groups (p>0.01). The As toxicity risk assessment based on HQ for the NE, LE, and HE areas corresponded to <10, ≥ 10, and >10, respectively. These HQ values indicated the noncarcinogenic, less carcinogenic, and highly carcinogenic exposure risks faced by children from the NE, LE, and HE areas, respectively. It can be concluded that children consuming the groundwater of the LE (Khairpur Mir's) and HE (Tharparkar) areas of Pakistan are at a potential risk of chronic As toxicity. PMID

  1. The Role of Quality Health Services and Discussion about Birth Spacing in Postpartum Contraceptive Use in Sindh, Pakistan: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tappis, Hannah; Dahar, Zaib; Ali, Anayat; Agha, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rapid population growth, stagnant contraceptive prevalence, and high unmet need for family planning present significant challenges for meeting Pakistan’s national and international development goals. Although health behaviors are shaped by multiple social and environmental factors, research on contraceptive uptake in Pakistan has focused on individual and household determinants, and little attention has been given to community characteristics that may affect access to services and reproductive behavior. Methods Individual and community determinants of contraceptive use were identified using multivariable multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from a 2014 cross-sectional survey of 6,200 mothers in 503 communities in Sindh, Pakistan. Results Only 27% of women who had given birth in the two years before the study reported using contraceptives. After adjusting for individual and community characteristics, there was no difference in the odds of contraceptive use between urban and rural women. Women who had delivered at a health facility had 1.4 times higher odds of contraceptive use than women who delivered at home. Those who received information about birth spacing from a doctor or relatives/friends had 1.81 and 1.38 times higher odds of contraceptive use, respectively, than those who did not. Living in a community where a higher proportion of women received quality antenatal care and where discussion of birth spacing was more common was significantly associated with contraceptive use. Community-wide poverty lowered contraceptive use. Conclusions Quality of care at the community level has strong effects on contraceptive use, independent of the characteristics of individual households or women. These findings suggest that powerful gains in contraceptive use may be realized by improving the quality of antenatal care in Pakistan. Community health workers should focus on generating discussion of birth spacing in the community. Outreach efforts should

  2. Content Analysis of Research Contributions towards Environmental Issues in Sindh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashari, Jagul Huma; Bhutto, Arabella; Rashdi, Roshan S. Shah; Qureshi, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    This research article identifies the contributions of PhD faculty members of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Sindh Pakistan offering degrees in the environment discipline through published articles in journals, conference proceedings, research project reports and focused areas of research. The content analyses of curriculum vitae data of…

  3. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern. PMID:12177945

  4. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  5. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  6. Perceptions of Private College Teachers of Karachi about the Curriculum Prescribed by Sindh Bureau of Curriculum (BOC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syeda, Talat Jehan

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum at the college level is prescribed at provincial level to ensure a standardized education throughout. A prescribed curriculum aligns educational standards and maintains them to ensure teaching standards. In Pakistan the curriculum for intermediate students at both private and government colleges is designed and proposed by Sindh Bureau…

  7. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  8. School Inspection and Supervision in Pakistan: Approaches and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffer, Kulsoom

    2010-01-01

    This article traces how the concept of educational inspection has evolved in Pakistan, especially in the province of Sindh, and discusses whether the existing inspection system helps to improve quality and establish accountability. The inspection system that originated in colonial days has evolved to incorporate the notion of using supervision to…

  9. Coal resources of the Sonda coal field, Sindh Province, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.E.; Riaz, Khan M.; Ahmed, Khan S.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 4.7 billion t of original coal resources, ranging from lignite A to subbituminous C in rank, are estimated to be present in the Sonda coal field. These resources occur in 10 coal zones in the Bara Formation of Paleocene age. The Bara Formation does not out crop in the area covered by this report. Thin discontinuous coal beds also occur in the Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation, of Paleocene and Eocene age, but they are unimportant as a resource of the Sonda coal field. The coal resource assessment was based on 56 exploratory drill holes that were completed in the Sonda field between April 1986 and February 1988. The Sonda coal field is split into two, roughly equal, areas by the southwestward flowing Indus River, a major barrier to the logistics of communications between the two halves. As a result the two halves, called the Sonda East and Sonda West areas, were evaluated at different times by slightlydifferent techniques; but, because the geology is consistent between the two areas, the results of both evaluations have been summarized in this report. The resource estimates for the Sonda East area, approximately 1,700 million t, were based on the thickest coal bed in each zone at each drill hole. This method gives a conservative estimate of the total amount of coal in the Sonda East area. The resource estimates for the Sonda West area, approximately 3,000 million t, were based on cumulative coal bed thicknesses within each coal zone, resulting in a more liberal estimate. In both cases, minimum parameters for qualifying coal were a thickness of 30 cm or greater and no more than 50% ash; partings thicker than 1 cm were excluded. The three most important coal zones in the Sonda field are the Inayatabad, the Middle Sonda and the Lower Sonda. Together, these three coal zones contain 50% of the total resources. Isopachs were constructed for the thickest coal beds in these three coal zones and indicate large variations in thickness over relatively small distances. Coal beds in the Sonda coal field were difficult to correlate because of poor core recovery in some intervals and abrupt lateral thinning and thickening. Most coal zones are separated by 5-10 m of interburden, although in some places the interburden between zones is over 100 m thick. More closely spaced drill holes should clarify and significantly improve coal zone correlations in the Bara Formation. Coal resources in the Sonda coal field were calculated for three reliability categories; measured, indicated, and inferred. The most reliable estimates are those for the measured category. Measured coal resources are approximately 91 million t, or about 2% of the total resource; indicated resources are 681 million t, or about 14% of the total; and inferred resources, the least reliable resource category, are 3,931 million t, or 84% of the total resources. The distribution of resources by reliability category is due to the relatively wide spacing (approximately 5 km) between core holes. Analyses of 90 coal samples, on an as-received basis, indicate average ash and sulfur contents of 13.7% and 3.6%, respectively, and a range in rank from lignite A to subbituminous C. Calorific values for these samples range from 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb (1 Btu = 1055J; 1 lb = 4536 kg). ?? 1993.

  10. Byssinosis in ginning factories of rural Sindh.

    PubMed

    Aziz, S; Lodi, T Z; Alam, S E

    1992-10-01

    Frequency of byssinosis in 276 workers from 5 ginning factories of rural Sindh are described. Twenty-four (9%) had byssinosis, 178 were asymptomatic and the remaining 74 had other respiratory symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was present both in symptomatic and asymptomatic workers and was equally distributed amongst smokers and non-smokers. A possible involvement of some factors other than cigarette smoking is discussed. PMID:1469765

  11. Effective genes for resistance to stripe rust and virulences of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulence patterns of wheat stripe rust were studied under the field conditions across four environmentally different locations: Quaid-i-Azam University (Islamabad), Pirsabak (NWFP), Faisalabad (Punjab) and Sakrand (Sindh) by planting trap nursery of tester lines and Pakistan varieties. The results ...

  12. EVALUATION OF DRUG USE INDICATORS FOR NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Humayun; Godman, Brian; Bashir, Sajid; Hussain, Shahzad; Mahmood, Sidra; Waseem, Durdana; Malik, Farnaz; Raza, Syed Atif

    2016-01-01

    Irrational drug use practices are a burden to healthcare facilities. Poor prescribing practices affect the overall management and cost of treatment of non-communicable diseases that are the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In an effort to improve prescribing practices, this study was designed to assess prescribing, consultation and facility indicators in healthcare facilities of Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan from December 2012 to December 2013. In this cross-sectional study, random and convenient sampling were used to collected data from both private and public healthcare facilities. Quantitative data were collected using structured questionnaire, observations and prescription analysis, whereas qualitative information on factors influencing prescribing practices was obtained by interviewing medical practitioners. A total of 13693 prescriptions were obtained from 500 patient-prescriber encounters. Results show that history taking, physical examination and diagnoses were adequate while generic prescribing was four-fold less than drugs prescribed by brands. Average number of drugs prescribed was 4.63 with more prescribing tendency in private facilities. 45.07% prescription costs were less than Rs. 150. Sulfonylureas, statins and ACE inhibitors were highly prescribed drugs for diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Prescribing practices were dominantly influenced by severity of disease (73% Punjab; 81% Sindh), patient age (75% Punjab; 68% Sindh) and availability of drugs (62% Punjab; 56% Sindh) whereby 91% practitioners in Sindh and 52% in Punjab rely on medical representatives as the source of drug information. Moreover, the pharmacy and therapeutic committees in all facilities were non-functional along with non-availability of essential drug list in 87% health facilities. Thus, there are considerable opportunities to improve the rational use of medicines in Pakistan including low prices for generics, physician education, prescribing

  13. Pakistan Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Flooding in Pakistan     View Larger Image In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, ... river is 23 kilometers (14 miles) wide or more in spots, and flooding in much of the surrounding region, particularly in the Larkana ...

  14. Estimating of Soil Texture Using Landsat Imagery: a Case Study in Thatta Tehsil, Sindh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Zahid

    2016-07-01

    Soil texture is considered as an important environment factor for agricultural growth. It is the most essential part for soil classification in large scale. Today the precise soil information in large scale is of great demand from various stakeholders including soil scientists, environmental managers, land use planners and traditional agricultural users. With the increasing demand of soil properties in fine scale spatial resolution made the traditional laboratory methods inadequate. In addition the costs of soil analysis with precision agriculture systems are more expensive than traditional methods. In this regard, the application of geo-spatial techniques can be used as an alternative for examining soil analysis. This study aims to examine the ability of Geo-spatial techniques in identifying the spatial patterns of soil attributes in fine scale. Around 28 samples of soil were collected from the different areas of Thatta Tehsil, Sindh, Pakistan for analyzing soil texture. An Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis was used to relate the reflectance values of Landsat8 OLI imagery with the soil variables. The analysis showed there was a significant relationship (p<0.05) of band 2 and 5 with silt% (R2 = 0.52), and band 4 and 6 with clay% (R2 =0.40). The equation derived from OLS analysis was then used for the whole study area for deriving soil attributes. The USDA textural classification triangle was implementing for the derivation of soil texture map in GIS environment. The outcome revealed that the 'sandy loam' was in great quantity followed by loam, sandy clay loam and clay loam. The outcome shows that the Geo-spatial techniques could be used efficiently for mapping soil texture of a larger area in fine scale. This technology helped in decreasing cost, time and increase detailed information by reducing field work to a considerable level.

  15. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for the Quantitative Analysis of Land Cover of Lower Areas of Sindh to Assess the Impacts of Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaisar, Maha

    2016-07-01

    Due to the present land use practices and climate variability, drastic shifts in regional climate and land covers are easily seen and their future reduction and gain are too well predicted. Therefore, there is an increasing need for data on land-cover changes at narrow and broad spatial scales. In this study, a remote sensing-based technique for land-cover-change analysis is applied to the lower Sindh areas for the last decade. Landsat satellite products were analyzed on an alternate yearly basis, from 1990 to 2016. Then Land-cover-change magnitudes were measured and mapped for alternate years. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the critical elements in the natural phenomena of surface energy and water balance at local and global extent. However, LST was computed by using Landsat thermal bands via brightness temperature and a vegetation index. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was interpreted and maps were achieved. LST reflected NDVI patterns with complexity of vegetation patterns. Along with this, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was done for classifying 5 major classes of water, vegetation, urban, marshy lands and barren lands with significant map layouts. Pakistan Meteorological Department provided the climate data in which rainfall, temperature and air temperature are included. Once the LST and OBIA are performed, overlay analysis was done to correlate the results of LST with OBIA and LST with meteorological data to ascertain the changes in land covers due to increasing centigrade of LST. However, satellite derived LST was also correlated with climate data for environmental analysis and to estimate Land Surface Temperature for assessing the inverse impacts of climate variability. This study's results demonstrate the land-cover changes in Lower Areas of Sindh including the Indus Delta mostly involve variations in land-cover conditions due to inter-annual climatic variability and temporary shifts in seasonality. However it is too concluded

  16. Systematic status of true katydids Sathrophyllia (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Pseudophyllinae) from Pakistan, with description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Riffat; Panhwar, Waheed Ali; Wagan, Muhammad Saeed; Khatri, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Sathrophyllia Stål, 1874 from Pakistan is reviewed with four species recorded. The diagnostic characters are given and two new species Sathrophyllia saeedi sp. n. and Sathrophyllia irshadi sp. n. are described. In addition to that Sathrophyllia nr. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) are re-described. Further information on the distribution and ecology of the species is given and a key to studied species of Sathrophyllia is presented. Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) and Sathrophyllia rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) are recorded from Rawalakot (KPK) and Tharparker (Sindh), Pakistan for first the time. PMID:25610332

  17. Future precipitation extremes during summer monsoon in southern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, Maida; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are considered as a hydro-meteorological hazard resulting in colossal damage worldwide. In Pakistan, the extreme precipitation events have increased in the recent decades particularly in the southern part (Sindh province). This region did not receive substantial amount of precipitation earlier, but now experiencing urban flooding almost every year causing loss of life, property, crops and infrastructure. The region lacks the information regarding the recurrence of extreme precipitation events. Therefore, there is a strong need for a reliable information of extremes over the upcoming decades for better regional planning. Although statistical methods based on extreme value theory (EVT) are the most relevant ones to study the extremes, but they are never been applied in Pakistan. To address this shortcoming, we use the peak over threshold (POT) approach to compute the return levels (RLs) of precipitation extremes, and also identify the regions most prone to them. In this study, we analyzed the summer monsoon daily precipitation measured at nine weather stations of Pakistan Meteorological Department over the period 1980-2013. The summer monsoon (JJAS) is preferred for the analysis, because most of the extreme precipitation occurs during this period. We apply POT approach to model the daily precipitation above a selected threshold for each station. Then, we estimate return levels (RLs) of precipitation extremes during summer monsoon in southern Pakistan (Sindh) for the next 5, 25, 50 and 100-years. Lastly, we compare the 5-years with 100-years RLs to indicate the stations most vulnerable to precipitation extremes in future. This work is funded by the Climate KIC, European Institute of Innovation and Technology, Germany.

  18. A heartrending burden of gynaecological cancers in advance stage at nuclear institute of medicine and radiotherapy Jamshoro Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Seema; Ashfaque, Sanober; Laghari, Naeem Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In Pakistan gynaecological cancers are among the leading causes of women’s morbidity and mortality posing huge financial burden on families, communities and state. Due to lack of national cancer registry exact facts and figures are unknown therefore this study was planned to find out prevalence, age, site and stage of presentation of gynaecological cancers at Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA), Jamshoro. Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional study was conducted from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011 at NIMRA Jamshoro. All cases of genital tract cancers were evaluated, required data was entered on predesigned performa and results were analyzed manually. Results: Out of 2401 total registered cancer cases, 231 (9.6%) patients were suffering from gynaecological cancer making it third most common cancer. Ovary was commonest site followed by cervix and uterus. More than 60% cases presented in advanced stage, mostly during 4th and 5th decade of life. Conclusion: Gynecological cancer was among top three cancers at one of the busiest public sector cancer institute in Sindh province and significant number presented in advance stage making treatment difficult and expensive. There is urgent need for development and implementation of an effective health policy regarding cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27022358

  19. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  20. Monitoring the distribution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan by using OMI/MLS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noreen, Asma; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Zeb, Naila

    2016-07-01

    Pakistan is a semi-arid, agricultural country located in Indian Sub-continent, Asia. Due to exponential population growth, poor control and regulatory measures and practices in industries, it is facing a major problem of air pollution. The concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols are showing an increasing trend in general. One of these greenhouse gases is tropospheric ozone, one of the criteria pollutant, which has a radiative forcing (RF) of about 0.4 ± 0.2 Wm-2, contributing about 14% of the present total RF. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan during 2004 to 2014 was studied by using combined OMI/MLS product, which was derived by tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) method. Results showed an overall increase of 3.2 ± 2.2 DU in tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan since October 2004. The mean spatial distribution showed high concentrations of ozone in the Punjab and southern Sindh where there is high population densities along with rapid urbanization and enhanced anthropogenic activities. The seasonal variations were observed in the provinces of the country and TO3 VCDs were found to be high during summer while minimum during winter. The statistical analysis by using seasonal Mann Kendal test also showed strong positive trends over the four provinces as well as in major cities of Pakistan. These variations were driven by various factors such as seasonality in UV-B fluxes, seasonality in ozone precursor gases such as NOx and VOCs and agricultural fire activities in Pakistan. A strong correlation of 97% was found between fire events and tropospheric ozone concentration over the country. The results also depicted the influence of UV-B radiations on the tropospheric ozone concentration over different regions of Pakistan especially in Baluchistan and Sindh provinces.

  1. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton, Sisoridae; Siluriformes) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water catfish Bagarius bagarius, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red Listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,457 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.14% A, 27.72% C, 15.62% G and 25.50% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water catfish, B. bagarius provides the basic genetic tools for breeding and conservation program to enhance aquaculture production. PMID:24660912

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Sperata seenghala (Sykes, 1839) (Siluriformes, Bagridae) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Sperata seenghala, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and red listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,588 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.28% A, 27.80% C, 15.31% G, and 25.57% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Sperata seenghala provides the fundamental tools for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:24617486

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of freshwater shark Wallago attu (Bloch & Schneider) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Lashari, Punhal; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Xin, Baoping; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water giant catfish, Wallago attu, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome. The complete mitogenome was 15,639 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.17% A, 28.15% C, 15.55% G and 25.12% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, W. attu, provides the fundamental tools for genetic breeding. PMID:24708114

  5. Induced Abortions and Unintended Pregnancies in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study’s underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the otherwise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. PMID:25469930

  6. A primer on the occurrence of coalbed methane in low-rank coals, with special reference to its potential occurrence in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    SanFilipo, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: This report compiles and updates a series of correspondence that took place between 1998 and early 2000 among the author and representatives of various consulting groups operating in the coal sector of Pakistan. The purpose of the original correspondence was to introduce basic concepts of coalbed methane (CBM) in low-rank coals to planners and other parties interested in the development of Pakistan's coal, particularly the large deposits of the Thar desert area of Sindh Province that were recently discovered (SanFilipo and Khan, 1994) by the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The author tested two shallow boreholes in Sindh Province for CBM in 1992, including one in Thar, with very marginal results. Additional targets with better CBM prospects were recommended shortly thereafter (SanFilipo and others, 1994), but these were not followed up during subsequent drilling, nor were any other sites tested. Recent events, notably the rapid pace of CBM development in low-rank coals of the Powder River Basin of the U.S., and a show of CBM in commercial quantities in the Cambay Basin of India - both of which are similar in age and rank to most of Pakistan's coal - have indicated a need for reevaluating the initial CBM investigations made in Pakistan in 1992 and for a reassessment of the CBM prospects for the country at large.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are prevalent in Pakistan, yet up-to-date data on the epidemiology of malaria in Pakistan are not available. This study was undertaken to determine the current prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species across the country. Methods A malariometric population survey was conducted in 2011 using blood samples collected from 801 febrile patients of all ages in four provinces and the capital city of Islamabad. Microscopically confirmed Plasmodium-positive blood samples were reconfirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Confirmed parasite-positive samples were subjected to species-specific PCR capable of detecting four species of human malaria. Results Of the 707 PCR-positive samples, 128 (18%) were P. falciparum, 536 (76%) were P. vivax, and 43 (6%) were mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax. Ninety-four microscopy-positive samples were PCR-negative, and Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were not detected. Prevalence of P. vivax ranged from 2.4% in Punjab Province to 10.8% in Sindh Province and prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 0.1% in Islamabad to 3.8% in Balochistan. Conclusions Plasmodium infections in Pakistan are largely attributed to P. vivax but P. falciparum and mixed species infections are also prevalent. In addition, regional variation in the prevalence and species composition of malaria is high. PMID:23984968

  8. Infrastructure Availability in the Public Sector Schools: A Case Study of Sindh Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujahid, Nooreen; Noman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This focus of this study is confined to primary and secondary education in Sindh province. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the facilities available at the primary and secondary schools especially within the context of rural and urban areas. This study investigates 48,865 Government schools in terms of efficient and well-organized…

  9. Short report: Diagnostic testing for hemorrhagic fevers in Pakistan: 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zahra; Atkinson, Barry; Jamil, Bushra; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Hewson, Roger

    2014-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and dengue virus (DENV) are endemic to Pakistan. Patients presenting with symptoms of fever, bleeding, and rash cannot be distinguished without appropriate testing. We report data on 354 samples tested for CCHFV at The Aga Khan University Hospital in Pakistan between 2007 and 2013. All samples were tested for the presence of CCHFV RNA. Some samples were also tested for DENV RNA, NS-1 antigen, and/or reactive immunoglobulin M antibodies. Of 354 clinical specimens screened for CCHFV, 52 specimens were positive, with 24 cases in 2013 alone. Most cases were from Sindh and Baluchistan, which border other CCHFV-endemic regions: Iran and Afghanistan. Among CCHFV-negative samples, 168 samples were tested for DENV, and 36% of these samples were found to be DENV-positive. Rapid differentiation of CCHFV and DENV can prevent nosocomial transmission and result in time and cost savings for patients and healthcare workers. PMID:25311694

  10. Self-Medication with Antibiotics among People Dwelling in Rural Areas of Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Abdul; Khan, Mohammad Hassaan; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Ladak, Asma Akbar; Niazi, Sufyan Khan; Musharraf, Muhammad Daniyal; Manji, Adil Al-Karim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-medication with antibiotics is becoming increasingly common due to multiple factors. The public who are using these antibiotics generally do not have full information regarding their proper use, especially the dosages and possible side-effects. Hence, unregulated use of such medicines may cause dangerous adverse effects in the patients. Aim The study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and practice of self-medication with antibiotics among people dwelling in the rural areas of province Sindh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed at Outpatient Department of Civil Hospital Karachi, from January to March 2015. Four hundred rural dwellers who lived in the outskirts of Karachi city area of province Sindh were recruited for the study in the aforementioned time period through non-probability convenience sampling. Results The investigation reported a prevalence of 81.25% among rural dwellers of Sindh with regards to self-medication of antibiotics. The most common reason behind self-medication were economic reasons (88.0%). Amoxicillin (52.0%) was found to be the most self-prescribed antibiotic. Majority of the participants (74.7%) didn’t know about the phenomena of antibiotic resistance associated with inadequate use of antibiotics and only 25 subjects identified correctly that the situation would lead to increase resistance. Conclusion The self-medication rates with antibiotic are higher in rural areas of Sindh. There is an urgent need for the government to enforce stricter laws on pharmacies dispensing medications, especially antibiotics, without prescriptions. Lastly, provision of cost effective treatment from public sector can significantly reduce self-medication with antibiotics among rural dwellers of Sindh. PMID:27437263

  11. Comparative Analysis of Seasonal Variation in Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Wagner, Thomas; Jamil, Mohsin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia during the time period of 2004-2015 are discussed. Data products from the satellite instrument OMI are used. The results show a large NO2 growth over major cities of both countries, particularly the areas with rapid urbanization. Different seasonal cycles were observed over both countries. Especially, seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 over Pakistan is largely impacted by the photolysis rate, OH radical and monsoon rains in addition to soil emissions, agriculture fires and other anthropogenic activities. While in the case of Saudi Arabia, the seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 is completely driven by thermal power generation. Furthermore, different regions of Pakistan exhibited different seasonal trends. In the provinces of Punjab (north-east), Khyber Paktunkhwa (north-west) and Sindh (south-east), NO2 columns are maximum in winter and minimum in summer months while a reversed seasonality was observed in the province of Baluchistan (south-west). We compared the observed Spatio-temporal patterns to existing emission inventories and found that for the most populated provinces the NOx emissions are clearly dominated by anthropogenic sources. In these areas also the strongest positive trends were observed. NOx released from soils and produced by lightning both together contribute about 20% for the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while its contribution in Baluchistan is much stronger (~50%). NOx emissions from biomass burning are negligible. This finding can also explain the observed summer maximum in Baluchistan since the highest lightning activity occurs during the Monsoon season. Our comparison also indicates that the inventories of anthropogenic NOx emissions over Pakistan seem to underestimate the true emissions by about a factor of two.

  12. Status of heavy metal residues in fish species of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Muhammad, Said; Malik, Riffat N; Khan, Muhammad U; Farooq, Umar

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate and summarize the available data that addresses the levels of HM that exist in aquatic species, mainly fish, of Pakistan. Data on this topic were collected from the literature of the last two decades (1990-2012). Results revealed that the highest number (>50%) of studies addressing HM-contaminated fish have occurred in the Punjab province, followed by the Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. Our review disclosed that the HM concentrations in Pakistani fish species varied considerably with location. Generally, the level of HM residues detected in fish species had the following descending order: Fe>Zn>Pb>Cd>Hg>Ni>Cu>Ag>Cr>Mn>As. Fish samples collected from the Kabul River near the Nowshera district, Stretch of Ravi River, Indus River near Mainwali district, and Arabian Sea at Karachi revealed extremely high HM concentrations (range: 0.34-8,381.30 jlg/g), compared to other fresh water bodies, such as the Llyold Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Jinnah Barrage, and Chashma Barrage (0.01-2.13 jlg/g). As a reference point, we also reviewed selected data on HM fish residues that exist in countries that neighbor Pakistan. With the exception of fish collected in India, the majority of fish analyzed for HM residues in neighboring countries displayed lower residues than did fish from Pakistan. We concluded from reviewing the available published data that the most probable sources for the HM contaminants found in Pakistani water and fish were release of domestic sewage, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents. We strongly recommend that action be taken to better control the discharges of unregulated waste that enters the Pakistani aquatic environment, with the intent to mitigate any continuing future damage to the aquatic ecosystem. We also recommend intensifying research programs that address the toxicity of HM to the aquatic environment, so that a better understanding of metal effects on fish can be achieved that will lead to a sustainable

  13. Trend analysis of rainfall time series for Sindh river basin in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sarita; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Mirabbasi, Rasoul; Sharma, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    The study of precipitation trends is critically important for a country like India whose food security and economy are dependent on the timely availability of water such as 83 % water used for agriculture sector, 12 % for industry sector and only 5 % for domestic sector. In this study, the historical rainfall data for the periods 1901-2002 and 1942-2002 of the Sindh river basin, India, were analysed for monthly, seasonal and annual trends. The conventional Mann-Kendall test (MK) and Mann-Kendall test (MMK), after the removal of the effect of all significant autocorrelation coefficients, and Sen's slope estimator were used to identify the trends. Kriging technique was used for interpolating the spatial pattern using Arc GIS 9.3. The analysis suggested significant increase in the trend of rainfall for seasonal and annual series in the Sindh basin during 1901-2002.

  14. Trend analysis of rainfall time series for Sindh river basin in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sarita; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Mirabbasi, Rasoul; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    The study of precipitation trends is critically important for a country like India whose food security and economy are dependent on the timely availability of water such as 83 % water used for agriculture sector, 12 % for industry sector and only 5 % for domestic sector. In this study, the historical rainfall data for the periods 1901-2002 and 1942-2002 of the Sindh river basin, India, were analysed for monthly, seasonal and annual trends. The conventional Mann-Kendall test (MK) and Mann-Kendall test (MMK), after the removal of the effect of all significant autocorrelation coefficients, and Sen's slope estimator were used to identify the trends. Kriging technique was used for interpolating the spatial pattern using Arc GIS 9.3. The analysis suggested significant increase in the trend of rainfall for seasonal and annual series in the Sindh basin during 1901-2002.

  15. Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2008-12-01

    Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

  16. Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location, high dependence on agriculture and water resources, low adaptive capacity of its people, and weak system of emergency preparedness. This paper is the first ever attempt to rank the agro-ecological zones in Pakistan according to their vulnerability to climate change and to identify the potential health repercussions of each manifestation of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Methods A climate change vulnerability index is constructed as an un-weighted average of three sub-indices measuring (a) the ecological exposure of each region to climate change, (b) sensitivity of the population to climate change and (c) the adaptive capacity of the population inhabiting a particular region. The regions are ranked according to the value of this index and its components. Since health is one of the most important dimensions of human wellbeing, this paper also identifies the potential health repercussions of each manifestations of climate change and links it with the key manifestations of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Results The results indicate that Balochistan is the most vulnerable region with high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity followed by low-intensity Punjab (mostly consisting of South Punjab) and Cotton/Wheat Sindh. The health risks that each of these regions face depend upon the type of threat that they face from climate change. Greater incidence of flooding, which may occur due to climate variability, poses the risk of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis; skin and eye Infections; acute respiratory infections; and malaria. Exposure to drought poses the potential health risks in the form of food insecurity and malnutrition; anaemia; night blindness; and scurvy. Increases in temperature pose health risks of heat stroke; malaria; dengue; respiratory diseases; and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion The study concludes that geographical zones that are more exposed

  17. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  18. Archives in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the origins and development of archives in Pakistan. The focus is on the National Archives of Pakistan, but also includes a discussion of the archival collections at the provincial and district levels. This study further examines the state of training facilities available to Pakistani archivists. Archival development has been…

  19. Islamic Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, C. Christine

    2006-01-01

    On March 21, 2006 Christine Fair spoke about her recent trip to Pakistan. Fair's fieldwork was conducted with her Pakistan-based colleague Syed Rashad Bukhari and in collaboration with the National Bureau of Asian Research. Fair and Bukhari spent nearly three weeks visiting administrators at ten of the most prominent post-secondary madaris…

  20. The Lakhra Anticline - An Active Structure of Pleistocene to Holocene Age in Southern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outerbridge, William F.; SanFilipo, John R.; Khan, Rafiq Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    The Lakhra anticline is a breached north-trending structure northwest of Hyderabad in Sindh Province, Pakistan. About 340 meters (m) of Paleocene to Holocene strata have been eroded from the core of the anticline. North-trending normal faults transect the anticline at a low angle, are vertical, and form a set of nested grabens. Lakhra Nala and Siph Nala were formed where antecedent streams eroded the nalas (canyons, gullies, ravines, or watercourses and the streams in them) as the anticline rose. Lakhra Nala flows onto the Indus River flood plain, which is accumulating about 6.1 m of alluvium per 1,000 years. If the anticline rose at an equivalent rate, it started to rise about 60,000 years ago.

  1. Spatial-Temporal Analyses of Lightning Activities over Pakistan using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, Saddam; Imran Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Lightning is a naturally occurring spectacular and powerful phenomenon often accompanied by thunder. Regardless, it's hazardous and responsible for thousands of deaths and property loss all over the globe.In Pakistan, this hazardous phenomenon mostly occurs in monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. To prevent or at least minimize the unforeseen property damages and human casuality, we need to identify the vulnerable locations to lightning in Pakistan, but yet there have not been done any detailed study regarding the lightning hazards yet for Pakistan. In the present study for the years 2001 - 2014 lightning density mapping has been done by means of satellite Remote Sensing techniques. Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) datasets of locations and Time of Occurrence (TOA) are used to identify the lightning prone locations all over Pakistan. Efforts have been made to develop a technique that is helpful in generating the hazard maps of lighting in Pakistan on temporal basis by using spatio-temporal satellite images. These maps show frequency distribution trends of lightning in many regions of Pakistan that enable us to locate high, moderate and low lightning-susceptible areas. Results demonstrate that thunderstorm frequency is comparatively higher over the mountain and sub-mountain regions in the Punjab, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa (KPK) provinces. Interestingly lightning data showed a strong correlation between the FlashesYear and the El Niño and La Niña years. It is observed that about 40.1 % of lightning activities occurred during the monsoon followed by pre-monsoon with 39.7 %, which can possibly create synergistic and devastating effects in combination with heavy seasonal rainfall. A severe lightning event with 4559 flashes in just 3.08 seconds is also recorded on 8-Oct-2005 in Pakistan-India border near Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) and Jammu Kashmir. However, it is to be noted that on the same date Pakistan was hit by a major Earthquake

  2. Pakistan's community health workers.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, B; Amarsi, Y; Carpio, B

    1997-05-01

    Pakistan's health characteristics are worse than those of other Asian countries at similar stages of development. Its mortality rate for children under five is 139 per 1,000, and its maternal mortality is 60 per 10,000. Malnutrition in women and children is widespread; 50 per cent of children under five are stunted. Pakistan's population growth rate of 3.1 per cent per year is among the highest in Asia. The high population growth rate and poor health status of many people call for extensive health care services, but, unfortunately, health services do not reach most of the people of Pakistan. Partly because the training of doctors and nurses is lengthy and expensive, there is an acute shortage of health care providers, especially women. Although female health professionals are preferred for caring for women, cultural constraints inhibit women from seeking education. Such is the multifaceted dilemma in the provision of primary health care in Pakistan. PMID:9223980

  3. Pediatric oncology in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Shamvil

    2012-03-01

    Pediatric oncology in Pakistan has developed over last decade with substantial increase in the facility for treatment and number of expertise. Though large numbers of children still do not reach treatment center more children have now access to quality cancer treatment. There has been gradual improvement in Pediatric oncology nursing and allied services. Pediatric Palliative care in Pakistan is in initial phase of development. Pediatric Oncology services are largely supported by philanthropists. Children Cancer Hospital a project of Children Cancer Foundation Pakistan Trust is not only providing quality treatment to every child regardless of paying ability but also playing a pivotal role in capacity building and creating awareness about childhood cancer in Pakistan. PMID:22357147

  4. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotype distribution in Pakistan: Comprehensive review of recent data

    PubMed Central

    Umer, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is endemic in Pakistan and its burden is expected to increase in coming decades owing mainly to widespread use of unsafe medical procedures. The prevalence of HCV in Pakistan has previously been reviewed. However, the literature search conducted here revealed that at least 86 relevant studies have been produced since the publication of these systematic reviews. A revised updated analysis was therefore needed in order to integrate the fresh data. A systematic review of data published between 2010 and 2015 showed that HCV seroprevalence among the general adult Pakistani population is 6.8%, while active HCV infection was found in approximately 6% of the population. Studies included in this review have also shown extremely high HCV prevalence in rural and underdeveloped peri-urban areas (up to 25%), highlighting the need for an increased focus on this previously neglected socioeconomic stratum of the population. While a 2.45% seroprevalence among blood donors demands immediate measures to curtail the risk of transfusion transmitted HCV, a very high prevalence in patients attending hospitals with various non-liver disease related complaints (up to 30%) suggests a rise in the incidence of nosocomial HCV spread. HCV genotype 3a continues to be the most prevalent subtype infecting people in Pakistan (61.3%). However, recent years have witnessed an increase in the frequency of subtype 2a in certain geographical sub-regions within Pakistan. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh provinces, 2a was the second most prevalent genotype (17.3% and 11.3% respectively). While the changing frequency distribution of various genotypes demands an increased emphasis on research for novel therapeutic regimens, evidence of high nosocomial transmission calls for immediate measures aimed at ensuring safe medical practices. PMID:26819533

  5. The 2010 Pakistan floods: high-resolution simulations with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viterbo, Francesca; Parodi, Antonio; Molini, Luca; Provenzale, Antonello; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Estimating current and future water resources in high mountain regions with complex orography is a difficult but crucial task. In particular, the French-Italian project PAPRIKA is focused on two specific regions in the Hindu-Kush -- Himalaya -- Karakorum (HKKH)region: the Shigar basin in Pakistan, at the feet of K2, and the Khumbu valley in Nepal, at the feet of Mount Everest. In this framework, we use the WRF model to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions with high resolution in areas with extreme orographic slopes, comparing the model output with station and satellite data. Once validated the model, we shall run a set of three future time-slices at very high spatial resolution, in the periods 2046-2050, 2071-2075 and 2096-2100, nested in different climate change scenarios (EXtreme PREcipitation and Hydrological climate Scenario Simulations -EXPRESS-Hydro project). As a prelude to this study, here we discuss the simulation of specific, high-intensity rainfall events in this area. In this paper we focus on the 2010 Pakistan floods which began in late July 2010, producing heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan and affecting the Indus River basin. Approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater, with a death toll of about 2000 people. This event has been simulated with the WRF model (version 3.3.) in cloud-permitting mode (d01 14 km and d02 3.5 km): different convective closures and microphysics parameterization have been used. A deeper understanding of the processes responsible for this event has been gained through comparison with rainfall depth observations, radiosounding data and geostationary/polar satellite images.

  6. Barite in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, F.L.; Richards, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Before 1953 almost no barite deposits were known in Pakistan. Discovery of such deposits relatively close to oil fields in northern Pakistan in 1953 led to increased barite production from 1957 to 1961 and to doubling of production in 1962, firmly establishing new industry for the country. During 1962 and 1963, most of the known barite deposits in Pakistan were geologically mapped, and minimum reserves were estimated to be 1,423,000 short tons. The largest single deposit, Ehuzdar, is estimated to contain more than 1,100,000 short tons of barite. Barite has been found in Pakistan principally in the Hazara, Khuzdar, and Las Bela districts. Although several vein deposits contain good quality barite, 90 percent of estimated reserves are in replacement deposits concordant to bedding in sedimentary rocks. Host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Pleistocene, but the periods of barite deposition are probably Jurassic or younger. Some barite concentrated in sandstone may be of detrital origin. In late 1962, demand for barite in Pakistan was estimated at about 8,000 tons annually. Although domestic barite resources exceed this figure, less than 40 percent of demand was being supplied by domestic nines in 1963. Transportation costs and limited production facilities are partly responsible for output, but the lack of quality control is a major obstacle. Producers are not generally familiar with commercial specifications for barite and have net recognized that their products are too impure to be successfully marketed without installing the necessarycontrol procedures of sampling and beneficiation.

  7. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  8. Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystem in the Indus Delta of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Mehrun-Nisa

    Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystem in the Indus Delta of Pakistan The mangrove forests growing in intertidal region along the tropical coastlines form a unique ecosystem with rich floral species and marine resources. In Pakistan, large mangrove forests are found all along the muddy coast of Sindh province at Indus Deltaic region. These mangroves are threatened by a variety of environmental pollution, like: dumping of untreated industrial and urban waste, sewage water; hazardous chemical released during ship breaking, oil spills, mangroves cutting, over fishing, scarcity of fresh water, seawater intrusion and unplanned urban development, etc. Dams and barrages, constructed on the mighty Indus River have reduced the supply of freshwater into the delta and consequently, seawater intruding into the riverine tract. The Tidal Link, constructed in 1995 to drain the agriculture effluents of cultivated areas of Sindh to sea, has also greatly damaged the ecology of the area. This study is based on integrated use of RS & GIS techniques for monitoring environmental impacts on the mangroves ecosystem of Indus Delta, for management and planning of this coastal ecosystem. Temporal satellite remote sensing (SRS) data acquired between 1976 to 2005 have been analysed using image processing and GIS techniques and coastal landuse maps representing coverage of the deltaic region have been prepared, which enabled to monitor dynamic and geomorphological changes occurred in the area. The tidal boundaries derived from temporal SRS data have been integrated to understand the coastal processes and their impact on mangroves ecosystem, and on tidal / intertidal zones. From the analysis, it was observed that the surface salt accumulation and dryness in the deltaic region and waterlogging & salinity in inland areas have been increased over the last 30 years, indicate the intrusion of seawater in groundwater aquifers and reduction in over all biomass in the area. This study

  9. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  10. Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-05-01

    Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

  11. Special Education in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper briefly describes the current status of special education in Pakistan, noting its relatively brief history, the lack of incidence figures, the administrative organization and structure, personnel preparation, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the recognition of four categories of disability: mental retardation, physical…

  12. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  13. Pakistan boosts science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  14. Evolution of Pediatric Urology at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation was started in 1972 as an eight bedded department of genitourinary surgery in a government hospital by its pioneer and present director Syed Adib ul Hassan Rizvi. Responding to the socioeconomic dynamics and the needs of the patient population the facility grew into the largest tertiary care Urology, Nephrology, and Transplant center of south Asia. One of the salient components has been the evolution of the Department of Pediatric Urology, which in itself has shown a tremendous growth into an internationally recognized center for pediatric urology services taking care of all aspects including center of excellence for pediatric stone disease. The guiding mission of this institute remains to provide free medical services at zero cost without any discrimination to all who come to its doorstep and matching with high standard of care without compromising their dignity and self-respect. This institute highlights the fact that lack of resources is no excuse and is a role model for developing countries, where national and international support, motivation, and cooperation can offer more advanced and better quality medical services to our children. PMID:25250303

  15. Prevalence of drug resistance associated mutations in Plasmodium vivax against sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum co-exist and usage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) against P. falciparum exposes P. vivax to the drug leading to generation of resistant alleles. The main aim of this study was to investigate frequency distribution of drug resistance associated mutations in pvdhfr, pvdhps genes and provide baseline molecular epidemiological data on SP-associated resistance in P. vivax from southern Pakistan. Methods From January 2008 to May 2009, a total of 150 samples were collected from patients tested slide-positive for P. vivax, at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, or its collection units located in Baluchistan and Sindh Province. Nested PCR using pvdhfr and pvdhps specific primers was performed for all samples.91.3% (137/150) of the samples were tested PCR positive of which 87.3% (131/137) were successfully sequenced. Sample sequencing data was analysed and compared against wild type reference sequences. Results In dhfr, mutations were observed at codons F57L, S58R and S117N/T. Novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions N50I, G114R and E119K while a synonymous mutation was observed at codon position 69Y. In dhps, mutations were observed at codon position A383G and A553G while novel non-synonymous mutations were observed at codon positions S373T, E380K, P384L, N389T, V392D, T393P, D459A, M601I, A651D and A661V. Conclusion This is the first report from southern Pakistan on SP resistance in clinical isolates of P. vivax. Results from this study confirm that diverse drug resistant alleles are circulating within this region. PMID:23890361

  16. Cancer profile of Larkana, Pakistan (2000-2002).

    PubMed

    Bhurgri, Yasmin; Pervez, Shahid; Kayani, Naila; Bhurgri, Asif; Usman, Ahmed; Bashir, Imtiaz; Ahmed, Rashida; Hasan, Sheema H; Khurshid, Mohd H

    2006-01-01

    This present study was conducted with the objective of providing the cancer profile of Larkana, the fourth largest city of Sindh, Province. The study included two sets of patients. The first set included the incident cancer cases, residents of Larkana, who reached Karachi for diagnosis or treatment. The second set consisted of the incident cancer cases registered at the Aga Khan University (AKU) Pathology collection points at Larkana during 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2002. The age-standardized rates (ASR) for cancer (all sites) were 134.2/100,000 in males and 110.3/100,000 in females. The most common malignancies in males were lymphoma, oral cavity, prostate, liver, and urinary bladder. Cancers in females were breast, oral cavity, lymphoma, skin and thyroid. Tobacco-associated cancers accounted for approximately 35.0% of the tumors in males and 18.6% in females. The gender ratio was 1.5, the mean age of cancer all sites was 45.5 years (95% CI 34.6; 56.4) in males and 42.9 years (95% CI 33.6; 52.2) in females. This is the first attempt to determine the cancer incidence pattern of Larkana and should serve as a guideline for estimation of the cancer burden of Pakistan and the cancer control program of the country. The data must be interpreted with care, as they are largely pathology-based with approximately 15-30% population-wise under-registration. However, the chances of selective collection bias were minimized as the AKU pathology specimens were collected from 2 centers within the city, Each collection centre provided diagnostic service to several health centres giving wide population coverage, thus ensuring adequate sampling from the entire city. PMID:17250420

  17. Women and Girls, Tradition, Modernity and Post-Modernity in Education in the Province of Sindh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    The education of females is one of the best investments that a country can make in its future, because it enables the country to draw more fully on all of its human resources for national development. In 1981, 26.2% of the population of Pakistan above the age of 10 was literate. The literacy rate was 35.1% for males compared to 16% for females,…

  18. Risk Factors for Loss to Follow-Up among People Who Inject Drugs in a Risk Reduction Program at Karachi, Pakistan. A Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Samo, Rab Nawaz; Agha, Ajmal; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Altaf, Arshad; Memon, Ashraf; Blevins, Meridith; Qian, Han-Zhu; Vermund, Sten H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retention of male people who inject drugs (PWIDs) is a major challenge for harm reduction programs that include sterile needle/syringe exchange in resource-limited settings like Pakistan. We assessed the risk factors for loss to follow-up among male PWIDs enrolled in a risk reduction program in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among 636 HIV-uninfected male PWIDs enrolled during March-June 2009 in a harm reduction program for the estimation of incidence rate. At 24 months post-enrollment, clients who had dropped out of the program were defined as lost to follow-up and included as cases for case-cohort study. Results The median age of the participants was 29 years (interquartile range: 23–36). Active outreach accounted for 76% (483/636) of cohort recruits. Loss to follow-up at 24 months was 25.5% (162/636). In multivariable logistic regression, younger age (AOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92–0.99, p = 0.028), clients from other provinces than Sindh (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01–2.22, p = 0.046), having no formal education (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI: 2.35–4.90, p<0.001), a history of incarceration (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.14–2.46, p<0.008), and being homeless (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.00–2.19, p<0.049) were associated with loss to follow-up. Conclusions Our cohort retained 74.5% of male PWIDs in Karachi for 24 months. Its loss to follow up rate suggested substantial ongoing programmatic challenges. Programmatic enhancements are needed for the highest risk male PWIDs, i.e., younger men, men not from Sindh Province, men who are poorly educated, formerly incarcerated, and/or homeless. PMID:26840414

  19. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas

  20. Genotyping and drug resistance patterns of M. tuberculosis strains in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Mahnaz; Hasan, Zahra; Siddiqui, Amna R; Ali, Asho; Kanji, Akbar; Ghebremicheal, Solomon; Hasan, Rumina

    2008-01-01

    Background The incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is 181/100,000 population. However, information about transmission and geographical prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their evolutionary genetics as well as drug resistance remains limited. Our objective was to determine the clonal composition, evolutionary genetics and drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates from different regions of the country. Methods M. tuberculosis strains isolated (2003–2005) from specimens submitted to the laboratory through collection units nationwide were included. Drug susceptibility was performed and strains were spoligotyped. Results Of 926 M. tuberculosis strains studied, 721(78%) were grouped into 59 "shared types", while 205 (22%) were identified as "Orphan" spoligotypes. Amongst the predominant genotypes 61% were Central Asian strains (CAS ; including CAS1, CAS sub-families and Orphan Pak clusters), 4% East African-Indian (EAI), 3% Beijing, 2% poorly defined TB strains (T), 2% Haarlem and LAM (0.2). Also TbD1 analysis (M. tuberculosis specific deletion 1) confirmed that CAS1 was of "modern" origin while EAI isolates belonged to "ancestral" strain types. Prevalence of CAS1 clade was significantly higher in Punjab (P < 0.01, Pearsons Chi-square test) as compared with Sindh, North West Frontier Province and Balochistan provinces. Forty six percent of isolates were sensitive to five first line antibiotics tested, 45% were Rifampicin resistant, 50% isoniazid resistant. MDR was significantly associated with Beijing strains (P = 0.01, Pearsons Chi-square test) and EAI (P = 0.001, Pearsons Chi-square test), but not with CAS family. Conclusion Our results show variation of prevalent M. tuberculosis strain with greater association of CAS1 with the Punjab province. The fact that the prevalent CAS genotype was not associated with drug resistance is encouraging. It further suggests a more effective treatment and control programme should be successful in reducing the

  1. A Review of the Status of the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin (Sousa plumbea) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Muhammad Shoaib; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Limited historical and new information on Indian Ocean humpback dolphins, Sousa plumbea, in Pakistan are reviewed. Although present along most of the coast, S. plumbea concentrates in the mangrove-lined creek system of the Indus Delta (Sindh), Miani Hor (Sonmiani Bay), Kalmat Lagoon, Gwadar and the Dasht River estuary (Gwater Bay, Jiwani). Other areas of distribution comprise the Karachi coast, Kund Malir, Ormara and Pasni. In the Indus Delta, 46 small-boat surveys conducted monthly (minus July and October) in 2005-2009, documented 112 sightings (439 individuals) in major creeks, smaller channels and nearshore waters. Group sizes ranged from 1-35 animals (mean=3.92±4.60). Groups of 1-10 animals composed 91% of total (27.9% single animals). An encounter rate of 0.07-0.17 dolphins km(-1) lacked a significant trend across survey years. A discovery curve remained steep after 87 dolphins were photo-identified, suggesting the population is vastly larger. In Sonmiani Bay, Balochistan, during 9 survey days in 2011-2012, group sizes ranged from 1-68 animals (mean=11.9±13.59; n=36), totalling 428 dolphins. Incidental entanglements, primarily in gillnets, pollution (especially around Karachi), overfishing and the ship breaking industry in Gaddani, pose major threats. Incidental catches occur along the entire Pakistani coast. Of 106 stranded cetaceans, 24.5% were S. plumbea. Directed takes in Balochistan, driven by demand for bait in shark fisheries, have reportedly declined following dwindling shark stocks. Habitat degradation threats include depletion of prey and increased maritime traffic. Domestic sewage and solid waste pollution are predominant on the Balochistan coast, especially at Miani Hor, Kund Malir, Ormara, Kalmat Lagoon, Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani. An exhaustive habitat assessment combined with appropriate fishery management is the only way to safeguard the future of S. plumbea in Pakistan. PMID:26555627

  2. Pakistan: update on breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in Pakistan have shown a decline in breastfeeding since 1966, especially in urban areas. Overall, the National Nutrition Surveys have found, the proportion of babies being breastfed for more than 2 years has declined from 59% in 1966 to 9% in 1985. 4 basic reasons have been found for this deterioration: 1) hospitals are separating newborns from their mothers, and not instructing mothers on how to establish and sustain breastfeeding; 2) health practicioners are not informed about the importance of breastfeeding; 3) many women give their babies formula out of fear that they will not produce sufficient milk for their babies; and 4) at hospitals and clinics some infant formula companies continue to give out free samples and to distribute posters and calendars promoting their formulas. These problems must be remedied. At a hospital in Indonesia, when infants began to be roomed in with their mothers, hospital staff to be encouraged to breastfeed their own babies, mothers to be counseled on breastfeeding, and when formula promotion was stopped, infant mortality dropped from 51.6/1000 to 33.4/1000. Cases of diarrhea dropped from 40.2/1000 to 5.5/1000. Breastmilk has unique properties that no infant formula can match. PMID:12342141

  3. Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C

    2016-08-11

    In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan-both working with Options Consultancy Services-have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from offering services

  4. Railway associated injuries in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Razzak, Junaid A

    2010-03-01

    Pakistan is ranked 12th worldwide for passenger kilometres (km) travelled by railway network. The objective of this study was to assess the railway network related morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Reported deaths and injuries due to this network were extracted from two secondary datasets: (1) an international disaster database and (2) ambulance log registers for the city of Karachi. Over the period from 1997 to 2006, a total of 11 railway disasters resulted in 449 deaths and 840 injuries. An estimated 2.05 passengers died and another 3.84 passengers were injured per billion km travelled in Pakistan, a rate six times higher than Western European countries. The ambulance log showed that one person died every two weeks in Karachi over a period from September 2007 to Jun 2008 (N = 26). The male-to-female ratio of all injury victims (N = 50) was 9:1 with a mean age of 35.6 years. Surveillance of these injuries is essential to implement prevention and control measures in Pakistan. PMID:19787521

  5. Respiratory symptoms and illnesses among brick kiln workers: a cross sectional study from rural districts of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational risk factors are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses and symptoms, and account for 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 11% of asthma worldwide. Majority of brick kilns in Pakistan use wood and coal for baking the bricks which makes the brick kiln workers susceptible to high exposure of air pollution. This study was designed to describe frequency of chronic respiratory symptoms and illnesses and study the association between these symptoms and different types of work. Methods This was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey conducted among the brick kiln workers in Larkana and Dadu districts, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 340 adult men were assessed using translated version of the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Disease (ATS-DLD) questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the relationship between various socio-demographic and occupational factors (age, education, type of work, number of years at work, smoking status), and the respiratory symptoms and illnesses (chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, Chronic Bronchitis and asthma). Results Results of the study show that 22.4% workers had chronic cough while 21.2% reported chronic phlegm. 13.8% had two or more attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing. 17.1% workers were suffering from Chronic Bronchitis while 8.2% reported physician diagnosed asthma. Amongst the non-smoking workers 8.9% had Chronic Bronchitis. Multivariate analysis found that workers involved in brick baking were more likely to have Chronic Bronchitis (OR= 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-11.6, p=<0.05) and asthma (OR= 3.9, 95% CI 1.01-15.5, p=<0.05) compared to those involved in carriage and placement work. Conclusion A high frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was observed among brick kiln workers. Age, nature of work and smoking were strong predictors of developing these symptoms and illnesses. PMID:23164428

  6. Using TRMM Precipitation Radar to Understand the Pakistan and India Floods of 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houze, R.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Hill, A.; Zuluaga, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    northwestern subcontinent. As a result highly anomalous easterly-component midlevel flow occurred over the northern subcontinent. During the onset of the 2010 flood, which saw the worst flooding, the flow was tilted into a southeasterly fetch importing moisture and favoring broad stratiform regions over the lower Himalayan slopes of Pakistan. This set up led to enormous amounts of water running off into the Indus River. During each monsoon season, the flow had an anomalous easterly direction and promoted the occurrence of extremely rare squall lines with trailing stratiform regions over the Sindh region of southern Pakistan, again leading to major floods, though the orographically aided 2010 flood was the most devastating. The power of the TRMM PR data has been to help understand the anomalous nature of the storms and circulation patterns in each of the monsoon seasons of 2010-2012. We hope that having the background climatology of storm types available via climatologies of the TRMM PR data will help near real-time assessments of situations that might signal flood occurrence in the flood-prone sub-Himalayan region.

  7. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  8. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  9. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  10. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  11. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  12. Suitable Site Selection of Small Dams Using Geo-Spatial Technique: a Case Study of Dadu Tehsil, Sindh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Zahid

    2016-07-01

    Decision making about identifying suitable sites for any project by considering different parameters, is difficult. Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) can make it easy for those projects. This technology has proved to be an efficient and adequate in acquiring the desired information. In this study, GIS and MCA were employed to identify the suitable sites for small dams in Dadu Tehsil, Sindh. The GIS software is used to create all the spatial parameters for the analysis. The parameters that derived are slope, drainage density, rainfall, land use / land cover, soil groups, Curve Number (CN) and runoff index with a spatial resolution of 30m. The data used for deriving above layers include 30 meter resolution SRTM DEM, Landsat 8 imagery, and rainfall from National Centre of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and soil data from World Harmonized Soil Data (WHSD). Land use/Land cover map is derived from Landsat 8 using supervised classification. Slope, drainage network and watershed are delineated by terrain processing of DEM. The Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method is implemented to estimate the surface runoff from the rainfall. Prior to this, SCS-CN grid is developed by integrating the soil and land use/land cover raster. These layers with some technical and ecological constraints are assigned weights on the basis of suitability criteria. The pair wise comparison method, also known as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is took into account as MCA for assigning weights on each decision element. All the parameters and group of parameters are integrated using weighted overlay in GIS environment to produce suitable sites for the Dams. The resultant layer is then classified into four classes namely, best suitable, suitable, moderate and less suitable. This study reveals a contribution to decision making about suitable sites analysis for small dams using geo-spatial data with minimal amount of ground data. This suitability maps can be helpful for water resource

  13. Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan—both working with Options Consultancy Services—have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from

  14. Risk factors for bloodborne viral hepatitis in healthcare workers of Pakistan: a population based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Gorar, Zulfikar A; Butt, Zahid A; Aziz, Imrana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A high prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C was found among healthcare workers during a province-wide screening in Sindh Province, Pakistan. A follow-up study was undertaken to identify risk factors for this high prevalence in healthcare workers. Design Population based case–control design. Setting Public sector healthcare facilities in a rural district of Pakistan. Participants Healthcare workers who were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. 178 healthcare workers employed at the public sector clinics and hospitals of the district were approached, of which 14 refused to participate. Cases had detectable serum antibodies against HCV and the presence of HBsAg. Healthcare workers non-reactive to HCV antibodies and with no HBsAg were controls. These were matched in a ratio of 1:1. Outcome measure Detectable serum HBsAg and HCV antibody titer were taken as outcome. OR for various exposures was calculated; those with p<0.25 were entered in a multivariate logistic regression model to find out significant predictors. Results Needle stick injury (OR=6; CI95 1.4 to 23), recapping the needle (OR=5.7; CI95 1.1 to 28), wound care at accident and emergency of a hospital (OR=5.5; CI95 1 to 28), female gender (OR=3.4; CI95 1 to 12) and more than 10 years of formal education (OR=0.25; CI95 0.07 to 0.8) were associated with hepatitis C. Hepatitis B was found to be associated with trying to bend or break a needle after use (OR=4.9; CI95 1 to 24). Conclusions Healthcare workers in Pakistan are at additional risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Bi-dimensional risk factors present at individual and broader health systems levels are responsible. Occupational safety, health trainings and redesigning of the curriculum for allied health professionals are required. PMID:25059968

  15. Association of Household and Community Socioeconomic Position and Urbanicity with Underweight and Overweight among Women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Bhatti, Junaid A.; Khan, M. Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background Similar to other developing countries, Pakistan is going through a rapid nutrition transition where shift from underweight to overweight and obesity is occurring. In this paper, we report on the relationship of household socioeconomic position (SEP), community SEP and urbanicity with under- and over-weight categories of BMI among Pakistani women. Methods We analyzed data on 4,767 women ages 15-49 years enrolled in a nationally representative Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) conducted in 2012-13 that employed a multistage, stratified cluster sampling design. We assessed the association of urbanicity, household and community SEP derived from household assets and utilities, with categories of body mass index (BMI) using multinomial regression analysis where normal weight (BMI 18.6-22.5) was the reference category. Results Thirteen percent of women were underweight (BMI <18.5), 15% pre-overweight (BMI: 22.6-24.9), 25% overweight (BMI: 25.0–29.9) and 14% were obese (BMI≥30). Pre-overweight, overweight and obesity among women increased across household wealth quintiles (HWQs) in a graded fashion whereas there was no significant difference in underweight by household wealth. Women in urban areas were more likely to be obese. There was a pronounced increase in adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for overweight/obesity across HWQs within urban areas compared to rural areas. There was a steeper gradient in aORs for obesity from 1st to 5th HWQs in high income communities compared to the middle- and low income communities. In community-level analyses, communities in urban areas were more likely to have higher levels of obesity while in rural areas, especially in Sindh, more communities were more likely to have a higher level of underweight. Conclusion A shift to higher overweight and obesity than underweight in Pakistan is associated with high household and community wealth as well as living in urban areas. Clustering of obesity and underweight in distinct

  16. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-02-10

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan.

  17. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  18. The burden of stroke in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khealani, Bhojo A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiologic literature on stroke burden, patterns of stroke is almost non existent from Pakistan. However, several hospital-based case series on the subject are available, mainly published in local medical journals. Despite the fact that true stroke incidence and prevalence of stroke in Pakistan is not known, the burden is assumed to be high because of highly prevalent stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia and smoking) in the community. High burden of these conventional stroke risk factors is further compounded by lack of awareness, poor compliance hence poor control, and inappropriate management/treatment practices. In addition certain risk factors like rheumatic valvular heart disease may be more prevalent in Pakistan. We reviewed the existing literature on stroke risk factors in community, the risk factor prevalence among stroke patients, patterns of stroke, out come of stroke, availability of diagnostic services/facilities related to stroke and resources for stroke care in Pakistan. PMID:18811747

  19. NASA's IMERG Measures Flooding Rainfall in Pakistan

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA used satellite data and added up heavy rainfall that has been occurring in northwestern Pakistan that caused flooding that killed more than 50 people. NASA's IMERG added up rainfall in northwe...

  20. Long term changes of tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan derived from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during the time period of October 2004 to December 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Rabbia; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Urban air pollution is causing huge number of diseases and deaths annually. Nitrogen dioxide is an important component of urban air pollution and a precursor to particulate matter, ground level ozone, and acid rain. The satellite based measurements of nitrogen dioxide from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) can help in analyzing spatio temporal variability in ground level concentrations within a large urban area. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) over Pakistan are presented from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that the winter season is having high nitrogen dioxide levels as compared to summers. The increase can be attributed to the anthropogenic activities especially thermal power generation and traffic count. Punjab is one of the major provinces with high nitrogen dioxide levels followed by Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Six hotspots have been examined in the present study such as Lahore, Islamabad, Karachi, Faisalabad, Okara and Multan. Emissions of nitrogen compounds from thermal power plants and transportation sector represent a significant fraction of the total nitrogen dioxide emissions to the atmosphere.

  1. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  2. Spatial biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Naseer Ahmed

    2001-07-01

    Mesozoic to Cenozoic biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan has been conducted in order to document the temporal and spatial relationship between different marine strata with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). These relationships were then used to help distinguish different tectonostratigraphic units in the Waziristan and the Kurram areas located at the northwestern margin of the Indo-Pakistani craton. Extensive biostratigraphic work in the Waziristan and Kurram areas enabled to distinguish five tectonostratigraphic units and two significant unconformities in the study area. Different foraminiferal zones from Early Jurassic to Middle Eocenewere developed, although due to random samples these zones are not continuous in the sedimentary record. However continuous biozonation from the Late Paleocene P4 to the Early Eocene P9 (Bolli, 1985) biozone was observed. It is observed that the Santonian stage is generally missing in the sedimentary sequence, and it is only found in the olistoliths. This implies that during the Campanian stage there was instability in the shelf due to ophiolite obduction, which caused the displacement of the Santonian strata. The absence of Early Paleocene (Zone P1--P3) microfauna is suggested by rapid subsidence of the NW Indian shelf beginning in the early Paleocene. Moreover, index fossils for the Palpha, P1a, b, c, d, P2 and P3 biozones are absent in the melange of the Thal area suggesting regional uplift during the Paleocene. The presence of Planorotalites pseudomenardii P4 zone microfauna above the unconformable Upper Cretaceous Kahi melange strata suggest the India-Asia collision age between 58 Ma--56 Ma. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of upper Cretaceous olistoliths was conducted from the Mughal Kot gorge, Baluchistan, Pakistan in order to reveal the depositional history of Late Santonian aged (Dicarinella asymmetrica zone) olistoliths and associated upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary Indo-Pakistani shelf strata

  3. Major earthquake shakes northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    A magnitude 7.6 earthquake that shook the western Himalayas on 8 October killed at least 23,000 in Pakistan and 1,400 in India, injured more than 50,000 people, and left more 2.5 million people homeless across the Kashmir region. The official death toll could exceed 30,000, placing this among most deadly earthquakes to have ever occurred on the Indian subcontinent.Scientists warn that, given the lack of development and poor construction in the area, future earthquakes in more densely populated areas could be devastating. David Simpson, president of the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology, said the 8 October quake ‘was a terrible disaster, but not to the level of what could happen in the future. This is yet again another warning message of things to come.”

  4. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rajabali, Alefiyah; Khan, Saeed; Warraich, Haider J; Khanani, Mohammad R; Ali, Syed H

    2008-08-01

    In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men. PMID:18652997

  5. Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-01

    On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns. PMID:24240051

  6. Frequent Occurrence of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus in Cotton Leaf Curl Disease Affected Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Brian E.; Scheffler, Jodi A.; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major biotic constraint to cotton production on the Indian subcontinent, and is caused by monopartite begomoviruses accompanied by a specific DNA satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Since the breakdown of resistance against CLCuD in 2001/2002, only one virus, the “Burewala” strain of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV-Bur), and a recombinant form of CLCuMB have consistently been identified in cotton across the major cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Unusually a bipartite isolate of the begomovirus Tomato leaf curl virus was identified in CLCuD-affected cotton recently. In the study described here we isolated the bipartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from CLCuD-affected cotton. To assess the frequency and geographic occurrence of ToLCNDV in cotton, CLCuD-symptomatic cotton plants were collected from across the Punjab and Sindh provinces between 2013 and 2015. Analysis of the plants by diagnostic PCR showed the presence of CLCuKoV-Bur in all 31 plants examined and ToLCNDV in 20 of the samples. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the levels of the two viruses in co-infected plants suggests that coinfection of ToLCNDV with the CLCuKoV-Bur/CLCuMB complex leads to an increase in the levels of CLCuMB, which encodes the major pathogenicity (symptom) determinant of the complex. The significance of these results are discussed. PMID:27213535

  7. Frequent Occurrence of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus in Cotton Leaf Curl Disease Affected Cotton in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-E-Ali; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Brian E; Scheffler, Jodi A; Briddon, Rob W; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major biotic constraint to cotton production on the Indian subcontinent, and is caused by monopartite begomoviruses accompanied by a specific DNA satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Since the breakdown of resistance against CLCuD in 2001/2002, only one virus, the "Burewala" strain of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV-Bur), and a recombinant form of CLCuMB have consistently been identified in cotton across the major cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Unusually a bipartite isolate of the begomovirus Tomato leaf curl virus was identified in CLCuD-affected cotton recently. In the study described here we isolated the bipartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from CLCuD-affected cotton. To assess the frequency and geographic occurrence of ToLCNDV in cotton, CLCuD-symptomatic cotton plants were collected from across the Punjab and Sindh provinces between 2013 and 2015. Analysis of the plants by diagnostic PCR showed the presence of CLCuKoV-Bur in all 31 plants examined and ToLCNDV in 20 of the samples. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the levels of the two viruses in co-infected plants suggests that coinfection of ToLCNDV with the CLCuKoV-Bur/CLCuMB complex leads to an increase in the levels of CLCuMB, which encodes the major pathogenicity (symptom) determinant of the complex. The significance of these results are discussed. PMID:27213535

  8. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

  9. Pakistan (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Pakistan's crude birth rate at present is 40/1000. The Pakistan Fertility Survey (PFS) of 1974-75 showed a marital total fertility rate of 8 and marital gross reproduction rate of 3.9. The total fertility rate is estimated at around 6. Evaluation of past family planning activities indicates that the impact of the program on the birth rate has been minimal. Although a large majority of married women know about family planning methods, few fertile couples use a method. Of the 90% of respondents in the PFS who had never used a method, 57% indicated they intended to use a method at some point and 23% said they did not. The average age of all current users was 34 in 1975. Preliminary results of a contraceptive prevalence survey indicate that current use is 10%. The crude birth rate was 46 or 47/1000 in 1965 when an official population program was initiated. The gains from the reduction of the total fertility rate have been partly offset by change in the age structure. Pakistan's population policy was formulated in light of the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action. The program approach is multidisciplinary and due consideration is given to the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development stratgey. The program relies primarily on community participation and involvement of local leadership to promote acceptability. At the federal level, the major focus of the program is on development of national policy, planning and coordination, funding, training, procurement of contraceptives and equipment, research and evaluation, monitoring, and statistics. The population welfare departments at the provincial level are responsible for the administration and supervision of all field activities relating to service delivery, motivation, training, coordination, monitoring, evaluation, and feedback

  10. Comparing risk factors of HIV among hijra sex workers in Larkana and other cities of Pakistan: an analytical cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2005, Pakistan was first labeled as a country with concentrated epidemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This was revealed through second generation surveillance conducted by HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP). While injection drug users (IDUs) were driving the epidemic, subsequent surveys showed that Hijra (transgender) sex workers (HSWs) were emerging as the second most vulnerable group with an average national prevalence of 6.4%. An exceptionally high prevalence (27.6%) was found in Larkana, which is a small town on the right bank of river Indus near the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro in the province of Sindh. This paper presents the risk factors associated with high prevalence of HIV among HSWs in Larkana as compared to other cities of the country. Methods Data were extracted for secondary analysis from 2008 Integrated behavioral and biological survey (IBBS) to compare HSWs living in Larkana with those living in other cities including Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh; Lahore and Faisalabad in Punjab; and Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. After descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors. P value of 0.25 or less was used to include factors in multivariate analysis. Results We compared 199 HSWs from Larkana with 420 HSWs from other cities. The average age of HSWs in Larkana was 26.42 (±5.4) years. Majority were Sindhi speaking (80%), uneducated (68%) and unmarried (97%). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher prevalence of HIV in Larkana included younger age i.e. 20–24 years (OR: 5.8, CI: 2.809–12.15), being unmarried (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.0–5.7), sex work as the only mode of income (OR: 5.5, CI: 3.70–8.2) and longer duration of being involved in sex work 5–10 years (OR: 3.3, CI: 1.7–6.12). In multivariate logistic regression the HSWs from Larkana were more likely to lack knowledge regarding preventive measures against HIV (OR 11.9, CI: 3.4–41.08) and were more

  11. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  12. The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large geographical gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence and burden of headache disorders include Pakistan, a country with major problems of poverty, illiteracy and security. We report implementation in this country of standard methods developed by Lifting The Burden (LTB) for population-based burden-of-headache studies. Methods We surveyed six locations from the four provinces: Lahore and Multan (Punjab), Karachi and Sukkur (Sindh), Abbottabad (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Gwadar (Baluchistan). We randomly selected rural and urban households in each, which were visited by trained non-medical interviewers from the same locations. One randomly selected adult member (18–65 years) of each household was interviewed using LTB’s structured questionnaire translated into Urdu, the national language. Validation was performed among patients and accompanying attendants in three (urban and rural) medical facilities. After responding to the questionnaire, these participants were re-interviewed and diagnosed by a neurologist (gold standard). Results The survey was completed by 4,223 respondents (1,957 [46.3%] male, 2,266 [53.7%] female, 1,443 [34.2%] urban, 2,780 [65.8%] rural, mean age 34.4 ± 11.0 years). The participation rate was 89.5%. There were 180 participants (46.1% male, 53.9% female, 41.7% urban, 58.3% rural, mean age 39.4 ± 14.2 years) in the validation sample, of whom 147 (81.7%) reported headache in the last year. The questionnaire was 100% sensitive in screening for headache and for headache on ≥15 days/month, and showed good agreement with the gold-standard diagnoses (kappa = 0.77). It was relatively insensitive for TTH. The questionnaire’s default diagnosis of probable MOH when medication overuse accompanied headache on ≥15 days/month was not supported by evidence of causation in most cases seen by the neurologist. In public-health terms, precise diagnosis in these cases matters less than reliably detecting the coexistence of

  13. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals. PMID:12341468

  14. Prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shera, A S; Jawad, F; Maqsood, A

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and the contributing risk factors were estimated by performing a cross-sectional survey conducted earlier in the rural and urban areas of all the four provinces of Pakistan. The statistical analysis was performed from the obtained results by using SPSS version 12.0. The total number of subjects examined were 5433 which included 1893 males (1208 in rural and 685 in urban areas) and 3540 females (2243 in rural and 1297 in urban areas). The prevalence of diabetes in the urban versus the rural areas was 6.0% in men and 3.5% in women against 6.9% in men and 2.5% in women, respectively. Newly diagnosed diabetes was 5.1% in men and 6.8% in women in urban areas and 5.0% in men and 4.8% in women in rural areas. IGT in the urban versus the rural areas was 6.3% in men and 14.2% in women against 6.9% in men and 10.9% in women, respectively. Overall glucose intolerance (DM+IGT) was 22.04% in urban and 17.15% in rural areas. The major risk factors identified were age, positive family history and obesity especially central obesity. PMID:17005289

  15. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  16. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  17. Production of crude oils in Pakistan: Outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pakistan`s sedimentary basins cover an area of 827,000 km{sub 2} that stretches from the Karakurum Mountains in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. The first exploration well in the region was drilled near Kundal in 1866, just seven years after the Drake well in Pennsylvania. To date, 384 exploration wells have been drilled in Pakistan resulting in 45 oil and 55 gas discoveries, thus generating a highly favourable success ratio of 1:4. The drilling density in Pakistan is one well/1000 square kilometers. Pakistan has proven oil reserves of around 500 million barrels of oil, whereas proven gas reserves are about 31 trillion cubic feet. However, Pakistan`s resource potential is estimated to be 40 billion barrels of oil and 200 TCF of gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (i) habitat and production of crude oil in Pakistan, (ii) Pakistan`s current energy needs and future outlook, and (iii) steps being taken by the Government of Pakistan to promote exploration for oil and gas.

  18. BCG-vaccination programme in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, Erik; Christensen, Hans; Iversen, Erik

    1957-01-01

    The authors outline the development and organization of the BCG-vaccination campaign that was launched in August 1949 by the Government of Pakistan, with assistance from the International Tuberculosis Campaign. They present some statistical data on the work done up to the end of December 1954 and briefly discuss the pattern of tuberculin sensitivity found in various parts of the country. PMID:13489463

  19. SeaWiFS: Pakistan Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image collected on November 3, 2001 depicts a dust storm blowing southward over the northern end of the Arabian Sea from Pakistan and Iran. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. The population policy imperatives: the Pakistan experience.

    PubMed

    Jillani, M S

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan has a current population of 123 million which is projected to grow to 150 million by the year 2000. Concern for population policy, however, has existed in the context of development in Pakistan since the first 5-year Plan of 1955-1960. The family planning program in Pakistan was then included in the second 5-year plan of 1960-65 and has since been a large program. Family planning efforts and population policy are described for Pakistan from the first 5-year plan through 1993. Review reveals that political support and strategies have changed frequently and have adversely affected the family planning program. Funds allocated for the program increased from one plan period to another, but the program has failed to make an impact commensurate with its size and expenditure. Major factors have been the inadequate coverage of population and lack of a systematic approach. Suffering setbacks in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the program did, however, regain momentum through stronger leadership at the political and administrative levels. Efforts are currently being made to improve the coverage and implementation of the Population Welfare Program along with others in the social sector to get the desired annual population growth rate of 2.5% by the year 2000. PMID:12344807

  1. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  2. Administering and Preserving District Records in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moir, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a 1986-87 study of the value, storage conditions, use, and management of district records in Pakistan. Possible solutions to some of the problems identified are analyzed. Recommendations include relocation of records, microfilming, and development of records management and public access policies. Several immediate actions are also…

  3. Library Web OPACs in Pakistan: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse features and functions of indigenously developed web-based catalogues of academic, special and national libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of 16 OPACs is based on a 91-item checklist developed with the help of previous studies conducted in other countries. Findings: The paper…

  4. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  5. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  6. Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the correlation between educational policies and political conditions as an indicator of socialization in the nation and state building process in Pakistan. Because of the discrepancies between official statements and the level of ethnic conflict, this study seeks to analyze the standard national social studies curriculum for…

  7. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  8. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  9. The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna. PMID:24870331

  10. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth. PMID:12284521

  11. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  12. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  13. Indus basin off Pakistan contains few wells

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1997-06-16

    The U.N. Conference on the Law of the Sea reaffirmed sovereignty of nations over 22 km of territorial sea, a 370 km Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and rights over the continental shelf to at least 370 km and out to 648 km or beyond under specified conditions. With a coast line of about 990 km, the EEZ for Pakistan extends over an area almost 240,000 sq km, or 40% of the land sedimentary area, in which two distinct geological provinces, and the Indus Offshore and the Makran offshore, have been defined. The paper discusses the tectonics, structure, exploration history, and play types offshore Pakistan. Data show a potential for both oil and gas.

  14. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  15. The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

    2009-04-01

    A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  16. Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, R

    1987-01-01

    Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots. PMID:12281001

  17. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal I.; Raza, Syed A.; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Results Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (p<0.001). The strong relationship persisted even when the analysis was restricted to non-malnourished children. The psychomotor index increased by 2.07 points with every unit increase in height-for-age z-score. Conclusions The relationship between low birth weight and psychomotor development appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. PMID:25354850

  18. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  19. Trends, Issues and Challenges in English Language Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamim, Fauzia

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and…

  20. 75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-21020 Filed 8-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13550 of August 18, 2010 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support... temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec. 2. Purpose...

  1. Evaluation Study of Early Childhood Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Umbreen

    2011-01-01

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) was globally and locally an innovation, particularly in third world. The objective of this study was to investigate an impact evaluation of ECE initiated recently in Pakistan. The data of impact evaluation were drawn from three ECE Centers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan. Total samples of 65…

  2. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  3. Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2010-01-01

    "Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

  4. Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Raana

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

  5. A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2007-01-01

    Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students'…

  6. Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

    2010-01-01

    The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time. PMID:20874597

  7. Empowerment of Women through Distance Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhsh, Qadir

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to highlight the gender disparities of Pakistan as well as at regional and international level. The study, measured the comparative outcome of formal and non-formal system of education in Pakistan. To achieve the desired goal, documentary analysis was considered appropriate. The number of schools and enrollment…

  8. Ethnic Nationalities, Education, and Problems of National Integration in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    1988-01-01

    This study analyzes the standard Pakistan social studies curriculum to investigate (1) the extent to which it represents ethnic nationalities of Pakistan, and (2) the extent to which it demonstrates its contribution to the process of national cohesion and integration. The findings presented are based on a content analysis (both trend and variable)…

  9. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

  10. Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended that the United States…

  11. Early Years Education in Pakistan: Trends, Issues and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the programme of provision of early childhood education and care (ECEC) which is currently urgently needed to support the development of children from birth to eight years in Pakistan. It begins by emphasizing the global recognition of the importance of such provision, before describing the recent history of ECEC in Pakistan,…

  12. Mercury exposure in the work place and human health: dental amalgam use in dentistry at dental teaching institutions and private dental clinics in selected cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar

    2016-03-01

    During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and

  13. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    PubMed

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution. PMID:12174483

  14. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N; Ringheim, K

    1996-01-01

    This study postulates that contraceptive use in Pakistan is affected by the usual demographic factors as well as husband-wife communication, female autonomy, son preference, religious beliefs, and family planning service supply. Analysis is based on data obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91. Findings indicate that 74% of women never talked in the past year with their husbands about family planning. Almost 60% believed that family size was "up to God." About 47% knew where to obtain contraception; only 20.4% had easy access to a source of supplies. Current use was 14% and ever use was 22.4%. Analysis is based on three basic models. Model 1 includes the control variables and son preference. Model 2 includes husband-wife communication, religious attitudes, and female autonomy. Model 3 includes the addition of family planning to model 2 variables. Urban residence increases the odds of contraceptive use considerably only in Model 1. The influence of urban residence in the other models is reduced. Husband's education is significant only in Models 1 and 2 and insignificant in Model 3 when the family planning variable is included. Increased women's age is also insignificant in Model 3. Of the supply factors in Model 3, knowledge of a source and easy access to a source were highly significant, while mass media exposure was not important. Knowledge of a source was the most important predictor. Model 3 explained 90% of use. Among urban women, lack of husband-wife communication and fatalistic beliefs reduce the log-odds of contraceptive use. For rural women, age and women's secondary education were key predictors. Findings confirm that demographic and socio-cultural factors affect contraceptive use in Pakistan. All the theorized variables exerted a strong influence on contraceptive use, which can be counteracted by improved supply and service strategies. PMID:12292564

  15. Dimensions of urban growth in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kiani, M F; Siyal, H B

    1991-01-01

    The nature and patterns of Pakistani urban growth and implications for the future are discussed. Specific attention is given to the effects of natural increase, in migration, and reclassification or city extension or urban growth. Development expenditures on urban population are also provided. The effects of population pressure on housing, education, health, and employment are also presented. Future growth is anticipated at 55.5 million by 2000 with a constant fertility rate; 36% are expected to live in cities. The maximum increase is expected in Karachi and the urban areas in the provinces of the Punjab and Sindh. The contribution of natural increase to urban growth is estimated at 3.36%, while internal migration is .83% and reclassification or city extension is .11%. The rural-to-urban flow contributes the highest volume to migration flows over urban-to-urban migration. Urban fertility has been stable, and other urban fertility continues to be higher than rural fertility and major urban fertility. Urban infrastructure costs 27% or by 2000 4.7% of the projected gross national products (GNP). Housing growth rates of 3.71% between 1960-80 have not kept pace with population growth of 4.4%, but the shortage of housing has declined faster in urban areas than rural areas where the shortages of housing are greater. Housing conditions in urban areas have not improved. 45% live in pucca kutcha and kutcha housing. 1.3 million housing units are needed in urban areas during 1988-93. There is overcrowding in schools and literacy remains low in rural and urban areas. 2% of the GNP during 1971-85 went to educational funding. 80% of hospital beds and physicians are located in urban areas. There is 1 doctor/1801 persons, 1 bed/610 persons, and 1 hospital/50,000 persons. Only 7% of the 19.4 million urban residents in 1983 had access to potable water, and 48% of 12.12 million people had sewerage and drainage facilities. Agricultural employment is being replaced in urban areas by

  16. Uses and abuses of biostatistics in medical research in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Z

    1990-11-01

    Medical research in Pakistan has gained momentum over the past several years. However, the logical conclusions based on information and data are rarely witnessed. This could be due to the fact that medical researchers and doctors are unaware of Biostatistics, its logic, use and inferences to be obtained. Most researches are based on the pattern of works already done elsewhere. Following others blindly generates various snags. In the present study, research articles published during 1986 in the Journal of Pakistan Medical Association (JPMA) and Pakistan Journal of Medical Research (PJMR) are being reviewed with respect to use and abuse of Statistical Methods. PMID:2126809

  17. Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid

    2010-01-01

    In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly.-Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan. PMID:21836720

  18. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  19. Reefal petroleum prospects possible in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1996-03-25

    Carbonate buildups including reefs and banks have proven to be prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in the US, Canada, Mexico, North Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Seismic interpretation, particularly of high quality marine data, and geological analyses, including petrographic studies of selected formations, reveal a broad spectrum of possible reefal prospects in formations of different ages in Pakistan. However, the region with good seismic that provides good recognition of possible reefal buildups remains to date devoid of well confirmation. Oil and Gas Development Corp. of Pakistan formed the technical services department in 1976 for a systematic scientific review of all exploration data and basin analysis. In 1985 this department was renamed offshore department, with responsibility for all offshore exploration. This article is based on the department`s work in collaboration with geoscientists from Russia, the US, Norway, and Canada covering the area shown. Four major types of carbonate buildups, easily recognized from seismic interpretation, include: barrier buildups that are linear with relatively deep water on both sides during deposition; pinnacle buildups that are roughly equidimensional and were surrounded by deep water during deposition; shelf margin buildups that are linear with deep water on one side and shallow water on the other; and patch buildups that form in shallow water either in close proximity to shelf margins, or over broad shallow seas.

  20. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabiha-Javied; Tufail, M; Asghar, M

    2010-04-15

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550+/-156 (329-845), 206+/-72 (93-362), 511+/-189 (316-830) and 52+/-17 (23-81) Bq kg(-1), respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637+/-44 (596-687), 164+/-24 (113-215), 589+/-44 (521-671) and 29+/-6 (16-45) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276+/-94 (177-441) nGy h(-1) and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706+/-243 (455-1129) nGy h(-1). The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas. PMID:19963319

  1. Pakistan's pattern of development and prospects.

    PubMed

    Baqui, M

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes past and present development experiences in Pakistan, and gives indications of possible directions for future development. Since 1969 there has been an open dissatisfaction with economic management from the government, which has resulted in a drying up of private investment. However, this drawback was partly balanced by a rapid increase in income received by Pakistanis working abroad, particularly in the Middle East. There have been slight increases in growth in agriculture, industry, and in the service sector, such as banking, insurance, and shipping. The growth of per capita income, however, is constantly offset by the acceleration in population growth, which has reached 3% a year. Literacy rate is still 19% of the total population, and basic health facilities cover only 50% of the population, while potable water supply is available to 11.2% of the rural population. Possible development directions would include the denationalization of some industries, and the creation of competition between the private and public sectors, so to improve the climate for private investment. Water availability for land irrigation should be expanded, and mineral fields better surveyed and exploited. Pakistan should develop the possibility of growing trade offered by its geographical location, improve all kinds of social services, including family planning, education, and health services, and provide the means to produce energy for all the prospected programs. PMID:12261814

  2. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  3. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. PMID:24777397

  4. Sociopolitical adjustment among Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Centlivres, P; Centlivres-demont, M

    1987-01-01

    Although international organizations and Pakistanis expect Afghans to act like true refugees--dependent, obedient, and grateful--Afghans consider themselves as temporary exiles who, in protest against an anti-Islamic government, found temporary refuge in Pakistan; or as soldiers in the holy wars who temporarily use their Islamic neighbor as a base before returning to fight in Afghanistan. Conforming to this concept and to these objectives, the refugees seek to preserve a certain autonomy and to lean towards forms of organization which are derived either from their traditional social structure, or as is more common now, from the ideology of the Islamic movements. One can understand that this situation may cause many misunderstandings, especially with international organizations which finance and supervise aid to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. As for anthropologists, it is necessary to go beyond known concepts, to relativize familiar models and to act on changes which have come about in the structures and ideology of the Afghan people. PMID:12315316

  5. Trends in the growth of population and labour force in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, S S

    1990-01-01

    Trends in the growth of the population and labor force in Pakistan are examined and future prospects for growth of population and labor, particularly agriculture, are estimated. The definition of labor force as employed or seeking work after a short period of employment has led to a great disparity in results for women in the labor force. Past trends in population growth reflected a growth rate of 1.6% for the 1950's, and 2.4% in 1960. The population rose to 84.3 million in 1981 from 42.6 million in 1961, which intercensally was an increase of 3.6% per annum for 1961-72 and 3.1% per annum for 1972-81. The estimated rate for 1981-86 was 2.9%/year. The rural population doubled and the urban tripled. There was a net migration of 2.123 million to urban areas reported in the 1981 census. There is also evidence of a high sex ratio. Balochistan (7.1%) and Sindh (3.6%) provinces have the highest growth rates. Although the largest population is in the Punjab, the growth is the lowest at 2.7%. The population is primarily young -- 44.5% 15 years in 1981, which is the highest in the world. Under high, medium, and low levels of fertility, prospective trends are estimated for 2006 and 2031, and by sex every 5 years from 1981. Population under high fertility is expected to reach 270 million by 2031, which is 3.39 persons/hectare. The population/hectare of land under cultivation was 4.25 in 1981 and is expected to rise to 13.49 persons/hectare in 2031. 11 million acres could be brought under cultivation to reduce the ratio. However, there are ecological considerations as well as an employment problem. The dependency ratio under the high variant will decline from 76.8 persons 0-14 and 65 years/100 persons 15-64 years in 1986 to 70.3 in 2006 which is still considerably higher than other developing countries. It is suggested that replacement level fertility be attained as soon as possible. Under low fertility, replacement level can be reached by 2011 with strong political commitment

  6. Pattern of fall injuries in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to analyse the frequency and patterns of fall-related injuries presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) across Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Departments surveillance system collected data from November 2010 to March 2011 on a 24/7 basis using a standardized tool in seven major EDs (five public and two private hospitals) in six major cities of Pakistan. For all patients presenting with fall-related injuries, we analysed data by intent with focus on unintentional falls. Simple frequencies were run for basic patient demographics, mechanism of falls, outcomes of fall injuries, mode of arrival to ED, investigations, and procedures with outcomes. Results There were 3335 fall-related injuries. In cases where intent was available, two-thirds (n = 1186, 65.3%) of fall injuries were unintentional. Among unintentional fall patients presenting to EDs, the majority (76.9%) were males and between 15-44 years of age (69%). The majority of the unintentional falls (n = 671, 56.6%) were due to slipping, followed by fall from height (n = 338, 28.5%). About two-thirds (n = 675, 66.6%) of fall injuries involved extremities, followed by head/neck (n = 257, 25.4%) and face (n = 99, 9.8%). Most of the patients were discharged from the hospital (n = 1059, 89.3%). There were 17 (1.3%) deaths among unintentional fall cases. Conclusion Falls are an important cause of injury-related visits to EDs in Pakistan. Most of the fall injury patients were men and in a productive age group. Fall injuries pose a burden on the healthcare system, especially emergency services, and future studies should therefore focus on safety measures at home and in workplaces to reduce this burden. PMID:26691821

  7. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  8. Improving diabetes care in developing countries: the example of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Riaz, Musarrat; Fawwad, Asher

    2015-02-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with limited recourses and diverse economic social patterns. Pakistan has high prevalence of diabetes and its complication, which is a huge challenge to the existing health care system. The major contributing risk factors are urbanization and change in lifestyle, maternal and fetal malnutrition and genetic factors. National action plans for control of diabetes have been made since 1995 but actions in this regard were not perfect. Training of primary care physicians and development of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams was initiated. Prioritization strategies were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guidance, mainly focusing on diabetic foot, diabetes education and children with diabetes. Researches for better understanding and management of diabetes in Pakistan were undertaken. Collaboration between various stakeholders was promoted at national and international level. In summary, public private relationships and development of multifaceted approaches is expected to improve the lives of millions of diabetics of Pakistan. PMID:25467615

  9. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents’ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure. PMID:26392798

  10. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  11. Pakistan: Frontline state again. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine Pakistan`s place in contemporary U.S. national security strategy. Today, U.S.-Pakistan relations are strained due to the Pressler Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act. The Pressler Amendment prohibits arms transfers from the United States to Pakistan in response to Pakistani efforts to develop a nuclear weapon capability. This thesis provides a historical background to the current impasse by examining Pakistani foreign policy since 1947. Next, the study examines the evolution of U.S. interests and security objectives in South and Southwest Asia. Current security objectives analyzed are the U.S. strategies to contain Iran and Iraq and to prevent nuclear proliferation in the region. In order to attain security objectives in the region, the author concludes that the U.S. needs a close cooperative relationship with Pakistan. Since the Pressler Amendment stands as the greatest obstacle to improved U.S.-Pakistan relations, the amendment should be repealed.

  12. Analysis of misoprostol and chlorhexidine policy gains in Pakistan: the advocacy experience of Mercy Corps Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Zahida; Cutherell, Andrea; Noor, Arif; Naureen, Farah; Norman, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    While Pakistan has made progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5 for maternal health, it is unlikely to achieve the target; further, it is also not on track for Millennium Development Goal 4 regarding child health. Two low-cost, temperature stable and life-saving drugs, misoprostol and chlorhexidine, can respectively avert maternal and newborn deaths, and are particularly pertinent for poor and marginalized areas which bear the brunt of maternal and newborn deaths in Pakistan. In response, Mercy Corps led focused advocacy efforts to promote changes in policies, protocols, and regulatory environments for misoprostol (2012-2014) and for chlorhexidine (2014). These short-duration advocacy projects facilitated significant policy gains, such as inclusion of misoprostol and chlorhexidine into province-specific essential drug lists, development and endorsement of clinical protocols for the two drugs by provincial health departments, inclusion of misoprostol into pre-service training curriculum for several health cadres, and application for registration of chlorhexidine (at the concentration required for newborn care) by two pharmaceutical companies. These results were achieved by a consultative and evidence-based process which generated feedback from community members, program implementers, and policymakers, and ultimately put the government in the driver's seat to facilitate change. Community Action Dialogue forums were linked with provincial-level Technical Working Groups and Provincial Steering Committees, who passed on endorsed recommendations to the Health Secretary. The key factors which facilitated change were the identification of champions within the provincial health departments, prioritization of relationship building and follow-up, focus on concrete advocacy aims rather than broad objectives, and the use of multi-stakeholder forums to secure an enabling environment for the policy changes to take root. While these advocacy initiatives resulted in

  13. Barcoding of fresh water fishes from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karim, Asma; Iqbal, Asad; Akhtar, Rehan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Amar, Ali; Qamar, Usman; Jahan, Shah

    2016-07-01

    DNA bar-coding is a taxonomic method that uses small genetic markers in organisms' mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) for identification of particular species. It uses sequence diversity in a 658-base pair fragment near the 5' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene as a tool for species identification. DNA barcoding is more accurate and reliable method as compared with the morphological identification. It is equally useful in juveniles as well as adult stages of fishes. The present study was conducted to identify three farm fish species of Pakistan (Cyprinus carpio, Cirrhinus mrigala, and Ctenopharyngodon idella) genetically. All of them belonged to family cyprinidae. CO1 gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatic software. Conspecific, congenric, and confamilial k2P nucleotide divergence was estimated. From these findings, it was concluded that the gene sequence, CO1, may serve as milestone for the identification of related species at molecular level. PMID:25980661

  14. Food poverty and its causes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S; Sheikh, K H; Mahmood, T

    1991-01-01

    Economists and a demographer analyzed data from the 1984-1985 Household and Income Expenditure Survey using the Foster and Thorbeke model to measure the poverty level in Pakistan. This model considers the minimum level of food expenditure/adult equivalent required to purchase the required daily allowance of energy intake. The analysts calculated the poverty lines to be Rs 246.00 for urban areas and Rs 149.00 for rural areas. They learned that the real poor and less poor households did not rank expenditures on food as a top priority despite deficient food intake. Thus traditional diet pattern did not differentiate the real poor from the less power, but rather lower purchasing power. They defined real poor households as those who had a negative or O relationship between income and food and less poor households as those who had a positive relationship even though the magnitude of the slope coefficient was extremely small (.024 for urban areas and .082 for rural areas). The larger the family size the more likely a household was poor and the members malnourished. This was especially true if the family size grew because of the addition of more dependents. On the other hand, the more education the head of the household and his wife the less likely the household was poor and the members malnourished. In fact, the negative effect of education on poverty and malnutrition was strongest for the wife. 2% of all urban households and 3% of all rural households ranked as real poor households. 59% and 35% respectively ranked as less poor households. Even though the difference in food poverty between extended and nuclear families was insignificant, extended families fared better than nuclear families. These findings showed that Pakistan should design its food policy to target the real poor by improving their nutritional status without forsaking that of the less poor. PMID:12285313

  15. Comments on "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Hakim, A

    1994-01-01

    Some critical comments are made on a paper entitled "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan." Most studies have considered early age at marriage, rural or extended family setup and low socioeconomic status when investigating the issue. The background demographic variables and behavioral aspects of consanguinity were studied only by a few, therefore a lack of data exists on pertinent social, cultural, and behavioral dynamics. In Pakistan over 60% of marriages are between first or second cousins. The highest rates of such marriages have been reported in rural areas, among individuals with low educational level, and among the poorest. However, cousin unions are also common among landowning families. In addition to socioeconomic reasons, these marriages are socially acceptable because they facilitate prenuptial negotiations and provide more compatibility between the husband and wife as well as the bride and the mother-in-law. The evidence on consanguinity and fertility is conflicting. The effect of inbreeding on fertility has been demonstrated by most studies. The effect of consanguinity on mortality is also wrought with ambiguities because of methodological flaws. Although the present authors used limited bivariate analysis, they could not account for increased fertility and mortality in consanguineous matings by examining socioeconomic differences and background demographic variables. There is a need to indicate clearly to what extent the genetic effect is responsible for the excess fertility and mortality after controlling for maternal, sociodemographic, and behavioral characteristics. The article made a contribution to elucidating the impact of cousin marriages, a well entrenched custom, on fertility, mortality, and the status of women. PMID:12346200

  16. Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Lutfi, N.

    1990-01-01

    A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water would provide suitable environment for growing some cash crops. This would change the cast useless desert land into green productive farms. In order to show the quantitative benefits of the proposed system, future trends of important energy and economical parameters have been studied with and without hydrogen introduction. The following parameters have been included: population, energy demand (fossil + hydrogen), energy production (fossil + hydrogen), gross national product, fossil energy imports, world energy prices, air pollution, quality of life, environmental savings due to hydrogen introduction, savings due to the higher utilization efficiency of hydrogen, by-product credit, agricultural income, income from hydrogen sale, photovoltaic cell area, total land area, water desalination plant capacity, capital investment, operating and maintenance cost, and total income from the system. The results indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would eliminate the import dependency of fossil fuels, increase gross product per capita, reduce pollution, improve quality of life and establish a permanent and clean energy system. The total annual expenditure on the proposed system is less than the total income from the proposed system. The availability of water, the cash crop production, electricity and hydrogen would result in rapid development of Baluchistan, the largest province of Pakistan.

  17. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  18. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and

  19. Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

  20. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Flooding in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by... to humanitarian needs resulting from recent devastating flooding in Pakistan. You are authorized...

  1. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

    2008-01-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO’s requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards. PMID:18600784

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

    2008-07-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO's requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards. PMID:18600784

  3. Satellite Monitoring of Pakistan's Rockslide-Dammed Lake Gojal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Leonard, Gregory; Crippen, Robert E.; Delaney, Keith B.; Evans, Stephen G.; Schneider, Jean

    2010-10-01

    On 4 January 2010, a rockslide 1200 meters long, 350 meters wide, and 125 meters high dammed the Hunza River in Attabad, northern Pakistan, and formed Lake Gojal. The initial mass movement of rock killed 20 people and submerged several villages and 22 kilometers of the strategic Karakoram Highway linking Pakistan and China. Tens of thousands of people were displaced or cut off from overland connection with the rest of the country. On 29 May, the lake overflow began to pour through a spillway excavated by Pakistani authorities. On approximately 20 July, the lake attained a maximum depth of 119 meters and a torrent at least 9 meters deep issued over the spillway, according to Pakistan's National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). To date, the natural dam is holding and eroding slowly. However, the threat of a catastrophic outburst flood remains.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not. PMID:27354000

  5. Beliefs about euthanasia among university students: perspectives from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Kamal, A

    2011-10-01

    Opinions of university students about euthanasia were studied in 4 cities in Pakistan using convenience sampling. A total of 836 students (316 males and 520 females) completed a questionnaire in which euthanasia was defined as deliberate administration of an overdose of a drug by a doctor to relieve pain and suffering of a dying patient at his/her explicit request to end his/her life. Only 25.6% of students agreed that euthanasia should be legalized in Pakistan. The most common reason cited for legalization of euthanasia was to relieve patient's suffering but only when a committee of physicians agreed to recommend it. Students who opposed legalization (74.4%) cited impediments to future medical research as the most common reason, followed by the risk of misuse by physicians or family members. Only 8.9% of students cited religious beliefs as a reason against legalization. There is a need in Pakistan for more debate about euthanasia. PMID:22256415

  6. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  7. A palaeomagnetic reconnaissance of northeastern Baluchistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, Chris T.; Nazirullah, Russel; de Jong, Kees A.; Ahmed, Habib

    1981-01-01

    A total of 560 samples from three areas in northeastern Baluchistan (the southern Sulaiman Range, the central Loralai Range, and the northern Kirthar Range) were analyzed using thermal demagnetization techniques. Thirteen formations of late Palaeozoic to early Tertiary age were studied palaeomagnetically. Inclinations of the obtained results show a general affinity with the Indian apparent polar wander path. Deviating declinations from the Loralai Range indicate a clockwise rotation over 50° with respect to the Indian shield. Secondary magnetization components probably of late Palaeocene to early Eocene age were consistently present in the samples from the Kirthar Range and the Sulaiman Range but were not observed in samples from the Loralai Range. Acquisition of these components is attributed to crustal upwarping during the Palaeocene, which is tentatively related to initial collision of continental Indo-Pakistan with an island arc off south central Asia. The Baluchistan data support recent palaeomagnetic results from the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh (NW Himalaya), which indicate that such an initial collision took place at very low northern palaeolatitudes.

  8. Thyroid dysfunction in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Attaullah, Shahnaz; Haq, Bibi Safia; Muska, Mairman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this research was to elucidate some of the major relation of thyroid dysfunctions, keeping in view the various selected demographic details of included patients. Methods: This study was approved by the ethical committee of Post Graduate Medical Institute (PGMI) Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, and was conducted in the Institute of Radioactive Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM) Peshawar. The blood samples were collected, followed by their analysis for triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: The results obtained regarding the demographical aspects of the patients revealed that female gender has categorically significantly high percentage of occurrence of thyroid abnormality as compared to male gender (75.8% vs. 24.2%). Results regarding locality distribution of the patients depicted that majority of those belonged to the local population of Peshawar and Charsadda region. Conclusion: In Pakistan especially Khyber Pakhtunkwa (KPK), thyroid diseases are more common in females as compared to males. The most probable causes could be lactation and pregnancy. PMID:27022356

  9. Foraminiferal stratigraphy of Ranikot (Paleocene) of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kureshy, A.A.

    1983-03-01

    The sedimentary deposits of Pakistan are divided into three distinct basins: the Lower Indus basin, the Upper Indus basin, and the Baluchistan basin. The Lower Indus basin is further divided into two parts; the northern part is the Sulaiman Province, and the southern part is known as Kirthar Province. The tertiary stratigraphy of Kirthar Province is conspicuous for its characteristic lithostratigraphic units. The Paleocene deposits of Kirthar Province are designated as Ranikot Group. The Ranikot Group was divided by Cheema et al in 1977 into three distinct lithostratigraphic units: the Khadro formation (Cardita beaumonti beds), Bara formation (Lower Ranikot), and Lakhra formation (Upper Ranikot). The Khadro and Lakhra formations are marine, characterized by foraminiferal assemblages. The characteristic planktonic forms are: Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer, Globorotalia pseudobulloids (Plummer), G. compressa (Plummer), G. valascoensis (Cushman), and G. pseudomenardii Bolli. The diagnostic forms of larger foraminifera are: Nummulites nuttalli Davies, Miscellanea (d'Archiac and Haime), Kathina major Smout, and Lockartia conditii (Nuttall). The planktonic foraminifera were assigned to Globorotali trinidadensis, G. pseudomenardii, and G. velasoensis zones of Kureshy in 1977, and larger foraminifera were assigned to Nummulities nuttalli zones of Kureshy in 1978.

  10. Regression in polio eradication in Pakistan: A national tragedy.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia

    2016-03-01

    Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World. PMID:26968287

  11. Pathways of Women Prisoners to Jail in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Adeela; Khan, Nashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to examine pathways to imprisonment for women in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that early life victimization in women, problematic family relationship and economical deprivation would be significantly associated with criminal activities of women prisoners. Method: To identify the pathways to prison, structured interview was devised by the researchers. Sample comprised of 114 women prisoners enlisted from KotLakhpat jail, Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Poverty, revenge, anger and lack of empowerment were significantly associated with criminal activities of women of fender. Conclusion: The umbrella of rehabilitation should also cover social and legal matters of women offenders along with tackling their psychological issues. PMID:24688950

  12. Ambulance use in Pakistan: an analysis of surveillance data from emergency departments in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. Results Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value < 0.001). The most common presenting complaint in the ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value < 0.001) adjusted for gender, cities, hospital type, presenting complaint group and disposition. The adjusted odds ratio of utilizing ambulances for those with injuries was 3.5 times higher than those with non-injury complaints (p-value < 0.001). Patients brought to the ED by ambulance were 7.2 times more likely to die in the ED than non-ambulance patients after adjustment for other variables in the model. Conclusion Utilization of ambulances is very low in Pakistan. Ambulance use was found to be more among the elderly and those presenting with injuries. Patients presenting via ambulances were more likely to die in the ED. PMID:26689242

  13. Comments on "Towards Balanced Development in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, E V

    1992-01-01

    Critical comment on the proposal of Professor Pyatt for balanced development in Pakistan focused on broad methodological issues. Professor Pyatt's approach proposes to balance efficiency criteria with longterm objectives of sustainable economic and human development: changing asset distribution through new investment and shifting investment returns in the social sector to households. I is a systematic attempt to compensate for deficits in human development. Policies would include "tariffisation of quota allocation of goods such as water, differential pricing to protect the poor; national conservation and polluter penalties; foreign aid shift to human maintenance expenditure; and reform of fiscal policy on income and expenditure to allow for support of social objectives." Patterns of property and institutional privilege can be effectively altered through market practices, such that wage goods could be subsidized in order to increase productivity. Constructive rethinking of assumptions underlying the balanced development argument is suggested, because of Pyatt model is contrary to the Dornbusch assumptions behind structural adjustment of the standard World Bank model. The assumption in question is that nontraditional expenditure on health, education, and the environment reduces unit labor costs. Concern is also raised about the approach to "efficiency wages" and the inputs of health and education, and food and housing, which are required to supply labor. Real wages might be conceptualized as affecting labor productivity in a more dynamic way than Professor Pyatt recognized. Use of human capital would be maximized and would be equivalent to the formation of new human capital. Wages may be construed to act like internal trade, where prices and markets are effectively interchanged so that farmers receive not only agricultural products, but also essential and nonessential consumer goods. Professor Pyatt's article is relevant to any country's development planning and

  14. Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

  15. Effective Use of Action-Oriented Studies in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes results from action-oriented studies carried out at the Mental Heath Centre in Peshawar, Pakistan, dealing with such topics as attitudes toward disability, casual integration, and trends in polio paralysis. The article also considers problems associated with the dissemination of special education and rehabilitation research…

  16. Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

  17. Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

  18. Instructional Leadership Potential among School Principals in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niqab, Muhammad; Sharma, Sailesh; Wei, Leong Mei; Maulod, Shafinaz Bt A.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the pivotal role of the school principal in relation to organizational commitment and expected student outcomes in schools in Pakistan. By critically examining the available literature, and by evaluating relevant data, this study will draw attention to how successful principals manage their schools, by providing an…

  19. Home Economics Curricula in Pakistan: Time for Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Fouzia; McClelland, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Most home economics in Pakistan focuses on women's homemaking skills (food preparation, clothing, interior design), not career orientation; it caters to upper/middle class needs and traditional roles. Rural/lower class women's needs (agricultural production, nutrition, hygiene, family planning) are not generally served. (SK)

  20. Improving Public School Teachers in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Rana; Ali, Sajid

    2010-01-01

    This article tries to respond to a basic question: "can in-service teachers of public sectors in Pakistan be reformed?" The authors' response to this question is: "yes, public teachers can be reformed, if contextual possibilities are exploited efficiently". Although a straightforward and simplistic response to the question, this was felt necessary…

  1. Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zada, Khan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

  2. Schools for Change: A Perspective on School Improvement in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riaz, Ismat

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the deeply unsatisfactory state of public and private schooling in a developing country, Pakistan, and the half-hearted measures employed at improving these schools. In the process, the author explores the negative aspects of the ways in which change has been effected in the country's education system and why these reasons…

  3. Conflict, Development and Community Participation in Education: Pakistan and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2005-01-01

    In development policy, community participation has increasingly come to be seen as a way to encourage community interest, involvement, ownership and ultimately, sustainability of projects. Education has also been affected by this discourse. The following paper examines two countries affected by conflict (Pakistan and Yemen), asking what type of…

  4. A Portrayal of Women Educational Leadership in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina

    2011-01-01

    The researcher is stimulated to work on the growing trends of women leadership. The problem has been designed to investigate the factors influencing the emergence of women leadership at higher education level in Pakistan. On the basis of the studies conducted by Oplatka (2006) and Cubillo, Brown, 2003, it was assumed that specific factors…

  5. Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2009-01-01

    The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

  6. Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development: Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is common to find well-crafted and coherent policy designs failing to attain desired results in developing counties. Pakistan is no exception. Despite having taken a significant number of initiatives in a quest to further its Teacher Professional Development (TPD) objectives, progress remains less than satisfactory. While a number of studies…

  7. Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

    This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

  8. Education Policies in Pakistan--Process & FOCI of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Taqadus Bashir; Shami, Pervez A.

    2007-01-01

    To achieve the highest pedestal of civilization knowledge is the key driver toward the product of education. All the independent states like Pakistan are under obligation to recognize education as a right of citizens. To embark on a path of progress and realize the potentials of a nation every state invests in education to address the needs and…

  9. Attitudes to School Science Held by Primary Children in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future…

  10. A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2006-01-01

    Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

  11. Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinji, Tajima

    2009-01-01

    In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

  12. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pakistan: National Trends and Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez Bhatti, Abu Bakar; Dar, Faisal Saud; Waheed, Anum; Shafique, Kashif; Sultan, Faisal; Shah, Najmul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3%) in the world. In the absence of a national cancer registry and screening programs, prevalence of hepatitis and HCC only represents estimates of the real magnitude of this problem. In this review, we present various aspects of HCC in Pakistan, comparing and contrasting it with the global trends in cancer care. There is a general lack of awareness regarding risk factors of HCC in Pakistani population and prevalence of hepatitis C has increased. In addition, less common risk factors are also on a rise. Majority of patients present with advanced HCC and are not eligible for definitive treatment. We have attempted to highlight issues that have a significant bearing on HCC outcome in Pakistan. A set of strategies have been put forth that can potentially help reduce incidence and improve HCC outcome on national level. PMID:26955390

  13. Satellite-Based Study of Glaciers Retreat in Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Siraj

    Glaciers serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of glaciers is covered by Pakistan. These glaciers are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. Glacier depletion, especially recent melting can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from glacier melt. Melting of seasonal snowfall and permanent glaciers has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of glaciers, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of glacier melting has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura glacier for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura glaciers. Although accurate changes in glacier extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.

  14. Perspectives of Aacademic Activities in Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    The article explores perspectives on academic activities in public sector universities in Pakistan. Seven Pakistani universities yielded 290 teachers and 568 students in the sample. Factor analysis indicated five main factors in both teacher and student data sets. Both teachers and students were dissatisfied with the performance of the…

  15. The Changing Perspective of Art Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Sher Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development of art education in Pakistan over the last five decades is explored through three major phases: Arts as traditional crafts together with proficiency in painting and calligraphy. Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that…

  16. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  17. Temperament Styles of Children from Pakistan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…

  18. A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Ali, Bux; Mazhar, Farida; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years, Pakistan has emerged as one of the largest centres for commerce and tourism in renal transplantation. Kidney vendors belong to Punjab in eastern Pakistan, the agricultural heartland, where 34% people live below poverty line. We report results of a socioeconomic and health survey of 239 kidney vendors. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 7.2 years (M:F 3.5:1). Mean nephrectomy period was 4.8 +/- 2.3 years. Ninety per cent of the vendors were illiterate. Sixty-nine per cent were bonded labourers who were virtual slaves to landlords, labourers 12%, housewives 8.5% and unemployed 11%. Monthly income was $US15.4 +/- 8.9 with 2-11 dependents per family. Majority (93%), vended for debt repayment with mean debt of $1311.4 +/- 819. The mean agreed sale price was $1737 +/- 262. However, they received $1377 +/- 196 after deduction for hospital and travel expenses. Postvending 88% had no economic improvement in their lives and 98% reported deterioration in general health status. Future vending was encouraged by 35% to pay off debts and freedom from bondage. This study gives a snapshot of kidney vendors from Pakistan. These impoverished people, many in bondage, are examples of modern day slavery. They will remain exploited until law against bondage is implemented and new laws are introduced to ban commerce and transplant tourism in Pakistan. PMID:17645418

  19. Annual Report 1969-70. Pakistan Girl Guides Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakistan Girl Guides Association, Lahore.

    Activities of the Pakistan Girl Guides Association during the 1969-70 period are discussed in this annual report. The National Commissioner's Thinking Day Message, Membership Figures, Annual Report, and Statement of Audited Accounts for the year ended 30th June 1969 are provided. One activity of the Association is in the field of adult literacy,…

  20. Household Schooling Decisions in Rural Pakistan. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Yasuyuki; Lokshin, Michael

    A study of household schooling decisions in rural Pakistan found serious supply-side constraints on female primary education in the villages studied. Field surveys of 25 Pakistani villages were integrated with economic theory and econometric analysis to investigate the sequential nature of educational decisions. The full-information maximum…

  1. Cooperative Development of the Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W.; McDonald, S.

    2005-12-01

    We propose to cooperate with the Pakistan Meteorological Department for the design and construction of the new Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) that has been funded by the government of Pakistan. The PSNS will consist of 12-15 broadband stations, 50 short-period stations, and 50 accelerometers. Our role will be to provide technical assistance in site selection, to prepare the Request for Proposals (RFP) from industry, and to evaluate performance. The relative importance of tsunami warnings, national earthquake and landslide hazards, and whether a largely urban or truly national network is envisioned will be determined early in the program. Final placement of stations will take many factors into consideration including proximity to faults and seismic activity, geographic accessibility, the consistency of bedrock, and various cultural or social effects. This cooperation has the potential to lead to the development of a desperately needed tsunami early warning network that could protect the Pakistani coastal population in the event of a natural disaster such as the Dec. 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. The seismic hazard off the coast of Pakistan is high due to the proximity of the Makran and Sumatra subduction zones, the former of which could trigger tsunamis in Pakistan with heights of 12m within minutes. In addition to monitoring earthquake activity, the PSNS will provide seismic data of interest to the world-wide scientific community for a region in which there is little understanding of the upper crust and mantle. It will furthermore address educational outreach and diplomacy issues by providing training to Pakistani scientists in routine network operation and data processing.

  2. Evolution of Doctoral Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Successes of Doctoral Students of Education in a Public Sector University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a part of the findings from a larger study undertaken to explore the experience of graduate students in education in Pakistan. Analysis of a smaller slice of data collected from students who were enrolled in the PhD and MPhil programmes of the Department of Education in a large public sector university in Northern Pakistan was…

  3. Governance and Higher Education in Pakistan: What Roles Do Boards of Governors Play in Ensuring the Academic Quality Maintenance in Public Universities versus Private Universities in Pakistan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Sidra

    2014-01-01

    There are major structural issues in the higher education system in Pakistan leading to poor governance of institutions and questionable quality of education. This paper looks at the differences in the role of boards of governors in maintaining quality of education in both the public and the private sector universities in Pakistan. After having…

  4. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (<24 months between births); unwanted pregnancy (any ever); pregnancy termination (any stillbirth, miscarriage or abortion ever)] by early (<18) versus adult (≥18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with low social equity indicators (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of

  5. Traditional perceptions of marasmus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mull, D S

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and fifty mothers of under-5 children clinically identified as malnourished were interviewed in their homes in katchi abadis (squatter settlements) of Karachi. A variety of ethnic and religious groups were represented. Mothers were shown a photograph of a child with third-degree malnutrition (marasmus) and were asked what might be wrong with the child. Virtually of the mothers said that they had seen the condition, typically identifying it as sukhay ki bimari (Urdu: 'the disease of dryness and thinness'). The majority said that diarrhea predisposed to sukhay ki bimari, and vice versa, but only 3 of the 150 mothers said that diarrhea and/or lack of food could, in themselves, cause the condition. Instead, most said that the usual cause was contact with a woman who had a marasmic child or was otherwise in a state of ritual impurity. The mediating factor was said to be a saya ('shadow, influence') emanating from such a person and ultimately linked with the spirit world. Although the condition was judged to have a very poor prognosis, mothers described various magico-religious therapies that could be tried. Treatment by physicians or by giving more food was considered ineffective or even detrimental, and hiding of such children was reportedly common because of social stigma. Subsequent inquiries carried out by the author in Chitral in northwestern Pakistan produced similar findings except that there, the condition was known as moordasip and was more overtly associated with fright and spirit possession. In Karachi, 45 of the 150 mothers interviewed had children with third-degree malnutrition according to weight-for-age criteria, 15 of whom died in the course of the study. In these 45 families especially, early bottlefeeding had occurred, sometimes reportedly because of fear that the mother was a carrier of a saya and could pass it on through her milk. Most mothers had only sketchy knowledge of suitable weaning foods and an appropriate timetable for

  6. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  7. Increase in malaria cases imported from Pakistan to Germany in 2012.

    PubMed

    Stark, K; Schöneberg, I

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase of malaria cases imported to Germany from Pakistan was observed in 2012. As of 14 November, Pakistan was the country of infection in 32 out of 434 malaria cases in 2012, compared to zero to eight annual malaria cases (out of over 500 cases) in previous years. Physicians and public health authorities should consider malaria in febrile patients returning or migrating from Pakistan. PMID:23231855

  8. Polio in Pakistan: Social constraints and travel implications.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Asim; Mehmood, Sajid; Rehman, Muhammad Ateeq Ur; Younas, Asma; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Malik, Muhamamd Faheem; Hyder, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Pakistan has faced failure despite being implemented successfully. Polio cases were successfully reduced by 99% until 2005. However, thereafter, new polio cases were registered, which continue to rise annually. This repeat polio outbreak has placed the country on watch by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to travelers, and Hajj and Umrah pilgrims. The present report reviews the published literature for determining the social constraints to the polio eradication initiative in Pakistan. Religion, politics, awareness, insecurity, inequity, governance, and social responsibility have been identified as key social factors in the failure of any vaccination campaign. Possible interventions have been proposed, which include effectively using modern mass media and educating vaccinators on the social and cultural background of the target community. PMID:26324410

  9. Road traffic crashes managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Navid; Naseer, Rizwan; Khan, Samina Mohsin; Macassa, Gloria; Hashmi, Waseem; Durrani, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to describe demographic characteristics, injury patterns and causes of road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan during the period 2005-2010. In total 123,268 RTCs were reported and responded by Rescue 1122 ambulance service during the study period. Of the 132,504 victims of RTCs, there were 67% male and 33% female subjects, and the maximum share (65%) was reported among people aged 16-35 years. Motorcyclists were involved in 45% of crashes, with over-speeding (40%) found to be the major reason of these collisions. Similarly, minor injuries (65%) and fractures (25%) were the most reported outcome of these crashes. It is concluded that data from ambulance services, if appropriately collected, can provide valuable epidemiological information to monitor RTCs in developing countries. However, in Pakistan, the collection of data as well as the registration process needs further improvement. PMID:22047006

  10. Second generation HIV surveillance in Pakistan: policy challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle; Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Ahmed, Sadia; Archibald, Chris P; Blanchard, James F; Thompson, Laura H

    2013-01-01

    From 2004 to 2011, the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP) worked with government and non-government partners in Pakistan to design and implement an HIV second generation surveillance (SGS) system. Insights into the development of scalable cost effective surveillance methodologies, implementation, use of data for HIV prevention and human rights were gained over the course of HASP. An ideal SGS system would be affordable, able to be implemented independently by local partners and produce data that could be readily applied in policy and programmes. Flexibility in design and implementation is important to ensure that any SGS system is responsive to information needs, political changes and changes in key population dynamics and HIV epidemics. HASP's mapping methodology is innovative and widely accepted as best practice, but sustainability of the SGS system it developed is a challenge. PMID:23220785

  11. The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R; Fikree, F F; Berendes, H W

    2000-01-01

    The sex of surviving children is an important determinant of reproductive behaviour in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. The analysis is based on two rounds of surveys conducted in 1990-91 and 1995 of a cohort of married women aged 15-49 years. The results show that pregnancies became increasingly unwanted as the number of surviving sons increased. The sex of surviving children was strongly correlated with subsequent fertility and contraceptive behaviour. However, rather than an exclusive son preference, couples strove for one or more sons and at least one surviving daughter. The policy implications of the link between overt son preference and low status of women are discussed. PMID:10812738

  12. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  13. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0–91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7–83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9–73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9–71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9–15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3–21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7–19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases. PMID:27483322

  14. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases. PMID:27483322

  15. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Pakistan, January 2012-September 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-11-22

    Pakistan is one of three countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Pakistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 58 WPV cases were reported in selected areas, compared with 198 cases throughout the country in 2011; 52 WPV cases were reported during January-September 2013, compared with 54 cases during the same period in 2012. Of the 110 WPV cases reported since January 2012, 92 cases (84%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. WPV type 3 (WPV3) was isolated from only three persons with polio in a single district in 2012; the most recent case occurred in April 2012. During August 2012-September 2013, 52 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were detected, including 30 cases (58%) identified in FATA during January-September 2013. Approximately 350,000 children in certain districts of FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012 because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In some other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers that started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas, including vaccinating at transit points and conducting additional short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) SIAs as areas become accessible, will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world. PMID:24257203

  16. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Pakistan, January 2014-September 2015.

    PubMed

    Farag, Noha H; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Nabil; Hamdi, Sabrine; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-11-20

    Since Nigeria reported its last case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in July 2014, Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only two countries where WPV transmission has never been interrupted. This report describes actions taken and progress achieved toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2014-September 2015 and updates previous reports. A total of 38 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan during January-September 2015, compared with 243 during the same period in 2014 (an 84% decline). Among WPV1 cases reported in 2015, 32 (84%) occurred in children aged <36 months, nine (32%) of whom had never received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Twenty-six (68%) of the 38 reported cases occurred in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. During January-September 2015, WPV1 was detected in 20% (64 of 325) of environmental samples collected, compared with 34% (98 of 294) of samples collected during the same period in 2014. The quality and scope of polio eradication activities improved considerably following the establishment of a national Emergency Operations Center, which coordinated polio eradication partners' activities. All activities are following a National Polio Eradication Emergency Action Plan that includes a rigorous action plan for the polio low transmission season (January-April). The presence of WPV1 in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are detected highlights the need to improve surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Focused efforts to close remaining immunity gaps by locating, tracking, and vaccinating continually missed children and improving coverage with OPV through the routine vaccination program are needed to stop WPV transmission in Pakistan. PMID:26584026

  17. Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of

  18. Coal briquetting in Pakistan: A market and business assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.

    1988-04-01

    Our objectives are to evaluate the potential financial success of an unsubsidized, private sector coal briquetting venture in Pakistan, based on financial competitiveness in market niches, market size, and consumer acceptance; to examine private sector interest and potential business arrangements; to examine potential effects of government policies on such an undertaking; and to make recommendations to the private sector, USAID, and the Government of Pakistan on further work. Our results show that coal briquettes potentially can compete against firewood in some markets, particularly in certain urban areas of Punjab and most urban markets of the NWFP. Salt Range or Makerwal coal would be used for these briquettes. Coal briquettes will also compete against charcoal and kerosene in many areas of Pakistan. The most promising briquette is a coal/biomass mixture not requiring carbonization. A limited opportunity may also exist for a carbonized briquette using Makerwal coal. Smoky briquettes for space heating also are competitive in certain areas, but market size is limiting. The total penetrable residential market for coal briquettes in the Punjab and NWFP of 440,000 to 545,000 tonnes of briquettes per year replacing firewood is sufficiently large to support one or more plants of 50,000 tonnes per year. Charcoal, kerosene, and commercial uses of briquettes could add to this market. 9 refs., 20 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Investigation of summer monsoon rainfall variability in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Mian Sabir; Lee, Seungho

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzes the inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability in Pakistan using daily rainfall data during the summer monsoon season (June to September) recorded from 1980 to 2014. The variability in inter-annual monsoon rainfall ranges from 20 % in northeastern regions to 65 % in southwestern regions of Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the transition of the negative and positive anomalies was not uniform in the investigated dataset. In order to acquire broad observations of the intra-seasonal variability, an objective criterion, the pre-active period, active period and post-active periods of the summer monsoon rainfall have demarcated. The analysis also reveals that the rainfall in June has no significant contribution to the increase in intra-seasonal rainfall in Pakistan. The rainfall has, however, been enhanced in the summer monsoon in August. The rainfall of September demonstrates a sharp decrease, resulting in a high variability in the summer monsoon season. A detailed examination of the intra-seasonal rainfall also reveals frequent amplitude from late July to early August. The daily normal rainfall fluctuates significantly with its maximum in the Murree hills and its minimum in the northwestern Baluchistan.

  20. Investigation of summer monsoon rainfall variability in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Mian Sabir; Lee, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability in Pakistan using daily rainfall data during the summer monsoon season (June to September) recorded from 1980 to 2014. The variability in inter-annual monsoon rainfall ranges from 20 % in northeastern regions to 65 % in southwestern regions of Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the transition of the negative and positive anomalies was not uniform in the investigated dataset. In order to acquire broad observations of the intra-seasonal variability, an objective criterion, the pre-active period, active period and post-active periods of the summer monsoon rainfall have demarcated. The analysis also reveals that the rainfall in June has no significant contribution to the increase in intra-seasonal rainfall in Pakistan. The rainfall has, however, been enhanced in the summer monsoon in August. The rainfall of September demonstrates a sharp decrease, resulting in a high variability in the summer monsoon season. A detailed examination of the intra-seasonal rainfall also reveals frequent amplitude from late July to early August. The daily normal rainfall fluctuates significantly with its maximum in the Murree hills and its minimum in the northwestern Baluchistan.

  1. Does sex of children matter? Implications for fertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Preference for children of either sex is considered a constraint on fertility decline as it induces many couples to keep adding on surviving children in the hope of having a desired sex composition of children. However, preferences for children of a particular sex may differ in relation to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women, traditional values and cultural practices, such as propagating a family name, providing economic advantages, and obtaining a medium of social and economic security in times of illness, unemployment and old age. Utilizing the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (2001-02), this paper aims at investigating the existence of sex preference and examines sex preference differentials by different attributes of women in Pakistan. The results reveal that there is a desire to have another child in the presence of all children of one sex, either sons or daughters. The desire to have a son with only or mostly daughters, however, is stronger than the desire to have a daughter with only or mostly sons. This behaviour will retard fertility decline unless there is a shift in the desire to have children of both sexes in Pakistan. PMID:18647438

  2. Cancer registration in Pakistan: contemporary state of affairs.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Faheem

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.6 million mortalities were attributed to cancers in 2005 across the globe, and the figures keep mounting. The existing prevalence rate for all reportable cancers is at 25 million, projected to ascend to 30 million around year 2020. Some 70% of these will burden the health care services in under-resourced countries. However, reliable statistics on the incidence, prevalence, mortality and survival rates (five and ten year) are limited. A National Cancer Control Program (NCCP) in Pakistan has existed since 1994, but little is known to the public and negligible information has been made available to medical services providers. We have a poverty of local bio-medical literature related to the specialties like oncology and cancer epidemiology. Only 175 papers are indexed by Pakmedinet, seven being relevant to the cancer registration in Pakistan, an impetus for programmed documentation, and to serve as a foundation for approach to Cyber-medicine. Infrastructure and ample requisite manpower exists locally and a number of local institutions as well as outside sources are teaming up. However, there are still quite a few issues to be looked into, including the question of who will own the data arising from this pooling of assets? A community-based approach is mandatory to allay public concerns over confidentiality and possible use of the registry data. Already, there are hurdles in attaining public approval after the intentions to found a National Cancer Registry were ventilated by the Pakistan Medical Research Council. PMID:18159986

  3. Management of wastes from hospitals: A case study in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    Proper management of hospital waste is a critical concern in many countries of the world. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, with one of the highest urbanisation and population growth rates in South Asia. Data and analyses regarding hospital waste management practices in Pakistan are scarce in scientific literature. This study was meant to determine waste management practices at selected hospitals in a major city in Pakistan, Gujranwala. A total of 12 different hospitals were selected for the survey, which involved quantification of waste generation rates and investigation of waste management practices. The results were analysed using linear regression. The weighted average total, general and infectious hospital waste generation rates were found to be 0.667, 0.497 and 0.17 kg bed-day(-1), respectively. Of the total, 73.85% consisted of general, 25.8% consisted of hazardous infectious and 0.87% consisted of sharps waste. The general waste consisted of 15.76% paper, 13.41% plastic, 21.77% textiles, 6.47% glass, 1.99% rubber, 0.44% metal and 40.17% others. Linear regression showed that waste generation increased with occupancy and decreased with number of beds. Small, private and specialised hospitals had relatively greater waste generation rates. Poor waste segregation, storage and transportation practices were observed at all surveyed hospitals. PMID:26628050

  4. Quality of ceftriaxone in Pakistan: reality and resonance.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Ali

    2009-04-01

    The quality of pharmaceuticals is a global concern, counterfeit/ poor quality/ substandard medicines can cause harms in various ways: In a number of developing countries including Pakistan there is reportedly a high incidence of the availability of substandard drugs. The majority of these reports do not contain quantitative data to support these claims, nor do they describe the methodology employed for the quality assessment. Quality of drugs available in Pakistan are being questioned and topic of discussion in local news paper, TV channels in general public including journalist and physicians due to disparity of price among same generics, lack of knowledge for such science and unknown reasons. Since, quality of drugs can neither be assessed by naked eye or by every one therefore, randomly selected, 96 samples of different strength of injection ceftriaxone sodium and its generic, a widely used third generation cephalosporin in Pakistan since 1982 and 1994 till date respectively included in the said study to know the reality. 15.62% of ceftriaxone injection was found to be out of specification, however, not a single sample was found fake (spurious) out of 96 tested samples. Nevertheless, quality is a wide ranging concept covering all matters that individually or collectively influence the excellence of a product hence price and other related issues are also analyzed in the study. PMID:19339236

  5. Heavy metal pollution assessment in various industries of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Wajid; Zeb, Akif; Noor, Nayyara; Nawaz, Mohsan

    2008-07-01

    Water pollution is a source of danger to the health of people living in developing countries such as Pakistan. The main industries located at various industrial zones of Pakistan cause water pollution, which ultimately result in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to study the concentrations of essential and toxic metals (Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Pb and As) in the drained water of three main industrial estates of Pakistan, i.e., Industrial Estate No. 1 Peshawar, Small Industrial Estate No. 2 Gujranwala, Industrial Estate Hattar Haripur, and in Warsak Canal (industrially pure water) with the help of atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame emission spectroscopy. The study showed high Pb and As levels originating from industries. The concentrations of Pb and As ranged from 0.04 to 0.942 mg/L in all the samples. These have been extensively used for irrigation since the last five decades. The elevated concentrations of heavy metals are continuously entering into the food chain through agriculture leading to serious health hazards and a threat to the sustainability of local ecosystem.

  6. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ali, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Umer Naveed; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Since the first report of infectious bursal disease in Pakistan in 1987, outbreaks have been common even in vaccinated flocks. Despite appropriate administration of vaccines, concerns arise if the circulating strains are different from the ones used in the vaccine. Here, we sequenced the hypervariable region (HVR) of the VP2 gene of circulating strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) originating from outbreaks (n = 4) in broiler flocks in Pakistan. Nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogeny and deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed the circulating strains to be very virulent (vv) and identified characteristic residues at position 222 (A), 242 (I), 256 (I), 294 (I) and 299 (S). In addition, a substitution at positions 221 (Q→H) was found to be exclusive to Pakistani strains in our analysis, although a larger dataset is required to confirm this finding. Compared to vaccine strains that are commonly used in Pakistan, substitution mutations were found at key amino acid positions in VP2 that may be responsible for potential changes in neutralization epitopes and vaccine failure. PMID:27107876

  7. Evaluation of environmental impact assessment system in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeem, Obaidullah Hameed, Rizwan

    2008-11-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in Pakistan based on the Environmental Protection Ordinance 1983. The EIA process was further strengthened under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997, which became operational under EIA Regulations 2000. Despite a sound legal basis and comprehensive guidelines, evidence suggests that EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in Pakistan. An evaluation of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on interviews with EIA approval authorities, consulting firms and experts, reveals various shortcomings of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor EIA quality, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. Whilst shortcomings are challenging, central government has recently shown a high degree of commitment to the environmental protection by making EIA compulsory for all the public sector projects likely to have adverse environmental impacts. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current environment for strengthening the EIA process.

  8. Barriers to Implementation of Optimal Laboratory Biosafety Practices in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Sadia; Shafaq, Humaira; Hasan, Rumina; Qureshi, Shahida M; Dojki, Maqboola; Hughes, Molly A; Zaidi, Anita K M; Khan, Erum

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of biosafety education is to ensure safe practices among workers in biomedical laboratories. Despite several educational workshops by the Pakistan Biological Safety Association (PBSA), compliance with safe practices among laboratory workers remains low. To determine barriers to implementation of recommended biosafety practices among biomedical laboratory workers in Pakistan, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey of participants attending 2 workshops focusing on biosafety practices in Karachi and Lahore in February 2015. Questionnaires were developed by modifying the BARRIERS scale in which respondents are required to rate barriers on a 1-4 scale. Nineteen of the original 29 barriers were included and subcategorized into 4 groups: awareness, material quality, presentation, and workplace barriers. Workshops were attended by 64 participants. Among barriers that were rated as moderate to great barriers by at least 50% of respondents were: lack of time to read biosafety guidelines (workplace subscale), lack of staff authorization to change/improve practice (workplace subscale), no career or self-improvement advantages to the staff for implementing optimal practices (workplace subscale), and unclear practice implications (presentation subscale). A lack of recognition for employees' rights and benefits in the workplace was found to be a predominant reason for a lack of compliance. Based on perceived barriers, substantial improvement in work environment, worker facilitation, and enabling are needed for achieving improved or optimal biosafety practices in Pakistan. PMID:27400192

  9. Genetic characterization of norovirus strains in hospitalized children from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Amna; Qureshi, Sohail A; Vinjé, Jan; Zaidi, Anita

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus is one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis among children in developing countries. No data on the prevalence and genetic variability of norovirus are available for Pakistan, where early childhood mortality due to acute gastroenteritis is common. We tested 255 fecal specimens from children under 5 years of age hospitalized between April 2006 and March 2008 with severe acute gastroenteritis in five hospitals in the four largest cities in Pakistan for norovirus by real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further genotyped by conventional RT-PCR targeting the 5'-end of the capsid gene followed by sequencing of the positive PCR products. Overall, 41 (16.1%) samples tested positive for norovirus with an equal frequency in rotavirus-positive and rotavirus-negative samples. Nine (22%) samples were genogroup (G)I positive, 30 (73%) GII positive and two (5%) samples contained a mixture of GI and GII viruses. Sequence analyses demonstrated co-circulation of 14 norovirus genotypes including four GI genotypes (GI.3, GI.5, GI.7, GI.8) and 10 GII genotypes (GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.7, GII.9, GII.13, GII.16, and GII.21). The most prevalent genotypes were GI.7 and GII.4 both causing 12.2% of the infections. This report confirms the presence of multiple norovirus genotypes in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Pakistan and a lack of clear predominance of GII.4 viruses. PMID:26175018

  10. 3 CFR 13550 - Executive Order 13550 of August 18, 2010. Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office 13550 Order 13550 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13550 of August 18, 2010 EO 13550 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan... temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec. 2. Purpose...

  11. India and Pakistan`s nuclear arms race: Out of the closet but not in the street

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1993-06-01

    CIA Director James Woolsey testified before the Senate on February 24, 1993, {open_quotes}The arms race between India and Pakistan poses perhaps the most probable prospect for future use of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons.{close_quotes} Currently, both countries are dependent on relatively crude nuclear bombs that do not appear to have been deployed. According to US officials, because of fears of accidental nuclear detonation, both sides would only assemble their nuclear weapons when absolutely necessary. Nevertheless, according to Woolsey, both nations {open_quotes}could, on short notice, assemble nuclear weapons.{close_quotes} Each has combat aircraft that could deliver these bombs in a crisis. India and Pakistan continue to improve their nuclear weapons. Unless their programs are stopped, they might succeed in moving from large, cumbersome bombs to miniaturized, easily armed and fuzed weapons able to be permanently deployed on attack aircraft or ballistic missiles, which are being developed or sought by both countries.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICE AT RETAIL PHARMACIES IN PAKISTAN: EXTENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE PREVAILING DRUG LAW OF PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hanif; Zada, Wahid; Khan, Muhammad Sona; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chohan, Osaam; Raza, Naeem; Khawaja, Naeem Raza; Abid, Syed Mobasher Ali; Murtazai, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the practice at retail pharmacies in Pakistan and to compare the same in rural and urban areas. The maintenance of pharmacy and drug inspectors' visit was also assessed. This cross sectional study was conducted in Abbottabad, Pakistan during October-November, 2012. A sample of 215 drug sellers or drug stores was selected by employing convenient sampling method. With a response rate of 91.6%, 197 drug sellers participated in this study. All the drug sellers were male. Overall, 35% (n = 197) of the drug sellers did not have any professional qualification. A majority of the drug sellers were involved in various malpractices like selling of medicines without prescription (80.7%), prescribing practice (60.9%), prescription intervention (62.4%) and selling of controlled substances (66%) without a license for selling it. These malpractices were significantly higher in rural area than that in urban area. PMID:27476300

  13. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water

  14. Equality or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues in Secondary Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners…

  15. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  16. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their…

  17. 75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and... the implementation of CTR programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan will permit the United States to...

  18. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  19. Exploring Leadership Practices of Principals of Government Elementary Colleges of Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bana, Zubeda; Khaki, Jan-e-Alam

    2015-01-01

    This article shares the findings from a case study conducted to explore the leadership practices of Principals of the Government Elementary Colleges of Education across Pakistan. The study focused on how these Principals understood their roles and responsibilities in the context of the changing role of teacher education in Pakistan and in the…

  20. Voices of Strength and Struggle: Women's Coping Strategies against Spousal Violence in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and…

  1. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  2. Handling the Cerebral Palsied Child: Multi-Level Skills Transfer in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.; Frizzell, Yvonne

    1990-01-01

    The majority of children with cerebral palsy in developing countries have no access to trained therapists; for example, in Pakistan, there is less than one trained general physiotherapist per million population. In Pakistan, cerebral palsy handling skills were taught to a group of parents, teachers, and paraprofessionals in a series of practical…

  3. Scaling up of Life Skills Based Education in Pakistan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanemyr, Joar; Baig, Qadeer; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Young people between the ages of 10 and 19 make up 23% of Pakistan's population. In Pakistan, young people face many challenges in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. These include early marriage and pregnancy, low use of contraception, use of unsafe abortion, lack of relevant information and poor knowledge about bodily…

  4. The Mosque Schools in Pakistan: An Experiment in Integrating Nonformal and Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, K. A.

    A wide-ranging study of the centrality of the mosque to Islamic education in Pakistan emphasizes Islamic educational traditions, the historical background of such education, the obstacles to educational improvement in Pakistan, and the attempt to provide universal primary education. Traditionally, the Prophet Mohammad and the Holy Quran have been…

  5. Professional Activities, Needed Competencies and Training Needs of Medical Librarians in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal; Bakhtar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to explore the professional activities, needed competencies and education/training needs of medical librarians in Pakistan. The following questions guided the study: what are the current professional activities of medical librarians in Pakistan? What is their perception of the competencies needed of medical librarians? And what are…

  6. Eliminating Educational Inequality through E-Learning: The Case of Virtual University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Aisha Muhammad; Jabeen, Sadia

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at examining the role of e-learning in combating the issues of inequality in terms of access and quality in the field of higher education in Pakistan. The education system in Pakistan is mainly characterized by educational disparity. The standard of education is directly proportional to the investment students make in the form of…

  7. Pakistan-Specific Cases for the Advanced Management Course in Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N., Ed.

    A compilation of management case studies concerning public administration in Pakistan and accompanying teaching notes, this document is intended to foster discussion in classes such as the advanced management course in public administration at the National Institute of Public Administration in Lahore, Pakistan. Included are case studies entitled…

  8. Contextualising "Education in Pakistan, a White Paper": Global/National Articulations in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Ali, Sajid

    2009-01-01

    This article contextualises "Education in Pakistan, a White Paper" (2007), an influential education policy paper in Pakistan. The focus is on the ways the White Paper constructs its own contexts as a complement to the policy solutions proffered. Here we recognise Seddon's point about the discursive work of policy in constructing context. We focus…

  9. Can Education Be a Path to Gender Equality in the Labour Market? An Update on Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…

  10. Study on Instructional Paradigms of Virtual Education in Pakistan: A Learners' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aimed at examining instructional paradigms of virtual education in Pakistan. The population of the study consisted of learners from Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program at Virtual University (VU) of Pakistan. The researcher adopted convenient sampling technique and collected data from 600 learners through five-point…

  11. Aid and stability in Pakistan: lessons from the 2005 earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    United States foreign assistance to Pakistan has always been driven by security considerations. By 2010, US counter-terrorism and stabilisation objectives resulted in Pakistan becoming the second largest recipient of US foreign aid globally. Given the policy impact of the assumption that aid promotes US security objectives in Pakistan, there is surprisingly little analysis or evidence of its effectiveness in this regard. This paper helps to address this gap by first reviewing the history and assumptions underpinning current US aid and stabilisation policies. It then uses field research on the 2005 earthquake relief efforts in northern Pakistan to assess the impact of the 'War on Terror' on the humanitarian response. In particular, it examines the assumption of influential US policymakers that humanitarian aid following the earthquake was an effective way to promote US security objectives by 'winning hearts and minds'-an assumption that has been used to justify all subsequent major US foreign aid commitments to Pakistan. PMID:20846352

  12. Analyzing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Background Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010–2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0–2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3–17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. Conclusions As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations. PMID:24827460

  13. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  14. Solar and Wind Resource Assessments for Afghanistan and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D. S.; Kelly, M.; Elliott, D.; George, R.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Milbrandt, A.; Cowlin, S.; Gilman, P.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently completed the production of high-resolution wind and solar energy resource maps and related data products for Afghanistan and Pakistan. The resource data have been incorporated into a geospatial toolkit (GsT), which allows the user to manipulate the resource information along with country-specific geospatial information such as highway networks, power facilities, transmission corridors, protected land areas, etc. The toolkit allows users to then transfer resource data for specific locations into NREL's micropower optimization model known as HOMER.

  15. A day with the women physicists of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Aquila; Ali, Asima; Qureshi, Riffat Mehmood; Qamar, Anisa

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group on Women in Physics successfully organized a national-level meeting of women physicists at the National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, to discuss the agenda for the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. This report describes the outcome of the meeting and the status of female physicists in Pakistan. It also includes a comparative study of the enrollment of women in undergraduate and graduate programs in physics, along with a brief description of factors that create hurdles for female students opting for higher education in this field.

  16. Neonatal tetanus elimination in Pakistan: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lambo, Jonathan A; Nagulesapillai, Tharsiya

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan is one of the 34 countries that have not achieved the neonatal tetanus (NT) global elimination target set by the World Health Organization (WHO). NT, caused by Clostridium tetani, is a highly fatal infection of the neonatal period. It is one of the most underreported diseases and remains a major but preventable cause of neonatal and infant mortality in many developing countries. In 1989, the World Health Assembly called for the elimination of NT by 1995, and since then considerable progress has been made using the following strategies: clean delivery practices, routine tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization of pregnant women, and immunization of all women of childbearing age with three doses of TT vaccine in high-risk areas during supplementary immunization campaigns. This review presents the activities, progress, and challenges in achieving NT elimination in Pakistan. A review of the literature found TT vaccination coverage in Pakistan ranged from 60% to 74% over the last decade. Low vaccination coverage, the main driver for NT in Pakistan, is due to many factors, including demand failure for TT vaccine resulting from inadequate knowledge of TT vaccine among reproductive age females and inadequate information about the benefits of TT provided by health care workers and the media. Other factors linked to low vaccination coverage include residing in rural areas, lack of formal education, poor knowledge about place and time to get vaccinated, and lack of awareness about the importance of vaccination. A disparity exists in TT vaccination coverage and antenatal care between urban and rural areas due to access and utilization of health care services. NT reporting is incomplete, as cases from the private sector and rural areas are underreported. To successfully eliminate NT, women of reproductive age must be made aware of the benefits of TT vaccine, not only to themselves, but also to their families. Effective communication strategies for TT vaccine delivery and

  17. The paleogeographic significance of Aquilapollenites occurrence in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asrar M.; Srivastava, Satish K.

    2006-12-01

    The occurrence of the genus Aquilapollenites in Upper Cretaceous and Neogene sediments of northwestern Pakistan is reported here. Aquilapollenites amplus, Aquilapollenites reductus, and Aquilapollenites sp. occur in the Maastrichtian palynomorph assemblage from an outcrop sample of the Mir Ali section, northern Waziristan. Aquilapollenites medeis in the Neogene Murgha Faqir Zai Formation of the Pishin Basin, Balochistan, is considered a reworked Cretaceous specimen. The Upper Cretaceous sediments of the Asian plate on the Tethys margin are considered to be the source of Aquilapollenites spp. in these samples.

  18. Scaphocephaly in a prehistoric skeleton from Harappa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K A; Lovell, N C; Lukacs, J R; Hemphill, B E

    1993-03-01

    Irregularities of cranial suture closure resulting in scaphocephaly are documented for a number of prehistoric and historic human populations of the eastern and western hemispheres, but what may be the first recorded case from southern Asia appeared during the 1987 archaeological field season at the Indus Valley Civilization site of Harappa, Pakistan. The female specimen with this condition also exhibits indicators of developmental abnormalities in the postcranial skeleton. These features are discussed in the context of assessing anatomical and ontogenetical relationships of craniostenostic eccentricities with abnormalities of facial, dental and postcranial regions of the skeletons of scaphocephalic individuals. PMID:8476271

  19. Role of the state in population planning: Singapore and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, R

    1984-01-01

    State intervention in population and family planning has been gradually increasing on the assumption that unregulated population growth poses serious national problems requiring public action. Among 152 developing nations in areas surveyed with respect to population and family planning policies in 1980, 52 supported family planning primarily from a demographic rationale and 65 from a health or human rights rationale, while only 35 provide no support. There appear to be 4 major underlying sociophilosophical perspectives on the role of the state in population planning: 1) the deontic/utilitarian whose prime concern is with the rights and obligations of present generations to future generations; this view provides a very vague basis for a general policy of population planning, 2) the environmentalist, which with varying degrees of pessimism in different formulations argue the need to limit population and economic growth because of the limited nature of the world's resources; this view ignores a considerable body of evidence that more than just overpopulation is involved in environmental problems, 3) the family planning perspective, advocated and supported by various international organizations and conferences, holds that decisions about birth control should be made by prospective parents. The assumption is that making birth control methods and education readily accessible to everyone will eventually result in birth rates which are desirable for the society as a whole. In practice, it is difficult to establish whether such voluntaristic measures are enough to control population, 4) the developmental distributionist position sees low birth rates as resulting from modernization, including such factors as more equitable distribution of income and increased educational and social services. Pakistan's family planning program has undergone 3 major bureaucratic reorganizations and shifts in strategy consequent on changes in national leadership since services were 1st offered

  20. Deadly addiction: India and Pakistan on the nuclear brink.

    PubMed

    Arya, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nuclear weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the political and moral context surrounding their use are discussed. The rationale for development of the Indian and Pakistani nuclear weapons programmes are summarised and critically examined in comparison to the costs of the programmes and the social needs, which could have been addressed. Alternative routes to provide peace and security are proposed, both for India, Pakistan, and other nuclear-weapon states, with particular emphasis on the role of physicians and other health workers. PMID:17191622

  1. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bosan, Altaf; Qureshi, Huma; Bile, Khalif Mohamud; Ahmad, Irtaza; Hafiz, Rehan

    2010-12-01

    A review of published literature on viral hepatitis infections in Pakistan is presented. A total of 220 abstracts available in the Pakmedinet and Medline have been searched. All relevant articles were reviewed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan. Two hundred and three (203) relevant articles/abstracts including twenty nine supporting references are included in this review. Of the articles on prevalence of hepatitis infection, seven were related to Hepatitis A, fifteen to Hepatitis E while the remaining articles were on frequency of hepatitis B and C in different disease and healthy population groups. These included eight studies on healthy children, three on vertical transmission, nineteen on pregnant women, fifteen on healthy individuals, six on army recruits, thirty one on blood donors, thirteen on health care workers, five on unsafe injections, seventeen on high risk groups, five on patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis, thirty three on patients with chronic liver disease, four on genotypes of HBV and five on genotypes of HCV. This review highlights the lack of community-based epidemiological work as the number of subjects studied were predominantly patients, high risk groups and healthy blood donors. High level of Hepatitis A seroconversion was found in children and this viral infection accounts for almost 50%-60% of all cases of acute viral hepatitis in children in Pakistan. Hepatitis E is endemic in the country affecting mostly the adult population and epidemic situations have been reported from many parts of the country. The mean results of HBsAg and Anti-HCV prevalence on the basis of data aggregated from several studies was calculated which shows 2.3% and 2.5% prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in children, 2.5% and 5.2% among pregnant women, 2.6% and 5.3% in general population, 3.5% and 3.1% in army recruits, 2.4% and 3.6% in blood donors, 6.0% and 5.4% in health care workers, 13.0% and 10.3% in high risk groups

  2. Experience of a Clinic for Afghan Refugees in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    Since the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979, 3.5 to 4 million refugees have moved into Pakistan and Iran. Even before the war, the health status of the Afghans was extremely poor and the medical personnel limited. Various international efforts are attempting to cope with the health care needs of the refugees. Economic, language, and cultural problems hamper the projects. One clinic found the most common problems were of the gastrointestinal tract, then the respiratory tract, with a problem ranking similar to that of pre-war Afghanistan. Many of the health problems are linked to deficiencies in sanitation and nutrition. PMID:3247740

  3. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Maliha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2014-11-01

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions. PMID:25404447

  4. Market or government: lessons from a comparative analysis of the experience of Pakistan and India.

    PubMed

    Papanek, G F

    1991-01-01

    A comparison of India and Pakistan (and Bangladesh) in the last 40 years is made in view of the consensus emerging in the 1980s about the supremacy of market-oriented strategy to overcome and alleviate poverty even in less developed countries (LDC). For 4 decades India consistently intervened in the economy, while Pakistan had periods of deregulation and more reliance on market forces. The period from 1947 to 1969-1970, the 1970's, and the 1980s were examined. Dirigiste strategy produced similar or lower production in Pakistan and Bangladesh as in India (1% growth), however, market strategy production in the former countries (3%). Foreign aid (over 10% of gross domestic product in Pakistan and less than one-half of that in India) also stimulated growth. In the late 1970s and late 1980s the import surplus of Pakistan and Bangladesh was 11% vs. 25% of that in India. In the 1950s Pakistan's exports grew rapidly, and in the 1960s the rate of growth in manufactured goods was double that of India due to the Export Bonus Voucher System. The reverse was true during 1969-70 and 1976-77 when India's total manufactured exports grew at twice the rate of Pakistan as the abolition of the voucher scheme occurred, inflation climbed and export duties were imposed. In the late 1970s to mid 1980s military governments in Pakistan and Bangladesh relied heavily on the market devaluing by 100%, deregulating imported inputs, and introducing incentives for exports. Dirigism produced a 50% higher grown in India vs. 200% in the other countries by market efforts. Government intervention tended to aggravate market distortions, although it produced positive results in nontraditional exports in Pakistan and in agricultural infrastructure building, primary school attendance and health services, electrification, and road building in India. Market-induced rapid growth used more unskilled labor and alleviated poverty. PMID:12285367

  5. Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a with phylogenetically distinct origin is circulating in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the leading causes of viral hepatitis worldwide and its genotype 3a is predominant in vast areas of Pakistan. Findings The present study reports the first full sequence of HCV 3a isolate PK-1 from Pakistan. This nucleotide sequence was compared with six other HCV genotype 3a full length sequences from different regions of the world by using statistical methods of phylogenetic analysis. Conclusion The nucleotide difference of these seven sequences shows that HCV genotype 3a of phylogenetically distinct origin is circulating in Pakistan. PMID:21211024

  6. Routine immunization services in Pakistan: seeing beyond the numbers.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Omer, S B

    2016-03-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in Pakistan, and the country remains one of the last reservoirs of polio, posing a threat of viral spread within the region and globally. This structured review describes challenges in the achievement of vaccination targets and identifies arenas for policy and programmatic interventions and future research. Burdened with limited demand and inefficient vaccination services, the recently devolved Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) faces multiple hurdles in increasing immunization volumes, improving the quality of services and ensuring timely vaccination. The EPI requires multi-pronged, multi-level, coordinated interventions to improve programme functioning and to enhance vaccination uptake at community level. Additionally, a lack of rigorous scientific enquiry on vaccination services limits the introduction of well-developed, responsive interventions. The paper describes systemic bottlenecks, proposes potential solutions and suggests lines of further enquiry to understand and reduce the languishing immunization rates in Pakistan. PMID:27334077

  7. Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization) immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose. PMID:21962145

  8. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Shazia; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan. PMID:27517055

  9. Stalling HIV through social marketing: prospects in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Husain, Sara; Shaikh, Babar T

    2005-07-01

    Over the last two decades HIV/AIDS has evolved from a series of interesting case-reports to a growing epidemic that threatens the entire world. It is feared to cause devastation among large pockets of populations and may roll back more than thirty years of public health achievements. This killer disease has been more amenable to behavioral change than by provision of curative services and attempts are being made to educate the public about this threat. Various techniques of promotion have been tried through out the world including television dramas/soaps, mass media and school curricula. Social marketing is an evolving strategy used to influence human behavior and choices. By using the principles of marketing and promoting behavior as a product, social marketers attempt to understand the dynamics of human behaviour and devise messages and products to change, modify, accept or reject unsafe behaviors or practices. Thus, social marketers provide an effective force to combat the spread of HIV and may serve to be invaluable allies in health promotion efforts. In a complex and diversified cultural milieu of Pakistan, social marketing can have a significant impact on health determinants and the conditions that will facilitate the adoption of health-oriented behaviors and practices. This paper gives an account of the elements needed for the success of a health promotion strategy adopted in a developing country and makes a case for social marketing to be adopted as the lead strategy for stalling HIV/AIDS in Pakistan. PMID:16108514

  10. Development of the Himalayan frontal thrust zone: Salt Range, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.M.; Lillie, R.J.; Yeats, R.S.; Johnson, G.D.; Yousuf, M.; Zamin, A.S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salt Range is the active frontal thrust zone of the Himalaya in Pakistan. Seismic reflection data show that a 1 km offset of the basement acted as a buttress that caused the central Salt Range-Potwar Plateau thrust sheet to ramp to the surface, exposing Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata. The frontal part of the thrust sheet was folded passively as it overrode the subthrust surface on a ductile layer of Eocambrian salt. Lack of internal deformation of the rear part of the thrust sheet is due to decoupling of sediments from the basement along this salt layer. Early to middle Pliocene (approx. 4.5 Ma) conglomerate deposition in the southern Potwar Plateau, previously interpreted in terms of compressional deformation, may instead document uplift related to basement normal faulting. Stratigraphic evidence, paleomagnetic dating of unconformities, and sediment-accumulation rates suggest that the thrust sheet began to override the basement offset from 2.1 to 1.6 Ma. Cross-section balancing demonstrates at least 20 to 23 km of shortening across the ramp. The rate of Himalayan convergence that can be attributed to underthrusting of Indian basement beneath sediments in the Pakistan foreland is therefore at least 9-14 mm/yr, about 20-35% of the total plate convergence rate.

  11. Seismically reactivated Hattian slide in Kashmir, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean F.

    2009-07-01

    The Pakistan 2005 earthquake, of magnitude 7.6, caused severe damage on landscape and infrastructure, in addition to numerous casualties. The event reactivated Hattian Slide, creating a rock avalanche in a location where earlier mass movements had happened already, as indicated by satellite imagery and ground investigation. The slide originated on Dana Hill, in the upper catchment area of Hattian on Karli Stream, a tributary of Jhelum River, Pakistan, and buried the hamlet Dandbeh and several farms nearby. A natural dam accumulated, impounding two lakes, the larger one threatening parts of downstream Hattian Village with flooding. An access road and artificial spillways needed to be constructed in very short time to minimize the flooding risk. As shown by this example, when pointing out the risk of large-scale damage to population and infrastructure by way of hazard indication maps of seismically active regions, and preparing for alleviation of that risk, it is advisable to consider the complete Holocene history of the slopes involved.

  12. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoor, Shazia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan. PMID:27517055

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pakistan: Prospects and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Despite all the marvelous advancements in modern medicine, traditional medicine has always been practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). Cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care or home remedies in rural areas and consultation with traditional healers. Evidence-based CAM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases. Alternative therapies have been utilized by people in Pakistan who have faith in spiritual healers, clergymen, hakeems, homeopaths or even many quacks. These are the first choice for problems such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles, depression and many other ailments. The traditional medicine sector has become an important source of health care, especially in rural and tribal areas of the country. The main reasons for consulting a CAM healer is the proximity, affordable fee, availability, family pressure and the strong opinion of the community. Pakistan has a very rich tradition in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. It necessitates the integration of the modern and CAM systems in terms of evidence-based information sharing. The health-seeking behavior of the people especially in developing countries calls for bringing all CAM healers into the mainstream by providing them with proper training, facilities and back-up for referral. A positive interaction between the two systems has to be harnessed to work for the common goal of improving health of the people. PMID:15937553

  14. Genetic determinants of β-thalassemia intermedia in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jabbar; Ahmad, Nafees; Siraj, Sami; Hoti, Naseruddin

    2015-01-01

    This study covers the molecular characterization of clinically diagnosed β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) patients in Pakistan. Blood samples of β-TI patients were collected from all four provinces of Pakistan throughout the period of 2011-2013. The study was carried out using allele-specific primers through polymerase chain reaction or sequencing to determine both α- and β-thalassemia (α- and β-thal) mutations, and restriction enzymes for the characterization of β-globin gene arrangements. In a total of 63 patients, the IVS-I-5 (G > C) was the most frequent mutation (33.88%). The codon 30 (G > A) and IVS-II-1 (T > C) mutations were found only in the Punjabi ethnic group, while the codon 30 (G > C) and Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) mutations were found only in the Pashtoon and Sindhi ethnic groups, respectively. In case of α-globin genotypes, 44 patients were normal (αα/αα), six patients carried the αα/-α(3.7) genotype, 12 patients carried the -α(3.7)/-α(3.7) genotype, while one patient had the αα/ααα(anti 3.7) genotype. We found that haplotype I was the most frequent, mostly associated with the codons 8/9 (+G) mutation, while the Saudi haplotype was found only with Hb S. PMID:25707679

  15. An Ethical Analysis of Assisted Reproduction Providers' Websites in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Ayesha; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) are intertwined and coevolving. These technologies are increasingly used to fulfill socially and culturally framed requests, for example, "family balancing," or to enable postmenopausal women or homosexual couples to have genetically linked children. The areas of ART and RGT are replete with ethical issues, because different social practices and legal regulations, as well as economic inequalities within and among countries, create vulnerable groups and, therefore, the potential for exploitation. This article provides an overview of the ART and RGT landscape in Pakistan and analyzes the available online content addressing Pakistani citizens and international clients. We explored the topic in view of socioeconomic challenges in Pakistan, particularly deeply rooted poverty, lack of education, gender discrimination, and absence of regulation. As online information given by ART and RGT providers is readily available and could easily raise false hopes, make use of discriminatory statements with regard to women, and promote gender selection to meet sociocultural expectations, it should be subjected to quality control. PMID:27348834

  16. Integrating GDM management in public health: Pakistan perspective.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Musarrat; Basit, Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with diverse social, economic and cultural dimensions along with limited resources. Non communicable diseases (NCDS) including diabetes are highly prevalent compromising the already challenged health care system. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with its associated maternal and foetal complications is increasing with rapidly changing lifestyle pattern. Since Pakistan has limited resources and other health issues compete strongly with gestational diabetes initiatives, the most feasible strategy will be the horizontal integration. This will work with the existing primary health care system integrating NCD control programmes with Maternal and Child health (MCH) programmes. Utilizing the existing health care system is the only implementable cost effective strategy. Antenatal screening and treatment of GDM alone is not sufficient but Post-partum screening (PPS) of women with GDM is an important strategy for prevention of diabetes as the conversion rates of GDM to type 2 diabetes are high. Furthermore, instead of perceiving GDM as a temporary reversible clinical entity, it should be considered as a trans-generational prevention of diabetes that needs to be addressed as a public health issue in order to improve maternal and foetal health. PMID:27582139

  17. Intercomparison of personal dosimetry for service providers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Akhter; Salman, Syed Ahmad

    2009-02-01

    An intercomparison exercise for personal dosimetry service providers within Pakistan was conducted by the Health Physics Division of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology. Participation in the exercise was on voluntary basis. The exercise was carried out to harmonize individual dose monitoring techniques for high energy photons in terms of a new operational quantity, namely personal dose equivalent Hp(10), for personal dosimetry in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. Each laboratory submitted 25 dosimeters for participation in the intercomparison exercise. Protection level Co and Cs sources were used for irradiation of dosimeters on a water phantom according to International Atomic Energy Agency protocol at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. Hp(10) doses for five different dose levels were measured by the participating laboratories. The ratios of measured dose/true dose (Hm/Ht) remained in the range of 0.66 to 1.11 for the Co source and 0.84 to 1.17 for the Cs source. Performance of service providers' laboratories to measure Hp(10) doses was analyzed and evaluated in terms of trumpet curves plotted for photons at a 95% confidence level. PMID:19125056

  18. On the widespread winter fog in northeastern Pakistan and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Sultan; Mirza, M. Ishaq; Ghauri, B. M.; Siddiqui, Z. R.; Javed, Rubina; Khan, A. R.; Rattigan, O. V.; Qureshi, Sumizah; Husain, Liaquat

    2000-07-01

    During the last two winters widespread fog frequently occurred in northeastern India and Pakistan, in a region extending over 1500 km. A particularly severe fog episode lasted from mid-December, 1998 to early January, 1999. The fog caused extensive economic damage and disruptions in transport. We determined concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, and selected trace elements at Lahore, Pakistan during and after the fog event by collecting aerosols on Whatman 41 filters every 12 h. SO42- concentrations of up to 100 µg/m³ were observed during fog. The SO42-/Se ratios and trace element data suggest a distant source of SO42- aerosols, hundreds of kms away. Lahore was downwind of coal-burning in India during the fog. The high concentrations of SO42- observed suggest a more extensive investigation of the chemistry and transport processes in this region is necessary to delineate emission sources and develop control strategies as there are serious likely effects on human health and economy in a region populated by hundreds of millions of people, and on global climate change through direct and indirect forcing.

  19. SURVEY OF STYLET BEARING NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH DATE PALM IN KHUZDAR DISTRICT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted during September and October 2002 to identify the stylet-bearing nematodes associated with date palm in Khuzdar district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The nematodes recorded were Tylenchus sp., Merlinius sp., Helicotylenchus indicus, Psilenchus hilarulus, Aphelenchoides sp., Meloido...

  20. High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, A; Saqib, M; Beck, C; Hussain, M H; Lowenski, S; Lecollinet, S; Sial, A; Asi, M N; Mansoor, M K; Saqalein, M; Sajid, M S; Ashfaq, K; Muhammad, G; Cao, S

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012-2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65.0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan. PMID:25358382

  1. Measuring the Determinants of School Completion in Pakistan: Analysis of Censoring and Selection Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Examines the demand for schooling in Pakistan, focusing on two potential sources of bias in the estimation of that demand: censoring bias and selection bias. Finds evidence of both biases. (Contains 51 references.) (PKP)

  2. The utilization of LANDSAT imagery in nuclear power plant siting. [in Pakistan, South Carolina, and Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggenberger, A. J.; Rowlands, D.; Rizzo, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used primarily to map geologic features such as lineaments, linears, faults, and other major geologic structures which affect site selection for a nuclear power plant. Areas studied include Pakistan, the South Carolina Piedmont, and Huelva, Spain.

  3. Pakistan and Water: New Pressures on Global Security and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Indus River is the major source of water for the more than 180 million people of Pakistan. A rapidly increasing population over the past 60 years has created new pressures on water that was once a plentiful resource for the health and development of the country. Rising tensions between India and Pakistan, which share the Indus flow, may lead to violent confrontation in an already volatile part of the globe. The recent flooding, which affected more than 20 million people, drew attention to poor management of the rivers of Pakistan. Public health has the scientific knowledge and professional capacity to help develop water management practices that could improve population health in Pakistan. PMID:21421956

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype VI Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Pigeons in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Sharma, Poonam; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes and complete genomes classified the isolates as members of NDV class II, genotype VI. PMID:27540069

  5. Dorcatherium majus, a Study of Upper Dentition from the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Umar; Akbar Khan, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad; Majid Khan, Abdul

    Dorcatherium majus, comparatively a large tragulid is studied from the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. D. majus is only found from the fresh water deposits along the foot hills of Himalayas. A number of localities are thoroughly visited from the Potwar Plateau of northern Pakistan and collected worth describing specimens of D. majus. Eight specimens are described in this study and all belong to the upper dentition of D. majus.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype VI Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Pigeons in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Sharma, Poonam; Goraichuk, Iryna V; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-01-01

    Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes and complete genomes classified the isolates as members of NDV class II, genotype VI. PMID:27540069

  7. Environmental impact assessment (EIA): an overlooked instrument for sustainable development in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Rashid; Sattar, Ayesha; Iqbal, Zafar; Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Raziya

    2012-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a policy tool used for evaluating a project proposal from physical and socioeconomic environmental perspectives. Its aim is to reduce the impact of development on environment, hence, ensuring environmental sustainability. It is mandatory to submit an Environmental Impact Statement before starting a mega project as required by Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and Environmental Policy of Pakistan. Public consultation plays a key role in an EIA system, identifying the likely aspects and impacts of a development activity. This aspect has been ignored in effective enactment of environmental legislation in Pakistan. Sufficient legislative instruments are there to support EIA system in the country but the agencies responsible for the enforcement of environmental regulations have failed to do so. The current research gives an insight into the actual status of EIA system in Pakistan along with the feedback of EIA specialists and university teachers of the concerned departments. A new index has been devised on the basis of questionnaire response to work out the overall performance of EIA system in Pakistan or any other country. The weaknesses and deficiencies of each EIA stage have been worked out for Pakistan and elaborated with the help of the controversial Zero point Interchange Project in the capital city of Pakistan. PMID:21887481

  8. The role of pharmacists in developing countries: the current scenario in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Saira; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Ahmad, Maqsood; Masood, Imran; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2009-01-01

    During the past few years, the pharmacy profession has expanded significantly in terms of professional services delivery and now has been recognized as an important profession in the multidisciplinary provision of health care. In contrast to the situation in developed countries, pharmacists in developing countries are still underutilized and their role as health care professionals is not deemed important by either the community or other health care providers. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of pharmacists in developing countries, particularly in Pakistan. The paper draws on the literature related to the socioeconomic and health status of Pakistan's population, along with background on the pharmacy profession in the country in the context of the current directions of health care. The paper highlights the current scenario and portrays the pharmacy profession in Pakistan. It concludes that although the pharmacy profession in Pakistan is continuously evolving, the health care system of Pakistan has yet to recognize the pharmacist's role. This lack of recognition is due to the limited interaction of pharmacists with the public. Pharmacists in Pakistan are concerned about their present professional role in the health care system. The main problem they are facing is the shortage of pharmacists in pharmacies. Moreover, their services are focused towards management more than towards customers. For these reasons, the pharmacist's role as a health care professional is not familiar to the public. PMID:19594916

  9. Pakistan and kidney trade: battles won, battles to come.

    PubMed

    Moazam, Farhat

    2013-11-01

    This essay provides a brief overview of the rise of organ trade in Pakistan towards the end of the last century and the concerted, collective struggle--of physicians and medical associations aided by the media, journalists, members of civil society, and senior judiciary--in pressuring the government to bring about and implement a national law criminalizing such practices opposed by an influential pro-organ trade lobby. It argues that among the most effective measures to prevent re-emergence of organ trafficking in the country is increasing ethical live donations and above all, establishing sustainable, public supported deceased donor programs. To do this, the transplant community must recognize that organ transplantation is not merely a donor-recipient-physician transaction but a complex issue in which decisions to donate an organ are influenced by indigenous values and belief systems about human illness, life and death. PMID:23203387

  10. Pills, injections and audiotapes: reaching couples in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Collumbien, Martine; Douthwaite, Megan

    2003-01-01

    An innovative social marketing intervention in Pakistan distributes audiocassettes via chemist shops and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to reach women in a segregated society with accurate information on hormonal contraceptives. Operations research was done to assess the utility of the cassette in knowledge dissemination and adoption of hormonal use. In total 187 structured questionnaires were completed with couples who had obtained a cassette. Listeners were significantly more knowledgeable than non-listeners about correct use of hormonals (OR = 8.6 for women and OR = 12.7 for men). Hormonal use increased from 12% to 25%. LHVs also organized discussion groups for women, and attending such a chat group was the strongest predictor for adoption of pills and injectables (OR = 4.15). Equivalent male groups are suggested to reach apprehensive men. By providing accurate information to urban couples and by acquiring a knowledgeable critical mass of satisfied users, the cassette could be a powerful catalyst to further contraceptive diffusion. PMID:12537155

  11. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  12. Contested identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, Farida

    2010-01-01

    In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of fusing religion and politics, this paper argues that women become symbolic markers of appropriated territory in the pursuit of state power, and that the impact of such fusing, different for differently situated women, needs to be gauged in societal terms as well as in terms of state dynamics. Questioning the positing of civil society as a self-evident progressive desideratum, the paper concludes that gender equality projects seeking reconfigurations of power cannot be effective without vigorously competing in the creation of knowledge, culture and identity. PMID:20857565

  13. Pakistan: family planning expands in non-governmental organizations.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services. PMID:12260386

  14. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

  15. Copper, lead, zinc, antimony, and arsenic in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Copper localities that merit geological investigation are found in the western Chasai District, in North Waziristan Agency, and in the Salt Range in Mianwali and Sargodha Districts. No high-grade deposits have been .reported from these ,areas and if deposits are developed they will likely be low-grade, high-tonnage, disseminated deposits. Those localities reported from Chitral State are too remote and inaccessible to be of interest now. All lead localities found to date are of minor importance; there has been small production at one .locality in Chasai District and in the southern part of the Hazara District. Zinc, antimony, and arsenic are sparse in Pakistan and no important localities of these metals are reported.

  16. Identification of novel silent HIV propagation routes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Umar; Waheed, Yasir; Manzoor, Sobia; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2013-08-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in both high risk groups and the general population. In this study, silent routes of propagation in teenaged Pakistanis are discussed. In order to promote sexual activity in youths, regular clients write contact details of sex workers on the doors of public washrooms. HIV prevalence is much higher among Hijra sex workers. Hijra sex workers have apparently stepped into the profession of begging at public places, where they earn money by both begging and distributing visiting cards offering unsafe sex. In many educational institutes, sex education is lacking or absent; if delivered via teachers, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations this could prevent a future epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in Pakistan. PMID:24255884

  17. Multiple risks among male and transgender sex workers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Collumbien, Martine; Chow, Jaime; Qureshi, Ayaz Ahmed; Rabbani, Aliya; Hawkes, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Using data from a qualitative study and a subsequent quantitative survey among 918 male and transgender sex workers (MTSW), we explore the context of multiple risks they face. We show that over one-fifth of MTSW have sex with IDU clients. Combined with high levels of risk behavior and very low levels of risk reduction and knowledge, the extent of sexual networking with men who inject drugs contributes further to the sex workers' health risks. Our findings suggest that isolated interventions with single-risk groups are unlikely to be sufficient to control the spread of the epidemic in Pakistan. We highlight the need for integrated approaches to risk reduction programs among MTSW and IDUs. PMID:19856740

  18. The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Schnell, Beverly M; Hoekstra, Robert M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Keswick, Bruce H

    2002-10-01

    We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n = 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n = 81); 79 households in a nearby neighborhood were enrolled as standard practice controls. After adjustment for household clustering and covariates, the incidence of impetigo among children living in households receiving triclocarban-containing soap (1.10 episodes per 100 person-weeks) was 23% lower than in households receiving placebo soap (P = 0.28) and 43% lower than the standard habit and practice controls (P = 0.02). The routine use of triclocarban-containing soap by children living in a community with a high incidence of impetigo was associated with a reduced incidence of impetigo. PMID:12452499

  19. Research fatigue among injecting drug users in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Karachi is the largest metropolis of Pakistan and its economic hub attracting domestic migrants for economic opportunities. It is also the epicenter of HIV epidemic in the country. Since 2004, one pilot study and four behavioral and biological surveillance rounds have been conducted in Karachi. In addition many student research projects have also focused on key risk groups including injection drug users (IDUs). As a result of this extra ordinary exposure of same kind of questions, IDUs know how to respond to high value questions related to sharing of needles or unsafe sexual practices. The purpose of the study was to explore the element of research fatigue among IDUs in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods The study was conducted on 32 spots in Karachi, selected on the basis of estimate of IDUs at each spot. A trained field worker (recovered IDU) visited each spot; observed sharing behavior of IDUs and asked questions related to practices in January 2009. Verbal consent was obtained from each respondent before asking questions. Results On average 14 IDUs were present at each spot and out of 32 selected spots, 81% were active while more than two groups were present at 69% spots. In each group three to four IDUs were present and everyone in the group was sharing. One dose of injecting narcotics was observed. Sharing of syringes, needles and distilled water was observed at 63% spots while professional injector/street doctor was present at 60% spots. Conclusion There is a need to check internal consistency in surveillance research. It is highly likely that IDUs and other risk groups know how to respond to key questions but their responses do not match with the practices. PMID:23758666

  20. Measurements and analysis of air quality in Islamabad, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Anjum; Aneja, Viney P.; Aiyyer, Anantha; Rafique, Uzaira

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air quality of Islamabad, Pakistan, reveals that annual average mass concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) (˜45 to ˜95 µg m-3) and nitric oxide (NO) (˜41 to ˜120 µg m-3) exceeds the Pakistan's National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). The annual ozone (O3) concentration is within the permissible limits; however, some of the hourly concentration exceeds the NEQS mostly during the summer months. Correlation studies suggest that carbon monoxide (CO) has a significant (p-value ≤ 0.01) positive correlation with NO and NOy'; whereas, with O3, a significant (p-value ≤ 0.01) negative correlation is observed. The regression analysis estimates the background CO concentration to be ˜300 to ˜600 ppbv in Islamabad. The higher ratio of CO/NO (˜10) suggests that mobile sources are the major contributor to NO concentration. On the other hand, the ratio analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2)/NO for Islamabad (˜0.011) indicates that the point sources are contributing to SO2 in the city. NO and SO2 correlation indicates contribution of direct sulfur emission sources. Ratios of [CO] to [NO] and [SO2] to [NO], based on ambient air quality measurements, provide a test for emission inventories. The ratios of these pollutants in the available Islamabad emission inventories are consistent with ambient values for these pollutants. The correlation of PM2.5 and NO suggests that a fraction of secondary PM2.5 is produced by chemical conversion of NO into nitrates. The regional background O3 concentration for Islamabad has been determined to be ˜31 ppbv. This study suggests that there is an increase in O3 concentration with increases in photochemical conversion of NO to reservoir NOy' species.

  1. Successful Community Midwives in Pakistan: An Asset-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Levay, Adrienne V.; Bhatti, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    In response to the low levels of skilled birth attendance in rural Pakistan, the government introduced a new cadre of community midwives (CMWs) in 2006. Assessments to-date have found that these CMWs have yet to emerge as significant providers for a number of sociocultural, geographic and financial reasons. However, a small number of CMWs have managed to establish functional practices in the private sector in conservative, infrastructure-challenged rural contexts. With an objective to highlight “what are the successful CMWs doing right given their context?” this paper adopts an asset-based approach to explore the experiences of the Pakistani CMWs who have managed to overcome the barriers and practice. We drew upon ethnographic data that was collected as part of a larger mixed methods study conducted in 2011–2012 in districts Jhelum and Layyah, Pakistan. Thirty eight CMWs, 45 other health care providers, 20 policymakers, 78 women, 35 husbands and 23 older women were interviewed. CMW clinics and practices were observed. Our data showed that only eight 8 out of 38 CMWs sampled were active providers. Poverty as a push factor to work and intrinsic individual-level characteristics that enabled the CMWs to respond successfully to the demands of the midwifery profession in the private sector emerged as the two key themes. Household poverty pushed the CMWs to work in this perceived low-status occupation. Their families supported them since they became the breadwinners. The successful CMWs also had an intrinsic sense of what was required to establish a private practice; they exhibited professionalism, had strong business sense and provided respectful maternity care. The study provides insight into how the program might improve its functioning by adapting its recruitment criteria to ensure selection of right candidates. PMID:26333067

  2. Pakistan's health policy: appropriateness and relevance to women's health needs.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Narjis; Nishtar, Sania

    2008-12-01

    The interface between national health policy and women's health needs is complex in developing countries like Pakistan. This paper aims to assess if Pakistan's national health policy 2001 is relevant and appropriate to women's health needs. Through review of existing data on women, a profile of women's health needs was developed which was transformed into framework of analysis. This framework indicates that Pakistani women's health needs are determined by gender disparities in health and health-related sectors. Comparison of national health policy with women's health needs framework reveals that although policy focuses on women's health through prioritization of gender equity, it is however addressed as an isolated theme without acknowledging the vital role gender inequalities in health and health-related sectors play in defining women's health needs. Moreover, gender equity is translated as provision of reproductive health services to married mothers, ignoring various critical overarching issues of women's life such as sexual abuse, violence, induced abortion, etc. Health systems strengthening strategies are though suggested but these fails to recognize main obstacles of utilization of healthcare services by women including non-availability of female healthcare providers and gender-based obstacles to healthcare utilization such as illiteracy, lack of empowerment to make decisions related to health, etc. In order to be relevant and appropriate to women's health needs the policy should: (1) use gender equity in health and health-related sectors as an approach to develop a healthy policy (2) expand the focus from reproductive health to life cycle approach to address all issues around women's life (3) strengthen health systems through creation of gender equity among all cadres of health providers (4) tailoring health interventions to counter gender-based obstacles to utilization of healthcare services and (5) dissemination interventions for behavior change. PMID

  3. Study of water quality of Hudiara drain, India-Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, S; Ahmad, I; Younas, M; Zahid, M D; Khan, M H; Ijaz, A; Ali, K

    2000-08-01

    This paper examines the extent of pollution in Hudiara drain water due to untreated industrial and sewage waste of India and Pakistan. Ninety-nine surface water samples from the Pakistani side of the Hudiara drain were collected during September 1997, and April and June 1998. The analytical results of the Hudiara drain samples point out the industrial and sewage inputs from India and Pakistan. Higher values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand(COD), total organic carbon(TOC), and trace metals in drain samples from the Indo-Pak border clearly indicate the Indian industrial and sewage pollution. Large variations in the levels of various measured parameters (COD, BOD, TOC, pH, total soluble substances, and trace metals) were observed along the Hudiara drain in the Pakistani vicinity. These variations were due to different types of industrial effluents and small village drains. The study showed that suspended solids(SS), COD, and fecal coliform (FC) were the major pollutants. Accordingly, the most feasible alternative is to convert the drainage network to a sedimentation and temporary storage reservoir. If disinfected, the runoff water can be used for restricted irrigation. Groundwater samples taken from the drain's surrounding area have also been analyzed. Thirty percent of the samples are not fit for drinking purposes due to NO3-N, Se and FC counts as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A trilinear diagram clearly indicates the influence of surface water of the Hudiara drain on ground water; moreover, higher values of nitrate and FC clearly indicate the seepage from the Hudiara drain. PMID:11345744

  4. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

    2010-09-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple

  5. Epidemiological typing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Pakistan and India.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Sahida; Hardy, Katherine J; Abbasi, Waseem S; McMurray, Claire L; Malik, Salman A; Wattal, Chand; Hawkey, Peter M

    2010-03-01

    The levels of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Pakistan and India are known to be high, but few studies have described the epidemiology of the different MRSA clones present. In order to gain an understanding of the epidemiology of MRSA within this region, 60 MRSA isolates from Pakistan (49) and India (11) were genotyped. All isolates were typed using PFGE, staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRUs), a restriction-modification method and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. A subset of isolates that were distinct by PFGE and SIRUs were typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Clonal complex (CC) 8 was the dominant clonal complex (57/60) and was present in both Pakistan and India. Within CC8, there were 10 SIRU profiles and 24 PFGE profiles. Two SIRU profiles were present in isolates from both India and Pakistan, whilst seven were distinct for Pakistan and one for India. All PFGE profiles were distinct for each of the two countries. Thirty-four of the 57 isolates carried SCCmec type III/IIIa and the remainder carried type IV SCCmec. MLST analysis of 14 CC8 isolates with diverse SIRU and PFGE profiles showed that all were single-locus variants, with nine belonging to sequence type (ST) 239, three to ST8 and two to ST113. From a single hospital in Pakistan, three isolates belonged to CC30 and all were indistinguishable by PFGE and SIRUs and carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Thus, epidemiological typing of strains from three distinct locations in India and Pakistan revealed the predominance of one clonal complex and highly related STs. The ability of SIRUs and PFGE to differentiate within ST239 demonstrates their utility in defining local epidemiology in these countries. PMID:19926728

  6. Anatomy of success in oil and gas exploration in Pakistan, 1915--94

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1996-05-13

    Pakistan, flanked by Iran, Afghanistan, China, and India, is the size of Texas and Louisiana combined. The Indus and Baluchistan basins cover 80% of Pakistan`s total area. The country also has 230,000 sq km of marine Exclusive Economic Zone. The law regarding E and P activity was promulgated in 1986, replacing the previous Petroleum (Production) Rules of 1949. As a result of the new Petroleum Policy implemented in March 1994 and streamlining of the bid review and award process, acreage leased including reconnaissance during 1994 was 355,541 sq km onshore and 120,640 sq km offshore, with the number of operating groups also a record high of 46. Although complex and disturbed as a result of collision tectonics, Pakistan`s geology is as fascinating as the surface geomorphology, from the complex compressional thrusted to the relatively simple extensional rifted, salt related to transform fault associated, the reefs, too, all impressive traps for petroleum, at times almost textbook examples. However, domestic oil production at yearend 1994 was about 53,251 b/d of oil and 1.7 bcfd of gas. Oil and gas have been found in the Potwar/Upper Indus basin and Lower Indus basin, and mainly gas with one gas/condensate discovery in the Sulaiman/Middle Indus basin. This article attempts to present brief case history outlines of typical, significant oil and gas discoveries of Pakistan 1915--94 with respect to the two main productive basins, their source and reservoir sequences, in order to determine the anatomy of success in exploration in Pakistan.

  7. 75 FR 53732 - In the Matter of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) Also Known as Tehrik-I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) Also Known as Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan Also..., 2003, I hereby determine that the organization known as Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP), also known...

  8. 75 FR 53732 - In the Matter of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) also known as Tehrik-I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) also known as Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan also... (TTP), also known as Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan, also known as Tehrik-e- Taliban, also known...

  9. Priorities in Educational Development in Pakistan: Projects and Training Programs. Report of an International Seminar (Islamabad, Pakistan, September 7-9, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Warren L., Ed.; Khan, M. Athar, Ed.

    The Center for International Education and Development (CIED) of the University of Alberta, in its commitment to share--through publication--information about new projects and policies being tried in developing countries, published the proceedings of an international seminar focusing on education in Pakistan. The meeting was the result of…

  10. Promoting Space Education and Awareness in Pakistan- Initiatives, Achievements, Challenges and Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagirani, Aisha

    With about 180 million inhabitants, Pakistan is the sixth most populous and the 34th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan's economy, which is pre-dominantly based on agriculture, is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP. Pakistan is counted among the Next Eleven (N11) countries that have the potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Despite considerable potential to develop into a stable, moderate and democratic state, major challenges of internal security, poor agricultural productivity, inadequate infrastructure, food insecurity, insufficient health and educational facilities, depletion of natural resources, rapid environmental degradation and recurring natural disasters have burdened the country and have hampered sustainable development of Pakistan. Space technology applications offer a cost-effective means of addressing many of the above mentioned issues and have made impressive advances in the last few years in different countries in the region. Unfortunately, for various reasons, Pakistan has not been able to fully exploit the benefits of space technology and its applications to meet the challenges she faces. One of the reasons is lack of awareness and understanding by planners, decision-makers and users about the potential benefits of space technology in planning and implementation of developmental plans as well as good governance. Similarly, Pakistan's space program enjoys little public support due, primarily, to lack of awareness of the benefits space offers and the ubiquitousness of space applications in modern life. There is thus an acute need to create awareness and educate all segments of the society and stakeholders in Pakistan about the potential benefits of space technology and its applications. In the past ten years, many initiatives have been taken to promote space education and awareness for students as well as decision-makers in

  11. Population structure and mating type distribution of the chickpea blight pathogen Ascochyta rabiei from Pakistan and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta blight caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (AR) depresses chickpea production in Pakistan and worldwide. Thirty two AR isolates representing six geographical regions of Pakistan was compared with a US AR population for frequency of mating types and genetic variation. Mating type results ...

  12. Evaluative Study of M.A. Education Programmes of Teacher Education at Higher Education Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatima, Jabeen; Naseer Ud Din, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the MA Education Programme of teacher education in Pakistan. Post-graduate teacher's training institutes in Pakistan grant the Master of Education (MA/M.Ed.), Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) post-graduate degrees in the field of education to enhance the careers and accelerate the…

  13. Ethnonational Questions, Educational Reform, and Political Socialization in the Post-Cold War Era: Case of Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    Relying upon the conceptual constructs from international relations, politics, and sociology, this study analyzes education policy and political socialization processes in the developing multiethnic/national societies with specific reference to Pakistan. The paper descriptively analyzes Pakistan social studies curriculum as an instrument of…

  14. Predictable Equilibrium Multichannel Network Characteristizes The Indus River, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, Paul

    2015-04-01

    PREDICTABLE EQUILIBRIUM MULTICHANNEL NETWORK CHARACTERIZES THE INDUS RIVER, PAKISTAN Carling, P.A.1, Trieu, H.1, Hornby, D.2, Darby, S.E.1, Sear, D.A.1, Hutton, C.2, Ali, Z.3, Iqbal, I.3 1Geography & Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2GeoData, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 3SUPARCO, Karachi, Pakistan The Indus River in Pakistan between Chasma and Taunsa is a 304 river km reach characterised by islands dividing multiple channels. Previously, the behaviour of such channel networks has been considered unpredictable. Crosato & Mosselman (2009) argue that physics-based predictors of channel splitting developed for braided-river bars apply poorly to island-divided rivers and recommend the application of regime theory (Bettess & White, 1983) to predict the number (n) of channels in rivers such as the Indus. The Indus is characterized by two to 11 channels at each cross section with, on average, about four channels being active during the dry season and five during the monsoon. Thus the expansion of the network during the monsoon is slight and is due to reoccupation of channels that are dry during low flows. The network evolves on an annual basis primarily due to bendway progression, whilst avulsions to form major new channels are relatively rare (one or two in the reach per year) and are matched by a similar number of closures. Thus the network structure, if not its shape, is relatively stable year to year. The standard deviation of channel numbers comparing sections throughout the reach is practically identical at c. two channels and there is no significant variation between years. Theory indicates that stable networks have three to four channels, thus the stability in the number of active channels through the annual monsoon and between years accords with the presence of a near-equilibrium reach-scale channel network that demonstrates local disequilibrium when 3 > n > 4, being perturbed by the annual monsoon. Application of the

  15. Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. Methods In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16–45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Results Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8–7.7, p < 0.000), less than 10 years of schooling (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6–4.3, p < 0.000), being exposed to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0–7.7, p < 0.000) and being a migrant (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, p < 0.002). Factors significantly associated with exclusive homosexual behaviour were having sexual debut at a younger age i.e. 16–22 years (adjusted OR 12.5, 95% CI: 3.8–40.7, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 8.8, 95% CI: 3.0–26.0, p = 0.000), having had exposure to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5–7.2, p = 0.002). Conclusions To prevent the spread of STI’s in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated

  16. Focal mechanisms and depths of earthquakes in central Pakistan: A tectonic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quittmeyer, Richard C.; Kafka, Alan L.; Armbruster, John G.

    1984-04-01

    Focal mechanisms and depths for seven earthquakes in central Pakistan were determined from an analysis of Rayleigh waves of 20-to 50-s periods. In east-central Pakistan, the nodal planes for some solutions strike obliquely to the grain of surface structures. This observation supports the contention of other workers that a thin surficial unit, decoupled from the basement along a surface of decollement, characterizes this region. In west-central Pakistan, relative movement between the Indian and Eurasian plates is at least partially accommodated by seismic slip along the Chaman fault. Other faults, which are situated to the east of and lie subparallel to the Chaman fault, may also take up some of the relative plate motion. Observed activity within the zone of convergent-type structure in central Pakistan may be a result of the greater component of convergence across the Indian-Eurasian plate boundary north of Quetta, Pakistan. Appendix is available with entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Document B83-010; $2.50. Payment must accompany order.

  17. Population structure of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, S B; Boots, M; Frantz, A C; Butlin, R K

    2013-12-01

    Eleven microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic population structure and spread of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Pakistan using mosquitoes collected from 13 different cities. There is a single genetic cluster of Ae. aegypti in Pakistan with a pattern of isolation by distance within the population. The low level of isolation by distance suggests the long-range passive dispersal of this mosquito, which may be facilitated by the tyre trade in Pakistan. A decrease in genetic diversity from south to north suggests a recent spread of this mosquito from Karachi. A strong negative correlation between genetic distance and the quality of road connections shows that populations in cities connected by better road networks are less differentiated, which suggests the human-aided passive dispersal of Ae. aegypti in Pakistan. Dispersal on a large spatial scale may facilitate the strategy of introducing transgenic Ae. aegypti or intracellular bacteria such as Wolbachia to control the spread of dengue disease in Pakistan, but it also emphasizes the need for simple measures to control container breeding sites. PMID:23662926

  18. Quit smoking for life--social marketing strategy for youth: a case for Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Liaquat Ali; Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Nayani, Parvez; Jessani, Saleem; Khowaja, Malika Parveen; Khowaja, Saima

    2010-12-01

    Smoking is the single most avoidable risk factor for cancers. Majority of smokers know about this fact but it is difficult for them to give it up mainly in the face of widespread smoking advertisements by the tobacco industries. To reduce the prevalence of smoking and its associated cancers, immediate actions are required by public health authorities. Social marketing is an effective strategy to promote healthy attitudes and influence people to make real, sustained health behavior change by transiting through different stages which include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Social marketing can influence smokers to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon their smoking behavior. In Pakistan, the smoking prevalence has been increasing, necessitating effective measures. The trend of its usage has been going upwards and, according to the World Health Organization, in Pakistan, the usage of cigarette smoking is increased by 30% compared to 1998 figures. The Pakistan Pediatrics Association has estimated 1,000 to 1,200 school-going children between the ages of 6 and 16 years take up smoking every day. In Pakistan, ex-smokers in the low socioeconomic group reported spending 25% of the total household income on this habit. This paper focuses on the antismoking social marketing strategy in Pakistan with an aim to reduce smoking prevalence, especially among the youth. PMID:20238199

  19. Pharmaceuticals--strategic considerations in health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals are critical to the functioning of healthcare systems which require a sustainable supply of quality, efficacious, and safe essential medicines. With this as a context, the Gateway Paper in its capacity as a suggested roadmap for health reforms within Pakistan stressed on the need for a pharmaceutical policy to be directed towards improving people's access to medicines; within this framework a number of issues have been highlighted. Weaknesses in the current legislation on drugs, in particular gaps, which have emerged contemporaneously with reference to the post WTO situation and the technology boom, have been discussed and the incongruity between the drug policies and policies in the other sectors addressed. The Gateway Paper makes a strong case to establish a statutory semi-autonomous drug regulatory authority in order to ensure stricter implementation of the Drug Law, which needs to be amended to bridge the current gaps. The paper lays emphasis on a formal quality assurance mechanism and the need to build capacity to implement regulation in this regard. Lack of clarity in the current pricing formula has been flagged as a key issue and the need highlighted to develop a pricing formula that is predictable, transparent and acceptable to the stakeholders, yet one that does not create access and affordability issues for the poor and disadvantaged. The paper addresses gaps in the process of drug registration in Pakistan and stresses on the need to redefine its scope and ensure its stricter enforcement. Unethical market practices and irrational use of drugs have been discussed and the need for transparently implementing standard operating procedures for drug selecting, procurement, storage, dispensing and rational prescribing and the introduction of appropriate evidence based education, managerial and regulatory interventions in this regard, highlighted. The myriad of reasons which lead to the shortage of drugs and to the mushrooming of spurious

  20. Spatio-temporal variations of b-value in and around north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Asghar; Ahmed, Sajjad; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Aamir; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2015-10-01

    The seismotectonic structure of north Pakistan has been formed by ongoing collision between the Eurasian and Indian plates. North Pakistan and the adjoining areas experienced many large earthquakes in the past, which resulted in considerable damages and loss of life. A magnitude-homogenous earthquake catalogue for north Pakistan and its surrounding areas for the instrumental period from 1964 to 2007 is used for analysis. We presented seismicity picture of the Hindukush-Pamir-Karakoram (HPK), Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) and Hazara-Kashmir-Himalayas (HKH) using various histograms and time series plots of the dataset. The b-value for each accreted domain is derived separately and investigated through a process of mutual correlation. Our computed temporal variation of b-value in Hazara region shows a significant decrease prior to 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

  1. Effects of leather industry on health and recommendations for improving the situation in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Syed, Madiha; Saleem, Taimur; Shuja-ur-Rehman; Iqbal, Muhammed Asif; Javed, Faisal; Khan, Muhammed Bilal Salman; Sadiq, Kamran

    2010-01-01

    The leather industry and its associated sectors contribute significantly to the Pakistani economy. There are around 600 tanneries in Pakistan that are concentrated in 3 major cities (Kasur, Karachi, Sialkot). Waste discharge from tanneries pollutes the air, soil, and water, causing serious health problems. Exposure to such contaminated environmental milieu has been seen to culminate in a multiple array of disease processes such as asthma, dermatitis, hepatic and neurological disorders, and various malignancies. An overall dearth of research on the occupational hazards of employment in the leather industry as well as its effects on pediatric population was observed during literature review with particular reference to Pakistan. It is recommended that research should be conducted about the health hazards in the leather industry in Pakistan as well as globally to gather data that can be translated into effective prevention programs for both adults as well as pediatric populations. PMID:20705577

  2. Transition towards health promoting hospitals: adapting a global framework to Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khowaja, A R; Karmaliani, R; Mistry, R; Agha, A

    2011-10-01

    The World Health Organization encourages hospitals to become Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) but adapting this concept to Pakistan has not been investigated. We explore perceptions of healthcare stakeholders about strategies and a priority action-plan to encourage HPHs in Pakistan. We conducted a qualitative study in 2007 where key-informant interviews and focus group discussions were held with healthcare stakeholders in Karachi. Thematic analysis was done and emerging themes were categorized. The HPH core components were perceived as the "standard framework"; however more emphasis was placed on priority actions as to satisfy "basic needs" of patients, staff and the community. This included basic facilities of comfort, health, hygiene, safety, security and emotional support. A change in the traditional mindset from cure to care and identification of key personnel, awareness-raising and cooperation would strengthen advocacy efforts for HPH in Pakistan. PMID:22256406

  3. Biomass fuel burning and its implications: deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S N A; Rafique, M; Alaamer, A S

    2010-07-01

    Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO(2)-equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y(-1). PMID:20398986

  4. Dengue viral infections in Pakistan and other Asian countries: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahsan, Aitezaz; Nazir, Noor-Ul-Ain; Hanif, Hina; Khan, Haider Ali

    2016-07-01

    Infections due to Dengue virus are widespread throughout the world. Disease starts with mild flu like sickness to a severe intricate condition which results in the death of the patient. Dengue illness has high morbidity and mortality in Pakistan as well as in other Asian countries. The Review article is a discourse analysis that explores the facts about the history, emergence and impact of dengue in Pakistan and other Asian countries. Data was collected from internet sources, mainly using Science Direct and PubMed. The final literature was reviewed and summarised. About 150 articles were identified and 47 articles were shortlisted for final review. Aedesaegypti was found to be a major vector for the transmission and spread of dengue illness. Treatment comprises supportive therapy as no specific treatment was available. During the last couple of years, the incidence of dengue fever was extraordinary in metropolitan cities of Pakistan. PMID:27427141

  5. Thinking Out of the Box: Alternative Career Choices for Young Doctors in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Farooq, Fareeha

    2016-02-01

    The number of young medical graduates in Pakistan is increasing every year. Most of whom wish to specialize in a particular clinical field. Considering the competition faced for specialty training selection and later on for job placement, it is suggested that these young graduates should explore some alternative careers as well. Opportunities can be availed and decision made based on graduates' personal interest, preference to work in Pakistan or abroad, and availability of suitable employment in local and international hospitals among other factors. Careers in the basic medical sciences, medical education, medical research, medical writing and bioethics can be considered, too. There are very few trained professionals in these fields in Pakistan and once trained, these young doctors will hopefully find rewarding employment. PMID:26876404

  6. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses from Southern Punjab (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Razzaq, F; Khosa, T; Ahmad, S; Hussain, M; Saeed, Z; Khan, M A; Shaikh, R S; Ali, M; Iqbal, F

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to optimize a PCR-RFLP protocol for the molecular detection of Anaplasma sp. and to compare its prevalence in blood samples of equines from Southern Punjab (Pakistan) and to find out the risk factors involved in the spread of anaplasmosis. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from equines from 2 sampling sites (Dera Ghazi Khan and Khanewal districts). Data on the animals' characteristics (age, species and gender) were collected through survey. PCR amplified the 577bp product specific for 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. in 9 blood samples (4.3% of total), [Dera Ghazi Khan (N = 3) and Khanewal (N = 6)]. These Anaplasma spp. positive blood samples were used for PCR amplification using A. phagocytophilum specific primers and parasite was detected in all of them. Also it was revealed that the characteristics of the animals i.e. age, gender, species had no significant association with the presence of Anaplasma sp. Hematological parameters remained unaffected while lymphocyte count was significantly lowered in A. phagocytophilum positive samples. PMID:26691251

  7. Illness perceptions in adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Chaudhry, Mansoor R.; Butt, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To assess adolescents' perceptions of their psychiatric illness and the role of various demographic factors in a Pakistani setting. Adolescents with various psychiatric diagnoses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire–Revised (IPQ-R). Results Fifty-two adolescents with various psychiatric illnesses were interviewed; their mean age was 12.7 years and the majority (67%) were female. Males had significantly higher scores on timeline and emotional representation (P<0.05), suggesting strongly held beliefs about chronicity of their illness and anger and worry about their condition. Adolescents' own emotional state, stress, family problems and bad luck were endorsed by participants as some of the causal factors in their mental illness. Clinical implications Despite the importance of early intervention in psychiatric problems, engaging youth in the treatment process in Pakistan remains difficult. Better understanding of how adolescents perceive their psychiatric difficulties may play a significant role in developing culturally sensitive interventions and better utilisation of services. PMID:26755949

  8. Structural model of the Balkassar area, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Akhter, Gulraiz; Bibi, Sehrish

    2015-11-01

    Balkassar is an important hydrocarbon producing area of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. Two-dimensional seismic reflection data of the area revealed tectonically controlled, distinct episodes of (1) normal faulting in the basement followed by (2) reverse faulting in the cover sequence. Himalayan orogeny and associated diapirism of the Precambrian Salt Range Formation have produced many salt-cored anticlines in the Potwar Plateau, and one such salt-cored anticline is present in the Balkassar. This anticline has NE-SW-oriented axis, and both the SE and NW limbs are bounded by reverse faults. The basement normal faults indicate Jurassic rifting and splitting of Pangaea. We interpret reverse faults with dip angles of about 60°-75° in the cover sequence, having both hinterland and foreland vergence. Both NW- and SE-dipping faults are present in contrast to the only southward-directed thrusts of previous models. Duplexes and triangle zones, which are common in the northern part of the Potwar Plateau, are not developed in the Balkassar area due to comparatively less crustal shortening in the area. The present interpretation can help in understanding the complex structures in other parts of the Potwar Plateau for hydrocarbons exploration and also in deformed foreland basins worldwide that display similar characteristics but are considered to be dominated by low-angle thrust tectonics.

  9. Pfcrt Gene in Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from Muzaffargarh, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sahar, Sumrin; Tanveer, Akhtar; Ali, Akbar; Bilal, Hazrat; Muhammad Saleem, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of different species of Plasmodium and haplotypes of pfcrt in Plasmodium falciparum from the selected area. Methods: Overall, 10,372 blood films of suspected malarial patients were examined microscopically from rural health center Sinawan, district Muzaffargarh, Pakistan from November 2008 to November 2010. P. falciparum positive samples (both whole blood and FTA blood spotted cards) were used for DNA extraction. Nested PCR was used to amplify the pfcrt (codon 72–76) gene fragment. Sequencing was carried out to find the haplotypes in the amplified fragment of pfcrt gene. Result: Over all slide positivity rate (SPR), P. vivax and P. falciparum positivity rate was 21.40 %, 19.37 % and 2.03% respectively. FTA blood spotted cards were equally efficient in the blood storage for PCR and sequencing. Analysis of sequencing results of pfcrt showed only one type of haplotype SagtVMNT (AGTGTAATGAATACA) from codon 72–76 in all samples. Conclusion: The results show high prevalence of CQ resistance and AQ resistant genes. AQ is not recommended to be used as a partner drug in ACT in this locality, so as to ward off future catastrophes. PMID:26623432

  10. Interwell tracing by environmental isotopes at Fimkassar Oilfield, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Tasneem, M A; Rafiq, Muhammad; Khan, I H; Farooq, M; Sajjad, M I

    2003-05-01

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Movement of injected water is traced to test the performance of the water flood and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. This paper describes the application of environmental isotopes as interwell tracers at Fimkassar Oilfield in Chakwal District, Pakistan. Water flooding was started in March 1996 in the Sakessar formation (Eocene). When water appeared in the production well in June 1998, isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H) were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time of the water flood and the contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected during June 1998-August 1999 from the injection well, the production well, and some other fields for reference indices of the Sakessar formation and analyzed for the 18O, 2H and 3H, and chloride contents. The isotopic results confirmed the breakthrough of injected water and indicated that the water in the production well was a mixture of the injected water and the formation water. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months. The contribution of injected water varied from 67% to 80%. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of breakthrough until the last sampling indicating good mixing in the reservoir and the absence of any high permeability channel. Chloride content did not give any information about the hydraulic connection between the injection well and the production well. The study proved the potential of environmental isotopes for interwell tracing. PMID:12735980

  11. Paving the way for evidence-based medicine in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Zareen; Hashim, Jawad; Iqbal, Mobeen; Quadri, K Mujtaba

    2007-11-01

    Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) is the process of systematically reviewing, appraising and using clinical research findings to aid the delivery of optimal clinical care to patients. EBM has become popular due to: the need for valid information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and prevention during patient care; traditional sources such as textbooks and expert opinion being frequently out-of-date; and knowledge of current best evidence declining with time from graduation from medical college. EBM has become feasible for practicing clinicians due to: new strategies for appraising studies; availability of systematic reviews (summaries) of current best evidence; and information technology (computers with Internet access). In a resource-limited country such as Pakistan, an evidence-based approach can be cost-effective by reducing clinical practices that have no proven benefit. Commonly perceived obstacles to EBM include limited access to computers, the Internet and online resources. Reliable resources of EBM are available (such as The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews http://www.cochrane.org) although many of these require paid subscriptions. Another difficulty is the issue of applicability of data from other countries to patients in our setting with different socio-economic factors. Other barriers to EBM in developing countries include: inexperience in small-group learning, limited time to attend workshops, and the lack of role models for practicing EBM. We have also tried to address the common fallacies related to EBM in the hope of greater use of these skills by busy clinicians as well as academic researchers. PMID:18062522

  12. Estimation of disaggregated canal water deliveries in Pakistan using geomatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mobin-ud-Din; Stein, Alfred; Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M.

    2004-11-01

    Lack of accurate information on water distribution within an irrigation system is a major roadblock for effective management of scarce water resources. Numerical techniques to estimate canal water distribution require large amounts of data with respect to hydraulic parameters and operation of the hydraulic structures; such data are absent in large irrigation systems. In this study, six quantitative geomatic models, with varying complexity and physical representation, were formulated. They all use high-spatial resolution Landsat-7 images and a canal network stored in a GIS. The models require only the flow rates at the head of the distribution system to calculate downstream water distribution. Results were compared with discharge measurements for three tertiary canals (watercourses) within two selected secondary canals (distributaries), Gajiana and Ghour Dour, in Rechna Doab, Pakistan. The model that computed canal water distribution using the shape of the irrigated area was the most accurate at the watercourse scale. The overall deviation was 28% and the standard deviation of differences between modelled and measured flow was 10%. The model that relates canal water distribution directly to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has the lowest accuracy with a 32% absolute deviation and 16% standard deviation. We conclude that geo-information techniques can be used to compute water distribution in large irrigation systems with a minimum of field data if an appropriate geomatic model is selected.

  13. Acceptability of prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jafri, H; Hewison, J; Sheridan, E; Ahmed, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess acceptability of prenatal testing (PNT) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) for a range of conditions in Pakistani parents with and without a child with a genetic condition. A structured questionnaire assessing acceptability of PNT and TOP for 30 conditions was completed by 400 Pakistani participants: 200 parents with a child with a genetic condition (100 fathers and 100 mothers) and 200 parents without an affected child (100 fathers and 100 mothers). There was a high level of interest in PNT, where over 80 % of parents in all four study groups would want PNT for the majority of the conditions. There was comparatively less interest in TOP for the same conditions (ranging from 5 to 70 % of parents, with mothers of an affected child being most interested). Parents were most likely to be interested in TOP for conditions at the serious end of the continuum. More than half of the participants in each group would consider TOP for anencephaly and quadriplegia. The interest in PNT and TOP for a range of conditions suggests that rapidly developing PNT technologies are likely to be acceptable in Pakistan, a low-middle income level and Muslim country. The comparatively lower level of interest in TOP for the same conditions highlights ethical dilemmas that such technologies are likely to raise. PMID:25081227

  14. Epidote from the Zard Mountains, Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Lowers, Heather; Betterton, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors received two unusual crystals of epidote from Rock Currier, Jewel Tunnel Imports, in 2012. The mineral specimens were collected at Zard Mountain (Zard Koh), in the central part of the Ruskoh Mountains (Rusk Koh), west of Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan (written communication, Rock Currier, 2013). The epidote locality was most likely discovered in 2010. These epidote crystals were unusual in both form and composition. The large crystals were flat tabular and pseudohexagonal in shape which is an uncommon crystal form for a monoclinic mineral (fig. 1). Other specimens from the same locality have been described as pseudo-octahedral in shape. The two crystals range in size from 5.5 to 6.5 centimeters (2.2 to 2.6 inches) and are slightly magnetic. The epidote crystals have a core matrix that resembles a weathered igneous rock. Some micro brown- to reddish-titanite crystals were observed under a binocular microscope on the surface and core areas of the crystals (figs. 2 and 3). Other minerals observed in the core areas include feldspar, biotite, and quartz. The crystals display evidence of cluster-growth with points of attachment to other crystals. The epidotes were most likely collected in pockets of a weathered igneous-skarn deposit.

  15. Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan: VI. Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Zaman, S; Jalil, F; Karlberg, J; Hanson, L A

    1993-08-01

    Morbidity patterns were studied according to the age, area of living, sex and season among 1476 monthly followed infants born during 1984-1987 in four socio-economically different areas in Lahore, Pakistan. Infections were responsible for 87.0% of the morbidity during the first two years of life. The overall monthly based morbidity was 77.0% between birth and 24 months of age; diarrhoeal diseases 30.3%, upper and lower acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) 22.4%, skin and eye infections 6.7% and skin rash 6.2%. The vaccine-preventable diseases were only 0.5% of the total. Anaemia and rickets were rare (2.0%), but commonly seen among the nutritional deficiencies. Diarrhoea, tetanus, septicaemia, ARI and infections of the skin and eyes were reported more during earlier ages and from the three poorer areas of living. Diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory tract, skin and eye infections, in particular, followed clear seasonal patterns, while scabies prevailed throughout the year. The presence of these many preventable infections and illnesses implies that proper planning of interventions must be forthcoming. PMID:8219468

  16. Periodontal Disease and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mobeen, N; Jehan, I; Banjay, N; Moore, J; McClure, EM; Pasha, O; Wright, LL; Goldenberg, RL

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Periodontal disease may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes; however, results have been mixed. Few studies have examined periodontal disease in developing countries. We describe the relationship between periodontal disease and birth outcomes in a community setting in Pakistan. METHODS Enrollment occurred at 20–26 wks. A study dentist performed the periodontal examination to assess probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingivitis index (GI) and plaque index (PI). Outcomes included stillbirth, neonatal mortality, <32 wk preterm birth (PTB), 32–36 wk PTB, and low birthweight (LBW), and are presented for increasing periodontal disease severity by quartiles (Q1-4). RESULTS Dental examinations and outcome data were completed for 1152 women. 81% were multiparous with a mean age of 27 yrs. 33% had no education. Dental caries were present in 47%, missing teeth in 27%, and 92% had no dental care in the last year. Periodontal disease was common: 87% had ≥ 4 teeth with a PD of >3mm, 54% had ≥4 teeth with a PI = 3, and 58% had ≥ 4 teeth with a GI = 3. In general, as the measure of periodontal disease increased, stillbirth, PTB <32 wks and neonatal mortality also increased. Late PTB and LBW were not related to measures of periodontal disease. Adjustment for demographic characteristics did not significantly change the relationships. CONCLUSION Pregnant Pakistani women have high levels of moderate to severe dental disease. Both stillbirth and neonatal mortality increased with the severity of periodontal disease. PMID:18455527

  17. National IUD retention survey in East Pakistan: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Groley, H T; Miller, R A; Haider, S J

    1968-01-01

    To determine IUD retention rates in East Pakistan, 1195 women from 50 thanas in 10 program districts were interviewed in May 1967 and divided into 3 groups according to when they received IUDs: A, representing the first 6 months after the program was initiated on July 1, 1965; B, representing the second 6 months; and C, which included the third 6 months. 98.7% of the women reported having received an IUD. The average ages and parities of the groups were 29.6 years for group A with 5.03 children; 30.6 years for group B with 5.13 children; and 29.4 years for group C with 4.56 children. Retention rates were lower for group C than for the other 2 groups which may be explained by their younger ages and lower parities. Another possible explanation is that these women were later adopters, and research elsewhere has suggested that higher discontinuation rates can be found among later adopters. This result deserves consideration in planning for future acceptors. Other possible factors for these lower retention rates may involve less selectivity in clients as the program personnel gained experience with the IUD and increased knowledge of IUD side effects. Even though 60% reported side effects, 88% of the women wanted to keep their IUDs. PMID:12275142

  18. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  19. Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Baqir, Maryam; Sobani, Zain A; Bhamani, Amyn; Bham, Nida Shahab; Abid, Sidra; Farook, Javeria; Beg, M Asim

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting. PMID:23569839

  20. A study of suspended particulate matter in Lahore (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, K.; Riffat, Ruby; Shaukat, A.; Siddiqui, M. Ashraf

    1990-05-01

    The results obtained from an investigation of suspended particulate matter in the metropolitan city of Lahore (Pakistan) are reported and analysed in this paper. X-ray diffraction studies of the airborne matter collected from various urban and suburban sites show that non-clay minerals such as quartz, calcite and albite are contained in most of the samples in almost comparable amounts. Chemical analysis of some samples was carried out for complementing the x-ray diffraction data. The amount of quartz in the samples of dusty areas was found to be an order of magnitude more than in the samples of relatively cleaner areas. As the dust particles of these compounds are poor substrate for promoting nucleation of ice in the atmospheric clouds, they are liable to stay steadily in the atmosphere as pollutants. A comparison of the results of the airborne particulates and the soil samples collected from various sites show that the sources of quartz, calcite and albite in the airborne matter are both local and remote.

  1. Harnessing Photovoice for tuberculosis advocacy in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Shama; Sajun, Sana Zehra; Khan, Faisal S

    2015-06-01

    In Pakistan, despite publically available free testing and treatment throughout the country, there were an estimated 58,000 deaths due to tuberculosis in 2010. Understanding the experiences of people affected by TB is essential in addressing barriers to effective treatment. The Indus Hospital used Photovoice to understand the experiences of people affected by TB in Karachi. Two hundred and thirty photographs and stories were collected from 55 people affected by TB. Five major themes and 12 sub-themes emerged from the data: the physical aspects of TB (weakness and the side effects of the medication), the social aspects of TB (loneliness, stigma, and the fear/guilt of infecting family members), the socio-economic aspects of TB (financial difficulties/poverty and poor living conditions), supportive factors during treatment (support from family and friends, support from welfare organizations, prayer, visiting peaceful places), and recovery (happiness about getting better). The photographs, stories, and a Call for Action were shared at a Gallery event with patients, practitioners, and policy-makers. This study provides a look at the complexities surrounding TB and emphasizes the need for holistic interventions for TB that address all aspects of the disease, including its social determinants. It also highlights the potential of Photovoice as an effective means to bring much-needed attention to this disease. PMID:23793302

  2. Obstacles to contraceptive use in Pakistan: a study in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Casterline, J B; Sathar, Z A; ul Haque, M

    2001-06-01

    The principal aim of this study is to assess the strength in Pakistan of a set of hypothesized obstacles to practicing contraception. Survey data are analyzed that were collected in Punjab province in 1996 and that contain unusually detailed measurement of various perceived costs of practicing contraception, as well as focused measurement of fertility motivation. The framework guiding the research specifies six major obstacles to contraceptive use: the strength of motivation to avoid pregnancy, awareness and knowledge of contraception, the social and cultural acceptability of contraception, perceptions of the husband's preferences and attitudes, health concerns, and perceived access to services. Net effects of each obstacle are estimated through structural equation modeling of the intention to practice contraception in the near future, in which the six obstacles are treated as latent variables. The estimates indicate that the two principal obstacles to using a contraceptive are the woman's perception that such behavior would conflict with her husband's fertility preferences and his attitudes toward family planning and her perception of the social or cultural unacceptability of contraception. The results confirm the value of taking contraceptive costs seriously, and, in particular, of attempting to measure these costs in empirical research on family planning. PMID:11449867

  3. Stress Faced by Pakistani Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Impact on Their Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajjad, Shahida

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the stress faced by mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Pakistan and the impact of the stress on their family life. One hundred mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Karachi city, which is in Sindh region of Pakistan, were invited and interviewed. The results indicate…

  4. Moisture transport over the Arabian Sea associated with summer rainfall over Pakistan in 1994 and 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Kalim; Gao, Shouting

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the critical role of moisture transport affecting monsoon activity in two contrasting summers over the Arabian Sea during the years 1994, a relatively wet year, and 2002, a relatively dry year. A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and comparisons of the moisture fields were conducted; we focused on the precipitation and evaporation as well as the moisture transport and its divergence or convergence in the atmosphere. Monthly mean reanalysis data were obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-I and -II). A detailed evaluation of the moisture budgets over Pakistan during these two years was made by calculating the latent energy flux at the surface ( E-P) from the divergence of the total moisture transport. Our results confirm the moisture supply over the Arabian Sea to be the major source of rainfall in Pakistan and neighboring regions. In 1994, Pakistan received more rainfall compared to 2002 during the summer monsoon. Moisture flow deepens and strengthens over Arabian Sea during the peak summer monsoon months of July and August. Our analysis shows that vertically integrated moisture transport flux have a significant role in supplying moisture to the convective centers over Pakistan and neighboring regions from the divergent regions of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Moreover, in 1994, a deeper vertically integrated moisture convergence progression occurred over Pakistan compared to that in 2002. Perhaps that deeper convergence resulted in a more intense moisture depression over Pakistan and also caused more rainfall in 1994 during the summer monsoon. Finally, from the water budget analysis, it has been surmised that the water budget was larger in 1994 than in 2002 during the summer monsoon.

  5. The pediatric disease spectrum in emergency departments across Pakistan: data from a pilot surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing number of urgently ill and injured children being seen in emergency departments (ED) of developing countries. The pediatric disease burden in EDs across Pakistan is generally unknown. Our main objective was to determine the spectrum of disease and injury among children seen in EDs in Pakistan through a nationwide ED-based surveillance system. Methods Through the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), data were collected from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major tertiary care centers representing all provinces of Pakistan. These included five public and two private hospitals, with a collective annual census of over one million ED encounters. Results Of 25,052 children registered in Pak-NEDS (10% of all patients seen): 61% were male, 13% under 5 years, while almost 65% were between 10 to < 16 years. The majority (90%) were seen in public hospital EDs. About half the patients were discharged from the EDs, 9% admitted to hospitals and only 1.3% died in the EDs. Injury (39%) was the most common presenting complaint, followed by fever/malaise (19%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (18%). Injury was more likely in males vs. females (43% vs. 33%; p < 0.001), with a peak presentation in the 5-12 year age group (45%). Conclusions Pediatric patients constitute a smaller proportion among general ED users in Pakistan. Injury is the most common presenting complaint for children seen in the ED. These data will help in resource allocation for cost effective pediatric ED service delivery systems. Prospective longer duration surveillance is needed in more representative pediatric EDs across Pakistan. PMID:26691052

  6. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P.; van den Broek, Nynke R.

    2015-01-01

    Background For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Methods Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. Results One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (<10%). There were marked differences in psychological morbidity: 26.9% of women in Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001), intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02) were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests

  7. Lateral relationships in the Laki formation, Ganjo Takkar and Saidpur outlier, Hyderabad District, Sind Province, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Roger E.; Khan, Mohammed Riaz; Khan, Shafique Ahmed

    1989-01-01

    The sections presented were measured in an unstudied area southeast of the city of Hyderabad and 175 km northeast of Karachi, capital of Sind Province in southern Pakistan.  These sections are preliminary to more detailed studies, particularly of the fossil fauna and the Paleocene and Eocene stratigraphy in southern Pakistan.  The data present a major elucidation of the lateral relationships of individual rock units that collectively form part of the Laki Formation exposed in the Ganjo Takkar and nearby Saidpur outlier.

  8. Nuclear arms race technologies in the 1990s The case of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1988-12-15

    India and Pakistan continue to inch towards a capability to produce nuclear weapons, with India having the stronger industrial base of the two to supply the necessary nuclear materials. This trend challenges U.S. policy to discourage the further spread, or proliferation, of nuclear weapons. After providing background on the production of nuclear weapons materials, this paper briefly describes the nuclear industrial bases of India and Pakistan; reason for and against their acquisition of nuclear weapons, and related U.S. response; and suggests some options for action and for study.

  9. Nuclear arms race technologies in the 1990s The case of India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Warren H.

    1988-12-01

    India and Pakistan continue to inch towards a capability to produce nuclear weapons, with India having the stronger industrial base of the two to supply the necessary nuclear materials. This trend challenges U.S. policy to discourage the further spread, or proliferation, of nuclear weapons. After providing background on the production of nuclear weapons materials, this paper briefly describes the nuclear industrial bases of India and Pakistan; reason for and against their acquisition of nuclear weapons, and related U.S. response; and suggests some options for action and for study.

  10. Emerging nuclear programs in Asia: The Phillipines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    This article is a review of the potential for nuclear energy development in the developing nations of Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. In each country, there is a substantial need for new generating capacity, and each is exploring the idea of having nuclear energy supply a meaningful portion of this new capacity. Of the four countries, only Pakistan is currently a nuclear operator, and one vintage CANDU plant in operation and the Chashma unit under construction. Thailand and Indonesia have ambitious plans to have 12 reactors in service by the year 2015.

  11. The effect of private tubewells on income and income inequality in rural Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Huang, Qiuqiong; Giordano, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of private tubewells in rural Pakistan, farmers have increasingly used groundwater to supplement canal water for irrigation and improve the reliability of the water supply. Farmers obtain groundwater either from their own tubewells or from other well owners. This paper examines the effect of private tubewells on rural income, both in terms of income level and income distribution since it may differ across farmers with different irrigation status (only canal water, canal water and groundwater from own tubewell, and canal water and purchased groundwater). The results show that private tubewells work to enhance rural income and reduce income inequality in rural Pakistan.

  12. Evidence of Coxiella burnetii in Punjab province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Akram, Sidra; Hassan, Zia Ul; Hanif, Kashif; Rabbani, Masood; Muhammad, Javed; Chaudhary, Muhammad Hamid; Abbas, Tariq; Ghori, Muhammad Taslim; Rashid, Haroon; Jamil, Tariq; Islam, Zia-Ul-; Rasool, Haisem; Bano, Asghari; Ahmad, Arfan; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Yaqub, Tahir; McVey, Walt; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2016-11-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes query (Q) fever, an important zoonotic disease with worldwide significance. The role of environment in the ecology of C. burnetti, and its influence on seroconversion in animals has not been elucidated in Pakistan. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Punjab province to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of C. burnetii in soil using an ISIIII gene-based real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, (2) analyze association between the occurrence of C. burnetii in soil and its predictors i.e. soil characteristics (macro- and micro-nutrients) and several likely risk factors including the seroconversion in small ruminants at places where its genome had or had not been detected, and (3) predict homology and genetic diversity of the identified strains using sequences originated from different hosts worldwide. A total of 2425 soil samples from nine districts of Punjab province were processed. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 47 samples (1.94%, 95% CI: ±0.55) originating from 35 villages of studied districts (7.22%, 95% CI: ±2.30). The highest prevalence was found in Attock (7.11%, 95% CI: ±3.36), followed by Lahore (4.83%, 95% CI: ±3.49), Sahiwal (4.70%, 95% CI: ±2.6), Dera Ghazi Khan (2.33%, 95% CI: ±2.02), Faisalabad (1.35%, 95% CI: ±1.18) and Sheikhupura (0.68%, 95% CI: ±0.94). The odds of detecting bacterial DNA in soil was increased with a unit increase in organic matter [2.511 (95% CI: 1.453-4.340), p=0.001] and sodium [1.013 (95% CI: 1.005-1.022), p=0.001], whereas, calcium [0.984 (95% CI: 0.975-0.994), p=0.002] and potassium [0.994 (95% CI: 0.990-0.999), p=0.011] had protective effect where a unit increase in each analyte decreased odds for its occurrence by 1.0% approximately. Likewise, for categorical variables (risk factors), the odds of detecting C. burnetii were higher at locations >500m away from a main road [1.95 (95% CI: 1.06-3.78), p=0.04]. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

  13. A statistical downscaling model for summer rainfall over Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmi, Dildar Hussain; Li, Jianping; Ruan, Chengqing; Sen, Zhao; Li, Yanjie

    2016-02-01

    A statistical approach is utilized to construct an interannual model for summer (July-August) rainfall over the western parts of South Asian Monsoon. Observed monthly rainfall data for selected stations of Pakistan for the last 55 years (1960-2014) is taken as predictand. Recommended climate indices along with the oceanic and atmospheric data on global scales, for the period April-June are employed as predictors. First 40 years data has been taken as training period and the rest as validation period. Cross-validation stepwise regression approach adopted to select the robust predictors. Upper tropospheric zonal wind at 200 hPa over the northeastern Atlantic is finally selected as the best predictor for interannual model. Besides, the next possible candidate `geopotential height at upper troposphere' is taken as the indirect predictor for being a source of energy transportation from core region (northeast Atlantic/western Europe) to the study area. The model performed well for both the training as well as validation period with correlation coefficient of 0.71 and tolerable root mean square errors. Cross-validation of the model has been processed by incorporating JRA-55 data for potential predictors in addition to NCEP and fragmentation of study period to five non-overlapping test samples. Subsequently, to verify the outcome of the model on physical grounds, observational analyses as well as the model simulations are incorporated. It is revealed that originating from the jet exit region through large vorticity gradients, zonally dominating waves may transport energy and momentum to the downstream areas of west-central Asia, that ultimately affect interannual variability of the specific rainfall. It has been detected that both the circumglobal teleconnection and Rossby wave propagation play vital roles in modulating the proposed mechanism.

  14. Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A G

    1990-01-01

    Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed. PMID:2372605

  15. Nappe structure in a crustal scale duplex in Swat, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.D.; Snee, L.W.; Rosenberg, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    In the internal zone of thrust belts of continental collision orogens like the Himalaya metamorphic rocks of deep origin record penetrative ductile deformation. In Swat, Pakistan, this zone between the Indus suture and the sedimentary fold-and-thrust belt is narrower and tectonically simpler than elsewhere along the Himalayan orogenic belt. Here the authors have recognized large overturned, orthogneiss cored nappes of 15 km half wavelength. These are defined by para-amphibolite marker beds found in upright stratigraphic section above and in overturned section below the gneissic cores. They distinguish premetamorphic granite porphyry and tourmaline granite intruded into quartzose metasediments as gneissic cores of the nappes and a surrounding sequence of quartzites, amphibolites, and carbonates that were either deposited unconformably above the cores or premetamorphically thrust over them. Metamorphic isogrades cut across the nappe and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar hornblende dates indicate that metamorphic culmination occurred around 37-40 Ma at about 550/sup 0/C and at depths of about 20 km. These structures thus appear to predate the recognized age of metamorphism and thrusting of crystalline rocks on the MCT in the central Himalaya. They represent an early deep burial of the leading edge of the Indian shield by ophiolite slabs of oceanic lithosphere and/or the Kohistan island arc. By 30 Ma metamorphic temperatures (/sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar muscovite) had dropped to 320/sup 0/C, and the nappes were rising through the crust on underlying thrusts. The entire structure is very similar to that of the internal zone of the Alps, but such features have not previously been described in the Himalaya.

  16. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khabir; Khan, Mohammad Aman; Khan, Mohammad Daud; Qureshi, Mohammad Babar; Chaudhry, Tanveer Anjum; Gilbert, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old) attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren. PMID:16512897

  17. Analysis of uterine rupture at university teaching hospital Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Nousheen; Yousfani, Sajida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors, management modalities, fetomaternal outcome of uterine rupture cases at University teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) for a period of one year from January 1st to December 31st 2012. Main outcome measures were frequency, age, parity, booking status, risk factors, management modalities, fetal and maternal mortality associated with uterine rupture. The data was collected on pre-designed proforma analysed using SPSS Version 16 statistical package. Results: The frequency of ruptured uteri was calculated to be 0.67%, giving a ratio of 1:148 deliveries. Highest incidence was found in age group 25-30 (44.26%) with mean age of 30.36 years. and parity group 2-3 (57.37%) with mean parity 4.08. The risk factors for ruptured uterus include Caesarean section 43(70.49%), injudicious use of oxytocin 33(54.09%), obstructed labour 15 (24.59%) and multiparty 18 (29.50%). Repair of uterus was performed in 47(77.04%) cases. Maternal case fatality was 5(8.19%), while foetal wastage was 51 (83.60%). Conclusion: This study confirms the existence of a serious preventable obstetric problem, with significant maternal mortality and foetal wastage. Integrated efforts include Health education, focused antenatal care, skilled attendance, avoidance of injudicious use of oxytocin, and need of hospital based deliveries in patients with caesarean section which should be intensified to reduce this drastic obstetrical complication. PMID:26430430

  18. Toxic effects of chromium on tannery workers at Sialkot (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Mushtaq, Shahida; Khan, Farooq Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Qaiser Alam

    2013-03-01

    Chromium is widely used in the leather industry, and tannery workers are under constant threat of adverse health effects due to its excessive exposure. Our objective was to find out the toxic effects of chromium on tannery workers at Sialkot, Pakistan. A total of 240 males consisting of 120 workers from tanneries at Sialkot and equal number of controls were included. Blood complete counts, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde and routine biochemical tests were carried out by routine procedures. Chromium levels in blood (BCr) and urine were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer analyst-200. Results revealed that all the workers were male with average age of 33 years and 15 (13%) had skin rashes, 14 (12%) had chronic bronchitis, 10 (8%) had gastritis and 4 (3%) conjunctivitis. The tannery workers had significantly raised median (interquartile range) of BCr 569 (377-726) nmol/L as compared to 318 (245-397) nmol/L in the control (p < 0.001). Sixty-five (54%) workers had BCr levels above the upper limit set by Agency for Toxic Substance and Drug Registry. The urinary chromium excretion was significantly high in workers 131 (46-312) nmol/L as compared to 13 (3-26) nmol/L in controls (p < 0.01). The workers had hematological, hepatic and renal function impairment because of oxidative stress on body systems. It is concluded that about half of the workers had excessive exposure to chromium in the tanneries at Sialkot. They had significantly raised chromium levels in their biological fluids and adverse health effects due to enhanced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes. PMID:22258629

  19. Epidemiological analysis of human fascioliasis in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asma W; Tanveer, Akhtar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    A coprological study was performed to assess human fascioliasis in 7200 subjects inhabiting rural communities of localities close to the capital city of Lahore in the northeastern part of the very highly populated Punjab province, Pakistan, a country where human infection had never been reported before 2005. The analysis of 1200 subjects including 50 subjects/month throughout a two-year study in each of six localities surveyed provided an overall prevalence of 1.18%, with a range between 0.67% and 1.75% according to localities. Infection rates did not differ according to gender, excepting a higher rate in females (1.13% vs 0.77%) in one locality. Prevalences according to age groups proved to be higher in 11-20 years with 1.57%, followed by 1.18% in 0-10 years and 0.47% in 21-30 years, while no infection above 30 years. Seasonal prevalences proved to be significantly different when comparing summer and autumn with winter and spring. Monthly prevalences showed two peaks, the highest in August (4.67%) and another in January (2.17%). Correlation studies of monthly prevalences with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and pan evaporation showed significant results only with humidity. Despite prevalences being low, the very high number of inhabitants and population densities of the areas surveyed suggest a wide public health problem potentially infecting up to 150,000 rural people, children included, only in the respective districts. Additionally, the situation becomes of more concern when considering the present climate change trend affecting the Punjab, which indicates a progressively increasing fascioliasis transmission risk in that animal endemic area in the near future. PMID:26763724

  20. Seismological identification of the 1998 May 28 Pakistan nuclear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, D.; Douglas, A.; Selby, N. D.; Marshall, P. D.; Porter, D.; Wallis, N. J.

    2002-07-01

    On 1998 May 28 Pakistan announced that it had conducted an underground nuclear test. Here we assess whether seismological data, recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) being set up to help verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), can be used to identify the Pakistani test as a possible underground explosion. The prototype International Data Centre (pIDC) automatically determined the network-averaged body wave and surface wave magnitudes to be 4.9 and 3.6, respectively. One of the most reliable methods of identifying possible underground explosions is the mb : Ms criterion. However, mb : Ms is calibrated using conventional magnitudes from historical earthquakes and explosions. We calculate , in the conventional way, using P waves from the Pakistani test recorded by a simulated standard short-period seismograph and read by an experienced analyst. We also analyse the three components of the surface waves from the Pakistani test to confirm that these are correctly associated, and calculate . On mb : Ms the Pakistani test falls between the historical Eurasian underground explosion and earthquake populations. Thus, while the source may arouse suspicion on mb : Ms, its signature is typical of both explosions and deep-lithospheric Eurasian earthquakes. The vast majority of the seismic P signals from the Pakistani test, recorded at long range, are complex. However, simple P seismograms are recorded by at least three of the IMS stations. Analysis, using the relative amplitude method, of three of the simple P seismograms suggests that the source is shallow (less than 5 km). We conclude that the combination of the mb : Ms signature and shallow depth are sufficient to classify the Pakistani test as a possible explosion. Under the CTBT an on-site inspection would be required to determine whether the explosion was nuclear.

  1. Source apportionment of atmospheric particles in the UK and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.T.; Harrison, R.M.; Luhana, L.

    1995-12-31

    Intensive seasonal sampling was undertaken at urban and rural locations throughout Birmingham (UK). Dichotomous Stacked Filter Units (DSFUS) were run simultaneously with hi-vol samplers. DSFU filters were analyzed for nineteen metal species, ammonium and various anions. Hi-vol samplers were modified in order to collect particulate and vapor phase PAHs by means of filter papers and polyurethane foam plugs. Eighteen PAH species were determined by reversed-phase HPLC. Filter portions were forwarded to the University of Aveiro for analysis of elemental and organic carbon. Hi-vol air sampling equipment was run at three sites in Lahore (Pakistan) for over a year. Selected metals, anions and ammonium were quantified, along with eighteen species of particle-associated PAH. Chemical source apportionment of both the Birmingham and Lahore aerosol loads was completed using multivariate analysis. Metals and anionic data were utilized, along with organic concentrations and meteorological data. This technique typically enabled six major air pollution source categories to be identified, along with the quantitative contributions of pollutant species to each source group. The combination of measurements of PAH and inorganic pollutants proved to be a far more powerful tracer of emission sources than PAH data alone. The largest contribution to aerosol mass in the coarse sized fraction in Birmingham was observed to be soil. Whereas in the fine sized fraction major contributors are vehicular/road dust followed by secondary aerosol formation plus oil combustion. Multivariate analysis of the Lahore data revealed similar source categories to those found in Birmingham. The largest contribution to aerosol mass at all three Punjabi sites was soil. This source is followed by metallurgical processes, vehicular emissions and refuse burning.

  2. Iron/folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents neonatal and under-five mortality in Pakistan: propensity score matched sample from two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir B.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies from low- and middle-income countries have reported a protective effect of maternal antenatal iron/folic acid (IFA) on childhood mortality. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal antenatal IFA supplementation on childhood mortality in Pakistan. Design A propensity score–matched sample of 8,512 infants live-born within the 5 years prior to interview was selected from the pooled data of two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (2006/07 and 2012/13). The primary outcomes were childhood mortality indicators and the main exposure variable was maternal antenatal IFA supplementation. Post-matched analyses used Cox proportional hazards regression and adjusted for 16 potential confounders. Results Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the adjusted risk of death on day 0 by 33% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.48–0.94], during the neonatal period by 29% (aHR=0.71, 95% CI 0.57–0.88), and for under-fives by 27% (aHR=0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.89). When IFA was initiated in the first 4 months of pregnancy, the adjusted risk of neonatal and under-five deaths was significantly reduced by 35 and 33%, respectively. Twenty percent of under-five deaths were attributable to non-initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy. With universal initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy, 80,300 under-five deaths could be prevented annually in Pakistan. Conclusions Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced neonatal and under-five deaths in Pakistan. Earlier initiation of supplements in pregnancy was associated with a greater prevention of neonatal and under-five deaths. PMID:26873178

  3. Mercury contamination in deposited dust and its bioaccumulation patterns throughout Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Qamar, Sehrish; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Sohail, Muhammad; Mulla, Sikandar I; Fasola, Mauro; Shen, Heqing

    2016-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of environment is a major threat to human health in developing countries like Pakistan. Human populations, particularly children, are continuously exposed to Hg contamination via dust particles due to the arid and semi-arid climate. However, a country wide Hg contamination data for dust particles is lacking for Pakistan and hence, human populations potentially at risk is largely unknown. We provide the first baseline data for total mercury (THg) contamination into dust particles and its bioaccumulation trends, using scalp human hair samples as biomarker, at 22 sites across five altitudinal zones of Pakistan. The human health risk of THg exposure via dust particles as well as the proportion of human population that are potentially at risk from Hg contamination were calculated. Our results indicated higher concentration of THg in dust particles and its bioaccumulation in the lower Indus-plain agricultural and industrial areas than the other areas of Pakistan. The highest THg contamination of dust particles (3000ppb) and its bioaccumulation (2480ppb) were observed for the Lahore district, while the highest proportion (>40%) of human population was identified to be potentially at risk from Hg contamination from these areas. In general, children were at higher risk of Hg exposure via dust particles than adults. Regression analysis identified the anthropogenic activities, such as industrial and hospital discharges, as the major source of Hg contamination of dust particles. Our results inform environmental management for Hg control and remediation as well as the disease mitigation on potential hotspots. PMID:27372253

  4. From LAMP to Koha: Case Study of the Pakistan Legislative Assembly Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafi-Ullah, Farasat; Qutab, Saima

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to elaborate the library data migration process from LAMP (Library Automation Management Program) to the open source software Koha's (2.2.8 Windows based) Pakistani flavour PakLAG-Koha in six legislative assembly libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains different steps of the data migration…

  5. Relational Capital Quality and Client Loyalty: Firm-Level Evidence from Pharmaceuticals, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarik, Shujaat; Chandran, V. G. R.; Devadason, Evelyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the influence of relational capital quality on client loyalty, comprising both behavioral and attitudinal, in the pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The partial least squares technique is used to test the relationship using a sample of 111 pharmaceutical firms. We applied a…

  6. The Effects of Cluster-Based Mentoring Programme on Classroom Teaching Practices: Lessons from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Meher; Nagy, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a teacher training approach called the cluster-based mentoring programme (CBMP) for the professional development of government primary school teachers in Pakistan. The study sought to find differences in the teaching practices between districts where the CBMP was used (intervention) and control districts where it…

  7. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases. Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of these diseases that can limit yields in the area. Thus developing and cultivating genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the only sustaina...

  8. Madrasas and Pakistan's Education Agenda: Western Media Misrepresentation and Policy Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a link between certain madrasas in Pakistan and militant Islamic fundamentalism. However, this link has been inflated by Western media in an attempt to indict madrasas as the genesis of violent Islamic radicalism. The following study draws upon recent research and overlooked historical narratives, demonstrating that…

  9. Phylogenetic and biological characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is endemic in Pakistan and is a major problem to their poultry industry. Since Newcastle Disease is highly contagious and clinically similar to the highly pathogenic avian influenza, accurate and rapid monitoring of an outbreak is very important. Additionally, ...

  10. The Main Reasons of Declining Educational Standards at Secondary Level in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faizi, Waqar-un-Nisa; Shakil, Anila Fatima; Lodhi, Farida Azim

    2011-01-01

    The cause of this investigation was to identify the main reasons which decline the educational standards at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. It was carried out through survey. The population of the study was both "government and private" schools students and teachers. The views of male and female students and teachers were sought out. One…

  11. Conflicts in Higher Education and Perceived Quality of Education: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhtar, Uzma; Islam, Zohurul; Siengthai, Sununta

    2011-01-01

    Both public and private universities in Pakistan are playing vital role in developing human resources as per sectoral demand. It is observed that conflict in the public universities occur more frequently than in the past and as a result, has an impact on educational outcomes in terms of qualified potential human resources. This is a study of some…

  12. Education of Women with Disabilities in Pakistan: Enhanced Agency, Unfulfilled Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammad, Tehmina; Singal, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the capability approach captures the complexity of the lives of young women with disabilities in Pakistan, particularly in relation to their education. Focusing on their educational experiences and outcomes, we examine the ways in which education shaped what these young women were able to achieve--what they…

  13. Lithofacies, depositional environments, and regional stratigraphy of the lower Eocene Ghazij Formation, Balochistan, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Edward A.; Warwick, P.D.; Roberts, S.B.; Khan, I.H.

    1999-01-01

    A regional stratigraphic investigation of one of the most important coal-bearing lithostratigraphic units in Pakistan, the report includes sedimentologic observations taken from outcrops and measured sections, information derived from petrographic and paleontologic analyses, depositional interpretations, and descriptions of regional trends.

  14. Determining the Effects of Mobbing on Organizational Commitment: A Case of Educational Sector in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ur Rehman, Fazal; Javed, Farwida; Khan, Aminullah; Nawaz, Tariq; Hyder, Shabir

    2015-01-01

    Mobbing is an activity where a group of people behave negatively against a person to enforce him/her in an unsecure position to push out of the organization. The study assessed this behavior by collecting data through questionnaires based survey from the employees of universities in Pakistan. Questionnaires were circulated among 400 employees of…

  15. A New Vision of Professional Development for Tertiary Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudary, Imran Anjum

    2011-01-01

    Professional development for tertiary teachers in Pakistan is problematic. In most cases, it does not exist; and if it does, it is very brief, sporadic and traditional, and is conveyed off-site through top-down teacher training strategies. The Pakistani tertiary education sector is predominantly public in nature and consists of two main wings: the…

  16. INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qahir, Katayon

    2007-01-01

    This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

  17. Interpretive Analysis of New Teacher Education Curriculum Reform Introduced in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huma, Afshan

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is among those South Asian countries that are still striving for a successful education policy to be in place for achieving the goals of quantity and quality. For more than 66 years there have been many interventions and initiatives to reform current practices in public educational institutions. In 2009 a similar initiative was taken by…

  18. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  19. Issues of Access in Public and Private Higher Education Institutions in Islamabad, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Majid

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the issues of access in public and private higher education institutions in Islamabad, Pakistan. The policies and institutions currently in place to deal with access related issues are not effective, therefore, not providing students with the support systems to help them succeed at the institutions of higher learning. The…

  20. Pathological and phylogenetic characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from Israel and Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry worldwide caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). New strains of NDV frequently emerge, creating challenges for disease control. Since 2012, NDV strains of new genotype VIIi have been reported in Israel and Pakistan, b...

  1. Causes of the Decline of Education in Pakistan and Its Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Ali, Riasat; Khan, Muhammad Saeed; Hussain, Shaukat; Fatima, Zakia Tanzeela

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy rate and poor quality of education are the major drawbacks of the educational system in Pakistan. Our education is influenced by a number of factors that cause this downfall. Some of them are more prominent, such as low enrollment and high dropout rate at the primary level, different standards of education, low budget allocation for…

  2. Current situation and challenges in implementing Malaria control strategies in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ghanchi, N K; Shakoor, S; Thaver, A M; Khan, M S; Janjua, A; Beg, M A

    2016-08-01

    Malaria transmission is unstable in Pakistan with the highest number of cases reported during the monsoon season. Despite its high incidence, malaria is still a poorly resourced, poorly funded and an uncontrolled disease especially in far-flung areas. Pakistan's National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), although operational since its inception in 1947, has suffered due to the unstable political, socioeconomic and financial situation prevalent in the country. In Pakistan, more than 300 000 cases of malaria are reported every year with 68% of the cases caused by Plasmodium vivax. It is estimated that about 70-80% of the population accesses the private sector for treatment. As the private sector does not routinely report data to the government, the actual malaria burden could be 4-5 times higher than reported. P. vivax now accounts for more than 85% of all cases requiring hospital admission compared to 54% in 2000. In this review, we have described the saga of poor control of malaria in Pakistan over several years in context of restructuring of the Malaria Control Program, challenges to improvement, and way forward. PMID:25358057

  3. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  4. Evaluation of Curriculum at the Primary Level in Light of Education Policies and Plans in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perveen, Shahida

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on a research conducted to evaluate the curriculum at the primary level in the light of education policies and plans in Pakistan. The article discusses the objectives of the curriculum at the primary level and analyzes different education policies and plans regarding the achievements of objectives. Results revealed that the…

  5. Pakistan and the Five Themes of Geography. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Claudette

    Using the country of Pakistan, this project is designed to reinforce student knowledge about the five themes of geography and to develop creative ways of transferring written information into maps, charts, and timelines. The five themes are location, place, human-environmental relations, movement, and regions. Students are asked to present…

  6. Learning to Be Literate in Andhra Pradesh (Southern India) and Punjab District (Pakistan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brigid

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares first-grade education projects in rural India and Pakistan that have attempted to shift from rote learning of texts to an active, experiential, child-centered approach to literacy learning. Examples of successful approaches and techniques, as well as implications for literacy programs in general, are discussed. (MDM)

  7. Language Management: A Snapshot of Governmentality within the Private Schools in Quetta, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manan, Syed Abdul; David, Maya Khemlani; Dumanig, Francisco Perlas

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is a multilingual and multiethnic country; however, this diversity stands unrecognized in the formal language-in-education policies. Estimates suggest that about 90% of children who speak over 60 indigenous languages do not have access to education in their mother tongues. Linguists estimate that exclusive teaching of Urdu and English…

  8. Successful Leadership Practices of Head Teachers for School Improvement: Some Evidence from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfi, Naseer Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to identify the successful leadership practices of head teachers for school improvement at secondary level in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The study was descriptive (survey type) in nature. It was conducted on a sample of 351 secondary school head teachers, 702 elementary and secondary school…

  9. Complete genome sequence of a recent panzootic virulent Newcastle disease virus from Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequence of a new strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (chicken/Pak/Lahore-611/2013) is reported. The strain was isolated from a vaccinated chicken flock in Pakistan in 2013 and has panzootic features. The genome is 15192 nucleotides in length and is classified as sub-genotype V...

  10. The Urban and Rural Fellowship School Experiments in Pakistan: Design, Evaluation, and Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orazem, Peter F.

    The province of Balochistan has the worst educational attainment in Pakistan, which has low educational attainment compared to countries with similar income levels. In light of several factors constraining the Balochistan government's ability to expand school supply in poor areas, private schools were thought to offer potential benefits for…

  11. Islam through the History and Culture of Pakistan. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William E.

    This project introduces a syllabus for studying comparative politics among Canada, Pakistan, and Japan. Students learn that comparative politics provides an understanding of how different political systems operate and the importance of culture in understanding politics. Three functions are addressed in the course: system functions, process…

  12. A critical analysis of the current state of neurosurgery training in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, M. Shahzad; Tahir, M. Zubair; Godil, Saniya Siraj; Kumar, Rajesh; Siddiqui, Arshad Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe interdepartmental variation in the availability of resources and academic activities within the various neurosurgery programs of Pakistan. Methods: This was a proforma-based survey of neurosurgery trainees and young neurosurgeons of Pakistan, looking at the academic infrastructure and output of their programs. The proforma was filled by 36 respondents from 11 neurosurgery centers of the country. All these centers were accredited for neurosurgery training in Pakistan. Results: Out of the 36 respondents, 30 were completing a Fellowship training (FCPS) and six were enrolled for a Master in Surgery (MS) program. About 80% of the participants used the Youman's Textbook of Neurosurgery as a reference book. Only 40% of the candidates had access to more than one indexed neurosurgery journal. Structured academic sessions (e.g., journal clubs and neuropathology meetings) were lacking in a majority of the training institutes, 95% of the trainees had no microsurgical laboratory experience, and modern neurosurgical tools (frameless neuronavigation system, neuroendoscopy) were in use at a few centers only. Conclusion: Neurosurgery training in Pakistan is not uniform and wide variations exist between the programs at the centers evaluated. We recommend exchange programs between centers at national and international levels, to allow trainees to gain first-hand exposure to training components not available in their own center. PMID:22276237

  13. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  14. Development of Reflective Thinking through Distance Teacher Education Programs at AIOU Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the possibilities of developing reflective thinking among learners through distance education programs. The case of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan is examined to achieve this task. The study is based on Mezirow's theory of reflective thinking, which divides thinking in four…

  15. The Role Perceptions of Government and Non-Government Headteachers in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Tim; Garrett, Viv; Memon, Muhammad; Ali, Rana Nazir

    1998-01-01

    A study of the principal's role involved interviews of six headteachers of government and nongovernment secondary schools in Karachi, Pakistan, and reviews of five one-week activity diaries. Nongovernmental principals had more managerial freedom, but governmental principals operated under less personal control by their superiors. The latter used a…

  16. Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

    2010-01-01

    Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

  17. Becoming Teacher Educators in Pakistan: Voices from the Government Colleges of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Haji Karim

    2011-01-01

    Little is known of the identities and practices of teacher educators in Pakistan. This paper aims to contribute towards redressing that situation. It draws on part of a larger scale study to explore the lives of two teacher educators in one of the largest cities in the country, discussing what influences individuals as they develop their…

  18. School Quality and Cognitive Achievement Production: A Case Study of Rural Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Jere R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines determinants of cognitive achievement in rural Pakistan, controlling for cognitive ability, family background, various school quality measures, and educational attainment. Estimates indicate substantial variation in school effectiveness. Investments that improve teacher quality and increase student exposure to teachers are likely to have…

  19. Crisis Preparedness and Response for Schools: An Analytical Study of Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad Latif; Niazi, Hamid Khan

    2015-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the Preparedness and Response to crises in School Education department at secondary level in Punjab, Pakistan. This was done through the experiences and views of District Education Officers (DEOs), Head of Schools and Secondary School Teachers (SST). The purpose of the study was not only to examine preparedness…

  20. Presence of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus in Vaccinated Chickens in Farms in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Nazir, Bushra; Mukhtar, Nadia; Hussain, Abid; Lone, Nazir Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    One year after a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) outbreak in Pakistan, the causative strain was present in vaccinated chickens of multiple farms despite the existence of high-average NDV-specific antibody titers (>4.75 log2). The data suggest a possible role of vaccinated birds as reservoirs of vNDV. PMID:25694525

  1. Leadership and Decision-Making Practices in Public versus Private Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulfqar, A.; Valcke, M.; Devos, G.; Tuytens, M.; Shahzad, A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine differences in leadership and decision-making practices in public and private universities in Pakistan, with a focus on transformational leadership (TL) and participative decision-making (PDM). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 46 deans and heads of department from two public and two private…

  2. Parents' Attitude toward Daughters' Education in Tribal Area of Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    The paper aimed to investigate the parents' attitudes toward their daughters' education in tribal areas of district Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan). To achieve the objectives four research questions were established. Focus of the questions was to examine the significance of girls' education for tribal parents. Existing and expected role of tribal…

  3. Critical Discourse Analysis of Moderated Discussion Board of Virtual University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perveen, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    The paper critically evaluated the discursive practices on the Moderated Discussion Board (MDB) of Virtual University of Pakistan (VUP). The paramount objective of the study was to conduct a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the MDB on the Learning Management System (LMS) of VUP. For this purpose, the academic power relations of the students…

  4. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran-Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida-Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan-Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks' lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  5. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  6. The Impact of Tertiary Education on Development of Moderate Society in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atika, Samrana

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to find out the impact of tertiary education on development of moderate Islamic society in Pakistan. The population of the study constituted of all the teachers engaged on teaching and all the students studying in the colleges. The study was delimited to the area of public sector college education. Cluster sampling technique was…

  7. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  8. Employment and Learning Outcomes of LIS Graduates: A Case of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warraich, Nosheen Fatima; Ameen, Kanwal

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the perceptions of Library and Information Science (LIS) graduates about their learning outcomes in the Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) programme at the University of the Punjab and their employment outcomes in the marketplace. Why do LIS graduates choose librarianship as a profession in Pakistan? What is their…

  9. The Early Impact of the Grant of Autonomy to Government Educational Institutions in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Zafar; Davies, Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Explores the financial and administrative autonomy granted to selected colleges in Punjab, Pakistan. Analyzes the rationale and organizational structure of the privatization scheme. Describes a pilot study of two autonomous colleges, focusing on participants' reactions to implementation problems. Autonomy is not working as intended, and negative…

  10. HRM Practices in Public and Private Universities of Pakistan: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar; Arif, Muhammad Irfan; Abbas, Furrakh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the HRM practices of public and private universities in Punjab province of Pakistan. The data for the study was collected through a questionnaire comprising 30 items mainly related to job definition, training and development, compensation, team work, employee's participation and performance appraisal. The…

  11. Role of Distance Education in the Expansion of Female Education Higher Level in Pakistan: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sufiana K.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper investigated the role of distance education in the expansion of educational facilities for females at higher levels of education in Pakistan. The findings of the study report that distance education is playing a vital role in the expansion of female education at higher level as such females who, due to some personal or social…

  12. The Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, A. R.

    A brief description of Pakistan (physical setting, population, economy, government, communications, and rural development program) and its educational system introduce a description of the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Islamabad. AIOU was established by the Pakistani government primarily to provide adult and continuing education through…

  13. A Study of Student's Attitude towards Distance Education Programme in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Akhlaque, Muhammad; Hafeez, Muhammad Rashid

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to measure the attitude of the students towards teacher training programs through Distance Education offered by Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Islamabad, Pakistan. To achieve the said end, the descriptive method of research was considered appropriate. The population of the study consisted of the B. Ed.…

  14. Crucial Study of Primary Schools of District Rajanpur, Punjab: A Case Study from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Shamsheer; Iqbal, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    The main function of the study was crucial study of primary schools of district Rajanpur, Punjab, Pakistan. The research is based on main and minor sources. The data are collected from students, teachers, parents and officers through questionnaire. 100 students, 100 teachers, 100 parents and 50 officers are selected for sample. Researchers are…

  15. Critical Analysis of the Problems of Education in Pakistan: Possible Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Iqbal; ur Rehman, Kahil; Ali, Asghar; Khan, Itbar; Khan, Fazal Akber

    2014-01-01

    Education lays the foundation for political, social and economic development of any country. A viable education system enables the nation to achieve its national goals. Pakistan as a developing country has faced critical problems of education since its inception and therefore, the system of education has failed to deliver according to the…

  16. Role of Non-Governmental Organizations for the Development of Basic Education in Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Javed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the general working structure of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and to examine the services and facilities provided by NGOs for basic education in Punjab, Pakistan. The population comprised 112 NGOs working for the promotion of basic education in Punjab, 3980 teachers working in basic education…

  17. Dual Mode Offering as Viable Approach for Promotion of Higher Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative…

  18. Exploring Factors Affecting Girls' Education at Secondary Level: A Case of Karak District, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Aslam, Hassan Danial; Habib, Muhammad Badar; Yasmeen, Kausar; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Akhtar, Zaitoon; Akhtar, Basreen

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the factors that affect girls' education at secondary school level in Karak District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan). All the female heads, teachers and students serving and studying at secondary school level in Karak District constituted the population of the study. The study was delimited to only 30 girls' secondary schools in…

  19. Public-Private Partnership in Education: A Ray of Hope for Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Sehba

    2013-01-01

    Pakistani children and education face continuous challenges as a result of human callousness and natural forces. These ordeals are more extreme than in many other parts of the world; however, the disadvantages do not end there. An additional, less explored, issue is the effect of class distinction in the Pakistan school system. The majority of…

  20. SPECIAL PROBLEMS REPORT, ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR RURAL POPULATION IN PAKISTAN AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALI KHAN, ANSAR

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE NEED FOR FUNCTIONAL, SEQUENTIAL PROGRAMS OF LITERACY, VOCATIONAL, LIBERAL, POLITICAL, AND HUMAN RELATIONS EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES ARE SEEN IN THE OCCUPATIONAL CASTE SYSTEM, FAMILY STRUCTURES, ATTITUDES TOWARD THE EDUCATION OF BOYS AND GIRLS, POOR MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND…

  1. A Critical Analysis of School Enrollment and Literacy Rates of Girls and Women in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Amna

    2009-01-01

    Since Pakistan's inception in 1947, the government has made continuous efforts to provide free, universal, basic education to its citizens. This is evidenced by educational plans, policies, and five-year education sector reforms, including partnerships with international agencies and developed countries. However, these efforts have not yielded any…

  2. Investigating Foreign Language Learning Anxiety among Students Learning English in a Public Sector University, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopang, Illahi Bux; Bughio, Faraz Ali; Pathan, Habibullah

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated foreign language anxiety among students of Lasbela University, Baluchistan, Pakistan. The study adopted the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz et al., 1986). The respondents were (N = 240) including 26 female and 214 male. The data was run through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)…

  3. Literacy for Women and Their Participation in the Labour Force in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    In rural Pakistan, agricultural land is owned by men and they use family labor, including women. Women usually transact no cash from cradle to grave. There is no social support for high achievement in their lives. The illiteracy rate among women is very high, especially in rural areas, where only 7.3 percent of women are literate. Poor…

  4. Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization: The Case of Pakistan. Studies in Education & Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    This study examines the relationship between the educational system, the ethnic communities, and political instability in Pakistan. The major assumption of this study is that, with socioeconomic and political inequities aside, the educational policies alone lack the representation of indigeneous ethnic values in the national educational system,…

  5. Education and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Muhammad; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Sarwar, Kafeel

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the cointegration and causality between education and economic growth in Pakistan by using time series data on real gross domestic product (RGDP), labour force, physical capital and education from 1970-1971 to 2008-2009 were used. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model of Cointegration and the Augmented Granger Causality…

  6. The Paradigm Shift: Leadership Challenges in the Public Sector Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansoor, Zahida

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that school heads as leaders are vital to the successful implementation of educational reforms (Derek, 2009; Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008). Education system in Pakistan is going through a paradigm shift from teacher centered to learner centered classrooms using English as the instructional language. The…

  7. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  8. Community Management of Intellectual Disabilities in Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, I.; Tareen, A.; Davidson, L. L.; Rahman, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pakistan has one of the highest reported rates of childhood intellectual disabilities (ID) in the world. Prevalence estimates vary from 19.1/1000 for serious ID to 65/1000 for mild ID. Methods: We surveyed carers of persons with ID (n = 100) using quantitative and qualitative instruments. We conducted in-depth interviews of carers (n =…

  9. Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

    2006-01-01

    This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing…

  10. Vulnerability of Internally Displaced Children in Disaster Relief Camps of Pakistan: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with the second highest infant and child mortality rates in South Asia. During the past years this region has undergone several humanitarian emergencies that have negatively affected all the aspects of health and development of young children. During these emergencies relief camps are set up by governmental and…

  11. Resilience and Academic Achievement of Male and Female Secondary Level Students in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Inamullah, Hafiz; Khan, Naeemullah; Anwar, Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to succeed despite barriers that make it difficult for the students to succeed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between resilience and academic achievement of secondary level students of Gujranwala, Pakistan. A Resilience scale was used to collect data. The sample consisted of 127 secondary…

  12. Selected Bibliography and Abstracts of Educational Materials in Pakistan. Volume 4, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Ed.

    This selected list of 121 citations on the public education system of Pakistan is annotated to give the description and appropriate level of each document. Entries are arranged according to 33 major topics: 1) education administration, organization, and finance; 2) educational history, educational philosophy; 3) educational development,…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials in Pakistan; July-September 1969, Volume 3, Number 3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Comp.

    This 123-item bibliography with English abstracts of recent books and articles on various aspects of Pakistan education includes a special section on new education policy. Emphasis is placed on elementary, secondary, and higher education, history of education, literature for children, science education, sociology, teacher training, and women's…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials in Pakistan. April-June 1969. Vol. 3, No. 2, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Comp.

    A 136-item bibliography covering April-June 1969 with English abstracts of books and articles in English and Indic languages provides information on various aspects of education in Pakistan. Significant emphasis is placed on sections dealing with libraries; teachers; and general, elementary, and secondary education. Briefer sections deal with (1)…

  15. The Relative Effectiveness of Government and Private Schools in Pakistan: Are Girls Worse Off?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence from Pakistan points to significant pro-male bias within households in the allocation of education expenditures. This raises two important questions. Is less spent on enrolled girls than boys through differential school-type choice for the two sexes; for example, through a greater likelihood of sending boys to fee-charging private…

  16. Higher Education in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan after 9/11: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Syed Hafeez; Junaid, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The troubled state of affairs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan portends serious repercussions and grave consequences, destined to affect education particularly higher education in the entire tribal belt. Ironically, no extensive study has been conducted, to investigate those dimensions of FATA higher education which…

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of General Practitioners regarding Autism in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…

  18. School Ka Sabaq: Literacy in a Girls' Primary School in Rural Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Iffat

    Literacy learning practices in the context of a girls' school in Pakistan are described as part of a larger study. "School ka sabaq" or "school lesson" is recognized as involving reading and writing activities as well as behavior particular to the institution of the school. The goals of school ka sabaq, which are to pass exams and acquire…

  19. The Effect of Clinical Clerkship on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajid, Ayesha; Khan, Murad M.; Shakir, Murtaza; Moazam-Zaman, Riffat; Ali, Asad

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Attitudes of medical students toward a specialty is strongly related to their future choice of specialty. In developing countries like Pakistan, where there is a shortage of psychiatrists, there is a need to assess the effect of exposure to psychiatry on medical students. Methods: The authors conducted a survey of fourth-year medical…

  20. Libraries' Services at Distance: A Survey of Allama Iqbal Open University Tutors in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…

  1. Tenure Track System in Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Tayyeb Ali; Jabeen, Nasira

    2011-01-01

    Tenure track system (TTS) was introduced in higher education institutions of Pakistan in 2002 as part of administrative reforms. The main objectives of the reform were to improve performance of higher education in the country through attracting qualified people and improving performance of academic faculty of higher education institutions…

  2. Burn injury characteristics: findings from Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Burn injury is an important yet under-researched area in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics and associated outcomes of burn injury patients presenting to major emergency departments in Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. Information related to patient demographics, mode of arrival, cause of burn injury, and outcomes was analyzed for this paper. Data were entered using Epi Info and analyzed using SPSS v.20. Ethical approval was obtained from all participating sites. Results There were 403 burn injury patients in Pak-NEDS, with a male to female ratio 2:1. About 48.9% of the burn injury patients (n = 199) were between 10 - 29 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference between unintentional and intentional burn injury patients except for body part injured (p-value 0.004) and ED disposition (p-value 0.025). Among 21 patients who died, most were between 40 - 49 years of age (61.9%) and suffered from fire burns (81%). Conclusion Burn injuries are a burden on emergency rooms in Pakistan. We were able to demonstrate the significant burden of burn injuries that is not addressed by specialized burn centers. PMID:26692165

  3. 75 FR 67015 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, September 3, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27673 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing... Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority... Department of State, related to humanitarian needs resulting from recent devastating flooding in...

  4. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  5. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  6. Prospects of Renewable Energy for Meeting Growing Electricity Demand in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uqaili, Mohammad Aslam; Harijan, Khanji; Memon, Mujeebuddin

    2007-10-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. Majority of the country's population resides in rural areas and most of them are yet without electricity. Conventional electricity generation includes 66.8% thermal, 30% hydel and 3.3% nuclear. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan will increase in the range of 12 MTOE to 17 MTOE by the year 2018, at an average growth rate of about 5% to 7% and will require installed capacity of about 35 GW to 50 GW. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. Thermal power generation on the other hand also pollutes the environment. This paper presents the availability of renewables such as hydel, solar, wind and biomass energy, and their prospects for meeting growing electricity demand in Pakistan and subsequent contribution in air pollution abatement. The study concludes that there is substantial potential of these renewables and they have also bright prospects for meeting growing electricity demand in Pakistan.

  7. Is Skill Training a Good Investment for the Poor? The Evidence from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janjua, Shehryar

    2011-01-01

    Technical and vocational skills development (TVSD) has received pronounced emphasis in planning and policy texts in Pakistan over the last decade. Several positive outcomes are typically ascribed to TVSD, ranging from purely economic (increased productivity, competitiveness and economic growth) to social (improved employment, poverty-reduction and…

  8. Comprehensive Bibliography of Pakistan Archaeology: Paleolithic to Historic Times. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Denise E.

    The comprehensive bibliography is a compilation of twentieth century documents about Pakistan prehistory from Paleolithic times to the arrival of the Greeks in approximately 330 B.C., also includes some of the major archaeological studies in adjacent countries which have a bearing on the interpretation and comparative analysis of Pakistan…

  9. Relationship among School Size, School Culture and Students' Achievement at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad Salfi, Naseer; Saeed, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to determine the relationship among school size, school culture and students' achievement at secondary level in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The study was descriptive (survey type). It was conducted on a sample of 90 secondary school head teachers and 540 primary, elementary and high school teachers working in…

  10. Curriculum and National Identity: Exploring the Links between Religion and Nation in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrani, Naureen; Dunne, Mairead

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between schooling and conflict in Pakistan using an identity-construction lens. Drawing on data from curriculum documents, student responses to classroom activities, and single-sex student focus groups, it explores how students in four state primary schools in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP),…

  11. A Study of the Rapid Growth of "O" and "A" Levels of Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishfaq, Umbreen

    2009-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the views of students, parents and teachers regarding the rapid growth of ordinary "O" and advanced "A" level education systems and its implications for Pakistan. The main objective of study was to identify the importance of and social acceptance of "O" and…

  12. Synchronous and Asynchronous E-Language Learning: A Case Study of Virtual University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perveen, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    This case study evaluated the impact of synchronous and asynchronous E-Language Learning activities (ELL-ivities) in an E-Language Learning Environment (ELLE) at Virtual University of Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess e-language learning analytics based on the constructivist approach of collaborative construction of knowledge. The…

  13. The Status of Primary School Buildings in the Rural Villages of Pakistan, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Farhat; Eastmond, Jefferson N.

    An April-May 1976 nationwide sample of more than 800 schools in rural Pakistan provides data to form composite pictures of the typical boys school and girls school. An observation checklist records such aspects as: (1) government ownership of building; (2) structural soundness and maintenance of walls, roof, veranda, steps, floors, windows; (3)…

  14. THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS PRESENT AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS IN PAKISTAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AHMED, FIROZA

    COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS ARE ANALYZED IN THIS STUDY TO CLARIFY THEIR DEMOCRATIC PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION, TO IDENTIFY PROGRAMS IN INDIA, EGYPT, IRAN, AFGHANISTAN, THE PHILIPPINES, AND BURMA HAVING POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE FOR PAKISTAN, AND TO SUGGEST SOCIAL SERVICE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES THAT SHOULD BE EXPANDED OR INAUGURATED IN…

  15. Improving Professional Development System through Quality Assurance Practices in the Universities of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Khalid, M. Ibrahim; Bakhsh, Khuda; Mohsin, Muhammad Naeem; Rasool, Shafqat; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2016-01-01

    The rationalization of this research was to investigate about improving professional development system through Quality Assurance Practices (QAP) in the Universities of Pakistan pertaining to the opinions of students, teachers and Directors of Quality Enhancement Cells (QECs) and to differentiate the ideas of students, teachers and Directors of…

  16. Effects of Mothers' Employment on Toddlers' Cognitive Development: A Study Conducted in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meherali, Salima Moez; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades in Pakistan, an increasing number of women with young children are joining the workforce, which is one of the biggest social changes in the later half of the twentieth century. More children are being raised in households where mothers work for pay as compared with the scenario a generation ago. This change has…

  17. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  18. Comments on "Measuring the Education Gap in Primary and Secondary Schooling in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, A

    1992-01-01

    Naushin Mahmood and G. M. Zahid's article on the status of primary and secondary education in Pakistan was summarized and commented upon. It was noted that an error in one of the tables was misleading, and the article had indicated both an expansion of primary school facilities in rural areas was needed, and school facilities were underutilized in rural areas. The authors have suggested that funds for higher education be reallocated to primary and secondary education, but higher education still needs increased funding to provide for libraries and specialized facilities which are lacking. The tables of data were appropriate and informative, but more updated would have strengthened their argument about the disparities in education by gender and region. The title of the article was a misnomer. The article provided a comprehensive view of enrollment in primary and secondary education, continuation or retention, and utilization of schools by gender and region and urban/rural status during the 1970s and mid-1980s. There is evidence provided that Pakistan has disparities and imbalances by gender and urban and rural residence and region in education. There has been a slow expansion of education and inability to meet targets, partly due to funding gaps. Efficiency and equity would be improved with a better distribution of public funds. The authors provided an "excellent attempt" to establish basic facts about the educational system in Pakistan; the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics is commended for supporting the Eighth General Meeting of the Pakistan Society of Development Economists and encouraging young economists to examine social issues, such as education. PMID:12286756

  19. Sympatric species distribution, genetic diversity and population structure of Haemonchus isolates from domestic ruminants in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tanveer; Periasamy, Kathiravan; Nadeem, Asif; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Pichler, Rudolf; Diallo, Adama

    2014-12-15

    Haemonchus species are major gastro-intestinal parasites affecting ruminants across the world. The present study aimed to assess the sympatric species distribution, genetic diversity, population structure and frequency of β-tubulin isotype 1 alleles associated with benzimidazole resistance. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences revealed three sympatric species of Haemonchus, H. contortus, H. placei and H. longistipes with 12 distinct genotypes circulating among ruminant hosts in Pakistan. High genetic variability was observed in Pakistani Haemonchus isolates at nicotine amide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene loci. Intra-population diversity parameters were higher in H. contortus isolates than H. placei. Phylogenetic analysis of ND4 and COI sequences did not reveal clustering of haplotypes originating from a particular host indicating high rate of gene flow among Haemonchus parasites infecting sheep, goat and cattle in Pakistan. ND4 and COI haplotypes from Pakistan were compared to sequences of Haemonchus isolates from 11 countries to elucidate the population structure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot of pairwise FST derived from 531 ND4 haplotypes revealed clustering together of H. contortus from Pakistan, China, Malaysia and Italy while the isolates from Yemen and United States were found to be genetically distinct. With respect to H. placei, isolates from Pakistan were found to be genetically differentiated from isolates of other countries. The tests for selective neutrality revealed negative D statistics and did not reveal significant deviations in Pakistani Haemonchus populations while significant deviation (P < 0.05) was observed in Brazilian and Chinese H. contortus populations. Median Joining (MJ) network of ND4 haplotypes revealed Yemenese H. contortus being closer to H. placei cluster. β-tubulin isotype 1 genotyping revealed 7.86% frequency of Y allele associated with benzimidazole resistance at F200Y

  20. Intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan: a pilot study using the Emergency Departments surveillance project

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute poisoning is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits around the world. In Pakistan, the epidemiological data on poisoning is limited due to an under developed poison information surveillance system. We aim to describe the characteristics associated with intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan presenting to emergency departments. Methods The data was extracted from the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) which was an active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. All patients, regardless of age, who presented with poisoning to any of Pakistan's seven major tertiary care centers' emergency departments, were included. Information about patient demographics, type of poisoning agent, reason for poisoning and outcomes were collected using a standard questionnaire. Results Acute poisoning contributed to 1.2% (n = 233) of patients with intentional and unintentional injuries presenting to EDs of participating centers. Of these, 68% were male, 54% were aged 19 to 44 and 19% were children and adolescents (<18 years). Types of poisoning included chemical/gas (43.8%), drug/medicine (27%), alcohol (16.7%) and food/plant (6%). In half of all patients the poisoning was intentional. A total of 11.6% of the patients were admitted and 6.6% died. Conclusion Poisoning causes more morbidity and mortality in young adults in Pakistan compared to other age groups, half of which is intentional. Improving mental health, regulatory control for hazardous chemicals and better access to care through poison information centers and emergency departments will potentially help control the problem. PMID:26691609

  1. Effects of education on reproductive behavior: lessons from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A

    1992-12-01

    Evidence from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 1990/91 (PDHS) and a 1987 study by Zeba A. Sathar and Karen Oppenheim on women's fertility in Karachi and the impact of educational status, corroborates the correlation between improved education for women and fertility decline. PDHS revealed that current fertility is 5.4 children/ever married woman by the end of the reproductive period. 12% currently use a contraceptive method compared to 49% in India, 40% in Bangladesh, and 62% in Sri Lanka. The social environment of high illiteracy, low educational attainment, poverty, high infant and child and maternal mortality, son preference, and low status of women leads to high fertility. Fertility rates vary by educational status; i.e., women with no formal education have 2 more children than women with at least some secondary education. Education also affects infant and child mortality and morbidity. Literacy is 31% for women and 43% for men. 30% of all males and 20% of all females have attended primary school. Although most women know at least 1 contraceptive method, it is the urban educated woman who is twice as likely to know a source of supply and 5 times more likely to be a user. The Karachi study found that lower fertility among better educated urban women is an unintended consequence of women's schooling and deliberate effort to limit the number of children they have. Education-related fertility differentials could not be explained by the length of time women are at risk of becoming pregnant (late marriage age). Fertility limitation may be motivated by the predominant involvement in the formal work force and higher income. The policy implications are the increasing female schooling is a good investment in lowering fertility; broader improvements also need to be made in economic opportunities for women, particularly in the formal sector. Other needs are for increasing availability and accessibility of contraceptive and family planning services and increasing

  2. Comments on "Child Survival and Changing Fertility Patterns in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, K A

    1992-01-01

    The distillation of Zeba Sathar's article on the determinants of fertility decline and child mortality decline is that marriage age and contraceptive surgery could be important factors in bringing about changes in both fertility and child mortality in Pakistan. The concern is that 80 out of 115 million Pakistanis live in rural areas where marriage age is very low and program efforts are limited or nonexistent. The question is raised about how to effectuate changes in attitudes in rural areas to increase marriage age. Another point is made about the simplicity of explanations for fertility and mortality change, when the reality is a complex host of interactive socioeconomic, cultural, social, and program factors that are responsible for fertility at present levels. The suggestion is for development of a more appropriate model of fertility at the micro level which illuminates the interaction of these factors in determining fertility. Sathar is reported to have concluded that the impact of infant and child mortality on fertility was inconclusive. The changing patterns of fertility are likely to bring about a change in the demand for children and a lesser preference for gender; this status change for women will further reduce child mortality and fertility. Large family sizes are postulated to be associated with close spacing and greater concentrations of children under 5 years of age competing for physical resources and having a high risk of infection with inadequate parental attention and care. These conditions occur in families with low income and little parental education. Institutional and community services also affect child mortality. There are also examples of educational opportunity and income equality as factors bringing about demographic change in Sri Lanka and Kerala, India. The author speculates that an outcome of development is increased educational attainment and more equitable distribution of income. Low levels of maternal education are associated with

  3. Clinical Profile and HLA Typing of Autoimmune Hepatitis From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nasir; Siddiqui, Adeelur Rehman; Abbas, Zaigham; Hassan, Syed Mujahid; Soomro, Ghous Bux; Mubarak, Muhammed; Anis, Sabiha; Muzaffar, Rana; Zafar, Mirza Naqi

    2013-01-01

    Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) has been investigated in different populations and ethnic groups, but no such data is available from Pakistan. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and determine the associated antigens and alleles by performing HLA typing. Patients and Methods A total of 58 patients, diagnosed and treated as AIH in the last 10 years were reviewed. Diagnosis was based on International AIH Group criteria. Forty one patients underwent liver biopsy. HLA typing was performed in 44 patients and 912 controls by serological method for HLA A and B, and by PCR technique using sequence specific primers for DR alleles. Results Of 58 cases, 35 were females (60.3%). The median age was 14.5 (range 4-70 years), and AIH score was 14 (10-22). Thirty-six (62.0%) patients had type 1 AIH, 10 (17.2%) type 2, and the remaining 12 were seronegative with biopsy proven AIH. Forty-nine patients (84.4%) had cirrhosis. Twenty-four (41.4%) patients had ascites at the time of presentation. Among 41 patients who underwent liver biopsy, thirty-two had advance stages III and IV disease, and twenty had severe grade of inflammation. Fifteen patients had other associated autoimmune diseases and one developed hepatocellular carcinoma. HLA A2 (P = 0.036), HLA A9 (23) (P = 0.018), HLA A10 (25) (P = 0.000), HLA A19 (33) (P = 0.000), HLA B15 (63) (P = 0.007), HLA B40 (61) ( P = 0.002), HLA DR6 (P = 0.001) with its subtypes HLA-DRB1*13 (P = 0.032) and HLA-DRB1*14 (p = 0.017) were more prevalent in AIH with statistical significance than controls. Conclusions AIH in our region presents with advanced disease affecting predominantly children and adolescents. There is a genetic association of HLA DR6 along with other alleles and antigens in our patients with AIH. PMID:24358040

  4. Women, development planning and government policies in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan became committed to promoting conscious public policies toward increasing women's economic participation in development in 1979 with the establishment of a separate chapter on women's development in the Sixth 5-Year Plan. The focus of this paper was on the nature of interventions between 1979 and the present and the institutional context of women's development. The aim of the sixth plan and the objectives of the Ministry of Women's Development (MWD) are key to understanding the stated goals. After 1979, the goal changed from a welfare perspective to integration of women into the development planning, which emphasized enhancing employment opportunities for women. Both the Sixth and Seventh 5-Year Plans were multisectoral, and special women's programs were to be undertaken by the Ministry of Women's Development. Policy directives were to increase expansion of training facilities for women and for recruiting 10-15% of government service jobs for women. Special credit facilities for poor women were established, and proposals were generated for women's organizers in government, cooperatives, and nongovernmental organizations. Program integration was limited to the fields of education, health, and nutrition; agriculture, where most women are employed, was given very little attention. Women were viewed as consumers rather than producers. Within the MWD, in its role as catalyst for change and as legal guardian of women's rights, the influence on government and programs has been minimal and without serious involvement. It was ineffective during a period when policy had stipulated 10-15% of government jobs for women, but it needed the impetus to translate policy into action. Special projects for women have been the primary focus: 448 between 1979 and 1989. The intention was for the MWD to fund innovative pilot development projects for women, but this did not happen. Projects were isolated from the mainstream, compartmentalized, and had traditional social welfare

  5. Paying health workers for performance in Battagram district, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in using pay-for-performance mechanisms in low and middle-income countries in order to improve the performance of health care providers. However, at present there is a dearth of independent evaluations of such approaches which can guide understanding of their potential and risks in differing contexts. This article presents the results of an evaluation of a project managed by an international non-governmental organisation in one district of Pakistan. It aims to contribute to learning about the design and implementation of pay-for-performance systems and their impact on health worker motivation. Methods Quantitative analysis was conducted of health management information system (HMIS) data, financial records, and project documents covering the period 2007-2010. Key informant interviews were carried out with stakeholders at all levels. At facility level, in-depth interviews were held, as were focus group discussions with staff and community members. Results The wider project in Battagram had contributed to rebuilding district health services at a cost of less than US$4.5 per capita and achieved growth in outputs. Staff, managers and clients were appreciative of the gains in availability and quality of services. However, the role that the performance-based incentive (PBI) component played was less clear--PBI formed a relatively small component of pay, and did not increase in line with outputs. There was little evidence from interviews and data that the conditional element of the PBIs influenced behaviour. They were appreciated as a top-up to pay, but remained low in relative terms, and only slightly and indirectly related to individual performance. Moreover, they were implemented independently of the wider health system and presented a clear challenge for longer term integration and sustainability. Conclusions Challenges for performance-based pay approaches include the balance of rewarding individual versus team efforts

  6. Ethnomedicine use in the war affected region of northwest Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background North-West of Pakistan is bestowed with medicinal plant resources due to diverse geographical and habitat conditions. The traditional use of plants for curing various diseases forms an important part of the region’s cultural heritage. The study was carried out to document medicinal plants used in Frontier Region (FR) Bannu, an area affected by the “War on Terror”. Methods Fieldwork was carried out in four different seasons (spring, autumn, summer and winter) from March 2012 to February 2013. Data on medicinal plants was collected using structured and semi-structured questionnaires from 250 respondents. The voucher specimens were collected, processed and identified following standard methods. Results Of the 107 species of ethnomedicinal plants reported, fifty percent species are herbaceous. The majority of the reported species were wild (55%) but a substantial proportion are cultivated (29%). For most of the plant species (34%), leaves are the most commonly used part in the preparation of ethnomedicines. The most common use of species is for carminative purposes (14 species), with the next most common use being for blood purification (11 species). The main methods used in the preparation of ethnomedicinal recipes involves grinding and boiling, and nearly all the remedies are taken orally along with ingredients such as water, milk or honey for ease of ingestion. Traditional healers prepare plant remedies using one or more plants. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.95) between the age of local people and the number of plants known to them, which indicates that in the coming 20 years, an approximate decrease of 75% in the indigenous knowledge may be expected. Conclusion Traditional medicines are important to the livelihoods of rural communities in the region affected by the Global war on Terrorism. The medicinal recipes are indigenous; however, there is a threat to their future use on account of rapid modernization and terrorist activities

  7. Comments on "Duality of Female Employment in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Duncan, A

    1991-01-01

    Data problems and substantive issues relating to an article on female employment problems in Pakistan are critiqued. It is noted that the emphasis was on demand factors in explaining the level and pattern of female employment, when it is evident that supply and demand are linked by cultural norms which vary among women in their degree of segregation/domestic responsibilities. Productivity and income of women by occupation is also important for policy analysis. The supply factors that affect women according to their income group are level of education, degree of segregation/domestic responsibility, and income/satisfaction level. Employers' biases are clear demand side factors. In the example of the upper income class group, women work due to higher levels of education and experience, their greater liberation from domestic duties, and the professional satisfaction derived from work; constraints are appropriate education and training, employers' gender discrimination, and higher satisfaction from domestic roles. Women's segregation as a supply factor is stronger in middle and low income groups; hence, employment is lower. Income generation is very important among low income groups, which creates a greater force to seek employment, but without the necessary skills or education and with household responsibilities; their employment is predominately in the informal sector with low productivity and income. Policy interventions to increase welfare and productivity must be different for each class or group. For upper income women, employers must not discriminate against women in hiring and firing, and more educational and training opportunities must be provided. In the middle income group, access to education an employment and more employment opportunities in a culturally acceptable framework are needed. Respectability of jobs, for instance in the service sector, is an important factor. In the low income group, productivity increases are the goal. Access to credits, and new

  8. Contraceptive usage, fertility and family structure in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, J

    1981-01-01

    The principal objective of the study reported on in this article, was to find out if nuclearization of the family influenced fertility and contraceptive usage. Earlier studies in this area had been conflicting with some suggesting no relationship, others a decrease and at least 1 an increase in fertility levels. This study was also designed to uncover the causal dynamics of a possible linkage between the 2 variables. Controlling for length of marriage, the study results show no significant difference in fertility between nuclear and non-nuclear family structures. The validity of the conventional definition of the 2 concepts in the context of traditional societies, like Pakistan, is questioned. As a result, a tentative measure of functional extendedness is developed which takes into account patterns of mutual visitation, services, decision making and commitments within the kinship network. The tool still needs validation but initial findings show that a low level of "extendedness" is associated with high fertility. This may be due to the fact that such families are less exposed to the influence of fertility controlling individuals within the kinship network. The study reaches a number of negative findings, significant for those who expect substantial demographic dividends from social change. Results show that urbanization decreases child mortality but not fertility; that the association between education and fertility is consistent but slight; that husband's dominance is associated both positively and negatively with fertility, depending on length of marriage. Husband-wife communication does not appear to be a consequential factor and a "fatalistic" outlook has no clear relationship with fertility. Moderate but consistent falls in fertility were associated with an increase in visits to friends and relatives, which again highlights the importance of social networks. Findings indicate that, despicte the existance of a nationally administered and active family planning

  9. Run-based multi-model interannual variability assessment of precipitation and temperature over Pakistan using two IPCC AR4-based AOGCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmat, U.; Athar, H.

    2015-09-01

    The interannual variability of precipitation and temperature is derived from all runs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth Assessment Report (AR4)-based two Atmospheric Oceanic General Circulation Model (AOGCM) simulations, over Pakistan, on an annual basis. The models are the CM2.0 and CM2.1 versions of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL)-based AOGCM. Simulations for a recent 22-year period (1979-2000) are validated using Climate Research Unit (CRU) and NCEP/NCAR datasets over Pakistan, for the first time. The study area of Pakistan is divided into three regions: all Pakistan, northern Pakistan, and southern Pakistan. Bias, root mean square error, one sigma standard deviation, and coefficient of variance are used as validation metrics. For all Pakistan and northern Pakistan, all three runs of GFDL-CM2.0 perform better under the above metrics, both for precipitation and temperature (except for one sigma standard deviation and coefficient of variance), whereas for southern Pakistan, third run of GFDL-CM2.1 perform better expect for the root mean square error for temperature. A mean and variance-based bias correction is applied to bias in modeled precipitation and temperature variables. This resulted in a reduced bias, except for the months of June, July, and August, when the reduction in bias is relatively lower.

  10. Long-Term Changes of Tropospheric Trace Gases over Pakistan Derived From Multiple Satellite Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, Naila; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Noreen, Asma; Khalid, Tameem

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is the expected key environmental issue of Pakistan in coming years due to its ongoing rapid economic growth and this trend suggests only worst air quality over time. In 2014, World bank reported the Pakistan's urban air quality among the most severe in the world and intimated the government to make improvement in air quality as a priority policy agenda. In addition it is recommended to strengthen the institutional and technical capacity of organizations responsible for air quality management. Therefore, the study is designed to put efforts in highlighting air quality issues. The study will provide first database for tropospheric trace gases over Pakistan. The study aims to analyse tropospheric concentrations of CO, TOC, NO2 and HCHO over Pakistan using multisensory data from January 2005 to January 2014. Spatio-temporal and seasonal variability of tropospheric trace gases is observed over the decade to explore long term trend. Hotspots are identified to see variation of species with latitude and to highlight possible sources of trace gases over the Pakistan. High concentrations of trace gases are mainly observed over the Punjab region, which may be attributed to its metropolitan importance. It is the major agricultural, industrialized and urbanized (nearly 60% of the Pakistan's population) sector of the country. Overall significant decreasing trend of CO is identified by MOPITT with relative change of 12.4%. Tropospheric ozone column (TOC) showed insignificant increasing trend with temporal increase of 10.4% whereas NO2 exhibited a significant temporal increase of about 28%. For formaldehyde (HCHO), an increase of about 3.8% is calculated for SCIAMACHY data. Well defined seasonal cycles for these trace gases are observed over the whole study period. CO concentrations showed peak in winter months (November/December/January/February) and dip in the months of Summer/Monsoon (June/July/August). In spite of CO, TCO increases gradually in March and peaks

  11. Movements of people, ideas, trade, and technology: Toward a peaceful coexistence of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Das, S.

    1998-03-01

    The potential exists for peaceful and constructive bilateral relations between India and Pakistan. Domestic developments in both countries, the changing global economic and political environment, and structural changes in regional trading patterns have created new opportunities for replacing traditional Indian and Pakistani perceptions of hostility and suspicion with mutual understanding and trust. This substitution process can be accelerated by increasing people-to-people contact, the free flow of information, and economic and technological cooperation between the two neighbors. Nonmilitary confidence building measures could create conditions for an incremental reduction on tensions between India and Pakistan. A popular consciousness for enhanced bilateral cooperation is growing. This process could be strengthened by identifying and exploring new areas of mutually beneficial cooperation that could pave the way for peace.

  12. A question mark on iron deficiency in 185 million people of Pakistan: its outcomes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Khalid, Nauman; David, Angel; Sandhu, Mansoor Abdullah; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency especially the iron deficiency is the bane of our lives, affecting all strata of society. Unfortunately, the women during pregnancy, adolescence, and children are under this curse particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. It is one of the biggest reasons of complications during pregnancy and malnourished children under five years of age. Maternal death, still-births, and underweight births are most common consequences of iron deficiency and these outbreaks as iron-deficiency anemia in Pakistan. Disastrous nature of iron deficiency requires an urgent call to eradicate it. Hence, the solution should not be frail comparing with the huge economic loss and other incompatibilities. Flour fortification, supplementation, dietary diversification, and especially maternal education are possible solutions for combating this micronutrient deficiency. PMID:24580562

  13. Exploring Fathers’ Role in Breastfeeding Practices in the Urban and Semiurban Settings of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mithani, Yasmin; Premani, Zahra Shaheen; Kurji, Zohra; Rashid, Shehnaz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study explored fathers’ perceptions about breastfeeding infants. A qualitative exploratory study design was used. Study setting was urban and semiurban areas of Karachi, Pakistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 fathers. The following themes emerged from the data collected: knowledge and awareness and enabling and impeding factors. Most fathers seemed eager to get involved and assist their partners in proper breastfeeding practices because they believed that doing so is in accordance with their faith. Fathers felt that adequate support from their family members and employers could enable them to encourage their partners to initiate and maintain exclusive and optimum breastfeeding practices. Exploring fathers’ perception regarding breastfeeding in the context of Pakistan is still a new field of study. PMID:26834446

  14. Spatio-Temporal Analyses of CH4 and SO2 over Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Irfan; Imran Shahzad, Muhammad; Farooq Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    SO2 and associated compounds are one of main atmospheric pollutant. Moreover, methane - a potent greenhouse gas can also deteriorate the air quality of the region under certain chemical and meteorological conditions. Role of such gases in regional air quality of Pakistan have not been significantly studied. This study involves the analyses of CH4 and SO2 in terms of spatio-temporal distribution over Pakistan from the period 2004 - 2014 using space borne sensors namely Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Advanced Infrared Sounder Instrument (AIRS) respectively. Results show an increase in SO2 concentration attributed to trans-boundary sources. Monthly Methane total column results show an increase in atmospheric concentration of methane for the period 2004-2014. Results of the study are complimented by calculating the back trajectories to identify the transport paths. The study significantly describes the regional description and convection phenomenon for SO2 and CH4.

  15. A Review on Fuel Economy Standards and Labels for Motor Vehicles: Implementation Possibility in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Liaquat Ali; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.

    This research investigates the possibilities of potential savings and reduction in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions caused by road transport in general and private cars in particular. Private cars use a large share of the transport fuel, thus these are the major and ever increasing contributor to the GHG emissions. An extensive review of international experiences on fuel economy standards and labels, in order to encounter the problem, is carried. The possibilities of the implementation of fuel economy standards and labels for motor vehicles in Pakistan are examined. Based on the studies carried out in developed countries, results have shown that the implementation of fuel economy standards and labels for motor vehicles in developing countries like Pakistan would be beneficial for the society, government as well as environment.

  16. Books vs bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of terror in Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nosheen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of humanitarian discourse and development in reconfiguring the contemporary culture of empire and its war on terror. It takes as its point of entry the immensely popular biographical tale, Three Cups of Tea, which details how the American mountaineer Greg Mortenson has struggled to counter terrorism in Northern Pakistan through the creation of schools. Even as this text appears to provide a self-critical and humane perspective on terrorism, the article argues that it constructs a misleading narrative of terror in which the realities of Northern Pakistan and Muslim life-worlds are distorted through simplistic tropes of ignorance, backwardness and extremism, while histories of US geopolitics and violence are erased. The text has further facilitated the emergence of a participatory militarism, whereby humanitarian work helps to reinvent the military as a culturally sensitive and caring institution in order to justify and service the project of empire. PMID:20607902

  17. Cost of treatment of deliberate self-harm. A study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad; Khan, Murad M; Naqvi, Haider; Razzak, Junaid

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective review of 98 patients through medical and billing records, over a period of 12 months (January to December 2004), was conducted to evaluate the cost of treatment of patients presenting with deliberate self-harm (DSH) to a private tertiary care teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. After initial treatment in the Emergency Department (ED), 34 patients were admitted to the medical wards for further treatment and 64 patients were either discharged or left against medical advice from ED. The mean cost for admitted and discharged patients was US $255 and US $55.60, respectively. One patient was intubated in the ED and shifted to intensive care unit. The cost of treatment of DSH is extremely high in a country like Pakistan, where the patients have to bear the hospital cost out of their own pocket. The most important determinant of cost was length of hospital stay, averaging 2.91 days. PMID:19069614

  18. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector. PMID:26744152

  19. Dimensions of physical wellness among medical students of public and private medical colleges in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rakhshaan; Rehman, Rehana; Baig, Mukhtiar; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Mariam; Syed, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine adherence to dimensions of physical wellness among medical students of public and private medical colleges in Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from January to July 2011 among 820 students of private and public medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: Overall, medical students scored low in dimensions of physical wellness. Private medical colleges students were fond of vigorous activities such as aerobics and swimming, whereas public medical colleges students were involved in moderate intensity activities such as walking and use of stairs (p<0.0001). Private students reported to consume more fast food (p=0.0001), had less sleep (p=0.0001), but attended regular annual medical checkups (p=0.009) as compared with their public institute counterparts. Safe practices such as avoidance of tobacco were almost the same. Conclusion: Comprehensive adherence to all dimensions of physical wellness was lacking among medical students. PMID:25987122

  20. Application of career related research in Pakistan: The case of apples vs mangoes

    PubMed Central

    Seema Siddiqui, Zarrin

    2016-01-01

    Career choice of medical graduates is dependent on a number of factors as identified in literature across the globe. This article presents an overview of contemporary research on career choices of medical graduates and the generalisation of findings in Pakistan. A number of issues are highlighted which include lack of standardised instruments, classification of specialties and mixed evidence regarding variables and socio cultural differences.. PMID:27375731