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Sample records for nbn nanowire single

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting NbN Nanowire Single Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of high-speed, single photon detectors using superconducting NbN nanowires at a wavelength of 1064 nm. A 15 by 15 micron detector with a detector efficiency of 40% has been measured. Due to kinetic inductance, the recovery time of such large area detectors is longer than that of smaller or single wire detectors. The recovery time of our detectors (50 ns) has been characterized by measuring the inter-arrival time statistics of our detector.

  2. Characterization of NbN films for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, Ross D; Ayala - Valenzuela, Oscar E; Weisse - Bernstein, Nina R; Williamson, Todd L; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Graf, M. J.; Rabin, M. W.

    2011-01-14

    Nanoscopic superconducting meander patterns offer great promise as a new class of cryogenic radiation sensors capable of single photon detection. To realize this potential, control of the superconducting properties on the nanoscale is imperative. To this end, Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPDs) are under development by means Energetic Neutral Atom Beam Lithography and Epitaxy, or ENABLE. ENABLE can growth highly-crystalline, epitaxial thin-film materials, like NbN, at low temperatures; such wide-ranging control of fabrication parameters is enabling the optimization of film properties for single photon detection. T{sub c}, H{sub c2}, {zeta}{sub GL} and J{sub c} of multiple thin films and devices have been studied as a function of growth conditions. The optimization of which has already produced devices with properties rivaling all reports in the existing literature.

  3. NbN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector fabricated on MgF2 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. J.; You, L. X.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. J.; Li, H.; Liu, X. Y.; Zhou, H.; Wang, Z.; Xie, X. M.; Xu, Y. X.; Fang, W.; Tong, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    The performance of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) relies on substrate materials. Magnesium fluoride (MgF2) exhibits outstanding optical properties, such as large optical transmission range and low refractive index (n = 1.38), making it an attractive substrate. We present the fabrication and the performance of SNSPDs made of a 4.5 nm thick NbN thin film deposited on MgF2 substrate for the wavelength of 1550 nm. The front-side illuminated SNSPDs without an optical cavity showed a maximal detection efficiency of 12.8% at a system dark count rate (DCR) of 100 Hz, while the backside illuminated SNSPDs with a SiO2/Au optical cavity atop displayed a maximal detection efficiency of 33% at a DCR of 100 Hz.

  4. High efficiency and rapid response superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector based on asymmetric split ring metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guanhai; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Shao-Wei Lu, Wei

    2014-06-09

    With asymmetric split ring metamaterial periodically placed on top of the niobium nitride (NbN) nanowire meander, we theoretically propose a kind of metal-insulator-metallic metamaterial nanocavity to enhance absorbing efficiency and shorten response time of the superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) operating at wavelength of 1550 nm. Up to 99.6% of the energy is absorbed and 96.5% dissipated in the nanowire. Meanwhile, taking advantage of this high efficiency absorbing cavity, we implement a more sparse arrangement of the NbN nanowire of the filling factor 0.2, which significantly lessens the nanowire and crucially boosts the response time to be only 40% of reset time in previous evenly spaced meander design. Together with trapped mode resonance, a standing wave oscillation mechanism is presented to explain the high efficiency and broad bandwidth properties. To further demonstrate the advantages of the nanocavity, a four-pixel SNSPD on 10 μm × 10 μm area is designed to further reduce 75% reset time while maintaining 70% absorbing efficiency. Utilizing the asymmetric split ring metamaterial, we show a higher efficiency and more rapid response SNSPD configuration to contribute to the development of single photon detectors.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting NbN Nanowire Single Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the fabrication of large area superconducting Niobium Nitride nanowire single photon detectors. The topics include: 1) Introduction and Motivation; 2) Operation of SNSPD Detectors; 3) NbTiN Deposition; 4) Fabrication Details; 5) Backside Coupled SNSPD; 6) Measurement Apparatus; 7) Electrical Response of a 15x15 micrometer SNSPD to 1064nm radiation; 8) Detector Efficiency vs Bias Current; 9) Interarrival Time Plot; 10) Detector Linearity; and 11) Conclusion.

  6. Quantum and thermal phase slips in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) ultrathin crystalline nanowire: application to single photon detection.

    PubMed

    Delacour, Cécile; Pannetier, Bernard; Villegier, Jean-Claude; Bouchiat, Vincent

    2012-07-11

    We present low-temperature electronic transport properties of superconducting nanowires obtained by nanolithography of 4-nm-thick niobium nitride (NbN) films epitaxially grown on sapphire substrate. Below 6 K, clear evidence of phase slippages is observed in the transport measurements. Upon lowering the temperature, we observe the signatures of a crossover between a thermal and a quantum behavior in the phase slip regimes. We find that phase slips are stable even at the lowest temperatures and that no hotspot is formed. The photoresponse of these nanowires is measured as a function of the light irradiation wavelength and temperature and exhibits a behavior comparable with previous results obtained on thicker films. PMID:22694480

  7. Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, D.; Dörner, S.; Hofherr, M.; Il'in, K.; Semenov, A.; Heintze, E.; Scheffler, M.; Dressel, M.; Siegel, M.

    2012-10-01

    The spectral detection efficiency and the dark count rate of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) have been studied systematically on detectors made from thin NbN films with different chemical compositions. Reduction of the nitrogen content in the 4 nm thick NbN films results in a decrease of the dark count rates more than two orders of magnitude and in a red shift of the cut-off wavelength of the hot-spot SNSPD response. The observed phenomena are explained by an improvement of uniformity of NbN films that has been confirmed by a decrease of resistivity and an increase of the ratio of the measured critical current to the depairing current. The latter factor is considered as the most crucial for both the cut-off wavelength and the dark count rates of SNSPD. Based on our results we propose a set of criteria for material properties to optimize SNSPD in the infrared spectral region.

  8. Fabrication of superconducting NbN meander nanowires by nano-imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yang; Li-Hua, Liu; Lu-Hui, Ning; Yi-Rong, Jin; Hui, Deng; Jie, Li; Yang, Li; Dong-Ning, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD), as a new type of superconducting single photon detector (SPD), has a broad application prospect in quantum communication and other fields. In order to prepare SNSPD with high performance, it is necessary to fabricate a large area of uniform meander nanowires, which is the core of the SNSPD. In this paper, we demonstrate a process of patterning ultra-thin NbN films into meander-type nanowires by using the nano-imprint technology. In this process, a combination of hot embossing nano-imprint lithography (HE-NIL) and ultraviolet nano-imprint lithography (UV-NIL) is used to transfer the meander nanowire structure from the NIL Si hard mold to the NbN film. We have successfully obtained a NbN nanowire device with uniform line width. The critical temperature (Tc) of the superconducting NbN meander nanowires is about 5 K and the critical current (Ic) is about 3.5 μA at 2.5 K. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CBA00106 and 2009CB929102) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11104333 and 10974243).

  9. Inhomogeneous critical current in nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudio, R. Hoog, K. P. M. op 't; Zhou, Z.; Sahin, D.; Fiore, A.

    2014-12-01

    A superconducting thin film with uniform properties is the key to realize nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) with high performance and high yield. To investigate the uniformity of NbN films, we introduce and characterize simple detectors consisting of short nanowires with length ranging from 100 nm to 15 μm. Our nanowires, contrary to meander SSPDs, allow probing the homogeneity of NbN at the nanoscale. Experimental results, endorsed by a microscopic model, show the strongly inhomogeneous nature of NbN films on the sub-100 nm scale.

  10. Large-area NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detectors with saturated detection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Grein, Matthew E.; Gudmundsen, Theodore J.; McCaughan, Adam; Najafi, Faraz; Berggren, Karl K.; Marsili, Francesco; Dauler, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    Superconducting circuits comprising SNSPDs placed in parallel—superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors, or SNAPs—have previously been demonstrated to improve the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by increasing the critical current. In this work, we employ a 2-SNAP superconducting circuit with narrow (40 nm) niobium nitride (NbN) nanowires to improve the system detection efficiency to near-IR photons while maintaining high SNR. Additionally, while previous 2-SNAP demonstrations have added external choke inductance to stabilize the avalanching photocurrent, we show that the external inductance can be entirely folded into the active area by cascading 2-SNAP devices in series to produce a greatly increased active area. We fabricated series-2-SNAP (s2-SNAP) circuits with a nanowire length of 20 μm with cascades of 2-SNAPs providing the choke inductance necessary for SNAP operation. We observed that (1) the detection efficiency saturated at high bias currents, and (2) the 40 nm 2-SNAP circuit critical current was approximately twice that for a 40 nm non-SNAP configuration.

  11. Single nanowire photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bozhi; Kempa, Thomas J; Lieber, Charles M

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review focuses on recent work addressing the properties and potential of semiconductor nanowires as building blocks for photovoltaic devices based on investigations at the single nanowire level. Two central nanowire motifs involving p-i-n dopant modulation in axial and coaxial geometries serve as platforms for fundamental studies. Research illustrating the synthesis of these structural motifs will be reviewed first, followed by an examination of recent studies of single axial and coaxial p-i-n silicon nanowire solar cells. Finally, challenges and opportunities for improving efficiency enabled by controlled synthesis of more complex nanowire structures will be discussed, as will their potential applications as power sources for emerging nanoelectronic devices. PMID:19088961

  12. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, K. V.; Divochiy, A. V.; Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Sidorova, M. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V.; Seleznev, V. A.; Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector Rn, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance Lk and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  13. Single-nanowire photoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Su, Yude; Liu, Chong; Brittman, Sarah; Tang, Jinyao; Fu, Anthony; Kornienko, Nikolay; Kong, Qiao; Yang, Peidong

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is one of several promising approaches for the realization of efficient solar-to-fuel conversion. Recent work has shown that photoelectrodes made of semiconductor nano-/microwire arrays can have better photoelectrochemical performance than their planar counterparts because of their unique properties, such as high surface area. Although considerable research effort has focused on studying wire arrays, the inhomogeneity in the geometry, doping, defects and catalyst loading present in such arrays can obscure the link between these properties and the photoelectrochemical performance of the wires, and correlating performance with the specific properties of individual wires is difficult because of ensemble averaging. Here, we show that a single-nanowire-based photoelectrode platform can be used to reliably probe the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of individual nanowires. We find that the photovoltage output of ensemble array samples can be limited by poorly performing individual wires, which highlights the importance of improving nanowire homogeneity within an array. Furthermore, the platform allows the flux of photogenerated electrons to be quantified as a function of the lengths and diameters of individual nanowires, and we find that the flux over the entire nanowire surface (7-30 electrons nm(-2) s(-1)) is significantly reduced as compared with that of a planar analogue (∼1,200 electrons nm(-2) s(-1)). Such characterization of the photogenerated carrier flux at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface is essential for designing nanowire photoelectrodes that match the activity of their loaded electrocatalysts. PMID:27018660

  14. Single-nanowire photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yude; Liu, Chong; Brittman, Sarah; Tang, Jinyao; Fu, Anthony; Kornienko, Nikolay; Kong, Qiao; Yang, Peidong

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is one of several promising approaches for the realization of efficient solar-to-fuel conversion. Recent work has shown that photoelectrodes made of semiconductor nano-/microwire arrays can have better photoelectrochemical performance than their planar counterparts because of their unique properties, such as high surface area. Although considerable research effort has focused on studying wire arrays, the inhomogeneity in the geometry, doping, defects and catalyst loading present in such arrays can obscure the link between these properties and the photoelectrochemical performance of the wires, and correlating performance with the specific properties of individual wires is difficult because of ensemble averaging. Here, we show that a single-nanowire-based photoelectrode platform can be used to reliably probe the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of individual nanowires. We find that the photovoltage output of ensemble array samples can be limited by poorly performing individual wires, which highlights the importance of improving nanowire homogeneity within an array. Furthermore, the platform allows the flux of photogenerated electrons to be quantified as a function of the lengths and diameters of individual nanowires, and we find that the flux over the entire nanowire surface (7–30 electrons nm–2 s–1) is significantly reduced as compared with that of a planar analogue (∼1,200 electrons nm–2 s–1). Such characterization of the photogenerated carrier flux at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface is essential for designing nanowire photoelectrodes that match the activity of their loaded electrocatalysts.

  15. Experimental investigation of the detection mechanism in WSi nanowire superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, Rosalinda; Renema, Jelmer J.; Zhou, Zili; Verma, Varun B.; Lita, Adriana E.; Shainline, Jeffrey; Stevens, Martin J.; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo; van Exter, Martin P.; de Dood, Michiel J. A.; Fiore, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We use quantum detector tomography to investigate the detection mechanism in WSi nanowire superconducting single photon detectors. To this purpose, we fabricated a 250 nm wide and 250 nm long WSi nanowire and measured its response to impinging photons with wavelengths ranging from λ = 900 nm to λ = 1650 nm. Tomographic measurements show that the detector response depends on the total excitation energy only. Moreover, for total absorbed energies >0.8 eV the current-energy relation is linear, similar to what was observed in NbN nanowires, whereas the current-energy relation deviates from linear behavior for total energies below 0.8 eV.

  16. Electrochemically Grown Single Nanowire Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Penner, Reginald; Bangar, Mangesh; Mulchandani, Ashok; Myung, Nosang V.

    2004-01-01

    We report a fabrication technique that is potentially capable of producing arrays of individually addressable nanowire sensors with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. The concept has been demonstrated with electrodeposition of palladium wires with 75 nm to 350 nm widths. We have also fabricated single and double conducting polymer nanowires (polyaniline and polypyrrole) with 100nm and 200nm widths using electrochemical direct growth. Using single Pd nanowires, we have also demonstrated hydrogen sensing. It is envisioned that these are the first steps towards nanowire sensor arrays capable of simultaneously detecting multiple chemical species.

  17. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N in the high-superconducting-transition temperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.

  18. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  19. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  20. Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin C; Choi, Heon-Jin; Knutsen, Kelly P; Schaller, Richard D; Yang, Peidong; Saykally, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    There is much current interest in the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires, because the cylindrical geometry and strong two-dimensional confinement of electrons, holes and photons make them particularly attractive as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices, including lasersand nonlinear optical frequency converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of much practical interest, because it is widely used in electrically pumped ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diodes, lasers and photodetectors. Recent progress in microfabrication techniques has allowed stimulated emission to be observed from a variety of GaN microstructures and films. Here we report the observation of ultraviolet-blue laser action in single monocrystalline GaN nanowires, using both near-field and far-field optical microscopy to characterize the waveguide mode structure and spectral properties of the radiation at room temperature. The optical microscope images reveal radiation patterns that correlate with axial Fabry-Perot modes (Q approximately 10(3)) observed in the laser spectrum, which result from the cylindrical cavity geometry of the monocrystalline nanowires. A redshift that is strongly dependent on pump power (45 meV microJ x cm(-2)) supports the idea that the electron-hole plasma mechanism is primarily responsible for the gain at room temperature. This study is a considerable advance towards the realization of electron-injected, nanowire-based ultraviolet-blue coherent light sources. PMID:12618824

  1. Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Lu; You, Lixing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Weijun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Sijing; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-06-29

    Satellite-ground quantum communication requires single-photon detectors of 850-nm wavelength with both high detection efficiency and large sensitive area. We developed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals, which acted as optical cavities to enhance the optical absorption, with a sensitive-area diameter of 50 μm. The fabricated multimode fiber coupled NbN SNSPDs exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency (DE) of up to 82% and a DE of 78% at a dark count rate of 100 Hz at 850-nm wavelength as well as a system jitter of 105 ps. PMID:26191739

  2. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.; Bayot, V.; Melinte, S.; Piraux, L.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, S.

    2006-10-01

    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire patterns as well as arrays of single nanowires with a precise position and spacing.

  3. Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lusche, R. Semenov, A.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.; Korneeva, Y.; Trifonov, A.; Korneev, A.; Goltsman, G.; Vodolazov, D.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2014-07-28

    A thorough spectral study of the intrinsic single-photon detection efficiency in superconducting TaN and NbN nanowires with different widths has been performed. The experiment shows that the cut-off of the intrinsic detection efficiency at near-infrared wavelengths is most likely controlled by the local suppression of the barrier for vortex nucleation around the absorption site. Beyond the cut-off quasi-particle diffusion in combination with spontaneous, thermally activated vortex crossing explains the detection process. For both materials, the reciprocal cut-off wavelength scales linearly with the wire width where the scaling factor agrees with the hot-spot detection model.

  4. Electro-thermal simulation of superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Marsili, F.; Najafi, F.; Herder, C.; Berggren, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an electrothermal model of NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors (SNAPs) on sapphire substrates. SNAPs are single-photon detectors consisting of the parallel connection of N superconducting nanowires. We extrapolated the physical constants of the model from experimental data and we simulated the time evolution of the device resistance, temperature and current by solving two coupled electrical and thermal differential equations describing the nanowires. The predictions of the model were in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Single-photon detection using magnesium diboride superconducting nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, H.; Takesue, H.; Honjo, T.; Akazaki, T.; Tokura, Y.

    2010-11-01

    We fabricated 10 nm thick MgB2 nanowires with a width down to 100 nm using the liftoff process. The I-V characteristics of the nanowire show hysteresis and a sharp voltage jump at Ic. Though a 150 nm wide nanowire exhibits the capacity for detecting a single photon at 405 nm wavelength, the nanowire is too wide to detect a single photon at 1560 nm. A 100 nm wide nanowire exhibits the capacity for detecting single photons in the 405-1560 nm wavelength range. This indicates a possible application of MgB2 as a high-performance superconducting nanowire single-photon detector.

  6. Superconducting nanowire single photon detector at 532 nm and demonstration in satellite laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Chen, Sijing; You, Lixing; Meng, Wengdong; Wu, Zhibo; Zhang, Zhongping; Tang, Kai; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Weijun; Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-02-22

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at a wavelength of 532 nm were designed and fabricated aiming to satellite laser ranging (SLR) applications. The NbN SNSPDs were fabricated on one-dimensional photonic crystals with a sensitive-area diameter of 42 μm. The devices were coupled with multimode fiber (ϕ = 50 μm) and exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency of 75% at an extremely low dark count rate of <0.1 Hz. An SLR experiment using an SNSPD at a wavelength of 532 nm was successfully demonstrated. The results showed a depth ranging with a precision of ~8.0 mm for the target satellite LARES, which is ~3,000 km away from the ground ranging station at the Sheshan Observatory. PMID:26907010

  7. Single conducting polymer nanowire based conductometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangar, Mangesh Ashok

    The detection of toxic chemicals, gases or biological agents at very low concentrations with high sensitivity and selectivity has been subject of immense interest. Sensors employing electrical signal readout as transduction mechanism offer easy, label-free detection of target analyte in real-time. Traditional thin film sensors inherently suffered through loss of sensitivity due to current shunting across the charge depleted/added region upon analyte binding to the sensor surface, due to their large cross sectional area. This limitation was overcome by use of nanostructure such as nanowire/tube as transducer where current shunting during sensing was almost eliminated. Due to their benign chemical/electrochemical fabrication route along with excellent electrical properties and biocompatibility, conducting polymers offer cost-effective alternative over other nanostructures. Biggest obstacle in using these nanostructures is lack of easy, scalable and cost-effective way of assembling these nanostructures on prefabricated micropatterns for device fabrication. In this dissertation, three different approaches have been taken to fabricate individual or array of single conducting polymer (and metal) nanowire based devices and using polymer by itself or after functionalization with appropriate recognition molecule they have been applied for gas and biochemical detection. In the first approach electrochemical fabrication of multisegmented nanowires with middle functional Ppy segment along with ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) and end gold segments for better electrical contact was studied. This multi-layered nanowires were used along with ferromagnetic contact electrode for controlled magnetic assembly of nanowires into devices and were used for ammonia gas sensing. The second approach uses conducting polymer, polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowires using simple electrophoretic alignment and maskless electrodeposition to anchor nanowire which were further functionalized with antibodies against

  8. Synthesis and characterization of single crystalline selenium nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.Y. . E-mail: apzhxy@polyu.edu.hk; Xu, L.H.; Dai, J.Y.; Cai, Y.; Wang, N.

    2006-09-14

    Ordered selenium nanowire arrays with diameters about 40 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition using anodic porous alumina templates. As determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selenium nanowires have uniform diameters, which are fully controllable. Single crystalline trigonal selenium nanowires have been obtained after postannealing at 180 deg. C. These nanowires are perfect with a c-axis growth orientation. The optical absorption spectra reveal two types of electron transition activity.

  9. High performance single In2Se3 nanowire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. L.; Li, Y.; Gao, J.; Wang, S. D.; Sun, X. H.

    2011-12-01

    The single indium selenide (In2Se3) nanowire photodetectors were fabricated, and the performance characteristics of the nanowire devices were systematically investigated. The single In2Se3 nanowire photodetectors show high and stable photoresponse in wide light wavelength (254-800 nm) and temperature range (7-300 K). The spectra response indicates that the absorption coefficient of the In2Se3 nanowires at certain wavelength dominates the performance of the devices. The good linearity of the photocurrents with the incident irradiation over a wide wavelength range has been obtained, demonstrating that the In2Se3 nanowire photodetectors work in a typical light-dependent resistor mode.

  10. Magnetization reversal in single ferromagnetic rectangular nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Alexandre B.; da Silva, Gilvânia L.; Rezende, Sergio M.; Azevedo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report on the magnetoresistance (MR) investigation of the magnetization reversal processes in single rectangular nanowire of Permalloy. A set of nanowires with lengths ranging from 6 to 20 μm, thicknesses fixed in 10 nm, and widths between 250 nm and 1.2 μm, was fabricated by means of AFM local anodic oxidation lithography. Magnetoresistive hysteresis loops show an abrupt jump corresponding to the magnetization reversal that depends on the angle between the wire axis and the applied magnetic field direction. The field value corresponding to the abrupt jump of the MR was associated to the nucleation field deduced from the Brown equations. By the angular dependence of this magnetization reversal field we were able to identify the nucleation mode as the magnetization buckling. We have investigated the temperature dependence of the switching field as well as its stochastic nature as a function of the in-plane angle.

  11. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting-nanowire singlephoton detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize NbxTi1 xN in the high-superconducting-transitiontemperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.

  12. Single Nanowire Probe for Single Cell Endoscopy and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ruoxue

    The ability to manipulate light in subwavelength photonic and plasmonic structures has shown great potentials in revolutionizing how information is generated, transformed and processed. Chemically synthesized nanowires, in particular, offers a unique toolbox not only for highly compact and integrated photonic modules and devices, including coherent and incoherent light sources, waveguides, photodetectors and photovoltaics, but also for new types of nanoscopic bio-probes for spot cargo delivery and in-situ single cell endoscopy and sensing. Such nanowire probes would enable us to carry out intracellular imaging and probing with high spatial resolution, monitor in-vivo biological processes within single living cells and greatly improve our fundamental understanding of cell functions, intracellular physiological processes, and cellular signal pathways. My work is aimed at developing a material and instrumental platform for such single nanowire probe. Successful optical integration of Ag nanowire plasmonic waveguides, which offers deep subwavelength mode confinement, and conventional photonic waveguides was demonstrated on a single nanowire level. The highest plasmonic-photonic coupling efficiency coupling was found at small coupling angles and low input frequencies. The frequency dependent propagation loss was observed in Ag nanowire and was confirmed by quantitative measurement and in agreement with theoretical expectations. Rational integration of dielectric and Ag nanowire waveguide components into hybrid optical-plasmonic routing devices has been demonstrated. This capability is essential for incorporating sub-100nm Ag nanowire waveguides into optical fiber based nanoprobes for single cell endoscopy. The nanoprobe system based on single nanowire waveguides was demonstrated by optically coupling semiconductor or metal nanowire with an optical fiber with tapered tip. This nanoprobe design requires minimal instrumentation which makes it cost efficient and readily

  13. Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays.

    PubMed

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Wang, Renjie; Woo, Steffi Y; Djavid, Mehrdad; Sadaf, Sharif Md; Lee, Jaesoong; Botton, Gianluigi A; Mi, Zetian

    2016-07-13

    Multicolor single InGaN/GaN dot-in-nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated on the same substrate using selective area epitaxy. It is observed that the structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum dots depend critically on nanowire diameters. Photoluminescence emission of single InGaN/GaN dot-in-nanowire structures exhibits a consistent blueshift with increasing nanowire diameter. This is explained by the significantly enhanced indium (In) incorporation for nanowires with small diameters, due to the more dominant contribution for In incorporation from the lateral diffusion of In adatoms. Single InGaN/GaN nanowire LEDs with emission wavelengths across nearly the entire visible spectral were demonstrated on a single chip by varying the nanowire diameters. Such nanowire LEDs also exhibit superior electrical performance, with a turn-on voltage ∼2 V and negligible leakage current under reverse bias. The monolithic integration of full-color LEDs on a single chip, coupled with the capacity to tune light emission characteristics at the single nanowire level, provides an unprecedented approach to realize ultrasmall and efficient projection display, smart lighting, and on-chip spectrometer. PMID:27332859

  14. Superconducting nanowire single photon detector on diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Atikian, Haig A.; Burek, Michael J.; Choy, Jennifer T.; Lončar, Marko; Eftekharian, Amin; Jafari Salim, A.; Hamed Majedi, A.

    2014-03-24

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are fabricated directly on diamond substrates and their optical and electrical properties are characterized. Dark count performance and photon count rates are measured at varying temperatures for 1310 nm and 632 nm photons. A multi-step diamond surface polishing procedure is reported, involving iterative reactive ion etching and mechanical polishing to create a suitable diamond surface for the deposition and patterning of thin film superconducting layers. Using this approach, diamond substrates with less than 300 pm Root Mean Square surface roughness are obtained.

  15. Thermoelectric nanowire single-photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzanyan, Astghik A.; Kuzanyan, Armen S.

    2013-05-01

    We have collected and analyzed the values of thermoelectric parameters of thermoelectric materials and on this basis calculated the energy resolution and photon count rate of the Thermoelectric Nanowire Single-Photon Detector (TNSPD). It is concluded that the TNSPD can achieve higher specifications as compared with the best single-photon detectors. The lanthanum-cerium hexaboride sensors of TNSPD are expected to reach more than gigahertz count rates and will have a sensitivity of 0.1 eV. It means that the device is sensitive enough to register and spectrally characterize not only X-ray and UV, but also optical and infrared photons, as its major competitors, the superconducting and semiconducting single-photon detectors.

  16. Nonvolatile resistive switching in single crystalline ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuchao; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Gao, Min; Zeng, Fei; Zhou, Weiya; Xie, Sishen; Pan, Feng

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate nonvolatile resistive switching in single crystalline ZnO nanowires with high ON/OFF ratios and low threshold voltages. Unlike the mechanism of continuous metal filament formation along grain boundaries in polycrystalline films, the resistive switching in single crystalline ZnO nanowires is speculated to be induced by the formation of a metal island chain on the nanowire surface. Resistive memories based on bottom-up semiconductor nanowires hold potential for next generation ultra-dense nonvolatile memories. PMID:21394361

  17. Effect of temperature on superconducting nanowire single-photon detector noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahgat Shehata, A.; Ruggeri, A.; Stellari, F.; Weger, Alan J.; Song, P.; Sunter, K.; Najafi, F.; Berggren, Karl K.; Anant, Vikas

    2015-08-01

    Today Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors (SNSPDs) are commonly used in different photon-starved applications, including testing and diagnostics of VLSI circuits. Detecting very faint signals in the near-infrared wavelength range requires not only good detection efficiency, but also very low Dark Count Rate (DCR) and jitter. For example, low noise is crucial to enable ultra-low voltage optical testing of integrated circuits. The effect of detector temperature and background thermal radiation on the noise of superconducting single-photon detectors made of NbN meanders is studied in this paper. It is shown that two different regimes can be identified in the DCR vs. bias current characteristics. At high bias, the dark count rate is dominated by the intrinsic noise of the detector, while at low bias current it is dominated by the detection of stray photons that get onto the SNSPD. Changing the detector temperature changes its switching current and only affects the high bias branch of the characteristics: a reduction of the DCR can be achieved by lowering the SNSPD base temperature. On the other hand, changing the temperature of the single-photon light source (e.g. the VLSI circuit under test) only affects the low bias regime: a lower target temperature leads to a smaller DCR.

  18. A single crystalline InP nanowire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Bang; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2016-08-01

    Single crystalline nanowires are critical for achieving high-responsivity, high-speed, and low-noise nanoscale photodetectors. Here, we report a metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on a single crystalline InP nanowire. The nanowires are grown by a self-catalyzed method and exhibit stacking-fault-free zinc blende crystal structure. The nanowire exhibits a typical n-type semiconductor property and shows a low room temperature dark current of several hundred pA at moderate biases. A photoresponsivity of 6.8 A/W is obtained at a laser power density of 0.2 mW/cm2. This work demonstrates that single crystalline InP nanowires are good candidates for future optoelectronic device applications.

  19. Modelling superconducting nanowire single photon detectors in a waveguide cavity.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Nicola A; Barreto, Jorge; Villarreal-Garcia, Gerardo E; Bonneau, Damien; Sahin, Döndü; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Thompson, Mark G

    2016-04-18

    In this work we report on a single photon detector system which offers near-unity detection efficiency using waveguide-coupled superconducting nanowires with lengths on the order of 1 μm. This is achieved by embedding the nanowires in a racetrack resonator where the interaction time with the photons trapped in the cavity is increased, thereby allowing for shorter nanowires. We expect this to lead to a higher fabrication yield as the amount of inhomogeneities decreases for shorter nanowires. Our simulations show a system with a 1 μm long superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) operating at near-unity detection efficiency using design parameters that can be realistically achieved with conventional fabrication processes. The resonant cavity introduces spectral selectivity to the otherwise broad-band SNSPDs and the cavity induced timing jitter is shown to be insignificant for SNSPDs longer than 1 μm. PMID:27137314

  20. Single CdTe Nanowire Optical Correlator for Femtojoule Pulses.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chenguang; Yu, Shaoliang; Bao, Qingyang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Bigeng; Wang, Yipei; Xu, Yingxin; Yang, Zongyin; Tong, Limin

    2016-08-10

    On the basis of the transverse second harmonic generation (TSHG) in a highly nonlinear subwavelength-diameter CdTe nanowire, we demonstrate a single-nanowire optical correlator for femto-second pulse measurement with pulse energy down to femtojoule (fJ) level. Pulses to be measured were equally split and coupled into two ends of a suspending nanowire via tapered optical fibers. The couterpropagating pulses meet each other around the central area of the nanowire, and emit TSHG signal perpendicular to the axis of the nanowire. By transferring the spatial intensity profile of the transverse second harmonic (TSH) image into the time-domain temporal profile of the input pulses, we operate the nanowire as a miniaturized optical correlator. Benefitted from the high nonlinearity and the very small effective mode area of the waveguiding CdTe nanowire, the input energy of the single-nanowire correlator can go down to fJ-level (e.g., 2 fJ/pulse for 1064 nm 200 fs pulses). The miniature fJ-pulse correlator may find applications from low power on-chip optical communication, biophotonics to ultracompact laser spectroscopy. PMID:27414182

  1. Magnetoresistance of nanosized magnetic configurations in single nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrowe, J.-E.; Gilbert, S.; Doudin, B.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    1998-03-01

    The problem of studying spin configurations at nanoscopic level is that magnetic measurements at this scale cannot be performed using usual magnetometers. We have shown that anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measured with micro-contacts allows spin configurations of a single nanowire to be studied in details. The nanowires are diameter 50 nm and length 6000 nm and are produced by a combination of electrodeposition in track-etched membrane templates and sputtering technics. Magnetoresistance of well-defined spin configurations in single nanowires, like Curling magnetization reversal modes or domain wall, are measured.

  2. Imaging Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence at Single Gold Nanowire Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J; Marchuk, Kyle; Willets, Katherine A

    2015-09-01

    We report electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) generated at single gold nanowire electrodes supported on tin-doped indium oxide. Unlike other single nanoparticle electrochemical characterization techniques, ECL provides a massively parallel direct readout of electrochemical activity on individual nanoparticle electrodes without the need for extrinsic illumination or a scanning electrochemical probe. While ECL is not observed from as-purchased nanowires due to the surfactant layer, by removing the layer and coating the nanowires with a polymer blend, ECL from single nanowire electrodes is readily measured. With an increase in polymer thickness, an increase in ECL image quality and reproducibility over multiple redox cycles is observed. The polymer coating also provides a strategy for stabilizing gold nanoparticle electrodes against complete surface oxidation in aqueous environments. PMID:26267267

  3. A route to fabricate single crystalline bismuth nanowire arrays with different diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Guanghai; Zhang, Lide

    2003-09-01

    Single crystalline bismuth nanowire arrays in anodic alumina membrane have been fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition. The nanowires of different diameters were obtained by changing the electrical parameter of the pulsed electrodeposition using anodic alumina membrane as template with the same pore size. X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis show that the bismuth nanowires are single crystalline with highly preferential orientation, and the diameter of nanowires increases with increasing the relaxation time of pulse. The growth mechanism of nanowires was discussed.

  4. Athermal avalanche in bilayer superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Stevens, M. J.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that two superconducting nanowires separated by a thin insulating barrier can undergo an avalanche process. In this process, Joule heating caused by a photodetection event in one nanowire and the associated production of athermal phonons which are transmitted through the barrier cause the transition of the adjacent nanowire from the superconducting to the normal state. We show that this process can be utilized in the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, reduce system jitter, maximize device area, and increase the external efficiency over a very broad range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the avalanche mechanism may provide a path towards a superconducting logic element based on athermal gating.

  5. Superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detector linear array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingyuan; McCaughan, Adam; Bellei, Francesco; Najafi, Faraz; De Fazio, Domenico; Dane, Andrew; Ivry, Yachin; Berggren, Karl K.

    2013-09-01

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a one-dimensional array of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors, integrated with on-chip inductors and resistors. The architecture is suitable for monolithic integration on a single chip operated in a cryogenic environment, and inherits the characteristics of individual superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors. We demonstrated a working array with four pixels showing position discrimination and a timing jitter of 124 ps. The electronic crosstalk between the pixels in the array was negligible.

  6. General hypothesis governing the growth of single-crystal nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2010-06-01

    The growth and growth rates of single-crystal nanowires by vapor phase mechanisms have been studied. A hypothesis has been proposed, which lays down foundation for the nanowire growth. It redefines the basic concepts of droplets from seeds and describes the fundamental basis of the adhesive properties of droplets. A set of droplet characteristics has been defined, a model in the framework of the hypothesis has been developed, and theoretical calculations have been performed. Experiments have also been carried out. Close correspondences between the theoretical and the experimental results lend support for the hypothesis and the model. Additional experimental evidences quantify the validity of the hypothesis. The calculated results resolve conflicts and controversies. They address the roles of catalysts in the growth of single-crystal nanowires. They shed light on the basic differences in the growth of thin and thick nanowires. They elucidate possible relationship between eutectic temperature and activation energy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth. They provide ground rules that govern the relative supplies of constituent vapor species for the growth of compound semiconductor nanowires. They explain how the same alloyed droplet (e.g., Au/Ga) is activated differently under the influence of different nonmetal elements of different nanowires (for example, As of GaAs, P of GaP, and N of GaN). They demonstrate, for example, that the nanowire growth may be achieved by means that creates thermodynamic imbalance and nanopores inside the seeds at temperatures far below the seed's melting temperature. Alloying in the vapor-solid-liquid mechanism is one such means where growth of even thick nanowires (radius of rD≥50 nm) is possible at temperatures far below the eutectic temperature. The hypothesis, is called the simple, novel, and malleable (SNM) hypothesis. This hypothesis, together with the model, appears to have solved the basic origin of the nanowire growth. It

  7. Controllable orientation of single silver nanowire using two fiber probes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohao; Cheng, Chang; Xin, Hongbao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2014-01-01

    We report a strategy for realizing precise orientation of single silver nanowire using two fiber probes. By launching a laser of 980 nm wavelength into the two fibers, single silver nanowire with a diameter of 600 nm and a length of 6.5 μm suspended in water was trapped and rotated by optical torque resulting from its interaction with optical fields outputted from the fiber probes. Angular orientation of the nanowire was controlled by varying the relative distance between the two fiber probes. The angular stiffness, which refers to the stability of orientation, was estimated to be on the order of 10−19 J/rad2·mW. The experiments were interpreted by theoretical analysis. PMID:24496474

  8. High sensitivity silicon single nanowire junctionless phototransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Samaresh; Dhyani, Veerendra; Georgiev, Yordan M.; Williams, David A.

    2016-02-01

    A high-gain photodetector based on junctionless MOSEFT has been presented in this work. Tri-gate junctionless nanowire phototransistors were fabricated on (100) silicon-on-insulator wafers with a buried oxide of thickness 145 nm and top silicon layer of thickness 10 nm. The gate stack consisted of a 10 nm SiO2 dielectric and a 50 nm poly-Si gate electrode. The channel length and doping concentration of junctionless n-MOSFETs was 1 μm and 3 × 1019 cm-3, respectively. The dark current of this device measured at room temperature was less than 1 pA. The measured internal gain of the device was about 35 for 860 nm light illumination. The photocurrent was 300 times larger than the dark current for only 30 nW incident power on the nanowire at 300 mV drain bias.

  9. Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Marsili, Francesco; Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Painter, Oskar J.; Shaw, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated WSi-based superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors coupled to SiNx waveguides with integrated ring resonators. This photonics platform enables the implementation of robust and efficient photon-counting detectors with fine spectral resolution near 1550 nm.

  10. Harmonics Generation by Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Single Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental observations of visible wavelength second- and third-harmonic generation on single plasmonic nanowires of variable widths. We identify that near-infrared surface plasmon polaritons, which are guided along the nanowire, act as the source of the harmonics generation. We discuss the underlying mechanism of this nonlinear process, using a combination of spatially resolved measurements and numerical simulations to show that the visible harmonics are generated via a combination of both local and propagating plasmonic modes. Our results provide the first demonstration of nanoscale nonlinear optics with guided, propagating plasmonic modes on a lithographically defined chip, opening up new routes toward integrated optical circuits for information processing. PMID:27563688

  11. Direct Photonic-Plasmonic Coupling and Routing in Single Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Rouxue; Pausauskie, Peter; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Piedong

    2009-10-20

    Metallic nanoscale structures are capable of supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), propagating collective electron oscillations with tight spatial confinement at the metal surface. SPPs represent one of the most promising structures to beat the diffraction limit imposed by conventional dielectric optics. Ag nano wires have drawn increasing research attention due to 2D sub-100 nm mode confinement and lower losses as compared with fabricated metal structures. However, rational and versatile integration of Ag nanowires with other active and passive optical components, as well as Ag nanowire based optical routing networks, has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that SPPs can be excited simply by contacting a silver nanowire with a SnO2 nanoribbon that serves both as an unpolarized light source and a dielectric waveguide. The efficient coupling makes it possible to measure the propagation-distance-dependent waveguide spectra and frequency-dependent propagation length on a single Ag nanowire. Furthermore, we have demonstrated prototypical photonic-plasmonic routing devices, which are essential for incorporating low-loss Ag nanowire waveguides as practical components into high-capacity photonic circuits.

  12. Single crystalline molybdenum nanowires, nanowire arrays and nanopore arrays in nickel-aluminium.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, Srdjan; Smith, Andrew Jonathan; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2009-06-01

    This work describes a novel fabrication method of single crystalline Mo nanowires and nanowire arrays. The method utilizes directional solidification (ds) of a NiAl-Mo eutectic alloy and its subsequent electrochemical processing. In the first step, a self-organized array of Mo nanowires embedded in a NiAl matrix is obtained. By combining the Pourbaix diagrams of the three elements involved, a strategy for selective removal of either of the two phases is derived. An oxidizing acidic solution of pH 0.2 dissolved the matrix and released an array of long and uniform Mo wires. Even a complete extraction of the wires is possible through entire dissolution of the matrix. On the other hand, electrodissolution of the Mo with a simultaneous passivation of the NiAl matrix at the pH 6 and the potential of 200 mV SHE yielded nanopore arrays with rectangular pores. This method has several advantages. First of all, it is one of the few top-down methods that allow the production of large amounts of nanostructures. In addition, both the wires and the matrix are single crystalline which makes them favorable for various applications. Further, the obtained nanostructures exhibit extremely high aspect ratios (> 1000), unreachable by most other techniques. This technique has the potential for the production of nanowire arrays either for employment in sensors or in field emission. PMID:19504862

  13. Dry-growth of silver single-crystal nanowires from porous Ag structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuantong; Nagao, Shijo; Jiu, Jinting; Zhang, Hao; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2016-06-01

    A fabrication method of single crystal Ag nanowires in large scale is introduced without any chemical synthesis in wet processes, which usually generates fivefold twinned nanowires of fcc metals. Dense single-crystal nanowires grow on a mechanically polished surface of micro-porous Ag structure, which is created from Ag micro-particles. The diameter and the length of the nanowires can be controlled simply by changing the temperature and the time of the heating during the nanowire growth in air. Unique growth mechanism is described in detail, based on stress-induced migration accelerated by the micro-porous structure where the origin of Ag nanowires growth is incubated. Transmission electron microscopy analysis on the single crystal nanowires is also presented. This simple method offered an alternative preparation for metallic nanowires, especially with the single crystal structure in numerous applications.

  14. ``Hot spots'' growth on single nanowire controlled by electric charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Shaobo; Liu, Xuehua; He, Ting; Tian, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Sun, Rui; He, Weina; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Ni, Weihai; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-06-01

    ``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a model based on Boltzmann distribution. In addition, the distance distribution here has an advantage in electron transfer and energy saving. Therefore, it's necessary to consider the functions of electric charge during the synthesis or application of nanomaterials.``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a

  15. "Hot spots" growth on single nanowire controlled by electric charge.

    PubMed

    Xi, Shaobo; Liu, Xuehua; He, Ting; Tian, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Sun, Rui; He, Weina; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Ni, Weihai; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-06-01

    "Hot spots" - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. "hot spots" on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag(+) to form the "hot spots" on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of "hot spots" is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent "hot spots" is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a model based on Boltzmann distribution. In addition, the distance distribution here has an advantage in electron transfer and energy saving. Therefore, it's necessary to consider the functions of electric charge during the synthesis or application of nanomaterials. PMID:27240743

  16. Laser-induced single point nanowelding of silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shuowei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Guoping; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Min

    2016-03-01

    Nanowelding of nanomaterials opens up an emerging set of applications in transparent conductors, thin-film solar cells, nanocatalysis, cancer therapy, and nanoscale patterning. Single point nanowelding (SPNW) is highly demanded for building complex nanostructures. In this letter, the precise control of SPNW of silver nanowires is explored in depth, where the nanowelding is laser-induced through the plasmonic resonance enhanced photothermal effect. It is shown that the illumination position is a critical factor for the nanowelding process. As an example of performance enhancement, output at wire end can be increased by 65% after welding for a plasmonic nanocoupler. Thus, single point nanowelding technique shows great potentials for high-performance electronic and photonic devices based on nanowires, such as nanoelectronic circuits and plasmonic nanodevices.

  17. New Generation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltsman, G. N.

    2015-09-01

    We present an overview of recent results for new generation of infrared and optical superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) that has already demonstrated a performance that makes them devices-of-choice for many applications. SNSPDs provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, SNSPDs are also compatible with an integrated optical platform as a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. By embedding SNSPDs in nanophotonic circuits we realize waveguide integrated single photon detectors which unite all desirable detector properties in a single device.

  18. Imaging Single ZnO Vertical Nanowire Laser Cavities using UV-Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gargas, D.J.; Toimil-Molares, M.E.; Yang, P.

    2008-11-17

    We report the fabrication and optical characterization of individual ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities. Dilute nanowire arrays with interwire spacing>10 ?m were produced by a modified chemical vapor transport (CVT) method yielding an ideal platform for single nanowire imaging and spectroscopy. Lasing characteristics of a single vertical nanowire are presented, as well as high-resolution photoluminescence imaging by UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the photoluminescence emission performed in both planar and vertical dimensions demonstrates height-selective imaging useful for vertical nanowires and heteronanostructures emerging in the field of optoelectronics and nanophotonics.

  19. Field emission from single-crystalline HfC nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinshi; Tang, Jie; Zhang Han; Shinya, Norio; Nakajima, Kiyomi; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2012-03-12

    Single HfC nanowire field emitter/electrode structures have been fabricated using nano-assembling and electron beam induced deposition. Field ion microscopy has been applied to study the atomic arrangement of facets formed on a field evaporation-modified HfC nanowire tip. Field evaporation and crystal form studies suggest that the {l_brace}111{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} crystal planes have lower work functions, while the {l_brace}100{r_brace}, {l_brace}210{r_brace}, and {l_brace}311{r_brace} planes have higher work functions. Field emission measurement permits us to obtain that the work function of the {l_brace}111{r_brace} crystal plane is about 3.4 eV.

  20. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanowire Tips for Ultrasensitive Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Degen, C L

    2015-12-01

    We report the fabrication, integration, and assessment of sharp diamond tips for ultrasensitive force microscopy experiments. Two types of tips, corresponding to the upper and lower halves of a diamond nanowire, were fabricated by top-down plasma etching from a single-crystalline substrate. The lower, surface-attached halves can be directly integrated into lithographically defined nanostructures, like cantilevers. The upper, detachable halves result in diamond nanowires with a tunable diameter (50-500 nm) and lengths of a few microns. Tip radii were around 10 nm and tip apex angles around 15°. We demonstrate the integration of diamond nanowires for use as scanning tips onto ultrasensitive pendulum-style silicon cantilevers. We find the noncontact friction and frequency jitter to be exceptionally low, with no degradation in the intrinsic mechanical quality factor (Q ≈ 130,000) down to tip-to-surface distances of about 10 nm. Our results are an encouraging step toward further improvement of the sensitivity and resolution of force-detected magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26517172

  1. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Michael G.; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  2. Photocurrent Spectroscopy of Single Wurtzite GaAs Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D. C.; Ahtapodov, L.; Boe, A. B.; Moses, A. F.; Dheeraj, D. L.; Fimland, B. O.; Weman, H.; Choi, J. W.; Ji, H.; Kim, G. T.

    2011-12-23

    Photocurrent of single wurtzite GaAs nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is measured at room and low temperature (10 K). At room temperature a high photo-response with more than two orders of magnitude increase of current is observed. The wavelength dependence of the photocurrent shows a sharp change near the zinc blende GaAs band gap. The absence of the free exciton peak in the low temperature photocurrent spectrum, and problems related to determining the exact position of the energy bandgap of wurtzite GaAs from the observed data are discussed.

  3. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Michael G; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H

    2014-03-24

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack. PMID:24664022

  4. Direct electrical transport measurement on a single thermoelectric nanowire embedded in an alumina template.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedim, Meriam; Cagnon, Laurent; Garagnon, Christophe; Serradeil, Valerie; Bourgault, Daniel

    2016-04-28

    Electrical conductivity is a key parameter to increase the performance of thermoelectric materials. However, the measurement of such performance remains complex for 1D structures, involving tedious processing. In this study, we present a non-destructive, rapid and easy approach for the characterization of electrical conductivity of Bi2Te3 based single nanowires. By controlling the nanowire overgrowth, each nanowire emerges in the form of a micrometric hemisphere constituting a unique contact zone for direct nanoprobing. As nanowires need no preliminary preparation and remain in their template during measurement, we avoid oxidation effects and time-consuming processing. Electrical transport results show a low nanowire resistivity for compact nanowires obtained at low overpotential. Such values are comparable to bulk materials and thin films. This method not only confirmed its reliability, but it could also be adopted for other semiconducting or metallic electrodeposited nanowires. PMID:27086560

  5. Electrical properties of single CuO nanowires for device fabrication: Diodes and field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Florica, Camelia; Costas, Andreea; Boni, Andra Georgia; Negrea, Raluca; Preda, Nicoleta E-mail: encu@infim.ro; Pintilie, Lucian; Enculescu, Ionut E-mail: encu@infim.ro; Ion, Lucian

    2015-06-01

    High aspect ratio CuO nanowires are synthesized by a simple and scalable method, thermal oxidation in air. The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the semiconducting nanowires were studied. Au-Ti/CuO nanowire and Pt/CuO nanowire electrical contacts were investigated. A dominant Schottky mechanism was evidenced in the Au-Ti/CuO nanowire junction and an ohmic behavior was observed for the Pt/CuO nanowire junction. The Pt/CuO nanowire/Pt structure allows the measurements of the intrinsic transport properties of the single CuO nanowires. It was found that an activation mechanism describes the behavior at higher temperatures, while a nearest neighbor hopping transport mechanism is characteristic at low temperatures. This was also confirmed by four-probe resistivity measurements on the single CuO nanowires. By changing the metal/semiconductor interface, devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors based on single CuO p-type nanowire semiconductor channel are obtained. These devices are suitable for being used in various electronic circuits where their size related properties can be exploited.

  6. Fabrication of single crystalline, uniaxial single domain Co nanowire arrays with high coercivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazani, A. Almasi Kashi, M.; Montazer, A. H.

    2014-03-21

    Whilst Co nanorods with high coercivity were synthesized during recent years, they did not achieve the same results as for Co nanowires embedded in solid templates. In the present work, Co nanowire arrays (NWAs) with high coercivity were successfully fabricated in porous aluminum oxide template under optimum conditions by using pulsed ac electrodeposition technique. Magnetic properties and crystalline characteristics of the nanowires were investigated by hysteresis loop measurements, first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Hysteresis loop measurements showed high coercivity of about 4.8 kOe at room temperature together with optimum squareness of 1, resulting in an increase of the previous maximum coercivity for Co NWAs up to 45%. XRD and SAED patterns revealed a single crystalline texture along the [0002] direction, indicating the large magnetocrystalline anisotropy. On the other hand, FORC analysis confirmed a single domain structure for the Co NWAs. In addition, the reversal mechanism of the single crystalline, single domain Co NWAs was studied which resulted in the fixed easy axis with a coherent rotation. Accordingly, these nanowires might offer promising applications in high density bit patterned media and low power logic devices.

  7. Recent advances in superconducting nanowire single photon detectors for single-photon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, V. B.; Allman, M. S.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Stern, J. A.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array, as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  8. Fabrication of single crystalline, uniaxial single domain Co nanowire arrays with high coercivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Montazer, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    Whilst Co nanorods with high coercivity were synthesized during recent years, they did not achieve the same results as for Co nanowires embedded in solid templates. In the present work, Co nanowire arrays (NWAs) with high coercivity were successfully fabricated in porous aluminum oxide template under optimum conditions by using pulsed ac electrodeposition technique. Magnetic properties and crystalline characteristics of the nanowires were investigated by hysteresis loop measurements, first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Hysteresis loop measurements showed high coercivity of about 4.8 kOe at room temperature together with optimum squareness of 1, resulting in an increase of the previous maximum coercivity for Co NWAs up to 45%. XRD and SAED patterns revealed a single crystalline texture along the [0002] direction, indicating the large magnetocrystalline anisotropy. On the other hand, FORC analysis confirmed a single domain structure for the Co NWAs. In addition, the reversal mechanism of the single crystalline, single domain Co NWAs was studied which resulted in the fixed easy axis with a coherent rotation. Accordingly, these nanowires might offer promising applications in high density bit patterned media and low power logic devices.

  9. Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal; Patriarche, Gilles; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Akopian, Nika; Zwiller, Val

    2016-02-10

    We report the first comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of single crystal phase quantum dots in InP nanowires. Crystal phase quantum dots are defined by a transition in the crystallographic lattice between zinc blende and wurtzite segments and therefore offer unprecedented potential to be controlled with atomic layer accuracy without random alloying. We show for the first time that crystal phase quantum dots are a source of pure single-photons and cascaded photon-pairs from type II transitions with excellent optical properties in terms of intensity and line width. We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising quantum optical properties for single photon application and quantum optics. PMID:26806321

  10. Light-Induced Charge Transport within a Single Asymmetric Nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chong; Hwang, Yun Yeong; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-21

    Artificial photosynthetic systems using semiconductor materials have been explored for more than three decades in order to store solar energy in chemical fuels such as hydrogen. By mimicking biological photosynthesis with two light-absorbing centers that relay excited electrons in a nanoscopic space, a dual-band gap photoelectrochemical (PEC) system is expected to have higher theoretical energy conversion efficiency than a single band gap system. This work demonstrates the vectorial charge transport of photo-generated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Under UV illumination, higher surface potential was observed on the n-TiO₂ side, relative to the potential of the p-Si side, as a result of majority carriers’ recombination at the Si/TiO₂ interface. These results demonstrate a new approach to investigate charge separation and transport in a PEC system. This asymmetric nanowire heterostructure, with a dual band gap configuration and simultaneously exposed anode and cathode surfaces represents an ideal platform for the development of technologies for the generation of solar fuels, although better photoanode materials remain to be discovered.

  11. Thermal and quantum phase slips in niobium-nitride nanowires based on suspended carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kohei; Moriyama, Satoshi; Morita, Yoshifumi; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Takagi, Tasuku; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Miki, Norihisa; Tanabe, Takasumi; Maki, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Superconducting nanowires have attracted considerable attention due to their unique quantum-mechanical properties, as well as their potential as next-generation quantum nanodevices, such as single-photon detectors, phase-slip (PS) qubits, and other hybrid structures. In this study, we present the results of one-dimensional (1D) superconductivity in nanowires fabricated by coating suspended carbon nanotubes with a superconducting thin niobium nitride (NbN) film. In the resistance-temperature characteristic curves, hallmarks of 1D superconductivity with PS events are observed with unconventional negative magnetoresistance. We also confirm that a crossover occurs between thermal and quantum PSs as the temperature is lowered.

  12. CuInSe2 nanowires from facile chemical transformation of In2Se3 and their integration in single-nanowire devices.

    PubMed

    Schoen, David T; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi

    2013-04-23

    Nanowire solar cells are receiving a significant amount of attention for their potential to improve light absorption and charge collection in photovoltaics. Single-nanowire solar cells offer the ability to investigate performance limits for macroscale devices, as well as the opportunity for in-depth structural characterization and property measurement in small working devices. Copper indium selenide (CIS) is a material uniquely suited to these investigations. Not only could nanowire solar cells of CIS perhaps allow efficient macroscale photovoltaics to be fabricated while reducing the amount of CIS required, important for a system with possible resource limitations, but it is also a photovoltaic material for which fundamental understanding has been elusive. We here present a recipe for a scaled up vapor liquid solid based synthesis of CIS nanowires, in-depth material and property correlation of single crystalline CIS nanowires, and the first report of a single CIS nanowire solar cell. The synthesis was accomplished by annealing copper-coated In2Se3 nanowires at a moderate temperature of 350 °C, leading to solid-state reaction forming CIS nanowires. These nanowires are p-type with a resitivity of 6.5 Ωcm. Evidence is observed for a strong diameter dependence on the nanowire transport properties. The single-nanowire solar cells have an open-circuit voltage of 500 mV and a short-circuit current of 2 pA under AM 1.5 illumination. PMID:23413963

  13. Ion-track based single-channel templates for single-nanowire contacting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtanko, N.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.; Cornelius, T. W.; Dobrev, D.; Neumann, R.

    2005-07-01

    This work reports a procedure for the fabrication of membranes containing only one single channel with diameter down to 20 nm and with well-defined geometry. Foils of different types of polymer (polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC)) were tested with respect to their suitability as ion-track template for single-nanowire growth. Membranes with one pore were created by the track-etching technique. The pore size was characterized by electrical conductivity measurements in 1 M KCl. Furthermore, we developed also a method for the preparation and electrical contacting of single metallic nanowires. Cylindrical single pores were filled with Bi by electrochemical deposition. The resulting wires, remaining embedded in the polymer foil, are very suitable for measurements of electrical resistance as a function of parameters such as wire diameter and temperature.

  14. Localized ultraviolet photoresponse in single bent ZnO micro/nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Wen; Yang Ya; Qi Junjie; Zhao Jing; Zhang Yue

    2010-09-27

    The localized ultraviolet photoresponse in single bent ZnO micro/nanowires bridging two Ohmic contacts has been investigated. The ZnO micro/nanowire has a higher photoresponse sensitivity of about 190% at the bent region (bending strain: about 4%) than that at the straight region (about 50%). The rise and decay time constants are almost the same in the straight and bent regions of the ZnO micro/nanowire. A possible mechanism has been proposed and discussed. The bent ZnO micro/nanowires could be potentially useful for fabricating the coupled piezoelectric and optoelectronic nanodevices.

  15. Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Umar; Wang, Hong; Peyrot, David; Olivier, Aurélien; Zhang, Jun; Coquet, Philippe; Ng, Serene Lay Geok

    2016-04-01

    We report the use of Germanium (Ge) as catalyst for Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanowires growth. High-yield growth has been achieved with Ge nanoparticles obtained by dewetting a thin layer of Ge on a Si (100) substrate. The nanowires are long and grow straight with very little curvature. The GaN nanowires are single-crystalline and show a Wurtzite structure growing along the [0001] axis. The growth follows a metal-free Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism, further allowing a CMOS technology compatibility. The synthesis of nanowires has been done using an industrial Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) system.

  16. Cold welding of copper nanowires with single-crystalline and twinned structures: A comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this article, molecular simulations were adopted to explore the cold welding processes of copper nanowires with both single-crystalline and fivefold twinned structures. It was verified that the twinned nanowires exhibited enhanced strength but lowered elastic limit and ductility. Both nanowires could be successfully welded through rather small loadings, although their stress-strain responses toward compression were different. Meanwhile, more stress was accumulated in the twinned nanowire due to repulsive force of the twin boundaries against the nucleation and motions of dislocations. Moreover, by characterizing the structure evolutions in the welding process, it can be ascertained that perfect atomic order was finally built at the weld region in both nanowires. This comparison study will be of great importance to future mechanical processing of metallic nanowires.

  17. Optical properties of single ZnTe nanowires grown at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Artioli, A.; Stepanov, P.; Den Hertog, M.; Bougerol, C.; Genuist, Y.; Donatini, F.; André, R.; Nogues, G.; Tatarenko, S.; Ferrand, D.; Cibert, J.; Inst NEEL, CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble ; Rueda-Fonseca, P.; Inst NEEL, CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble; INAC, CEA and Université de Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble ; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Kheng, K.

    2013-11-25

    Optically active gold-catalyzed ZnTe nanowires have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy, on a ZnTe(111) buffer layer, at low temperature (350 °C) under Te rich conditions, and at ultra-low density (from 1 to 5 nanowires per μm{sup 2}). The crystalline structure is zinc blende as identified by transmission electron microscopy. All nanowires are tapered and the majority of them are <111> oriented. Low temperature micro-photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence experiments have been performed on single nanowires. We observe a narrow emission line with a blue-shift of 2 or 3 meV with respect to the exciton energy in bulk ZnTe. This shift is attributed to the strain induced by a 5 nm-thick oxide layer covering the nanowires, and this assumption is supported by a quantitative estimation of the strain in the nanowires.

  18. Single-crystal superconducting nanowires of NbSe{sub 2} fabricated by reactive plasma etching

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Shaun A.; Staley, Neal E.; Wisser, Jacob J.; Shen, Chenyi; Xu, Zhuan; Liu, Ying

    2014-02-03

    We present the preparation and measurements of nanowires of single-crystal NbSe{sub 2}. These nanowires were prepared on ultrathin (≲10 nm) flakes of NbSe{sub 2} mechanically exfoliated from a bulk single crystal using a process combining electron beam lithography and reactive plasma etching. The electrical contacts to the nanowires were prepared using Ti/Au. Our technique, which overcomes several limitations of methods developed previously for fabricating superconducting nanowires, also allows for the preparation of complex superconducting nanostructures with a desired geometry. Current-voltage characteristics of individual superconducting single-crystal nanowires with widths down to 30 nm and cross-sectional areas as low as 270 nm{sup 2} were measured.

  19. Nanomanipulation and electrical behaviour of a single gold nanowire using in-situ SEM-FIB-nanomanipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Luxmoore, I.; Forster, M. D.; Cullis, A. G.; Inkson, B. J.

    2008-08-01

    Gold nanowires were successfully fabricated by a DC electrodeposition technique into Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The microstructure of 55nm gold nanowires released from AAO templates was observed by SEM and TEM to be polycrystalline, with a bamboo-type structure and grain sizes 20nm to several micrometers. Individual gold nanowires were picked up from bundles of gold nanowires using a super-sharp W tip attached to an in-situ Kleindiek nanomanipulator fitted in a SEM-FIB. The picked-up gold nanowires were then deposited onto a silicon wafer, or connected between two nanomanipulator tips, to fabricate single nanowire nano-circuits for electrical testing. The electrical properties of single manipulated nanowires are compared to that of bundles of gold nanowires for the two circuit types. The lowest resistance is achieved by connecting the gold nanowires between two FIB-milled tungsten tips.

  20. Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, Simone; Kahl, Oliver; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2015-04-13

    We investigate single- and multi-photon detection regimes of superconducting nanowire detectors embedded in silicon nitride nanophotonic circuits. At near-infrared wavelengths, simultaneous detection of up to three photons is observed for 120 nm wide nanowires biased far from the critical current, while narrow nanowires below 100 nm provide efficient single photon detection. A theoretical model is proposed to determine the different detection regimes and to calculate the corresponding internal quantum efficiency. The predicted saturation of the internal quantum efficiency in the single photon regime agrees well with plateau behavior observed at high bias currents.

  1. Electrical conductivity of single CdS nanowire synthesized by aqueous chemical growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yunze; Chen, Zhaojia; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Fenglian; Jin, Aizi; Gu, Changzhi

    2005-04-01

    In this Letter, we report on the temperature-dependent conductivity and current-voltage curve of a single CdS nanowire, which was synthesized by a simple aqueous chemical growth method. A pair of platinum microleads was fabricated on the single CdS nanowire by focused ion-beam deposition. The room-temperature conductivity and the band gap of the single CdS wire are 0.82Ω-1cm-1 and 0.055eV, respectively. When the applied electric field is larger than 1090Vcm-1, the CdS nanowire shows a nonlinear I-V curve at room temperature.

  2. Single quantum dot (QD) manipulation on nanowire using dielectrophoretic (DEP) force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lee, S. Y.; Suh, J.-K. F.; Park, J. H.; Shin, H. J.

    2011-02-01

    Au nanowires of 100 nm, 200nm and 400 nm widths with micro scale Au electrode were fabricated as electrodes to apply high electric field gradient for strong DEP force within the nanometer range. Au nanowires were fabricated on a silicon dioxide (SiO2) using lift-off process after e-beam lithography and e-beam evaporation. E-beam resister (ER) was patterned and a 50 nm thick Au layer. Photo resister (PR) was patterned to make Au microelectrode and did lift-off process. The Au nanowires with microelectrode were covered with SiO2 layer deposited with PECVD resulting in 1 um thick. Opened end of gold nanowires, the target surface for QD immobilization, were formed using etching processes. Single QD immobilization on the nanowire end-facet was accomplished through positive DEP force. Sine wave of 8 Vpp intensity and 3 MHz frequency was applied and it induced electric field of 108 V/m intensity and electric field gradient around Au nanowire to make strong positive DEP. Optical analysis confirmed the attachment of single QD on the nanowire. A single 25 nm diameter QD was manipulated on 100 nm, 200 nm and 400 nm width nanowires when 8 Vpp, 3 MHz sine wave was applied.

  3. Growth of single-crystalline cobalt silicide nanowires and their field emission property

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, cobalt silicide nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition processes on Si (100) substrates with anhydrous cobalt chloride (CoCl2) as precursors. Processing parameters, including the temperature of Si (100) substrates, the gas flow rate, and the pressure of reactions were varied and studied; additionally, the physical properties of the cobalt silicide nanowires were measured. It was found that single-crystal CoSi nanowires were grown at 850°C ~ 880°C and at a lower gas flow rate, while single-crystal Co2Si nanowires were grown at 880°C ~ 900°C. The crystal structure and growth direction were identified, and the growth mechanism was proposed as well. This study with field emission measurements demonstrates that CoSi nanowires are attractive choices for future applications in field emitters. PMID:23819795

  4. Electrical properties of single CdTe nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Matei, Elena; Florica, Camelia; Costas, Andreea; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ion track, nanoporous membranes were employed as templates for the preparation of CdTe nanowires. For this purpose, electrochemical deposition from a bath containing Cd and Te ions was employed. This process leads to high aspect ratio CdTe nanowires, which were harvested and placed on a substrate with lithographically patterned, interdigitated electrodes. Focused ion beam-induced metallization was used to produce individual nanowires with electrical contacts and electrical measurements were performed on these individual nanowires. The influence of a bottom gate was investigated and it was found that surface passivation leads to improved transport properties. PMID:25821685

  5. Probing the low thermal conductivity of single-crystalline porous Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunshan; Lina Yang Collaboration; Lingyu Kong Collaboration; Baowen Li Collaboration; John T L Thong Collaboration; Kedar Hippalgaonkar Collaboration

    Pore-like structures provide a novel way to reduce the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires, compared to both smooth-surface VLS nanowires and rough EE nanowires. Because of enhanced phonon scattering with interface and decrease in phonon transport path, the porous nanostructures show reduction in thermal conductance by few orders of magnitude. It proves to be extremely challenging to evaluate porosity accurately in an experimental manner and further understand its effect on thermal transport. In this study, we use the newly developed electron-beam based micro-electrothermal device technique to study the porosity dependent thermal conductivity of mesoporous silicon nanowires that have single-crystalline scaffolding. Based on the Casino simulation, the power absorbed by the nanowire, coming from the loss of travelling electron energy, has a linear relationship with it cross section. The relationship has been verified experimentally as well. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to theoretically predict the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires with a specific value of porosity. These single-crystalline porous silicon nanowires show extremely low thermal conductivity, even below the amorphous limit. These structures together with our experimental techniques provide a particularly intriguing platform to understand the phonon transport in nanoscale and aid the performance improvement in future nanowires-based devices.

  6. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy of Co-Ni nanowires: comparison between single nanowires and nanowire arrays in hard-anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    PubMed

    Vega, V; Böhnert, T; Martens, S; Waleczek, M; Montero-Moreno, J M; Görlitz, D; Prida, V M; Nielsch, K

    2012-11-23

    Co(x)Ni(1-x) alloy nanowires with varying Co content (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.95), having a diameter of 130 nm and length of around 20 μm, are synthesized by template-assisted electrodeposition into the nanopores of SiO(2) conformal coated hard-anodic aluminum oxide membranes. The magneto-structural properties of both single isolated nanowires and hexagonally ordered nanowire arrays of Co-Ni alloys are systematically studied by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively, allowing us to compare different alloy compositions and to distinguish between the magnetostatic and magnetocrystalline contributions to the effective magnetic anisotropy for each system. The excellent tunable soft magnetic properties and magnetic bistability exhibited by low Co content Co-Ni nanowires indicate that they might become the material of choice for the development of nanostructured magnetic systems and devices as an alternative to Fe-Ni alloy based systems, being chemically more robust. Furthermore, Co contents higher than 51 at.% allow us to modify the magnetic behavior of Co-rich nanowires by developing well controlled magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which is desirable for data storage applications. PMID:23095457

  7. Characterization of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with artificial constrictions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Dengkuan; Wu, Junjie; He, Yuhao; Lv, Chaolin; You, Lixing Zhang, Weijun; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen Xie, Xiaoming

    2014-06-15

    Statistical studies on the performance of different superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one chip suggested that random constrictions existed in the nanowire that were barely registered by scanning electron microscopy. With the aid of advanced e-beam lithography, artificial geometric constrictions were fabricated on SNSPDs as well as single nanowires. In this way, we studied the influence of artificial constrictions on SNSPDs in a straight forward manner. By introducing artificial constrictions with different wire widths in single nanowires, we concluded that the dark counts of SNSPDs originate from a single constriction. Further introducing artificial constrictions in SNSPDs, we studied the relationship between detection efficiency and kinetic inductance and the bias current, confirming the hypothesis that constrictions exist in SNSPDs.

  8. Rational Concept for Designing Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Single Crystalline Metal Oxide Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Klamchuen, Annop; Suzuki, Masaru; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hideto; Kanai, Masaki; Zhuge, Fuwei; He, Yong; Meng, Gang; Kai, Shoichi; Takeda, Seiji; Kawai, Tomoji; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2015-10-14

    Metal oxide nanowires hold great promise for various device applications due to their unique and robust physical properties in air and/or water and also due to their abundance on Earth. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of metal oxide nanowires offers the high controllability of their diameters and spatial positions. In addition, VLS growth has applicability to axial and/or radial heterostructures, which are not attainable by other nanowire growth methods. However, material species available for the VLS growth of metal oxide nanowires are substantially limited even though the variety of material species, which has fascinating physical properties, is the most interesting feature of metal oxides. Here we demonstrate a rational design for the VLS growth of various metal oxide nanowires, based on the "material flux window". This material flux window describes the concept of VLS nanowire growth within a limited material flux range, where nucleation preferentially occurs only at a liquid-solid interface. Although the material flux was previously thought to affect primarily the growth rate, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that the material flux is the important experimental variable for the VLS growth of metal oxide nanowires. On the basis of the material flux window concept, we discover novel metal oxide nanowires, composed of MnO, CaO, Sm2O3, NiO, and Eu2O3, which were previously impossible to form via the VLS route. The newly grown NiO nanowires exhibited stable memristive properties superior to conventional polycrystalline devices due to the single crystallinity. Thus, this VLS design route offers a useful guideline for the discovery of single crystalline nanowires that are composed of functional metal oxide materials. PMID:26372675

  9. Ultrafast photocurrents and THz generation in single InAs-nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleitner, Alexander; Erhard, Nadine; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Koblmuller, Gregor

    2013-03-01

    Conventional scanning photocurrent microscopy experiments on semiconductor nanowires are typically limited to timescales exceeding 10 ps. Yet, it is known from optical experiments that carrier relaxation and transport processes can occur on much faster timescales in such wires. We therefore apply a recently developed pump-probe photocurrent spectroscopy based on coplanar striplines to investigate the photocurrent dynamics of single GaAs- and InAs-nanowires with a picosecond time-resolution. The ultrafast photocurrent response of the nanowires is sampled in the time-domain with the help of Auston switches. We discuss data on single InAs-nanowires which are interpreted in terms of a photo-thermoelectric current and the transport of photogenerated holes to the electrodes as the dominating ultrafast photocurrent contributions. Moreover, we show that THz radiation is generated in the optically excited InAs-nanowires, which we interpret in terms of a dominating photo-Dember effect. The results are relevant for nanowire-based optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications as well as for the design of nanowire-based THz sources. Financial support by the ERC grant NanoREAL is acknowledged.

  10. Electromigration in focused ion beam deposited tungsten single nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pabitra; Das, Bipul; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    As the focused ion beam induced deposited (FIBID) nanowires (NWs) of W, Pt are being used in nanoelectronic technology to connect individual nanodevices, repairing damaged interconnects in integrated circuit (IC), electromigration study in FIBID-NWs has become essential. Briefly, when a thin conductor, like metallic Al, Cu interconnects in an IC chip carry quite high current density ~1012 A/m2, ions or atoms start migrating. Such migration causes void and hillock formation leading to interconnect discontinuity, short circuit and ultimately IC failure. Our electromigration study in single FIBID-NWs of W reveals that failure in NWs of width and thickness ~100 nm occurs typically at 1011 A/m2. Most notably, void and hillock always form in opposite polarity compared to typical metallic NWs. Such distinctly new outcome is explained via electromigration driven by direct force (ionic charge*electric field) opposed to wind force driven migration observed in metallic NWs. As FIBID-NWs are composite in nature, different species (e.g., Ga, W and C) migrate with different degree and direction depending on their oxidation state, leading to redistribution of species across NW length and formation of a Ga rich hillock. S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata-98, India.

  11. Room temperature GaAsSb single nanowire infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziyuan; Yuan, Xiaoming; Fu, Lan; Peng, Kun; Wang, Fan; Fu, Xiao; Caroff, Philippe; White, Thomas P.; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-11-01

    Antimonide-based ternary III-V nanowires (NWs) allow for a tunable bandgap over a wide range, which is highly interesting for optoelectronics applications, and in particular for infrared photodetection. Here we demonstrate room temperature operation of GaAs0.56Sb0.44 NW infrared photodetectors grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. These GaAs0.56Sb0.44 NWs have uniform axial composition and show p-type conductivity with a peak field-effect mobility of ˜12 cm2 V-1 s-1). Under light illumination, single GaAs0.56Sb0.44 NW photodetectors exhibited typical photoconductor behavior with an increased photocurrent observed with the increase of temperature owing to thermal activation of carrier trap states. A broadband infrared photoresponse with a long wavelength cutoff at ˜1.66 μm was obtained at room temperature. At a low operating bias voltage of 0.15 V a responsivity of 2.37 (1.44) A/W with corresponding detectivity of 1.08 × 109 (6.55 × 108) {{cm}}\\sqrt{{{Hz}}}/{{W}} were achieved at the wavelength of 1.3 (1.55) μm, indicating that ternary GaAs0.56Sb0.44 NWs are promising photodetector candidates for small footprint integrated optical telecommunication systems.

  12. Electrical transport properties of single-crystal Al nanowires.

    PubMed

    Brunbauer, Florian M; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Majer, Johannes; Lugstein, Alois

    2016-09-23

    Single-crystal Al nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by thermally induced substitution of vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NWs by Al. The resistivity of the crystalline Al (c-Al) NWs was determined to be ρ = (131 ± 27) × 10(-9) Ω m, i.e. approximately five times higher than for bulk Al, but they withstand remarkably high current densities of up to 1.78 × 10(12) A m(-2) before they ultimately melt due to Joule heating. The maximum current density before failure correlates with the NW diameter, with thinner NWs tolerating significantly higher current densities due to efficient heat dissipation and the reduced lattice heating in structures smaller than the electron-phonon scattering length. The outstanding current-carrying capacity of the c-Al NWs clearly exceeds those of common conductors and surpasses requirements for metallization of future high-performance devices. The linear temperature coefficient of the resistance of c-Al NWs appeared to be lower than for bulk Al and a transition to a superconducting state in c-Al NWs was observed at a temperature of 1.46 K. PMID:27533003

  13. Charge transport in single CuO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junnan; Yin, Bo; Wu, Fei; Myung, Yoon; Banerjee, Parag

    2014-11-01

    Charge transport in single crystal, p-type cupric oxide (CuO) nanowire (NW) was studied through temperature based (120 K-400 K) current-voltage measurements. CuO NW with a diameter of 85 nm was attached to Au electrodes 2.25 μm apart, using dielectrophoresis. At low electrical field (<0.89 × 103 V/cm), an ohmic conduction is observed with an activation energy of 272 meV. The injected electrons fill traps with an average energy, ET = 26.6 meV and trap density, NT = 3.4 × 1015 cm-3. After the traps are saturated, space charge limited current mechanism becomes dominant. For 120 K ≤ T ≤ 210 K phonon scattering limits mobility. For T ≥ 220 K, a thermally activated mobility is observed and is attributed to small polaron hopping with an activation energy of 44 meV. This mechanism yields a hole mobility of 0.0015 cm2/V s and an effective hole concentration of 4 × 1018 cm-3 at 250 K.

  14. Strain distribution in single, suspended germanium nanowires studied using nanofocused x-rays.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Mario; Grifone, Raphael; Greil, Johannes; Kriegner, Dominik; Persson, Johan; Lugstein, Alois; Schülli, Tobias; Stangl, Julian

    2016-02-01

    Within the quest for direct band-gap group IV materials, strain engineering in germanium is one promising route. We present a study of the strain distribution in single, suspended germanium nanowires using nanofocused synchrotron radiation. Evaluating the probed Bragg reflection for different illumination positions along the nanowire length results in corresponding strain components as well as the nanowire's tilting and bending. By using these findings we determined the complete strain state with the help of finite element modelling. The resulting information provides us with the possibility of evaluating the validity of the strain investigations following from Raman scattering experiments which are based on the assumption of purely uniaxial strain. PMID:26753909

  15. Photovoltaic effect and charge storage in single ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Zhimin; Xu Jun; Zhang Jingmin; Yu Dapeng

    2008-07-14

    Asymmetric Schottky barriers between ZnO nanowire and metal electrode have been fabricated at the two ends of the nanowire. An obvious photocurrent generated from the device at zero voltage bias can be switched on/off with quick response by controlling the light irradiation. Moreover, the device can still afford a current at zero bias after switching off light illumination, which is ascribed to the charge storage effect in single ZnO nanowires. The underlying mechanisms related to the photovoltaic effect and charge storage were discussed.

  16. Fabrication of enzyme-degradable and size-controlled protein nanowires using single particle nano-fabrication technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omichi, Masaaki; Asano, Atsushi; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Takano, Katsuyoshi; Sugimoto, Masaki; Saeki, Akinori; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Onoda, Akira; Hayashi, Takashi; Seki, Shu

    2014-04-01

    Protein nanowires exhibiting specific biological activities hold promise for interacting with living cells and controlling and predicting biological responses such as apoptosis, endocytosis and cell adhesion. Here we report the result of the interaction of a single high-energy charged particle with protein molecules, giving size-controlled protein nanowires with an ultra-high aspect ratio of over 1,000. Degradation of the human serum albumin nanowires was examined using trypsin. The biotinylated human serum albumin nanowires bound avidin, demonstrating the high affinity of the nanowires. Human serum albumin-avidin hybrid nanowires were also fabricated from a solid state mixture and exhibited good mechanical strength in phosphate-buffered saline. The biotinylated human serum albumin nanowires can be transformed into nanowires exhibiting a biological function such as avidin-biotinyl interactions and peroxidase activity. The present technique is a versatile platform for functionalizing the surface of any protein molecule with an extremely large surface area.

  17. Microchip for the Measurement of Seebeck Coefficients of Single Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völklein, F.; Schmitt, M.; Cornelius, T. W.; Picht, O.; Müller, S.; Neumann, R.

    2009-07-01

    Bismuth nanowires were electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Micromachining and microlithography were employed to realize a newly developed microchip for Seebeck coefficient measurements on individual nanowires. By anisotropic etching of a (100) Si wafer, an 800-nm-thick SiO2/Si3N4 membrane was prepared in the chip center. The low thermal conductivity of the membrane is crucial to obtain the required temperature difference Δ T along the nanowire. The wire is electrically contacted to thin metal pads which are patterned by a new method of microscopic exposure of photoresist and a lift-off process. A Δ T between the two pairs of contact pads, located on the membrane, is established by a thin-film heater. Applying the known Seebeck coefficient of a reference film, the temperature difference at this gap is determined. Using Δ T and the measured Seebeck voltage U of the nanowire, its Seebeck coefficient can be calculated.

  18. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N; Romo-Herrera, José M; Ríos, Luis A; García-Gutiérrez, R; Zepeda, T A; Contreras, Oscar E

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H₂ pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H₂. PMID:26690158

  19. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N.; Romo-Herrera, José M.; Ríos, Luis A.; García-Gutiérrez, R.; Zepeda, T. A.; Contreras, Oscar E.

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H2 pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H2. PMID:26690158

  20. Bleach-Imaged Plasmon Propagation (BlIPP) in Single Gold Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, David; Chang, Wei-Shun; Khanal, Bishnu P.; Bao, Kui; Nordlander, Peter; Zubarev, Eugene R.; Link, Stephan

    2010-08-13

    Here, we present a novel approach to visualize propagating surface plasmon polaritons through plasmon-exciton interactions between single gold nanowires and a thin film of a fluorescent polymer. A plasmon polariton was launched by exciting one end of a single gold nanowire with a 532 nm laser. The local near-field of the propagating plasmon modes caused bleaching of the polymer emission. The degree of photobleaching along the nanowire could be correlated with the propagation distance of the surface plasmon polaritons. Using this method of bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP), we determined a plasmon propagation distance of 1.8 ± 0.4 μm at 532 nm for chemically grown gold nanowires. Our results are supported by finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations.

  1. Space-and-time-resolved spectroscopy of single GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Martinez, Julio A.; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Swartzentruber, Brian S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.

    2015-06-29

    Gallium nitride nanowires have garnered much attention in recent years due to their attractive optical and electrical properties. An understanding of carrier transport, relaxation, and recombination in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems is therefore important in optimizing them for various applications. Here, we present ultrafast optical microscopic measurements on single GaN nanowires. Our experiments, performed while varying the light polarization, excitation fluence, and position, give insight into the mechanisms governing carrier dynamics in these nanosystems.

  2. Single p-type/intrinsic/n-type silicon nanowires as nanoscale avalanche photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Barrelet, Carl J; Capasso, Federico; Lieber, Charles M

    2006-12-01

    We report the controlled synthesis of axial modulation-doped p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) silicon nanowires with uniform diameters and single-crystal structures. The p-i-n nanowires were grown in three sequential steps: in the presence of diborane for the p-type region, in the absence of chemical dopant sources for the middle segment, and in the presence of phosphine for the n-type region. The p-i-n nanowires were structurally characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and the spatially resolved electrical properties of individual nanowires were determined by electrostatic force and scanning gate microscopies. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements recorded from individual p-i-n devices show an increase in the breakdown voltage with temperature, characteristic of band-to-band impact ionization, or avalanche breakdown. Spatially resolved photocurrent measurements show that the largest photocurrent is generated at the intrinsic region located between the electrode contacts, with multiplication factors in excess of ca. 30, and demonstrate that single p-i-n nanowires function as avalanche photodiodes. Electron- and hole-initiated avalanche gain measurements performed by localized photoexcitation of the p-type and n-type regions yield multiplication factors of ca. 100 and 20, respectively. These results demonstrate the significant potential of single p-i-n nanowires as nanoscale avalanche photodetectors and open possible opportunities for studying impact ionization of electrons and holes within quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor systems. PMID:17163733

  3. Versatile method for template-free synthesis of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, John A.; Totonjian, Daniel; Martin, Aiden A.; Tran, Toan Trong; Fang, Jinghua; Toth, Milos; McDonagh, Andrew M.; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J.

    2016-01-01

    Metal and metal alloy nanowires have applications ranging from spintronics to drug delivery, but high quality, high density single crystalline materials have been surprisingly difficult to fabricate. Here we report a versatile, template-free, self-assembly method for fabrication of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires (Co, Ni, NiCo, CoFe, and NiFe) by reduction of metal nitride precursors formed in situ by reaction of metal salts with a nitrogen source. Thiol reduction of the metal nitrides to the metallic phase at 550-600 °C results in nanowire growth. In this process, sulfur acts as a uniaxial structure-directing agent, passivating the surface of the growing nanowires and preventing radial growth. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by achieving nanowire growth from gas-phase, solution-phase or a combination of gas- and solution-phase precursors. The fabrication method is suited to large-area CVD on a wide range of solid substrates.Metal and metal alloy nanowires have applications ranging from spintronics to drug delivery, but high quality, high density single crystalline materials have been surprisingly difficult to fabricate. Here we report a versatile, template-free, self-assembly method for fabrication of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires (Co, Ni, NiCo, CoFe, and NiFe) by reduction of metal nitride precursors formed in situ by reaction of metal salts with a nitrogen source. Thiol reduction of the metal nitrides to the metallic phase at 550-600 °C results in nanowire growth. In this process, sulfur acts as a uniaxial structure-directing agent, passivating the surface of the growing nanowires and preventing radial growth. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by achieving nanowire growth from gas-phase, solution-phase or a combination of gas- and solution-phase precursors. The fabrication method is suited to large-area CVD on a wide range of solid substrates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  4. Simultaneous high-resolution scanning Bragg contrast and ptychographic imaging of a single solar cell nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Wallentin, Jesper; Wilke, Robin N.; Osterhoff, Markus; Salditt, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous scanning Bragg contrast and small-angle ptychographic imaging of a single solar cell nanowire are demonstrated, using a nanofocused hard X-ray beam and two detectors. The 2.5 µm-long nanowire consists of a single-crystal InP core of 190 nm diameter, coated with amorphous SiO2 and polycrystalline indium tin oxide. The nanowire was selected and aligned in real space using the small-angle scattering of the 140 × 210 nm X-ray beam. The orientation of the nanowire, as observed in small-angle scattering, was used to find the correct rotation for the Bragg condition. After alignment in real space and rotation, high-resolution (50 nm step) raster scans were performed to simultaneously measure the distribution of small-angle scattering and Bragg diffraction in the nanowire. Ptychographic reconstruction of the coherent small-angle scattering was used to achieve sub-beam spatial resolution. The small-angle scattering images, which are sensitive to the shape and the electron density of all parts of the nanowire, showed a homogeneous profile along the nanowire axis except at the thicker head region. In contrast, the scanning Bragg diffraction microscopy, which probes only the single-crystal InP core, revealed bending and crystalline inhomogeneity. Both systematic and non-systematic real-space movement of the nanowire were observed as it was rotated, which would have been difficult to reveal only from the Bragg scattering. These results demonstrate the advantages of simultaneously collecting and analyzing the small-angle scattering in Bragg diffraction experiments. PMID:26664342

  5. Cross-stacked single-crystal organic nanowire p-n nanojunction arrays by nanotransfer printing.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Sun; Lee, Ki Seok; Kang, Chan-Mo; Baek, Jangmi; Han, Kyu Seok; Lee, Changhee; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Kang, Youngjong; Sung, Myung Mo

    2015-01-14

    We fabricated cross-stacked organic p-n nanojunction arrays made of single-crystal 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) and fullerene (C60) nanowires as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively, by using a nanotransfer printing technique. Single-crystal C60 nanowires were synthesized inside nanoscale channels of a mold and directly transferred onto a desired position of a flexible substrate by a lubricant liquid layer. In the consecutive printing process, single-crystal TIPS-PEN nanowires were grown in the same way and then perpendicularly aligned and placed onto the C60 nanowire arrays, resulting in a cross-stacked single-crystal organic p-n nanojunction array. The cross-stacked single-crystal TIPS-PEN/C60 nanowire p-n nanojunction devices show rectifying behavior with on/off ratio of ∼ 13 as well as photodiode characteristic with photogain of ∼ 2 under a light intensity of 12.2 mW/cm(2). Our study provides a facile, solution-processed approach to fabricate a large-area array of organic crystal nanojunction devices in a desired arrangement for future nanoscale electronics. PMID:25470380

  6. Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging of a single indium phosphide nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhigaev, D.; Shabalin, A.; Stankevič, T.; Lorenz, U.; Kurta, R. P.; Seiboth, F.; Wallentin, J.; Singer, A.; Lazarev, S.; Yefanov, O. M.; Borgström, M.; Strikhanov, M. N.; Samuelson, L.; Falkenberg, G.; Schroer, C. G.; Mikkelsen, A.; Feidenhans‘l, R.; Vartanyants, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) with a nanofocused beam was applied to quantitatively map the internal strain field of a single indium phosphide nanowire. The quantitative values of the strain were obtained by pre-characterization of the beam profile with transmission ptychography on a test sample. Our measurements revealed the 3D strain distribution in a region of 150 nm below the catalyst Au particle. We observed a slight gradient of the strain in the range of ±0.6% along the [111] growth direction of the nanowire. We also determined the spatial resolution in our measurements to be about 10 nm in the direction perpendicular to the facets of the nanowire. The CXDI measurements were compared with the finite element method simulations and show a good agreement with our experimental results. The proposed approach can become an effective tool for in operando studies of the nanowires.

  7. Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Longyan; Tao, Yuting; Chen, Jian; Lu, Peixiang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-02-01

    We report a systematic study about the anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnO micro/nanowire by using the Z-scan method with a femtosecond laser. The two-photon absorption coefficient and nonlinear refraction index, which are measured as a function of polarization angle and sample orientation angle, exhibit oscillation curves with a period of π/2, indicating a highly polarized optical nonlinearity of the ZnO micro/nanowire. Further studies show that the polarized optical nonlinearity of the ZnO micro/nanowire is highly size-dependent. The results indicate that ZnO nanowire has great potential in applications of nanolasers, all-optical switching and polarization-sensitive photodetectors. PMID:22214490

  8. Ultrafast Photodetection in the Quantum Wells of Single AlGaAs/GaAs-Based Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, N.; Zenger, S.; Morkötter, S.; Rudolph, D.; Weiss, M.; Krenner, H. J.; Karl, H.; Abstreiter, G.; Finley, J. J.; Koblmüller, G.; Holleitner, A. W.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the ultrafast optoelectronic properties of single Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs-core-shell-nanowires. The nanowires contain GaAs-based quantum wells. For a resonant excitation of the quantum wells, we find a picosecond photocurrent which is consistent with an ultrafast lateral expansion of the photogenerated charge carriers. This Dember-effect does not occur for an excitation of the GaAs-based core of the nanowires. Instead, the core exhibits an ultrafast displacement current and a photo-thermoelectric current at the metal Schottky contacts. Our results uncover the optoelectronic dynamics in semiconductor core-shell nanowires comprising quantum wells, and they demonstrate the possibility to use the low-dimensional quantum well states therein for ultrafast photoswitches and photodetectors.

  9. Ultrafast Photodetection in the Quantum Wells of Single AlGaAs/GaAs-Based Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Erhard, N; Zenger, S; Morkötter, S; Rudolph, D; Weiss, M; Krenner, H J; Karl, H; Abstreiter, G; Finley, J J; Koblmüller, G; Holleitner, A W

    2015-10-14

    We investigate the ultrafast optoelectronic properties of single Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs core-shell nanowires. The nanowires contain GaAs-based quantum wells. For a resonant excitation of the quantum wells, we find a picosecond photocurrent which is consistent with an ultrafast lateral expansion of the photogenerated charge carriers. This Dember-effect does not occur for an excitation of the GaAs-based core of the nanowires. Instead, the core exhibits an ultrafast displacement current and a photothermoelectric current at the metal Schottky contacts. Our results uncover the optoelectronic dynamics in semiconductor core-shell nanowires comprising quantum wells, and they demonstrate the possibility to use the low-dimensional quantum well states therein for ultrafast photoswitches and photodetectors. PMID:26356189

  10. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  11. Single domain to vortex state transition in multilayered cobalt/copper nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jared; Greene, Peter; Dumas, Randy K.; Liu, Kai

    2008-08-01

    Multilayered magnetic nanowires provide ideal platforms for nanomagnetism and spin-transport studies. They exhibit complex magnetization reversal behaviors as dimensions of the magnetic components are varied, which are difficult to probe since the magnetic entities are buried inside the nanowires. We have captured magnetic and magnetoresistance "fingerprints" of Co nanodiscs in Co/Cu multilayered nanowires as they undergo a single domain to vortex state transition, using a first-order reversal curve (FORC) method. The Co/Cu multilayered nanowires have been synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition into nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. In 50 nm diameter nanowires of [Co(5nm)/Cu(8nm)]400, a 10% magnetoresistance effect is observed at 300 K. In 200 nm diameter nanowires, the magnetic configurations can be tuned by adjusting the Co nanodisc aspect ratio. The thinnest nanodiscs exhibit single domain behavior. The thicker ones exhibit vortex states, where the nucleation and annihilation of the vortices are manifested as butterfly-like features in the FORC distributions. The magnetoresistance effect shows different characteristics, which correspond to the different magnetic configurations of the Co nanodiscs.

  12. Temperature dependent electrical transport in single Ge nanowires near insulator-metal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, Arup Kumar; Seth, Shaili; Das, Kaustuv

    We report low temperature (4K <= T <= 300K) electrical transport in single strands of Germanium Nanowires of radius well below 50 nm. The nanowires, grown from vapour phase with Au catalyst have carrier concentrations ranging from intrinsic to near the insulator-metal transition boundary. The nanowires were characterized extensively by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and established their crystalline quality. A single nanowire dispersed on a Si/SiO2 substrate was connected by Cr/Au contacts made by electron beam lithography in 2-probe / 4-probe configurations. The undoped nanowires have a room temperature resistivity (ρ) of 2 ohm.cm or more (estimated carrier concentration ~1015/cm3) and below the 25K (where it shows carrier freeze out) the ρ rises to high value of 35 ohm.cm. For nanowires with ρ <= .01 ohm.cm at 300K , low temperature ρ becomes finite, signaling transition to a metallic state with negative temperature co-efficient of ρ. The critical composition for the insulator-metal transition is more than an order higher than that observed in the bulk. At low T (<25K) resistivity data in this regime can be fitted to weak-localization form ρ =ρ0 - aTp/2 with ρ0 the NW's ~ 0.5-3.5 mohm.cm, with the exponent p ~ 3-4 as expected from theoretical predictions. Acknowldge Financial Support from Department od Science and Technology, Government of India for Sponsored Project.

  13. A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V. B. Horansky, R.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Stern, J. A.; Shaw, M. D.

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate a scalable readout scheme for an infrared single-photon pulse-position camera consisting of WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. For an N × N array, only 2 × N wires are required to obtain the position of a detection event. As a proof-of-principle, we show results from a 2 × 2 array.

  14. Direct Observation of the Collision of Single Pt Nanoparticles onto Single-Crystalline Gold Nanowire Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Changhwan; Bae, Hyeonhu; Kang, Mijeong; Kim, Bongsoo; Kwon, Seong Jung

    2016-08-01

    We observed the collision of single Pt nanoparticles (NPs) onto an Au nanowire (NW) electrode by using electrocatalytic amplification. Previously, such observations had typically been performed by using a microscale disk-type ultramicroelectrode (UME). The use of a NW electrode decreased the background noise current and provided a shielding effect, owing to adsorption of the NPs onto the insulating sheath. Therefore, the transient current signal that was caused by the collision of single NPs could be more clearly distinguished from the background current by using a NW electrode instead of a UME. Furthermore, the use of a NW electrode increased the collisional frequency and the magnitude of the transient current signal. The experimental data were analyzed by using a theoretical model and a random walk simulation model. PMID:27305586

  15. Formation of nanowires via single particle-triggered linear polymerization of solid-state aromatic molecules.

    PubMed

    Horio, Akifumi; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Lakshmi, G B V S; Kumar Avasthi, Devesh; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Seki, Shu

    2016-08-11

    Nanowires occupy a prestigious place in nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, and biomimetics. Although there are notable methods to grow nanowires via self-assembly, there is a key drawback in the need to find out the specific conditions appropriate for each system. In this sense, universal techniques to fabricate such nanowires from various organic materials have been sought for the continued progress of the related research field. Here we report one of the promising and facile methodologies to quantitatively produce nanowires with controlled geometrical parameters. In this method, referred to as "Single Particle-Triggered Linear Polymerization (STLiP)", organic thin films on a supporting substrate were irradiated with high-energy charged particles, accelerated by particle accelerators. Each particle penetrates from the top of the films to the substrate while gradually releasing kinetic energy along its trajectory (ion track), generating reactive intermediates such as radical species that eventually induce propagation reactions. The resulting polymerized products were integrated into nanowires with uniform diameter and length that can be isolated via development with appropriate organic solvents. Considering the widely applicable nature of STLiP to organic materials, the present technique opens a new door for access to a number of functional nanowires and their assembly. PMID:27355341

  16. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV. PMID:24872800

  17. Direct Observation of Gigahertz Coherent Guided Acoustic Phonons in Free-Standing Single Copper Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jean, Cyril; Belliard, Laurent; Cornelius, Thomas W; Thomas, Olivier; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Cassinelli, Marco; Becerra, Loïc; Perrin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We report on gigahertz acoustic phonon waveguiding in free-standing single copper nanowires studied by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements. The results are discussed on the basis of the semianalytical resolution of the Pochhammer and Chree equation. The spreading of the generated Gaussian wave packet of two different modes is derived analytically and compared with the observed oscillations of the sample reflectivity. These experiments provide a unique way to independently obtain geometrical and material characterization. This direct observation of coherent guided acoustic phonons in a single nano-object is also the first step toward nanolateral size acoustic transducer and comprehensive studies of the thermal properties of nanowires. PMID:26278939

  18. Single ZnO nanowire ultraviolet detector with free-recovered contact performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Zhenhu; Feng, Shuanglong; Lu, Wenqiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a single ZnO nanowire ultraviolet detector was firstly fabricated by a single ZnO nanowire and silver paint, which can be free-recovered from a Schottky contact to an Ohmic contact. Key effect factors such as the illumination and bias voltage of the free-recovered performance were also investigated. Meanwhile, the reason for the recoverable contact was further confirmed in detail. This result is beneficial for developing the highly sensitive ZnO based ultraviolet detector.

  19. In Situ Investigation of Li and Na Ion Transport with Single Nanowire Electrochemical Devices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Yan, Mengyu; Tian, Xiaocong; Yang, Chuchu; Shi, Mengzhu; Wei, Qiulong; Xu, Lin; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-06-10

    In the past decades, Li ion batteries are widely considered to be the most promising rechargeable batteries for the rapid development of mobile devices and electric vehicles. There arouses great interest in Na ion batteries, especially in the field of static grid storage due to their much lower production cost compared with Li ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism of Li and Na ion transport in nanoscale electrodes of batteries has been rarely experimentally explored. This insight can guide the development and optimization of high-performance electrode materials. In this work, single nanowire devices with multicontacts are designed to obtain detailed information during the electrochemical reactions. This unique platform is employed to in situ investigate and compare the transport properties of Li and Na ions at a single nanowire level. To give different confinement for ions and electrons during the electrochemical processes, two different configurations of nanowire electrode are proposed; one is to fully immerse the nanowire in the electrolyte, and the other is by using photoresist to cover the nanowire with only one end exposed. For both configurations, the conductivity of nanowire decreases after intercalation/deintercalation for both Li and Na ions, indicating that they share the similar electrochemical reaction mechanisms in layered electrodes. However, the conductivity degradation and structure destruction for Na ions is more severe than those of Li ions during the electrochemical processes, which mainly results from the much larger volume of Na ions and greater energy barrier encountered by the limited layered spaces. Moreover, the battery performances of coin cells are compared to further confirm this conclusion. The present work provides a unique platform for in situ electrochemical and electrical probing, which will push the fundamental and practical research of nanowire electrode materials for energy storage applications. PMID:25989463

  20. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk; Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K. E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk; Arbiol, Jordi

    2015-11-30

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.

  1. Single Material Band Gap Engineering in GaAs Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Spirkoska, D.; Abstreiter, G.; Efros, A.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Morante, J. R.; Arbiol, J.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

    2011-12-23

    The structural and optical properties of GaAs nanowire with mixed zinc-blende/wurtzite structure are presented. High resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates the presence of a variety of shorter and longer segments of zinc-blende or wurtzite crystal phases. Sharp photoluminescence lines are observed with emission energies tuned from 1.515 eV down to 1.43 eV. The downward shift of the emission peaks can be understood by carrier confinement at the wurtzite/zinc-blende heterojunction, in quantum wells and in random short period superlattices existent in these nanowires, assuming the theoretical staggered band-offset between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaAs.

  2. High-frequency characterization and modeling of single metallic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chuan-Lun; Ardila, Gustavo; Benech, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    The transmission line characteristics of an individual aluminum metallic nanowire up to 100 GHz are presented in this paper. We have built a reliable framework for characterizing such nanowires using a specially designed coplanar waveguide platform. We systematically estimate the pad parasitics, contact impedance and transmission line parameters based on an equivalent circuit model and cascade-based de-embedding theory. This is the first time that such external parasitic elements have been successfully removed from a nanoscale transmission line. The extracted frequency-dependent electrical responses show good signal levels and a high degree of reproducibility. Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  3. Effect of Ions and Ionic Strength on Surface Plasmon Absorption of Single Gold Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Baral, Susil; Green, Andrew J; Richardson, Hugh H

    2016-06-28

    The local temperature change from a single optically excited gold nanowire, lithographically prepared on Al0.94Ga0.06N embedded with Er(3+) ions, is measured in air, pure water, and various concentrations of aqueous solutions of ionic solutes of NaCl, Na2SO4, and MgSO4. The absorption cross section of the nanowire under pure water (2.25 × 10(-14) m(2)) and different solution ionic strength is measured from the slopes of temperature change versus laser intensity plots. Addition of charges into the solution decreases the amount of heat generated during optical excitation of the gold nanostructures because the absorption cross section of the gold nanowire is attenuated. A Langmuir-type behavior of the absorption cross section with ionic strength is observed that is identified with an increase in the occupancy of screened interfacial charges. The absorption cross section of the nanowire decreases with ionic strength until a saturation value of 9 × 10(-15) m(2), where saturation in the occupancy of screened interfacial charge occurs. Dynamic measurements of temperature for a single gold nanowire immersed in a microchannel flow cell show a sharp and fast temperature drop for the flow of ionic solution compared to the pure (deionized) water, suggesting that the technique can be developed as a sensor probe to detect the presence of ions in solution. PMID:27215955

  4. Performance-limiting factors for GaAs-based single nanowire photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xufeng; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Lundstrom, Mark; Bermel, Peter

    2014-03-10

    GaAs nanowires (NWs) offer the possibility of decoupling light absorption from charge transport for high-performance photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, it is still an open question as to whether these devices can exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit for single-junction PV. In this work, single standing GaAs-based nanowire solar cells in both radial and vertical junction configurations is analyzed and compared to a planar thin-film design. By using a self-consistent, electrical-optically coupled 3D simulator, we show the design principles for nanowire and planar solar cells are significantly different; nanowire solar cells are vulnerable to surface and contact recombination, while planar solar cells suffer significant losses due to imperfect backside mirror reflection. Overall, the ultimate efficiency of the GaAs nanowire solar cell with radial and vertical junction is not expected to exceed that of the thin-film design, with both staying below the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:24922244

  5. Performance-limiting factors for GaAs-based single nanowire photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xufeng; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Lundstrom, Mark; Bermel, Peter

    2014-03-10

    GaAs nanowires (NWs) offer the possibility of decoupling light absorption from charge transport for high-performance photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, it is still an open question as to whether these devices can exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit for single-junction PV. In this work, single standing GaAs-based nanowire solar cells in both radial and vertical junction configurations is analyzed and compared to a planar thin-film design. By using a self-consistent, electrical-optically coupled 3D simulator, we show the design principles for nanowire and planar solar cells are significantly different; nanowire solar cells are vulnerable to surface and contact recombination, while planar solar cells suffer significant losses due to imperfect backside mirror reflection. Overall, the ultimate efficiency of the GaAs nanowire solar cell with radial and vertical junction is not expected to exceed that of the thin-film design, with both staying below the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:24800291

  6. Magnetoresistance characteristics in individual Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} single crystal nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K. M. Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles; Padture, Nitin P.

    2015-05-07

    We report on the magnetoresistance (MR) and electron transport measurements observed on a single crystal magnetite nanowire prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method. High-resolution electron microscopy revealed the single crystal magnetite nanowires with 80–120 nm thickness and up to 8 μm in length. Magnetic measurements showed the typical Verwey transition around 120 K with a 100 Oe room temperature coercivity and 45 emu/g saturation magnetization, which are comparable to bulk magnetite. Electrical resistance measurements in 5–300 K temperature range were performed by scanning gate voltage and varying applied magnetic field. Electrical resistivity of the nanowire was found to be around 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω m, slightly higher than the bulk and has activation energy of 0.07 eV. A negative MR of about 0.7% is observed for as-synthesized nanowires at 0.3 T applied field. MR scaled with increasing applied magnetic field representing the field-induced alignment of magnetic domain. These results are attributed to the spin-polarized electron transport across the antiphase boundaries, which implicate promising applications for nanowires in magnetoelectronics.

  7. Versatile method for template-free synthesis of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires.

    PubMed

    Scott, John A; Totonjian, Daniel; Martin, Aiden A; Tran, Toan Trong; Fang, Jinghua; Toth, Milos; McDonagh, Andrew M; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J

    2016-02-01

    Metal and metal alloy nanowires have applications ranging from spintronics to drug delivery, but high quality, high density single crystalline materials have been surprisingly difficult to fabricate. Here we report a versatile, template-free, self-assembly method for fabrication of single crystalline metal and metal alloy nanowires (Co, Ni, NiCo, CoFe, and NiFe) by reduction of metal nitride precursors formed in situ by reaction of metal salts with a nitrogen source. Thiol reduction of the metal nitrides to the metallic phase at 550-600 °C results in nanowire growth. In this process, sulfur acts as a uniaxial structure-directing agent, passivating the surface of the growing nanowires and preventing radial growth. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by achieving nanowire growth from gas-phase, solution-phase or a combination of gas- and solution-phase precursors. The fabrication method is suited to large-area CVD on a wide range of solid substrates. PMID:26763153

  8. Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods.

    SciTech Connect

    N'Gom, M.; Ringnalda, J.; Mansfield, J. F.; Agarwal, A.; Kotov, N.; Zaluzec, N. J.; Norris, T. B.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Michigan at Ann Arbor; Ohio State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    The excitation of surface plasmons in individual silver nanowires and gold nanorods is investigated by means of high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. The transverse and longitudinal modes of these nanostructures are resolved, and the size variation of the plasmon peaks is studied. The effect of electromagnetic coupling between closely spaced nanoparticles is also observed. Finally, the relation between energy-loss measurements and optical spectroscopy of nanoparticle plasmon modes is discussed.

  9. Resistance of Single Ag Nanowire Junctions and Their Role in the Conductivity of Nanowire Networks.

    PubMed

    Bellew, Allen T; Manning, Hugh G; Gomes da Rocha, Claudia; Ferreira, Mauro S; Boland, John J

    2015-11-24

    Networks of silver nanowires appear set to replace expensive indium tin oxide as the transparent conducting electrode material in next generation devices. The success of this approach depends on optimizing the material conductivity, which until now has largely focused on minimizing the junction resistance between wires. However, there have been no detailed reports on what the junction resistance is, nor is there a known benchmark for the minimum attainable sheet resistance of an optimized network. In this paper, we present junction resistance measurements of individual silver nanowire junctions, producing for the first time a distribution of junction resistance values and conclusively demonstrating that the junction contribution to the overall resistance can be reduced beyond that of the wires through standard processing techniques. We find that this distribution shows the presence of a small percentage (6%) of high-resistance junctions, and we show how these may impact the performance of network-based materials. Finally, through combining experiment with a rigorous model, we demonstrate the important role played by the network skeleton and the specific connectivity of the network in determining network performance. PMID:26448205

  10. Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Michael E.; Bulgarini, Gabriele; Akopian, Nika; Hocevar, Moïra; Bavinck, Maaike Bouwes; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Zwiller, Val

    2012-01-01

    The ability to achieve near-unity light-extraction efficiency is necessary for a truly deterministic single-photon source. The most promising method to reach such high efficiencies is based on embedding single-photon emitters in tapered photonic waveguides defined by top-down etching techniques. However, light-extraction efficiencies in current top-down approaches are limited by fabrication imperfections and etching-induced defects. The efficiency is further tempered by randomly positioned off-axis quantum emitters. Here we present perfectly positioned single quantum dots on the axis of a tailored nanowire waveguide using bottom-up growth. In comparison to quantum dots in nanowires without waveguides, we demonstrate a 24-fold enhancement in the single-photon flux, corresponding to a light-extraction efficiency of 42%. Such high efficiencies in one-dimensional nanowires are promising to transfer quantum information over large distances between remote stationary qubits using flying qubits within the same nanowire p–n junction. PMID:22415828

  11. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  12. Proton irradiation effects on the thermoelectric properties in single-crystalline Bi nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Taehoo; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Lee, Wooyoung

    2015-05-15

    The effects of proton irradiation on the thermoelectric properties of Bi nanowires (Bi-NWs) were investigated. Single crystalline Bi-NWs were grown by the on-film formation of nanowires method. The devices based on individual Bi-NWs were irradiated with protons at different energies. The total number of displaced atoms was estimated using the Kinchin-Pease displacement model. The electric conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the Bi-NW devices were investigated before and after proton irradiation at different temperatures. Although the Seebeck coefficient remained stable at various irradiation energies, the electrical conductivity significantly declined with increasing proton energy up to 40 MeV.

  13. Stress induced growth of Sn nanowires in a single step by sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, A.; Patel, N.; Miotello, A.; Kothari, D. C.

    2015-06-01

    Sn nanowires in aluminum film have been synthesized in a single step by co-sputtering of Al and Sn targets. Due to immiscibility of Sn and Al, co-sputtering leads to generation of stress in the composite film. In order to attain thermodynamic equilibrium, Sn separates from Al and diffuses towards the grain boundaries. External perturbation due to ambient atmosphere leads to corrosion at the grain boundaries forming pits which provide path for Sn to evolve. Owing to this, extrusion of Sn nanowires from Al film occurs to release the residual stress in the film.

  14. Stress induced growth of Sn nanowires in a single step by sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, A. Kothari, D. C.; Patel, N.; Miotello, A.

    2015-06-24

    Sn nanowires in aluminum film have been synthesized in a single step by co-sputtering of Al and Sn targets. Due to immiscibility of Sn and Al, co-sputtering leads to generation of stress in the composite film. In order to attain thermodynamic equilibrium, Sn separates from Al and diffuses towards the grain boundaries. External perturbation due to ambient atmosphere leads to corrosion at the grain boundaries forming pits which provide path for Sn to evolve. Owing to this, extrusion of Sn nanowires from Al film occurs to release the residual stress in the film.

  15. Selective patterned growth of single-crystal organic nanowires of Ag-TCNQ with chemical raction method

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Kai; Tao, Jing; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Retterer, Scott T; Pennycook, Stephen J; Geohegan, David B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: We report for the selective-area chemical synthesis of semiconductor single-crystal organic nanowires of silver-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Ag-TCNQ). Straight and smooth Ag-TCNQ nanowires can be produced and patterned on micrometer and nanometer scale on silicon substrates covered with a thin layer of Ag film through the reaction of TCNQ and Ag in a simple gas-solid chemical reaction process. Ag-TCNQ nanowires are characterized by UV-vis, IR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The Ag-TCNQ nanowires grows preferentially along the [100] direction of strong - stacking of Ag-TCNQ molecules. Nanodevices based on these nanowires are fabricated using focus ion beam (FIB) technique. Electrical properties are characterized and I-V hysteresis is observed, which shows memory effect with electrical switching of three orders on-off ratio. These nanowires could be potential for use in optical storage, ultrahigh-density nanoscale memory and logic devices.

  16. Local detection efficiency of a NbN superconducting single photon detector explored by a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Renema, Jelmer J; Engel, Andreas; van Exter, Martin P; de Dood, Michiel J A

    2015-09-21

    We propose an experiment to directly probe the local response of a superconducting single photon detector using a sharp metal tip in a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope. The optical absorption is obtained by simulating the tip-detector system, where the tip-detector is illuminated from the side, with the tip functioning as an optical antenna. The local detection efficiency is calculated by considering the recently introduced position-dependent threshold current in the detector. The calculated response for a 150 nm wide detector shows a peak close to the edge that can be spatially resolved with an estimated resolution of ∼ 20 nm, using a tip with parameters that are experimentally accessible. PMID:26406688

  17. Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Henrik Ingerslev; Heiss, Martin; Demichel, Olivier; Holm, Jeppe V.; Aagesen, Martin; Nygard, Jesper; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Light management is of great importance in photovoltaic cells, as it determines the fraction of incident light entering the device. An optimal p-n junction combined with optimal light absorption can lead to a solar cell efficiency above the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we show how this is possible by studying photocurrent generation for a single core-shell p-i-n junction GaAs nanowire solar cell grown on a silicon substrate. At 1 sun illumination, a short-circuit current of 180 mA cm-2 is obtained, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than that predicted from the Lambert-Beer law. The enhanced light absorption is shown to be due to a light-concentrating property of the standing nanowire, as shown by photocurrent maps of the device. The results imply new limits for the maximum efficiency obtainable with III-V based nanowire solar cells under 1 sun illumination.

  18. Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of single-crystalline KNb3O8 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bin; Cao, Bo; Cao, Huiqun; Zhang, Xinpeng; Chen, Danni; Qu, Junle; Niu, Hanben

    2013-03-01

    Single-crystalline KNb3O8 nanowires with widths of 100-300 nm and lengths up to tens of microns were synthesized by calcining Nb2O5 powders in molten KCl and K2SO4. The phase of the products was determined by means of x-ray diffraction, and the morphology and structure were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. The growth direction of the KNb3O8 obtained was determined to be the [001] crystallographic direction. Meanwhile, the polarization response of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) response was investigated. The as-synthesized nanowires clearly exhibited a SHG response, which means that the nanowires were an efficient nanoscale second-harmonic light source. The excellent nonlinear optical property of KNb3O8 shows potential for application in nano-optical devices.

  19. Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of single-crystalline KNb3O8 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Cao, Bo; Cao, Huiqun; Zhang, Xinpeng; Chen, Danni; Qu, Junle; Niu, Hanben

    2013-03-01

    Single-crystalline KNb(3)O(8) nanowires with widths of 100-300 nm and lengths up to tens of microns were synthesized by calcining Nb(2)O(5) powders in molten KCl and K(2)SO(4). The phase of the products was determined by means of x-ray diffraction, and the morphology and structure were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. The growth direction of the KNb(3)O(8) obtained was determined to be the [001] crystallographic direction. Meanwhile, the polarization response of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) response was investigated. The as-synthesized nanowires clearly exhibited a SHG response, which means that the nanowires were an efficient nanoscale second-harmonic light source. The excellent nonlinear optical property of KNb(3)O(8) shows potential for application in nano-optical devices. PMID:23377103

  20. Single-crystal nanowires grown via electron-beam-induced deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Kate L; Randolph, Steven J; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Meyer III, Harry M; Simpson, Michael L; Rack, Philip D

    2008-01-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a useful technique for direct-writing of 3-dimensional dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. The EBID process, however, has been limited in many cases because precursor byproducts (typically from organic precursors like W(CO)6) are incorporated into the deposited material resulting in contaminated and amorphous structures. In this manuscript, we have investigated the structure and composition of EBID tungsten nanostructures as-deposited from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) precursor. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the effects that the electron beam scanning conditions have on the deposit characteristics. The results show that slow, one-dimensional lateral scanning produces textured -tungsten nanowire cores surrounded by an oxide secondary layer, while stationary vertical growth leads to single-crystal [100]-oriented W3O nanowires. Furthermore we correlate how the growth kinetics affect the resultant nanowire structure and composition.

  1. Homojunction p-n photodiodes based on As-doped single ZnO nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H. D.; Zakirov, A. S.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Kang, T. W.; Ahn, C. W.; Yeo, Y. K.

    2013-12-04

    Photovoltaic device was successfully grown solely based on the single ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire. The ZnO nanowire p-n diode consists of an as-grown n-type segment and an in-situ arsenic doped p-type segment. This p-n homojunction acts as a good photovoltaic cell, producing a photocurrent almost 45 times larger than the dark current under reverse-biased condition. Our results demonstrate that present ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire can be used as a self-powered ultraviolet photodetector as well as a photovoltaic cell, which can also be used as an ultralow electrical power source for nano-scale electronic, optoelectronic, and medical devices.

  2. Weak antilocalization and conductance fluctuation in a single crystalline Bi nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeongmin; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, MinGin; Lee, Wooyoung E-mail: pk2015@columbia.edu; Brovman, Yuri M.; Kim, Philip E-mail: pk2015@columbia.edu

    2014-01-27

    We present the low temperature transport properties of an individual single-crystalline Bi nanowire grown by the on-film formation of nanowire method. The temperature dependent resistance and magnetoresistance of Bi nanowires were investigated. The phase coherence length was obtained from the fluctuation pattern of the magnetoresistance below 40 K using universal conductance fluctuation theory. The obtained temperature dependence of phase coherence length and the fluctuation amplitude indicates that the transport of electrons shows 2-dimensional characteristics originating from the surface states. The temperature dependence of the coherence length derived from the weak antilocalization effect using the Hikami–Larkin–Nagaoka model is consistent with that from the universal conductance fluctuations theory.

  3. Filling single-wall carbon nanotubes with d- and f-metal chloride and metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Satishkumar, B C; Taubert, A; Luzzi, D E

    2003-01-01

    Nanowires of magnetic metals (Fe, Co, Ho, Gd) have been synthesized inside the hollow interiors of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by filling SWNTs with precursor metal chlorides and subsequent reduction. SWNTs have been filled by either the melt-phase sealed-tube reaction or a solution-phase method. Among the metal chlorides investigated in this study, HoCl3 and GdCl3 filled the SWNTs to a significantly higher extent. The nanowires have been imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy carried out in conjunction with TEM and STEM confirmed the presence of metal chloride and metal nanowires. PMID:12908245

  4. Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s‑1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s‑1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.

  5. Salt flux synthesis of single and bimetallic carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Brian M.; Waetzig, Gregory R.; Clouser, Dale A.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Harris, Daniel P.; Stacy, John M.; Duffee, Kyle D.; Wan, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Metal carbide compounds have a broad range of interesting properties and are some of the hardest and highest melting point compounds known. However, their high melting points force very high reaction temperatures and thus limit the formation of high surface area nanomaterials. To avoid the extreme synthesis temperatures commonly associated with these materials, a new salt flux technique has been employed to reduce reaction temperatures and form these materials in the nanometer regime. Additionally, the use of multiwall carbon nanotubes as a reactant further reduces the diffusion distance and provides a template for the final carbide materials. The metal carbide compounds produced through this low temperature salt flux technique maintain the nanowire morphology of the carbon nanotubes but increase in size to ∼15–20 nm diameter due to the incorporation of metal in the carbon lattice. These nano-carbides not only have nanowire like shape but also have much higher surface areas than traditionally prepared metal carbides. Finally, bimetallic carbides with composition control can be produced with this method by simply using two metal precursors in the reaction. This method provides the ability to produce nano sized metal carbide materials with size, morphology, and composition control and will allow for these compounds to be synthesized and studied in a whole new size and temperature regime.

  6. Electrical properties of ZnO single nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, Markus; Barzola-Quiquia, José; Zoraghi, Mahsa; Esquinazi, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the electrical resistance R(T) of ZnO nanowires of ≈ 400 nm diameter as a function of temperature, between 30 K and 300 K, and frequency in the range 40 Hz to 30 MHz. The measurements were done on the as-prepared and after low-energy proton implantation at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the resistance of the wire, before proton implantation, can be well described by two processes in parallel. One process is the fluctuation induced tunneling conductance (FITC) and the other the usual thermally activated process. The existence of a tunneling conductance was also observed in the current-voltage (I-V) results, and can be well described by the FITC model. Impedance spectroscopy measurements in the as-prepared state and at room temperature, indicate and support the idea of two contributions of these two transport processes in the nanowires. Electron backscatter diffraction confirms the existence of different crystalline regions. After the implantation of H+ a third thermally activated process is found that can be explained by taking into account the impurity band splitting due to proton implantation.

  7. Enhanced photoabsorption in front-tapered single-nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yaohui; Li, Xiaofeng; Wu, Shaolong; Li, Ke; Yang, Zhenhai; Shang, Aixue

    2014-10-01

    Vertically aligned single-nanowire is verified to be a unique building block to realize the high-efficiency solar cell beyond Schockley-Queisser limit. We proposed a front-tapered vertically aligned single-nanowire solar cell (V-SNSC) and investigated numerically the possibility of this configuration to improve the photoabsorption efficiency compared to the conventional designs, by using 2.5D full-wave finite-element method. The influences of the feature sizes of aspect ratio, bottom radius, and nanowire length on the light-trapping properties were explored; the detailed field distribution and carrier generation rate were revealed as well based on the theory of dielectric resonant antenna, in order to elucidate the underlying physical mechanism. Results showed that, compared with the cylindrical counterparts, the absorption capability of V-SNSCs could be greatly enhanced by using a front-tapered configuration with less material utilized, and that such a positive effect can be further strengthened by increasing the nanowire length. The proposed configuration provides a promising approach to engineer the photoabsorption in the photovoltaic and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:25360977

  8. Single on-chip gold nanowires for electrochemical biosensing of glucose.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Karen; Baudequin, Marine; O'Riordan, Alan

    2011-11-01

    The development of glucose diagnostic devices with low detection limits is of key importance in diabetes-related research. New highly sensitive sensors are required for non-invasive detection of glucose in bodily fluids, other than blood, and an electrochemical sensor based on a single gold nanowire for rapid, reliable and quantitative detection of low glucose concentrations (10 μM-1 mM), is presented in this paper. Single gold nanowire devices are fabricated at silicon chip substrates using a hybrid electron beam-photolithography approach. Critical dimensions of the nanowires are characterised using a combination of scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Fabricated nanowire devices are characterised by direct electrical probing and cyclic voltammetry to explore functionality. The voltammetric detection of glucose was performed using ferrocene monocarboxylic acid as an oxidising mediator in the presence of glucose oxidase. The biosensor can be applied to the quantification of glucose in the range of 10 μM-100 mM, with an extremely high sensitivity of 7.2 mA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 3 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor demonstrated high selectivity towards glucose with negligible interference from other oxidizable species including uric acid, ascorbic acid, mannose, fructose, salicylic acid (Aspirin) and acetaminophen (Paracetamol). PMID:21909570

  9. Topological surface transport properties of single-crystalline SnTe nanowire.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Muhammad; Wang, Qisheng; Mirza, Misbah; Wang, Zhenxing; Xu, Kai; He, Jun

    2013-01-01

    SnTe has attracted worldwide interest since its theoretical predication as topological crystalline insulator. Because of promising applications of one-dimensional topological insulator in nanoscale electronics and spintronics device, it is very important to realize the observation of topological surface states in one-dimensional SnTe. In this work, for the first time we successfully synthesized high-quality single crystalline SnTe nanowire via gold-catalyst chemical vapor deposition method. Systematical investigation of Aharonov-Bohm and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in single SnTe nanowire prove the existence of Dirac electrons. Further analysis of temperature-dependent Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations gives valuable information of cyclotron mass, mean-free path, and mobility of Dirac electrons in SnTe nanowire. Our study provides the experimental groundwork for research in low-dimensional topological crystalline insulator materials and paves the way for the application of SnTe nanowire in nanoelectronics and spintronics device. PMID:24175637

  10. Single-crystal apatite nanowires sheathed in graphitic shells: synthesis, characterization, and application.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Namjo; Cha, Misun; Park, Yun Chang; Lee, Kyung Mee; Lee, Jae Hyup; Park, Byong Chon; Lee, Junghoon

    2013-07-23

    Vertically aligned one-dimensional hybrid structures, which are composed of apatite and graphitic structures, can be beneficial for orthopedic applications. However, they are difficult to generate using the current method. Here, we report the first synthesis of a single-crystal apatite nanowire encapsulated in graphitic shells by a one-step chemical vapor deposition. Incipient nucleation of apatite and its subsequent transformation to an oriented crystal are directed by derived gaseous phosphorine. Longitudinal growth of the oriented apatite crystal is achieved by a vapor-solid growth mechanism, whereas lateral growth is suppressed by the graphitic layers formed through arrangement of the derived aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. We show that this unusual combination of the apatite crystal and the graphitic shells can lead to an excellent osteogenic differentiation and bony fusion through a programmed smart behavior. For instance, the graphitic shells are degraded after the initial cell growth promoted by the graphitic nanostructures, and the cells continue proliferation on the bare apatite nanowires. Furthermore, a bending experiment indicates that such core-shell nanowires exhibited a superior bending stiffness compared to single-crystal apatite nanowires without graphitic shells. The results suggest a new strategy and direction for bone grafting materials with a highly controllable morphology and material conditions that can best stimulate bone cell differentiation and growth. PMID:23755838

  11. Monolithic carbon structures including suspended single nanowires and nanomeshes as a sensor platform

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the development of nanomaterial-based nanodevices, it became inevitable to develop cost-effective and simple nanofabrication technologies enabling the formation of nanomaterial assembly in a controllable manner. Herein, we present suspended monolithic carbon single nanowires and nanomeshes bridging two bulk carbon posts, fabricated in a designed manner using two successive UV exposure steps and a single pyrolysis step. The pyrolysis step is accompanied with a significant volume reduction, resulting in the shrinkage of micro-sized photoresist structures into nanoscale carbon structures. Even with the significant elongation of the suspended carbon nanowire induced by the volume reduction of the bulk carbon posts, the resultant tensional stress along the nanowire is not significant but grows along the wire thickness; this tensional stress gradient and the bent supports of the bridge-like carbon nanowire enhance structural robustness and alleviate the stiction problem that suspended nanostructures frequently experience. The feasibility of the suspended carbon nanostructures as a sensor platform was demonstrated by testing its electrochemical behavior, conductivity-temperature relationship, and hydrogen gas sensing capability. PMID:24256942

  12. Confinement effect in single nanowires based on Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, A.; Gitsu, D.; Huber, T.; Konopko, L.

    2004-04-01

    For the first time it was experimentally found that in wires Bi with d=75 nm in the transverse magnetic field (H⊥ I) in the case when H || C 1 and H || C s (C s⊥C 1 and makes an angle ≈20° with the axis C3), magnetoresistance has a number of characteristic points determined by size effect, where the cyclotron radius Rc coincides with the wire diameter d. This allowed with accuracy up to several percents from relation Rc= cPF/ eH to determine the impulses of the extreme cross-section of the Fermi surface of holes in T-point of the Brillouin zone, anisotropy of the Fermi surfaces of holes in T. We offer a method for determination of the Fermi surface cross-sections in Bi nanowires, when the Shubnikov de Hass oscillations are not observed.

  13. Electrically injected near-infrared light emission from single InN nanowire p-i-n diode

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Binh Huy; Zhao, Songrui; Tran, Nhung Hong; Mi, Zetian

    2014-12-08

    We report on the achievement of electroluminescence emission of single InN p-i-n nanowire devices. InN p-i-n nanowire structures were grown directly on Si substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and subsequently transferred to foreign substrate for the fabrication of single nanowire light emitting diodes. Electroluminescence emission with a peak energy of 0.71 eV (1.75 μm) was observed at 77 K. The measurement of near-bandgap electroluminescence provides unambiguous evidence for the achievement of p-type conduction of InN.

  14. Electrically injected near-infrared light emission from single InN nanowire p-i-n diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Binh Huy; Zhao, Songrui; Tran, Nhung Hong; Mi, Zetian

    2014-12-01

    We report on the achievement of electroluminescence emission of single InN p-i-n nanowire devices. InN p-i-n nanowire structures were grown directly on Si substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and subsequently transferred to foreign substrate for the fabrication of single nanowire light emitting diodes. Electroluminescence emission with a peak energy of 0.71 eV (1.75 μm) was observed at 77 K. The measurement of near-bandgap electroluminescence provides unambiguous evidence for the achievement of p-type conduction of InN.

  15. Nanowires: Quantitative Probing of Cu(2+) Ions Naturally Present in Single Living Cells (Adv. Mater. 21/2016).

    PubMed

    Lee, Junho; Lee, Hwa-Rim; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Jung, Youngseob; Seo, Ji-Young; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Je, Jung Ho

    2016-06-01

    Quantitative probing of the Cu(2+) ions naturally present in single living cells is accomplished by a probe made from a quantum-dot-embedded-nanowire waveguide. After inserting the active nanowire-based waveguide probe into single living cells, J. H. Je and co-workers directly observe photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the embedded quantum dots by the Cu(2+) ions diffused into the probe as described on page 4071. This results in quantitative measurement of intracellular Cu(2+) ions. PMID:27246918

  16. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation in Copper-Phthalocyanine Single-Crystal Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yingzhong; Xiao, Kai; Shaw, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Femtosecond one-color pump-probe spectroscopy was applied to study exciton dynamics in single-crystal copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanowires grown on an opaque silicon substrate. The transient reflectance kinetics measured at different pump fluences exhibit a remarkable intensity-dependent decay behavior which accelerates significantly with increasing pump pulse intensity. All the kinetic decays can be satisfactorily described using a bi-exponential decay function with lifetimes of 22 and 204 ps, and corresponding relative amplitudes depending on the pump intensity. The accelerated decay behavior observed at high pump intensities arises from a nonlinear exciton-exciton annihilation process. While this phenomenon has been found previously in crystalline metallophthalocyanine (MPc) polymorphs such as colloidal particles and thin films, the results obtained using the CuPc nanowires are markedly distinct, namely, much longer decay times and a linear intensity dependence of the initial peak amplitudes. Despite these differences, detailed data analysis further shows that, as found for other metal-phthalocyanine polymorphs, exciton-exciton annihilation in the CuPc nanowires is one-dimensional (1D) diffusion-limited, which possibly involves intra-chain exciton diffusion along 1D molecular stacks. The significantly long-lived excitons of CuPc nanowires in comparison to those of other crystalline polymorphs make them particularly suitable for photovoltaic applications.

  17. In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J Y; Zhong, L; Wang, C M; Sullivan, J P; Xu, W; Zhang, L Q; Mao, S X; Hudak, N S; Liu, X H; Subramanian, A; Fan, H Y; Qi, L A; Kushima, A; Li, J

    2010-12-09

    We report the creation of a nanoscale electrochemical device inside a transmission electron microscope—consisting of a single tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanowire anode, an ionic liquid electrolyte, and a bulk lithium cobalt dioxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathode—and the in situ observation of the lithiation of the SnO{sub 2} nanowire during electrochemical charging. Upon charging, a reaction front propagated progressively along the nanowire, causing the nanowire to swell, elongate, and spiral. The reaction front is a “Medusa zone” containing a high density of mobile dislocations, which are continuously nucleated and absorbed at the moving front. This dislocation cloud indicates large in-plane misfit stresses and is a structural precursor to electrochemically driven solid-state amorphization. Because lithiation-induced volume expansion, plasticity, and pulverization of electrode materials are the major mechanical effects that plague the performance and lifetime of high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries, our observations provide important mechanistic insight for the design of advanced batteries.

  18. From nucleation to nanowires: a single-step process in reactive plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ostrikov, Kostya Ken; Levchenko, Igor; Cvelbar, Uros; Sunkara, Mahendra; Mozetic, Miran

    2010-10-01

    This feature article introduces a deterministic approach for the rapid, single-step, direct synthesis of metal oxide nanowires. This approach is based on the exposure of thin metal samples to reactive oxygen plasmas and does not require any intervening processing or external substrate heating. The critical roles of the reactive oxygen plasmas, surface processes, and plasma-surface interactions that enable this growth are critically examined by using a deterministic viewpoint. The essentials of the experimental procedures and reactor design are presented and related to the key process requirements. The nucleation and growth kinetics is discussed for typical solid-liquid-solid and vapor-solid-solid mechanisms related to the synthesis of the oxide nanowires of metals with low (Ga, Cd) and high (Fe) melting points, respectively. Numerical simulations are focused on the possibility to predict the nanowire nucleation points through the interaction of the plasma radicals and ions with the nanoscale morphological features on the surface, as well as to control the localized 'hot spots' that in turn determine the nanowire size and shape. This generic approach can be applied to virtually any oxide nanoscale system and further confirms the applicability of the plasma nanoscience approaches for deterministic nanoscale synthesis and processing. PMID:20721365

  19. X-ray diffraction strain analysis of a single axial InAs 1-x Px nanowire segment.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Mario; Mandl, Bernhard; Kriegner, Dominik; Holý, Václav; Samuelsson, Lars; Bauer, Günther; Deppert, Knut; Stangl, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The spatial strain distribution in and around a single axial InAs 1-x Px hetero-segment in an InAs nanowire was analyzed using nano-focused X-ray diffraction. In connection with finite-element-method simulations a detailed quantitative picture of the nanowire's inhomogeneous strain state was achieved. This allows for a detailed understanding of how the variation of the nanowire's and hetero-segment's dimensions affect the strain in its core region and in the region close to the nanowire's side facets. Moreover, ensemble-averaging high-resolution diffraction experiments were used to determine statistical information on the distribution of wurtzite and zinc-blende crystal polytypes in the nanowires. PMID:25537589

  20. Photocurrents in a Single InAs Nanowire/Silicon Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Brenneis, Andreas; Overbeck, Jan; Treu, Julian; Hertenberger, Simon; Morkötter, Stefanie; Döblinger, Markus; Finley, Jonathan J; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Koblmüller, Gregor; Holleitner, Alexander W

    2015-10-27

    We investigate the optoelectronic properties of single indium arsenide nanowires, which are grown vertically on p-doped silicon substrates. We apply a scanning photocurrent microscopy to study the optoelectronic properties of the single heterojunctions. The measured photocurrent characteristics are consistent with an excess charge carrier transport through midgap trap states, which form at the Si/InAs heterojunctions. Namely, the trap states add an additional transport path across a heterojunction, and the charge of the defects changes the band bending at the junction. The bending gives rise to a photovoltaic effect at a small bias voltage. In addition, we observe a photoconductance effect within the InAs nanowires at large biases. PMID:26348461

  1. Novel optoelectronic devices based on single semiconductor nanowires (nanobelts)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) or nanobelts (NBs) have attracted more and more attention due to their potential application in novel optoelectronic devices. In this review, we present our recent work on novel NB photodetectors, where a three-terminal metal–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) device structure was exploited. In contrast to the common two-terminal NB (NW) photodetectors, the MESFET-based photodetector can make a balance among overall performance parameters, which is desired for practical device applications. We also present our recent work on graphene nanoribbon/semiconductor NW (SNW) heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Herein, by taking advantage of both graphene and SNWs, we have fabricated, for the first time, the graphene-based nano-LEDs. This achievement opens a new avenue for developing graphene-based nano-electroluminescence devices. Moreover, the novel graphene/SNW hybrid devices can also find use in other applications, such as high-sensitivity sensor and transparent flexible devices in the future. PMID:22501032

  2. Atomic size effects studied by transport in single silicide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccoli, I.; Edler, F.; Pfnür, H.; Appelfeller, S.; Dähne, M.; Holtgrewe, K.; Sanna, S.; Schmidt, W. G.; Tegenkamp, C.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrathin metallic silicide nanowires with extremely high aspect ratios can be easily grown, e.g., by deposition of rare earth elements on semiconducting surfaces. These wires play a pivotal role in fundamental research and open intriguing perspectives for CMOS applications. However, the electronic properties of these one-dimensional systems are extremely sensitive to atomic-sized defects, which easily alter the transport characteristics. In this study, we characterized comprehensively TbSi2 wires grown on Si(100) and correlated details of the atomic structure with their electrical resistivities. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as all transport experiments were performed in situ using a four-tip STM system. The measurements are complemented by local spectroscopy and density functional theory revealing that the silicide wires are electronically decoupled from the Si template. On the basis of a quasiclassical transport model, the size effect found for the resistivity is quantitatively explained in terms of bulk and surface transport channels considering details of atomic-scale roughness. Regarding future applications the full wealth of these robust nanostructures will emerge only if wires with truly atomically sharp interfaces can be reliably grown.

  3. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Robert M. Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-02-10

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

  4. Microwave Characterization of a Field Effect Transistor with Dielectrophoretically-Aligned Single Silicon Nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myung-Gil; Ahn, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jongwoon; Hwang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Tae; Rieh, Jae-Seong; Whang, Dongmok; Son, Maeng-Ho; Ahn, Doyeol; Yu, Yun-Seop; Hwang, Sung-Woo

    2010-06-01

    Microwave (MW) characteristics of a field effect transistor (FET) incorporating a single silicon nanowire (SiNW) were obtained from S-parameter measurements in the frequency range of 0.05 to 20 GHz. The single SiNW was aligned, using the alternating current (ac) dielectrophoresis alignment method, between the drain and source electrode forming a coplanar waveguide (CPW) structure. Analysis of the FET was performed using equivalent circuit modeling by advanced device system (ADS) simulation. By fitting the measured data with the simulation results, the parameters of the single SiNW FET were obtained and the cutoff frequency was derived.

  5. Transport studies of quantum dots sensitized single Mn-ZnO nanowire field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Maloney, Francis Scott; Rimal, Gaurab; Poudyal, Uma; Tang, Jinke; Wang, Wenyong

    We present opto-electrical transport properties of Mn-CdSe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized single Mn-ZnO nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FET). The ZnO NWs with 2 atomic % of Mn doping are grown by chemical vapor deposition. The NWs are ferromagnetic at low temperature. The as grown nanowires are transferred to clean SiO2/Si substrate and single nanowire field effect transistors (FET) are fabricated by standard e-beam lithography. Mobility and carrier concentration of Mn-ZnO NWs are estimated from FET device measurement which shows NWs are n-type semiconductors. Pulse laser deposition of Mn-CdSe QDs on the single NW FET significantly increases carrier concentration of the QD-NW system in dark where the QD monolayer conduction is negligibly small. The photoconductivity study of QD sensitized NW FET enlightens the conduction spectrum of QD-NW system and QD to NW carrier transfer mechanism. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-10ER46728.

  6. Non-degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy of single GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhya, Prashanth C; Taylor, Antoinette J; Prasankumar, Rohiy P; Wang, George T; Martinez, Julio A; Li, Qiming; Swartzentruber, Brian S

    2010-01-01

    Spatially-resolved ultrafast transient absorption measurements on a single GaN nanowire give insight into carrier relaxation dynamics as a function of the probe polarization and position on the nanowire on a femtosecond timescale. The synthesis and optical characterization of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has gained considerable attention in recent years owing to their unique electronic and optical properties that arise from their anisotropic geometry, large surface to volume ratio and two-dimensional quasiparticle confinement, Post-growth characterization of their properties is crucial in understanding the fundamental physical processes that can lead to enhanced functionality of NW-based devices, In particular, it is important to understand the carrier relaxation pathways in individual NWs, since the geometry of these nanostructures can significantly influence carrier recombination and/or trapping. In this respect, ultrafast optical techniques offer reliable and non-contact spectroscopic tools to study carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures. In summary, time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy was performed on single GaN NWs. These measurements give insight into the different processes that govern carrier capture, particularly at surface states, and relaxation in individual nanostructures. Our experiments thus demonstrate the value of single-particle ultrafast optical spectroscopy in understanding the physical processes that govern the properties of semiconductor NWs, while suggesting approaches to optimize NW-based devices for nanophotonic applications.

  7. Genetic Variation in the 3'-Untranslated Region of NBN Gene Is Associated with Gastric Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xun; Ren, Chuanli; Xie, Lan; Dai, Ningbin; Gu, Yayun; Yan, Caiwang; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Jiaping; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Wu, Haorong; Jin, Guangfu

    2015-01-01

    NBN plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis as a core component for both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways. Genetic variants in the NBN gene have been associated with multiple cancers risk, suggesting pleiotropic effect on cancer. We hypothesized that genetic variants in the NBN gene may modify the risk of gastric cancer. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the association between four potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in NBN and gastric cancer risk in a case–control study of 1,140 gastric cancer cases and 1,547 controls in a Chinese population. We found that the A allele of rs10464867 (G>A) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.71–0.94; P = 4.71×10−3). Furthermore, the association between A allele of rs10464867 and decreased risk of gastric cancer was more significantly in elder individuals (per-allele OR = 0.72[0.59–0.88], P = 1.07×10−3), and male individuals (per-allele OR = 0.73[0.62–0.87], P = 3.68×10−4). We further conducted a haplotype analysis and identified that the NBN Ars10464867Grs14448Grs1063053 haplotype conferred stronger protective effect on gastric cancer (OR = 0.76[0.65–0.89], P = 6.39×10−4). In summary, these findings indicate that genetic variants at NBN gene may contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility and may further advance our understanding of NBN gene in cancer development. PMID:26402912

  8. Formation of long single quantum dots in high quality InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dingxun; Li, Sen; Kang, N.; Caroff, Philippe; Wang, L. B.; Huang, Y. Q.; Deng, M. T.; Yu, C. L.; Xu, H. Q.

    2015-09-01

    We report on realization and transport spectroscopy study of single quantum dots (QDs) made from InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The nanowires employed are 50-80 nm in diameter and the QDs are defined in the nanowires between the source and drain contacts on a Si/SiO2 substrate. We show that highly tunable QD devices can be realized with the MBE-grown InSb nanowires and the gate-to-dot capacitance extracted in the many-electron regimes is scaled linearly with the longitudinal dot size, demonstrating that the devices are of single InSb nanowire QDs even with a longitudinal size of ~700 nm. In the few-electron regime, the quantum levels in the QDs are resolved and the Landé g-factors extracted for the quantum levels from the magnetotransport measurements are found to be strongly level-dependent and fluctuated in a range of 18-48. A spin-orbit coupling strength is extracted from the magnetic field evolutions of a ground state and its neighboring excited state in an InSb nanowire QD and is on the order of ~300 μeV. Our results establish that the MBE-grown InSb nanowires are of high crystal quality and are promising for the use in constructing novel quantum devices, such as entangled spin qubits, one-dimensional Wigner crystals and topological quantum computing devices.

  9. Formation of long single quantum dots in high quality InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dingxun; Li, Sen; Kang, N; Caroff, Philippe; Wang, L B; Huang, Y Q; Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Xu, H Q

    2015-09-28

    We report on realization and transport spectroscopy study of single quantum dots (QDs) made from InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The nanowires employed are 50-80 nm in diameter and the QDs are defined in the nanowires between the source and drain contacts on a Si/SiO2 substrate. We show that highly tunable QD devices can be realized with the MBE-grown InSb nanowires and the gate-to-dot capacitance extracted in the many-electron regimes is scaled linearly with the longitudinal dot size, demonstrating that the devices are of single InSb nanowire QDs even with a longitudinal size of ∼700 nm. In the few-electron regime, the quantum levels in the QDs are resolved and the Landég-factors extracted for the quantum levels from the magnetotransport measurements are found to be strongly level-dependent and fluctuated in a range of 18-48. A spin-orbit coupling strength is extracted from the magnetic field evolutions of a ground state and its neighboring excited state in an InSb nanowire QD and is on the order of ∼300 μeV. Our results establish that the MBE-grown InSb nanowires are of high crystal quality and are promising for the use in constructing novel quantum devices, such as entangled spin qubits, one-dimensional Wigner crystals and topological quantum computing devices. PMID:26308470

  10. Localized tip enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of impurity incorporated single GaN nanowire in the sub-diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect

    Patsha, Avinash E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-09-21

    The localized effect of impurities in single GaN nanowires in the sub-diffraction limit is reported using the study of lattice vibrational modes in the evanescent field of Au nanoparticle assisted tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). GaN nanowires with the O impurity and the Mg dopants were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique in the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. Symmetry allowed Raman modes of wurtzite GaN are observed for undoped and doped nanowires. Unusually very strong intensity of the non-zone center zone boundary mode is observed for the TERS studies of both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN single nanowires. Surface optical mode of A{sub 1} symmetry is also observed for both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN samples. A strong coupling of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons with free electrons, however, is reported only in the O rich single nanowires with the asymmetric A{sub 1}(LO) mode. Study of the local vibration mode shows the presence of Mg as dopant in the single GaN nanowires.

  11. Broadband Phase-Sensitive Single InP Nanowire Photoconductive Terahertz Detectors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Boland, Jessica L; Gao, Qian; Wenas, Yesaya C; Davies, Christopher L; Li, Ziyuan; Fu, Lan; Johnston, Michael B; Tan, Hark H; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-08-10

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has emerged as a powerful tool for materials characterization and imaging. A trend toward size reduction, higher component integration, and performance improvement for advanced THz-TDS systems is of increasing interest. The use of single semiconducting nanowires for terahertz (THz) detection is a nascent field that has great potential to realize future highly integrated THz systems. In order to develop such components, optimized material optoelectronic properties and careful device design are necessary. Here, we present antenna-optimized photoconductive detectors based on single InP nanowires with superior properties of high carrier mobility (∼1260 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and low dark current (∼10 pA), which exhibit excellent sensitivity and broadband performance. We demonstrate that these nanowire THz detectors can provide high quality time-domain spectra for materials characterization in a THz-TDS system, a critical step toward future application in advanced THz-TDS system with high spectral and spatial resolution. PMID:27413813

  12. Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lianming; Miljković, Vladimir D; Käll, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate optical alignment and rotation of individual plasmonic nanostructures with lengths from tens of nanometers to several micrometers using a single beam of linearly polarized near-infrared laser light. Silver nanorods and dimers of gold nanoparticles align parallel to the laser polarization because of the high long-axis dipole polarizability. Silver nanowires, in contrast, spontaneously turn perpendicular to the incident polarization and predominantly attach at the wire ends, in agreement with electrodynamics simulations. Wires, rods, and dimers all rotate if the incident polarization is turned. In the case of nanowires, we demonstrate spinning at an angular frequency of approximately 1 Hz due to transfer of spin angular momentum from circularly polarized light. PMID:20030391

  13. Investigation into Photoconductivity in Single CNF/TiO2-Dye Core-Shell Nanowire Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuangzhi; Rochford, Caitlin; Javier Baca, F.; Liu, Jianwei; Li, Jun; Wu, Judy

    2010-09-01

    A vertically aligned carbon nanofiber array coated with anatase TiO2 (CNF/TiO2) is an attractive possible replacement for the sintered TiO2 nanoparticle network in the original dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design due to the potential for improved charge transport and reduced charge recombination. Although the reported efficiency of 1.1% in these modified DSSC’s is encouraging, the limiting factors must be identified before a higher efficiency can be obtained. This work employs a single nanowire approach to investigate the charge transport in individual CNF/TiO2 core-shell nanowires with adsorbed N719 dye molecules in dark and under illumination. The results shed light on the role of charge traps and dye adsorption on the (photo) conductivity of nanocrystalline TiO2 CNF’s as related to dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

  14. Observation of free exciton photoluminescence emission from single wurtzite GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thang B.; Moses, A. F.; Zhou, H. L.; Dheeraj, D. L.; Fimland, B. O.; Weman, H.

    2009-03-01

    Microphotoluminescence measurements are used to investigate the optical properties of single wurtzite GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The wurtzite GaAs nanowires exhibit a photoluminescence emission peak at 1.544 eV, 29 meV higher than the zinc blende GaAs free exciton energy. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements (4.4-70 K) show indications of defect and impurity related emissions at lower energies (1.53-1.54 eV) and the presence of nonradiative defects. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show a low density of short zinc blende segments sandwiched in between a dominating wurtzite structure and weak photoluminescence emission related to such zinc blende segments is also observed.

  15. Antibacterial activity of single crystalline silver-doped anatase TiO2 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Li, Meng; He, Xiaojing; Hang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yueyue; Yao, Xiaohong; Tang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Well-ordered, one-dimensional silver-doped anatase TiO2 nanowire (AgNW) arrays have been prepared through a hydrothermal growth process on the sputtering-deposited AgTi layers. Electron microscope analyses reveal that the as-synthesized AgNW arrays exhibit a single crystalline phase with highly uniform morphologies, diameters ranging from 85 to 95 nm, and lengths of about 11 μm. Silver is found to be doped into TiO2 nanowire evenly and mainly exists in the zerovalent state. The AgNW arrays show excellent efficient antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), and all of the bacteria can be killed within 1 h. Additionally, the AgNW arrays can still kill E. coli after immersion for 60 days, suggesting the long-term antibacterial property. The technique reported here is environmental friendly for formation of silver-containing nanostructure without using any toxic organic solvents.

  16. An organic-inorganic broadband photodetector based on a single polyaniline nanowire doped with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianguang; Liu, Yong; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2016-08-25

    The capability to detect light over a broad waveband is highly important for practical optoelectronic applications and has been achieved with photodetectors of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials such as Si, ZnO, and GaN. However, achieving high speed responsivity over an entire waveband within such a photodetector remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a broadband photodetector using a single polyaniline nanowire doped with quantum dots that is highly responsive over a broadband from 350 to 700 nm. The high responsivity is due to the high density of trapping states at the enormous interfaces between polyaniline and quantum dots. The interface trapping can effectively reduce the recombination rate and enhance the efficiency for light detection. Furthermore, a tunable spectral range can be achieved by size-based spectral tuning of quantum dots. The use of organic-inorganic hybrid polyaniline nanowires in broadband photodetection may offer novel functionalities in optoelectronic devices and circuits. PMID:27417337

  17. Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Hofherr, Matthias; Wetzstein, Olaf; Engert, Sonja; Ortlepp, Thomas; Berg, Benjamin; Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Stolz, Ronny; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-17

    We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels. PMID:23263106

  18. In Operando X-Ray Nanodiffraction Reveals Electrically Induced Bending and Lattice Contraction in a Single Nanowire Device.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Jesper; Osterhoff, Markus; Salditt, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Hard X-ray diffraction (XRD) using a nanofocused beam is used to measure both lattice contraction and bending in a single nanowire device under electric bias. The shape of the nanowire is reconstructed in 3D with sub-nanometer precision. As the bias voltage is gradually increased, nonreversible structural changes in the contact regions are observed, correlated with degradation of the electrical conductance. PMID:26689602

  19. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K. M. Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles; Padture, Nitin P.

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120 K and a room temperature coercive field of 90 Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  20. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X.; Dauler, E.; Molnar, R.; Berggren, K. K.

    2010-12-20

    Optical nano-antennae have been integrated with semiconductor lasers to intensify light at the nanoscale and photodiodes to enhance photocurrent. In quantum optics, plasmonic metal structures have been used to enhance nonclassical light emission from single quantum dots. Absorption and detection of single photons from free space could also be enhanced by nanometallic antennae, but this has not previously been demonstrated. Here, we use nano-optical transmission effects in a one-dimensional gold structure, combined with optical cavity resonance, to form optical nano-antennae, which are further used to couple single photons from free space into a 80-nm-wide superconducting nanowire. This antenna-assisted coupling enables a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 47% device efficiency at the wavelength of 1550 nm and 9-μm-by-9-μm active area while maintaining a reset time of only 5 ns. We demonstrate nanoscale antenna-like structures to achieve exceptional efficiency and speed in single-photon detection.

  1. Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector.

    PubMed

    Ortlepp, T; Hofherr, M; Fritzsch, L; Engert, S; Ilin, K; Rall, D; Toepfer, H; Meyer, H-G; Siegel, M

    2011-09-12

    We demonstrate the transfer of single photon triggered electrical pulses from a superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) to a single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse. We describe design and test of a digital SFQ based SNSPD readout circuit and demonstrate its correct operation. Both circuits (SNSPD and SFQ) operate under the same cryogenic conditions and are directly connected by wire bonds. A future integration of the present multi-chip configuration seems feasible because both fabrication process and materials are very similar. In contrast to commonly used semiconductor amplifiers, SFQ circuits combine very low power dissipation (a few microwatts) with very high operation speed, thus enabling count-rates of several gigahertz. The SFQ interface circuit simplifies the SNSPD readout and enables large numbers of detectors for future compact multi-pixel systems with single photon counting resolution. The demonstrated circuit has great potential for scaling the present interface solution to 1,000 detectors by using a single SFQ chip. PMID:21935228

  2. Reversible Sodium Ion Insertion in Single Crystalline Manganese Oxide Nanowires with Long Cycle Life

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Lifen; Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Nie, Zimin; Yu, Jianguo; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun

    2011-07-26

    Single crystalline Na4Mn9O18 nanowires were synthesized via pyrolysis of polyacrylate salt precursors prepared by in-situ polymerization of the metal salts and acrylate acid, followed by calcinations at an appropriate temperature to achieve good crystalline structure and uniform nanowire morphology with an average diameter of 50 nm. The Na4Mn9O18 nanowires have shown a high, reversible, and near theoretical sodium ion insertion capacity (128 mA h g-1 at 0.1C), excellent long cyclability (77% capacity retention for 1000 cycles at 0.5 C), along with good rate capability. Good capacity and charge-discharge stability are also observed for full cell experiments using a pyrolyzed carbon as the anode, therefore demonstrating the potential of these materials for sodium-ion batteries for large scale energy storage. Furthermore, this research shows that a good crystallinity and small particles are required to enhance the Na-ion diffusion and increase the stability of the electrode materials for long charge-discharge cycles.

  3. Optoelectronically probing the density of nanowire surface trap states to the single state limit

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Yaping

    2015-02-02

    Surface trap states play a dominant role in the optoelectronic properties of nanoscale devices. Understanding the surface trap states allows us to properly engineer the device surfaces for better performance. But characterization of surface trap states at nanoscale has been a formidable challenge using the traditional capacitive techniques. Here, we demonstrate a simple but powerful optoelectronic method to probe the density of nanowire surface trap states to the single state limit. In this method, we choose to tune the quasi-Fermi level across the bandgap of a silicon nanowire photoconductor, allowing for capture and emission of photogenerated charge carriers by surface trap states. The experimental data show that the energy density of nanowire surface trap states is in a range from 10{sup 9 }cm{sup −2}/eV at deep levels to 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}/eV near the conduction band edge. This optoelectronic method allows us to conveniently probe trap states of ultra-scaled nano/quantum devices at extremely high precision.

  4. Waveguide-integrated NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with ultralow jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Risheng; Ma, Xiaosong; Ravindran, Prasana; Bardin, Joseph; Tang, Hong

    We demonstrate NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) integrated with Si3N4 waveguides for counting visible and infrared photons. The nanowires with different width (30-90 nm) and length (40-80 um) are patterned into U-shapes on 200nm-thick Si3N4 waveguides, and the photons travelling along the waveguides could be efficiently absorbed by the nanowires via evanescent coupling. With the use of high-speed SiGe cryogenic amplifier, which operates together with the detector chip at the temperature of 1.7K, the jitter of the detection system is measured to be only 19 ps due to the improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), compared to 48 ps measured with room-temperature amplifiers. By investigating the background noise level and the pulse shape of the output signal from the detector, we determine the contribution of the noise to the final system jitter is less than 3ps, indicating that our results are very close to the intrinsic jitter of the detector.

  5. Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redaelli, L.; Bulgarini, G.; Dobrovolskiy, S.; Dorenbos, S. N.; Zwiller, V.; Monroy, E.; Gérard, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper several designs to maximize the absorption efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors are investigated. Using a simple optical cavity consisting of a gold mirror and a SiO2 layer, the absorption efficiency can be boosted to over 97%: this result is confirmed experimentally by the realization of an NbTiN-based detector having an overall system detection efficiency of 85% at 1.31 μm. Calculations show that by sandwiching the nanowire between two dielectric Bragg reflectors, unity absorption (>99.9%) could be reached at the peak wavelength for optimized structures. To achieve broadband high efficiency, a different approach is considered: a waveguide-coupled detector. The calculations performed in this work show that, by correctly dimensioning the waveguide and the nanowire, polarization-insensitive detectors absorbing more than 95% of the injected photons over a wavelength range of several hundred nm can be designed. We propose a detector design making use of GaN/AlN waveguides, since these materials allow lattice-matched epitaxial deposition of Nb(Ti)N films and are transparent on a very wide wavelength range.

  6. Atomistic Study of the Melting Behavior of Single Crystalline Wurtzite Gallium Nitride Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2007-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the melting behavior of GaN nanowires with Stillinger-Webber (SW) potential. Our results reveal that the melting of nanowires starts from the surface, and rapidly extends to the inner regions of nanowires as temperature increases. The melting temperature of GaN nanowires is lower than that of the bulk GaN, which may associate with large surfaces of nanowires. The melting temperatures increase to saturation values ~3100K and ~2900K when the diameters of nanowires are larger than 3.14 and 4.14 nm for nanowires with [100]- and [110]-oriented lateral facets, respectively.

  7. Controllable Synthesis of Single-Crystalline CdO and Cd(OH)2Nanowires by a Simple Hydrothermal Approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline Cd(OH)2 or CdO nanowires can be selectively synthesized at 150 °C by a simple hydrothermal method using aqueous Cd(NO3)2 as precursor. The method is biosafe, and compared to the conventional oil-water surfactant approach, more environmental-benign. As revealed by the XRD results, CdO or Cd(OH)2 nanowires can be generated in high purity by varying the time of synthesis. The results of FESEM and HRTEM analysis show that the CdO nanowires are formed in bundles. Over the CdO-nanowire bundles, photoluminescence at ~517 nm attributable to near band-edge emission of CdO was recorded. Based on the experimental results, a possible growth mechanism of the products is proposed. PMID:20672033

  8. Large-scale synthesis and electrical transport properties of single-crystalline SmB6 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Weichang; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Liu, Guangtong; Sun, Lianfeng; Tang, Dongsheng

    2016-07-01

    Topological Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride (SmB6) nanowires, with diameters of 60–150 nm and lengths up to 1–5 μm, were successfully synthesized in large scale by chemical vapor deposition using BCl3 and SmCl3 as precursors at 1070 °C. Transmission electron microscopy observation and selected area electron diffraction analysis indicate that SmB6 nanowires are single-crystalline and grow in a preferred direction of [1 0 0]. It also indicates that the growth of SmB6 nanowires might be governed by a vapor–solid mechanism. Conventional four-terminal resistance measurements show that the resistance of an SmB6 nanowire increases with decreasing temperature, but saturates at temperatures less than 10 K, which might be attributed to a true topological insulator with a metallic surface and fully insulating bulk states. Resistance measurements also indicate that the contribution of surface states to conductance in the SmB6 nanowire is enhanced remarkably; therefore the high-quality single-crystalline SmB6 nanowires with large surface-to-bulk ratio might be the best candidate for investigating the topological properties of this material.

  9. Growth and Physical Property Study of Single Nanowire (Diameter ~45 nm) of Half Doped Manganite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Datta, Subarna; Chandra, Sayan; Samanta, Sudeshna; Das, K.; Srikanth, H.; Ghosh, Barnali

    2013-01-01

    We repormore » t here the growth and characterization of functional oxide nanowire of hole doped manganite of La 0.5 Sr 0.5 MnO 3 (LSMO). We also report four-probe electrical resistance measurement of a single nanowire of LSMO (diameter ~45 nm) using focused ion beam (FIB) fabricated electrodes. The wires are fabricated by hydrothermal method using autoclave at a temperature of 270 °C. The elemental analysis and physical property like electrical resistivity are studied at an individual nanowire level. The quantitative determination of Mn valency and elemental mapping of constituent elements are done by using Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) mode. We address the important issue of whether as a result of size reduction the nanowires can retain the desired composition, structure, and physical properties. The nanowires used are found to have a ferromagnetic transition ( T C ) at around 325 K which is very close to the bulk value of around 330 K found in single crystal of the same composition. It is confirmed that the functional behavior is likely to be retained even after size reduction of the nanowires to a diameter of 45 nm. The electrical resistivity shows insulating behavior within the measured temperature range which is similar to the bulk system.« less

  10. Nanojunctions in conducting polypyrrole single nanowire made by focused electron beam: Charge transport characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Min Ho; Hong, Young Ki; Park, Dong Hyuk; Jo, Seong Gi; Joo, Jinsoo

    2011-07-15

    A focused electron (E)-beam with various doses was irradiated on the intended positions of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) single nanowire (NW) to fabricate nanojunctions. The current-voltage characteristics and their temperature dependence of the PPy single NW with nanojunctions were measured and analyzed. By increasing the E-beam dose and the number of nanojunctions, the current level of the single NW was dramatically decreased, and the conductance gap became more severe as the temperature decreased. The charge transport behavior varied from three-dimensional variable range hopping to fluctuation induced tunneling models, depending on the dose of focused E-beam. From micro-Raman spectra, the focused E-beam irradiation induced the de-doped states and conformational modification of polymer chains in the nanojunctions. The results suggest that the nanojunctions made by focused E-beam acted as a quasi-potential barrier for charge conduction in the conducting PPy single NW.

  11. Ultrafast spectroscopy of stimulated emission in single ZnO tetrapod nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurisic, A. B.; Kwok, W. M.; Leung, Y. H.; Chan, W. K.; Phillips, D. L.; Lin, M. S.; Gwo, S.

    2006-01-01

    Stimulated emission from single ZnO tetrapod nanowires was studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. The samples were excited by a 300 fs pulse and the emission spectra collected as a function of time. The spectra exhibit a change in the position and the shape of the emission peak with time. The time evolution of the emission spectra was studied for different pump excitation fluences. The spectra exhibited a blue shift with increasing pump fluence, while for all pump fluences a red shift of the peaks with time was obtained. Possible reasons for the observed behaviour are discussed.

  12. Plasma enhanced multistate storage capability of single ZnO nanowire based memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yunfeng; Xin, Pucong; Cheng, Shuying; Yu, Jinling; Zheng, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-state storage (MSS) is common for resistive random access memory, but the effects of plasma treatment on the MSS and the switching properties have been scarcely investigated. We have demonstrated a stable four-state storage capability of single zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) treated by argon plasma. The electrical switching is attributed to the electron trapping and detrapping from the oxygen vacancies (Vos). The MSS relates to the electrical-thermal induced distribution of the Vos which determines electron transport behavior to show different resistance states. Additionally, programming (set and reset) voltages decrease with plasma treatment due to the thickness modulation of the interface barrier.

  13. Strain Engineering of the Band Structure and Picosecond Carrier Dynamics of Single Semiconductor Nanowires Probed by Modulated Rayleigh Scattering Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, Mohammad

    The band structure and carrier dynamics of GaAs, GaAs/GaP and InP semiconductor nanowires is explored using a variety of optical spectroscopy techniques including two newly developed techniques called Photomodulated and Transient Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy. The stress and electronic band structure of as-grown highly strained GaAs/GaP core/shell nanowire is studied via room temperature Raman scattering by phonons and low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Raman measurements reveal the uniaxial nature of the shell-induced stress in the core GaAs nanowire with a significantly different degree of compression in the radial plane and axial direction of the nanowire. The uniaxial stress dramatically modifies the electronic band structure of the nanowire. Raman measurements predict that the shell-induced stress should shift the band gap of GaAs to higher energies by ~260 meV which is experimentally confirmed by low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, it is predicted that the uniaxial stress in the nanowire removes the degeneracy of the heavy and light hole valence bands at the zone center by ~100 meV. In order to probe the electronic band structure of single nanowires with high spatial and spectral resolution, the new technique of Photomodulated Rayleigh Scattering spectroscopy (PMRS) is introduced. We show that by photomodulating the dielectric function of the nanowire, the background-free and robust differential Rayleigh spectrum measures the band structure of the nanowire with exceptionally high energy resolution. PMRS measurements are performed on zincblende GaAs and zincblende and wurtzite InP nanowires at both room and low temperature. Furthermore, we show that the diameters of the nanowires can be extracted from the PMRS spectra with an uncertainty of only a few nanometers. By extending the PMRS spectroscopy into time domain, we introduce Transient Rayleigh Scattering spectroscopy (TRS) to study the ultrafast carrier dynamics and

  14. Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Carsten; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.; Tang, Hong X.

    2013-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors are an ideal match for integrated quantum photonic circuits due to their high detection efficiency for telecom wavelength photons. Quantum optical technology also requires single-photon detection with low dark count rate and high timing accuracy. Here we present very low noise superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on NbTiN thin films patterned directly on top of Si3N4 waveguides. We systematically investigate a large variety of detector designs and characterize their detection noise performance. Milli-Hz dark count rates are demonstrated over the entire operating range of the nanowire detectors which also feature low timing jitter. The ultra-low dark count rate, in combination with the high detection efficiency inherent to our travelling wave detector geometry, gives rise to a measured noise equivalent power at the 10−20 W/Hz1/2 level. PMID:23714696

  15. Single CuO nanowires decorated with size-selected Pd nanoparticles for CO sensing in humid atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, Stephan; Singh, Vidyadhar; Cassidy, Cathal; Gspan, Christian; Grogger, Werner; Sowwan, Mukhles; Köck, Anton

    2015-05-01

    We report on conductometric gas sensors based on single CuO nanowires and compare the carbon monoxide (CO) sensing properties of pristine as well as Pd nanoparticle decorated devices in humid atmosphere. Magnetron sputter inert gas aggregation combined with a quadrupole mass filter for cluster size selection was used for single-step Pd nanoparticle deposition in the soft landing regime. Uniformly dispersed, crystalline Pd nanoparticles with size-selected diameters around 5 nm were deposited on single CuO nanowire devices in a four point configuration. During gas sensing experiments in humid synthetic air, significantly enhanced CO response for CuO nanowires decorated with Pd nanoparticles was observed, which validates that magnetron sputter gas aggregation is very well suited for the realization of nanoparticle-functionalized sensors with improved performance.

  16. Single CuO nanowires decorated with size-selected Pd nanoparticles for CO sensing in humid atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Stephan; Singh, Vidyadhar; Cassidy, Cathal; Gspan, Christian; Grogger, Werner; Sowwan, Mukhles; Köck, Anton

    2015-05-01

    We report on conductometric gas sensors based on single CuO nanowires and compare the carbon monoxide (CO) sensing properties of pristine as well as Pd nanoparticle decorated devices in humid atmosphere. Magnetron sputter inert gas aggregation combined with a quadrupole mass filter for cluster size selection was used for single-step Pd nanoparticle deposition in the soft landing regime. Uniformly dispersed, crystalline Pd nanoparticles with size-selected diameters around 5 nm were deposited on single CuO nanowire devices in a four point configuration. During gas sensing experiments in humid synthetic air, significantly enhanced CO response for CuO nanowires decorated with Pd nanoparticles was observed, which validates that magnetron sputter gas aggregation is very well suited for the realization of nanoparticle-functionalized sensors with improved performance. PMID:25854640

  17. Novel chemical-vapor deposition technique for the synthesis of high-quality single-crystal nanowires and nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Maoqi; Mohammad, S. Noor

    2006-02-01

    The strength and versatility of a chemical-vapor deposition technique for thin, long, uniform, single-crystal, good-quality nanowire growth, without the use of template, have been described. Remarkably, while the full width at half maximum of a high-quality GaN thin film is 4 meV, that of a GaN whisker is 9 meV, which confirms high quality of the grown whiskers and nanowires. The versatility of the method is reflected by its ability to produce II-VI and III-V binary, ternary, and even, for the first time, quaternary nanowires in a controlled manner. The same versatility enables the realization of both cubic and hexagonal phases of nanowires and nanotubes. Chemical-vapor deposition technique generally makes use of highly poisonous arsine and phosphine for the synthesis of As- and P-based films. The present one is free from this shortcoming; it can produce As- and P-based nanowires without the use of these poisonous gases. A notable feature of the method is that properties of nanowires thus synthesized depend strongly on their shape, size, and geometry, and that certain growth conditions can only lead to such shapes and sizes.

  18. Nanostructures of the binary nitrides, BN, TiN, and NbN, prepared by the urea-route

    SciTech Connect

    Gomathi, A.; Rao, C.N.R. . E-mail: cnrrao@jncasr.ac.in

    2006-05-25

    By heating mixtures of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, TiCl{sub 4}, and NbCl{sub 5} with urea in 1:6 molar ratios in the 900-1000 deg. C range, nanoparticles of BN, TiN, and NbN have been obtained, respectively. The nanoparticles are crystalline and have been characterized by electron microscopy and other techniques. By carrying out the urea reaction over Au islands deposited on Si substrates, nanowires of TiN could be obtained.

  19. Current-phase relationship of granular NbN weak links, inferred from Josephson interferometer characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Claassen, J.H.

    1982-05-01

    Small-area dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID's) were made using ultra-short variable-thickness microbridges of NbN. The bridges had an effective length of approx.500 A and a width of approx.1.5 ..mu..m. Analysis of the response to magnetic flux permits interferences to be drawn about the current-phase relationship (CPR) of the bridges. Contrary to predictions of Ginzburg--Landau theory for microbridges of these dimensions, it is found that the CPR is single valued and probably close to ideal (sinusoidal) over a large temperature range (>2.5 K). The discrepancy with theory may be due to the granular nature of the NbN films.

  20. Concerted single-nanowire absorption and emission spectroscopy: Explaining the origin of the size-dependent Stokes shift in single cadmium selenide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietmeyer, F.; Chatterjee, R.; McDonald, M. P.; Kuno, M.

    2015-02-01

    Concerted single-nanowire (NW) absorption and emission spectroscopies have been used to measure Stokes shifts in the optical response of individual CdSe NWs. Obtained spectra are free of inhomogeneous broadening inherent to ensemble measurements. They reveal apparent size-dependent NW Stokes shifts with magnitudes on the order of 30 meV. Given that an effective mass model previously used to explain CdSe NW excited state progressions predicts no sizable emission Stokes shift, we have investigated modifications to the theory to rationalize their existence. This has entailed better accounting for the effects of crystal field splitting on NW band edge states. What results are important changes to the spectroscopic assignment of NW band edge transitions that arise from the crossing of hole levels. Furthermore, these modifications simultaneously predict Stokes shifts with size-dependent magnitudes up to 20 meV. However, quantitative agreement with experiment is only achieved by accounting for the role of exciton trap states. Consequently, we conclude that CdSe NW Stokes shifts contain both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions—the latter arising from band edge exciton potential energy fluctuations. At a broader level, these concerted absorption and emission measurements have provided detailed insight into the electronic structure of CdSe NWs, beyond what could be obtained using either single-particle absorption or emission spectroscopies alone.

  1. Enhanced non-volatile resistive switching in suspended single-crystalline ZnO nanowire with controllable multiple states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yan; Chen, Xuejiao; Feng, Zhihong; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-08-01

    Resistive switching nanostructures are a promising candidate for next-generation non-volatile memories. In this report, we investigate the switching behaviors of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires suspended in air. They exhibit significantly higher current density, lower switching voltage, and more pronounced multiple conductance states compared to nanowires in direct contact with substrate. We attribute the effect to enhanced Joule heating efficiency, reduced surface scattering, and more significantly, the positive feedback established between the current density and local temperature in the suspended nanowires. The proposed mechanism has been quantitatively examined by finite element simulations. We have also demonstrated an innovative approach to initiating the current–temperature mutual enhancement through illumination by ultraviolet light, which further confirmed our hypothesis and enabled even greater enhancement. Our work provides further insight into the resistive switching mechanism of single-crystalline one-dimensional nanostructures, and suggests an effective means of performance enhancement and device optimization.

  2. Metastable Copper-Phthalocyanine Single-Crystal Nanowires and Their Use in Fabricating High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Kai; Li, Rongjin; Tao, Jing; Payzant, E Andrew; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Hu, Wenping; Geohegan, David B

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, vapor-phase route to the synthesis of metastable α-phase copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) single-crystal nanowires through control of the growth temperature. The influence of the growth temperature on the crystal structures, morphology, and size of the CuPc nanostructures was explored by XRD, optical absorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). α-CuPc nanowires were successfully incorporated as active semiconductors in field-effect transistors (FETs). Single nanowire devices exhibited the carrier mobilities and current on/off ratios as high as 0.4 cm2/Vs and > 104, respectively, rendering them useful for organic photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, memories and gas sensors

  3. Study of the Electrochemical System of Antimony-Tellurium in Dimethyl Sulfoxide for Growth of Nanowire Arrays, and an Innovative Method for Single Nanowire Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisman, Philip Taubman

    There is a strong interest in thermoelectric materials for energy production and savings. The properties which are integral to thermoelectric performance are typically linked, typically changing one of these properties for the better will change another for the worse. The intertwined nature of these properties has limited bulk thermoelectrics to low efficiencies, which has curbed their use to only niche applications. There has been theoretical and experimental work which has shown that limiting these materials in one or more dimensions will result in deconvolution of properties. Nanowires of well established thermoelectrics should show impressively high performance. Tellurium is attractive in many fields, including thermoelectrics. Nanowires of tellurium have been grown, but with limited success and with out the ability to dope the tellurium. Working on previous work with other systems, tellurium was studied in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The electrochemical system of tellurium was found to be quite dierent from its aqueous analog, but through comprehensive cyclic voltammetric study, all events were identified and explained. The binary antimony-tellurium system was also studied, as doping of tellurium is integral for many applications. Cyclic voltammograms of this system were studied, and the insight from these studies was used to grow nanowire arrays. Arrays of tellurium were grown and analysis showed that by using DMSO, antimony doped tellurium nanowire arrays could be grown. Furthermore, analysis showed that the antimony doped tellurium interstitially, resulting in a n-type material. Measurements were also performed on arrays and individual wires. Arrays of 1.15% antimony showed ZT of 0.092, with the low ZT attributed to poor contact methods. Although contacting was an obstacle towards measuring whole arrays, single wire measurements were also performed. Single wire measurements were done by a novel method which allows for easy, reproducible measurements of wire

  4. Single-crystalline δ-Ni2Si nanowires with excellent physical properties.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wen-Li; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lu, Kuo-Chang; Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Yeh, Ping-Hung; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the synthesis of single-crystalline nickel silicide nanowires (NWs) via chemical vapor deposition method using NiCl2·6H2O as a single-source precursor. Various morphologies of δ-Ni2Si NWs were successfully acquired by controlling the growth conditions. The growth mechanism of the δ-Ni2Si NWs was thoroughly discussed and identified with microscopy studies. Field emission measurements show a low turn-on field (4.12 V/μm), and magnetic property measurements show a classic ferromagnetic characteristic, which demonstrates promising potential applications for field emitters, magnetic storage, and biological cell separation. PMID:23782805

  5. Single-crystalline δ-Ni2Si nanowires with excellent physical properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the synthesis of single-crystalline nickel silicide nanowires (NWs) via chemical vapor deposition method using NiCl2·6H2O as a single-source precursor. Various morphologies of δ-Ni2Si NWs were successfully acquired by controlling the growth conditions. The growth mechanism of the δ-Ni2Si NWs was thoroughly discussed and identified with microscopy studies. Field emission measurements show a low turn-on field (4.12 V/μm), and magnetic property measurements show a classic ferromagnetic characteristic, which demonstrates promising potential applications for field emitters, magnetic storage, and biological cell separation. PMID:23782805

  6. Dielectrophoretic investigation of Bi2Te3 nanowires—a microfabricated thermoelectric characterization platform for measuring the thermoelectric and structural properties of single nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Kojda, Danny; Peranio, Nicola; Kroener, Michael; Mitdank, Rüdiger; Toellner, William; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fischer, Saskia F.; Gutsch, Sebastian; Zacharias, Margit; Eibl, Oliver; Woias, Peter

    2015-03-01

    In this article a microfabricated thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform to investigate the thermoelectric and structural properties of single nanowires is presented. By means of dielectrophoresis (DEP), a method to manipulate and orient nanowires in a controlled way to assemble them onto our measurement platform is introduced. The thermoelectric platform fabricated with optimally designed DEP electrodes results in a yield of nanowire assembly of approximately 90% under an applied peak-to-peak ac signal Vpp = 10 V and frequency f = 20 MHz within a series of 200 experiments. Ohmic contacts between the aligned single nanowire and the electrodes on the platform are established by electron beam-induced deposition. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of electrochemically synthesized Bi2Te3 nanowires are measured to be -51 μV K-1 and (943 ± 160)/(Ω-1 cm-1), respectively. Chemical composition and crystallographic structure are obtained using transmission electron microscopy. The selected nanowire is observed to be single crystalline over its entire length and no grain boundaries are detected. At the surface of the nanowire, 66.1 ± 1.1 at.% Te and 34.9 ± 1.1 at.% Bi are observed. In contrast, chemical composition of 64.2 at.% Te and 35.8 at.% Bi is detected in the thick center of the nanowire.

  7. Nanowires: A Lattice-Strained Organic Single-Crystal Nanowire Array Fabricated via Solution-Phase Nanograting-Assisted Pattern Transfer for Use in High-Mobility Organic Field-Effect Transistors (Adv. Mater. 16/2016).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghun; Rho, Yecheol; Kim, Yebyeol; Kim, Se Hyun; Hahm, Suk Gyu; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-04-01

    S. H. Kim, S. G. Hahm, C. E. Park, and co-workers fabricate a 50 nm-wide organic single-crystalline nanowire array on a centimeter-sized substrate via a facile roll-to-plate process, as described on page 3209. Nanowire growth in a nano-confined space adopts a lattice-strained and single-crystalline packing motif, which can be harnessed for strong intermolecular electronic coupling. Thus, nanowire-based field-effect transistors show extremely high field-effect mobilities up to 9.71 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . PMID:27105809

  8. Synthesis and chemical modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes and inorganic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo

    This dissertation describes the study of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), inorganic nanowires, and carbon aerogels. A novel catalyst of iron/molybdenum nanoparticles supported on alumina aerogel was developed for CVD synthesis of SWNTs. Using this catalyst, the yield of SWNTs was enhanced by at least three times compared to previously reported best results. The highest yield of SWNTs was achieved when the reaction temperature was between 850°C and 900°C with CO (˜1000 sccm) as feeding gas. A combination of acid wash and mild oxidation processes was used to purify tire raw SWNT product. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the majority (>90%) of the purified product was SWNTs. The purified SWNTs were fluorinated by diluted fluorine gas at 250°C. It was found that F-SWNTs could be recovered at an annealing temperature as low as 100°C. The thermal recovery behaviors of metallic and semiconducting SWNTs were very similar at annealing temperature ≥150°C, as suggested by 2D UV-Vis-NIR correlation spectroscopy. F-SWNTs were also added into poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to form a PEO/F-SWNT composite. Mechanical properties measurements showed that the F-SWNTs significantly increased the strength of the resulting composite. A highly efficient method of SWNT synthesis on surfaces was also developed. It was found that the combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a feeding gas greatly enhanced the surface growth of SWNTs. This method showed a large window of optimal HZ concentration (20%--80%) and synthesis temperature (800--900°C), so the result was very reproducible. In the second project, two novel methods of preparing silicon oxide and tungsten oxide nanowires, respectively, were developed. By using a millimeter-sized liquid gallium ball as a metal solvent at 920--940°C, bulk quantities of ultralong, uniform and well-aligned silicon oxide nanowires were synthesized. XPS and EDX indicated that the

  9. Full characterization of small volume NbN HEB mixers for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselmans, J.; Kooi, J.; Baryshev, A.; Yang, Z. Q.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2005-05-01

    NbN phonon cooled HEB's are one of the most promising bolometer mixer technologies for (near) future (space) applications. Their performance is usually quantified by measuring the receiver noise temperature at a given IF frequency, usually around 1 - 2 GHz. However, for any real applications it is vital that one fully knows all the relevant properties of the mixer, including LO power, stability, direct detection, gain bandwidth and noise bandwidth, not only the noise temperature at low IF frequencies. To this aim we have measured all these parameters at the optimal operating point of one single, small volume quasioptical NbN HEB mixer. We find a minimum noise temperature of 900 K at 1.46 THz. We observe a direct detection effect indicated by a change in bias current when changing from a 300 K hot load to a 77 K cold load. Due to this effect we overestimate the noise temperature by about 22% using a 300 K hot load and a 77 K cold load. The LO power needed to reach the optimal operating point is 80 nW at the receiver lens front, 59 nW inside the NbN bridge. However, using the isothermal technique we find a power absorbed in the NbN bridge of 25 nW, a difference of about a factor 2. We obtain a gain bandwidth of 2.3 GHz and a noise bandwidth of 4 GHz. The system Allan time is about 1 sec. in a 50 MHz spectral bandwidth and a deviation from white noise integration (governed by the radiometer equation) occurs at 0.2 sec., which implies a maximum integration time of a few seconds in a 1 MHz bandwidth spectrometer.

  10. Stability of a current carrying single nanowire of tungsten (W) deposited by focused ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pabitra; Das, Bipul; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    We report an investigation on the stability of single W nanowire (NW) under direct current stressing. The NW of width ≈ 80 nm and thickness ≈ 100 nm was deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) of Ga ions using W(CO)6 as a precursor. Such nanowires, used as interconnects in nanoelectronics, contain C and Ga in addition to W. The stability studies, done for the first time in such FIB deposited NWs, show that under current stressing these NWs behave very differently from that observed in conventional metal NWs or interconnects. The failure of such FIB deposited NW occurs at a relatively low current density (˜1011 A/m2) which is an order or more less than that seen in conventional metal NWs. The failure accompanies with formation of voids and hillocks, suggesting ionic migration as the cause of failure. However, the polarities of void and hillock formations are opposite to those observed in conventional metal interconnects. This observation along with preferential agglomeration of Ga ions in hillocks suggests that the ionic migration in such NWs is dominated by direct force as opposed to the migration driven by electron wind force in conventional metal interconnects.

  11. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses by using single nanowire.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaxin; Liao, Feng; Gu, Fuxing; Zeng, Heping

    2016-01-01

    The use of ultrashort pulses for fundamental studies and applications has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Along with the development of ultrashort lasers, exploring new pulse diagnositic approaches with higher signal-to-noise ratio have attracted great scientific and technological interests. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique of ultrashort pulses characterization with a single semiconductor nanowire. By performing a frequency-resolved optical gating method with a ZnO nanowire coupled to tapered optical microfibers, the phase and amplitude of a pulse series are extracted. The generated signals from the transverse frequency conversion process can be spatially distinguished from the input, so the signal-to-noise ratio is improved and permits lower energy pulses to be identified. Besides, since the nanometer scale of the nonlinear medium provides relaxed phase-matching constraints, a measurement of 300-nm-wide supercontinuum pulses is achieved. This system is highly compatible with standard optical fiber systems, and shows a great potential for applications such as on-chip optical communication. PMID:27609521

  12. Ternary Synaptic Plasticity Arising from Memdiode Behavior of TiOx Single Nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Deshun; Chen, Yuansha; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen; Group 3 of Magnetism Laboratory, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics Team

    Electric field-induced resistive switching (RS) effect has been widely explored as a novel nonvolatile memory over the past few years. Recently, the RS behavior with continuous transition has received considerable attention for its promising prospect in neuromorphic simulation. Here, the switching characteristics of a planar-structured TiOx single nanowire device were systematically investigated. It exhibited a strong electrical history-dependent rectifying behavior that was defined as a ''memdiode''. We further demonstrated that a ternary synaptic plasticity could be realized in such a TiOx nanowire device, characterized by the resistance and photocurrent responses. For a given state of the memdiode, a conjugated memristive characteristic and a distinct photocurrent can be simulaneously obtained, resulting in a synchronous implementation of various Hebbian plasticities with the same temporal order of spikes. These intriguing properties of TiOx memdiode provide a feasible way toward the designing of multifunctional electronic synapses as well as programmable artificial neural network This work has been partially supported by the National Basic Research of China (2013CB921700), the ``Strategic Priority Research Program (B)'' of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB07030200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11374339).

  13. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses by using single nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiaxin; Liao, Feng; Gu, Fuxing; Zeng, Heping

    2016-01-01

    The use of ultrashort pulses for fundamental studies and applications has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Along with the development of ultrashort lasers, exploring new pulse diagnositic approaches with higher signal-to-noise ratio have attracted great scientific and technological interests. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique of ultrashort pulses characterization with a single semiconductor nanowire. By performing a frequency-resolved optical gating method with a ZnO nanowire coupled to tapered optical microfibers, the phase and amplitude of a pulse series are extracted. The generated signals from the transverse frequency conversion process can be spatially distinguished from the input, so the signal-to-noise ratio is improved and permits lower energy pulses to be identified. Besides, since the nanometer scale of the nonlinear medium provides relaxed phase-matching constraints, a measurement of 300-nm-wide supercontinuum pulses is achieved. This system is highly compatible with standard optical fiber systems, and shows a great potential for applications such as on-chip optical communication. PMID:27609521

  14. Characterization of single-crystalline PbTiO3 nanowire growth via surfactant-free hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Haoshuang; Hu, Yongming; You, Jing; Hu, Zhenglong; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Tianjin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present the results obtained in fabrication and characterization of single-crystalline lead titanate nanowires synthesized by surfactant-free hydrothermal method at 200°C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, selected-area electron diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results show that the products have a tetragonal perovskite structure without any other impurity phase, which are made up of a large quantity of nanowires with uniform diameters of about 12nm and lengths reaching up to 5μm, and the growth of nanowires is generally along the [001] direction. XPS result shows that the binding energy of Ti2p(3/2) core level peak for PbTiO3 nanowires is larger than that of the corresponding ceramics and leads to the larger spin-orbit splitting (Δ[2p(3/2)-2p(1/2)]) for Ti2p. Raman studies show that the vibration modes of nanowires redshifted and broadened, which have shorter phonon lifetime compared to that of bulk materials. A blue light emission peaking at about 471nm (2.63eV ) is observed at room temperature, oxygen vacancies are responsible for the luminescence in PbTiO3 nanowires. The band gap energy for PbTiO3 nanowires was about 4.15eV.

  15. Effects of post-deposition annealing on the mechanical and chemical properties of the Si 3N 4/NbN multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, J. J.; Lee, C. M.

    2003-05-01

    Multilayered thin films consisting of alternate layers of silicon nitride (Si 3N 4) and niobium nitride (NbN) have been prepared by a dc reactive sputtering technique in nitrogen and argon atmosphere using high purity Nb and Si targets for various flow ratios of N 2/Ar. It has been found that the hardness of the multilayered system is higher than that of the constituent individual layers of equal thickness. Although a single layer of amorphous Si 3N 4 has higher hardness compared with a single layer of nanocrystalline NbN at all the deposition conditions used in this experiment, the hardness of the multilayer coatings consisting of consecutive Si 3N 4/NbN layers strongly follows the hardness variation of the polycrystalline NbN. When the multilayer coatings are subjected to post-deposition annealing at high temperatures, it has been found that both the hardness and the adhesion strength of the coating decrease with increasing annealing temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal that oxidation of the coatings during annealing plays a crucial role behind such deterioration in mechanical properties. Further, it has been noted that NbN is a more oxidation resistant material than Si 3N 4. Therefore, it has been proposed that during preparation of multilayers with consecutive thin layers of NbN and Si 3N 4, the topmost layer should be made of NbN, instead of Si 3N 4, to prevent the oxygen diffusion from the top surface layer to the next layer underneath.

  16. Traceable calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector using characterized synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ingmar; Klein, Roman M.; Werner, Lutz

    2014-12-01

    Radiometric calibrations of fibre-coupled single photon detectors are experiencing growing demand, especially at the telecommunication wavelengths. In this paper, the radiometric calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector at the telecom wavelength 1.55 µm by means of well-characterized synchrotron radiation is described. This substitution method is based on the unique properties of synchrotron radiation and the Metrology Light Source, the dedicated electron storage ring of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, and is suitable for fibre-coupled single photon detectors. The Metrology Light Source is used as a light source with a high dynamic range of the radiant power to bridge the radiometric gap occurring in the transition from radiant power measurements and the counting of photons with single photon detectors. Very low uncertainties below 2% have been achieved in the measurement of the detection efficiency of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector.

  17. Cathodoluminescence of stacking fault bound excitons for local probing of the exciton diffusion length in single GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Nogues, Gilles Den Hertog, Martien; Auzelle, Thomas; Gayral, Bruno; Daudin, Bruno

    2014-03-10

    We perform correlated studies of individual GaN nanowires in scanning electron microscopy combined to low temperature cathodoluminescence, microphotoluminescence, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We show that some nanowires exhibit well localized regions emitting light at the energy of a stacking fault bound exciton (3.42 eV) and are able to observe the presence of a single stacking fault in these regions. Precise measurements of the cathodoluminescence signal in the vicinity of the stacking fault give access to the exciton diffusion length near this location.

  18. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Electronic Structure of Single-Crystalline CuxV2O5 Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Patridge, C.; Jaye, C; Zhang, H; Marschilok, A; Fischer, D; Takeuchi, E; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    Single-crystalline copper vanadium oxide nanowires ??-CuxV2O5 (x 0.60) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal reduction of bulk CuV2O6 using small-molecule aliphatic alcohols as reducing agents. The prepared copper vanadium bronze nanowires are metallic in nature and exhibit aspect ratios as high as 300. The recent discovery of superconductivity and charge disproportionation in bulk ??-CuxV2O5 has led to renewed interest in these one-dimensional metallic systems. Scaling these systems to nanoscale dimensions offers the potential for further tunability of electronic transport and Li-ion intercalation kinetics. A combination of spectroscopic and electrical measurement methods has been used to provide evidence for the metallic nature and the presence of room-temperature charge disproportionation in these nanowires.

  19. Single-crystalline nanogap electrodes: enhancing the nanowire-breakdown process with a gaseous environment.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroshi; Sumiya, Touru; Furuta, Shigeo; Ueki, Ryuichi; Miyazawa, Yosuke; Nishijima, Takuya; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Naitoh, Yasuhisa

    2012-10-24

    A method for fabricating single-crystalline nanogaps on Si substrates was developed. Polycrystalline Pt nanowires on Si substrates were broken down by current flow under various gaseous environments. The crystal structure of the nanogap electrode was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Nanogap electrodes sandwiched between Pt-large-crystal-grains were obtained by the breakdown of the wire in an O(2) or H(2) atmosphere. These nanogap electrodes show intense spots in the electron diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern corresponds to Pt (111), indicating that single-crystal grains are grown by the electrical wire breakdown process in an O(2) or H(2) atmosphere. The Pt wires that have (111)-texture and coherent boundaries can be considered ideal as interconnectors for single molecular electronics. The simple method for fabrication of a single-crystalline nanogap is one of the first steps toward standard nanogap electrodes for single molecular instruments and opens the door to future research on physical phenomena in nanospaces. PMID:23054205

  20. Fabrication of a wafer-scale uniform array of single-crystal organic nanowire complementary inverters by nanotransfer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung Sun; Baek, Jangmi; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Sung, Myung Mo

    2015-02-01

    We report the fabrication and electrical characterization of a wafer-scale array of organic complementary inverters using single-crystal 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) and fullerene (C60) nanowires as p- and n-channels, respectively. Two arrays of single-crystal organic nanowires were generated consecutively on desired locations of a common substrate with a desired mutual alignment by a direct printing method (liquid-bridge-mediated nanotransfer molding). Another direct printing of silver micron scale structures, as source and drain electrodes, on the substrate with the two printed nanowire arrays produced an array of complementary inverters with a bottom gate, top contact configuration. Field-effect mobilities of single-crystal TIPS-PEN and C60 nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) in the arrays were uniform with 1.01 ± 0.14 and 0.10 ± 0.01 cm2V-1 s-1, respectively. A wafer-scale array of complementary inverters produced all by the direct printing method showed good performance with an average gain of 25 and with low variations among the inverters.

  1. Fabrication of Fe nanowires on yittrium-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates by thermal CVD methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahito, A.; Yanase, T.; Endo, T.; Nagahama, T.; Shimada, T.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic nanowires (NWs) are promising as material for use in spintronics and as the precursor of permanent magnets because they have unique properties due to their high aspect ratio. The growth of magnetic Fe whiskers was reported in the 1960s, but the diameter was not on a nanoscale level and the growth mechanism was not fully elucidated. In the present paper, we report the almost vertical growth of Fe NWs on a single crystal yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y{sub 0.15}Zr{sub 0.85}O{sub 2}) by a thermal CVD method. The NWs show a characteristic taper part on the bottom growing from a trigonal pyramidal nucleus. The taper angle and length can be controlled by changing the growth condition in two steps, which will lead to obtaining uniformly distributed thin Fe NWs for applications.

  2. Formation and Stabilization of Single-Crystalline Metastable AuGe Phases in Ge Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, E.; Sutter, P.

    2011-07-22

    We use in situ observations by variable temperature transmission electron microscopy on AuGe alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) with systematically varying composition to demonstrate the controlled formation of metastable solid phases integrated in NWs. The process, which operates in the regime of vapor-liquid-solid growth, involves a size-dependent depression of the alloy liquidus at the nanoscale that leads to extremely Ge-rich AuGe melts at low temperatures. During slow cooling, these liquid AuGe alloy drops show pronounced departures from equilibrium, i.e., a frustrated phase separation of Ge into the adjacent solid NW, and ultimately crystallize as single-crystalline segments of metastable {gamma}-AuGe. Our findings demonstrate a general avenue for synthesizing NW heterostructures containing stable and metastable solid phases, applicable to a wide range of materials of which NWs form by the vapor-liquid-solid method.

  3. Fabrication of Fe nanowires on yittrium-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates by thermal CVD methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahito, A.; Yanase, T.; Endo, T.; Nagahama, T.; Shimada, T.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic nanowires (NWs) are promising as material for use in spintronics and as the precursor of permanent magnets because they have unique properties due to their high aspect ratio. The growth of magnetic Fe whiskers was reported in the 1960s, but the diameter was not on a nanoscale level and the growth mechanism was not fully elucidated. In the present paper, we report the almost vertical growth of Fe NWs on a single crystal yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y0.15Zr0.85O2) by a thermal CVD method. The NWs show a characteristic taper part on the bottom growing from a trigonal pyramidal nucleus. The taper angle and length can be controlled by changing the growth condition in two steps, which will lead to obtaining uniformly distributed thin Fe NWs for applications.

  4. An ultra-fast superconducting Nb nanowire single-photon detector for soft x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Inderbitzin, K.; Engel, A.; Schilling, A.; Il'in, K.; Siegel, M.

    2012-10-15

    Although superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are well studied regarding the detection of infrared/optical photons and keV-molecules, no studies on continuous x-ray photon counting by thick-film detectors have been reported so far. We fabricated a 100 nm thick niobium x-ray SNSPD (an X-SNSPD) and studied its detection capability of photons with keV-energies in continuous mode. The detector is capable to detect photons even at reduced bias currents of 0.4%, which is in sharp contrast to optical thin-film SNSPDs. No dark counts were recorded in extended measurement periods. Strikingly, the signal amplitude distribution depends significantly on the photon energy spectrum.

  5. Vibrational response of free standing single copper nanowire through transient reflectivity microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belliard, Laurent; Cornelius, Thomas W.; Perrin, Bernard; Kacemi, Nazim; Becerra, Loïc; Thomas, Olivier; Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Maria; Cassinelli, Marco

    2013-11-01

    We report on the ultrafast vibrational response of single copper nanowires investigated by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements. The oscillations of the sample reflectivity are correlated with individual modes of resonance for wires with a diameter ranging from 100 to 500 nm and are compared with 2D finite element simulation. Fluctuation of the sample-substrate coupling is illustrated through its effect on the damping rate. We demonstrate elastic confinement in free standing wires which allowed the detection of up to the third harmonic of the breathing mode. By removing the energy relaxation channel towards the substrate, we obtained nano-oscillators with quality factors up to 130. Finally, taking advantage of the very high spectral resolution achieved on free standing wires, we could observe the elastic coupling between two close wires via their polymer cladding.

  6. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  7. Limiting efficiency calculation of silicon single-nanowire solar cells with considering Auger recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Xiongfei; Wu, Shaolong; Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-09

    Single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their unique light-harvesting capability mediated by the optical antenna effect and the high photoconversion efficiency due to the orthogonalization of the carrier collection to the photon incidence. We present a detailed prediction of the light-conversion efficiency of Si SNSCs based on finite-element simulation and thermodynamic balance analysis, with especially focusing on the comparison between SNSCs and film systems. Carrier losses due to radiative and Auger recombinations are introduced in the analysis of the limiting efficiency, which show that the Auger recombination plays a key role in accurately predicting the efficiency of Si SNSCs, otherwise, the device performance would be strongly overestimated. The study paves a more realistic way to evaluate the nanostructured solar cells based on indirect-band photoactive materials.

  8. Plasma enhanced multistate storage capability of single ZnO nanowire based memory

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Yunfeng Xin, Pucong; Cheng, Shuying; Yu, Jinling; Zheng, Qiao

    2015-01-19

    Multiple-state storage (MSS) is common for resistive random access memory, but the effects of plasma treatment on the MSS and the switching properties have been scarcely investigated. We have demonstrated a stable four-state storage capability of single zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) treated by argon plasma. The electrical switching is attributed to the electron trapping and detrapping from the oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}s). The MSS relates to the electrical-thermal induced distribution of the V{sub o}s which determines electron transport behavior to show different resistance states. Additionally, programming (set and reset) voltages decrease with plasma treatment due to the thickness modulation of the interface barrier.

  9. Influence of electron–phonon interactions in single dopant nanowire transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo-Nuñez, H. Bescond, M. Cavassilas, N.; Dib, E.; Lannoo, M.

    2014-10-28

    Single dopant nanowire transistors can be viewed as the ultimate miniaturization of nano electronic devices. In this work, we theoretically investigate the influence of the electron-phonon coupling on their transport properties using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach in the self-consistent Born approximation. For an impurity located at the center of the wire we find that, at room temperature, acoustic phonons broaden the impurity level so that the bistability predicted in the ballistic regime is suppressed. Optical phonons are found to have a beneficial impact on carrier transport via a phonon-assisted tunneling effect. We discuss the position and temperature dependence of these effects, showing that such systems might be very promising for engineering of ultimate devices.

  10. Environmental sensitivity of n-i-n and undoped single GaN nanowire photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Posada, F.; Songmuang, R.; Den Hertog, M.; Monroy, E.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we compare the photodetector performance of single nearly defect-free undoped and n-i-n GaN nanowires (NWs). Undoped NWs present a dark current three orders of magnitude lower than n-i-n structures, about ten times lower gain, and a strong dependence of the measurement environment. In vacuum, undoped NWs react with an increase of their responsivity, accompanied by stronger nonlinearities and persistent photoconductivity effects. This behavior is attributed to the unpinned Fermi level at the m-plane NW sidewalls, which enhances the role of surface states in the photodetection dynamics. In the air, adsorbed oxygen accelerates the carrier dynamics at the price of reducing the photoresponse. In contrast, in n-i-n NWs, the Fermi level pinning at the contact regions limits the photoinduced sweep of the surface band bending, hence reducing the environment sensitivity and preventing persistent effects even in vacuum.

  11. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  12. Vertical Single-Crystalline Organic Nanowires on Graphene: Solution-Phase Epitaxy and Optical Microcavities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Yao; Xu, Hongjun; Wang, Jing Jing; Winters, Sinéad; Motta, Carlo; Karademir, Ertuğrul; Zhu, Weigang; Varrla, Eswaraiah; Duesberg, Georg S; Sanvito, Stefano; Hu, Wenping; Donegan, John F

    2016-08-10

    Vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) of single crystal semiconductors have attracted a great deal of interest in the past few years. They have strong potential to be used in device structures with high density and with intriguing optoelectronic properties. However, fabricating such nanowire structures using organic semiconducting materials remains technically challenging. Here we report a simple procedure for the synthesis of crystalline 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl) anthracene (BPEA) NWs on a graphene surface utilizing a solution-phase van der Waals (vdW) epitaxial strategy. The wires are found to grow preferentially in a vertical direction on the surface of graphene. Structural characterization and first-principles ab initio simulations were performed to investigate the epitaxial growth and the molecular orientation of the BPEA molecules on graphene was studied, revealing the role of interactions at the graphene-BPEA interface in determining the molecular orientation. These free-standing NWs showed not only efficient optical waveguiding with low loss along the NW but also confinement of light between the two end facets of the NW forming a microcavity Fabry-Pérot resonator. From an analysis of the optical dispersion within such NW microcavities, we observed strong slowing of the waveguided light with a group velocity reduced to one-tenth the speed of light. Applications of the vertical single-crystalline organic NWs grown on graphene will benefit from a combination of the unique electronic properties and flexibility of graphene and the tunable optical and electronic properties of organic NWs. Therefore, these vertical organic NW arrays on graphene offer the potential for realizing future on-chip light sources. PMID:27438189

  13. Elucidating the localized plasmonic enhancement effects from a single Ag nanowire in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Wu, Bo; Zhang, Qing; Yip, Jing Ngei; Yu, Guannan; Xiong, Qihua; Mathews, Nripan; Sum, Tze Chien

    2014-10-28

    The origins of performance enhancement in hybrid plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices are often embroiled in a complex interaction of light scattering, localized surface plasmon resonances, exciton-plasmon energy transfer and even nonplasmonic effects. To clearly deconvolve the plasmonic contributions from a single nanostructure, we herein investigate the influence of a single silver nanowire (NW) on the charge carriers in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy, and correlate to electrical device characterization. Polarization-dependent photocurrent enhancements with a maximum of ∼ 36% over the reference are observed when the transverse mode of the plasmonic excitations in the Ag NW is activated. The ensuing higher absorbance and light scattering induced by the electronic motion perpendicular to the NW long axis lead to increased exciton and polaron densities instead of direct surface plasmon-exciton energy transfer. Finite-difference time-domain simulations also validate these findings. Importantly, our study at the single nanostructure level explores the fundamental limits of plasmonic enhancement achievable in organic solar cells with a single plasmonic nanostructure. PMID:25198060

  14. Single trap dynamics in electrolyte-gated Si-nanowire field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Pud, S.; Li, J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Vitusevich, S. A.; Gasparyan, F.; Petrychuk, M.

    2014-06-21

    Liquid-gated silicon nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) are fabricated and their transport and dynamic properties are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Random telegraph signal (RTS) fluctuations were registered in the nanolength channel FETs and used for the experimental and theoretical analysis of transport properties. The drain current and the carrier interaction processes with a single trap are analyzed using a quantum-mechanical evaluation of carrier distribution in the channel and also a classical evaluation. Both approaches are applied to treat the experimental data and to define an appropriate solution for describing the drain current behavior influenced by single trap resulting in RTS fluctuations in the Si NW FETs. It is shown that quantization and tunneling effects explain the behavior of the electron capture time on the single trap. Based on the experimental data, parameters of the single trap were determined. The trap is located at a distance of about 2 nm from the interface Si/SiO{sub 2} and has a repulsive character. The theory of dynamic processes in liquid-gated Si NW FET put forward here is in good agreement with experimental observations of transport in the structures and highlights the importance of quantization in carrier distribution for analyzing dynamic processes in the nanostructures.

  15. Simultaneous integration of different nanowires on single textured Si (100) substrates.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Torsten; Rosenbach, Daniel; Mussler, Gregor; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2015-03-11

    By applying a texturing process to silicon substrates, we demonstrate the possibility to integrate III-V nanowires on (100) oriented silicon substrates. Nanowires are found to grow perpendicular to the {111}-oriented facets of pyramids formed by KOH etching. Having control of the substrate orientation relative to the incoming fluxes enables not only the growth of nanowires on selected facets of the pyramids but also studying the influence of the fluxes on the nanowire nucleation and growth. Making use of these findings, we show that nanowires with different dimensions can be grown on the same sample and, additionally, it is even possible to integrate nanowires of different semiconductor materials, for example, GaAs and InAs, on the very same sample. PMID:25650521

  16. Single nanowire on graphene (SNOG) as an efficient, reproducible, and stable SERS-active platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hongki; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Lee, Dong-Il; Lee, Jiyoung; Kang, Il-Suk; Lee, Hyoban; Kang, Taejoon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-04-01

    Developing a well-defined nanostructure that can provide strong, reproducible, and stable SERS signals is quite important for the practical application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. We report here a novel single nanowire (NW) on graphene (SNOG) structure as an efficient, reproducible, and stable SERS-active platform. Au NWs having a well-defined single-crystal geometry on a monolayer graphene-coated metal film can form a well-defined, continuous nanogap structure that provides extremely reproducible and stable SERS signals. The in-NW reproducibility was verified by 2-dimensional Raman mapping, and the NW-to-NW reproducibility was verified by the cumulative curves of 32 SERS spectra. The simulation also indicated that a highly regular, line-shaped hot spot formed between the Au NW and graphene. Furthermore, SNOG platforms showed improved photostability and long-term oxidation immunity. We anticipate that SNOG platforms will be appropriate for practical biological and chemical sensor applications that demand reproducible, stable, and strong signal production.Developing a well-defined nanostructure that can provide strong, reproducible, and stable SERS signals is quite important for the practical application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. We report here a novel single nanowire (NW) on graphene (SNOG) structure as an efficient, reproducible, and stable SERS-active platform. Au NWs having a well-defined single-crystal geometry on a monolayer graphene-coated metal film can form a well-defined, continuous nanogap structure that provides extremely reproducible and stable SERS signals. The in-NW reproducibility was verified by 2-dimensional Raman mapping, and the NW-to-NW reproducibility was verified by the cumulative curves of 32 SERS spectra. The simulation also indicated that a highly regular, line-shaped hot spot formed between the Au NW and graphene. Furthermore, SNOG platforms showed improved photostability and long

  17. Photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of niobium mononitride anion NbN-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Gunaratne, K. Don Dasitha; Cheng, Shi-Bo; Castleman, A. W.

    2016-07-01

    In this gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy study, we present the electron binding energy spectrum and photoelectron angular distributions of NbN- by the velocity-map imaging technique. The electron binding energy of NbN- is measured to be 1.42 ± 0.02 eV from the X band maximum which defines the 0-0 transition between ground states of anion and neutral. Theoretical binding energies which are the vertical and adiabatic detachment energies are computed by density functional theory to compare them with experiment. The ground state of NbN- is assigned to the 2Δ3/2 state and then the electronic transitions originating from this state into X3ΔΩ (Ω = 1-3), a1Δ2, A3Σ1-, and b1Σ0+ states of NbN are reported to interpret the spectral features. As a prospective study for catalytic materials, spectral features of NbN- are compared with those of isovalent ZrO- and Pd-.

  18. Photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of niobium mononitride anion NbN(.).

    PubMed

    Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Gunaratne, K Don Dasitha; Cheng, Shi-Bo; Castleman, A W

    2016-07-21

    In this gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy study, we present the electron binding energy spectrum and photoelectron angular distributions of NbN(-) by the velocity-map imaging technique. The electron binding energy of NbN(-) is measured to be 1.42 ± 0.02 eV from the X band maximum which defines the 0-0 transition between ground states of anion and neutral. Theoretical binding energies which are the vertical and adiabatic detachment energies are computed by density functional theory to compare them with experiment. The ground state of NbN(-) is assigned to the (2)Δ3/2 state and then the electronic transitions originating from this state into X(3)ΔΩ (Ω = 1-3), a(1)Δ2, A(3)Σ1 (-), and b(1)Σ0 (+) states of NbN are reported to interpret the spectral features. As a prospective study for catalytic materials, spectral features of NbN(-) are compared with those of isovalent ZrO(-) and Pd(-). PMID:27448881

  19. Single nanowire on graphene (SNOG) as an efficient, reproducible, and stable SERS-active platform.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hongki; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Lee, Dong-Il; Lee, Jiyoung; Kang, Il-Suk; Lee, Hyoban; Kang, Taejoon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-04-21

    Developing a well-defined nanostructure that can provide strong, reproducible, and stable SERS signals is quite important for the practical application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. We report here a novel single nanowire (NW) on graphene (SNOG) structure as an efficient, reproducible, and stable SERS-active platform. Au NWs having a well-defined single-crystal geometry on a monolayer graphene-coated metal film can form a well-defined, continuous nanogap structure that provides extremely reproducible and stable SERS signals. The in-NW reproducibility was verified by 2-dimensional Raman mapping, and the NW-to-NW reproducibility was verified by the cumulative curves of 32 SERS spectra. The simulation also indicated that a highly regular, line-shaped hot spot formed between the Au NW and graphene. Furthermore, SNOG platforms showed improved photostability and long-term oxidation immunity. We anticipate that SNOG platforms will be appropriate for practical biological and chemical sensor applications that demand reproducible, stable, and strong signal production. PMID:27071328

  20. Single trap in liquid gated nanowire FETs: Capture time behavior as a function of current

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparyan, F.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Vitusevich, S.

    2015-05-07

    The basic reason for enhanced electron capture time, τ{sub c}, of the oxide single trap dependence on drain current in the linear operation regime of p{sup +}-p-p{sup +} silicon field effect transistors (FETs) was established, using a quantum-mechanical approach. A strong increase of τ{sub c} slope dependence on channel current is explained using quantization and tunneling concepts in terms of strong field dependence of the oxide layer single trap effective cross-section, which can be described by an amplification factor. Physical interpretation of this parameter deals with the amplification of the electron cross-section determined by both decreasing the critical field influence as a result of the minority carrier depletion and the potential barrier growth for electron capture. For the NW channel of n{sup +}-p-n{sup +} FETs, the experimentally observed slope of τ{sub c} equals (−1). On the contrary, for the case of p{sup +}-p-p{sup +} Si FETs in the accumulation regime, the experimentally observed slope of τ{sub c} equals (−2.8). It can be achieved when the amplification factor is about 12. Extraordinary high capture time slope values versus current are explained by the effective capture cross-section growth with decreasing electron concentration close to the nanowire-oxide interface.

  1. Quantum Yield of Single Surface Plasmons Generated by a Quantum Dot Coupled with a Silver Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between surface plasmons (SPs) in metal nanostructures and excitons in quantum emitters (QEs) lead to many interesting phenomena and potential applications that are strongly dependent on the quantum yield of SPs. The difficulty in distinguishing all the possible exciton recombination channels hinders the experimental determination of SP quantum yield. Here, we experimentally measured for the first time the quantum yield of single SPs generated by the exciton-plasmon coupling in a system composed of a single quantum dot and a silver nanowire (NW). By utilizing the SP guiding property of the NW, the decay rates of all the exciton recombination channels, i.e., direct free space radiation channel, SP generation channel, and nonradiative damping channel, are quantitatively obtained. It is determined that the optimum emitter-NW coupling distance for the largest SP quantum yield is about 10 nm, resulting from the different distance-dependent decay rates of the three channels. These results are important for manipulating the coupling between plasmonic nanostructures and QEs and developing on-chip quantum plasmonic devices for potential nanophotonic and quantum information applications. PMID:26583200

  2. Pulsed laser deposition of single-crystalline Cu7In3/CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 core/shell nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Single-crystalline Cu7In3/CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CI/CIGS) core/shell nanowires are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition with Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The CI/CIGS core/shell nanowires are made up of single-crystalline CI cores surrounded by single-crystalline CIGS shells. The CI/CIGS nanowires are grown at a considerably low temperature (350°C ~ 450°C) by vapor-liquid-solid mode combined with vapor-solid mode. The distribution density of the nanowires increases with the increasing of the deposition duration, and the substrate temperature determines the lengths of the nanowires. The U-V absorption spectra of the CIGS thin films with and without the CI/CIGS core/shell nanowires demonstrate that the CI/CIGS nanowires can remarkably enhance the absorption of CIGS thin films in the spectrum range of 300 to 900 nm. PACS 61.46. + w; 61.41.e; 81.15.Fg; 81.07.b PMID:25520597

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of single-crystalline Cu7In3/CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Hui; Zhu, Yan-Yan; Guan, Lei-Lei; Li, Yan-Li; Sun, Jian; Ying, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Jia-Da; Xu, Ning

    2014-12-01

    Single-crystalline Cu7In3/CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CI/CIGS) core/shell nanowires are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition with Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The CI/CIGS core/shell nanowires are made up of single-crystalline CI cores surrounded by single-crystalline CIGS shells. The CI/CIGS nanowires are grown at a considerably low temperature (350°C ~ 450°C) by vapor-liquid-solid mode combined with vapor-solid mode. The distribution density of the nanowires increases with the increasing of the deposition duration, and the substrate temperature determines the lengths of the nanowires. The U-V absorption spectra of the CIGS thin films with and without the CI/CIGS core/shell nanowires demonstrate that the CI/CIGS nanowires can remarkably enhance the absorption of CIGS thin films in the spectrum range of 300 to 900 nm.

  4. Stereo-epitaxial growth of single-crystal Ni nanowires and nanoplates from aligned seed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoban; Yoo, Youngdong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Eungwang; Fang, Xiaosheng; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-05-01

    Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni seeds are determined by the interfacial energy between the bottom plane of the seeds and the substrates. The as-synthesized Ni NWs and nanoplates have blocking temperature values greater than 300 K at 500 Oe, verifying that these Ni nanostructures can form large magnetic DWs with high magnetic anisotropy properties. We anticipate that epitaxially grown Ni NWs and nanoplates will be used in various types of 3-dimensional magnetic devices.Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni

  5. Clinical relevance of CHEK2 and NBN mutations in the macedonian population

    PubMed Central

    Kostovska, I Maleva; Jakimovska, M; Kubelka-Sabit, K; Karadjozov, M; Arsovski, A; Stojanovska, L; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2015-01-01

    Clinical importance of the most common CHEK2 (IVS2+1 G>A, 1100delC, I157T and del5395) and NBN (R215W and 657del5) gene mutations for breast cancer development in Macedonian breast cancer patients is unknown. We performed a case-control study including 300 Macedonian breast cancer patients and 283 Macedonian healthy controls. Genotyping was done using a fast and highly accurate single-nucleotide primer extension method for the detection of five mutations in a single reaction. The detection of the del5395 was performed using an allele-specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. We have found that mutations were more frequent in breast cancer patients (n = 13, 4.3%) than in controls (n = 5, 1.8%), although without statistical significance. Twelve patients were heterozygous for one of the analyzed mutations, while one patient had two mutations (NBN R215W and CHEK2 I157T). The most frequent variant was I157T, found in 10 patients and four controls (p = 0.176) and was found to be associated with familial breast cancer (p = 0.041). CHEK2 1100delC and NBN 657del5 were each found in one patient and not in the control group. CHEK2 IVS2+1G>A and del5395 were not found in our cohort. Frequencies of the studied mutations are low and they are not likely to represent alleles of clinical importance in the Macedonian population. PMID:26929905

  6. Clinical relevance of CHEK2 and NBN mutations in the macedonian population.

    PubMed

    Kostovska, I Maleva; Jakimovska, M; Kubelka-Sabit, K; Karadjozov, M; Arsovski, A; Stojanovska, L; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2015-06-01

    Clinical importance of the most common CHEK2 (IVS2+1 G>A, 1100delC, I157T and del5395) and NBN (R215W and 657del5) gene mutations for breast cancer development in Macedonian breast cancer patients is unknown. We performed a case-control study including 300 Macedonian breast cancer patients and 283 Macedonian healthy controls. Genotyping was done using a fast and highly accurate single-nucleotide primer extension method for the detection of five mutations in a single reaction. The detection of the del5395 was performed using an allele-specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. We have found that mutations were more frequent in breast cancer patients (n = 13, 4.3%) than in controls (n = 5, 1.8%), although without statistical significance. Twelve patients were heterozygous for one of the analyzed mutations, while one patient had two mutations (NBN R215W and CHEK2 I157T). The most frequent variant was I157T, found in 10 patients and four controls (p = 0.176) and was found to be associated with familial breast cancer (p = 0.041). CHEK2 1100delC and NBN 657del5 were each found in one patient and not in the control group. CHEK2 IVS2+1G>A and del5395 were not found in our cohort. Frequencies of the studied mutations are low and they are not likely to represent alleles of clinical importance in the Macedonian population. PMID:26929905

  7. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.

    2016-06-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~103), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>103). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data.

  8. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory.

    PubMed

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~10(3)), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>10(3)). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data. PMID:27245099

  9. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory

    PubMed Central

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~103), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>103). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data. PMID:27245099

  10. Atomistic simulations of nanowelding of single-crystal and amorphous gold nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Cheng-Da; Fang, Te-Hua Wu, Chung-Chin

    2015-01-07

    The mechanism and quality of the welding of single-crystal (SC) and amorphous gold nanowires (NWs) with head-to-head contact are studied using molecular dynamics simulations based on the second-moment approximation of the many-body tight-binding potential. The results are discussed in terms of atomic trajectories, slip vectors, stress, and radial distribution function. Simulation results show that the alignment for the amorphous NWs during welding is easier than that for the SC NWs due to the former's relatively stable geometry. A few dislocations nucleate and propagate on the (111) close-packed plane (slip plane) inside the SC NWs during the welding and stretching processes. During welding, an incomplete jointing area first forms through the interactions of the van der Waals attractive force, and the jointing area increases with increasing extent of contact between the two NWs. A crystallization transition region forms in the jointing area for the welding of SC-amorphous or amorphous-SC NWs. With increasing interference, an amorphous gold NW shortens more than does a SC gold NW due to the former's relatively poor strength. The pressure required for welding decreases with increasing temperature.

  11. Room-temperature photodetection dynamics of single GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    González-Posada, F; Songmuang, R; Den Hertog, M; Monroy, E

    2012-01-11

    We report on the photocurrent behavior of single GaN n-i-n nanowires (NWs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on Si(111). These structures present a photoconductive gain in the range of 10(5)-10(8) and an ultraviolet (350 nm) to visible (450 nm) responsivity ratio larger than 6 orders of magnitude. Polarized light couples with the NW geometry with a maximum photoresponse for polarization along the NW axis. The photocurrent scales sublinearly with optical power, following a I ~ P(β) law (β < 1) in the measured range with β increasing with the measuring frequency. The photocurrent time response remains in the millisecond range, which is in contrast to the persistent (hours) photoconductivity effects observed in two-dimensional photoconductors. The photocurrent is independent of the measuring atmosphere, either in the air or in vacuum. Results are interpreted taking into account the effect of surface states and the total depletion of the NW intrinsic region. PMID:22142411

  12. Free-space-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for infrared optical communications.

    PubMed

    Bellei, Francesco; Cartwright, Alyssa P; McCaughan, Adam N; Dane, Andrew E; Najafi, Faraz; Zhao, Qingyuan; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-02-22

    This paper describes the construction of a cryostat and an optical system with a free-space coupling efficiency of 56.5% ± 3.4% to a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) for infrared quantum communication and spectrum analysis. A 1K pot decreases the base temperature to T = 1.7 K from the 2.9 K reached by the cold head cooled by a pulse-tube cryocooler. The minimum spot size coupled to the detector chip was 6.6 ± 0.11 µm starting from a fiber source at wavelength, λ = 1.55 µm. We demonstrated photon counting on a detector with an 8 × 7.3 µm2 area. We measured a dark count rate of 95 ± 3.35 kcps and a system detection efficiency of 1.64% ± 0.13%. We explain the key steps that are required to improve further the coupling efficiency. PMID:26906988

  13. Stereo-epitaxial growth of single-crystal Ni nanowires and nanoplates from aligned seed crystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoban; Yoo, Youngdong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Eungwang; Fang, Xiaosheng; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-05-21

    Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni seeds are determined by the interfacial energy between the bottom plane of the seeds and the substrates. The as-synthesized Ni NWs and nanoplates have blocking temperature values greater than 300 K at 500 Oe, verifying that these Ni nanostructures can form large magnetic DWs with high magnetic anisotropy properties. We anticipate that epitaxially grown Ni NWs and nanoplates will be used in various types of 3-dimensional magnetic devices. PMID:27129106

  14. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have long been used in photovoltaic applications but restricted to approaching the fundamental efficiency limits of the planar devices with less material. However, recent researches on standing NWs have started to reveal their potential of surpassing these limits when their unique optical property is utilized in novel manners. Here, we present a theoretical guideline for maximizing the conversion efficiency of a single standing NW cell based on a detailed study of its optical absorption mechanism. Under normal incidence, a standing NW behaves as a dielectric resonator antenna, and its optical cross-section shows its maximum when the lowest hybrid mode (HE11δ) is excited along with the presence of a back-reflector. The promotion of the cell efficiency beyond the planar limits is attributed to two effects: the built-in concentration caused by the enlarged optical cross-section, and the shifting of the absorption front resulted from the excited mode profile. By choosing an optimal NW radius to support the HE11δ mode within the main absorption spectrum, we demonstrate a relative conversion-efficiency enhancement of 33% above the planar cell limit on the exemplary a-Si solar cells. This work has provided a new basis for designing and analyzing standing NW based solar cells. PMID:24810591

  15. Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single photon detector in the modified hot spot model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu

    2014-12-01

    We theoretically study the dependence of the intrinsic detection efficiency (IDE) of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector on the applied current, I, and magnetic field, H. We find that the current, at which the resistive state appears in the superconducting film, depends on the position of the hot spot (a region with suppressed superconductivity around the place where the photon has been absorbed) with respect to the edges of the film. This circumstance leads to inevitable smooth dependence IDE(I) when IDE ˜ 0.05-1, even for a homogenous straight superconducting film and in the absence of fluctuations. For IDE ≲ 0.05, a much sharper current dependence comes from the fluctuation-assisted vortex entry to the hot spot, which is located near the edge of the film. We find that a weak magnetic field strongly affects IDE when the photon detection is connected with fluctuation-assisted vortex entry to the hot spot (IDE \\ll 1), and it weakly affects IDE when the photon detection is connected with the current-induced vortex nucleation in the film with the hot spot (IDE ˜ 0.05-1).

  16. Low frequency noise in single GaAsSb nanowires with self-induced compositional gradients.

    PubMed

    Huh, Junghwan; Kim, Dong-Chul; Munshi, A Mazid; Dheeraj, Dasa L; Jang, Doyoung; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Weman, Helge

    2016-09-23

    Due to bandgap tunability, GaAsSb nanowires (NWs) have received a great deal of attention for a variety of optoelectronic device applications. However, electrical and optical properties of GaAsSb are strongly affected by Sb-related defects and scattering from surface states and/or defects, which can limit the performance of GaAsSb NW devices. Thus, in order to utilize the GaAsSb NWs for high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices, it is required to study the material and interface properties (e.g. the interface trap density) in the GaAsSb NW devices. Here, we investigate the low frequency noise in single GaAsSb NWs with self-induced compositional gradients. The current noise spectral density of the GaAsSb NW device showed a typical 1/f noise behavior. The Hooge's noise parameter and the interface trap density of the GaAsSb NW device were found to be ∼2.2 × 10(-2) and ∼2 × 10(12) eV(-1) cm(-2), respectively. By applying low frequency noise measurements, the noise equivalent power, a key figure of merit of photodetectors, was calculated. The observed low frequency noise properties can be useful as guidance for quality and reliability of GaAsSb NW based electronic devices, especially for photodetectors. PMID:27528601

  17. Optical properties of single wurtzite/zinc-blende ZnSe nanowires grown at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zannier, V.; Cremel, T.; Kheng, K.; Artioli, A.; Ferrand, D.; Grillo, V.

    2015-09-07

    ZnSe nanowires with a dominant wurtzite structure have been grown at low temperature (300 °C) by molecular beam epitaxy assisted by solid Au nanoparticles. The nanowires emission is polarized perpendicularly to their axis in agreement with the wurtzite selection rules. Alternations of wurtzite and zinc-blende regions have been observed by transmission electron microscopy, and their impact on the nanowires optical properties has been studied by microphotoluminescence. The nanowires show a dominant intense near-band-edge emission as well as the ZnSe wurtzite free exciton line. A type II band alignment between zinc-blende and wurtzite ZnSe is evidenced by time-resolved photoluminescence. From this measurement, we deduce values for the conduction and valence band offsets of 98 and 50 meV, respectively.

  18. Determination of the stacking fault density in highly defective single GaAs nanowires by means of coherent diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davtyan, Arman; Biermanns, Andreas; Loffeld, Otmar; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2016-06-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging is used to measure diffraction patterns from individual highly defective nanowires, showing a complex speckle pattern instead of well-defined Bragg peaks. The approach is tested for nanowires of 500 nm diameter and 500 nm height predominately composed by zinc-blende (ZB) and twinned zinc-blende (TZB) phase domains. Phase retrieval is used to reconstruct the measured 2-dimensional intensity patterns recorded from single nanowires with 3.48 nm and 0.98 nm spatial resolution. Whereas the speckle amplitudes and distribution are perfectly reconstructed, no unique solution could be obtained for the phase structure. The number of phase switches is found to be proportional to the number of measured speckles and follows a narrow number distribution. Using data with 0.98 nm spatial resolution the mean number of phase switches is in reasonable agreement with estimates taken from TEM. However, since the resolved phase domain still is 3–4 times larger than a single GaAs bilayer we explain the non-ambiguous phase reconstruction by the fact that depending on starting phase and sequence of subroutines used during the phase retrieval the retrieved phase domain host a different sequence of randomly stacked bilayers. Modelling possible arrangements of bilayer sequences within a phase domain demonstrate that the complex speckle patterns measured can indeed be explained by the random arrangement of the ZB and TZB phase domains.

  19. Enhanced Photoelectrical Response of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Single-Nanowire Solar Cells by Front-Opening Crescent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Cao, Guoyang; Shang, Aixue; Lei, Dang Yuan; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-04-01

    We report an approach for substantially enhancing the light-trapping and photoconversion efficiency of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) by engineering the cross section of the nanowire from circular into a front-opening crescent shape. The proposed SNSCs show a broadband and highly tunable optical absorption compared to the conventional circular counterparts under both transverse electric and transverse magnetic incidences, enabling an enhancement ratio of over 40 % in both the photocurrent density and the photoconversion efficiency in a-Si:H SNSCs with a diameter of 200 nm. We further show that the superior performance can be well maintained under a wide range of incident angle and is robust to the blunt crescent edges.

  20. Enhanced Photoelectrical Response of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Single-Nanowire Solar Cells by Front-Opening Crescent Design.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenhai; Cao, Guoyang; Shang, Aixue; Lei, Dang Yuan; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-01

    We report an approach for substantially enhancing the light-trapping and photoconversion efficiency of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) by engineering the cross section of the nanowire from circular into a front-opening crescent shape. The proposed SNSCs show a broadband and highly tunable optical absorption compared to the conventional circular counterparts under both transverse electric and transverse magnetic incidences, enabling an enhancement ratio of over 40 % in both the photocurrent density and the photoconversion efficiency in a-Si:H SNSCs with a diameter of 200 nm. We further show that the superior performance can be well maintained under a wide range of incident angle and is robust to the blunt crescent edges. PMID:27129685

  1. Quantum size effect on Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in 100 nm diameter single-crystalline bismuth nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Kim, Dohun; Chang, Taehoo; Lee, Wooyoung

    2014-09-01

    Quantum size effect (QSE) in Bi nanowire is theoretically predicted to decrease band overlap energy resulting in semimetal-to-semiconductor transition. However, this effect has been rarely demonstrated on transport properties because of carrier-surface scattering and charge carriers induced from surface states of Bi. We report QSE on Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in a single-crystalline Bi nanowire with a diameter of 100 nm. The variation of intrinsic properties estimated using SdH oscillations indicates that the subband energy shift due to QSE. The enhanced effective mass of the electrons is consistent with the theoretical prediction pertaining to strong electron-hole coupling of Bi.

  2. Direct growth of single-crystal Pt nanowires on Sn@CNT Nanocable: 3D electrodes for highly active electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuhui; Zhang, Gaixia; Geng, Dongsheng; Chen, Yougui; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Li, Ruying; Cai, Mei; Sun, Xueliang

    2010-01-18

    A newly designed and fabricated novel three dimensional (3D) nanocomposite composed of single-crystal Pt nanowires (PtNW) and a coaxial nanocable support consisting of a tin nanowire and a carbon nanotube (Sn@CNT) is reported. This nanocomposite is fabricated by the synthesis of Sn@CNT nanocables by means of a thermal evaporation method, followed by the direct growth with PtNWs through a facile aqueous solution approach at room temperature. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the PtNW--Sn@CNT 3D electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic performance in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), methanol oxidation (MOR) for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and CO tolerance compared with commercial ETEK Pt/C catalyst made of Pt nanoparticles. PMID:20024993

  3. X-ray diffraction strain analysis of a single axial InAs1–xPx nanowire segment

    PubMed Central

    Keplinger, Mario; Mandl, Bernhard; Kriegner, Dominik; Holý, Václav; Samuelsson, Lars; Bauer, Günther; Deppert, Knut; Stangl, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The spatial strain distribution in and around a single axial InAs1–xPx hetero-segment in an InAs nanowire was analyzed using nano-focused X-ray diffraction. In connection with finite-element-method simulations a detailed quantitative picture of the nanowire’s inhomogeneous strain state was achieved. This allows for a detailed understanding of how the variation of the nanowire’s and hetero-segment’s dimensions affect the strain in its core region and in the region close to the nanowire’s side facets. Moreover, ensemble-averaging high-resolution diffraction experiments were used to determine statistical information on the distribution of wurtzite and zinc-blende crystal polytypes in the nanowires. PMID:25537589

  4. Double Path Interference and Magnetic Oscillations in Cooper Pair Transport through a Single Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Mironov, S V; Mel'nikov, A S; Buzdin, A I

    2015-06-01

    We show that the critical current of the Josephson junction consisting of superconducting electrodes coupled through a nanowire with two conductive channels can reveal the multiperiodic magnetic oscillations. The multiperiodicity originates from the quantum mechanical interference between the channels affected by both the strong spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman interaction. This minimal two-channel model is shown to explain the complicated interference phenomena observed recently in Josephson transport through Bi nanowires. PMID:26196639

  5. Effects of substrate bias on the preferred orientation, phase transition and mechanical properties for NbN films grown by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, M.; Hu, C. Q.; Wang, C.; An, T.; Su, Y. D.; Meng, Q. N.; Zheng, W. T.

    2008-07-01

    NbN films are deposited using direct current reactive magnetron sputtering in discharge of a mixture of N2 and Ar gas, and the effects of substrate bias (Vb) on the preferred orientation, phase transition, and mechanical properties for NbN films are explored by x-ray diffraction, selective area electron diffraction, and nanoindentation measurements. It is found that Vb has a significant influence on the stress in NbN films, leading to a pronounced change in the preferred orientation, phase structure, and hardness. As the substrate is at voltage floating, the stress is tensile. In contrast, as negative Vb is applied, the stress becomes compressive, and increases with increasing the absolute value of negative Vb. It is observed that a phase transition from δ (face-centered cubic) to δ' (hexagonal) for NbN films occurs as Vb is in the range of -80to-120V, which can be attributed to a decrease in the strain energy for NbN films. In order to explore the relationship between the stress and phase transition as well as preferred orientation, density-functional theory based on first principles is used to calculate the elastic constants and shear modulus for NbN with a structure of δ or δ'. The calculated results show that the shear modulus for δ'-NbN is larger than that for δ-NbN, whereas the bulk modulus for δ'-NbN is almost equal to that for δ-NbN, resulting in a difference in hardness for δ- or δ'-NbN single crystal.

  6. Temperature Dependence of Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Single Silver Nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Longju; Xu, Shen; Lu, Meng; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the thermal and electrical transport in an individual silver nanowire is characterized down to 35 K for in-depth understanding of the strong structural defect induced electron scattering. The results indicate that, at room temperature, the electrical resistivity increases by around 4 folds from that of bulk silver. The Debye temperature (151 K) of the silver nanowire is found 36% lower than that (235 K) of bulk silver, confirming strong phonon softening. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity is reduced by 55% from that of bulk silver. This reduction becomes larger as the temperature goes down. To explain the opposite trends of thermal conductivity (κ) ~ temperature (T) of silver nanowire and bulk silver, a unified thermal resistivity () is used to elucidate the electron scattering mechanism. A large residual Θ is observed for silver nanowire while that of the bulk silver is almost zero. The same ~T trend proposes that the silver nanowire and bulk silver share the similar phonon-electron scattering mechanism for thermal transport. Due to phonon-assisted electron energy transfer across grain boundaries, the Lorenz number of the silver nanowire is found much larger than that of bulk silver and decreases with decreasing temperature. PMID:26035288

  7. Temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conduction in single silver nanowire.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Longju; Xu, Shen; Lu, Meng; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the thermal and electrical transport in an individual silver nanowire is characterized down to 35 K for in-depth understanding of the strong structural defect induced electron scattering. The results indicate that, at room temperature, the electrical resistivity increases by around 4 folds from that of bulk silver. The Debye temperature (151 K) of the silver nanowire is found 36% lower than that (235 K) of bulk silver, confirming strong phonon softening. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity is reduced by 55% from that of bulk silver. This reduction becomes larger as the temperature goes down. To explain the opposite trends of thermal conductivity (κ) ~ temperature (T) of silver nanowire and bulk silver, a unified thermal resistivity (Θ ~ T/k ) is used to elucidate the electron scattering mechanism. A large residual Θ is observed for silver nanowire while that of the bulk silver is almost zero. The same Θ ~ T trend proposes that the silver nanowire and bulk silver share the similar phonon-electron scattering mechanism for thermal transport. Due to phonon-assisted electron energy transfer across grain boundaries, the Lorenz number of the silver nanowire is found much larger than that of bulk silver and decreases with decreasing temperature. PMID:26035288

  8. Single-crystal γ-MnS nanowires conformally coated with carbon.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Resto, Oscar; Carpena-Nuñez, Jennifer; Jadwisienczak, Wojciech M; Fonseca, Luis F; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo

    2014-01-22

    We report for the first time the fabrication of single-crystal metastable manganese sulfide nanowires (γ-MnS NWs) conformally coated with graphitic carbon via chemical vapor deposition technique using a single-step route. Advanced spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques were applied to elucidate the composition and structure of these NWs at the nanoscale, including Raman, XRD, SEM, HRTEM, EELS, EDS, and SAED. No evidence of α-MnS and β-MnS allotropes was found. The γ-MnS/C NWs have hexagonal cross-section and high aspect ratio (∼1000) on a large scale. The mechanical properties of individual γ-MnS/C NWs were examined via in situ uniaxial compression tests in a TEM-AFM. The results show that γ-MnS/C NWs are brittle with a Young's modulus of 65 GPa. The growth mechanism proposed suggests that the bottom-up fabrication of γ-MnS/C NWs is governed by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism catalyzed by bimetallic Au-Ni nanoparticles. The electrochemical performance of γ-MnS/C NWs as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries indicates that they outperform the cycling stability of stable micro-sized α-MnS, with an initial capacity of 1036 mAh g(-1) and a reversible capacity exceeding 503 mAh g(-1) after 25 cycles. This research advances the integration of carbon materials and metal sulfide nanostructures, bringing forth new avenues for potential miniaturization strategies to fabricate 1D core/shell heterostructures with intriguing bifunctional properties that can be used as building blocks in nanodevices. PMID:24392737

  9. Nanowire-based detector

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

    2014-06-24

    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

  10. Vapor-liquid-soild growth of group IV (Si, Ge, Si1-xGe x) single and heterostructured nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minassian, Sharis

    In this thesis, an alternative Si source, disilane (Si2H 6) has been investigated which is of interest since it is more reactive than SiH4 and therefore may enable higher growth rates at lower temperature and lower partial pressures. The lower thermal stability of Si 2H6 could also be an advantage to enable the growth of Si 1-xGex nanowires over the entire composition range at lower temperatures which are more compatible with the range of conditions typically used for Ge nanowire growth and in turn may enable the fabrication of different types of heterostructures. To fulfill the objective of this research, a systematic study has been developed to explore the growth of group IV (Si, Ge, and Si 1-xGex alloy) single and heterostructured nanowires from Si2H6 and GeH4 precursors. First, the growth kinetics of individual SiNWs from Si2H 6 was investigated by examining the effects of growth parameters on their growth rate. The results were compared to that obtained with SiH 4. In addition, to gain a better insight into the SiNW growth process, the results were also compared with Si films deposited under similar conditions inside the same reactor. Overall compared to SiH4, the use of Si 2H6 enabled higher growth rates for both SiNWs and Si films. For both gases, a nonlinearity was observed in the growth rate of nanowire as a function of gas partial pressure which was explained by a simple decomposition mechanism including the adsorption, desorption and incorporation of precursor molecule on the Au droplet surface. The apparent activation energy of the process was found to be identical for both gases under the conditions examined in the present study, suggesting similar rate-determining step in the nanowire growth process from the two precursors. Upon completion of studies on SiNW growth, the synthesis parameter space was then determined for undoped GeNWs and the influence of growth conditions on their morphology as well as their growth rate was examined. It was found that

  11. Quantum Transport and Nano Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on the Topological Surface States of Single Sb2Te3 Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Arango, Yulieth C; Huang, Liubing; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Lu, Jia Grace; Schäpers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report on low-temperature transport and electronic band structure of p-type Sb2Te3 nanowires, grown by chemical vapor deposition. Magnetoresistance measurements unravel quantum interference phenomena, which depend on the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowires. The observation of periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations is attributed to transport in topologically protected surface states in the Sb2Te3 nanowires. The study of universal conductance fluctuations demonstrates coherent transport along the Aharonov-Bohm paths encircling the rectangular cross-section of the nanowires. We use nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on single nanowires (nano-ARPES) to provide direct experimental evidence on the nontrivial topological character of those surface states. The compiled study of the bandstructure and the magnetotransport response unambiguosly points out the presence of topologically protected surface states in the nanowires and their substantial contribution to the quantum transport effects, as well as the hole doping and Fermi velocity among other key issues. The results are consistent with the theoretical description of quantum transport in intrinsically doped quasi-one-dimensional topological insulator nanowires. PMID:27581169

  12. Quantum Transport and Nano Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on the Topological Surface States of Single Sb2Te3 Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Yulieth C.; Huang, Liubing; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C.; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Lu, Jia Grace; Schäpers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report on low-temperature transport and electronic band structure of p-type Sb2Te3 nanowires, grown by chemical vapor deposition. Magnetoresistance measurements unravel quantum interference phenomena, which depend on the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowires. The observation of periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations is attributed to transport in topologically protected surface states in the Sb2Te3 nanowires. The study of universal conductance fluctuations demonstrates coherent transport along the Aharonov-Bohm paths encircling the rectangular cross-section of the nanowires. We use nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on single nanowires (nano-ARPES) to provide direct experimental evidence on the nontrivial topological character of those surface states. The compiled study of the bandstructure and the magnetotransport response unambiguosly points out the presence of topologically protected surface states in the nanowires and their substantial contribution to the quantum transport effects, as well as the hole doping and Fermi velocity among other key issues. The results are consistent with the theoretical description of quantum transport in intrinsically doped quasi-one-dimensional topological insulator nanowires. PMID:27581169

  13. In situ probing and integration of single self-assembled quantum dots-in-nanowires for quantum photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Guo-Wei; Shang, Xiang-Jun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Yu, Ying; Xu, Jian-Xing; Wei, Si-Hang; Ma, Ben; Zhang, Li-Chun; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2015-09-01

    The realization of fiber-output single photon sources is necessary for quantum photonics. Here we present in situ probing and integration of single self-assembled quantum dots (QDs)-in-nanowires. Single self-assembled AlGaAs QDs were synthesized in GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by optical excitation in both micro-PL and fiber-integrating set-up. Cascaded biexciton-exciton emission with a saturation signal of 1000 counts per second at nitrogen temperature is achieved through the fiber-integrating setup, which makes single mode fibers an ideal candidate for single photons sources and paves the way for the realization of ‘all fiber’ devices. Numerical calculations were carried out to illustrate the collection efficiency and polarized photoluminescence characteristics. Extraction efficiencies as high as 70% over a broadband emission are reported and increase by a factor of about seven in comparison with air extraction, due to the larger refractive index of the fiber core.

  14. Single-Layer Graphene as a Barrier Layer for Intense UV Laser-Induced Damages for Silver Nanowire Network.

    PubMed

    Das, Suprem R; Nian, Qiong; Saei, Mojib; Jin, Shengyu; Back, Doosan; Kumar, Prashant; Janes, David B; Alam, Muhammad A; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-11-24

    Single-layer graphene (SLG) has been proposed as the thinnest protective/barrier layer for wide applications involving resistance to oxidation, corrosion, atomic/molecular diffusion, electromagnetic interference, and bacterial contamination. Functional metallic nanostructures have lower thermal stability than their bulk forms and are therefore susceptible to high energy photons. Here, we demonstrate that SLG can shield metallic nanostructures from intense laser radiation that would otherwise ablate them. By irradiation via a UV laser beam with nanosecond pulse width and a range of laser intensities (in millions of watt per cm(2)) onto a silver nanowire network, and conformally wrapping SLG on top of the nanowire network, we demonstrate that graphene "extracts and spreads" most of the thermal energy away from nanowire, thereby keeping it damage-free. Without graphene wrapping, the radiation would fragment the wires into smaller pieces and even decompose them into droplets. A systematic molecular dynamics simulation confirms the mechanism of SLG shielding. Consequently, particular damage-free and ablation-free laser-based nanomanufacturing of hybrid nanostructures might be sparked off by application of SLG on functional surfaces and nanofeatures. PMID:26447828

  15. Single-step synthesis of In2O3 nanowires decorated with TeO2 nanobeads and their acetone-sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunghoon; Kheel, Hyejoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-04-01

    In2O3 nanowires decorated with TeO2 nanobeads were synthesized by a facile single-step thermal evaporation process, and their acetone-gas-sensing properties were examined. The diameters and lengths of the In2O3 nanowires ranged from 10 to 20 nm and up to 100 μm, respectively, whereas the diameters of the TeO2 beads ranged from 50 to 200 nm. The TeO2-decorated In2O3 nanowire sensor showed stronger response to acetone gas than the pristine In2O3 nanowire sensor. The pristine and TeO2-decorated In2O3 nanowires exhibited sensitivity of ~10.13 and ~24.87, respectively, to 200 ppm acetone at 300 °C. The decorated nanowire sensor also showed much more rapid response and recovery than the latter. Both sensors showed the strongest response to acetone gas at 300 °C, respectively. The mechanism and origin of the enhanced acetone-gas-sensing performance of the TeO2-decorated In2O3 nanowire sensor compared to the pristine In2O3 nanowire sensor were discussed in detail. The enhanced sensing performance of the TeO2-decorated In2O3 nanowire is mainly due to the modulation of the potential barrier height at the TeO2-In2O3 interface, high catalytic activity of TeO2, and creation of active adsorption sites by incorporation of TeO2.

  16. Proton radiation hardness of single-nanowire transistors using robust organic gate nanodielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sanghyun; Lee, Kangho; Janes, David B.; Dwivedi, Ramesh C.; Baffour-Awuah, Habibah; Wilkins, R.; Yoon, Myung-Han; Facchetti, Antonio; Mark, Tobin J.

    2006-08-14

    In this contribution, the radiation tolerance of single ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) fabricated with a self-assembled superlattice (SAS) gate insulator is investigated and compared with that of ZnO NW-FETs fabricated with a 60 nm SiO{sub 2} gate insulator. A total-radiation dose study was performed using 10 MeV protons at doses of 5.71 and 285 krad(Si). The threshold voltage (V{sub th}) of the SAS-based ZnO NW-FETs is not shifted significantly following irradiation at these doses. In contrast, V{sub th} parameters of the SiO{sub 2}-based ZnO NW-FETs display average shifts of {approx}-4.0 and {approx}-10.9 V for 5.71 and 285 krad(Si) H{sup +} irradiation, respectively. In addition, little change is observed in the subthreshold characteristics (off current, subthreshold slope) of the SAS-based ZnO NW-FETs following H{sup +} irradiation. These results strongly argue that the bulk oxide trap density and interface trap density formed within the SAS and/or at the SAS-ZnO NW interface during H{sup +} irradiation are significantly lower than those for the corresponding SiO{sub 2} gate dielectrics. The radiation-robust SAS-based ZnO NW-FETs are thus promising candidates for future space-based applications in electronics and flexible displays.

  17. Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in Single-Crystal Bismuth Nanowires Encased in Quartz Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Fumiaki; Murata, Masayuki; Saito, Yusuke; Shirota, Katsuhito; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Komine, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were measured at 0.3 K in bismuth nanowires with diameters of 393, 548, and 622 nm, and lengths of over 1 mm, which were encased in quartz templates. The magnetoresistance was measured up to a magnetic field of 17 T. Distinct SdH oscillations were observed, and the nanowire samples were rotated in the magnetic field to determine the contribution due to holes, electrons, and spin-orbit interactions. For the 622-nm-diameter nanowire, for example, values of 30.7 meV and 1.66×1017 cm-3 were obtained for the Fermi energy and carrier density, respectively, which were similar to the values for bulk bismuth.

  18. Single-electron transport in InAs nanowire quantum dots formed by crystal phase engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Malin; Namazi, Luna; Lehmann, Sebastian; Leijnse, Martin; Dick, Kimberly A.; Thelander, Claes

    2016-05-01

    We report electrical characterization of quantum dots formed by introducing pairs of thin wurtzite (WZ) segments in zinc blende (ZB) InAs nanowires. Regular Coulomb oscillations are observed over a wide gate voltage span, indicating that WZ segments create significant barriers for electron transport. We find a direct correlation of transport properties with quantum dot length and corresponding growth time of the enclosed ZB segment. The correlation is made possible by using a method to extract lengths of nanowire crystal phase segments directly from scanning electron microscopy images, and with support from transmission electron microscope images of typical nanowires. From experiments on controlled filling of nearly empty dots with electrons, up to the point where Coulomb oscillations can no longer be resolved, we estimate a lower bound for the ZB-WZ conduction-band offset of 95 meV.

  19. Magneto-thermopower and magnetoresistance of single Co-Ni alloy nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnert, Tim; Vega, Victor; Michel, Ann-Kathrin; Prida, Victor M.; Nielsch, Kornelius

    2013-08-01

    The magneto-thermopower is measured and correlated to the anisotropic magnetoresistance of Co-Ni alloyed nanowires with varying composition. The highest absolute and relative variation of the Seebeck coefficient in perpendicularly applied magnetic fields at room temperature is determined to be 1.5 μVK-1 for Co0.24Ni0.76 and 8.1% for Co0.39Ni0.61 nanowires. Power factors of 3.7 mW/mK2 have been achieved, which is competitive with common thermoelectric materials like Bi2Te3. For Co-Ni nanowires containing up to 39% Co, a linear relationship between the magnetic field dependent change of the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity is found.

  20. Silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, A.; Wagner, D.; Ditlbacher, H.; Kreibig, U.

    2005-07-01

    Free silver nanowires were produced in aqueous electrolyte by a novel chemical reaction. Their diameters are about 27 nm, the lengths range up to more than 70 μm, yielding extreme length to thickness-ratios up to 2500. Their structure was identified by TEM analysis (SAED) and HRTEM to consist of a lattice aligned bundle of five monocrystalline rods of triangular cross-section forming an almost regular pentagonal cross-section. It is demonstrated that, for application purposes, single free nanowires can be mounted between contact areas. This manipulation is enabled by observing the nanowires in real time at atmosphere by Zsigmondy-Siedentopf farfield darkfield microscopy. Experimental results are presented concerning electrical dc conductivity and optical plasmon polariton excitation, the latter obtained from a single free wire without substrate and a single wire deposited on quartz glass. We also report about a present research cooperation with the Graz group of Aussenegg and Krenn which is devoted to investigate plasmon propagation in our Ag nanowires and to prove application possibilities as information guide fibers in analogy to optical fibers which may be integrated into micro- and nanoelectronic circuits.

  1. Anomalous photoconductive behavior of a single InAs nanowire photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Junshuai; Yan, Xin; Sun, Fukuan; Zhang, Xia Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-12-28

    We report on a bare InAs nanowire photodetector which exhibits an anomalous photoconductive behavior. Under low-power illumination, the current is smaller than the dark current, and monotonously decreases as the excitation power increases. When the excitation power is high enough, the current starts to increase normally. The phenomenon is attributed to different electron mobilities in the “core” and “shell” of a relatively thick nanowire originating from the surface effect, which result in a quickly dropped “core current” and slowly increased “shell current” under illumination.

  2. High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen

    2013-04-22

    We present high performance fiber-coupled niobium titanium nitride superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates. The best device showed a system detection efficiency (DE) of 74%, dark count rate of 100 c/s, and full width at half maximum timing jitter of 68 ps under a bias current of 18.0 μA with a practical Gifford-McMahon cryocooler system. We also introduced six detectors into the cryocooler and confirmed that the system DE of all detectors was higher than 67% at the dark count rate of 100 c/s. PMID:23609728

  3. Enhanced near-infrared photoresponse of organic phototransistors based on single-component donor-acceptor conjugated polymer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Lv, Shenchen; Wang, Qinghe; Zhang, Guobing; Lu, Hongbo; Qiu, Longzhen

    2016-03-01

    Single-component near-infrared phototransistors based on ambipolar organic semiconductor nanowires have been investigated and compared with their corresponding thin-film counterparts. The nanowire organic phototransistors (NW-OPTs) showed photocurrent/dark-current ratios and photoresponsivities as high as 1.3 × 104 and 440 mA W-1 for the p-type channel, and 3.3 × 104 and 70 mA W-1 for the n-type channel, respectively, upon near-infrared illumination with an intensity of 47.1 mW cm-2. These were much higher values compared to their thin-film counterparts. The enhancement of the near-infrared photoresponse could be attributed to the larger trap density originating from the semiconductor/insulator interface and the semiconductor/air interface. The performance of NW-OPTs was demonstrated to open up new possibilities to improve the near-infrared photoresponse of single-component devices.Single-component near-infrared phototransistors based on ambipolar organic semiconductor nanowires have been investigated and compared with their corresponding thin-film counterparts. The nanowire organic phototransistors (NW-OPTs) showed photocurrent/dark-current ratios and photoresponsivities as high as 1.3 × 104 and 440 mA W-1 for the p-type channel, and 3.3 × 104 and 70 mA W-1 for the n-type channel, respectively, upon near-infrared illumination with an intensity of 47.1 mW cm-2. These were much higher values compared to their thin-film counterparts. The enhancement of the near-infrared photoresponse could be attributed to the larger trap density originating from the semiconductor/insulator interface and the semiconductor/air interface. The performance of NW-OPTs was demonstrated to open up new possibilities to improve the near-infrared photoresponse of single-component devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09003b

  4. EDITORIAL: Nanowires Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadish, Chennupati

    2010-02-01

    Nanowires are considered as building blocks for the next generation of electronics, photonics, sensors and energy applications. One-dimensional nanostructures offer unique opportunities to control the density of states of semiconductors, and in turn their electronic and optical properties. Nanowires allow the growth of axial heterostructures without the constraints of lattice mismatch. This provides flexibility to create heterostructures of a broad range of materials and allows integration of compound semiconductor based optoelectronic devices with silicon based microelectronics. Nanowires are widely studied and the number of papers published in the field is growing exponentially with time. Already nanowire lasers, nanowire transistors, nanowire light emitting diodes, nanowire sensors and nanowire solar cells have been demonstrated. This special issue on semiconductor nanowires features 17 invited papers from leading experts in the field. In this special issue, the synthesis and growth of semiconductor nanowires of a broad range of materials have been addressed. Both axial and radial heterostructures and their structural properties have been discussed. Electrical transport properties of nanowires have been presented, as well as optical properties and carrier dynamics in a range of nanowires and nanowire heterostructures. Devices such as nanowire lasers and nanowire sensors have also been discussed. I would like to thank the Editorial Board of the journal for suggesting this special issue and inviting me to serve as the Guest Editor. Sincere thanks are due to all the authors for their contributions to this special issue. I am grateful to the reviewers and editorial staff at Semiconductor Science and Technology and the Institute of Physics Publishing for their excellent efforts. Special thanks are due to Dr Claire Bedrock for coordinating this special issue.

  5. Amorphization and recrystallization of single-crystalline hydrogen titanate nanowires by N{sup +} ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, Akshaya K.; Bandyopadyay, Malay K.; Chatterjee, Shyamal; Facsko, Stefan; Das, Siddhartha

    2014-06-21

    We report on the phase transformation of hydrogen titanate (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}) nanowires induced by 50 keV N{sup +} ion irradiation at room temperature with fluences of 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} and 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Using transmission electron microscopy, the internal structure of the ion irradiated nanowires is analyzed. At low fluence, a transformation from crystalline H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} to amorphous TiO{sub 2} is observed. However, at higher fluence, a remarkable crystalline-amorphous TiO{sub 2} core-shell structure is formed. At this higher fluence, the recrystallization occurs in the core of the nanowire and the outer layer remains amorphous. The phase transformation and formation of core-shell structure are explained using the thermal spike model, radiation enhanced diffusion, and classical theory of nucleation and growth under non-equilibrium thermodynamics. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman scattering reveal further insight into the structure of the nanowires before and after ion irradiation.

  6. Structural modulation of nanowire interfaces grown over selectively disrupted single crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, E.; Nikoobakht, B.

    2015-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in deterministic approaches to the fabrication of nanowire arrays have demonstrated the possibility of fabricating such networks using low-cost scalable methods. In this regard, we have developed a scalable growth platform for lateral fabrication of nanocrystals with high precision utilizing lattice match and symmetry. Using this planar architecture, a number of homo- and heterostructures have been demonstrated including ZnO nanowires grown over GaN. The latter combination produces horizontal, epitaxially formed crystals aligned in the plane of the substrate containing a very low number of intrinsic defects. We use such ordered structures as model systems in the interests of gauging the interfacial structural dynamics in relation to external stimuli. Nanosecond pulses of focused ion beams are used to slightly modify the substrate surface and selectively form lattice disorders in the path of nanowire growth to examine the nanocrystal, namely: its directionality and lattice defects. High resolution electron microscopies are used to reveal some interesting structural effects; for instance, a minimum threshold of surface defects that can divert nanowires. We also discuss data indicating formation of surface strains and show their mitigation during the growth process.

  7. Orientation-and polarization-dependent optical properties of the single Ag nanowire/glass substrate system excited by the evanescent wave

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mu; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yingjie; Sun, Mengtao; Shang, Guangyi

    2016-01-01

    As an important plasmon one-dimensional material, orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of single Ag nanowires/glass substrate system are investigated by a powerful platform consisting of evanescent wave excitation, near-/far-field detection and a micromanipulator. In the case of the nanowire perpendicular or parallel to the incident plane and p- ors-polarized evanescent excitation respectively, optical properties of the nanowire is measured both in far-field and near-field. For the perpendicular situation, scattering light from the nanowire shows strong dependence on the polarization of incident light, and period patterns along the nanowire are observed both in the near- and far-field. The chain of dipole model is used to explain the origin of this pattern. The discrepancy of the period patterns observed in the near- and far-field is due to the different resolution of the near- and far-field detection. For the parallel case, light intensity from the output end also depends on the incident polarization. Both experimental and calculation results show that the polarization dependence effect results from the surface plasmon excitation. These results on the orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of the Ag nanowires detected by the combination of near- and far-field methods would be helpful to understand interactions of one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures with light. PMID:27157123

  8. Orientation-and polarization-dependent optical properties of the single Ag nanowire/glass substrate system excited by the evanescent wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mu; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yingjie; Sun, Mengtao; Shang, Guangyi

    2016-05-01

    As an important plasmon one-dimensional material, orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of single Ag nanowires/glass substrate system are investigated by a powerful platform consisting of evanescent wave excitation, near-/far-field detection and a micromanipulator. In the case of the nanowire perpendicular or parallel to the incident plane and p- ors-polarized evanescent excitation respectively, optical properties of the nanowire is measured both in far-field and near-field. For the perpendicular situation, scattering light from the nanowire shows strong dependence on the polarization of incident light, and period patterns along the nanowire are observed both in the near- and far-field. The chain of dipole model is used to explain the origin of this pattern. The discrepancy of the period patterns observed in the near- and far-field is due to the different resolution of the near- and far-field detection. For the parallel case, light intensity from the output end also depends on the incident polarization. Both experimental and calculation results show that the polarization dependence effect results from the surface plasmon excitation. These results on the orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of the Ag nanowires detected by the combination of near- and far-field methods would be helpful to understand interactions of one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures with light.

  9. Orientation-and polarization-dependent optical properties of the single Ag nanowire/glass substrate system excited by the evanescent wave.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yingjie; Sun, Mengtao; Shang, Guangyi

    2016-01-01

    As an important plasmon one-dimensional material, orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of single Ag nanowires/glass substrate system are investigated by a powerful platform consisting of evanescent wave excitation, near-/far-field detection and a micromanipulator. In the case of the nanowire perpendicular or parallel to the incident plane and p- ors-polarized evanescent excitation respectively, optical properties of the nanowire is measured both in far-field and near-field. For the perpendicular situation, scattering light from the nanowire shows strong dependence on the polarization of incident light, and period patterns along the nanowire are observed both in the near- and far-field. The chain of dipole model is used to explain the origin of this pattern. The discrepancy of the period patterns observed in the near- and far-field is due to the different resolution of the near- and far-field detection. For the parallel case, light intensity from the output end also depends on the incident polarization. Both experimental and calculation results show that the polarization dependence effect results from the surface plasmon excitation. These results on the orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of the Ag nanowires detected by the combination of near- and far-field methods would be helpful to understand interactions of one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures with light. PMID:27157123

  10. Single-excitation dual-color coherent lasing by tuning resonance energy transfer processes in porous structured nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaona; Shi, Xiaoyu; Yu, Ruomeng; Wei, Sujun; Chang, Qing; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Dahe; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-10-01

    Single-excitation dual-color coherent lasing was achieved in a mixed random system of a binary dye and the suspension of gold-silver porous nanowires with plenty of nanogaps. This greatly enhanced the local electromagnetic field in the visible range and guaranteed a low threshold and high Q factor (>10 000) operator for simultaneous dual-color lasing. By tuning the resonance energy transfer process in the stimulated emission, triple output modes (single chartreuse lasing, chartreuse and red dual-color lasing, and single red coherent lasing) were easily obtained. This triple-mode coherent random lasing introduces a new approach to designing multi-functional micro-optoelectronic devices for multi-color speckle-free imaging and interference. PMID:26349545

  11. The photonic nanowire: an emerging platform for highly efficient single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Niels; Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.; Bleuse, Joël.; Dupuy, Emmanuel; Delga, Adrien; Mørk, Jesper; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Efficient coupling between a localized quantum emitter and a well defined optical channel represents a powerful route to realize single-photon sources and spin-photon interfaces. The tailored fiber-like photonic nanowire embedding a single quantum dot has recently demonstrated an appealing potential. However, the device requires a delicate, sharp needle-like taper with performance sensitive to minute geometrical details. To overcome this limitation we demonstrate the photonic trumpet, exploiting an opposite tapering strategy. The trumpet features a strongly Gaussian far-field emission. A first implementation of this strategy has lead to an ultra-bright single-photon source with a first-lens external efficiency of 0.75 +/- 0.1 and a predicted coupling to a Gaussian beam of 0.61 +/- 0.08.

  12. Phase diagram, mechanical properties, and electronic structure of Nb-N compounds under pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhonglong; Bao, Kuo; Tian, Fubo; Duan, Defang; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2015-09-21

    Niobium-nitrogen compounds, which are potential candidates for superhard multifunctional materials, may possess multiple stoichiometries and structures under pressure. Based on ab initio evolutionary structural searches, we predict three ground states (oP6-Nb2N, CW-NbN, and hP22-Nb5N6) and six stable high pressure phases (ε-NbN, AsNi-NbN, U2S3-Nb2N3, oC24-NbN2, mP8-NbN3, and mP20-NbN4) for Nb-N compounds at pressures up to 100 GPa. Among them, the oP6-Nb2N, oC24-NbN2, mP8-NbN3, and mP20-NbN4 have never been reported, and N-rich oC24-NbN2, mP8-NbN3, and mP20-NbN4 high pressure phases are recoverable to ambient pressure. We find that the structure of N-rich Nb-N compounds consists of NbNx polyhedral stacking configurations and connected with Nn (n = 2, 3, 4, and n) polymerizations, which can remarkably improve the elastic modulus. It is found that CW-NbN and mP20-NbN4 are two potential ultra-incompressible and hard materials with the hardness calculated to be 24.56 and 19.86 GPa, respectively, while other N-rich phases such as U2S3-Nb2N3, oC24-NbN2, and mP8-NbN3 are soft materials. Detailed electronic structure and chemical bonding analysis proved that the high hardness of CW-NbN and mP20-NbN4 stems from the strong covalent bonding and the fullfilled Nb-N bonding and antibonding states. PMID:26263846

  13. Size- and structure-dependence of thermal and mechanical behaviors of single-crystalline and polytypic superlattice ZnS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Junghwan; Cho, Maenghyo; Zhou, Min

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study the thermal and mechanical behaviors of single-crystalline wurtzite (WZ), zinc-blende (ZB), and polytypic superlattice ZnS nanowires containing alternating WZ and ZB regions with thicknesses between 1.85 nm and 29.62 nm under tensile loading. The wires analyzed have diameters between 1.77 nm and 5.05 nm. The Green-Kubo method is used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the wires at different deformed states. A non-equilibrium MD approach is used to analyze the thermal transport behavior at the interfaces between different structural regions in the superlattice nanowires (SLNWs). The Young's modulus and thermal conductivity of ZB nanowires are approximately 2%-12% and 23%-35% lower than those of WZ nanowires, respectively. The lower initial residual compressive stress due to higher irregularity of surface atoms causes the Young's modulus of ZB nanowires to be lower. The dependence of the thermal conductivity on structure comes from differences in phonon group velocities associated with the different wires. The thermal conductivity of polytypic superlattice nanowires is up to 55% lower than that of single-crystalline nanowires, primarily because of phonon scattering at the interfaces and the resulting lower effective phonon mean free paths for each structural region. As the periodic lengths (1.85-29.62 nm) and specimen lengths (14.81-59.24 nm) of SLNWs decrease, these effects become more pronounced, causing the thermal conductivity to further decrease by up to 30%.

  14. Size- and structure-dependence of thermal and mechanical behaviors of single-crystalline and polytypic superlattice ZnS nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Junghwan; Cho, Maenghyo; Zhou, Min

    2015-06-07

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study the thermal and mechanical behaviors of single-crystalline wurtzite (WZ), zinc-blende (ZB), and polytypic superlattice ZnS nanowires containing alternating WZ and ZB regions with thicknesses between 1.85 nm and 29.62 nm under tensile loading. The wires analyzed have diameters between 1.77 nm and 5.05 nm. The Green-Kubo method is used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the wires at different deformed states. A non-equilibrium MD approach is used to analyze the thermal transport behavior at the interfaces between different structural regions in the superlattice nanowires (SLNWs). The Young's modulus and thermal conductivity of ZB nanowires are approximately 2%–12% and 23%–35% lower than those of WZ nanowires, respectively. The lower initial residual compressive stress due to higher irregularity of surface atoms causes the Young's modulus of ZB nanowires to be lower. The dependence of the thermal conductivity on structure comes from differences in phonon group velocities associated with the different wires. The thermal conductivity of polytypic superlattice nanowires is up to 55% lower than that of single-crystalline nanowires, primarily because of phonon scattering at the interfaces and the resulting lower effective phonon mean free paths for each structural region. As the periodic lengths (1.85–29.62 nm) and specimen lengths (14.81–59.24 nm) of SLNWs decrease, these effects become more pronounced, causing the thermal conductivity to further decrease by up to 30%.

  15. Observation of Charge Separation and Space-Charge Region in Single-Crystal P3HT/C60 Heterojunction Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Sun; Lee, Ki Seok; Baek, Jangmi; Lee, Lynn; Son, Byung Hee; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Park, Won Il; Kang, Youngjong; Sung, Myung M

    2016-08-22

    We directly observed charge separation and a space-charge region in an organic single-crystal p-n heterojunction nanowire, by means of scanning photocurrent microscopy. The axial p-n heterojunction nanowire had a well-defined planar junction, consisted of P3HT (p-type) and C60 (n-type) single crystals and was fabricated by means of the recently developed inkjet-assisted nanotransfer printing technique. The depletion region formed at the p-n junction was directly observed by exploring the spatial distribution of photogenerated carriers along the heterojunction nanowire under various applied bias voltages. Our study provides a facile approach toward the precise characterization of charge transport in organic heterojunction systems as well as the design of efficient nanoscale organic optoelectronic devices. PMID:27461905

  16. Catalyst patterning for nanowire devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Han, Jie (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nanowire devices may be provided that are based on carbon nanotubes or single-crystal semiconductor nanowires. The nanowire devices may be formed on a substrate. Catalyst sites may be formed on the substrate. The catalyst sites may be formed using lithography, thin metal layers that form individual catalyst sites when heated, collapsible porous catalyst-filled microscopic spheres, microscopic spheres that serve as masks for catalyst deposition, electrochemical deposition techniques, and catalyst inks. Nanowires may be grown from the catalyst sites.

  17. Luminescence and electrical properties of single ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Comedi, David; Bern, Francis; Barzola-Quiquia, José; Esquinazi, Pablo; Tirado, Mónica

    2014-03-10

    To neutralise the influence of the surface of ZnO nanowires for photonics and optoelectronic applications, we have covered them with insulating MgO film and individually contacted them for electrical characterisation. We show that such a metal-insulator-semiconductor-type nanodevice exhibits a high diode ideality factor of 3.4 below 1 V. MgO shell passivates ZnO surface states and provides confining barriers to electrons and holes within the ZnO core, favouring excitonic ultraviolet radiative recombination, while suppressing defect-related luminescence in the visible and improving electrical conductivity. The results indicate the potential use of ZnO/MgO nanowires as a convenient building block for nano-optoelectronic devices.

  18. Nanowire photonic crystal waveguides for single-atom trapping and strong light-matter interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.-P.; Hood, J. D.; Muniz, J. A.; Martin, M. J.; Hung, C.-L.; Kimble, H. J.; Norte, Richard; Meenehan, Seán M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Painter, Oskar

    2014-03-17

    We present a comprehensive study of dispersion-engineered nanowire photonic crystal waveguides suitable for experiments in quantum optics and atomic physics with optically trapped atoms. Detailed design methodology and specifications are provided, as are the processing steps used to create silicon nitride waveguides of low optical loss in the near-IR. Measurements of the waveguide optical properties and power-handling capability are also presented.

  19. Single crystalline cylindrical nanowires – toward dense 3D arrays of magnetic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Vivas, Laura G.; Kosel, Jurgen; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Vázquez, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic vortex-based media have recently been proposed for several applications of nanotechnology; however, because lithography is typically used for their preparation, their low-cost, large-scale fabrication is a challenge. One solution may be to use arrays of densely packed cobalt nanowires that have been efficiently fabricated by electrodeposition. In this work, we present this type of nanoscale magnetic structures that can hold multiple stable magnetic vortex domains at remanence with different chiralities. The stable vortex state is observed in arrays of monocrystalline cobalt nanowires with diameters as small as 45 nm and lengths longer than 200 nm with vanishing magnetic cross talk between closely packed neighboring wires in the array. Lorentz microscopy, electron holography and magnetic force microscopy, supported by micromagnetic simulations, show that the structure of the vortex state can be adjusted by varying the aspect ratio of the nanowires. The data we present here introduce a route toward the concept of 3-dimensional vortex-based magnetic memories.

  20. Single crystalline cylindrical nanowires - toward dense 3D arrays of magnetic vortices.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yurii P; Chuvilin, Andrey; Vivas, Laura G; Kosel, Jurgen; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Vázquez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic vortex-based media have recently been proposed for several applications of nanotechnology; however, because lithography is typically used for their preparation, their low-cost, large-scale fabrication is a challenge. One solution may be to use arrays of densely packed cobalt nanowires that have been efficiently fabricated by electrodeposition. In this work, we present this type of nanoscale magnetic structures that can hold multiple stable magnetic vortex domains at remanence with different chiralities. The stable vortex state is observed in arrays of monocrystalline cobalt nanowires with diameters as small as 45 nm and lengths longer than 200 nm with vanishing magnetic cross talk between closely packed neighboring wires in the array. Lorentz microscopy, electron holography and magnetic force microscopy, supported by micromagnetic simulations, show that the structure of the vortex state can be adjusted by varying the aspect ratio of the nanowires. The data we present here introduce a route toward the concept of 3-dimensional vortex-based magnetic memories. PMID:27030143

  1. Single crystalline cylindrical nanowires – toward dense 3D arrays of magnetic vortices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Vivas, Laura G.; Kosel, Jurgen; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Vázquez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic vortex-based media have recently been proposed for several applications of nanotechnology; however, because lithography is typically used for their preparation, their low-cost, large-scale fabrication is a challenge. One solution may be to use arrays of densely packed cobalt nanowires that have been efficiently fabricated by electrodeposition. In this work, we present this type of nanoscale magnetic structures that can hold multiple stable magnetic vortex domains at remanence with different chiralities. The stable vortex state is observed in arrays of monocrystalline cobalt nanowires with diameters as small as 45 nm and lengths longer than 200 nm with vanishing magnetic cross talk between closely packed neighboring wires in the array. Lorentz microscopy, electron holography and magnetic force microscopy, supported by micromagnetic simulations, show that the structure of the vortex state can be adjusted by varying the aspect ratio of the nanowires. The data we present here introduce a route toward the concept of 3-dimensional vortex-based magnetic memories. PMID:27030143

  2. Characterization of planar pn heterojunction diodes constructed with Cu2O nanoparticle films and single ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kiyeol; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we fabricate planar pn heterojunction diodes composed of Cu2O nanoparticle (NP) films and single ZnO nanowires (NWs) on SiO2 (300 nm)/Si substrates and investigate their characteristics in the dark and under the illumination of white light and 325 nm wavelength light. The diode at bias voltages of +/- 1 V shows rectification ratios of 10 (in the dark) and 34 (under the illumination of white light). On the other hand, the diode exposed to the 325 nm wavelength light exhibits Ohmic characteristics which are associated with efficient photocurrent generation in both the Cu2O NP film and the single ZnO NW. PMID:23858873

  3. Fluorescence signals of core-shell quantum dots enhanced by single crystalline gold caps on silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, S. H.; Chou, J. W.; Becker, M.; Sivakov, V.; Ehrhold, K.; Berger, A.; Chou, W. C.; Chuu, D. S.; Gösele, U.

    2009-04-01

    We use nanoscale (20-300 nm in diameter) single crystalline gold (Au)-caps on silicon nanowires (NWs) grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism to enhance the fluorescence photoluminescence (PL) signals of highly dilute core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solution (10-5 M). For NWs without Au-caps, as they appear, for example, after Au etching in aqua regia or buffered KI/I2-solution, essentially no fluorescence signal of the same diluted QDs could be observed. Fluorescence PL signals were measured using excitation with a laser wavelength of 633 nm. The signal enhancement by single crystalline, nanoscale Au-caps is discussed and interpreted based on finite element modeling (FEM).

  4. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction of single GaAs nanowires at locations defined by focused ion beams

    PubMed Central

    Bussone, Genziana; Schott, Rüdiger; Biermanns, Andreas; Davydok, Anton; Reuter, Dirk; Carbone, Gerardina; Schülli, Tobias U.; Wieck, Andreas D.; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements on single GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown on a (111)-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. The positions of the NWs are intentionally determined by a direct implantation of Au with focused ion beams. This controlled arrangement in combination with a nanofocused X-ray beam allows the in-plane lattice parameter of single NWs to be probed, which is not possible for randomly grown NWs. Reciprocal space maps were collected at different heights along the NW to investigate the crystal structure. Simultaneously, substrate areas with different distances from the Au-implantation spots below the NWs were probed. Around the NWs, the data revealed a 0.4% decrease in the lattice spacing in the substrate compared with the expected unstrained value. This suggests the presence of a compressed region due to Au implantation. PMID:24046493

  5. Polarization properties of single and ensembles of InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires emitting in the telecom wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, R.; Chauvin, N.; Khmissi, H.; Naji, K.; Barakat, J.-B.; Penuelas, J.; Patriarche, G.; Gendry, M.; Bru-Chevallier, C.

    2013-05-01

    The absorption and emission polarization properties of InAs quantum rods embedded in InP nanowires (NWs) are investigated by mean of (micro-)photoluminescence spectroscopy. It is shown that the degree of linear polarization of emission (0.94) and absorption (0.5) of a single NW can be explained by the photonic nature of the NW structure. Knowing these parameters, optical properties of single NWs and ordered ensembles of these NWs can be correlated one to another via proposed model, so that polarization properties of NWs can be studied using ordered ensembles on as-grown samples. As an example, the polarization anisotropy is investigated as a function of the excitation wavelength on a NW ensemble and found to be in agreement with theoretical prediction.

  6. Highly sensitive silicon nanowire biosensor with novel liquid gate control for detection of specific single-stranded DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U

    2015-05-15

    The study demonstrates the development of a liquid-based gate-control silicon nanowire biosensor for detection of specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules. The sensor was fabricated using conventional photolithography coupled with an inductively coupled plasma dry etching process. Prior to the application of DNA to the device, its linear response to pH was confirmed by serial dilution from pH 2 to pH 14. Then, the sensor surface was silanized and directly aminated with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane to create a molecular binding chemistry for biofunctionalization. The resulting Si‒O‒Si‒ components were functionalized with receptor ssDNA, which interacted with the targeted ssDNA to create a field across the silicon nanowire and increase the current. The sensor shows selectivity for the target ssDNA in a linear range from target ssDNA concentrations of 100 pM to 25 nM. With its excellent detection capabilities, this sensor platform is promising for detection of specific biomarkers and other targeted proteins. PMID:25453738

  7. Electrically Robust Metal Nanowire Network Formation by In-Situ Interconnection with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Seok; Han, Joong Tark; Jung, Sunshin; Jang, Jeong In; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the junction resistance between metallic nanowires is a crucial factor for high performance of the network-structured conducting film. Here, we show that under current flow, silver nanowire (AgNW) network films can be stabilised by minimizing the Joule heating at the NW-NW junction assisted by in-situ interconnection with a small amount (less than 3 wt%) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This was achieved by direct deposition of AgNW suspension containing SWCNTs functionalised with quadruple hydrogen bonding moieties excluding dispersant molecules. The electrical stabilisation mechanism of AgNW networks involves the modulation of the electrical transportation pathway by the SWCNTs through the SWCNT-AgNW junctions, which results in a relatively lower junction resistance than the NW-NW junction in the network film. In addition, we propose that good contact and Fermi level matching between AgNWs and modified SWCNTs lead to the modulation of the current pathway. The SWCNT-induced stabilisation of the AgNW networks was also demonstrated by irradiating the film with microwaves. The development of the high-throughput fabrication technology provides a robust and scalable strategy for realizing high-performance flexible transparent conductor films. PMID:24763208

  8. ZnO dense nanowire array on a film structure in a single crystal domain texture for optical and photoelectrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Miao; Sato, Yukio; Kurniawan, Mario; Apostoluk, Aleksandra; Masenelli, Bruno; Maeda, Etsuo; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    A single crystal domain texture quality (a unique in-plane and out-of-plane crystalline orientation over a large area) ZnO nanostructure of a dense nanowire array on a thick film has been homogeneously synthesized on a-plane sapphire substrates over large areas through a one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The growth mechanism is clarified: a single crystal [0\\bar {2}1] oriented ZnAl2O4 buffer layer was formed at the ZnO film and the a-plane sapphire substrate interface via a diffusion reaction process during the CVD process, providing improved epitaxial conditions that enable the synthesis of the high crystalline quality ZnO nanowire array on a film structure. The high optoelectronic quality of the ZnO nanowire array on a film sample is evidenced by the free exitonic emissions in the low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. A carrier density of ˜1017 cm-3 with an n-type conductivity of the ZnO nanowire array on a film sample is obtained by electrochemical impedance analysis. Finally, the ZnO nanowire array on a film sample is demonstrated to be an ideal template for a further synthesis of a single crystal quality ZnO-ZnGa2O4 core-shell nanowire array on a film structure. The fabricated ZnO-ZnGa2O4 sample revealed an enhanced anticorrosive ability and photoelectrochemical performance when used as a photoanode in a photoelectrochemical water splitting application.

  9. High-performance single-crystalline arsenic-doped indium oxide nanowires for transparent thin-film transistors and active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Haitian; Ha, Young-geun; Wu, Chao; Sukcharoenchoke, Saowalak; Fu, Yue; Liu, Jun; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2009-11-24

    We report high-performance arsenic (As)-doped indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) nanowires for transparent electronics, including their implementation in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs) and transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The As-doped In(2)O(3) nanowires were synthesized using a laser ablation process and then fabricated into TTFTs with indium-tin oxide (ITO) as the source, drain, and gate electrodes. The nanowire TTFTs on glass substrates exhibit very high device mobilities (approximately 1490 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), current on/off ratios (5.7 x 10(6)), steep subthreshold slopes (88 mV/dec), and a saturation current of 60 microA for a single nanowire. By using a self-assembled nanodielectric (SAND) as the gate dielectric, the device mobilities and saturation current can be further improved up to 2560 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 160 microA, respectively. All devices exhibit good optical transparency (approximately 81% on average) in the visible spectral range. In addition, the nanowire TTFTs were utilized to control green OLEDs with varied intensities. Furthermore, a fully integrated seven-segment AMOLED display was fabricated with a good transparency of 40% and with each pixel controlled by two nanowire transistors. This work demonstrates that the performance enhancement possible by combining nanowire doping and self-assembled nanodielectrics enables silicon-free electronic circuitry for low power consumption, optically transparent, high-frequency devices assembled near room temperature. PMID:19842677

  10. Rapid Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Made from Vertically Aligned Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Zhu, K.; Frank, A. J.; Grimes, C. A.; Mallouk, T. E.

    2012-03-12

    A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport (see picture) and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

  11. Study on limiting efficiencies of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H-based single-nanowire solar cells under single and tandem junction configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Xiongfei; Cao, Guoyang; Wu, Shaolong E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn; Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn

    2015-11-02

    Detailed balance calculations are presented for a-Si:H/μc-Si:H-based single- and tandem-junction single-nanowire solar cells (S- and T-SNSCs). Our study is based on three-dimensional finite-element electromagnetic simulation and thermodynamic balanced analysis, which includes radiative and Auger recombinations simultaneously. We quantify and compare the limiting short-circuit current densities, open-circuit voltages, and light-conversion efficiencies of these highly compact photovoltaic cells, addressing especially the effect of Auger recombination on the open-circuit voltages of SNSCs. Results show that tandem design leads to much higher light-conversion capability than μc-Si:H S-SNSCs, but exhibits superior performance than a-Si:H S-SNSCs only for cells with large radii.

  12. Study on limiting efficiencies of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H-based single-nanowire solar cells under single and tandem junction configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xiongfei; Cao, Guoyang; Wu, Shaolong; Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-11-01

    Detailed balance calculations are presented for a-Si:H/μc-Si:H-based single- and tandem-junction single-nanowire solar cells (S- and T-SNSCs). Our study is based on three-dimensional finite-element electromagnetic simulation and thermodynamic balanced analysis, which includes radiative and Auger recombinations simultaneously. We quantify and compare the limiting short-circuit current densities, open-circuit voltages, and light-conversion efficiencies of these highly compact photovoltaic cells, addressing especially the effect of Auger recombination on the open-circuit voltages of SNSCs. Results show that tandem design leads to much higher light-conversion capability than μc-Si:H S-SNSCs, but exhibits superior performance than a-Si:H S-SNSCs only for cells with large radii.

  13. Highly Ordered Single Crystalline Nanowire Array Assembled Three-Dimensional Nb3O7(OH) and Nb2O5 Superstructures for Energy Storage and Conversion Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haimin; Wang, Yun; Liu, Porun; Chou, Shu Lei; Wang, Jia Zhao; Liu, Hongwei; Wang, Guozhong; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-01-26

    Three-dimensional (3D) metal oxide superstructures have demonstrated great potentials for structure-dependent energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we reported a facile hydrothermal method for direct growth of highly ordered single crystalline nanowire array assembled 3D orthorhombic Nb3O7(OH) superstructures and their subsequent thermal transformation into monoclinic Nb2O5 with well preserved 3D nanowire superstructures. The performance of resultant 3D Nb3O7(OH) and Nb2O5 superstructures differed remarkably when used for energy conversion and storage applications. The thermally converted Nb2O5 superstructures as anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) showed higher capacity and excellent cycling stability compared to the Nb3O7(OH) superstructures, while directly hydrothermal grown Nb3O7(OH) nanowire superstructure film on FTO substrate as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) without the need for further calcination exhibited an overall light conversion efficiency of 6.38%, higher than that (5.87%) of DSSCs made from the thermally converted Nb2O5 film. The high energy application performance of the niobium-based nanowire superstructures with different chemical compositions can be attributed to their large surface area, superior electron transport property, and high light utilization efficiency resulting from a 3D superstructure, high crystallinity, and large sizes. The formation process of 3D nanowire superstructures before and after thermal treatment was investigated and discussed based on our theoretical and experimental results. PMID:26579783

  14. Growth of aligned single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Akshay; Madaria, Anuj R.; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-05-06

    TiO{sub 2} is a wide band gap semiconductor with important applications in photovoltaic cells and photocatalysis. In this paper, we report synthesis of single-crystalline rutile phase TiO{sub 2} nanowires on arbitrary substrates, including fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), glass slides, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), Si/SiO{sub 2}, Si(100), Si(111), and glass rods. By controlling the growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor concentrations, and so forth, we demonstrate that anisotropic growth of TiO{sub 2} is possible leading to various morphologies of nanowires. Optimization of the growth recipe leads to well-aligned vertical array of TiO{sub 2} nanowires on both FTO and glass substrates. Effects of various titanium precursors on the growth kinetics, especially on the growth rate of nanowires, are also studied. Finally, application of vertical array of TiO{sub 2} nanowires on FTO as the photoanode is demonstrated in dye-sensitized solar cell with an efficiency of 2.9 ± 0.2%.

  15. ZnO nanowires array grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qichang; Li, Yafeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ding, Kai; Wei, Mingdeng; Lin, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires arrays were homoepitaxial grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal (GZOSC), which have the advantages of high conductivity, high carrier mobility and high thermal stability. When it was employed as a photoanode in the DSSCs, the cell exhibited a 1.44% power-conversion efficiency under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5G). The performance is superior to our ZnO nanowires/FTO based DSSCs under the same condition. This enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the perfect interface between the ZnO nanowires and the GZOSC substrate that contributes to lower carrier scattering and recombination rates compared with that grown on traditional FTO substrate. PMID:26099568

  16. Fabrication and magnetic properties of single-crystalline La0.33Pr0.34Ca0.33MnO3/MgO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Zhai, Xiaofang; Zeng, Changgan

    2013-09-01

    Single crystalline La0.33Pr0.34Ca0.33MnO3/MgO core-shell nanowires with diameters about tens of nanometers are synthesized by a two-step process. Structure and morphology characterizations confirm the epitaxial growth of La0.33Pr0.34Ca0.33MnO3 shell layers on MgO core layers. Clear interfaces are observed between the core and shell layers. Magnetic measurements suggest the existence of electronic phase separation in the one dimensional nanowires similar to the bulk. However, the nanowires exhibit significantly increased amount of magnetically frozen phase and increased coercivity, which are attributed to the strongly modulated magnetic structure in the one dimensional structure.

  17. ZnO nanowires array grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qichang; Li, Yafeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ding, Kai; Wei, Mingdeng; Lin, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires arrays were homoepitaxial grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal (GZOSC), which have the advantages of high conductivity, high carrier mobility and high thermal stability. When it was employed as a photoanode in the DSSCs, the cell exhibited a 1.44% power-conversion efficiency under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5G). The performance is superior to our ZnO nanowires/FTO based DSSCs under the same condition. This enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the perfect interface between the ZnO nanowires and the GZOSC substrate that contributes to lower carrier scattering and recombination rates compared with that grown on traditional FTO substrate. PMID:26099568

  18. Spatially resolved study of polarized micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on single GaAs nanowires with mixed zincblende and wurtzite phases

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Amlan; Ghosh, Sandip; Breuer, Steffen; Jahn, Uwe; Geelhaar, Lutz; Grahn, Holger T.

    2015-02-07

    Localized and polarized photoluminescence spectra are observed in single GaAs nanowires with mixed zincblende and wurtzite phases, grown using molecular beam epitaxy. For low excitation intensities, the photoluminescence emission exhibits narrow spectral features predominantly polarized perpendicular to the nanowire axis. For high excitation intensities, the photoluminescence spectra transform into dominant broadened features, which exhibit different peak energies and polarization properties. The strongly polarized emission at high excitation intensities is identified as being due to a spatially direct transition in wurtzite sections of the nanowires. The analysis, including band structure calculations suggests that carriers in the wurtzite sections diffuse into regions where the average low-temperature peak emission energy and crystal field parameter are 1.535 eV and 20 meV, respectively.

  19. Evanescent-wave pumped room-temperature single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowire lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xia Ren, Xiaomin; Liu, Yange Wang, Zhi

    2014-06-02

    Evanescent-wave pumped room-temperature single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowire lasers are proposed and demonstrated. The nanowires are axially excited by evanescent wave outside a microfiber with a diameter about 10 μm via a ns-pulse laser. The lasing emission with a low effective threshold less than 90 nJ is achieved at 868.62 nm along with a linewidth of ∼1.8 nm. Moreover, multiple lasing lines in a wavelength range from 852.56 nm to 882.48 nm are observed. The mechanism of diverse lasing wavelengths is revealed. Furthermore, the proposed GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire laser has advantages such as simple structure, easy to operate, and controllable lasing wavelength, tending to be practical in optical communications and integrated photonic circuits.

  20. Blue-to-green single photons from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-nanowire ordered arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, E.; Gačević, Ž.; García-Lepetit, N.; van der Meulen, H. P.; Müller, M.; Bertram, F.; Veit, P.; Torres-Pardo, A.; González Calbet, J. M.; Christen, J.; Calleja, E.; Calleja, J. M.; Lazić, S.

    2015-07-01

    Single-photon emitters (SPEs) are at the basis of many applications for quantum information management. Semiconductor-based SPEs are best suited for practical implementations because of high design flexibility, scalability and integration potential in practical devices. Single-photon emission from ordered arrays of InGaN nano-disks embedded in GaN nanowires is reported. Intense and narrow optical emission lines from quantum dot-like recombination centers are observed in the blue-green spectral range. Characterization by electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence and micro-photoluminescence indicate that single photons are emitted from regions of high In concentration in the nano-disks due to alloy composition fluctuations. Single-photon emission is determined by photon correlation measurements showing deep anti-bunching minima in the second-order correlation function. The present results are a promising step towards the realization of on-site/on-demand single-photon sources in the blue-green spectral range operating in the GHz frequency range at high temperatures.

  1. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V. B.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.; Korzh, B.; Bussières, F.; Zbinden, H.; Marsili, F.; Shaw, M. D.

    2014-09-22

    We investigate the operation of WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at 2.5 K, a temperature which is ∼70% of the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub C}) of 3.4 K. We demonstrate saturation of the system detection efficiency at 78 ± 2% at a wavelength of 1310 nm, with a jitter of 191 ps. We find that the jitter at 2.5 K is limited by the noise of the readout and can be improved through the use of cryogenic amplifiers. Operation of SNSPDs with high efficiency at temperatures very close to T{sub C} appears to be a unique property of amorphous WSi.

  2. Satellite laser ranging using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at 1064  nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li; Li, Zhulian; Zhang, Labao; Zhai, Dongsheng; Li, Yuqiang; Zhang, Sen; Li, Ming; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng; Xiong, Yaoheng

    2016-08-15

    Satellite laser ranging operating at 1064 nm wavelength using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) is successfully demonstrated. A SNSPD with an intrinsic quantum efficiency of 80% and a dark count rate of 100 cps at 1064 nm wavelength is developed and introduced to Yunnan Observatory in China. With improved closed-loop telescope systems (field of view of about 26''), satellites including Cryosat, Ajisai, and Glonass with ranges of 1600 km, 3100 km, and 19,500 km, respectively, are experimentally ranged with mean echo rates of 1200/min, 4200/min, and 320/min, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of laser ranging for satellites using SNSPDs at 1064 nm wavelength. Theoretical analysis of the detection efficiency and the mean echo rate for typical satellites indicate that it is possible for a SNSPD to range satellites from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit. PMID:27519105

  3. High efficiency single Ag nanowire/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Xu, P.; Wang, Y.; Shen, X.; Liu, X.; Yang, Q.; Hasan, T.

    2015-02-02

    We report a high efficiency single Ag nanowire (NW)/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED). The device demonstrates deep UV free exciton electroluminescence at 362.5 nm. The dominant emission, detectable at ultralow (<1 μA) forward current, does not exhibit any shifts when the forward current is increased. External quantum efficiency (EQE) as high as 0.9% is achieved at 25 μA current at room temperature. Experiments and simulation analysis show that devices fabricated with thinner Ag NWs have higher EQE. However, for very thin Ag NWs (diameter < 250 nm), this trend breaks down due to heat accumulation in the NWs. Our simple device architecture offers a potentially cost-effective scheme to fabricate high efficiency Schottky junction-based UV-LEDs.

  4. nBn Infrared Detector Containing Graded Absorption Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Bandara, Sumith V.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed to modify the basic structure of an nBn infrared photodetector so that a plain electron-donor- type (n-type) semiconductor contact layer would be replaced by a graded n-type III V alloy semiconductor layer (i.e., ternary or quarternary) with appropriate doping gradient. The abbreviation nBn refers to one aspect of the unmodified basic device structure: There is an electron-barrier ("B" ) layer between two n-type ("n" ) layers, as shown in the upper part of the figure. One of the n-type layers is the aforementioned photon-absorption layer; the other n-type layer, denoted the contact layer, collects the photocurrent. The basic unmodified device structure utilizes minority-charge-carrier conduction, such that, for reasons too complex to explain within the space available for this article, the dark current at a given temperature can be orders of magnitude lower (and, consequently, signal-to-noise ratios can be greater) than in infrared detectors of other types. Thus, to obtain a given level of performance, less cooling (and, consequently, less cooling equipment and less cooling power) is needed. [In principle, one could obtain the same advantages by means of a structure that would be called pBp because it would include a barrier layer between two electron-acceptor- type (p-type) layers.] The proposed modifications could make it practical to utilize nBn photodetectors in conjunction with readily available, compact thermoelectric coolers in diverse infrared- imaging applications that could include planetary exploration, industrial quality control, monitoring pollution, firefighting, law enforcement, and medical diagnosis.

  5. Dramatic enhancement of superconductivity in single-crystalline nanowire arrays of Sn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wong, Chi Ho; Shen, Junying; Sze, Sin Ting; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Haijing; Dong, Yan; Xu, Hui; Yan, Zifeng; Li, Yingying; Hu, Xijun; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Sn is a classical superconductor on the border between type I and type II with critical temperature of 3.7 K. We show that its critical parameters can be dramatically increased if it is brought in the form of loosely bound bundles of thin nanowires. The specific heat displays a pronounced double phase transition at 3.7 K and 5.5 K, which we attribute to the inner 'bulk' contribution of the nanowires and to the surface contribution, respectively. The latter is visible only because of the large volume fraction of the surface layer in relation to the bulk volume. The upper transition coincides with the onset of the resistive transition, while zero resistance is gradually approached below the lower transition. In contrast to the low critical field Hc = 0.03 T of Sn in its bulk form, a magnetic field of more than 3 T is required to fully restore the normal state. PMID:27595646

  6. Dramatic enhancement of superconductivity in single-crystalline nanowire arrays of Sn

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wong, Chi Ho; Shen, Junying; Sze, Sin Ting; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Haijing; Dong, Yan; Xu, Hui; Yan, Zifeng; Li, Yingying; Hu, Xijun; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Sn is a classical superconductor on the border between type I and type II with critical temperature of 3.7 K. We show that its critical parameters can be dramatically increased if it is brought in the form of loosely bound bundles of thin nanowires. The specific heat displays a pronounced double phase transition at 3.7 K and 5.5 K, which we attribute to the inner ‘bulk’ contribution of the nanowires and to the surface contribution, respectively. The latter is visible only because of the large volume fraction of the surface layer in relation to the bulk volume. The upper transition coincides with the onset of the resistive transition, while zero resistance is gradually approached below the lower transition. In contrast to the low critical field Hc = 0.03 T of Sn in its bulk form, a magnetic field of more than 3 T is required to fully restore the normal state. PMID:27595646

  7. Intrinsic nanotwin effect on thermal boundary conductance in bulk and single-nanowire twinning superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Aaron; Tran, Chan; Sansoz, Frederic

    2016-05-01

    Coherent twin boundaries form periodic lamellar twinning in a wide variety of semiconductor nanowires, and they are often viewed as near-perfect interfaces with reduced phonon and electron scattering behaviors. Such unique characteristics are of practical interest for high-performance thermoelectrics and optoelectronics; however, insufficient understanding of twin-size effects on thermal boundary resistance poses significant limitations for potential applications. Here, using atomistic simulations and ab initio calculations, we report direct computational observations showing a crossover from diffuse interface scattering to superlatticelike behavior for thermal transport across nanoscale twin boundaries present in prototypical bulk and nanowire Si examples. Intrinsic interface scattering is identified for twin periods ≥22.6 nm, but it also vanishes below this size to be replaced by ultrahigh Kapitza thermal conductances. Detailed analysis of vibrational modes shows that modeling twin boundaries as atomically thin 6 H -Si layers, rather than phonon scattering interfaces, provides an accurate description of effective cross-plane and in-plane thermal conductivities in twinning superlattices, as a function of the twin period thickness.

  8. Polarized Rayleigh and Raman Study of single CuO Nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiujie; Wu, Jian; Gutierrez, Humberto; Russin, Timothy; Eklund, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Crystalline CuO is an interesting Ferroelectric and Ferromagnetic system which we have recently grown in nanowire (NW) form. In this paper, we present results of Raman and Rayleigh scattering studies of individual CuO NWs to probe optical antenna effects that we first discovered in GaP NWs. We have shown that these antenna effects can, in general, strongly mask Raman selection rules in semiconducting nanowires[1]. Using a microRaman spectrometer, polarized light scattering experiments (backscattering geometry) were carried on NWs suspended over holes in a TEM grid. TEM was therefore also used to identify the growth axis and determine the NW diameter. As a function of the angle q between the NW axis and the incident laser field, we collect the Rayleigh scattering intensity as well as the Raman LO and TO optical phonon scattering intensity. These results can then be used to quantify the optical antenna effects in the CuO system. NWs of different diameters, from 70nm to 200 nm were studied; the results depend dramatically on the NW diameter. Our results will be compared to EM calculations based on the DDA approximation. This work is supported by NSF NIRT, grant DMR-0304178. [1] Chen G. Jian Wu, etc., Nano Lett. 2008 Vol.8 pp. 1341-1346.

  9. On-chip lithium cells for electrical and structural characterization of single nanowire electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, A.; Hudak, N. S.; Huang, J. Y.; Zhan, Y.; Lou, J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    We present a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible, hybrid nanomachined, on-chip construct for probing the structural and electrical changes in individual nanowire electrodes during lithium insertion. We have assembled arrays of individual β-phase manganese dioxide (β-MnO2) nanowires (NWs), which are employed as a model material system, into functional electrochemical cells through a combination of bottom-up (dielectrophoresis) and top-down (silicon nanomachining) unit processes. The on-chip NWs are electrochemically lithiated inside a helium-filled glovebox and their electrical conductivity is studied as a function of incremental lithium loading during initial lithiation. We observe a dramatic reduction in NW conductivity (on the order of two to three orders in magnitude), which is not reversed when the lithium is extracted from the nanoelectrode. This conductivity change is attributed to an increase in lattice disorder within the material, which is observed from TEM images of the lithiated NWs. Furthermore, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was employed to confirm the reduction in valence state of manganese, which occurs due to the transformation of MnO2 to LixMnO2.

  10. Room-Temperature Deposition of NbN Superconducting Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, S.; Lamb, J. L.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Films with high superconducting transition temperatures deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Since deposition process does not involve significantly high substrate temperatures, employed to deposit counter electrode in superconductor/insulator/superconductor junction without causing any thermal or mechanical degradation of underlying delicate tunneling barrier. Substrates for room-temperature deposition of NbN polymeric or coated with photoresist, making films accessible to conventional lithographic patterning techniques. Further refinements in deposition technique yield films with smaller transition widths, Tc of which might approach predicted value of 18 K.

  11. Enhanced Light Scattering of the Forbidden longitudinal Optical Phonon Mode Studied by Micro-Raman Spectroscopy on Single InN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, E.; Schafer-Nolte, E.O.; Stoica T.; Gotschke, T.; Limbach, F.A.; Sutter, P.; Grutzmacher, D.; Calarco, R.

    2010-08-06

    In the literature, there are controversies on the interpretation of the appearance in InN Raman spectra of a strong scattering peak in the energy region of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, although a shift caused by the phonon-plasmon interaction is expected for the high conductance observed in this material. Most measurements on light scattering are performed on ensembles of InN nanowires (NWs). However, it is important to investigate the behavior of individual nanowires and here we report on micro-Raman measurements on single nanowires. When changing the polarization direction of the incident light from parallel to perpendicular to the wire, the expected reduction of the Raman scattering was observed for transversal optical (TO) and E2 phonon scattering modes, while a strong symmetry-forbidden LO mode was observed independently on the laser polarization direction. Single Mg- and Si-doped crystalline InN nanowires were also investigated. Magnesium doping results in a sharpening of the Raman peaks, while silicon doping leads to an asymmetric broadening of the LO peak. The results can be explained based on the influence of the high electron concentration with a strong contribution of the surface accumulation layer and the associated internal electric field.

  12. Electroplating and magnetostructural characterization of multisegmented Co54Ni46/Co85Ni15 nanowires from single electrochemical bath in anodic alumina templates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly hexagonally ordered hard anodic aluminum oxide membranes, which have been modified by a thin cover layer of SiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition method, were used as templates for the synthesis of electrodeposited magnetic Co-Ni nanowire arrays having diameters of around 180 to 200 nm and made of tens of segments with alternating compositions of Co54Ni46 and Co85Ni15. Each Co-Ni single segment has a mean length of around 290 nm for the Co54Ni46 alloy, whereas the length of the Co85Ni15 segments was around 430 nm. The composition and crystalline structure of each Co-Ni nanowire segment were determined by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. The employed single-bath electrochemical nanowire growth method allows for tuning both the composition and crystalline structure of each individual Co-Ni segment. The room temperature magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Co-Ni nanowire arrays is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. PMID:23735184

  13. Amorphous layer coating induced brittle to ductile transition in single crystalline SiC nanowires: an atomistic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Li, Zhijie; Gao, Fei

    2008-08-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations with Tersoff potentials were used to study the response of SiC nanowires with and without amorphous coating to a tensile strain along the axial direction. The uncoated nanowires show brittle properties and fail through bond breaking. Although the amorphous coating leads to the decrease of Young’s modulus of nanowires, yet it also leads the appearance of plastic deformation under axial strain. These results provide an effective way to modify the brittle properties of some other semiconductor nanowires.

  14. Single-Charge Transistor Based on the Charge-Phase Duality of a Superconducting Nanowire Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongisto, T. T.; Zorin, A. B.

    2012-03-01

    We propose a transistorlike circuit including two serially connected segments of a narrow superconducting nanowire joint by a wider segment with a capacitively coupled gate in between. This circuit is made of amorphous NbSi film and embedded in a network of on-chip Cr microresistors ensuring a sufficiently high external electromagnetic impedance. Assuming a virtual regime of quantum phase slips (QPS) in two narrow segments of the wire, leading to quantum interference of voltages on these segments, this circuit is dual to the dc SQUID. Our samples demonstrated appreciable Coulomb blockade voltage (analog of critical current of the SQUIDs) and periodic modulation of this blockade by an electrostatic gate (analog of flux modulation in the SQUIDs). The model of this QPS transistor is discussed.

  15. Long lifetime, high density single-crystal erbium compound nanowires as a high optical gain material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Leijun; Ning, Hao; Turkdogan, Sunay; Liu, Zhicheng; Nichols, Patricia L.; Ning, C. Z.

    2012-06-01

    Erbium-containing materials of long lifetime and high Er density are important for achieving strong luminescence and high optical gain in compact integrated photonics devices. We have systematically studied the lifetime and crystal quality as a function of growth conditions for an erbium compound that we recently reported, erbium chloride silicate (ECS). The lifetime for the best quality ECS nanowires can be as long as 540 μs, the longest for high-density Er-materials, representing a lifetime-density product as high as 8.7 × 1018 s cm-3. Such high density, long lifetime erbium materials can find many interesting applications such as compact lasers or amplifiers.

  16. Gold nanoparticles-decorated single silver nanowire as an efficient SERS-active substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, En-zhong

    2014-07-01

    A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)-coated silver nanowire (AgNW) is obtained by an effective and simple method. The results show that the hybrid structures prepared by this method are powerful SERS-active substrates for the detection of malachite green (MG) molecules with the limit of 1 nmol/L. The excellent enhancing ability mainly comes from two kinds of hot spots. One is from the gaps among the adjacent AuNPs, and the other is the presence of zone between AuNPs and AgNW. In particular, the AuNPs-coated AgNW can be viewed through the objective of the confocal Raman spectrometer due to the length of the AgNW reaches microns, which can improve the repeatability of detection. Moreover, it is of great significance in research of SERS mechanism and application.

  17. Nanowire Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Erik C.; Brongersma, Mark L.; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-08-01

    The nanowire geometry provides potential advantages over planar wafer-based or thin-film solar cells in every step of the photoconversion process. These advantages include reduced reflection, extreme light trapping, improved band gap tuning, facile strain relaxation, and increased defect tolerance. These benefits are not expected to increase the maximum efficiency above standard limits; instead, they reduce the quantity and quality of material necessary to approach those limits, allowing for substantial cost reductions. Additionally, nanowires provide opportunities to fabricate complex single-crystalline semiconductor devices directly on low-cost substrates and electrodes such as aluminum foil, stainless steel, and conductive glass, addressing another major cost in current photovoltaic technology. This review describes nanowire solar cell synthesis and fabrication, important characterization techniques unique to nanowire systems, and advantages of the nanowire geometry.

  18. Fabrication of single phase p-CuInSe{sub 2} nanowire arrays by electrodeposited into anodic alumina templates

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yu-Song; Lang, Hao-Jan; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2015-10-19

    Single-phase CuInSe{sub 2} nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various pH values in a heated electrolyte by using pulse electrodeposition techniques and an anodized aluminum oxide template. X-ray diffraction showed that the CuInSe{sub 2} NW nucleation mechanism received H{sup +} constraints when the NWs were deposited at pH 1.7 with a (112) orientation and annealed at 550 °C. The CuInSe{sub 2} NW band gap was determined to be approximately 1 eV through optical measurements. Transmission electron microscopy showed that at the pH value of 1.7, small particles of the single-phase CuInSe{sub 2} NWs aligned along the crystallographic direction are nucleated to form large particles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the NW diameter and the length were 80 nm and 2.3 μm, respectively. From Mott–Schottky and Ohmic contact plots, the CuInSe{sub 2} NWs were found to be p-type semiconductors, and their work function was estimated to be approximately 4.69 eV.

  19. Nanowire Arrays as Cell Force Sensors To Investigate Adhesin-Enhanced Holdfast of Single Cell Bacteria and Biofilm Stability.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prasana K; Janissen, Richard; Monteiro, Moniellen P; Cavalli, Alessandro; Murillo, Duber M; Merfa, Marcus V; Cesar, Carlos L; Carvalho, Hernandes F; de Souza, Alessandra A; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-07-13

    Surface attachment of a planktonic bacteria, mediated by adhesins and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), is a crucial step for biofilm formation. Some pathogens can modulate cell adhesiveness, impacting host colonization and virulence. A framework able to quantify cell-surface interaction forces and their dependence on chemical surface composition may unveil adhesiveness control mechanisms as new targets for intervention and disease control. Here we employed InP nanowire arrays to dissect factors involved in the early stage biofilm formation of the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Ex vivo experiments demonstrate single-cell adhesion forces up to 45 nN, depending on the cell orientation with respect to the surface. Larger adhesion forces occur at the cell poles; secreted EPS layers and filaments provide additional mechanical support. Significant adhesion force enhancements were observed for single cells anchoring a biofilm and particularly on XadA1 adhesin-coated surfaces, evidencing molecular mechanisms developed by bacterial pathogens to create a stronger holdfast to specific host tissues. PMID:27336224

  20. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei; Hou, Changjun; Huo, Danqun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2016-02-01

    Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10-14 to 1.0 × 10-8 M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10-15 M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high selectivity to single-base mismatched target DNA. Compared with other electrochemical DNA biosensors, we showed that the proposed biosensor is simple to implement, with good stability and high sensitivity.

  1. Assessing the thermoelectric properties of single InSb nanowires: the role of thermal contact resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazji, S.; Swinkels, M. Y.; De Luca, M.; Hoffmann, E. A.; Ercolani, D.; Roddaro, S.; Abstreiter, G.; Sorba, L.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Zardo, I.

    2016-06-01

    The peculiar shape and dimensions of nanowires (NWs) have opened the way to their exploitation in thermoelectric applications. In general, the parameters entering into the thermoelectric figure of merit are strongly interdependent, which makes it difficult to realize an optimal thermoelectric material. In NWs, instead, the power factor can be increased and the thermal conductivity reduced, thus boosting the thermoelectric efficiency compared to bulk materials. However, the assessment of all the thermoelectric properties of a NW is experimentally very challenging. Here, we focus on InSb NWs, which have proved to be promising thermoelectric materials. The figure of merit is accurately determined by using a novel method based on a combination of Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Remarkably, this type of experiment provides a powerful approach allowing us to neglect the role played by thermal contact resistance. Furthermore, we compare the thermal conductivity determined by this novel method to the one determined on the same sample by the thermal bridge method. In this latter approach, the thermal contact resistance is a non-negligible parameter, especially in NWs with large diameters. We provide experimental evidence of the crucial role played by thermal contact resistance in the assessment of the thermal properties of nanostructures, using two different measurement methods of the thermal conductivity.

  2. Contact properties and surface reaction kinetics of single ZnO nanowire devices fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, J. L.; García Núñez, C.; García Marín, A.; Guerrero, C.; Rodríguez, P.; Borromeo, S.; Piqueras, J.

    2014-03-01

    This work describes the development of ZnO nanowire (NW) devices for ultraviolet detection and cost-effective gas sensing. A dielectrophoresis (DEP) flow cell fabricated for the integration of NWs on different substrates is presented. The system includes the possibility to set characteristic parameters such as alternating current (AC) frequency, amplitude or flow speed in order to control NW trapping on specific sites defined by micro-gapped electrodes. The electrical characteristics of the rectifying metal/NW contact fabricated by DEP are investigated in darkness and under direct illumination of the metal-NW interface through the ZnO NW. A significant downshift of the turn-on voltage is observed in the current-voltage characteristics during the illumination with photon energies higher than the ZnO bandgap. The reduction is attributed to a barrier height lowering induced by interface charge emission. The effects of AC bias on the thermal drift of the DC average current in NW devices are also discussed. Finally, the reaction kinetics of ethanol and water vapors on the NW surface are compared through the analysis of the DC current under direct exposure to gas flows. Device responses to more complex compound mixtures such as coffee or mint are also monitored over time, showing different performance in both cases.

  3. Single-crystalline CuO nanowires for resistive random access memory applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yi-Siang; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Ting Kai; He, Ruo Shiuan; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2015-04-27

    Recently, the mechanism of resistive random access memory (RRAM) has been partly clarified and determined to be controlled by the forming and erasing of conducting filaments (CF). However, the size of the CF may restrict the application and development as devices are scaled down. In this work, we synthesized CuO nanowires (NW) (∼150 nm in diameter) to fabricate a CuO NW RRAM nanodevice that was much smaller than the filament (∼2 μm) observed in a bulk CuO RRAM device in a previous study. HRTEM indicated that the Cu{sub 2}O phase was generated after operation, which demonstrated that the filament could be minimize to as small as 3.8 nm when the device is scaled down. In addition, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) show the resistive switching of the dielectric layer resulted from the aggregated oxygen vacancies, which also match with the I-V fitting results. Those results not only verify the switching mechanism of CuO RRAM but also show RRAM has the potential to shrink in size, which will be beneficial to the practical application of RRAM devices.

  4. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  5. Solution-phase synthesis of single-crystal Cu3Si nanowire arrays on diverse substrates with dual functions as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang-Wei; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Li, Guo-An; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chu, Li-Wei; Chen, Lih-Juann; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2013-09-01

    There is strong and growing interest in applying metal silicide nanowires as building blocks for a new class of silicide-based applications, including spintronics, nano-scale interconnects, thermoelectronics, and anti-reflective coating materials. Solution-phase environments provide versatile materials chemistry as well as significantly lower production costs compared to gas-phase synthesis. However, solution-phase synthesis of silicide nanowires remains challenging due to the lack of fundamental understanding of silicidation reactions. In this study, single-crystalline Cu3Si nanowire arrays were synthesized in an organic solvent. Self-catalyzed, dense single-crystalline Cu3Si nanowire arrays were synthesized by thermal decomposition of monophenylsilane in the presence of copper films or copper substrates at 420 to 475 °C and 10.3 MPa in supercritical benzene. The solution-grown Cu3Si nanowire arrays serve dual functions as field emitters and anti-reflective layers, which are reported on copper silicide materials for the first time. Cu3Si nanowires exhibit superior field-emission properties, with a turn-on-voltage as low as 1.16 V μm-1, an emission current density of 8 mA cm-2 at 4.9 V μm-1, and a field enhancement factor (β) of 1500. Cu3Si nanowire arrays appear black with optical absorption less than 5% between 400 and 800 nm with minimal reflectance, serving as highly efficient anti-reflective layers. Moreover, the Cu3Si nanowires could be grown on either rigid or flexible substrates (PI). This study shows that solution-phase silicide reactions are adaptable for high-quality silicide nanowire growth and demonstrates their promise towards fabrication of metal silicide-based devices.There is strong and growing interest in applying metal silicide nanowires as building blocks for a new class of silicide-based applications, including spintronics, nano-scale interconnects, thermoelectronics, and anti-reflective coating materials. Solution-phase environments

  6. NBN gain is predictive for adverse outcome following image-guided radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Alejandro; Lalonde, Emilie; Sykes, Jenna; Zafarana, Gaetano; Chu, Kenneth C; Ramnarine, Varune R; Ishkanian, Adrian; Sendorek, Dorota H S; Pasic, Ivan; Lam, Wan L; Jurisica, Igor; van der Kwast, Theo; Milosevic, Michael; Boutros, Paul C; Bristow, Robert G

    2014-11-30

    Despite the use of clinical prognostic factors (PSA, T-category and Gleason score), 20-60% of localized prostate cancers (PCa) fail primary local treatment. Herein, we determined the prognostic importance of main sensors of the DNA damage response (DDR): MRE11A, RAD50, NBN, ATM, ATR and PRKDC. We studied copy number alterations in DDR genes in localized PCa treated with image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT; n=139) versus radical prostatectomy (RadP; n=154). In both cohorts, NBN gains were the most frequent genomic alteration (14.4 and 11% of cases, respectively), and were associated with overall tumour genomic instability (p<0.0001). NBN gains were the only significant predictor of 5yrs biochemical relapse-free rate (bRFR) following IGRT (46% versus 77%; p=0.00067). On multivariate analysis, NBN gain remained a significant independent predictor of bRFR after adjusting for known clinical prognostic variables (HR=3.28, 95% CI 1.56-6.89, Wald p-value=0.0017). No DDR-sensing gene was prognostic in the RadP cohort. In vitro studies correlated NBN gene overexpression with PCa cells radioresistance. In conclusion, NBN gain predicts for decreased bRFR in IGRT, but not in RadP patients. If validated independently, Nibrin gains may be the first PCa predictive biomarker to facilitate local treatment decisions using precision medicine approaches with surgery or radiotherapy. PMID:25415046

  7. Plasmonic Structure Integrated Single-Photon Detector Configurations to Improve Absorptance and Polarization Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Csete, Mária; Szekeres, Gábor; Szenes, András; Szalai, Anikó; Szabó, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Configurations capable of maximizing both the absorption component of system detection efficiency and the achievable polarization contrast were determined for 1550 nm polarized light illumination of different plasmonic structure integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) consisting of p = 264 nm and P = 792 nm periodic niobium nitride (NbN) patterns on silica substrate. Global effective NbN absorptance maxima appear in case of p/s-polarized light illumination in S/P-orientation (γ = 90°/0° azimuthal angle) and the highest polarization contrast is attained in S-orientation of all devices. Common nanophotonical origin of absorptance enhancement is collective resonance on nanocavity gratings with different profiles, which is promoted by coupling between localized modes in quarter-wavelength metal-insulator-metal nanocavities and laterally synchronized Brewster-Zenneck-type surface waves in integrated SNSPDs possessing a three-quarter-wavelength-scaled periodicity. The spectral sensitivity and dispersion characteristics reveal that device design specific optimal configurations exist. PMID:25654724

  8. Effects of reduction temperature on copper nanowires growth by thermal reduction of copper oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Norhana Mohamed; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Metallic Cu nanowires have been synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires in low concentration hydrogen environment. The Cu nanowires can be formed after removing oxide group from the metal oxide nanowires within temperature range from 200∘C to 500∘C. These nanowires have twisted structure with 100-200 nm and average lengths of 10 μm can be obtained in optimum temperature range 300-400∘C reduced for 30 min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows Cu peaks recognized at (111), (200) and (220). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal the reduction temperatures strongly affect the nanowires formation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed that Cu nanowires have single crystalline structures with 0.21 nm fringe spacing which correspond to (111) growth direction. The results indicate that thermal reduction of copper oxide nanowires in low concentration hydrogen environment can produce high purity and single crystalline Cu nanowires.

  9. Long-haul and high-resolution optical time domain reflectometry using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingyuan; Xia, Lan; Wan, Chao; Hu, Junhui; Jia, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xuping; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-01-01

    In classical optical time domain reflectometries (OTDRs), for sensing an 200-km-long fiber, the optical pulses launched are as wide as tens of microseconds to get enough signal-to-noise ratio, while it results in a two-point resolution of kilometers. To both reach long sensing distance and sub-kilometer resolution, we demonstrated a long-haul photon-counting OTDR using a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector. In a 40-minute-long measurement, we obtained a dynamic range of 46.9 dB, corresponding to a maximum sensing distance of 246.8 km, at a two-point resolution of 0.1 km. The time for measuring fiber after 100 km was reduced to one minute, while the fiber end at 217 km was still distinguished well from noise. After reducing the pulse width to 100 ns, the experimental two-point resolution was improved to 20 m while the maximum sensing distance was 209.47 km. PMID:26020163

  10. Long-haul and high-resolution optical time domain reflectometry using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingyuan; Xia, Lan; Wan, Chao; Hu, Junhui; Jia, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xuping; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-01-01

    In classical optical time domain reflectometries (OTDRs), for sensing an 200-km-long fiber, the optical pulses launched are as wide as tens of microseconds to get enough signal-to-noise ratio, while it results in a two-point resolution of kilometers. To both reach long sensing distance and sub-kilometer resolution, we demonstrated a long-haul photon-counting OTDR using a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector. In a 40-minute-long measurement, we obtained a dynamic range of 46.9 dB, corresponding to a maximum sensing distance of 246.8 km, at a two-point resolution of 0.1 km. The time for measuring fiber after 100 km was reduced to one minute, while the fiber end at 217 km was still distinguished well from noise. After reducing the pulse width to 100 ns, the experimental two-point resolution was improved to 20 m while the maximum sensing distance was 209.47 km. PMID:26020163

  11. Direct assessment of p–n junctions in single GaN nanowires by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minj, Albert; Cros, Ana; Auzelle, Thomas; Pernot, Julien; Daudin, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Making use of Kelvin probe force microscopy, in dark and under ultraviolet illumination, we study the characteristics of p–n junctions formed along the axis of self-organized GaN nanowires (NWs). We map the contact potential difference of the single NW p–n junctions to locate the space charge region and directly measure the depletion width and the junction voltage. Simulations indicate a shrinkage of the built-in potential for NWs with small diameter due to surface band bending, in qualitative agreement with the measurements. The photovoltage of the NW/substrate contact is studied by analyzing the response of NW segments with p- and n-type doping under illumination. Our results show that the shifts of the Fermi levels, and not the changes in surface band bending, are the most important effects under above band-gap illumination. The quantitative electrical information obtained here is important for the use of NW p–n junctions as photovoltaic or rectifying devices at the nanoscale, and is especially relevant since the technique does not require the formation of ohmic contacts to the NW junction.

  12. Direct assessment of p-n junctions in single GaN nanowires by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Minj, Albert; Cros, Ana; Auzelle, Thomas; Pernot, Julien; Daudin, Bruno

    2016-09-23

    Making use of Kelvin probe force microscopy, in dark and under ultraviolet illumination, we study the characteristics of p-n junctions formed along the axis of self-organized GaN nanowires (NWs). We map the contact potential difference of the single NW p-n junctions to locate the space charge region and directly measure the depletion width and the junction voltage. Simulations indicate a shrinkage of the built-in potential for NWs with small diameter due to surface band bending, in qualitative agreement with the measurements. The photovoltage of the NW/substrate contact is studied by analyzing the response of NW segments with p- and n-type doping under illumination. Our results show that the shifts of the Fermi levels, and not the changes in surface band bending, are the most important effects under above band-gap illumination. The quantitative electrical information obtained here is important for the use of NW p-n junctions as photovoltaic or rectifying devices at the nanoscale, and is especially relevant since the technique does not require the formation of ohmic contacts to the NW junction. PMID:27518150

  13. Coexistence of optically active radial and axial CdTe insertions in single ZnTe nanowire.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, P; Płachta, J; Zaleszczyk, W; Kret, S; Sanchez, Ana M; Rudniewski, R; Raczkowska, K; Szymura, M; Karczewski, G; Baczewski, L T; Pietruczik, A; Wojtowicz, T; Kossut, J

    2016-03-14

    We report on the growth, cathodoluminescence and micro-photoluminescence of individual radial and axial CdTe insertions in ZnTe nanowires. In particular, the cathodoluminescence technique is used to determine the position of each emitting object inside the nanowire. It is demonstrated that depending on the CdTe deposition temperature, one can obtain an emission either from axial CdTe insertions only, or from both, radial and axial heterostructures, simultaneously. At 350 °C CdTe grows only axially, whereas at 310 °C and 290 °C, there is also significant deposition on the nanowire sidewalls resulting in radial core/shell heterostructures. The presence of Cd atoms on the sidewalls is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-photoluminescence study reveals a strong linear polarization of the emission from both types of heterostructures in the direction along the nanowire axis. PMID:26903109

  14. Raman spectroscopy of optical transitions and vibrational energies of ∼1 nm HgTe extreme nanowires within single walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Joseph H; Nesbitt, John M; Trewhitt, Harrison; Kashtiban, Reza J; Bell, Gavin; Ivanov, Victor G; Faulques, Eric; Sloan, Jeremy; Smith, David C

    2014-09-23

    This paper presents a resonance Raman spectroscopy study of ∼1 nm diameter HgTe nanowires formed inside single walled carbon nanotubes by melt infiltration. Raman spectra have been measured for ensembles of bundled filled tubes, produced using tubes from two separate sources, for excitation photon energies in the ranges 3.39-2.61 and 1.82-1.26 eV for Raman shifts down to ∼25 cm(-1). We also present HRTEM characterization of the tubes and the results of DFT calculations of the phonon and electronic dispersion relations, and the optical absorption spectrum based upon the observed structure of the HgTe nanowires. All of the evidence supports the hypothesis that the observed Raman features are not attributable to single walled carbon nanotubes, i.e., peaks due to radial breathing mode phonons, but are due to the HgTe nanowires. The observed additional features are due to four distinct phonons, with energies 47, 51, 94, and 115 cm(-1), respectively, plus their overtones and combinations. All of these modes have strong photon energy resonances that maximize at around 1.76 eV energy with respect to incident laser. PMID:25163005

  15. Coexistence of optically active radial and axial CdTe insertions in single ZnTe nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnar, P.; Płachta, J.; Zaleszczyk, W.; Kret, S.; Sanchez, Ana M.; Rudniewski, R.; Raczkowska, K.; Szymura, M.; Karczewski, G.; Baczewski, L. T.; Pietruczik, A.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kossut, J.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the growth, cathodoluminescence and micro-photoluminescence of individual radial and axial CdTe insertions in ZnTe nanowires. In particular, the cathodoluminescence technique is used to determine the position of each emitting object inside the nanowire. It is demonstrated that depending on the CdTe deposition temperature, one can obtain an emission either from axial CdTe insertions only, or from both, radial and axial heterostructures, simultaneously. At 350 °C CdTe grows only axially, whereas at 310 °C and 290 °C, there is also significant deposition on the nanowire sidewalls resulting in radial core/shell heterostructures. The presence of Cd atoms on the sidewalls is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-photoluminescence study reveals a strong linear polarization of the emission from both types of heterostructures in the direction along the nanowire axis.We report on the growth, cathodoluminescence and micro-photoluminescence of individual radial and axial CdTe insertions in ZnTe nanowires. In particular, the cathodoluminescence technique is used to determine the position of each emitting object inside the nanowire. It is demonstrated that depending on the CdTe deposition temperature, one can obtain an emission either from axial CdTe insertions only, or from both, radial and axial heterostructures, simultaneously. At 350 °C CdTe grows only axially, whereas at 310 °C and 290 °C, there is also significant deposition on the nanowire sidewalls resulting in radial core/shell heterostructures. The presence of Cd atoms on the sidewalls is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-photoluminescence study reveals a strong linear polarization of the emission from both types of heterostructures in the direction along the nanowire axis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08806b

  16. Programmability of nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellew, A. T.; Bell, A. P.; McCarthy, E. K.; Fairfield, J. A.; Boland, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON/OFF current ratios (>105). However, large networks of nanowires distribute an applied bias across a large number of junctions, and thus respond not by switching but instead by evolving connectivity. We demonstrate that these emergent properties lead to fault-tolerant materials whose resistance may be tuned, and which are capable of adaptively reconfiguring under stress. By combining these two behavioural regimes, we demonstrate that the same nanowire network may be programmed to act both as a metallic interconnect, and a resistive switch device with high ON/OFF ratio. These results enable the fabrication of programmable, multi-functional materials from random nanowire networks.Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON

  17. Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate the successful operation of a multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) array integrated with a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout circuit in a compact 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. A time-resolved readout technique, where output signals from each element enter the SFQ readout circuit with finite time intervals, revealed crosstalk-free operation of the four-element SSPD array connected with the SFQ readout circuit. The timing jitter and the system detection efficiency were measured to be 50 ps and 11.4%, respectively, which were comparable to the performance of practical single-pixel SSPD systems. PMID:22825199

  18. Photonic nanowires investigated by single molecule fluorescence and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, Jordi; van Dijk, Erik M. H. P.; van Hulst, Niek F.; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F.; de Witte, Pieter A. J.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Rowan, Alan E.

    2004-03-01

    Natural multichromophoric systems such as light-harvesting antennas display valuable optical properties due to excitonic interactions. Artificial systems mimicking those properties may become the building blocks of future molecular photonic devices. We present here the synthesis and characterization at the single molecule level of a new type of chromophoric polymer intended to act as such synthetic antenna. Long well-ordered perylene arrays have been obtained using polyisocianide polymers as rigid scaffold. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements have shown rigid chromophoric fibers up to micrometers long and containing up to ten thousand perylene dye units. Combined AFM and single molecule confocal fluorescence measurements on polymer samples have revealed the existence of two different emissive species: monomer-like behavior arising from short oligomers, while long polymer fibers show excimer emission. Such powerful technique provides unique insights into the complex optical behavior of the system.

  19. Irreversible evolution of angular-dependent coercivity in Fe80Ni20 nanowire arrays: Detection of a single vortex state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alikhani, M.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Samanifar, S.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-09-01

    The irreversible evolution of magnetic coercivity in arrays of 75 nm diameter Fe80Ni20 nanowires (NWs) has been explored by means of first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis as a function of the angle between the magnetic field and the NW axis (0°≤θ≤90°). The Fe80Ni20 NWs with lengths up to 60 μm were fabricated using a pulsed electrodeposition method into hard-anodic aluminum oxide templates with an interpore distance of 275 nm. Investigating the interwire and intrawire magnetostatic interactions, the angular FORC (AFORC) diagrams indicated enhanced intrawire interactions with increasing length and θ (<90°), induced by a magnetization reversal through vortex domain wall (VDW) propagation. Intriguingly, in addition to the VDW mode, a single vortex state with broad irreversible switching of nucleation and annihilation fields was detected at θ=83° for 60 μm long NWs. At θ=90°, the NWs reversed magnetization through transverse domain wall, involving a reversible component by a fraction of 95%. Furthermore, the transition angle between the reversal modes was found to decrease with increasing aspect ratio from 200 to 800. The irreversible angular-dependent coercivity (HcIrrev(θ)) of Fe80Ni20 NWs was extracted from the AFORC measurements and compared with the major angular dependence of coercivity (HcMajor(θ)) obtained from the conventional hysteresis loop measurements. While HcMajor(θ) showed a non-monotonic behavior, HcIrrev(θ) constantly increased with increasing θ (<90°). On the other hand, using analytical models, a 93% agreement was obtained between the theoretical angular-dependent nucleation field and experimental HcIrrev(θ) for irreversible switching of VDW when 0°≤θ≤86°.

  20. Space-and-time resolved spectroscopy of single GaN nanowires

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Martinez, Julio A.; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Swartzentruber, Brian S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.

    2015-06-30

    Gallium nitridenanowires have garnered much attention in recent years due to their attractive optical and electrical properties. An understanding of carrier transport, relaxation, and recombination in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems is therefore important in optimizing them for various applications. We present ultrafast optical microscopic measurements on single GaNnanowires. Furthermore, our experiments, performed while varying the light polarization,excitation fluence, and position, give insight into the mechanisms governing carrier dynamics in these nanosystems.

  1. Space-and-Time Resolved Spectroscopy of Single GaN Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Martinez, Julio A.; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Swartzentruber, Brian S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.

    2015-07-01

    Gallium nitridenanowires have garnered much attention in recent years due to their attractive optical and electrical properties. An understanding of carrier transport, relaxation, and recombination in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems is therefore important in optimizing them for various applications. We present ultrafast optical microscopic measurements on single GaNnanowires. Furthermore, our experiments, performed while varying the light polarization,excitation fluence, and position, give insight into the mechanisms governing carrier dynamics in these nanosystems.

  2. Passive THz Imaging with Superconducting NbN microbolometer Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helistö, Panu

    2007-03-01

    Passive THz imaging applications indoors require temperature difference resolution well below 1 K and integration times down to 0.1 ms. Recently we have shown that such resolution, approaching the photon noise limit, can be achieved using an antenna-coupled superconducting microwire bolometer with about 10 K transition temperature. The bolometer signal is read out with a low-noise room-temperature amplifier, thus eliminating the need for SQUID amplifiers. The readout method utilizes electro-thermal feedback at the I-V curve minimum of a voltage-biased bolometer. At this working point, the very high power gain of the bolometer makes noise matching of the readout to the detector straightforward. The readout amplifier can be used with transition bolometers and calorimeters operating even at mK temperatures. We are presently developing a video-rate THz imager for concealed weapon detection, utilizing conical scanning and a 128-pixel NbN bolometer array, cooled down to 4 K with a pulse-tube cryocooler. We will characterize the bolometer arrays and the readout electrically and compare the results with the theory. We will also present the design of the system and results of preliminary imaging experiments. The work is done in collaboration between VTT, Millilab and NIST.

  3. Optical time domain reflectometry with low noise waveguide-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, C.; Pernice, W. H. P.; Ma, X.; Tang, H. X.

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate optical time domain reflectometry over 200 km of optical fiber using low-noise NbTiN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with Si3N4 waveguides. Our small detector footprint enables high timing resolution of 50 ps and a dark count rate of 3 Hz with unshielded fibers, allowing for identification of defects along the fiber over a dynamic range of 37.4 dB. Photons scattered and reflected back from the fiber under test can be detected in free-running mode without showing dead zones or other impairments often encountered in semiconductor photon-counting optical time domain reflectometers.

  4. A T-type method for characterization of the thermoelectric performance of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weigang; Miao, Tingting; Zhang, Xing; Takahashi, Koji; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Zhang, Boping; Ge, Zhenhua

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive method to evaluate the thermoelectric performance of one-dimensional nanostructures, called the T-type method, has been first developed. The thermoelectric properties, including the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire have been first characterized by applying the T-type method. The determined figure of merit is far less than the reported values of nanostructured bulk Bi2S3 samples, and the mechanism is that the Seebeck coefficient is nearly zero in the temperature range of 300-420 K and changes its sign at 320 K. PMID:26758548

  5. Generation and the role of dislocations in single-crystalline phase-change In2Se3 nanowires under electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafi, Elham; Tao, Xin; Zhu, Wenguang; Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Chongmin; Gu, Yi

    2016-08-01

    We report the observation of the generation of dislocations in single-crystal phase-change In2Se3 nanowires under electrical pulses and the impact of these dislocations on electrical properties. Particularly, we correlated the atomic-scale structural characteristics with local electrical resistance variations, by performing transmission electron microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy on the same nanowires. By coupling the experimental results with first-principles density functional theory calculations, we show that the immobile dislocations are generated via vacancy condensations. Importantly, these dislocations lead to several orders of magnitude increase in the electrical resistance, while maintaining the single crystallinity of the lattice. These results significantly advance the fundamental understanding of the structure-property relation in this phase-change material under transient electrical excitations. From a practical perspective, the significant increase in the electrical resistance, driven by the formation of dislocations, can be exploited as a new electronic state in the single-crystalline phase in this phase-change material.

  6. Generation and the role of dislocations in single-crystalline phase-change In2Se3 nanowires under electrical pulses.

    PubMed

    Mafi, Elham; Tao, Xin; Zhu, Wenguang; Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Chongmin; Gu, Yi

    2016-08-19

    We report the observation of the generation of dislocations in single-crystal phase-change In2Se3 nanowires under electrical pulses and the impact of these dislocations on electrical properties. Particularly, we correlated the atomic-scale structural characteristics with local electrical resistance variations, by performing transmission electron microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy on the same nanowires. By coupling the experimental results with first-principles density functional theory calculations, we show that the immobile dislocations are generated via vacancy condensations. Importantly, these dislocations lead to several orders of magnitude increase in the electrical resistance, while maintaining the single crystallinity of the lattice. These results significantly advance the fundamental understanding of the structure-property relation in this phase-change material under transient electrical excitations. From a practical perspective, the significant increase in the electrical resistance, driven by the formation of dislocations, can be exploited as a new electronic state in the single-crystalline phase in this phase-change material. PMID:27389929

  7. The Structure and Properties of Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline NbN Coatings in Corrosion Protective Die Casting Molds.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sung-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Niobium nitride coatings for the surface modified die casting molds with various ICP powers have been prepared using ICP assisted magnetron sputtering. The applied ICP power was varied from 0 to 200 W. The deposited coatings were characterized post-deposition using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Single NbN phased coatings with nano-grain sized (<7.6 nm) were identified. The corrosion resistance and hardness of each coating were evaluated from potentiostat and nanoindentator. Superior corrosion protective coatings in excess of 13.9 GPa were deposited with assistance of ICP plasma during sputtering. PMID:27433719

  8. Aluminum Nanowire Arrays via Directed Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, Nathan T.; Merlo, Juan M.; Rose, Aaron H.; Calm, Yitzi M.; D'Imperio, Luke A.; Courtney, Dave T.; Shepard, Steve; Kempa, Krzysztof; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.

    Vertically-oriented metal nanowire arrays are rare. Here, freestanding, vertically-oriented, and lithographically-ordered Al nanowire arrays have been fabricated via directed assembly. The fabrication technique is a variation on the preparation of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) to direct the formation of pores on an Al film and produce Al nanowires. Near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and conventional optical microscope data of a single nanowire lying on glass and illuminated by a laser spot show evidence of surface plasmons propagating along the nanowire. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).

  9. A high performance Josephson binary counter implemented in Nb and NbN technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, F. ); Whitely, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a Josephson binary counter with nondestructive readout implemented and tested in both niobium and niobium nitride technology. Successful operation of the Nb version has been observed. The design incorporates an additional tapered edge SiO{sub 2} level in the Nb processing sequence, which increases interferometer inductance, decreases capacitance, and ensures that geometric resonances are as high in frequency as possible. This new level has the added advantage of providing mask compatibility with the NbN process, as this level is skipped in the NbN flow, thereby compensating in part for the larger penetration depth of NbN. The counter cell is designed to be as compact as possible to minimize stray inductance and maximize top count rate and high count rate bias margins low read SQUID inductance, and requires no holes in the ground plane.

  10. Design and Fabrication of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors using NbN Symmetric Spiral Resonator Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.; Saito, A.; Ogawa, Y.; Murata, M.; Sawada, T.; Nakajima, K.; Yamada, H.; Ariyoshi, S.; Taino, T.; Tanoue, H.; Otani, C.; Ohshima, S.

    2014-05-01

    We designed and fabricated a microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) using a niobium nitride (NbN) symmetric spiral resonator array. Previously we revealed that a rewound spiral structure works as not only a high-Q half-wavelength resonator but also as a broadband terahertz antenna. We conducted simulations for a 9 resonator array assuming NbN as the superconducting material and sapphire as the dielectric substrate, and obtained a maximum attenuation of over 30 dB and unloaded quality factors of over 2×105 for frequencies between 4.4 and 4.9 GHz. We fabricated the 9 resonator array MKID using NbN thin film deposited on an m-sapphire substrate by using dc magnetron sputtering. We observed half-wavelength resonances of around 4.5 GHz at 4 K. We measured the optical response of the MKID. The frequency shift was 0.5 MHz when illuminated with 650 nm photons.

  11. High field properties of NbN conductors on practical substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kampwirth, R.T.; Capone, D.W. II; Gray, K.E.; Ho, H.; Chumbley, S.

    1987-01-01

    A new UHV, oil free, two gun magnetron sputtering system has been developed to allow continuous production of NbN conductors. A scaling rule relating film properties to preparation conditions was successfully used to predict the preparation conditions necessary to achieve the best NbN film properties in the two gun system. Comparison of high field J/sub c/ results between the new two gun system and a diffusion pumped one gun system show similar results for NbN on sapphire substrates, suggesting no effect from oil backstreaming. Short sections of double side coated Ti tapes 25 ..mu..m thick with approx. = ..mu..m of NbN have J/sub c/ = 1 x 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 18T with H/sub c2/(4.2K) of 22.5 to 23 T. Ta wires made under the same conditions with approx. =2.7 ..mu..m of NbN had J/sub c/(18T) a factor of two lower. An 11 turn coil with a 2.5 cm bending radius has been made by coating one side of a moving tape 1.3 m long with approx. =3..mu..m of NbN. The best section had a J/sub c/approx. = 1 x 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 18T and J/sub c/approx. =4 x 10/sup 3/ A/cm/sub 2/ at 20T.

  12. Investigation on hydrogenation performance of Mg{sub 2}Ni+10 wt.% NbN composite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Han, Shumin; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Xiaocui; Ke, Dandan; Wang, Zhibin; Liu, Ting; Ma, Yufei

    2015-01-15

    The Mg{sub 2}Ni+10 wt.% NbN composite was prepared by mechanical milling and its hydrogen absorption/desorption properties and microstructure were systematically investigated. XRD results indicated that NbN was stable during ball milling process while partly decomposed into NbN{sub 0.95} and NbH during hydriding/dehydriding cycles irreversibly. The composite exhibited excellent hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics performance with 2.71 wt.% hydrogen absorbed in 60 s at 423 K and 0.81 wt.% hydrogen released in 2 h at 523 K, respectively. The H diffusion constant of the composite reached 14.98×10{sup −5} s{sup −1} which was more than twice increased than that of pure Mg{sub 2}Ni powder. The superior hydrogen storage properties of the composite were ascribed to the refined grain size and abundant N-defect points provided by NbN and NbN{sub 0.95} in the composite. - Graphical abstract: The Mg{sub 2}Ni+10 wt.% NbN composite displays improvements on particle size distribution as well as hydrogen storage properties compared with that of pure Mg{sub 2}Ni. - Highlights: • NbN is introduced into Mg{sub 2}Ni hydride by Ar protected ball-milling. • Surfaces of the additive NbN particle are reduced by Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}. • Hydrogenation kinetic property at 423 K is double improved. • Dehydrogenation capacity at 523 K of composites is beyond double improved.

  13. Analysis of InAsSb nBn spectrally filtering photon-trapping structures.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jonathan; D'Souza, Arvind; Bellotti, Enrico

    2014-08-11

    We have numerically analyzed the electromagnetic and electrical characteristics of InAsSb nBn infrared detectors employing a photon-trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pyramids intended to provide broadband operation. The three-dimensional numerical simulation model was verified by comparing the simulated dark current and quantum efficiency to experimental data. Then, the power and flexibility of the nBn PT design was used to engineer spectrally filtering PT structures. That is, detectors that have a predetermined spectral response to be more sensitive in certain spectral ranges and less sensitive in others. PMID:25320985

  14. A light-driven supramolecular nanowire actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junho; Oh, Seungwhan; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Kim, Jong-Man; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-04-01

    A single photomechanical supramolecular nanowire actuator with an azobenzene-containing 1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative is developed by employing a direct writing method. Single nanowires display photoinduced reversible bending and the bending behavior follows first-order kinetics associated with azobenzene photoisomerization. A wireless photomechanical nanowire tweezers that remotely manipulates a single micro-particle is also demonstrated.A single photomechanical supramolecular nanowire actuator with an azobenzene-containing 1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative is developed by employing a direct writing method. Single nanowires display photoinduced reversible bending and the bending behavior follows first-order kinetics associated with azobenzene photoisomerization. A wireless photomechanical nanowire tweezers that remotely manipulates a single micro-particle is also demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of solution-crystallized sample, meniscus-guided microwires, and freeze-dried sample of Azo-1, Schematic of experimental set-up, 3D bending motion of Azo-1 nanowire, FE-SEM image of a bent Azo-1 nanowire after UV irradiation, real-time grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) for an Azo-1 microwire, Imaging analyses, Absorption spectra of an Azo-1 film, and thermostability of Azo-1 nanowire. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01118c

  15. High-efficiency second harmonic generation from a single hybrid ZnO nanowire/Au plasmonic nano-oligomer.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Rahmani, Mohsen; Cortés, Emiliano; Caldarola, Martín; Comedi, David; Maier, Stefan A; Bragas, Andrea V

    2014-11-12

    We introduce a plasmonic-semiconductor hybrid nanosystem, consisting of a ZnO nanowire coupled to a gold pentamer oligomer by crossing the hot-spot. It is demonstrated that the hybrid system exhibits a second harmonic (SH) conversion efficiency of ∼3 × 10(-5)%, which is among the highest values for a nanoscale object at optical frequencies reported so far. The SH intensity was found to be ∼1700 times larger than that from the same nanowire excited outside the hot-spot. Placing high nonlinear susceptibility materials precisely in plasmonic confined-field regions to enhance SH generation opens new perspectives for highly efficient light frequency up-conversion on the nanoscale. PMID:25347036

  16. Fabrication and characterization of porous silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daeyoon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Moon, Taeho; Sohn, Honglae

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of porous silicon nanowires through the metalassisted chemical etching of porous silicon in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of porous silicon nanowires was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The etch rate of the porous silicon nanowires was faster than that of silicon nanowires, but slower than that of porous silicon. The porous silicon nanowires distributed uniformly on the entire porous silicon layer and the tips of the porous silicon nanowires congregated together. The single crystalline and sponge-like porous structure with the pore diameters of less than 5 nm was confirmed for the porous silicon nanowires. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  18. E{sub 1} Gap of Wurtzite InAs Single Nanowires Measured by Means of Resonant Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Lima, M. M. Jr. de; Cantarero, A.; Dacal, L. C. O.; Iikawa, F.; Chiaramonte, T.; Cotta, M. A.

    2011-12-23

    Indium arsenide nanowires were synthesized with an intermixing of wurtzite and zincblende structure by chemical beam epitaxy with the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Resonant Raman spectroscopy of the transverse optical phonon mode at 215 cm{sup -1} reveals an E{sub 1} gap of 2.47 eV which is assigned to the electronic band gap at the A point in the indium arsenide wurtzite phase.

  19. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of single-crystalline selenium nanowires and nanoribbons via a novel flake-cracking mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Ye, Xingchen; Dai, Wei; Hou, Weiyi; Zuo, Fan; Xie, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the biomolecule-assisted synthesis method has been a new and promising focus in the preparation of various nanomaterials. But current works mainly focus on the synthesis of metal nanoparticles and nanowires using macro-biomolecules (e.g. virus, protein and DNA) as templates in the presence of a reducing agent. Beta-carotene, one of the most common bio-antioxidants, can be oxidized to form species with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends, which can provide an in situ soft template for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Herein, a simple beta-carotene-assisted method was developed for the first time to synthesize t-Se nanowires and nanoribbons with high crystallinity. We demonstrate that beta-carotene serves as not only the reducing agent, but also an in situ template in the preparation of Se one-dimensional nanostructures. It is found that the growth mechanism of Se nanomaterials is different from the familiar sphere-wire process. A novel flake-cracking mechanism is proposed. By this biomolecule-assisted route, Te one-dimensional nanostructures and Pd nanowires were also fabricated. The assisted-biomolecule in our method may be spread to carotenoids and other antioxidants, and thus broaden the application fields of biomolecules. Our preliminary investigations have shown that the facile, solution-phase biomolecule-assisted method can be potentially extended to the preparation of other low-dimensional nanostructures. The synthesized t-Se nanowires and nanoribbons may serve as templates to generate other tubular functional nanomaterials and find applications in the studies of structure-property relationships as well as in the fabrication of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  20. Hierarchical, ultrathin single-crystal nanowires of CdS conveniently produced in laser-induced thermal field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Han, Li -Li; Xin, Huolin L.; Kulinich, Sergei A.; Yang, Li -Jun; Du, Xi -Wen

    2015-07-16

    Hierarchical nanowires (HNWs) exhibit unique properties and have wide applications, while often suffering from imperfect structure. We report a facile strategy toward ultrathin CdS HNWs with monocrystal structure, where a continuous-wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser is employed to irradiate an oleic acid (OA) solution containing precursors and a light absorber. The high heating rate and large temperature gradient generated by the CW laser lead to the rapid formation of tiny zinc-blende CdS nanocrystals which then line up into nanowires with the help of OA molecules. Next, the nanowires experience a phase transformation from zinc-blende to wurtzite structure, and the transformation-induced stressmore » creates terraces on their surface, which promotes the growth of side branches and eventually results in monocrystal HNWs with an ultrathin diameter of 24 nm. The one-step synthesis of HNWs is conducted in air and completes in just 40 seconds, thus being very simple and rapid. The prepared CdS HNWs display photocatalytic performance superior to their nanoparticle counterparts, thus showing promise for catalytic applications in the future.« less

  1. Hierarchical, ultrathin single-crystal nanowires of CdS conveniently produced in laser-induced thermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Li -Li; Xin, Huolin L.; Kulinich, Sergei A.; Yang, Li -Jun; Du, Xi -Wen

    2015-07-16

    Hierarchical nanowires (HNWs) exhibit unique properties and have wide applications, while often suffering from imperfect structure. We report a facile strategy toward ultrathin CdS HNWs with monocrystal structure, where a continuous-wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser is employed to irradiate an oleic acid (OA) solution containing precursors and a light absorber. The high heating rate and large temperature gradient generated by the CW laser lead to the rapid formation of tiny zinc-blende CdS nanocrystals which then line up into nanowires with the help of OA molecules. Next, the nanowires experience a phase transformation from zinc-blende to wurtzite structure, and the transformation-induced stress creates terraces on their surface, which promotes the growth of side branches and eventually results in monocrystal HNWs with an ultrathin diameter of 24 nm. The one-step synthesis of HNWs is conducted in air and completes in just 40 seconds, thus being very simple and rapid. The prepared CdS HNWs display photocatalytic performance superior to their nanoparticle counterparts, thus showing promise for catalytic applications in the future.

  2. Superconductor-insulator transition in quasi-one-dimensional single-crystal Nb₂PdS₅ nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ning, Wei; Yu, Hongyan; Liu, Yequn; Han, Yuyan; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jiyong; Du, Haifeng; Zhang, Changjin; Mao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ying; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-02-11

    Superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) in one-dimensional (1D) nanowires attracts great attention in the past decade and remains an open question since contrasting results were reported in nanowires with different morphologies (i.e., granular, polycrystalline, or amorphous) or environments. Nb2PdS5 is a recently discovered low-dimensional superconductor with typical quasi-1D chain structure. By decreasing the wire diameter in the range of 100-300 nm, we observed a clear SIT with a 1D transport character driven by both the cross-sectional area and external magnetic field. We also found that the upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) decreases with the reduction of nanowire cross-sectional area. The temperature dependence of the resistance below Tc can be described by the thermally activated phase slip (TAPS) theory without any signature of quantum phase slips (QPS). These findings demonstrated that the enhanced Coulomb interactions with the shrinkage of the wire diameter competes with the interchain Josephson-like coupling may play a crucial role on the SIT in quasi-1D system. PMID:25575045

  3. Improvement of electroluminescence performance by integration of ZnO nanowires and single-crystalline films on ZnO/GaN heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yuantao Cui, Xijun; Wu, Bin; Zhuang, Shiwei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong; Yang, Xiaotian

    2014-03-31

    Heterojunction light-emitting diodes based on n-ZnO nanowires/ZnO single-crystalline films/p-GaN structure have been demonstrated for an improved electroluminescence performance. A highly efficient ultraviolet emission was observed under forward bias. Compared with conventional n-ZnO/p-GaN structure, high internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency were simultaneously considered in the proposed diode. In addition, the diode can work continuously for ∼10 h with only a slight degradation in harsh environments, indicating its good reliability and application prospect in the future. This route opens possibilities for the development of advanced nanoscale devices in which the advantages of ZnO single-crystalline films and nanostructures can be integrated together.

  4. Room temperature deposition of superconducting NbN for superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, S.; Leduc, H. G.; Thakoor, A. P.; Lambe, J.; Khanna, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    The deposition of stoichiometric B1-crystal-structure (111) NbN films on glass or sapphire substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering is reported. High-purity Ar-N2 mixtures are used in the apparatus described by Thakoor et al. (1985), and typical deposition parameters are given as background pressure about 10 ntorr, voltage -325 V, current 1 A, deposition rate 1.35 nm/s, film thickness 500 nm, P(Ar) 5-17 mtorr, initial P(N2) 2-6 mtorr, and room temperature. The N2 consumption-injection characteristics are studied and found to control NbN formation using well-conditioned Nb targets. Films with transition temperatures 15-16 K are obtained at P(Ar) = 12.9 + or - 0.2 mtorr and P(N2) = 3.7 + or - 0.1 mtorr. SIS junctions of area about 0.001 sq cm fabricated using the NbN films are shown to have I-V characteristics with nonlinearity parameter about 110 and NbN superconducting-gap parameter Delta = about 2.8 meV.

  5. Confined-space synthesis of single crystal TiO2 nanowires in atmospheric vessel at low temperature: a generalized approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Hai; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yong; Li, Baojun; Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop innovative synthesis strategies for nanomaterials in order to exploit the true potential of nanotechnology. However, most approaches require high temperature or high pressure to favor crystallization. Here we highlight an unconventional approach for the confined-space synthesis of the single crystal TiO2 nanowires in the atmospheric vessel at low temperature by cleverly manipulating the unique physical properties of straight-chain saturated fatty acids. Our method also applys to icosane due to its straight-chain saturated hydrocarbon structure and similar physical properties to the saturated fatty acids. Interestingly, we also found that the unsaturated fatty acids can facilitate the crystal growth, but their bent chains lead to the formation of TiO2 particle aggregates. In addition, we demonstrate the growth of TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates, which are of great importance for their wider applications. We thus anticipate our presented method to be a possible starting point for non-classical crystallization strategies and be easily adapted for the fabrication of all other inorganic materials.

  6. Piezotronic-effect enhanced drug metabolism and sensing on a single ZnO nanowire surface with the presence of human cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Gao, Caizhen; Xue, Fei; Han, Yu; Li, Tao; Cao, Xia; Zhang, Xueji; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) enzymes are involved in catalyzing the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds. A rapid analysis of drug metabolism reactions by CYPs is required because they can metabolize 95% of current drugs in drug development and effective therapies. Here, we describe a study of piezotronic-effect enhanced drug metabolism and sensing by utilizing a single ZnO nanowire (ZnO NW) device. Owing to the unique hydrophobic feature of a ZnO NW that provides a desirable "microenvironment" for the immobilization of biomolecules, our device can effectively stimulate the tolbutamide metabolism by decorating a ZnO NW with cytochrome P4502C9/CYPs reductase (CYP2C9/CPR) microsomes. By applying an external compressive strain to the ZnO nanowire, the piezotronic effect, which plays a primary role in tuning the transport behavior of a ZnO NW utilizing the created piezoelectric polarization charges at the local interface, can effectively enhance the performance of the device. A theoretical model is proposed using an energy band diagram to explain the experimental data. This study provides a potential approach to study drug metabolism and trace drug detection based on the piezotronic effect. PMID:25758259

  7. Characteristics of an Indium Asenide-based nBn photodetectors grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzani, Janet Renee

    The nBn photodetector design specifies an n-type absorption layer, a Barrier layer to majority carrier electrons, and an n-type contact layer. The absence of a depletion layer in the lattice-matched nBn photodetector results in substantially reduced levels of Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) generation current as compared with the competing p-n junction photodiode. The nBn photodetector also suppresses surface leakage current, which is prevalent in cooled, narrow bandgap semiconductor p-n junction photodiodes. Barrier layers consisting of AlAsxSb1-x are used in these InAs-based nBn photodetectors. A zero valance band energy offset exists between the InAs and AlAsxSb1-x layers for a composition in the range 0.14 < x < 0.17, while a composition of x = 0.16 lattice matches InAs. Conduction band energy offsets much greater than kT exist between InAs and all compositions of AlAsxSb1-x, and barrier layers thicker than 100 Angstroms are predicted to attenuate current arising from electron tunnelling to negligible levels. A lattice-matched InAs-based nBn photodetector achieves background limited photodetection (BLIP) operation at 200 K, while surface leakage current prevents two examples of InAs-based photodiodes from achieving BLIP operation. At a temperature of 140 K, this InAs-based nBn photodetector has a measured dark current lower by over 6 orders of magnitude than that of the commercial InAs-based photodiode and 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of an InAs-based photodiode fabricated by the author. Measurements indicate InAs-based nBn photodetectors grown with lattice-mismatched absorption layers have higher dislocation densities and that SRH current is the primary contributor to the dark current. The BLIP temperatures of two nBn photodetectors with InAs absorption layers grown on GaAs substrates are 150 and 160 K. The BLIP temperature of an nBn photodetector with an InAs0.95Sb0.05 absorption layer grown on an InAs substrate is 185 K. Accurate calculation of the thermal

  8. Boron nanowires for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jifa; Cai, Jinming; Hui, Chao; Zhang, Chendong; Bao, Lihong; Gao, Min; Shen, Chengmin; Gao, Hongjun

    2008-09-01

    Flexible boron nanowires have been synthesized via thermoreduction in boron-oxygen compounds with magnesium. These as-prepared nanowires, which are structurally uniform and single crystalline, represent good semiconductor at high temperature. Tensile stress measurements demonstrate excellent mechanical property of boron nanowires as well as resistance to mechanical fracture even under a strain of 3%. Importantly, simultaneous electrical measurement reveals that the corresponding electrical conductance is very robust and remains constant under mechanical strain. Our results can be briefly explained by Mott's variable range hopping model.

  9. Discrete-contact nanowire photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Michelle J.; Wen, Wen; Maldonado, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    A series of finite-element simulations have been performed to assess the operational characteristics of a new semiconductor nanowire solar cell design operating under high-level injection conditions. Specifically, the steady-state current-voltage behavior of a cylindrical silicon (Si) nanowire with a series of discrete, ohmic-selective contacts under intense sunlight illumination was investigated. The scope of the analysis was limited to only the factors that impact the net internal quantum yield for solar to electricity conversion. No evaluations were performed with regards to optical light trapping in the modeled structures. Several aspects in a discrete-contact nanowire device that could impact operation were explored, including the size and density of ohmic-selective contacts, the size of the nanowire, the electronic quality and conductivity of the nanowire, the surface defect density of the nanowire, and the type of ohmic selectivity employed at each contact. The analysis showed that there were ranges of values for each parameter that supported good to excellent photoresponses, with certain combinations of experimentally attainable material properties yielding internal energy conversion efficiencies at the thermodynamic limit for a single junction cell. The merits of the discrete-contact nanowire cell were contrasted with "conventional" nanowire photovoltaic cells featuring a uniform conformal contact and also with planar point-contact solar cells. The unique capacity of the discrete-contact nanowire solar cell design to operate at useful energy conversion efficiencies with low quality semiconductor nanowires (i.e., possessing short charge-carrier lifetimes) with only light doping is discussed. This work thus defines the impetus for future experimental work aimed at developing this photovoltaic architecture.

  10. Twinning effect on photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Chunrui Wu, Binhe; Xu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Oh, Hongseok; Baek, Hyeonjun; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2014-11-07

    Bandgap engineering in a single material along the axial length of nanowires may be realized by arranging periodic twinning, whose twin plane is vertical to the axial length of nanowires. In this paper, we report the effect of twin on photoluminescence of ZnSe nanowires, which refers to the bandgap of it. The exciton-related emission peaks of transverse twinning ZnSe nanowires manifest a 10-meV-blue-shift in comparison with those of longitudinal twinning ZnSe nanowires. The blue-shift is attributed to quantum confinement effect, which is influenced severely by the proportion of wurtzite ZnSe layers in ZnSe nanowires.

  11. Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated from an amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Vissers, M. R.; Marsili, F.; Pappas, D. P.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2014-07-14

    We present the characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin-films. Fabricated devices show a saturation of the internal detection efficiency at temperatures below 1 K, with system dark count rates below 500 cps. Operation in a closed-cycle cryocooler at 2.5 K is possible with system detection efficiencies exceeding 20% for SNSPDs which have not been optimized for high detection efficiency. Jitter is observed to vary between 69 ps at 250 mK and 187 ps at 2.5 K using room temperature amplifiers.

  12. The light-matter interaction of a single semiconducting AlGaN nanowire and noble metal Au nanoparticles in the sub-diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, A K; Madapu, Kishore K; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-08-24

    Near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is not only a tool for imaging of sub-diffraction limited objects but also a prominent characteristic tool for understanding the intrinsic properties of nanostructures. In order to understand light-matter interactions in the near field regime using a NSOM technique with an excitation of 532 nm (2.33 eV), we selected an isolated single semiconducting AlGaN nanowire (NW) of diameter ∼120 nm grown via a vapor liquid solid (VLS) mechanism along with a metallic Au nanoparticle (NP) catalyst. The role of electronic transitions from different native defect related energy states of AlGaN is discussed in understanding the NSOM images for the semiconducting NW. The effect of strong surface plasmon resonance absorption of an excitation laser on the NSOM images for Au NPs, involved in the VLS growth mechanism of NWs, is also observed. PMID:27511614

  13. Nanowires, nanostructures and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2005-04-19

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  14. Nanowire Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couteau, C.; Larrue, A.; Wilhelm, C.; Soci, C.

    2015-05-01

    We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D) nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  15. Lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chengxiang

    Lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) is a new method for fabricating polycrystalline metal nanowires using electrodeposition. In LPNE, a sacrificial metal (M1 = silver or nickel) layer, 5 - 100 nm in thickness, is first vapor deposited onto a glass, oxidized silicon, or Kapton polymer film. A photoresist (PR) layer is then deposited, photopatterned, and the exposed Ag or Ni is removed by wet etching. The etching duration is adjusted to produce an undercut ≈300 nm in width at the edges of the exposed PR. This undercut produces a horizontal trench with a precisely defined height equal to the thickness of theM1 layer. Within this trench, a nanowire of metal M2 is electrodeposited (M2 = gold, platinum, palladium, or bismuth). Finally the PR layer and M1 layer are removed. The nanowire height and width can be independently controlled down to minimum dimensions of 5 nm (h) and 11 nm (w), for example, in the case of platinum. These nanowires can be 1 cm in total length. We measure the temperature-dependent resistance of 100 um sections of Au and Pd wires in order to estimate an electrical grain size for comparison with measurements by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Nanowire arrays can be postpatterned to produce two-dimensional arrays of nanorods. Nanowire patterns can also be overlaid one on top of another by repeating the LPNE process twice in succession to produce, for example, arrays of low-impedance, nanowirenanowire junctions. The resistance, R, of single gold nanowires was measured in situ during electrooxidation in aqueous 0.10 M sulfuric acid. Electrooxidation caused the formation of a gold oxide that is approximately 0.8 monolayers (ML) in thickness at +1.1 V vs saturated mercurous sulfate reference electrode (MSE) based upon coulometry and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. As the gold nanowires were electrooxidized, R increased by an amount that depended on the wire thickness, ranging from

  16. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  17. Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-13

    The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.

  18. Improving the field-effect performance of Bi2S3 single nanowires by an asymmetric device fabrication.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fangyuan; Li, Renxiong; Li, Yan; Huo, Nengjie; Yang, Juehan; Li, Yongtao; Li, Bo; Yang, Shengxue; Wei, Zhongming; Li, Jingbo

    2015-01-12

    High-quality Bi2 S3 nanowires are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and their intrinsic photoresponsive and field-effect characteristics are explored in detail. Among the studied Au-Au, Ag-Ag, and Au-Ag electrode pairs, the device with stepwise band alignment of asymmetric Au-Ag electrodes has the highest mobility. Furthermore, it is shown that light can cause a sevenfold decrease of the on/off ratio. This can be explained by the photoexcited charge carriers that are more beneficial to the increase of Ioff than Ion . The photoresponsive properties of the asymmetric Au-Ag electrode devices were also explored, and the results show a photoconductive gain of seven with a rise time of 2.9 s and a decay time of 1.6 s. PMID:25294685

  19. A Heterojunction Design of Single Layer Hole Tunneling ZnO Passivation Wrapping around TiO2Nanowires for Superior Photocatalytic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ghobadi, Amir; Ulusoy, T. Gamze; Garifullin, Ruslan; Guler, Mustafa O.; Okyay, Ali K.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid heterojunctions have been studied widely for photocatalytic applications due to their superior optical and structural properties. In this work, the impact of angstrom thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO shell layer on photocatalytic activity (PCA) of hydrothermal grown single crystalline TiO2 nanowires (NWs) is systematically explored. We showed that a single cycle of ALD ZnO layer wrapped around TiO2 NWs, considerably boosts the PCA of the heterostructure. Subsequent cycles, however, gradually hinder the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the TiO2 NWs. Various structural, optical, and transient characterizations are employed to scrutinize this unprecedented change. We show that a single atomic layer of ZnO shell not only increases light harvesting capability of the heterostructure via extension of the absorption toward visible wavelengths, but also mitigates recombination probability of carriers through reduction of surface defects density and introduction of proper charge separation along the core-shell interface. Furthermore, the ultrathin ZnO shell layer allows a strong contribution of the core (TiO2) valence band holes through tunneling across the ultrathin interface. All mechanisms responsible for this enhanced PCA of heterostructure are elucidated and corresponding models are proposed. PMID:27464476

  20. A Heterojunction Design of Single Layer Hole Tunneling ZnO Passivation Wrapping around TiO2Nanowires for Superior Photocatalytic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi, Amir; Ulusoy, T. Gamze; Garifullin, Ruslan; Guler, Mustafa O.; Okyay, Ali K.

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructured hybrid heterojunctions have been studied widely for photocatalytic applications due to their superior optical and structural properties. In this work, the impact of angstrom thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO shell layer on photocatalytic activity (PCA) of hydrothermal grown single crystalline TiO2 nanowires (NWs) is systematically explored. We showed that a single cycle of ALD ZnO layer wrapped around TiO2 NWs, considerably boosts the PCA of the heterostructure. Subsequent cycles, however, gradually hinder the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the TiO2 NWs. Various structural, optical, and transient characterizations are employed to scrutinize this unprecedented change. We show that a single atomic layer of ZnO shell not only increases light harvesting capability of the heterostructure via extension of the absorption toward visible wavelengths, but also mitigates recombination probability of carriers through reduction of surface defects density and introduction of proper charge separation along the core-shell interface. Furthermore, the ultrathin ZnO shell layer allows a strong contribution of the core (TiO2) valence band holes through tunneling across the ultrathin interface. All mechanisms responsible for this enhanced PCA of heterostructure are elucidated and corresponding models are proposed.

  1. A Heterojunction Design of Single Layer Hole Tunneling ZnO Passivation Wrapping around TiO2Nanowires for Superior Photocatalytic Performance.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Amir; Ulusoy, T Gamze; Garifullin, Ruslan; Guler, Mustafa O; Okyay, Ali K

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid heterojunctions have been studied widely for photocatalytic applications due to their superior optical and structural properties. In this work, the impact of angstrom thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO shell layer on photocatalytic activity (PCA) of hydrothermal grown single crystalline TiO2 nanowires (NWs) is systematically explored. We showed that a single cycle of ALD ZnO layer wrapped around TiO2 NWs, considerably boosts the PCA of the heterostructure. Subsequent cycles, however, gradually hinder the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the TiO2 NWs. Various structural, optical, and transient characterizations are employed to scrutinize this unprecedented change. We show that a single atomic layer of ZnO shell not only increases light harvesting capability of the heterostructure via extension of the absorption toward visible wavelengths, but also mitigates recombination probability of carriers through reduction of surface defects density and introduction of proper charge separation along the core-shell interface. Furthermore, the ultrathin ZnO shell layer allows a strong contribution of the core (TiO2) valence band holes through tunneling across the ultrathin interface. All mechanisms responsible for this enhanced PCA of heterostructure are elucidated and corresponding models are proposed. PMID:27464476

  2. Study of phase transitions in NbN ultrathin films under composite ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhodko, K.; Gurovich, B.; Dement'eva, M.

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates implementation of Selective Displacement of Atoms (SDA) technique to change the crystal structure and atomic composition of thin superconductive film of NbN under low dose composite ion beam irradiation. All structure investigations were performed using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) technique by the analysis of Fourier transformation of bright field HRTEM images. It was found that composite ion beam irradiation induces the formation of niobium oxynitrides phases.

  3. Lower critical field measurements in NbN bulk and thin films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, M. P.; Deis, D. W.; Gavaler, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Low-field magnetization measurements were made at 4.2 K on thin-film and bulk NbN samples by using a vibrating-sample Foner magnetometer with a 50-kG superconducting solenoid. Values of the lower and upper critical fields are calculated, using magnetization curves as the basis. The significance of the Pauli spin paramagnetism and spin-orbit scattering in these materials is discussed.

  4. Identification of the Interactors of Human Nibrin (NBN) and of Its 26 kDa and 70 kDa Fragments Arising from the NBN 657del5 Founder Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Rosa; Pallotta, Valeria; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antoccia, Antonio; Zolla, Lello; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Nibrin (also named NBN or NBS1) is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, which is involved in early steps of DNA double strand breaks sensing and repair. Mutations within the NBN gene are responsible for the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS). The 90% of NBS patients are homozygous for the 657del5 mutation, which determines the synthesis of two truncated proteins of 26 kDa (p26) and 70 kDa (p70). Here, HEK293 cells have been exploited to transiently express either the full-length NBN protein or the p26 or p70 fragments, followed by affinity chromatography enrichment of the eluates. The application of an unsupervised proteomics approach, based upon SDS-PAGE separation and shotgun digestion of protein bands followed by MS/MS protein identification, indicates the occurrence of previously unreported protein interacting partners of the full-length NBN protein and the p26 fragment containing the FHA/BRCT1 domains, especially after cell irradiation. In particular, results obtained shed light on new possible roles of NBN and of the p26 fragment in ROS scavenging, in the DNA damage response, and in protein folding and degradation. In particular, here we show that p26 interacts with PARP1 after irradiation, and this interaction exerts an inhibitory effect on PARP1 activity as measured by NAD+ levels. Furthermore, the p26-PARP1 interaction seems to be responsible for the persistence of ROS, and in turn of DSBs, at 24 h from IR. Since some of the newly identified interactors of the p26 and p70 fragments have not been found to interact with the full-length NBN, these interactions may somehow contribute to the key biological phenomena underpinning NBS. PMID:25485873

  5. The c.657del5 variant in the NBN gene predisposes to pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Borecka, Marianna; Zemankova, Petra; Lhota, Filip; Soukupova, Jana; Kleiblova, Petra; Vocka, Michal; Soucek, Pavel; Ticha, Ivana; Kleibl, Zdenek; Janatova, Marketa

    2016-08-10

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the sixth most frequent cancer type in the Czech Republic with a poor prognosis that could be improved by an early detection and subsequent surgical treatment combined with chemotherapy. Genetic factors play an important role in PDAC risk. We previously identified one PDAC patient harboring the Slavic founder deleterious mutation c.657del5 in the NBN gene, using a panel next-generation sequencing (NGS). A subsequent analysis of 241 unselected PDAC patients revealed other mutation carriers. The overall frequency of c.657del5 in unselected PDAC patients (5/241; 2.07%) significantly differed from that in non-cancer controls (2/915; 0.2%; P=0.006). The result indicates that the NBN c.657del5 variant represents a novel PDAC-susceptibility allele increasing PDAC risk (OR=9.7; 95% CI: 1.9 to 50.2). The increased risk of PDAC in follow-up recommendations for NBN mutation carriers should be considered if other studies also confirm an increased frequency of c.657del5 carriers in PDAC patients from other populations. PMID:27150568

  6. Analysis of III-V Superlattice nBn Device Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhiger, David R.; Smith, Edward P.; Kolasa, Borys P.; Kim, Jin K.; Klem, John F.; Hawkins, Samuel D.

    2016-04-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared nBn detectors built with III-V superlattice materials have been tested by means of both capacitance and direct-current methods. By combining the results, it is possible to achieve clear separation of the two components of dark current, namely the generation-recombination (GR) current due to the Shockley-Read-Hall mechanism in the depletion region, and the diffusion current from the neutral region. The GR current component is unambiguously identified by two characteristics: (a) it is a linear function of the depletion width, and (b) its activation energy is approximately one-half the bandgap. The remaining current is shown to be due to diffusion because of its activation energy equaling the full bandgap. In addition, the activation energy of the total measured dark current in each local region of the temperature-bias parameter space is evaluated. We show the benefits of capacitance analysis applied to the nBn device and review some of the requirements for correct measurements. The carrier concentration of the unintentionally doped absorber region is found to be 1.2 × 1014 cm-3 n-type. It is shown that the depletion region resides almost entirely within the absorber. Also, the doping in the nBn barrier is found to be 4 × 1015 cm-3 p-type. Minority-carrier lifetimes estimated from the dark current components are on the order of 10 μs.

  7. Angle dependence on the anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude of a single-contacted Ni nanowire subjected to a thermo-mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Clochard, M.-C.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW) are investigated at the nanoscale by measuring the change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. The inverse magnetostriction was found to be responsible for a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≈ 10 K. In other terms, the variation of the magnetization due to the stress compensates the effect of external magnetic field applied on the NW resistance. The induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification could be attributed to three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress-strain law. We investigate here the role of these different contributions using track-etched polymer membranes irradiated at various angles (αirrad) leading to, after electrodeposition, embedded Ni NWs of different orientations.

  8. SiGe nanowire growth and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Cheng; Goncher, Gary; Solanki, Raj; Jordan, Jay

    2007-02-01

    Single-crystal SiGe nanowires were synthesized via the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism using disilane and germane as precursor gases. We have investigated the effect of temperature, pressure, and the inlet gas ratio on the growth and stoichiometry of SixGe1-x nanowires. The nanowires were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. It was found that nanowires with a Si:Ge ratio of about 1 had smooth surfaces, whereas departure from this ratio led to rough surfaces. Electrical properties were then investigated by fabricating back-gated field effect transistors (using a focused ion beam system) where single SiGe nanowires served as the conduction channels. Gated conduction was observed although resistance in the undoped devices was high.

  9. SiGe nanowire growth and characterization.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cheng; Goncher, Gary; Solanki, Raj; Jordan, Jay

    2007-02-21

    Single-crystal SiGe nanowires were synthesized via the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism using disilane and germane as precursor gases. We have investigated the effect of temperature, pressure, and the inlet gas ratio on the growth and stoichiometry of Si(x)Ge(1-x) nanowires. The nanowires were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. It was found that nanowires with a Si:Ge ratio of about 1 had smooth surfaces, whereas departure from this ratio led to rough surfaces. Electrical properties were then investigated by fabricating back-gated field effect transistors (using a focused ion beam system) where single SiGe nanowires served as the conduction channels. Gated conduction was observed although resistance in the undoped devices was high. PMID:21730497

  10. Gate-Tunable Spin Exchange Interactions and Inversion of Magnetoresistance in Single Ferromagnetic ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Vijayakumar; Jin, Mi-Jin; Park, Jungmin; Jo, Junhyeon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Baik, Jeong Min; Seo, Changwon; Kim, Jeongyong; Yoo, Jung-Woo

    2016-04-26

    Electrical control of ferromagnetism in semiconductor nanostructures offers the promise of nonvolatile functionality in future semiconductor spintronics. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic gate-induced change of ferromagnetism in ZnO nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). Ferromagnetism in our ZnO NWs arose from oxygen vacancies, which constitute deep levels hosting unpaired electron spins. The magnetic transition temperature of the studied ZnO NWs was estimated to be well above room temperature. The in situ UV confocal photoluminescence (PL) study confirmed oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetism in the studied ZnO NW FET devices. Both the estimated carrier concentration and temperature-dependent conductivity reveal the studied ZnO NWs are at the crossover of the metal-insulator transition. In particular, gate-induced modulation of the carrier concentration in the ZnO NW FET significantly alters carrier-mediated exchange interactions, which causes even inversion of magnetoresistance (MR) from negative to positive values. Upon sweeping the gate bias from -40 to +50 V, the MRs estimated at 2 K and 2 T were changed from -11.3% to +4.1%. Detailed analysis on the gate-dependent MR behavior clearly showed enhanced spin splitting energy with increasing carrier concentration. Gate-voltage-dependent PL spectra of an individual NW device confirmed the localization of oxygen vacancy-induced spins, indicating that gate-tunable indirect exchange coupling between localized magnetic moments played an important role in the remarkable change of the MR. PMID:26964013

  11. Functional deficiency of NBN, the Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein, in a p.R215W mutant breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in NBN, the gene for Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS), are thought to predispose women to developing breast cancer, but a breast cancer cell line containing mutations in NBN has not yet been described. The p.R215W missense mutation occurs at sub-polymorphic frequencies in several populations. We aimed to investigate its functional impact in breast cancer cells from a carrier of this NBN mutation. Methods Breast cancer cell lines were screened by immunoblotting for NBN protein levels, and the NBN coding region was sequenced for mutation analysis. Radiosensitivity assays and functional studies were performed through immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting, and flow cytometry was employed to assess cell cycle progression. Impedance measurements were used to study the consequences of PARP1 inhibition. Statistical comparisons between cell lines were performed using t-tests. Results HCC1395 breast cancer cells exhibited reduced NBN protein levels. Direct sequencing identified the NBN p.R215W mutation in the hemizygous state, in addition to a truncation in BRCA1. Mutations in both genes were already present in the heterozygous state in the patient’s germline. HCC1395 cells were highly radiosensitive, susceptible to apoptosis and were deficient in the formation of NBN foci. There was also evidence for some impairment in the formation of γH2AX, MDC1, and 53BP1 foci after irradiation; these foci appeared smaller and irregular compared with repair foci in wild-type cells, although ATM signalling was largely unaffected. In line with their deficiency in NBN and BRCA1, HCC1395 cells were particularly sensitive to PARP1 inhibition. Conclusion Our results indicate that the p.R215W mutation in the HCC1395 breast cancer cell line impairs NBN function, making this cell line a potentially useful cellular model for studying defective NBN protein within a mutant BRCA1 background. PMID:24928521

  12. Silicon carbide nanowires synthesized with phenolic resin and silicon powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Shi, Limin; Li, Ziqiang; Tang, Chunhe

    2009-02-01

    Large-scale silicon carbide nanowires with the lengths up to several millimeters were synthesized by a coat-mix, moulding, carbonization, and high-temperature sintering process, using silicon powder and phenolic resin as the starting materials. Ordinary SiC nanowires, bamboo-like SiC nanowires, and spindle SiC nanochains are found in the fabricated samples. The ordinary SiC nanowire is a single-crystal SiC phase with a fringe spacing of 0.252 nm along the [1 1 1] growth direction. Both of the bamboo-like SiC nanowires and spindle SiC nanochains exhibit uniform periodic structures. The bamboo-like SiC nanowires consist of amorphous stem and single-crystal knots, while the spindle SiC nanochains consist of uniform spindles which grow uniformly on the entire nanowires.

  13. Nanowire Bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Bolinger, A. T.; Berzyadin, A.; Bock, D.; Garcia, K.

    2003-02-01

    Cryogenic tests of a prototype superconducting nanowire bolometer are presented. The device has such low thermal conductance it should be sensitive when used as a direct detector. Because of the small size of the active area we anticipate that this bolometer may also be fast enough to be used as a wideband mixer.

  14. Anomalous piezoresistance effect in ultrastrained silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lugstein, A; Steinmair, M; Steiger, A; Kosina, H; Bertagnolli, E

    2010-08-11

    In this paper we demonstrate that under ultrahigh strain conditions p-type single crystal silicon nanowires possess an anomalous piezoresistance effect. The measurements were performed on vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Si nanowires, monolithically integrated in a microelectro-mechanical loading module. The special setup enables the application of pure uniaxial tensile strain along the <111> growth direction of individual, 100 nm thick Si nanowires while simultaneously measuring the resistance of the nanowires. For low strain levels (nanowire elongation less than 0.8%), our measurements revealed the expected positive piezoresistance effect, whereas for ultrahigh strain levels a transition to anomalous negative piezoresistance was observed. For the maximum tensile strain of 3.5%, the resistance of the Si nanowires decreased by a factor of 10. Even at these high strain amplitudes, no fatigue failures are observed for several hundred loading cycles. The ability to fabricate single-crystal nanowires that are widely free of structural defects will it make possible to apply high strain without fracturing to other materials as well, therefore in any application where crystallinity and strain are important, the idea of making nanowires should be of a high value. PMID:20698638

  15. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  16. Synthesis and manipulation of metallic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Anne K.

    Metallic nanowires (200 nm in diameter and of varying lengths) were fabricated by electrodeposition into the pores of alumina and polycarbonate templates. Cu-Sn alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from a single electrolyte containing Cu2+ and Sn2+ ions using both constant-potential and pulsed-potential techniques. The composition of the Cu-Sn alloys was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, and the effect of the electrodeposition conditions on the alloy composition was determined. To manipulate and position the bronze alloy nanowires, nickel caps were grown on each end by sequential electrodeposition of nickel, delta-CuSn, and nickel. The segmented nanowires were ferromagnetic and responded to magnetic fields. In suspensions, the nanowires could be oriented in any direction by applying a magnetic field. The nanowires were dispersed on pairs of nickel stripes photolithographically defined on silicon substrates while an applied magnetic field encouraged the alignment of the nanowires between the stripes. Improved alignment was achieved compared to non-magnetic nanowires. The behavior of suspensions of nickel nanowires in a variety of solvents was examined. The nanowires settle in response to gravity at velocities that fall within the range of velocities predicted by Stokes theory. Nanowires settled more slowly in more viscous solvents. When magnetic fields are applied to the suspensions of nanowires, they scatter light in the plane perpendicular to the nanowire axis and containing the incident light beam. This light scattering effect was utilized to create a magneto-optical switch in which magnetic fields affect the intensity of light reaching a detector. When the suspensions of nanowires were placed in thin film cuvets and oriented with magnetic fields, the nanowires re-oriented the polarization of incident light. The template synthesis technique was adapted to develop an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which students create their own nickel nanowires

  17. High-Performance Fully Nanostructured Photodetector with Single-Crystalline CdS Nanotubes as Active Layer and Very Long Ag Nanowires as Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    An, Qinwei; Meng, Xianquan; Sun, Pan

    2015-10-21

    Long and single-crystalline CdS nanotubes (NTs) have been prepared via a physical evaporation process. A metal-semiconductor-metal full-nanostructured photodetector with CdS NTs as active layer and Ag nanowires (NWs) of low resistivity and high transmissivity as electrodes has been fabricated and characterized. The CdS NTs-based photodetectors exhibit high performance, such as lowest dark currents (0.19 nA) and high photoresponse ratio (Ilight/Idark ≈ 4016) (among CdS nanostructure network photodetectors and NTs netwok photodetectors reported so far) and very low operation voltages (0.5 V). The photoconduction mechanism, including the formation of a Schottky barrier at the interface of Ag NW and CdS NTs and the effect of oxygen adsorption process on the Schottky barrier has also been provided in detail based on the studies of CdS NTs photodetector in air and vacuum. Furthermore, CdS NTs photodetector exhibits an enhanced photosensitivity as compared with CdS NWs photodetector. The enhancement in performance is dependent on the larger surface area of NTs adsorbing more oxygen in air and the microcavity structure of NTs with higher light absorption efficiency and external quantum efficiency. It is believed that CdS NTs can potentially be useful in the designs of 1D CdS-based optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26457660

  18. Patterned growth of single-crystal 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride nanowire arrays for field-emission and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yang; Shao, Zhibin; Deng, Wei; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-07-01

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic nanostructures possess extraordinary electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a challenge to achieve patterned growth of PTCDA nanowire (NW) arrays for integrated device applications. Here, we demonstrated the high-density, large-area, uniform, and cross-aligned growth of single-crystalline PTCDA NW arrays by using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as the growth templates. The high surface energy of Au NPs led to the cross-aligned growth of organic NWs, enabling the growth of PTCDA NW arrays with any desirable patterns by pre-patterning the Au films on a Si substrate. The PTCDA NW arrays as field emitters show good performance with a large emission current density and high emission stability. Furthermore, photodetectors based on PTCDA NW arrays were constructed via a simple in-situ growth approach, which exhibited high sensitivity to a wideband light ranging from 400-800 nm and surpassed the individual NW-based photodetectors in terms of higher photocurrent and faster response speed. Successful applications of PTCDA NW arrays in field emission and photodetectors show a great potential application of organic NW arrays in future efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Patterned growth of single-crystal 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride nanowire arrays for field-emission and optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yang; Shao, Zhibin; Deng, Wei; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-07-24

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic nanostructures possess extraordinary electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a challenge to achieve patterned growth of PTCDA nanowire (NW) arrays for integrated device applications. Here, we demonstrated the high-density, large-area, uniform, and cross-aligned growth of single-crystalline PTCDA NW arrays by using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as the growth templates. The high surface energy of Au NPs led to the cross-aligned growth of organic NWs, enabling the growth of PTCDA NW arrays with any desirable patterns by pre-patterning the Au films on a Si substrate. The PTCDA NW arrays as field emitters show good performance with a large emission current density and high emission stability. Furthermore, photodetectors based on PTCDA NW arrays were constructed via a simple in-situ growth approach, which exhibited high sensitivity to a wideband light ranging from 400-800 nm and surpassed the individual NW-based photodetectors in terms of higher photocurrent and faster response speed. Successful applications of PTCDA NW arrays in field emission and photodetectors show a great potential application of organic NW arrays in future efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26135069

  20. Theoretical Study of Midwave Infrared HgCdTe nBn Detectors Operating at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Nima Dehdashti; Jolley, Gregory; Umana-Membreno, Gilberto A.; Antoszewski, Jarek; Faraone, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    We report a theoretical study of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) unipolar n-type/barrier/ n-type (nBn) detectors for midwave infrared (MWIR) applications at elevated temperatures. The results obtained indicate that the composition, doping, and thickness of the barrier layer in MWIR HgCdTe nBn detectors can be optimized to yield performance levels comparable with those of ideal HgCdTe p- n photodiodes. It is also shown that introduction of an additional barrier at the back contact layer of the detector structure (nBnn+) leads to substantial suppression of the Auger generation-recombination (GR) mechanism; this results in an order-of-magnitude reduction in the dark current level compared with conventional nBn or p- n junction-based detectors, thus enabling background-limited detector operation above 200 K.

  1. Electrical properties of nominally undoped silicon nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jan; Fleischer, Frank; Breitenstein, Otwin; Schubert, Luise; Werner, Peter; Gösele, Ulrich; Zacharias, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Single undoped Si nanowires were electrically characterized. The nanowires were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on n+ silicon substrates and were contacted by platinum/iridium tips. I-V curves were measured and electron beam induced current investigations were performed on single nanowires. It was found that the nanowires have an apparent resistivity of 0.85Ωcm, which is much smaller than expected for undoped Si nanowires. The conductance is explained by hopping conductivity at the Si -SiO2 interface of the nanowire surface.

  2. Nanowires and Nanobelts: Volume 1, Metal and Semiconductor Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    This two volume reference, Nanowires and Nanobelts: Materials, Properties and Devices, provides a comprehensive introduction to the field and reviews the current state of the research. Volume 1, Metal and Semiconductor Nanowires covers a wide range of materials systems, from noble metals (such as Au, Ag, Cu), single element semiconductors (such as Si and Ge), compound semiconductors (such as InP, CdS and GaAs as well as heterostructures), nitrides (such as GaN and Si3N4) to carbides (such as SiC).

  3. A facile integration of zero- (I-III-VI quantum dots) and one- (single SnO2 nanowire) dimensional nanomaterials: fabrication of a nanocomposite photodetector with ultrahigh gain and wide spectral response.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Lin; Lai, Chih-Wei; Pan, Hsing-Ju; Chen, Chung-Tse; Chou, Pi-Tai; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2013-05-01

    Via the integration of nanocomposites comprising I-III-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) decorated onto a single SnO2 nanowire (NW), we successfully fabricate an ultrahigh-sensitivity and wide spectral-response photodetector. Under the illumination of He-Cd laser (325 nm) with the photon energy larger than the band gap of SnO2 nanowire, remarkably, an ultrahigh photocurrent gain up to 2.5 × 10(5) has been achieved, and an enhancement factor can reach up to 700% (cf. bare SnO2 NW) as light illumination onto the wire with an excitation intensity of 15 W/m(2). Also, a high gain value up to 1.3 × 10(5) is attained with the excited photon energy (488 nm) smaller than the band gap of SnO2 nanowire. Several key factors contribute to ultrahigh photocurrent gain and wide spectral response. First, the decorated quantum dot processes an inherent nature of a large absorption coefficient above its band gap. Furthermore, the single SnO2 nanowire provides an excellent conduction path for the photogenerated carriers as well as bears a large surface-to-volume ratio so that the coupling strength with quantum dots can be greatly enhanced. Most importantly, the spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes can be easily achieved due to the charge transfer arising from a type II band alignment between QDs and SnO2 NW. This work thus demonstrates a new approach in which by selectively decorating suitable QDs the photocurrent gain of SnO2 NWs can be greatly enhanced and extended to a wide spectral range of photoresponse previously inaccessible, providing a very useful guideline to create cheap, nontoxic, and highly efficient photodetectors. PMID:23574534

  4. Broad Wavelength Tunable Robust Lasing from Single-Crystal Nanowires of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I).

    PubMed

    Fu, Yongping; Zhu, Haiming; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Ding, Qi; Wang, Jue; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Jin, Song

    2016-08-23

    Lead halide perovskite nanowires (NWs) are emerging as a class of inexpensive semiconductors with broad bandgap tunability for optoelectronics, such as tunable NW lasers. Despite exciting progress, the current organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite NW lasers suffer from limited tunable wavelength range and poor material stability. Herein, we report facile solution growth of single-crystal NWs of inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl) and their alloys [CsPb(Br,Cl)3] and a low-temperature vapor-phase halide exchange method to convert CsPbBr3 NWs into perovskite phase CsPb(Br,I)3 alloys and metastable CsPbI3 with well-preserved perovskite crystal lattice and NW morphology. These single crystalline NWs with smooth end facets and subwavelength dimensions are ideal Fabry-Perot cavities for NW lasers. Optically pumped tunable lasing across the entire visible spectrum (420-710 nm) is demonstrated at room temperature from these NWs with low lasing thresholds and high-quality factors. Such highly efficient lasing similar to what can be achieved with organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites indicates that organic cation is not essential for light emission application from these lead halide perovskite materials. Furthermore, the CsPbBr3 NW lasers show stable lasing emission with no measurable degradation after at least 8 h or 7.2 × 10(9) laser shots under continuous illumination, which are substantially more robust than their organic-inorganic counterparts. The Cs-based perovskites offer a stable material platform for tunable NW lasers and other nanoscale optoelectronic devices. PMID:27437566

  5. High T(c) superconducting NbN films deposited at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, S.; Lamb, J. L.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dc reactive magnetron sputtering process yields stoichiometric NbN films with superconducting transition temperature T(c) as high as 15.7 K on substrates as varied as glass, glazed ceramic, fused quartz, and sapphire. These films posses fcc (B1) structure and (111) texture. The most dominant factors governing the formation of the transition metal nitrides are the relative metal and nitrogen fluxes incident on the substrate and the background argon pressure (which dictates the overall reactive sites and residence times for nitrogen).

  6. Characterization of superconducting pulse discriminators based on parallel NbN nanostriplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejrnaes, M.; Casaburi, A.; Cristiano, R.; Martucciello, N.; Mattioli, F.; Gaggero, A.; Leoni, R.; Villégier, J.-C.; Pagano, S.

    2011-03-01

    A superconducting pulse discriminator based on a cascade switch to the normal state of parallel ultrathin NbN nanostrips has been fabricated and carefully investigated. Correct operation was achieved using 1 ns input pulses with amplitudes down to 15 µA. The discriminator had a peak current gain of 12 and an FWHM timing jitter of 80 ps, limited by our measurement instrument resolution. These characteristics, together with simple on-chip integration, small area and low dissipation, make this device suitable for applications such as readout of fast cryogenic detectors and the output stage of superconducting digital circuits.

  7. Investigation of radiation-induced transformations in thin NbN films by analytical electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhodko, К; Gurovich, B.; Dement'eva, M.; Kutuzov, L.; Komarov, D.

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates implementation of low energy electron energy loss technique (EELS) in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to investigate the changes of free electron density at room temperature in ultra-thin NbN films under composite ion beam irradiation up to the deses of ∼3 d.p.a. for nitrogen atoms. It was found the constant value of the free electron density ∼1.6 ·1029 m-3 in this dose range while the irradiated material was characterized by metal type of electrical conductivity.

  8. NbN A/D Conversion of IR Focal Plane Sensor Signal at 10 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L.; Durand, D.; Sandell, R.; Spargo, J.; Krabach, T.

    1994-01-01

    We are implementing a 12 bit SFQ counting ADC with parallel-to-serial readout using our established 10 K NbN capability. This circuit provides a key element of the analog signal processor (ASP) used in large infrared focal plane arrays. The circuit processes the signal data stream from a Si:As BIB detector array. A 10 mega samples per second (MSPS) pixel data stream flows from the chip at a 120 megabit bit rate in a format that is compatible with other superconductive time dependent processor (TDP) circuits being developed. We will discuss our planned ASP demonstration, the circuit design, and test results.

  9. Manganese oxide nanowires, films, and membranes and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Suib, Steven Lawrence; Yuan, Jikang

    2008-10-21

    Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves, and methods of making, are disclosed. A single crystal ultra-long nanowire includes an ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieve, and has an average length greater than about 10 micrometers and an average diameter of about 5 nanometers to about 100 nanometers. A film comprises a microporous network comprising a plurality of single crystal nanowires in the form of a layer, wherein a plurality of layers is stacked on a surface of a substrate, wherein the nanowires of each layer are substantially axially aligned. A free standing membrane comprises a microporous network comprising a plurality of single crystal nanowires in the form of a layer, wherein a plurality of layers is aggregately stacked, and wherein the nanowires of each layer are substantially axially aligned.

  10. Nanowire Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihuan; Nabet, Bahram

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have been used in a variety of passive and active optoelectronic devices including waveguides, photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, sensors, and optical antennas. We review the optical properties of these nanowires in terms of absorption, guiding, and radiation of light, which may be termed light management. Analysis of the interaction of light with long cylindrical/hexagonal structures with subwavelength diameters identifies radial resonant modes, such as Leaky Mode Resonances, or Whispering Gallery modes. The two-dimensional treatment should incorporate axial variations in "volumetric modes,"which have so far been presented in terms of Fabry-Perot (FP), and helical resonance modes. We report on finite-difference timedomain (FDTD) simulations with the aim of identifying the dependence of these modes on geometry (length, width), tapering, shape (cylindrical, hexagonal), core-shell versus core-only, and dielectric cores with semiconductor shells. This demonstrates how nanowires (NWs) form excellent optical cavities without the need for top and bottommirrors. However, optically equivalent structures such as hexagonal and cylindrical wires can have very different optoelectronic properties meaning that light management alone does not sufficiently describe the observed enhancement in upward (absorption) and downward transitions (emission) of light inNWs; rather, the electronic transition rates should be considered. We discuss this "rate management" scheme showing its strong dimensional dependence, making a case for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that can take advantage of the confluence of the desirable optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures.

  11. A superconducting NbN detector for neutral nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marksteiner, Markus; Divochiy, Alexander; Sclafani, Michele; Haslinger, Philipp; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Korneev, Alexander; Semenov, Alexander; Gol'tsman, Gregory; Arndt, Markus

    2009-11-01

    We present a proof-of-principle study of superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) for the detection of individual neutral molecules/nanoparticles at low energies. The new detector is applied to characterize a laser desorption source for biomolecules and allows retrieval of the arrival time distribution of a pulsed molecular beam containing the amino acid tryptophan, the polypeptide gramicidin as well as insulin, myoglobin and hemoglobin. We discuss the experimental evidence that the detector is actually sensitive to isolated neutral particles.

  12. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-08-01

    Nanowire growth by the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a `mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. We demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.

  13. Pseudoelastic behavior of Cu-Ni composite nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mastorakos, Ioannis N.; Zbib, Hussein M.; Bahr, David F.; Parsons, Jessica; Faisal, Mased

    2009-01-26

    We investigate the pseudoelastic behavior at room temperature of composite nanowires using molecular dynamics simulations. The nanowires are composed of a nickel core surrounded by a copper shell, leading to high coherency stresses. The coherency and surface stresses cause the nanowires to undergo a lattice reorientation, by twinning, from <001> to <110> during relaxation. Nanowires of different cross-sectional areas (varying from 2.17x2.17 up to 2.9x2.9 nm{sup 2}) were studied. In all cases, under tensile loading, the nanowires reorient to <001> and then under unloading reorient back to <110>, thus exhibiting pseudoelastic behavior. This behavior is more pronounced in composite nanowires with a coherent interface than for single crystal nanowires.

  14. A detailed study of magnetization reversal in individual Ni nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Vilanova Vidal, Enrique; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Mohammed, Hanan; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-01-19

    Magnetic nanowires have emerged as essential components for a broad range of applications. In many cases, a key property of these components is the switching field, which is studied as a function of the angle between the field and the nanowire. We found remarkable differences of up to 100% between the switching fields of different nanowires from the same fabrication batch. Our experimental results and micromagnetic simulations indicate that the nanowires exhibit a single domain behavior and that the switching mechanism includes vortex domain wall motion across the nanowire. The differences between the switching fields are attributed to different cross-sections of the nanowires, as found by electron microscopy. While a circular cross-section yields the smallest switching field values, any deviation from this shape results in an increase of the switching field. The shape of the nanowires' cross-sections is thus a critical parameter that has not been previously taken into account.

  15. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y. -C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-07-13

    Nanowire growth by the vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a ‘mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.

  16. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y. -C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-07-13

    Nanowire growth by the vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a ‘mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystalsmore » that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.« less

  17. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Alnassar, Mohammed; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  18. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Alnassar, Mohammed; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires. PMID:27072595

  19. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  20. Nanowires for thermal energy conversion and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renkun

    This dissertation presents the application of nanowires in two aspects of thermal energy conversion and management: (i) silicon (Si) nanowires as efficient and scalable thermoelectric materials due to the reduced thermal conductivity (k), and (ii) Si and copper (Cu) nanowire arrays for enhanced phase change heat transfer including boiling and evaporation and their applications in thermal management of microelectronics. In the first half of the thesis (chapter 2 and 3), we describe thermal and thermoelectric measurements of individual Si nanowires for studying phonon transport properties and their potential application in thermoelectrics. A theoretical model based on coherent phonon scattering was developed to explain the experiemental data, which suggests that phonon-boundary scattering is highly frequency dependent. For low frequency (long wavelength) phonons, the transport is nearly ballistic, whereas high frequency or short wavelength phonons scatter diffusively at nanowire boundary. The competition between the two phonon transmission regimes results in the unusual linear behavior of the thermal conductance of thin VLS Si nanowires at low temperature. Next, the thermal conductivity of EE Si nanowires, which have much rougher surface compared to VLS nanowires, was measured and found to be five-eight times lower than that of VLS counterparts with similar diameters. The substantial reduction in k is presumably due to the higher surface roughness, since both types of nanowires have single crystalline cores. In particular, for ˜ 50 nm EE Si nanowires etched from 0.1 O-cm B-doped p-Si <111> (˜2 x 1017 cm-3 dopant concentration), the k is around 1.6 Wm-1K-1 and the kL is ˜1.2 Wm-1 K-1 at room temperature, approaching that of amorphous Si. The single nanowire measurements show the great promise of using Si nanowire arrays as high-performance, scalable thermoelectric materials. As the second focus of the thesis (chapter 4 and 5), nanowire arrays were used for enhanced

  1. Room temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb nBn detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Hoglund, Linda; Rosenberg, Robert; Kowalczyk, Robert; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Fisher, Anita; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2014-07-14

    In this work, we investigate the high temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb-AlAsSb nBn detectors with cut-off wavelengths near 4.5 μm. The quantum efficiency of these devices is 35% without antireflection coatings and does not change with temperature in the 77–325 K temperature range, indicating potential for room temperature operation. The current generation of nBn detectors shows an increase of operational bias with temperature, which is attributed to a shift in the Fermi energy level in the absorber. Analysis of the device performance shows that operational bias and quantum efficiency of these detectors can be further improved. The device dark current stays diffusion limited in the 150 K–325 K temperature range and becomes dominated by generation-recombination processes at lower temperatures. Detector detectivities are D*(λ) = 1 × 10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T = 300 K and D*(λ) = 5 × 10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T = 250 K, which is easily achievable with a one stage TE cooler.

  2. Single nanowire light-emitting diodes using uniaxial and coaxial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Navamathavan, Rangaswamy; Yoo, Hee-Il; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2014-03-12

    We report the controlled synthesis of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) uniaxial (c-plane) and coaxial (m-plane) nanowire (NW) heterostructures by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Two kinds of heterostructure NW light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated: (1) 10 pairs of InGaN/GaN MQW layers in the c-plane on the top of n-GaN NWs where Mg-doped p-GaN NW is axially grown (2) p-GaN/10 pairs of InGaN/GaN shell structure were surrounded by n-GaN core. Here, we discuss a comparative analysis based on the m-plane and the c-plane oriented InGaN/GaN MQW NW arrays. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the barrier and the well structures of MQW were observed to be substantially clear with regular intervals while the interface regions were extremely sharp. The c-plane and m-plane oriented MQW single NW was utilized for the parallel assembly fabrication of the LEDs via a focused ion beam. The polarization induced effects on the c-plane and m-plane oriented MQW NWs were precisely compared via power dependence electroluminescence. The electrical properties of m-plane NWs exhibited superior characteristics than that of c-plane NWs owing to the absence of piezoelectric polarization fields. According to this study, high-quality m-plane coaxial NWs can be utilized for the realization of high-brightness LEDs. PMID:24564712

  3. Nanowire lithography on silicon.

    PubMed

    Colli, Alan; Fasoli, Andrea; Pisana, Simone; Fu, Yongqing; Beecher, Paul; Milne, William I; Ferrari, Andrea C

    2008-05-01

    Nanowire lithography (NWL) uses nanowires (NWs), grown and assembled by chemical methods, as etch masks to transfer their one-dimensional morphology to an underlying substrate. Here, we show that SiO2 NWs are a simple and compatible system to implement NWL on crystalline silicon and fabricate a wide range of architectures and devices. Planar field-effect transistors made of a single SOI-NW channel exhibit a contact resistance below 20 kOmega and scale with the channel width. Further, we assess the electrical response of NW networks obtained using a mask of SiO2 NWs ink-jetted from solution. The resulting conformal network etched into the underlying wafer is monolithic, with single-crystalline bulk junctions; thus no difference in conductivity is seen between a direct NW bridge and a percolating network. We also extend the potential of NWL into the third dimension, by using a periodic undercutting that produces an array of vertically stacked NWs from a single NW mask. PMID:18386934

  4. Chemical Sensing with Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Reginald M.

    2012-07-01

    Transformational advances in the performance of nanowire-based chemical sensors and biosensors have been achieved over the past two to three years. These advances have arisen from a better understanding of the mechanisms of transduction operating in these devices, innovations in nanowire fabrication, and improved methods for incorporating receptors into or onto nanowires. Nanowire-based biosensors have detected DNA in undiluted physiological saline. For silicon nanowire nucleic acid sensors, higher sensitivities have been obtained by eliminating the passivating oxide layer on the nanowire surface and by substituting uncharged protein nucleic acids for DNA as the capture strands. Biosensors for peptide and protein cancer markers, based on both semiconductor nanowires and nanowires of conductive polymers, have detected these targets at physiologically relevant concentrations in both blood plasma and whole blood. Nanowire chemical sensors have also detected several gases at the parts-per-million level. This review discusses these and other recent advances, concentrating on work published in the past three years.

  5. Designing and building nanowires: directed nanocrystal self-assembly into radically branched and zigzag PbS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Ma, Xin; Gerlein, L. Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2011-07-01

    Lead sulfide nanowires with controllable optoelectronic properties would be promising building blocks for various applications. Here, we report the hot colloidal synthesis of radically branched and zigzag nanowires through self-attachment of star-shaped and octahedral nanocrystals in the presence of multiple surfactants. We obtained high-quality single-crystal nanowires with uniform diameter along the entire length, and the size of the nanowire can be tuned by tailoring the reaction parameters. This slow oriented attachment provides a better understanding of the intricacies of this complex nanocrystal assembly process. Meanwhile, these self-assembled nanowire structures have appealing lateral conformations with narrow side arms or highly faceted edges, where strong quantum confinement can occur. Consequently, the single-crystal nanowire structures exhibit strong photoluminescence in the near-infrared region with a large blue-shift compared to the bulk material.

  6. Two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. M.; Li, Y. H.; Ahmad, I.; McCartney, D. G.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Hu, W. B.

    2006-09-01

    The authors report the synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional (2D) single crystalline nanonetworks consisting of tungsten oxide nanowires with diameters of ca. 20nm. The 2D networks are believed to result from the nanowire growth along the four crystallographic equivalent directions of ⟨110⟩ in the tetragonal WO2.9 structure. These 2D tungsten oxide networks may be potential precursors for creating 2D networks comprising WS2 nanotubes.

  7. Metal-particle-induced, highly localized site-specific etching of Si and formation of single-crystalline Si nanowires in aqueous fluoride solution.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kuiqing; Fang, Hui; Hu, Juejun; Wu, Yin; Zhu, Jing; Yan, Yunjie; Lee, ShuitTong

    2006-10-16

    A straightforward metal-particle-induced, highly localized site-specific corrosion-like mechanism was proposed for the formation of aligned silicon-nanowire arrays on silicon in aqueous HF/AgNO3 solution on the basis of convincing experimental results. The etching process features weak dependence on the doping of the silicon wafers and, thus, provides an efficient method to prepare silicon nanowires with desirable doping characteristics. The novel electrochemical properties between silicon and active noble metals should be useful for preparing novel silicon nanostructures and also new optoelectronic devices. PMID:16871502

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: DNA nanowire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qun; Cheng, Chuanding; Gonela, Ravikanth; Suryanarayanan, Shivashankar; Anabathula, Sathish; Dai, Kun; Haynie, Donald T.

    2006-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been a key building block in nanotechnology since the earliest work on what is now called DNA-templated self-assembly (Alivisatos et al 1996 Nature 382 609; Mirkin et al 1996 Nature 382 607; Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775). A range of different nanoparticles and nanoclusters have been assembled on single DNA molecules for a variety of purposes (Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775; Richter et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 536; Park et al 2002 Science 295 1503; Mirkin 2000 Inorg. Chem. 39 2258; Keren et al 2003 Science 302 1380). Electrically conductive silver (Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775) and palladium (Richter et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 536) nanowires, for example, have been fabricated by DNA templating for the development of interconnection of nanoelectric elements, and field effect transistors have been built by assembly of a single carbon nanotube and DNA-templated nanowires (Keren et al 2003 Science 302 1380). DNA is well suited for nanowire assembly because of its size, well organized structure, and exquisite molecular-recognition-ability-specific base pairing. This property has been used to detect nucleic acids (Park et al 2002 Science 295 1503) and anthrax (Mirkin 2000 Inorg. Chem. 39 2258) with high sensitivity and specificity. Molecular recognition can also be used to localize nanowires in electronics. Various methods, for example molecular combing, electrophoretic stretching, and hydrodynamic stretching, have been developed to orient DNA molecules on a solid support. This review focuses on methods used to manipulate and metallize DNA in nanowire fabrication. A novel approach based on a single-stranded DNA template and molecular recognition is also discussed.

  9. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar,; Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  10. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2010-11-16

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  11. Methods Of Fabricating Nanosturctures And Nanowires And Devices Fabricated Therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2006-02-07

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  12. Propulsion of nanowire diodes.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Windmiller, Joshua R; Dao, Cuong; Wang, Joseph

    2010-03-14

    The propulsion of semiconductor diode nanowires under external AC electric field is described. Such fuel-free electric field-induced nanowire propulsion offers considerable promise for diverse technological applications. PMID:20177595

  13. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  14. Minority carrier lifetime and dark current measurements in mid-wavelength infrared InAs0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olson, B. V.; Kim, J. K.; Kadlec, E. A.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Leonhardt, D.; Coon, W. T.; Fortune, T. R.; Cavaliere, M. A.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; et al

    2015-11-03

    Carrier lifetime and dark current measurements are reported for a mid-wavelength infrared InAs 0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetector. Minority carrier lifetimes are measured using a non-contact time-resolved microwave technique on unprocessed portions of the nBn wafer and the Auger recombination Bloch function parameter is determined to be |F1F2|=0.292. Moreover, the measured lifetimes are also used to calculate the expected diffusion dark current of the nBn devices and are compared with the experimental dark current measured in processed photodetector pixels from the same wafer. As a result, excellent agreement is found between the two, highlighting the important relationship between lifetimes and diffusionmore » currents in nBn photodetectors.« less

  15. Berezinsky- Kosterlitz- Thouless transition in ultrathin NbN films near superconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Jie; Il'in, K.; Siegel, M.; Lemberger, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    We report temperature dependent superfluid densities λ -2(T) in ultrathin NbN films near thickness-tuned superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). Superfluid densities in these films are measured by two-coil mutual inductance apparatus. For thick films, dirty limit BCS theory fits experimental data well and this verifies the correctness of this technique. As films get thinner and closer to SIT, sharp downturns near transition temperatures (Tc), signature of Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, are observed. This downturn occurs much earlier than what 2-D XY theory predicts. This might due to smaller vortex core energy than expected in 2-D XY model. The superconducting gap, deduced from fitting low temperature λ -2(T), is linear with Tc for most films but remain finite across SIT. This is consistent with the scenario that superconductivity is destroyed by phase fluctuations. Zero temperature sheet superfluid density also shows correlation with Tc, further proving the importance of fluctuations near SIT.

  16. Characterization of Co2FeAl nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Pegg, I. L.; Philip, J.

    2011-03-01

    Heusler alloy, Co 2 FeAl (CFA) is a potentially useful material in the field of spintronics due to its high spin polarization. The CFA nanowires are grown for the first time by the electrospinning method. The diameters of the wires formed are ranging from 80 -- 100 nm. The structural characterization of the nanowires is done using X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The nanowires exhibit cubic structure with a lattice constant, a = 2.44 Å. Parallel arrays of nanowires are grown for magnetic characterization using electric field applied at the collector plate. The nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature higher than 400 K. Nanoscale devices are fabricated with single CFA nanowire to understand the magnetotransport properties. This work has been supported by funding from NSF under CAREER Grant No. ECCS-0845501 and NSF-MRI, DMR-0922997.

  17. Vertical nanowire probes for intracellular signaling of living cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The single living cell action potential was measured in an intracellular mode by using a vertical nanoelectrode. For intracellular interfacing, Si nanowires were vertically grown in a controlled manner, and optimum conditions, such as diameter, length, and nanowire density, were determined by culturing cells on the nanowires. Vertical nanowire probes were then fabricated with a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process including sequential deposition of the passivation and electrode layers on the nanowires, and a subsequent partial etching process. The fabricated nanowire probes had an approximately 60-nm diameter and were intracellular. These probes interfaced with a GH3 cell and measured the spontaneous action potential. It successfully measured the action potential, which rapidly reached a steady state with average peak amplitude of approximately 10 mV, duration of approximately 140 ms, and period of 0.9 Hz. PMID:24484729

  18. Vertical nanowire probes for intracellular signaling of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Ilsoo; Kim, So-Eun; Jeong, Du-Won; Kim, Ju-Jin; Rhim, Hyewhon; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Park, Seung-Han; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2014-02-01

    The single living cell action potential was measured in an intracellular mode by using a vertical nanoelectrode. For intracellular interfacing, Si nanowires were vertically grown in a controlled manner, and optimum conditions, such as diameter, length, and nanowire density, were determined by culturing cells on the nanowires. Vertical nanowire probes were then fabricated with a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process including sequential deposition of the passivation and electrode layers on the nanowires, and a subsequent partial etching process. The fabricated nanowire probes had an approximately 60-nm diameter and were intracellular. These probes interfaced with a GH3 cell and measured the spontaneous action potential. It successfully measured the action potential, which rapidly reached a steady state with average peak amplitude of approximately 10 mV, duration of approximately 140 ms, and period of 0.9 Hz.

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of core-shell magnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovejero, Jesús G.; Bran, Cristina; Vilanova, Enrique; Kosel, Jürgen; Morales, María P.; Vazquez, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell magnetic nanowires have been synthesized by optimized two-step potentiostatic electrodeposition inside self-assembled nanopores of anodic aluminium templates. The optimal electrochemical parameters (e.g., potential) have been firstly determined for the growth of continuous Au nanotubes at the inner wall of pores. Then, a magnetic core was synthesized inside the Au shells under suitable electrochemical conditions for a wide spectrum of single elements and alloy compositions (e.g., Fe, Ni and CoFe alloy). Novel opportunities offered by such nanowires are discussed particularly, the magnetic behavior of (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell nanowires was tested and compared with that of bare nanowires. These core-shell nanowires can be released from the template thereby opening novel opportunities for biofunctionalization of individual nanowires.

  20. SiC nanowires: A photocatalytic nanomaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Weimin; Yan Lijun; Wang Ying; Zhang Yafei

    2006-07-03

    Single-crystal {beta}-SiC nanowires coated with amorphous SiO{sub 2} were synthesized by a simple thermal evaporation technique. The photocatalytic activity of the SiC nanowires was characterized by measuring the photodegradation rate of acetaldehyde catalyzed by SiC as a function of UV irradiation time. It exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity, leading to the efficient decomposition of acetaldehyde by irradiation with UV light. The progress of the photocatalytic reaction can be monitored by the evolution of one of the products, CO{sub 2}. It has been observed that the as-synthesized SiC nanowires (with the SiO{sub 2} coating) have higher catalytic activity than the HF-etched, oxide-free SiC nanowires.

  1. Mode Switching and Filtering in Nanowire Lasers.

    PubMed

    Röder, Robert; Sidiropoulos, Themistoklis P H; Buschlinger, Robert; Riediger, Max; Peschel, Ulf; Oulton, Rupert F; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-13

    Coherent light sources confining the light below the vacuum wavelength barrier will drive future concepts of nanosensing, nanospectroscopy, and photonic circuits. Here, we directly image the angular emission of such a light source based on single semiconductor nanowire lasers. It is confirmed that the lasing switches from the fundamental mode in a thin ZnO nanowire to an admixture of several transverse modes in thicker nanowires approximately at the multimode cutoff. The mode competition with higher order modes substantially slows down the laser dynamics. We show that efficient photonic mode filtering in tapered nanowires selects the desired fundamental mode for lasing with improved performance including power, efficiency, and directionality important for an optimal coupling between adjacent nanophotonic waveguides. PMID:27007261

  2. Deformation mechanisms of Cu nanowires with planar defects

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xia Yang, Haixia; Wan, Rui; Cui, Junzhi; Yu, Xingang

    2015-01-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the mechanical behavior of Cu nanowires (NWs) with planar defects such as grain boundaries (GBs), twin boundaries (TBs), stacking faults (SFs), etc. To investigate how the planar defects affect the deformation and fracture mechanisms of naowires, three types of nanowires are considered in this paper: (1) polycrystalline Cu nanowire; (2) single-crystalline Cu nanowire with twin boundaries; and (3) single-crystalline Cu nanowire with stacking faults. Because of the large fraction of atoms at grain boundaries, the energy of grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains. Thus, grain boundaries are proved to be the preferred sites for dislocations to nucleate. Moreover, necking and fracture prefer to occur at the grain boundary interface owing to the weakness of grain boundaries. For Cu nanowires in the presence of twin boundaries, it is found that twin boundaries can strength nanowires due to the restriction of the movement of dislocations. The pile up of dislocations on twin boundaries makes them rough, inducing high energy in twin boundaries. Hence, twin boundaries can emit dislocations, and necking initiates at twin boundaries. In the case of Cu nanowires with stacking faults, all pre-existing stacking faults in the nanowires are observed to disappear during deformation, giving rise to a fracture process resembling the samples without stacking fault.

  3. On-chip time resolved detection of quantum dot emission using integrated superconducting single photon detectors

    PubMed Central

    Reithmaier, G.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Reichert, T.; Hasch, P.; Müller, K.; Bichler, M.; Gross, R.; Finley, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the routing of quantum light emitted by self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) into the optical modes of a GaAs ridge waveguide and its efficient detection on-chip via evanescent coupling to NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SSPDs). The waveguide coupled SSPDs primarily detect QD luminescence, with scattered photons from the excitation laser onto the proximal detector being negligible by comparison. The SSPD detection efficiency from the evanescently coupled waveguide modes is shown to be two orders of magnitude larger when compared with operation under normal incidence illumination, due to the much longer optical interaction length. Furthermore, in-situ time resolved measurements performed using the integrated detector show an average QD spontaneous emission lifetime of 0.95 ns, measured with a timing jitter of only 72 ps. The performance metrics of the SSPD integrated directly onto GaAs nano-photonic hardware confirms the strong potential for on-chip few-photon quantum optics using such semiconductor-superconductor hybrid systems. PMID:23712624

  4. On-chip time resolved detection of quantum dot emission using integrated superconducting single photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Reithmaier, G; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Hasch, P; Müller, K; Bichler, M; Gross, R; Finley, J J

    2013-01-01

    We report the routing of quantum light emitted by self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) into the optical modes of a GaAs ridge waveguide and its efficient detection on-chip via evanescent coupling to NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SSPDs). The waveguide coupled SSPDs primarily detect QD luminescence, with scattered photons from the excitation laser onto the proximal detector being negligible by comparison. The SSPD detection efficiency from the evanescently coupled waveguide modes is shown to be two orders of magnitude larger when compared with operation under normal incidence illumination, due to the much longer optical interaction length. Furthermore, in-situ time resolved measurements performed using the integrated detector show an average QD spontaneous emission lifetime of 0.95 ns, measured with a timing jitter of only 72 ps. The performance metrics of the SSPD integrated directly onto GaAs nano-photonic hardware confirms the strong potential for on-chip few-photon quantum optics using such semiconductor-superconductor hybrid systems. PMID:23712624

  5. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  6. Electro-triggering and electrochemical monitoring of dopamine exocytosis from a single cell by using ultrathin electrodes based on Au nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mijeong; Yoo, Seung Min; Gwak, Raekeun; Eom, Gayoung; Kim, Jihwan; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-12-01

    A sophisticated set of an Au nanowire (NW) stimulator-Au NW detector system is developed for electrical cell stimulation and electrochemical analysis of subsequent exocytosis with very high spatial resolution. Dopamine release from a rat pheochromocytoma cell is more stimulated by a more negative voltage pulse. This system could help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of electrotherapies by providing valuable information on their healing mechanism.A sophisticated set of an Au nanowire (NW) stimulator-Au NW detector system is developed for electrical cell stimulation and electrochemical analysis of subsequent exocytosis with very high spatial resolution. Dopamine release from a rat pheochromocytoma cell is more stimulated by a more negative voltage pulse. This system could help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of electrotherapies by providing valuable information on their healing mechanism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06021d

  7. Lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Menke, E J; Thompson, M A; Xiang, C; Yang, L C; Penner, R M

    2006-11-01

    Nanowire fabrication methods can be classified either as 'top down', involving photo- or electron-beam lithography, or 'bottom up', involving the synthesis of nanowires from molecular precursors. Lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) combines attributes of photolithography with the versatility of bottom-up electrochemical synthesis. Photolithography defines the position of a sacrificial nickel nanoband electrode, which is recessed into a horizontal trench. This trench acts as a 'nanoform' to define the thickness of an incipient nanowire during its electrodeposition. The electrodeposition duration determines the width of the nanowire. Removal of the photoresist and nickel exposes a polycrystalline nanowire--composed of gold, platinum or palladium--characterized by thickness and width that can be independently controlled down to 18 and 40 nm, respectively. Metal nanowires prepared by LPNE may have applications in chemical sensing and optical signal processing, and as interconnects in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:17057701

  8. Role of Au in the growth and nanoscale optical properties of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.; Zhou, Xiang; Lim, S. K.; Gradecak, S.

    2011-03-17

    Metallic nanoparticles play a crucial role in nanowire growth and have profound consequences on nanowire morphology and their physical properties. Here, we investigate the evolving role of the Au nanoparticle during ZnO nanowire growth and its effects on nanoscale photoemission of the nanowires. We observe the transition from Au-assisted to non-assisted growth mechanisms during a single nanowire growth, with significant changes in growth rates during these two regimes. This transition occurs through the reduction of oxygen partial pressure, which modifies the ZnO facet stability and increases Au diffusion. Nanoscale quenching of ZnO cathodoluminescence occurs near the Au nanoparticle due to excited electron diffusion to the nanoparticle. Thus, the Au nanoparticle is critically linked to the nanowire growth mechanism and corresponding growth rate through the energy of its interface with the ZnO nanowire, and its presence modifies nanowire optical properties on the nanoscale.

  9. Silicon Nanowire Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamins, Theodore

    2006-03-01

    Metal-catalyzed, self-assembled, one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires are being considered as possible device elements to augment and supplant conventional electronics and to extend the use of CMOS beyond the physical and economic limits of conventional technology. Such nanowires can create nanostructures without the complexity and cost of extremely fine scale lithography. The well-known and controllable properties of silicon make silicon nanowires especially attractive. Easy integration with conventional electronics will aid their acceptance and incorporation. For example, connections can be formed to both ends of a nanowire by growing it laterally from a vertical surface formed by etching the top silicon layer of a silicon-on-insulator structure into isolated electrodes. Field-effect structures are one class of devices that can be readily built in silicon nanowires. Because the ratio of surface to volume in a thin nanowire is high, conduction through the nanowire is very sensitive to surface conditions, making it effective as the channel of a field-effect transistor or as the transducing element of a gas or chemical sensor. As the nanowire diameter decreases, a greater fraction of the mobile charge can be modulated by a given external charge, increasing the sensitivity. Having the gate of a nanowire transistor completely surround the nanowire also enhances the sensitivity. For a field-effect sensor to be effective, the charge must be physically close to the nanowire so that the majority of the compensating charge is induced in the nanowire and so that ions in solution do not screen the charge. Because only induced charge is being sensed, a coating that selectively binds the target species should be added to the nanowire surface to distinguish between different species in the analyte. The nanowire work at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  10. Robustness of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in ultrathin NbN films near the superconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Jie; Lemberger, T. R.; Benfatto, L.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.

    2013-05-01

    Occurrence of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition is investigated by superfluid density measurements for two-dimensional (2D) disordered NbN films with disorder level very close to a superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). Our data show a robust BKT transition even near this 2D disorder-tuned quantum critical point. This observation is in direct contrast with previous data on deeply underdoped quasi-2D cuprates near the SIT. As our NbN films approach the quantum critical point, the vortex core energy, an important energy scale in the BKT transition, scales with the superconducting gap, not with the superfluid density, as expected within the standard 2D-XY model description of BKT physics.

  11. Dehydrocoupling and Silazane Cleavage Routes to Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers with NBN Units in the Main Chain.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Thomas; Lik, Artur; Plamper, Felix A; Helten, Holger

    2016-06-13

    Despite the great potential of both π-conjugated organoboron polymers and BN-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organic optoelectronics, our knowledge of conjugated polymers with B-N bonds in their main chain is currently scarce. Herein, the first examples of a new class of organic-inorganic hybrid polymers are presented, which consist of alternating NBN and para-phenylene units. Polycondensation with B-N bond formation provides facile access to soluble materials under mild conditions. The photophysical data for the polymer and molecular model systems of different chain lengths reveal a low extent of π-conjugation across the NBN units, which is supported by DFT calculations. The applicability of the new polymers as macromolecular polyligands is demonstrated by a cross-linking reaction with Zr(IV) . PMID:27151314

  12. Gamma-ray irradiation effects on InAs/GaSb-based nBn IR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Vincent M.; Morath, Christian P.; Swift, Seth M.; Myers, Stephen; Gautam, Nutan; Krishna, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    IR detectors operated in a space environment are subjected to a variety of radiation effects while required to have very low noise performance. When properly passivated, conventional mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based infrared detectors have been shown to perform well in space environments. However, the inherent manufacturing difficulties associated with the growth of MCT has resulted in a research thrust into alternative detector technologies, specifically type-II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) infrared detectors. Theory predicts that SLS-based detector technologies have the potential of offering several advantages over MCT detectors including lower dark currents and higher operating temperatures. Experimentally, however, it has been found that both p-on-n and n-on-p SLS detectors have larger dark current densities than MCT-based detectors. An emerging detector architecture, complementary to SLS-technology and hence forth referred to here as nBn, mitigates this issue via a uni-polar barrier design which effectively blocks majority carrier conduction thereby reducing dark current to more acceptable levels. Little work has been done to characterize nBn IR detectors tolerance to radiation effects. Here, the effects of gamma-ray radiation on an nBn SLS detector are considered. The nBn IR detector under test was grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy and is composed of an InAs/GaSb SLS absorber (n) and contact (n) and an AlxGa1-xSb barrier (B). The radiation effects on the detector are characterized by dark current density measurements as a function of bias, device perimeter-to-area ratio and total ionizing dose (TID).

  13. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-12-01

    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  14. Physics of nanostructures at]radiation resistance of high-entropy nanostructured (Ti, Hf, Zr, V, Nb)N coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, F. F.; Pogrebnyak, A. D.; Konstantinov, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of high-fluence ion irradiation of nanostructured (Ti, Hf, Zr, V, Nb)N coatings is revealed for the first time. The energy of irradiating helium ions is equal to 500 keV, and their fluence falls into the interval 5 × 1016-3 × 1017 ions/cm2. The performance of the coatings in a nuclear reactor is simulated by conducting post-irradiation thermal annealing at 773 K for 15 min. The elemental composition, structure, morphology, and strength properties of the (Ti, Hf, Zr, V, Nb)N coatings are studied before and after irradiation. No considerable structural and phase modifications in the coatings are found after irradiation, except for the fact that crystallites in the coatings drastically reduce in size to less than 10 nm. Nor does the atomic composition of the coatings change. It is shown that the microhardness of the coatings depends on the fluence of irradiating ions nonlinearly. It can be argued that the (Ti, Hf, Zr, V, Nb)N coatings are radiationresistant and hence promising for claddings of fuel elements in nuclear reactors.

  15. Whole-exome sequencing identifies a somatic missense mutation of NBN in clear cell sarcoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jia, Zhen; Mao, Fengbiao; Shi, Yueyi; Bu, Rong Fa; Zhang, Baorong

    2016-06-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare, low-grade carcinoma commonly located in the distal extremities of young adults involving tendons and aponeuroses. CCS is characterized by its poor prognosis due to late diagnosis, multiple local recurrence, propensity to late metastases, and a high rate of tumor-related mortality. The genetic cause for CCS is thought to be EWSR1 gene translocation. However, CCS lacking a translocation may have other, as yet uncharacterized, genetic mutations that can cause the same pathological effect. A combination of whole‑exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cancer tissue and venous blood from a patient diagnosed with CCS of the salivary gland revealed a somatic missense mutation, c.1061C>T (p.P354L), in exon 9 of the Nibrin gene (NBN). This somatic missense mutation led to the conversion of proline to leucine (p.P354L), resulting in deleterious effects for the NBN protein. Multiple-sequence alignments showed that codon 354, where the mutation (c.1061C>T) occurs, is located within a phylogenetically conserved region. In conclusion, we here report a somatic missense mutation c.1061C>T (p.P354L) in the NBN gene in a patient with CCS lacking an EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. Our findings broaden the genotypic spectrum of CCS and provide new molecular insight that should prove useful in the future clinical genetic diagnosis of CCS. PMID:27109316

  16. Controlling the exciton energy of a nanowire quantum dot by strain fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Jöns, Klaus D.; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E.; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J.; Ding, Fei; Zwiller, Val; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2016-05-01

    We present an experimental route to engineer the exciton energies of single quantum dots in nanowires. By integrating the nanowires onto a piezoelectric crystal, we controllably apply strain fields to the nanowire quantum dots. Consequently, the exciton energy of a single quantum dot in the nanowire is shifted by several meVs without degrading its optical intensity and single-photon purity. Second-order autocorrelation measurements are performed at different strain fields on the same nanowire quantum dot. The suppressed multi-photon events at zero time delay clearly verify that the quantum nature of single-photon emission is well preserved under external strain fields. The work presented here could facilitate on-chip optical quantum information processing with the nanowire based single photon emitters.

  17. Burnout current density of bismuth nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelius, T. W.; Picht, O.; Müller, S.; Neumann, R.; Völklein, F.; Karim, S.; Duan, J. L.

    2008-05-01

    Single bismuth nanowires with diameters ranging from 100nmto1μm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density the wires are able to carry was investigated by ramping up the current until failure occurred. It increases by three to four orders of magnitude for nanowires embedded in the template compared to bulk bismuth and rises with diminishing diameter. Simulations show that the wires are heated up electrically to the melting temperature. Since the surface-to-volume ratio rises with diminishing diameter, thinner wires dissipate the heat more efficiently to the surrounding polymer matrix and, thus, can tolerate larger current densities.

  18. Boron carbide nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhe

    Bulk boron carbide has been widely used in ballistic armored vest and the property characterization has been heavily focused on mechanical properties. Even though boron carbides have also been projected as a promising class of high temperature thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, the research has been limited in this field. Since the thermal conductivity of bulk boron carbide is still relatively high, there is a great opportunity to take advantage of the nano effect to further reduce it for better thermoelectric performance. This dissertation work aims to explore whether improved thermoelectric performance can be found in boron carbide nanowires compared with their bulk counterparts. This dissertation work consists of four main parts. (1) Synthesis of boron carbide nanowires. Boron carbide nanowires were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of diborane and methane at low temperatures (with 879 °C as the lowest) in a home-built low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. The CVD-based method is energy efficient and cost effective. The as-synthesized nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy extensively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the nanowires are single crystalline with planar defects. Depending on the geometrical relationship between the preferred growth direction of the nanowire and the orientation of the defects, the as-synthesized nanowires could be further divided into two categories: transverse fault (TF) nanowires grow normal to the defect plane, while axial fault (AF) ones grow within the defect plane. (2) Understanding the growth mechanism of as-synthesized boron carbide nanowires. The growth mechanism can be generally considered as the famous vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. TF and AF nanowires were found to be guided by Ni-B catalysts of two phases. A TF nanowire is lead by a hexagonal phase catalyst, which was proved to be in a liquid state during reaction. While an AF nanowires is catalyzed by a

  19. Structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of ultrathin ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baolin; Zhao, Jijun; Jia, Jianming; Shi, Daning; Wan, Jianguo; Wang, Guanghou

    2008-07-01

    We report a structural transformation between the regular wurtzite and the unbuckled wurtzite (hexagonal) structure for ultrathin single-crystalline [0001] ZnO nanowires under uniaxial elongation and compression. Our density functional calculations show that hexagonal structure corresponds to a distinct minimum on the transformation path. Young's moduli of the ZnO nanowires with the hexagonal structures are larger than those with the wurtzite structures at the same size. Within the nanowire size range considered, Young's moduli of the ZnO nanowires decrease with increasing wire diameter. The electronic properties of these two types of ZnO nanowires exhibit distinctly different behaviors.

  20. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  1. From nanodiamond to nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, A.; Materials Science Division

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication and characterization of semiconductor and metallic nanowires are proving very successful in meeting the high expectations of nanotechnologists. Although the nanoscience surrounding sp{sup 3} bonded carbon nanotubes has continued to flourish over recent years the successful synthesis of the sp{sup 3} analogue, diamond nanowires, has been limited. This prompts questions as to whether diamond nanowires are fundamentally unstable. By applying knowledge obtained from examining the structural transformations in nanodiamond, a framework for analyzing the structure and stability of diamond nanowires may be established. One possible framework will be discussed here, supported by results of ab initio density functional theory calculations used to study the structural relaxation of nanodiamond and diamond nanowires. The results show that the structural stability and electronic properties of diamond nanowires are dependent on the surface morphology, crystallographic direction of the principal axis, and the degree of surface hydrogenation.

  2. Understanding hydrothermal transformation from Mn2O3 particles to Na0.55Mn2O4·1.5H2O nanosheets, nanobelts, and single crystalline ultra-long Na4Mn9O18 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yohan; Woo Lee, Sung; Kim, Ki Hyeon; Min, Bong-Ki; Kumar Nayak, Arpan; Pradhan, Debabrata; Sohn, Youngku

    2015-01-01

    Manganese oxides are one of the most valuable materials for batteries, fuel cells and catalysis. Herein, we report the change in morphology and phase of as-synthesized Mn2O3 by inserting Na+ ions. In particular, Mn2O3 nanoparticles were first transformed to 2 nm thin Na0.55Mn2O4·1.5H2O nanosheets and nanobelts via hydrothermal exfoliation and Na cation intercalation, and finally to sub-mm ultra-long single crystalline Na4Mn9O18 nanowires. This paper reports the morphology and phase-dependent magnetic and catalytic (CO oxidation) properties of the as-synthesized nanostructured Na intercalated Mn-based materials. PMID:26667348

  3. Unconventional superconductivity in ultrathin superconducting NbN films studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noat, Y.; Cherkez, V.; Brun, C.; Cren, T.; Carbillet, C.; Debontridder, F.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.; Semenov, A.; Hübers, H.-W.; Roditchev, D.

    2013-07-01

    Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we address the problem of the superconductor-insulator phase transition in homogeneously disordered ultrathin (2-15 nm) films of NbN. Samples thicker than 8 nm, for which the Ioffe-Regel parameter kFl≥5.6, manifest a conventional superconductivity: a spatially homogeneous BCS-like gap, vanishing at the critical temperature, and a disordered vortex lattice in magnetic field. Upon thickness reduction, however, while kFl lowers, the STS reveals striking deviations from the BCS scenario, among which a progressive decrease of the coherence peak height and small spatial inhomogeneities. In addition, the gap below TC develops on a spectral background, which becomes more and more “V-shaped” approaching the localization. The thinnest film (2.16 nm), while not being exactly at the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) (TC≈0.4TCbulk), showed unconventional signatures such as the vanishing of the coherence peaks and the absence of vortices. This behavior suggests a weakening of long-range phase coherence, when approaching the SIT in this quasi-2D limit.

  4. Taste solution consumption by FHH-Chr nBN consomic rats.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G

    2010-07-01

    There has been extensive work to elucidate the behavioral and physiological mechanisms responsible for taste preferences of the rat but little attempt to delineate the underlying genetic architecture. Here, we exploit the FHH-Chr n(BN)/Mcwi consomic rat strain set to identify chromosomes carrying genes responsible for taste preferences. We screened the parental Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH) and Brown Norway (BN) strains and 22 FHH-Chr n(BN) consomic strains, with 96-h 2-bottle tests, involving a choice between water and each of the following 16 solutions: 10 mM NaCl, 237 mM NaCl, 32 mM CaCl(2), 1 mM saccharin, 100 mM NH(4)Cl, 32 mM sucrose, 100 mM KCl, 4% ethanol, 1 mM HCl, 10 mM monosodium glutamate, 1 mM citric acid, 32 microM quinine hydrochloride, 1% corn oil, 32 microM denatonium, 1% Polycose, and 1 microM capsaicin. Depending on the taste solution involved, between 1 and 16 chromosomes were implicated in the response. Few of these chromosomes carried genes believed to mediate taste transduction in the mouse, and many chromosomes with no candidate taste genes were revealed. The genetic architecture of taste preferences is considerably more complex than has heretofore been acknowledged. PMID:20478838

  5. Study of the effect of NbN on microwave Niobium cavities for gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liccardo, V.; França, E. K.; Aguiar, O. D.; Oliveira, R. M.; Ribeiro, K. L.; Silva, M. M. N. F.

    2016-07-01

    Superconducting reentrant cavities may be used in parametric transducers for resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors. When coupled to a spherical resonant antenna, transducers will monitor its mechanical quadrupolar modes, working as a mass-spring system. In this paper we will investigate the effect of the Niobium Nitride (NbN), produced through plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), on the quality factor of reentrant Niobium (Nb) cavities. With the PIII surface treatment unloaded electrical Q-factors (Q0) of the order of 105 were obtained in cryogenic conditions. These results indicated a significant increase in the effect of superconductivity after the cavity surfaces have been heavily attacked by a concentrated acid mixture and after suffering successive PIII processes. Q0's ~ 3.0 × 105 at 4.2 K are expected to be obtained using Nb RRR399 with a suitable surface treatment. These cavities, with high Q0, are already installed and being tested in the Gravitational Wave Detector Mario Schenberg. The experimental tests have been carried out at the laboratories of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

  6. Subeutectic growth of single-crystal silicon nanowires grown on and wrapped with graphene nanosheets: high-performance anode material for lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fathy M; Elsayed, Abdel Rahman; Chabot, Victor; Batmaz, Rasim; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

    2014-08-27

    A novel one-pot synthesis for the subeutectic growth of (111) oriented Si nanowires on an in situ formed nickel nanoparticle catalyst prepared from an inexpensive nickel nitrate precursor is developed. Additionally, anchoring the nickel nanoparticles to a simultaneously reduced graphene oxide support created synergy between the individual components of the c-SiNW-G composite, which greatly improved the reversible charge capacity and it is retention at high current density when applied as an anode for a Li-ion battery. The c-SiNW-G electrodes for Li-ion battery achieved excellent high-rate performance, producing a stable reversible capacity of 550 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 6.8 A g(-1) (78% of that at 0.1 A g(-1)). Thus, with further development this process creates an important building block for a new wave of low-cost silicon nanowire materials and a promising avenue for high rate Li-ion batteries. PMID:25077883

  7. The Self- and Directed Assembly of Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Benjamin David

    nanowires rapidly sedimented due to gravity onto a glass cover slip to concentrate and form a dense film. Particles and assemblies were imaged using inverted optical microscopy. We quantitatively analyzed the images and movies captured in order to track and classify particles and classify the overall arrays formed. We then correlated how particle characteristics, e.g., materials, size, segmentation, etc. changed the ordering and alignment observed. With that knowledge, we hope to be able to form new and interesting structures. We began our studies by examining the assembly of single component nanowires. Chapter 2 describes this work, in which solid Au nanowires measuring 2-7 mum in length and 290 nm in diameter self-assembled into smectic rows. By both experiment and theory, we determined that these rows formed due to a balance of electrostatic repulsions and van der Waals attractions. Final assemblies were stable for at least several days. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate assemblies and showed structures that mirrored those experimentally observed. Simulations indicated that the smectic phase was preferred over others, i.e., nematic, when an additional small charge was added to the ends of the nanowires. Our particles have rough tips, which might create these additional electrostatic repulsions. To increase the particle and array complexity, two-component, metallic nanowire assembly was explored in Chapter 3. We examined numerous types of nanowires by changing the segment length, ratio, and material, the nanowire length, the surface coating, and the presence of small third segments. These segmented nanowires were generally Au-Ag and also ordered into smectic rows. Segmented wires arranged in rows, however, can be aligned in two possible ways with respect to a neighboring particle. The Au segments on neighboring particles can be oriented in the same direction or opposed to each other. Orientation was quantified in terms of an order parameter that took into account

  8. Synthesis and thermoluminescence of boron-doped germanium nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedifar, M.; Hosseinmardi, F.; Eshraghi, L.; Ganjipour, B.

    2011-03-01

    Boron doped germanium nanowires were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with Au nanoparticles as nucleating centers, germanium tetrachloride as the source of germanium and B 2H 6 gas as source of boron impurity. Au nanoparticles were deposited on Si using 3-aminopropyltriethylsilane (APTES). The single crystal Ge nanowires with diameters ranging from 19 to 200 nm were grown in a controllable manner. Effects of Au nanoparticle size, argon gas flow, temperature and duration of growth on diameter and length of nanowires were investigated. This is the first report on thermoluminescence (TL) properties of boron doped germanium nanowires. Glow curves were fitted using computerized glow curve deconvolution program and seven overlapped peaks were obtained. Further the response of synthesized nanowires to different dose levels of UV was studied and linear response regime was determined.

  9. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts. PMID:26709727

  10. Diameter Dependence of the Transport Properties of Antimony Telluride Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Yuri; Lee, Jin Sook; Park, Hongkun; Kim, Philip

    2010-03-01

    We report measurements of electronic, thermoelectric, and galvanometric properties of individual semimetallic single crystal antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) nanowires. Microfabricated heater and thermometer electrodes were used to probe the transport properties of the nanowires with diameters in the range of 22 - 95nm and temperatures in the range of 2 - 300K. Temperature dependent resistivity varies depending on nanowire diameter. Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements indicate hole dominant diffusive thermoelectric generation, with an enhancement of the TEP for smaller diameter wires. The large surface-to-volume ratio of Sb2Te3 nanowires makes them an excellent platform to explore novel phenomena in this predicted topological insulator. We investigate mesoscopic magnetoresistance effects in magnetic fields both parallel and perpendicular to the nanowire axis.

  11. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control overmore » the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  12. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S R J; Wang, George T

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444 kW cm(-2) and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates. PMID:26899502

  13. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting. S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444 kW cm-2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.

  14. Super-Joule heating in graphene and silver nanowire network

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, Kerry; Das, Suprem R.; Sadeque, Sajia; Mohammed, Amr M. S.; Shakouri, Ali E-mail: alam@purdue.edu; Janes, David B.; Alam, Muhammad A. E-mail: alam@purdue.edu

    2015-04-06

    Transistors, sensors, and transparent conductors based on randomly assembled nanowire networks rely on multi-component percolation for unique and distinctive applications in flexible electronics, biochemical sensing, and solar cells. While conduction models for 1-D and 1-D/2-D networks have been developed, typically assuming linear electronic transport and self-heating, the model has not been validated by direct high-resolution characterization of coupled electronic pathways and thermal response. In this letter, we show the occurrence of nonlinear “super-Joule” self-heating at the transport bottlenecks in networks of silver nanowires and silver nanowire/single layer graphene hybrid using high resolution thermoreflectance (TR) imaging. TR images at the microscopic self-heating hotspots within nanowire network and nanowire/graphene hybrid network devices with submicron spatial resolution are used to infer electrical current pathways. The results encourage a fundamental reevaluation of transport models for network-based percolating conductors.

  15. Super-Joule heating in graphene and silver nanowire network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maize, Kerry; Das, Suprem R.; Sadeque, Sajia; Mohammed, Amr M. S.; Shakouri, Ali; Janes, David B.; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2015-04-01

    Transistors, sensors, and transparent conductors based on randomly assembled nanowire networks rely on multi-component percolation for unique and distinctive applications in flexible electronics, biochemical sensing, and solar cells. While conduction models for 1-D and 1-D/2-D networks have been developed, typically assuming linear electronic transport and self-heating, the model has not been validated by direct high-resolution characterization of coupled electronic pathways and thermal response. In this letter, we show the occurrence of nonlinear "super-Joule" self-heating at the transport bottlenecks in networks of silver nanowires and silver nanowire/single layer graphene hybrid using high resolution thermoreflectance (TR) imaging. TR images at the microscopic self-heating hotspots within nanowire network and nanowire/graphene hybrid network devices with submicron spatial resolution are used to infer electrical current pathways. The results encourage a fundamental reevaluation of transport models for network-based percolating conductors.

  16. Computational nanomechanics and thermal transport in nanotubes and nanowires.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Deepak; Makeev, Maxim A; Menon, Madhu; Osman, Mohamed

    2008-07-01

    Representative results of computer simulation and/or modeling studies of the nanomechanical and thermal transport properties of an individual carbon nanotube, silicon nanowire, and silicon carbide nanowire systems have been reviewed and compared with available experimental observations. The investigated nanomechanical properties include different elastic moduli of carbon nanotubes, silicon nanowires, and silicon carbide nanowires, all obtained within their elastic limits. Moreover, atomistic mechanisms of elastic to plastic transition under external stresses and yielding of carbon nanotubes under experimentally feasible temperature and strain rate conditions are discussed in detail. The simulation and/or modeling results on thermal properties, presented in this work, include vibrational modes, thermal conductivity and heat pulse transport through single carbon nanotubes, and thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires. PMID:19051922

  17. Low ensemble disorder in quantum well tube nanowires.

    PubMed

    Davies, Christopher L; Parkinson, Patrick; Jiang, Nian; Boland, Jessica L; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2015-12-28

    We have observed very low disorder in high quality quantum well tubes (QWT) in GaAs-Al(0.4)Ga(0.6)As core-multishell nanowires. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra were measured from 150 single nanowires enabling a full statistical analysis of both intra- and inter-nanowire disorder. By modelling individual nanowire spectra, we assigned a quantum well tube thickness, a core disorder parameter and a QWT disorder parameter to each nanowire. A strong correlation was observed between disorder in the GaAs cores and disorder in the GaAs QWTs, which indicates that variations in core morphology effectively propagate to the shell layers. This highlights the importance of high quality core growth prior to shell deposition. Furthermore, variations in QWT thicknesses for different facet directions was found to be a likely cause of intra-wire disorder, highlighting the need for accurate shell growth. PMID:26586279

  18. Silicon nanowires: Growth, transport and device physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Erik Christian

    2009-11-01

    and diffusion, gives much smoother nanowires and has a single-crystalline p-n junction. The efficiency of these solar cells improves by almost an order of magnitude, up to 3.6% for a 25 mum thin silicon absorbing layer. These studies represent a significant step towards realizing the benefits of integrated silicon nanowire devices.

  19. Compact Nanowire Sensors Probe Microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Julian; Ibarlucea, Bergoi; Illing, Rico; Zörgiebel, Felix; Pregl, Sebastian; Nozaki, Daijiro; Weber, Walter M; Mikolajick, Thomas; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-08-10

    The conjunction of miniature nanosensors and droplet-based microfluidic systems conceptually opens a new route toward sensitive, optics-less analysis of biochemical processes with high throughput, where a single device can be employed for probing of thousands of independent reactors. Here we combine droplet microfluidics with the compact silicon nanowire based field effect transistor (SiNW FET) for in-flow electrical detection of aqueous droplets one by one. We chemically probe the content of numerous (∼10(4)) droplets as independent events and resolve the pH values and ionic strengths of the encapsulated solution, resulting in a change of the source-drain current ISD through the nanowires. Further, we discuss the specificities of emulsion sensing using ion sensitive FETs and study the effect of droplet sizes with respect to the sensor area, as well as its role on the ability to sense the interior of the aqueous reservoir. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the novel droplets based nanowire platform for bioassay applications and carry out a glucose oxidase (GOx) enzymatic test for glucose detection, providing also the reference readout with an integrated parallel optical detector. PMID:27417510

  20. Structural characterization of nanowires and nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Catherine Rose

    Nanowires, which have diameter less than a few hundred nanometers and high aspect ratios, may have the same properties as their corresponding bulk materials, or may exhibit unique properties due to their confined dimensions and increased surface to volume ratios. They are a popular field of technological investigation in applications that depend on the transport of charge carriers, because of expectations that microcircuit miniaturization will lead to the next boom in the electronics industry. In this work, the high spatial resolution afforded by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study nanowires formed by electrochemical deposition into porous alumina templates. The goal is to determine the effect of the synthesis and subsequent processing on the microstructure and crystallinity of the wires. A thorough understanding of the microstructural features of a material is vital for optimizing its performance in a desired application. Two material systems were studied in this work. The first is bismuth telluride (Bi 2Te3), which is used in thermoelectric applications. The second is metallic copper, the electrochemical deposition of which is of interest for interconnects in semiconductor devices. The first part of this work utilized TEM to obtain a thorough characterization of the microstructural features of individual Bi2Te3 nanowires following release from the templates. As deposited, the nanowires are fine grained and exhibit significant lattice strain. Annealing increases the grain size and dislocations are created to accommodate the lattice strain. The degree of these microstructural changes depends on the thermal treatment. However, no differences were seen in the nanowire microstructure as a function of the synthetic parameters. The second part of this work utilized a modified dark field TEM technique in order to obtain a spatially resolved, semi-quantitative understanding of the evolution of preferred orientation as a function of the electrochemical