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1

The efficacy of supplemental intraosseous anesthesia after insufficient mandibular block.  

PubMed

It is a well-known scientific fact that only a small percentage of infiltration of inferior alveolar nerve is clinically proven to be efficient. The objective of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of supplemental intraosseous injection, used after the insufficient classical mandibular block that didn't provide deep pulp anesthesia of mandibular molar planed for extraction. The experimental teeth consisted of 98 mandibular molars with clinical indication for extraction. Based on the history of disease, we indicated the extraction of the tooth. After that each tooth was tested with a electric pulp tester P1. We tested the pulp vitality and precisely determined the level of vitality. After that, each patient received classical mandibular block, and the pulp vitality was tested again. If the pulp tester indicated negative vitality for the certain mandibular molar, and the patient didn't complain about pain or discomfort during the extraction, the molar was extracted and the result was added to anesthetic success rate for the classical mandibular block. If, five minutes after receiving the mandibular block, the pulp tester indicated positive vitality (parameters of vitality) or the patient complained about pain or discomfort (parameters of pain and discomfort), we used the Stabident intraosseous anesthesia system. Three minutes after the application of supplemental intraosseous injection the molar was tested with the pulp tester again. The anesthetic solution used in both anesthetic techniques is lidocaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine. The results of this study indicate that the anesthetic efficacy of the mandibular block is 74.5%, and that supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the insufficient mandibular block, provides pulpal anesthesia in 94.9% of mandibular molars. The difference between anesthetic efficacy of the classical mandibular block and anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the insufficient mandibular block, is obvious. PMID:15771604

Prohi?, Samir; Sulejmanagi?, Halid; Seci?, Sadeta

2005-02-01

2

Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

Powers, Michael

2004-01-01

3

Efficacy and tolerance of lactitol supplementation for adult constipation: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a common complaint in adults. Lactitol is an osmotic disaccharide laxative that increases fecal volume and stimulates peristalsis. In this paper, we present the first meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerance of lactitol for adult constipation. Methods We searched MEDLINE® and Embase, with no date or language restrictions, for studies of lactitol supplementation on adult constipation. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on pre- to posttreatment changes in stool frequency and consistency with lactitol among all studies, as well as a comparison of efficacy and tolerance outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lactitol versus lactulose. Results A total of eleven studies representing 663 distinct patients were included in the final analysis, including five single-arm studies, four RCTs comparing lactitol with lactulose, one RCT comparing lactitol with placebo, and one nonrandomized controlled trial comparing lactitol with stimulant laxatives. Weekly stool frequency was significantly increased with lactitol compared with baseline (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 1.56, P<0.001). Stool consistency also improved over the supplementation period with lactitol (SMD: 1.04, P<0.001). Approximately one-third of patients experienced an adverse event; however, symptoms were generally mild and rarely (5%) resulted in study withdrawal. In RCTs of lactitol versus lactulose, lactitol was slightly more effective than lactulose in increasing weekly stool frequency (SMD: 0.19, P=0.06). No statistically significant differences between lactitol and lactulose were identified in any other efficacy or tolerance outcome. Lactitol demonstrated favorable efficacy and tolerance in individual studies when compared to stimulant laxatives and placebo. Conclusion Lactitol supplementation is well tolerated and improves symptoms of adult constipation. The efficacy and tolerance of lactitol and lactulose are similar, with a trend for more frequent stools with lactitol. Limited evidence suggests lactitol is superior to stimulant laxatives and placebo for relieving constipation symptoms. PMID:25050074

Miller, Larry E; Tennilä, Julia; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2014-01-01

4

Efficacy and safety of dietary supplements containing CLA for the treatment of obesity: evidence from animal and human studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are widely promoted as weight loss agents avail- able over the counter and via the Internet. In this review, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLA supplementation based on peer-reviewed published results from random- ized, placebo-controlled, human intervention trials lasting more than 4 weeks. We also review findings from experi- mental studies

Thomas M. Larsen; Søren Toubro; Arne Astrup

2003-01-01

5

Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity  

PubMed Central

The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day?1). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51?mL O2/kg?min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals. PMID:24967264

Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; Richard, Nicholas S.; Judge, Lawrence W.

2014-01-01

6

Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) take a variety of health supplements in an attempt to reduce pain and improve function.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in treating patients with knee OA.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Forty nine men and women 45-90 (mean 68\\u000a ± SD 7.3) years

Eytan M Debbi; Gabriel Agar; Gil Fichman; Yaron Bar Ziv; Rami Kardosh; Nahum Halperin; Avi Elbaz; Yiftah Beer; Ronen Debi

2011-01-01

7

Expectancy, Self-Efficacy, and Placebo Effect of a Sham Supplement for Weight Loss in Obese Adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults with metabolic syndrome. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement, (2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo, or (3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy. PMID:24695007

Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

2014-04-01

8

The efficacy of vitamin D supplementation during a prolonged submarine patrol.  

PubMed

Submariners spend prolonged periods submerged without sunlight exposure and may benefit from vitamin D supplementation to maintain vitamin D status. The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily vitamin D supplementation on maintenance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during a 3-month submarine patrol. Submariners were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 16), 1,000 IU/day (n = 20), or 2,000 IU/day (n = 17). Anthropometrics, self-reported dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, serum markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) parameters of the tibia were determined before and after the patrol. Prior to departure, 49 % of the subjects were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Following the patrol, 25(OH)D increased in all groups (p < 0.001): 3.3 ± 13.1 (placebo), 4.6 ± 11.3 (1,000 IU/day), and 13 ± 14 nmol/L (2,000 IU/day). The changes in 25(OH)D levels were dependent upon the baseline concentration of 25(OH)D and body mass (p < 0.001). Osteocalcin increased by 38 % (p < 0.01), and pQCT analyses revealed small, yet significant increases in indices of tibial structure and strength (p < 0.05) that were independent of supplementation. These data suggest that vitamin D status was low prior to the patrol, and the subsequent changes in vitamin D status were dependent on the baseline 25(OH)D levels and body mass. Furthermore, short-term skeletal health does not appear to be negatively affected by 3 months of submergence in spite of a suboptimal response to vitamin D supplementation. PMID:25005834

Gasier, Heath G; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Colin R; McAdams, Douglas C; Lutz, Laura J; McClung, James P

2014-09-01

9

ARIES NDA Robot operators` manual  

SciTech Connect

The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user`s manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery.

Scheer, N.L.; Nelson, D.C.

1998-05-01

10

Efficacy of an oral hyaluronate and collagen supplement as a preventive treatment of elbow dysplasia.  

PubMed

One hundred and five Labrador dogs were randomly divided into two groups to determine the number of animals that develop elbow dysplasia when treated with an oral supplement compared to untreated ones. Efficacy of the oral treatment was also evaluated once illness was diagnosed. The supplement (Hyaloral) contained hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed collagen, glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and gamma oryzanol. Clinical evaluation of the elbow joints was completed at months 3, 6, 12, and 20 by orthopaedic evaluations, radiography, serologic and blood analysis, and veterinarian evaluation of dysplasia symptoms. All side effects were recorded. In the control group, 33.3% of the dogs developed radiographic evidence of elbow dysplasia compared to 18.5% in the treated group. Symptoms of dysplasia at 12 months differed between the treated (12.5%) and control (61.5%) animals, and were significantly different at 20 months (p < 0.05). Differences in lameness along with movement and swelling of the elbows between groups were observed after 12 months. The treated group had improved significantly by the last visit (p < 0.05). No adverse side effects were reported. In conclusion, oral treatment with Hyaloral may have a potential cumulative action that provides protection against dysplasia and significantly improves symptoms of elbow dysplasia. PMID:25234322

Martí-Angulo, Simón; García-López, Núria; Díaz-Ramos, Ana

2014-12-01

11

Efficacy of an oral hyaluronate and collagen supplement as a preventive treatment of elbow dysplasia  

PubMed Central

One hundred and five Labrador dogs were randomly divided into two groups to determine the number of animals that develop elbow dysplasia when treated with an oral supplement compared to untreated ones. Efficacy of the oral treatment was also evaluated once illness was diagnosed. The supplement (Hyaloral) contained hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed collagen, glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and gamma oryzanol. Clinical evaluation of the elbow joints was completed at months 3, 6, 12, and 20 by orthopaedic evaluations, radiography, serologic and blood analysis, and veterinarian evaluation of dysplasia symptoms. All side effects were recorded. In the control group, 33.3% of the dogs developed radiographic evidence of elbow dysplasia compared to 18.5% in the treated group. Symptoms of dysplasia at 12 months differed between the treated (12.5%) and control (61.5%) animals, and were significantly different at 20 months (p < 0.05). Differences in lameness along with movement and swelling of the elbows between groups were observed after 12 months. The treated group had improved significantly by the last visit (p < 0.05). No adverse side effects were reported. In conclusion, oral treatment with Hyaloral may have a potential cumulative action that provides protection against dysplasia and significantly improves symptoms of elbow dysplasia. PMID:25234322

García-López, Núria; Díaz-Ramos, Ana

2014-01-01

12

The efficacy and safety of early supplementation of iron polymaltose complex in preterm infants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of early nonionic iron supplementation in preterm infants. Infants with gestational age < or = 32 weeks who were fed enriched human milk were assigned concurrently to receive 5 mg/kg/d enteral iron polymaltose complex (IPC) at 2 or 4 weeks of age. The levels of hemoglobin, reticulocytes, serum iron, ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor were recorded at 2, 4, and 8 weeks of age. The incidence of morbidities associated with prematurity and the need for red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) were recorded. The 2-week group (n = 32) had a better iron status than the 4-week group (n = 36) at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks of age. The incidence of morbidities associated with prematurity was not different among the groups ( P = 0.26). RBCT was required in one infants of the 2-week group and in 10 infants in the 4-week group ( P = 0.045). The number needed to treat to prevent one RBCT was five. Supplementation of 5 mg/kg/d enteral IPC to preterm infants fed enriched human milk as early as 2 weeks of age was more beneficial to iron status than at 4 weeks of age, and was associated with decreased need for RBCTs and no increase in the incidence of morbidities associated with prematurity. PMID:17304425

Arnon, Shmuel; Shiff, Yakov; Litmanovitz, Ita; Regev, Rivka H; Bauer, Sofia; Shainkin-Kestenbaum, Ruth; Bental, Yoram; Dolfin, Tzipora

2007-02-01

13

Confidence in the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements among United States active duty army personnel  

PubMed Central

Background United States Army Soldiers regularly use dietary supplements (DS) to promote general health, enhance muscle strength, and increase energy, but limited scientific evidence supports the use of many DS for these benefits. This study investigated factors associated with Soldiers’ confidence in the efficacy and safety of DS, and assessed Soldiers’ knowledge of federal DS regulatory requirements. Methods Between 2006 and 2007, 990 Soldiers were surveyed at 11 Army bases world-wide to assess their confidence in the effectiveness and safety of DS, knowledge of federal DS regulations, demographic characteristics, lifestyle-behaviors and DS use. Results A majority of Soldiers were at least somewhat confident that DS work as advertised (67%) and thought they are safe to consume (71%). Confidence in both attributes was higher among regular DS users than non-users. Among users, confidence in both attributes was positively associated with rank, self-rated diet quality and fitness level, education, and having never experienced an apparent DS-related adverse event. Fewer than half of Soldiers knew the government does not require manufacturers to demonstrate efficacy, and almost a third incorrectly believed there are effective pre-market federal safety requirements for DS. Conclusions Despite limited scientific evidence supporting the purported benefits and safety of many popular DS, most Soldiers were confident that DS are effective and safe. The positive associations between confidence and DS use should be considered when developing DS-related interventions or policies. Additionally, education to clarify Soldiers’ misperceptions about federal DS safety and efficacy regulations is warranted. PMID:23051046

2012-01-01

14

Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area. PMID:18537692

Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

2008-06-01

15

Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects. Methods Participants were elite UK male and female athletes, within the age range between 12 and 21 (n = 403), mean age 17.66 ± 1.99. Associations between type of supplements and reasons for using supplements were tested by calculating Pearson's ?2 and the strength of these symmetric associations shown by phi (?) association coefficients. Results Single supplement use was reported by 48.1%, with energy drinks being the most popular, consumed by 41.7% of all athletes and 86.6% of the supplement users in the sample. No agreement was observed between athletes' rationale and behaviour in relation to nutritional supplements except for creatine. Among health professionals, nutritionists and physiotherapists, followed by coaches, were most frequently consulted. Answers regarding reasons and supplements used showed incongruence and suggest widespread misinformation regarding supplements and their effects is an issue for the young athlete. Conclusion Widespread supplement taking behaviour was evidenced in the young elite athlete population with the most notable congruence between rationale and practice among young athletes being performance-related. Young athletes in the present sample appear to be less 'health conscious' and more 'performance focused' than their adult counterparts. Further research, using a full list of supplements, is warranted to test the hypothesis that health consciousness is less dominant in supplement choice by young athletes. PMID:19077317

Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P; Pearce, Gemma; Bailey, Richard; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Michael

2008-01-01

16

Efficacy of a Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel as a Tear Film Supplement: A Masked Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P?=?0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P?=?0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness. PMID:24914681

Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

2014-01-01

17

Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) take a variety of health supplements in an attempt to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in treating patients with knee OA. Methods This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Forty nine men and women 45-90 (mean 68 ± SD 7.3) years of age with knee OA according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria for OA of the knee and with radiographic confirmed knee OA were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into 2 groups: One received MSM in doses of 1.125 grams 3 times daily for 12 weeks and the other received a placebo in the same dosing frequency. The primary outcomes were the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index for pain, stiffness and physical function, the Aggregated Locomotor Function (ALF) test that evaluates each patient's physical function, the SF-36 quality of life health survey and the visual-analogue-scale (VAS) for pain. The secondary outcomes were Knee Society Clinical Rating System for Knee Score (KSKS) and Function Score (KSFS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. All continuous variables were tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for Normal distribution. Changes within the groups and differences between the groups were calculated by repeated measures of analysis (ANOVA) with one nested variable. Results There were significant differences between treatment groups over time in WOMAC physical function (14.6 mm [CI: 4.3, 25.0]; p = 0.04) and in WOMAC total score (15.0 mm [CI: 5.1, 24.9]; p = 0.03). Treatment groups did not differ significantly in WOMAC pain (12.4 mm [CI: 0.0, 24.8]); p = 0.08) or WOMAC stiffness (27.2 mm [CI: 8.2, 46.2]; p = 0.08). There was a non-significant difference in SF-36 total score between treatment groups (11.6 [CI: 1.0, 22.1]; p = 0.54). A significant difference was found between groups in VAS for pain (0.7 s [CI: -0.9, 2.4]; p = 0.05). Secondary outcomes showed non-significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions Patients with OA of the knee taking MSM for 12 weeks showed an improvement in pain and physical function. These improvements, however, are small and it is yet to be determined if they are of clinical significance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01188213 PMID:21708034

2011-01-01

18

Efficacy of different phosphorus supplements for sows during gestation and lactation.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to compare dicalcium, Curacao, and soft ph sophates as supplemental feeding during gestation and lactation. In Exp eriment 1, 37 crossbred sows at 11 months of age were mated and each of 4 groups given an experimental diet. The basal diet was a 16% crude pro tein-fortified corn-soybean meal containing .34% of phosphorus and .72% of calcium. The test diets were fortified with either dicalcium, Curaca o, or soft phosphate to provide .52% of phosphorus. Limestone was given to maintain .72% of calcium. Animals were confined in a concrete feedin g area and fed 1.8 kg of diet per head per day until Day 94 of gestation . At that time the diet was increased to 2.3 kg/day. On Day 109 of gestation animals were moved to farrowing crates until 10 days postpartu m and then to wooden units until weening at 8 weeks. Sows were sacrific ed after 8 weeks lactation, or if they developed posterior paralysis. In this experiment, the different phosphate sources were without observed influence on the livability or performance of pigs up to 8 weeks of age (p less than .05). Gilts receiving no supplemental phosphorus had significantly lower bone ash and phosphorus than did those receiving either of the supplements. Posterior paralysis was observed in 5 of 9 sows fed the unsupplemented diet, in 3 of 9 fed the soft supplemented diet, and in 2 of 10 fed the Curacao phosphate supplement. None fed dicalcium phosphate developed paralysis. The paralysis usually occurred after 6 weeks of lactation and was often accompanied by a fractured femur. In Experiment 2, 70 sows were bred at 10 months of age and fed 1.8 kg of the experimental diets. During 36 days of lactation, phosphorus digestibility, retention, and balance were shown to be lower for those fed only the basal diet. Bone ash, bone phosphorus, and bone strength were lower in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Results of these studies indicate the need for supplemental phosphorus in sow feeding. When feeding dicalcium phosphate or Curacao phosphate the use of over .5% phosphorus in the sow's diet is unnecessary during gestation and lactation. PMID:4475047

Harmon, B G; Liu, C T; Cornelius, S G; Pettigrew, J E; Baker, D H; Jensen, A H

1974-12-01

19

Efficacy of Supplemental Phonics-Based Instruction for Low-Skilled Kindergarteners in the Context of Language Minority Status and Classroom Phonics Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the efficacy of supplemental phonics instruction for 84 low-skilled language minority (LM) kindergarteners and 64 non-LM kindergarteners at 10 urban public schools. Paraeducators were trained to provide the 18-week (January-May) intervention. Students performing in the bottom half of their classroom language group (LM and non-LM)…

Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

20

Fish oil supplementation enhanced CPT-11 (irinotecan) efficacy against MCF7 breast carcinoma xenografts and ameliorated intestinal side-effects  

PubMed Central

The cancer chemotherapeutic efficacy of the topoisomerase I inhibitor, CPT-11 (irinotecan) is often limited by the induction of severe delayed diarrhoea. In animal studies, CPT-11 use is associated with histopathological damage to the mucosa of the small and large intestines. Results from the present study demonstrate that 60 mg CPT-11 per kg body weight (i.v. q4d × 6) halted the growth, but did not cause significant regression, of MCF7 human breast carcinoma xenografts in mice fed a diet containing 7% corn oil. However, when the diet of the MCF7-bearing mice was supplemented with 3% or 6% fish oil, the same CPT-11 treatment caused significant regression of the MCF7 xenograft. Histomorphometric analyses of intestinal mucosa of mice treated with CPT-11 and fed the diet containing 7% corn oil indicated that treatment with CPT-11 induced structural changes in the intestinal mucosa which persisted at least 5 days after the last dose of CPT-11. The intestinal mucosal architecture of mice that were treated with CPT-11 and fed the diets containing fish oil was largely unchanged from the architecture of the group of mice which did not receive CPT-11. These findings indicate that fish oil supplements may be a useful adjunct to CPT-11 treatment. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10507768

Hardman, W E; Moyer, M P; Cameron, I L

1999-01-01

21

Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and\\/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy

Hyang Mi An; Eun Hye Baek; Seok Jang; Do Kyung Lee; Mi Jin Kim; Jung Rae Kim; Kang Oh Lee; Jong Gi Park; Nam Joo Ha

2010-01-01

22

Plutonium NDA by thermal fluxmetry  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of calorific materials by calorimetry often encounter, in the case of samples with a volume {approx}1l or more, the difficulty of long measurement times. Nondestructive measurements at industrial production sites can sometimes be regarded as satisfactory, even with measurements that might carry a higher uncertainty, provided that the long measurement times can be significantly reduced. With this in mind, the authors have developed a spider-like thermal flux-meter for making quick nondestructive measurements of thermal powers up to 20 W for sample containers with a volume between 0.5 and 10l. The Fluxmeters developed are constructionally adapted to several different types of measurement features. The authors describe three types of fluxmeters that are suitable for rapid measurement times and have accuracies from 1 to a few percent for storage recesses or production facilities in the paper. Usually 5 to 8, and up to 25, fluxmeters are working simultaneously to reduce the mean measurement duration for a sample. The paper presents the results of an inventory control period involving the measurement of several hundred containers within 3 days by a three-man team.

Monier, J.; Sanson, C.; Bourrelly, P.; Patin, H.; Schoepp, R.

1987-01-01

23

Efficacy of supplementation of selected medicinal mushrooms with inorganic selenium salts.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of supplementation with inorganic forms of selenium (Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3) in concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mM of three medicinal mushroom species: Agrocybe aegerita, Hericium erinaceus and Ganoderma lucidum. Tested mushroom species grew in Se additions of 0-0.6 mM (A. aegerita and H. erinaceus), while growth of G. lucidum bodies was observed for 0-0.8 mM. For the latter mushroom species, the total Se content was the highest. Content of Seorg was diverse; for control bodies it was the highest for G. lucidum (only organic forms were present), lower for A. aegerita (84% organic forms) and the lowest for H. erinaceus (56% organic forms). Accumulation of Se(IV) was generally significantly higher than Se(VI) for all tested mushroom species. There was no significant decrease of A. aegerita or G. lucidum biomass with the exception of G. lucidum bodies growing under 0.8 mM of Se species addition (15.51 ± 6.53 g). Biomass of H. erinaceus bodies was the highest under 0.2 (197.04 ± 8.73 g), control (191.80 ± 6.06 g) and 0.1 mM (185.04 ± 8.73 g) of both inorganic salts. The addition to the medium of Se salts brought about macroscopic changes in the fruiting bodies of the examined mushrooms. Concentrations exceeding 0.4 mM caused diminution of carpophores or even their total absence. In addition, colour changes of fruiting bodies were also recorded. At Se concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mM, A. aegerita fruiting bodies were distinctly lighter and those of H. erinaceus changed colour from purely white to white-pink. PMID:25310808

Niedzielski, Przemys?aw; Mleczek, Miros?aw; Siwulski, Marek; G?secka, Monika; Kozak, Lidia; Rissmann, Iwona; Miko?ajczak, Patrycja

2014-01-01

24

Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Background World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a premix added to F-75 and F-100. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for safety and effectiveness of high-dose VA supplementation (VAS) in treatment of children with SAM. Methods A comprehensive literature review was undertaken for all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies from 1950 to 2012. Studies identified for full review were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology using a set of pre-defined criteria: indirectness; inconsistency; imprecision; and study limitations. A quality rating of high, moderate, or low was then assigned to each study, and only those attaining moderate to high were considered in making recommendations. Results Of the 2072 abstracts screened, 38 met criteria for full review, and 20 were rated moderate to high quality. Only one study replicated the WHO VA protocol in children with SAM. Indirectness was a critical limitation, as studies were not exclusive to children with SAM. There was inconsistency across trials for definitions of malnutrition, morbidities, and ages studied; and imprecision arising from sub-group analyses and small sample sizes. Evidence showed improved outcomes associated with low-dose compared to high-dose VAS, except in cases presenting with signs of VAD, measles, and severe diarrhea or shigellosis. Adverse outcomes related to respiratory infection, diarrhea, and growth were associated with high-dose VAS in children who were predominantly adequately nourished. No adverse effects of the high dose were found in children with SAM in the trial that replicated the WHO VA guideline. Conclusion This is the first systematic review of the safety and efficacy of high-dose VAS in treatment of SAM. We recommend a low-dose VAS regimen for children with SAM, except in cases presenting with measles, severe diarrhea (shigellosis), and any indication of VAD. Further research is needed in exclusively malnourished children and to explore alternate delivery strategies. PMID:24028603

2013-01-01

25

Design and fabrication of NDA standards  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Facility, TA-55, at Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently producing NDA calibration standards used by various laboratories in the DOE complex. These NIST traceable standards have been produced to calibrate NDA instruments for accountability measurements used for resolving shipper/receiver differences, and for accountability in process residues and process waste. Standards are needed to calibrate various NDA (Non-destructive Assay) instruments such as neutron coincidence counters, gamma-ray counters, and calorimeters. These instruments measure various ranges of nuclear material being produced in the DOE nuclear community. Los Alamos National Laboratory has taken a lead role in fabrication of uranium and plutonium standards, along with other actinides such as neptunium and americium. These standards have been fabricated for several laboratories within the complex. This paper will summarize previous publications detailing the careful planning encompassing components such as precise weighing, destructive analysis, and the use of post fabrication NDA measurements to confirm that the standards meet all preliminary expectations before use in instrument calibration. The paper will also describe the specialized containers, diluents, and the various amount of nuclear materials needed to accommodate the calibration ranges of the instruments.

Long, S.M.; Hsue, S.T.

1996-04-01

26

Impact of folate supplementation on the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in preventing malaria in pregnancy: the potential of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate.  

PubMed

Malaria remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children under the age of 5 years and pregnant women. To counterbalance the malaria burden in pregnancy, an intermittent preventive treatment strategy has been developed. This is based on the use of the antifolate sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, taken at specified intervals during pregnancy, and reports show that this approach reduces the malaria burden in pregnancy. Pregnancy is also associated with the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), especially in women with low folate status, and folic acid supplementation is recommended in pregnancy to lower the risk of NTDs. Thus, in malaria-endemic areas, pregnant women have to take both antifolate medication to prevent malaria and folic acid to lower the risk of NTDs. However, the concomitant use of folate and antifolate is associated with a decrease in antifolate efficacy, exposing pregnant women to malaria. Thus, there is genuine concern that this strategy may not be appropriate. We have reviewed work carried out on malaria folate metabolism and antifolate efficacy in the context of folate supplementation. This review shows that: (i) the folate supplementation effect on antifolate efficacy is dose-dependent, and folic acid doses required to protect pregnant women from NTDs will not decrease antifolate activity; and (ii) 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, the predominant form of folate in the blood circulation, could be administered (even at high dose) concomitantly with antifolate without affecting antifolate efficacy. Thus, strategies exist to protect pregnant women from malaria while maintaining adequate folate levels in the body to reduce the occurrence of NTDs. PMID:24126794

Nzila, Alexis; Okombo, John; Molloy, Anne M

2014-02-01

27

Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

Keepin, G.R.

1988-01-01

28

Haptoglobin phenotype, preeclampsia risk and the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in a racially diverse population.  

PubMed

Haptoglobin's (Hp) antioxidant and pro-angiogenic properties differ between the 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 phenotypes. Hp phenotype affects cardiovascular disease risk and treatment response to antioxidant vitamins in some non-pregnant populations. We previously demonstrated that preeclampsia risk was doubled in white Hp 2-1 women, compared to Hp 1-1 women. Our objectives were to determine whether we could reproduce this finding in a larger cohort, and to determine whether Hp phenotype influences lack of efficacy of antioxidant vitamins in preventing preeclampsia and serious complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH). This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which 10,154 low-risk women received daily vitamin C and E, or placebo, from 9-16 weeks gestation until delivery. Hp phenotype was determined in the study prediction cohort (n = 2,393) and a case-control cohort (703 cases, 1,406 controls). The primary outcome was severe PAH, or mild or severe PAH with elevated liver enzymes, elevated serum creatinine, thrombocytopenia, eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, medically indicated preterm birth or perinatal death. Preeclampsia was a secondary outcome. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression. Sampling weights were used to reduce bias from an overrepresentation of women with preeclampsia or the primary outcome. There was no relationship between Hp phenotype and the primary outcome or preeclampsia in Hispanic, white/other or black women. Vitamin supplementation did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome or preeclampsia in women of any phenotype. Supplementation increased preeclampsia risk (odds ratio 3.30; 95% confidence interval 1.61-6.82, p<0.01) in Hispanic Hp 2-2 women. Hp phenotype does not influence preeclampsia risk, or identify a subset of women who may benefit from vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. PMID:23573260

Weissgerber, Tracey L; Gandley, Robin E; McGee, Paula L; Spong, Catherine Y; Myatt, Leslie; Leveno, Kenneth J; Thorp, John M; Mercer, Brian M; Peaceman, Alan M; Ramin, Susan M; Carpenter, Marshall W; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Harper, Margaret; Tolosa, Jorge E; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

2013-01-01

29

Haptoglobin Phenotype, Preeclampsia Risk and the Efficacy of Vitamin C and E Supplementation to Prevent Preeclampsia in a Racially Diverse Population  

PubMed Central

Haptoglobin’s (Hp) antioxidant and pro-angiogenic properties differ between the 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 phenotypes. Hp phenotype affects cardiovascular disease risk and treatment response to antioxidant vitamins in some non-pregnant populations. We previously demonstrated that preeclampsia risk was doubled in white Hp 2-1 women, compared to Hp 1-1 women. Our objectives were to determine whether we could reproduce this finding in a larger cohort, and to determine whether Hp phenotype influences lack of efficacy of antioxidant vitamins in preventing preeclampsia and serious complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH). This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which 10,154 low-risk women received daily vitamin C and E, or placebo, from 9-16 weeks gestation until delivery. Hp phenotype was determined in the study prediction cohort (n?=?2,393) and a case-control cohort (703 cases, 1,406 controls). The primary outcome was severe PAH, or mild or severe PAH with elevated liver enzymes, elevated serum creatinine, thrombocytopenia, eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, medically indicated preterm birth or perinatal death. Preeclampsia was a secondary outcome. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression. Sampling weights were used to reduce bias from an overrepresentation of women with preeclampsia or the primary outcome. There was no relationship between Hp phenotype and the primary outcome or preeclampsia in Hispanic, white/other or black women. Vitamin supplementation did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome or preeclampsia in women of any phenotype. Supplementation increased preeclampsia risk (odds ratio 3.30; 95% confidence interval 1.61–6.82, p<0.01) in Hispanic Hp 2-2 women. Hp phenotype does not influence preeclampsia risk, or identify a subset of women who may benefit from vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. PMID:23573260

Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Gandley, Robin E.; McGee, Paula L.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Myatt, Leslie; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Thorp, John M.; Mercer, Brian M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Harper, Margaret; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

2013-01-01

30

Efficacy of Enteral Supplementation Enriched with Glutamine, Fiber, and Oligosaccharide on Mucosal Injury following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The combination of glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharides (GFO) is thought to be beneficial for alleviating gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by chemotherapy. A commercial enteral supplementation product (GFO) enriched with these 3 components is available in Japan. We performed a retrospective study to test whether oral GFO decreased the severity of mucosal injury following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of 44 HSCT patients, 22 received GFO and 22 did not. Severity of diarrhea/mucositis, overall survival, weight loss, febrile illness/documented infection, intravenous hyperalimentation days/hospital days, engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and cumulative incidence of relapse were studied. Sex, age, performance status, diagnosis, disease status, and treatment variables were similar in both groups. There were fewer days of diarrhea grade 3–4 in patients receiving GFO than in those who did not (0.86 vs. 3.27 days); the same was true for days of mucositis grade 3–4 (3.86 vs. 6.00 days). Survival at day 100 was 100% in the GFO group, but only 77.3% for the patients not receiving GFO (p = 0.0091, log-rank test). Weight loss and the number of days of intravenous hyperalimentation were better in the GFO group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Although not significant, less gut bacterial translocation with Enterococcus species developed in the GFO group (p = 0.0728) than in the non-GFO group. Other outcomes were not affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative clinical study of GFO supplementation to alleviate mucosal injury after allo-HSCT. We conclude that glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharide supplementation is an effective supportive therapy to decrease the severity of mucosal damage in HSCT. PMID:25493082

Iyama, Satoshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Hashimoto, Akari; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Ibata, Soushi; Ono, Kaoru; Murase, Kazuyuki; Takada, Kohichi; Sato, Yasushi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Miyanishi, Koji; Akizuki, Emi; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Mizugichi, Toru; Takimoto, Rishu; Kobune, Masayoshi; Hirata, Koichi; Kato, Junji

2014-01-01

31

NDA SYSTEM RESPONSE MODELING AND ITS APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect

The Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant (PORTS) is a uranium enrichment facility that was historically used to enrich uranium to levels that range from 2% to greater than 97%. The feed material for PORTS was obtained from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) that produced uranium in the form of UF6 that was enriched to about 1 to 2%. The enrichment process involves a multistage process by which gaseous UF{sub 6} passed through a diffusion barrier in each stage. The porous diffusion barrier in each stage retards the rate of the diffusion of the heavier {sup 238}U atoms relative to the diffusion of the lighter {sup 235}U atoms. By this process the product stream is slightly enriched by each stage of the process. Each stage consists of a compressor, converter and a motor. There are more than 4000 stages that are linked together with piping of various diameters to form the PORTS cascade. The cascade spans three interconnected buildings and comprises miles of piping, thousands of seals, converters, valves, motors, and compressors. During operation, PORTS process equipment contained UF{sub 6} gas with uranium enrichment that increased in the process stream from the first to the last stage in a known manner. Gaseous UF{sub 6} moving through the PORTS process equipment had potential to form deposits within the process equipment by several mechanisms, including solidification due to incorrect temperature and pressure conditions during the process, inleakage of atmospheric moisture that chemically reacts with UF{sub 6} to form hydrated uranyl fluoride solids, reduction reactions of UF{sub 6} with cascade metals, and UF{sub 6} condensation on the internal equipment surfaces. As a result, the process equipment of the PORTS contains a variable and unknown quantity of uranium with variable enrichment that has been deposited within the equipment during plant operations. The exact chemical form of this uranium is variable, although it is expected that the bulk of the material is of the form of uranyl fluoride that will become hydrated on exposure to moisture in air when the systems are no longer buffered. The deposit geometry and thickness is uncertain and variable. However, a reasonable assessment of the level of material holdup in this equipment is necessary to support decommissioning efforts. The assessment of nuclear material holdup in process equipment is a complex process that requires integration of process knowledge, nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, and computer modeling to maximize capabilities and minimize uncertainty. The current report is focused on the use of computer modeling and simulation of NDA measurements.

Vinson, D.

2010-03-01

32

The efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis supplementation in the management of overweight and obesity: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the use of the African Bush Mango, Irvingia gabonensis for body weight reduction in obese and overweight individuals. Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant RCTs. The bibliographies of located articles were also searched. No age, gender, or language restrictions were imposed. The reporting quality of identified RCTs was assessed using a methodological checklist adapted from the Consolidated Standard of Reporting Trials Statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and assessed the reporting quality of included studies. Three RCTs were identified, and all were included. The RCTs all had flaws in the reporting of their methodology. All RCTs reported statistically significant reductions in body weight and waist circumference favoring I. gabonensis over placebo. The results from the RCTs also suggest positive effects of I. gabonensis supplementation on the blood lipid profile. Adverse events included headache and sleep difficulty. Due to the paucity and poor reporting quality of the RCTs, the effect of I. gabonensis on body weight and related parameters are unproven. Therefore, I. gabonensis cannot be recommended as a weight loss aid. Future research in this area should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:23419021

Onakpoya, Igho; Davies, Lucy; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

2013-03-01

33

NDA (nondestructive assay) training for new IAEA inspectors at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

The history of the evolution of nondestructive assay (NDA) training for international inspectors at Los Alamos is described. The current NDA training course for International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors is presented in terms of structure, content, and rationale. Results of inspector measurement exercises are given along with projections for future developments in NDA inspector training. 3 refs.

Stewart, J.E.; Reilly, T.D.; Belew, W.; Woelfl, E.; Fager, J.

1987-01-01

34

Emerging Supplements in Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

2012-01-01

35

The efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food SourceTM...

36

A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this direction, such as improving both the plutonium isotopic distribution measurement and the multiplicity counter, so that the assays can be performed on any plutonium samples instead of only pure oxides. Advances have also been made on uranium bulk measurements by the development of the active well coincidence counter. Meanwhile, several large bulk-handling facilities have been coming on line under IAEA safeguards. These facilities require full-time inspectors to be present whenever the plant is operating. The IAEA requested help so that measurements can be made even when inspectors are not present. The evolution and success of unattended NDA has been responsible for the capability of the IAEA to monitor large bulk-handling facilities without substantial increase in inspection effort. The integration of NDA with containment & surveillance measures and automation has been crucial to reducing inspection manpower. These systems have developed to the point where the IAEA can make credible conclusions on large high-throughput plants such as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication or reprocessing plants.

Sprinkle, J. K. (James K.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Hsue, S.-T. (Sin-Tao); Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.)

2001-01-01

37

A neutron method for NDA analysis in the SAPPHIRE Project  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Project SAPPHIRE, the top secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) the re-packing of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable US containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the U-235 content of each container for Nuclear Criticality Safety and compliance purposes; (3) the packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) the shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of SAPPHIRE operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for U-235 content.

Lewis, K.D.

1995-01-09

38

Assessment of the Efficacy of L-Lysine Sulfate vis-à-vis L-Lysine Hydrochloride as Sources of Supplemental Lysine in Broiler Chickens.  

PubMed

In this study the effects of L-lysine hydrochloride (containing 78.8% available lysine as crystalline lysine) and L-lysine sulfate (containing 51% available lysine in bacterial cell mass) as source of supplemental lysine in broiler chickens was assessed. The basal diet was supplemented with either L-lysine hydrochloride or L-lysine sulfate to meet lysine requirement. Lysine supplementation irrespective of source improved (P < .05) live weight and food conversion. Live weight and food conversion ratio of the L-lysine sulfate group was superior (P < .05) to the L-lysine hydrochloride group. Supplementation of lysine to the basal diet improved breast meat yield (P < .05). Meat protein content and protein accretion increased (P < .01) when L-lysine sulfate was supplemented. Nutrient metabolizability, N retention, protein utilization efficiency and live weight gain : lysine intake ratio also improved (P < .01) with L-lysine sulfate. A fasting trial conducted after the completion of the feeding trial indicated that the birds receiving L-lysine sulfate retained more of their live weight than the control and the L-lysine hydrochloride dietary groups (P < .05). It was concluded that due to the retained bacterial cell mass, L-lysine sulfate may be a superior source of supplemental lysine than L-lysine hydrochloride for broiler chickens. PMID:20706643

Bahadur, Vijay; Haldar, Sudipto; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

2010-01-01

39

Assessment of the Efficacy of L-Lysine Sulfate vis-à-vis L-Lysine Hydrochloride as Sources of Supplemental Lysine in Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

In this study the effects of L-lysine hydrochloride (containing 78.8% available lysine as crystalline lysine) and L-lysine sulfate (containing 51% available lysine in bacterial cell mass) as source of supplemental lysine in broiler chickens was assessed. The basal diet was supplemented with either L-lysine hydrochloride or L-lysine sulfate to meet lysine requirement. Lysine supplementation irrespective of source improved (P < .05) live weight and food conversion. Live weight and food conversion ratio of the L-lysine sulfate group was superior (P < .05) to the L-lysine hydrochloride group. Supplementation of lysine to the basal diet improved breast meat yield (P < .05). Meat protein content and protein accretion increased (P < .01) when L-lysine sulfate was supplemented. Nutrient metabolizability, N retention, protein utilization efficiency and live weight gain : lysine intake ratio also improved (P < .01) with L-lysine sulfate. A fasting trial conducted after the completion of the feeding trial indicated that the birds receiving L-lysine sulfate retained more of their live weight than the control and the L-lysine hydrochloride dietary groups (P < .05). It was concluded that due to the retained bacterial cell mass, L-lysine sulfate may be a superior source of supplemental lysine than L-lysine hydrochloride for broiler chickens. PMID:20706643

Bahadur, Vijay; Haldar, Sudipto; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

2010-01-01

40

Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

41

Efficacy of multivitamin/mineral supplementation to reduce chronic disease risk: a critical review of the evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

abstract We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of MVM supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were examined. The majority of scientific studies investigating the use of MVM supplements in chronic disease risk reduction reported no significant effect. However, the largest and longest RCT of MVM supplements conducted to date, the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS II), found a modest and significant reduction in total and epithelial cancer incidence in male physicians, consistent with the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. In addition, PHS II found a modest and significant reduction in the incidence of nuclear cataract, in agreement with several other RCTs and observational, prospective cohort studies. The effects of MVM use on other subtypes of cataract and age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. Neither RCTs nor prospective cohort studies are without their limitations. The placebo-controlled trial design of RCTs may be inadequate for nutrient interventions, and residual confounding, measurement error, and the possibility of reverse causality are inherent to any observational study. National surveys show that micronutrient inadequacies are widespread in the US and that dietary supplements, of which MVMs are the most common type, help fulfill micronutrient requirements in adults and children. PMID:24941429

Angelo, Giana; Drake, Victoria J; Frei, Balz

2014-06-18

42

Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

Klann, R. T.

2000-02-29

43

Improving the Efficacy of the Sterile Insect Technique for Fruit Flies by Incorporation of Hormone and Dietary Supplements into Adult Holding Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a universally accepted method of control for tephritid flies. Improving efficacy of\\u000a mating by sterile males would reduce costs significantly. This paper describes studies of the physiological mechanisms responsible\\u000a for coordination of reproductive maturity and sex pheromone communication in males of the genus Anastrepha in order to develop methods for acceleration of reproductive maturity

P. E. A. Teal; Y. Gomez-Simuta; B. D. Dueben; T. C. Holler; S. Olson

44

Efficacy of Whey Protein Supplementation on Resistance Exercise–Induced Changes in Lean Mass, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function in Mobility-Limited Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to mobility-limited older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplementation to an isocaloric control on changes in whole-body lean mass, mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, and stair-climbing performance in older mobility-limited adults in response to 6 months of resistance training (RT). Methods. Eighty mobility-limited adults aged 70–85 years were randomized to receive WPC (40g/day) or an isocaloric control for 6 months. All participants also completed a progressive high-intensity RT intervention. Sample sizes were calculated based on the primary outcome of change in whole-body lean mass to give 80% power for a 0.05-level, two-sided test. Results. Lean mass increased 1.3% and 0.6% in the WPC and control groups, respectively. Muscle cross-sectional area was increased 4.6% and 2.9% in the WPC and control groups, respectively, and muscle strength increased 16%–50% in WPC and control groups. Stair-climbing performance also improved in both groups. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the change in any of these variables between groups. Conclusions. These data suggest that WPC supplementation at this dose does not offer additional benefit to the effects of RT in mobility-limited older adults. PMID:23114462

2013-01-01

45

Standard guide for the selection, training and qualification of nondestructive assay (NDA) personnel  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide contains good practices for the selection, training, qualification, and professional development of personnel performing analysis, calibration, physical measurements, or data review using nondestructive assay equipment, methods, results, or techniques. The guide also covers NDA personnel involved with NDA equipment setup, selection, diagnosis, troubleshooting, or repair. Selection, training, and qualification programs based on this guide are intended to provide assurance that NDA personnel are qualified to perform their jobs competently. This guide presents a series of options but does not recommend a specific course of action.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2004-01-01

46

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... the risk. Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Dietary Supplements: Tips for Women Print and Share (PDF 123KB) ... or 10877-382-4357. To Learn More about Dietary Supplements Using Dietary Supplements Weight Loss Fraud NIH Office ...

47

RUMINATIONS ON NDA MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY COMPARED TO DA UNCERTAINTY  

SciTech Connect

It is difficult to overestimate the importance that physical measurements performed with nondestructive assay instruments play throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They underpin decision making in many areas and support: criticality safety, radiation protection, process control, safeguards, facility compliance, and waste measurements. No physical measurement is complete or indeed meaningful, without a defensible and appropriate accompanying statement of uncertainties and how they combine to define the confidence in the results. The uncertainty budget should also be broken down in sufficient detail suitable for subsequent uses to which the nondestructive assay (NDA) results will be applied. Creating an uncertainty budget and estimating the total measurement uncertainty can often be an involved process, especially for non routine situations. This is because data interpretation often involves complex algorithms and logic combined in a highly intertwined way. The methods often call on a multitude of input data subject to human oversight. These characteristics can be confusing and pose a barrier to developing and understanding between experts and data consumers. ASTM subcommittee C26-10 recognized this problem in the context of how to summarize and express precision and bias performance across the range of standards and guides it maintains. In order to create a unified approach consistent with modern practice and embracing the continuous improvement philosophy a consensus arose to prepare a procedure covering the estimation and reporting of uncertainties in non destructive assay of nuclear materials. This paper outlines the needs analysis, objectives and on-going development efforts. In addition to emphasizing some of the unique challenges and opportunities facing the NDA community we hope this article will encourage dialog and sharing of best practice and furthermore motivate developers to revisit the treatment of measurement uncertainty.

Salaymeh, S.; Ashley, W.; Jeffcoat, R.

2010-06-17

48

Review and Ranking of NDA Techniques to Determine Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

A number of efforts are under way to improve nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) safeguard applications. These efforts have largely focused on advancing individual NDA approaches to assay plutonium content. Although significant improvements have been made in NDA techniques, relatively little work has been done to thoroughly and systematically compare the methods. A comparative review of the relative strengths and weaknesses of current NDA techniques brings a new perspective to guide future research. To gauge the practicality and effectiveness of the various relevant NDA approaches, criteria have been developed from two broad categories: functionality and operability. The functionality category includes accuracy estimates, measurement time, plutonium verification capabilities, and assembly or fuel rod assay. Since SNF composition changes with operational history and cooling times, the viability of certain NDA approaches will also change over time. While active interrogation approaches will benefit from reduced background radiation, passive assays will lose the information contained in short-lived isotopes. Therefore, the expected assay accuracy as a function of time is considered. The operability category attempts to gauge the challenges associated with the application of different NDA techniques. This category examines the NDA deploy-ability, measurement capabilities and constraints in spent fuel pools, required on-site facilities, NDA technique synergies, and the extent to which the measurements are obtrusive to the facility. Each topic listed in the categories will be given a numerical score used to rank the different NDA approaches. While the combined numerical score of each technique is informative, the individual-topic scoring will allow for a more-tailored ranking approach. Since the needs and tools of the International Atomic Energy Agency differ from those of a recycling facility, the best assay technique may change with users and SNF characteristics. This ranking system will also examine the merits of a staged inspection with quick measurements followed by more-accurate assays of suspicious SNF. The final results of this ranking process will be used to guide the NDA safeguards research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Cheatham, Jesse R [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

49

Effects of NDA, a new plant growth retardant, on cell culture growth of Zea mays L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new plant growth retardant, the norbornenodiazetine derivative 5-(4-chlorophenyl) - 3,4,5,9,10 - pentaaza - tetracyclo -\\u000a 5,4,1,02.6,08.11- dodeca - 3,9 - diene (NDA) was tested for its effects on growth ofZea mays suspension cultures. It was shown that NDA could inhibit cell division almost completely at a concentration of 5× 10?5 M, while 80% of cells could be considered viable.

Klaus Grossmann; Wilhelm Rademacher; Johannes Jung

1983-01-01

50

S-adenosylmethionine mediates glutathione efficacy by increasing glutathione S-transferase activity: implications for S-adenosyl methionine as a neuroprotective dietary supplement.  

PubMed

When maintained on a folate-deficient, iron-rich diet, transgenic mice lacking in apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/- mice) demonstrate impaired activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), resulting in increased oxidative species within brain tissue despite abnormally high levels of glutathione. These mice also exhibit reduced levels of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and increased levels of its hydrolysis product S-adenosyl homocysteine, which inhibits SAM usage. Supplementation of the above diet with SAM restored GST activity and eliminated reactive oxygen species at the expense of stockpiled glutathione, suggesting that one or more SAM-dependent reactions were required to maintain GST activity. We examined herein the impact of SAM on GST activity using a cell-free assay. SAM stimulated GST activity in a dose-response manner when added to homogenates derived from the above ApoE-/- mice. SAM also increased activity of purified rat liver GST and recombinant GST. Filtering of SAM through a 4 kDa cutoff and systematic withholding of reaction components eliminated the possibility of any additional contaminating enzyme. These findings confirm that SAM can exert a direct effect on GST activity. Since Alzheimer's disease is accompanied by reduced GST activity, diminished SAM and increased SAH, these findings underscore the critical role of SAM in maintenance of neuronal health. PMID:18599958

Tchantchou, Flaubert; Graves, Michael; Falcone, Deane; Shea, Thomas B

2008-07-01

51

Mobile Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements of Standard Waste Boxes (SWB)  

SciTech Connect

A mobile NDA system was composed and qualified for Safeguards measurements of multiple standard waste boxes (SWB) generated as a result of clean-out activities at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The system included a neutron slab counter and high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. PC/FRAM software was used to determine the isotopic composition of plutonium residue contained in the waste in order to interpret two independent measurement results provided by total neutron counting and gamma energy analysis (GEA). The measurement procedure developed to estimate transuranic (TRU) content of boxes was based on assumptions about characteristics of the matrix and material distribution. The neutron slab counter was calibrated with various plutonium working standards that were placed in a surrogate SWB specifically made to simulate miscellaneous waste debris. Transmission measurements with a californium source were used to correct for the matrix effects. An In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was used to acquire spectra from SWBs and ISOCS software was applied to generate the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. Infinite energy extrapolation was introduced to correct GEA results for self-attenuation. The gamma and neutron results obtained on multiple SWBs are compared and discussed in the paper. Revised measurement positions for the detector and the transmission source are also suggested based on experience gained during the measurements.

Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, James R.; Mapili, Gabriel M.

2006-11-01

52

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

53

Automatic identification of NDA measured items: Use of E-tags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how electronic identification devices or E-tags could reduce the time spent by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors making nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements. As one example, the use of E-tags with a high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) is discussed in detail. Sections of the paper include inspection procedures, system description, software, and future plans. Mounting of E-tabs, modifications to the HLNC, and the use of tamper indicating devices are also discussed. The technology appears to have wide application to different types of nuclear facilities and inspections and could significantly change NDA inspection procedures.

Chitumbo, K.; Olsen, R.; Hatcher, C. R.; Kadner, S. P.

54

Dietary supplement drug therapies for depression.  

PubMed

Many dietary supplements are readily accessible and commonly used for the treatment of depression. A dietary supplement is a product intended to supplement the diet but is not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can take action against dietary supplement manufacturers for products only after they are marketed, mainly if the product is found to be unsafe or if false or misleading claims are made about the product. Few dietary supplement products have been adequately studied for their safety and efficacy. Of the five products reviewed in this article (L-methylfolate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], omega-3 fatty acids, L-tryptophan, and inositol), only omega-3 fatty acids and SAM-e have sufficient supporting evidence for their efficacy to warrant safe use. PMID:22589230

Howland, Robert H

2012-06-01

55

PRECLINICAL RESEARCH CLINICAL RESEARCH NDA REVIEW Results from laboratory and animal  

E-print Network

SCIENCE RESEARCH In this phase, researchers tests the drug/ therapy in the laboratory or in animals beforePRECLINICAL RESEARCH CLINICAL RESEARCH NDA REVIEW IND Results from laboratory and animal research focus primarily on drug/therapy safety. PHASE II In addition to assessing the drug/therapy safety

Kim, Duck O.

56

Podophyllum hexandrum as a potential botanical supplement for the medical management of nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs) and free radical-mediated ailments: leads from in vitro/in vivo radioprotective efficacy evaluation.  

PubMed

Management of radiation-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species requires a holistic approach to mitigate the deleterious effects of free radicals. Flora of the Himalayas, which prevails under extreme climatic conditions, has been explored for its potential utility to develop radioprotective drugs. The Himalayan high altitude medicinal plant, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, was selected on the basis of its unique properties, and a novel fractionated nonpolar extract (REC-2003) was prepared and evaluated for radioprotective efficacy, in vitro as well as in vivo. The free radical scavenging activity of REC-2003 was found to be > 75% (20 ?g/ml) with maximum superoxide scavenging activity (57.56 ± 1.38%) recorded at 1 mg/ml concentration (tetrazolium-based estimation). More than 30% inhibition of nitric oxide radicals was observed at concentrations > 0.5 mg/ml, while hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (deoxy-D-ribose assay) exhibited a dose-dependent (100-600 ?g/ml) increase. Significantly high (90%) protection to human erythrocytes was observed at 75 ?g/ml, which was found to be the most optimized dose. Similarly, more than 90% inhibition was observed against lipid peroxidation (evaluated by estimating levels of malondialdehyde). The significant antihemolytic potential of REC-2003 could be attributed to its ability to scavenge free radicals, reduce peroxidative stress on lipid membranes, and render protection to DNA (evaluated using plasmid relaxation assay). All these activities holistically contributed toward the radioprotective ability. REC-2003 (8 mg/kg BW; intraperitoneal (i.p.), -30 min) rendered > 80% total-body protection in Swiss Albino Strain 'A' mice [against lethal radiation (10 Gy)] in a 30-day survival assay. Phytochemical characterization of the constituents of REC-2003 revealed the presence of polyphenolics (flavonoids). The characterized constituents also included the aryl-tetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin, its glycoside, 4'-demethyl derivative, and epi-podophyllotoxin. The optimized requisite single dose (8 mg/KgBW; i.p., -30 min) for obtaining significant radioprotection is reasonably low and establishes its future utility as a dietary supplement in the medical management of free radical-mediated diseases and specifically for rescue missions during nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs). PMID:22435572

Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Dhaker, Atlar Singh; Adhikari, Manish; Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Shikha; Gupta, Damodar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Rajender P

2010-03-01

57

Dietary supplements.  

PubMed

For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

2004-01-01

58

Dietary supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of

RON J. MAUGHAN; DOUG S. KING; Trevor Lea

2004-01-01

59

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

60

ML-oriented NDA carrier synchronization for general rotationally symmetric signal constellations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We point out that the nondecision-aided (NDA) carrier synchronizer, maximizing the low Es\\/No limit of the likelihood function averaged over a general 2?\\/N-rotationally symmetric signal constellation, reduces to the familiar timing-aided Nth power synchronizer; this extends a result of D'Andrea, Mengali and Reggiannini (1988) where only M-PSK constellations have been considered. Whereas in the case of M-PSK the tracking error

Marc Moeneclaey; Geert de Jonghe

1994-01-01

61

Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

2009-01-01

62

NDA PDP Program PuO{sub 2} increased particle size specification and design  

SciTech Connect

Provisions in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan require an assessment of performance for nondestructive waste assay (NDA) systems employed in the program. This requirement is in part fulfilled through the use of Performance Demonstration programs. In order to optimize the quality and quantity of information acquired during a given Performance Demonstration Program cycle, the assessment employed is to be carefully specified and designed. The assessment must yield measurement system performance data meaningful with respect to NDA system capability to accommodate attributes of interest known to occur in actual waste forms. The design and specification of the increased particle size PuO{sub 2} PDP working reference materials (WRMs) is directed at providing a straightforward mechanism to assess waste NDA system capability to account for biases introduced by large PuO{sub 2} particles. The increased particle size PuO{sub 2} PDP WRM design addresses actual waste form attributes associated with PuO{sub 2} particle size and distributions thereof, the issue of a known and stable WRM configuration and equally important appropriate certification and tractability considerations.

Marshall, R.S.; Taggart, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Becker, G.K.; Woon, W.Y. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

63

Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

1996-09-01

64

USP Verified Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... Services > USP Verified Dietary Supplements Tweet USP Verified Dietary Supplements USP Verified dietary supplements are products that have ... what it means . Where to Find USP Verified Dietary Supplements View USP Verified products and where they can ...

65

Sports Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... make you any faster or more skillful. Many factors go into your abilities as an athlete — including your diet, how much sleep you get, genetics and heredity, and your training program. But the fact is that using sports supplements may put you at risk for serious ...

66

Production of NDA Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project  

SciTech Connect

The production of Non Destructive Assay (NDA) Working Reference Materials (WRMs) that are traceable to nationally recognized standards was undertaken to support implementation of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project (CEP). The WRMs produced for the CEP project consist of Increased Am/Pu mass ration (IAP) and depleted Uranium (DU) WRMs. The CEP IAP/DU WRM set provides radioactive material standards for use in combination with 55 gallon drum waste matrix surrogates for the assessment of waste NDA assay system performance. The Production of WRMs is a meticulous process that is not without certain trials and tribulations. Problems may arise at any of the various stages of WRM production which include, but are not limited to; material characterization (physical, chemical, and isotopic), material blend parameters, personnel radiation exposure, gas generation phenomenon, traceability to national standards, encapsulation, statistical evaluation of the data, and others. Presented here is an overall description of the process by which the CEP WRMs were produced and certified as well as discussions pertaining to some of the problems encountered and how they were solved.

Noll, P.D. Jr.; Marshall, R.S.

1998-11-17

67

[Efficacy studies].  

PubMed

Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

2014-07-01

68

Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS.  

PubMed

Performance enhancing drugs, ergogenic aids, and supplements come in many forms. The financial, personal, social, and health-related impact of these substances has wide and varied consequences. This article reviews common substances and practices used by athletes. It discusses the history, use, effects, and adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, growth factors, masking agents, diuretics, volume expanders, ?-blockers, amphetamines, caffeine, other stimulants, and creatine. The evidence base behind the use, safety, and efficacy of these items as well as testing for these substances is discussed. PMID:23668655

Liddle, David G; Connor, Douglas J

2013-06-01

69

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

70

Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels encourages nutrition professionals to become knowledgeable about all dietary supplements. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1995 (DSHEA) expanded the definition of dietary supplements beyond essential nutrients while distinguishing them from drugs or food additives. In order to give practical advice to consumers and policymakers, dietetics professionals need to understand the implications

KATHY L RADIMER; AMY F SUBAR; FRANCES E THOMPSON

2000-01-01

71

How the NDA Provides Transparency and Visibility of the Technical Deliverability of the R and D Programme - 13303  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) was created under the UK Energy Act 2004 to ensure the UK historic civil public sector nuclear legacy sites are decommissioned safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment. The delivery will involve carrying out many unique projects within a high hazard environment requiring the very highest standards in safety, security and environmental management. Unique problems require unique solutions and there is a substantial amount of research and development required for each project. The NDA's R and D strategic objective is to ensure that delivery of the NDA's mission is technically underpinned by sufficient and appropriate research and development. This drives a requirement to provide transparency and visibility of the technical deliverability of the programme through the technical baseline and accompanying research and development requirements. The NDA need to have confidence in the technical deliverability of the Site License Companies (SLCs) plans, provide overall visibility of R and D across the NDA Estate and ensure that appropriate R and D is being carried out in a timely manner. They need to identify where coordinated R and D programmes may be advantageous as a result of common needs, risks and opportunities and ensure key R and D needs across NDA are identified, prioritised and work programmes are costed and scheduled in the Lifetime Plans for individual sites and SLCs. Evidence of the Site License Company's approach and their corresponding technical underpinning programmes is achieved through submission of a number of outputs collectively known as TBuRDs (Technical Baseline and Underpinning Research and Development Requirements). This paper is a summary of the information generated by an independent review of those TBuRDs. It highlights some of the key messages, synergies and common R and D activities across the estate. It demonstrates the value of a consistent approach to collecting R and D data across multiple Sites with a view to enhancing knowledge transfer and improving delivery efficiency. It will be of interest to all who are running R and D programmes where other programmes may be carrying out similar activities. (authors)

Seed, Ian; James, Paula [Cogentus Consulting (United Kingdom)] [Cogentus Consulting (United Kingdom); Brownridge, Melanie; McMinn, Mervin [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - NDA (United Kingdom)] [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - NDA (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

72

77 FR 12310 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Prescription Drugs That Contained...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-1978-N-0441 (formerly 78N-0324), FDA evaluated the evidence of effectiveness for various indications for Atarax Tablets (NDA 10-392), Atarax Syrup (NDA 10-485), Vistaril Injection (NDA 11-111), Vistaril Capsules (NDA 11-459),...

2012-02-29

73

Self-Efficacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a comprehensive summary of the topic written by one of its pioneers. The site provides a definition of self-efficacy, characteristics of efficacious people, and a description of how self-efficacy can be developed or undermined. The author describes self-efficacy in social, family and school settings and in various stages of life. There is also a short bibliography.

Bandura, Albert; University, Stanford

74

Dietary supplement research portfolio at the NIH, 2009-2011.  

PubMed

The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009-2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement-related funding for FYs 2009-2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women's reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wambogo, Edwina A; Regan, Karen S; Davis, Cindy D

2014-04-01

75

Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

1989-01-01

76

Using NDA Techniques to Improve Safeguards Metrics on Burnup Quantification and Plutonium Content in LWR SNF  

SciTech Connect

Globally, there exists a long history in reprocessing in evaluation of the shipper/receiver difference (SRD) on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) received and processed. Typically, the declared shipper s values for uranium and plutonium in SNF (based on calculations involving the initial manufacturer s data and reactor operating history) are used as the input quantities to the head-end process of the facility. Problems have been encountered when comparing these values with measured results of the input accountability tank contents. A typical comparison yields a systematic bias indicated as a loss of 5 7 percent of the plutonium (Pu) and approximately 1 percent for the uranium (U). Studies suggest that such deviation can be attributed to the non-linear nature of the axial burnup values of the SNF. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Texas A&M University are co-investigating the development of a new method, via Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques, to improve the accuracy in burnup and Pu content quantification. Two major components have been identified to achieve this objective. The first component calculates a measurement-based burnup profile along the axis of a fuel rod. Gamma-ray data is collected at numerous locations along the axis of the fuel rod using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector designed for a wide range of gamma-ray energies. Using two fission products, 137Cs and 134Cs, the burnup is calculated at each measurement location and a profile created along the axis of the rod based on the individual measurement locations. The second component measures the U/Pu ratio using an HPGe detector configured for relatively low-energy gamma-rays including x-rays. Fluorescence x-rays from U and Pu are measured and compared to the U/Pu ratio determined from a destructive analysis of the sample. This will be used to establish a relationship between the measured and actual values. This relationship will be combined with the burnup analysis results to establish a relationship between fission product activity and Pu content. It is anticipated that this new method will allow receiving facilities to make a limited number of NDA, gamma-ray, measurements to confirm the shipper declared values for burnup and Pu content thereby improving the SRD.

Saavedra, Steven F [ORNL; Charlton, William S [Texas A& M University; Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL; Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL

2010-01-01

77

Children and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Children and Dietary Supplements September 2012 Research has shown that many children ... disclaimer about external links More About Children and Dietary Supplements What the Science Says Other Clinical Digests Subscriptions ...

78

Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of heat-injured Salmonella from egg albumen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recovery of Salmonella from liquid egg white (LEW) is complicated by thermal and innate LEW antimicrobial-induced injury. Numerous supplements have been reported to promote the recovery of injured bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of twelve media supplements to af...

79

Use of Nonprescription Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss Is Common among Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDietary supplements are not recommended as part of a weight-loss program due to concerns about efficacy and safety. This study sought to assess prevalence and duration of nonprescription weight-loss supplement use, associated weight-control behaviors, discussion of use with a health care professional, and specific ingredient use.

Heidi Michels Blanck; Mary K. Serdula; Cathleen Gillespie; Deborah A. Galuska; Patricia A. Sharpe; Joan M. Conway; Laura Kettel Khan; Barbara E. Ainsworth

2007-01-01

80

Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteo- arthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucos- amine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain

Pharm D

81

Universitt Regensburg Diploma Supplement  

E-print Network

Universität Regensburg Diploma Supplement This Diploma Supplement model was developed recognition of qualifications (diplomas, de- grees, certificates, etc.). It is designed to provide(s) of Instruction/Examination German, English #12;Diploma Supplement Universität Regensburg Max Mustermann 2 of 5 3

Schubart, Christoph

82

Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements  

PubMed Central

Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

2013-01-01

83

The use of TI-208 gamma rays for safeguards, nondestructive-assay (NDA) measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines two cases where gamma rays from Tl-208, including the 2614keV gamma ray, were used to detect anomalies in waste material. In addition to the characterization of waste for waste acceptance, and compliance with environmental and transportation laws, there is a safeguards element as well. The more sophisticated method of NDA at Y-12 includes a means to detect shielded special nuclear material (SNM). Excess count rates in the 2614keV gamma ray from Tl-208 are an indication of potential shielded HEU in waste as well as other containers. The 2614keV gamma ray is easy to monitor routinely. When a large 2614keV peak is detected, further investigation can be conducted from the gamma spectrum. This paper describes this further investigation in two cases. In one case self-shielded HEU was detected. In the other case the Tl-208 gamma rays came from a piece of Th-232 metal.

Oberer, R. B.; Chiang, L. G.; Norris, M. J.; Gunn, C. A.; Adaline, B. C.

2009-05-26

84

Quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials containing uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of inspection agencies and facility operators to measure powders containing several actinides is increasingly necessary as new reprocessing techniques and fuel forms are being developed. These powders are difficult to measure with nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques because neutrons emitted from induced and spontaneous fission of different nuclides are very similar. A neutron multiplicity technique based on first principle methods was developed to measure these powders by exploiting isotope-specific nuclear properties, such as the energy-dependent fission cross sections and the neutron induced fission neutron multiplicity. This technique was tested through extensive simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code and by one measurement campaign using the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and two measurement campaigns using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) with various (alpha,n) sources and actinide materials. Four potential applications of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4) weapons verification in arms control agreements. This technique still has several challenges which need to be overcome, the largest of these being the challenge of having high-precision active and passive measurements to produce results with acceptably small uncertainties.

Goddard, Braden

85

The Efficacy, Safety, and Practicality of Treatments for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining interventions for adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reviewed to evaluate their efficacy. These efficacy findings were supplemented with a preliminary system for judging safety and practicality. Results suggest that the stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) is safe and well-established empirically, but has some problems with inconvenience and noncompliance. Preliminary research supports the efficacy, safety, and practicality of

Bradley H. Smith; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Michael T. Willoughby; Steven Evans

2000-01-01

86

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH BLUEBERRY EXTRACTS IMPROVES THE SURVIVAL AND FUNCTION OF GRAFTED EMBRYONIC DOPAMINE NEURONS IN RATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transplantation of embryonic dopamine (DA) neurons into the striatum is a viable treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, transplanted cells survive poorly. This study provides evidence that dietary supplementation with blueberry extract (BBE) provides an efficacious, easily administered a...

87

The efficacy of supplementing ethoxyquin in poultry feed  

E-print Network

peroxidation and noted that exogenous Fe produced approximately six times more thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) than did exogenous Cu. Singlet oxygen contains two unpaired electrons which have same orbitals and different spins, in conn ast... homogenates of various tissues by incubating in vitro with thiobarbituric acid. These authors noted a decrease in color (TBA index) when the rats were pre-dosed with tocopherol acetate. This resulted in liver, heart, and muscle suspensions...

Srinivasan, Lavanya Janardan

2012-06-07

88

Supplemental Online Materials Cytoskeletal Organization  

E-print Network

bar = 5 microns. #12;Supplemental Online Materials 3 Cryptosporidium Movies depicting gliding motilitySupplemental Online Materials 1 Cytoskeletal Organization The phylum Apicomplexa (1, 2) is defined C Figure 1 #12;Supplemental Online Materials 2 Gliding Motility Apicomplexan parasites display

Sibley, David

89

Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Beware of Fraudulent ‘Dietary Supplements’ Search the Consumer Updates Section See more fraudulent ... 800-FDA-1088 or online . back to top Dietary Supplements and FDA Dietary supplements, in general, are not ...

90

Studies on Intermittent Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lots of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, for 30 days, diets at 10 and 14% protein content. Each lot consisted of 4 groups fed on: (a) a gluten diet; (b) a gluten diet continuously supplemented with casein; (c) a gluten diet on odd days, and a gluten diet supplemented with casein, ad libitum, on even days; (d) a gluten

Anna Ferro-Luzzi; A. Mariani; P. A. Migliaccio

1970-01-01

91

Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

92

[Are calcium and vitamin D supplements for everyone?: Pro].  

PubMed

Calcium and vitamin D are essential for the health of our bones and various scientific societies recommend an intake of 1,000 mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D daily. Most people with osteoporosis do not eat food with this amount of calcium and also have insufficient levels of vitamin D, so supplements are recommended to provide osteoporotic patients with these amounts. Calcium supplements and vitamin D improve the effectiveness of anabolic and anti-catabolic agents and may have a small effect in reducing the number of fractures. Calcium supplements alone have not shown efficacy preventing fractures in patients with osteoporosis and may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy elderly women and is therefore not recommended for widespread use. Vitamin D supplements are recommended in persons with 25-OH vitamin D levels below 30 ng/ml, in particular the elderly and osteoporotic patients, due to its ability to halt the remodeling resulting from secondary hyperparathyroidism and reduce the loss of bone mass. Vitamin D supplements could help reduce falls and fractures in the institutionalized elderly. In addition, supplements of vitamin D may have other beneficial effects due to extra-osseous regulatory functions on the immune response and cell differentiation and proliferation that is associated with vitamin D. Trials begun in recent years clearly indicate a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplements on mortality, cardiovascular risk,development of tumors and prevention of infections. PMID:21924218

García Vadillo, Jesús Alberto

2011-09-01

93

Meta-analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA). We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs), identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for

Sarah Brien; Phil Prescott; George Lewith

2009-01-01

94

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

2013-01-01

95

An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.  

PubMed

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

2011-01-01

96

Supplements to Textbook Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

Holmes, Ken

1994-01-01

97

Iron supplements (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

98

Dietary Supplements for Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

99

Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... European Elder Evening Primrose Oil Vitamin E F Fenugreek Feverfew Fish Oil Flaxseed Folate Frequently Asked Questions G Garlic Ginger Ginkgo Ginseng Glucosamine Goldenseal Grape Seed Extract Green Tea H Hawthorn Herbal Dietary Supplements ...

100

Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

2008-01-15

101

Who Needs Supplements?  

MedlinePLUS

... should be considered. People with deficiency diseases or absorption disorders may need therapeutic doses of nutrients (two ... People taking prescription medications that interfere with the absorption of nutrients may also need higher dose supplements, ...

102

Children and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... months. In addition to herbs and dietary supplements, children use a wide range of complementary health approaches, including spinal manipulation and yoga. Further, a 2001 survey of 745 members of ...

103

A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes  

PubMed Central

Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement’s usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases.

Smith, Rachel N.; Agharkar, Amruta S.; Gonzales, Eric B.

2014-01-01

104

Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal.\\u000aMETHODS: We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000 mg of elemental [corrected] calcium as calcium carbonate

Rebecca D. Jackson; Andrea Z. LaCroix; Margery Gass; Robert B. Wallace; John Robbins; Cora E. Lewis; Tamsen Bassford; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Henry R. Black; Patricia L. Blanchette; Denise E. Bonds; Robert L. Brunner; Robert G. Brzyski; Bette Caan; Jane A. Cauley; Rowan T. Chlebowski; Steven R. Cummings; Iris A. Granek; Jennifer Hays; Gerardo Heiss; Susan L. Hendrix; Barbara V. Howard; Judith Hsia; F. Allan Hubbell; Karen K. C. Johnson; Howard Judd; Jane Morley Kotchen; Lewis H. Kuller; Robert D. Langer; Norman L. Lasser; Marian C. Limacher; Shari E. Ludlam; JoAnn E. Manson; Karen L. Margolis; Joan McGowan; Judith K. Ockene; Mary Jo OSullivan; Lawrence Phillips; Ross L. Prentice; Gloria E. Sarto; Marcia L. Stefanick; Linda Van Horn; Jean Wactawski-Wende; Evelyn Whitlock; Garnet L. Anderson; Annlouise R. Assaf; David H. Barad

2006-01-01

105

Efficacy of oral iron therapy in patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron supplementation is required by most dialysis patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin. The efficacy of oral iron is variable in these patients, and many require the use of intravenous iron dextran to maintain adequate iron levels, defined as transferrin saturation greater than 20%, serum ferritin greater than 100 ng\\/mL, and serum iron greater than 80 ?g\\/dL. To determine the efficacy

Rebecca L. Wingard; Robert A. Parker; Nuhad Ismail; Raymond M. Hakim

1995-01-01

106

Leucine Supplementation Protects from Insulin Resistance by Regulating Adiposity Levels  

PubMed Central

Background Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD), supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group) was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3) in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation is lacking in already obese animals, a phenomenon possibly related to the extent of the obesity before starting the supplementation. PMID:24086364

Binder, Elke; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J.; André, Caroline; Elie, Melissa; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y.; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Belluomo, llaria; Duchampt, Adeline; Clark, Samantha; Aubert, Agnes; Mezzullo, Marco; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pagotto, Uberto; Layé, Sophie; Mithieux, Gilles; Cota, Daniela

2013-01-01

107

Supplements and sports.  

PubMed

Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

2008-11-01

108

Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for: The Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols with Molecular Oxygen Eric M. Ferreira and Brian M., Tweddell, J.; Fu, G. C. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 2794. #12;Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 2

Stoltz, Brian M.

109

A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes.  

PubMed

Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement's usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

Smith, Rachel N; Agharkar, Amruta S; Gonzales, Eric B

2014-01-01

110

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2010-01-01

111

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2013-01-01

112

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2011-01-01

113

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2014-01-01

114

7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...borrowers. The supplemental loan proportion required of a power supply borrower...arithmetic mean of the supplemental loan proportions required of the borrower's distribution...from supplemental loans. C = The proportion (%) of supplemental financing...

2012-01-01

115

Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

(Invitrogen) supplemented with penicillin, streptomycin and glutamine at 37 C with 5% CO2 in a humidified, cells were starved over- night in DMEM supplemented with glutamine, penicillin, streptomycin, and 20 m

Lim, Wendell

116

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

117

Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)  

MedlinePLUS

... information is not an endorsement or guarantee of accuracy by the Office of Dietary Supplements or the ... information is not an endorsement or guarantee of accuracy by the Office of Dietary Supplements or the ...

118

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Administrative Supplements  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SBIR Development Center announces the opportunity for current STTR Phase I and Phase II grantees to seek supplemental project funding via the Administrative Supplement mechanism.

119

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... manage diabetes. Still, more and more people use dietary supplements. And studies show that people with diabetes are ... while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

120

Too little, too late: ineffective regulation of dietary supplements in the United States.  

PubMed

Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk. PMID:25602879

Starr, Ranjani R

2015-03-01

121

Development of the nano-dust analyzer (NDA) for detection and compositional analysis of nanometer-size dust particles originating in the inner heliosphere.  

PubMed

A linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer is developed for the detection and chemical analysis of nanometer-sized particles originating near the Sun. Nano-dust particles are thought to be produced by mutual collisions between interplanetary dust particles slowly spiraling toward the Sun and are accelerated outward to high velocities by interaction with the solar wind plasma. The WAVES instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft reported the detection, strong temporal variation, and potentially high flux of these particles. Here we report on the optimization and the results from the detailed characterization of the instrument's performance using submicrometer sized dust particles accelerated to 8-60 km/s. The Nano Dust Analyzer (NDA) concept is derived from previously developed detectors. It has a 200 cm(2) effective target area and a mass resolution of approximately m/?m = 50. The NDA instrument is designed to reliably detect and analyze nanometer-sized dust particles while being pointed close to the Sun's direction, from where they are expected to arrive. Measurements by such an instrument will determine the size-dependent flux of the nano-dust particles and its variations, it will characterize the composition of the nano-dust and, ultimately, it may determine their source. The flight version of the NDA instrument is estimated to be <5 kg and requires <10 W for operation. PMID:24689626

O'Brien, L; Auer, S; Gemer, A; Grün, E; Horanyi, M; Juhasz, A; Kempf, S; Malaspina, D; Mocker, A; Moebius, E; Srama, R; Sternovsky, Z

2014-03-01

122

Original article Dietary antioxidant supplementation  

E-print Network

Original article Dietary antioxidant supplementation did not affect declining sperm function/mg epididymis when compared to young males. Dietary supplementation with low doses of vitamins C and E did or their inhibitory action on steroidogenesis by Leydig and/or Sertoli cells. dietary supplementation / in vitro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

Plant, Geoff

1988-01-01

124

Supplemental Language Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supplemental Language Study Group (SLSG) program at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, Colorado) is described. The program was developed following a student's expression of interest in learning "exotic" languages unavailable in the standard foreign language curriculum at the university. This student-run club offers several weekly…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

125

Using Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate the Efficacy of New Curricular Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can researchers in K-12 contexts stay true to the principles of rigorous evaluation designs within the constraints of classroom settings and limited funding? This paper explores this question by presenting a small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the efficacy of curricular supplemental materials on epigenetics. The…

Drits-Esser, Dina; Bass, Kristin M.; Stark, Louisa A.

2014-01-01

126

Efficacy of Computer-Assisted Instruction for the Development of Early Literacy Skills in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the efficacy of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to supplement a phonics-based reading curriculum for preschoolers and kindergartners in an urban public school system. The CAI programs provided exercises in phonological awareness and basic phonics skills. We compared treatment classes using CAI with control classes…

Macaruso, Paul; Rodman, Alyson

2011-01-01

127

Efficacy of Natuphos ® in Sorghum-Based Diets of Finishing Swine 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of a recombinantly der- ived microbial phytase (Natuphos 5000 ® , BASF Corp.) was evaluated in sorghum-soybean meal-based diets of finishing swine. During the 50- to 80- and 80- to 118-kg BW intervals, diets contained .40 and .39% plant P, respectively; control diets fed during the two weight intervals were supplemented with .08 and .04% inorganic P from

P. R. O'Quinn; D. A. Knabe; E. J. Gregg

2010-01-01

128

Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6?mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35?kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (?.40 ± .06 and ?.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058

Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

2013-01-01

129

Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

2013-01-01

130

Confirmation of the Northern Delta Aquariids (NDA, IAU #26) and the Northern June Aquilids (NZC, IAU #164)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper resolves confusion surrounding the Northern delta-Aquariids (NDA, IAU #26). Low-light level video observations with the Cameras for All-sky Meteor Surveillance project in California show distinct showers in the months of July and August. The July shower is identified as the Northern June Aquilids (NZC, IAU #164), while the August shower matches most closely prior data on the Northern delta-Aquariids. This paper validates the existence of both showers, which can now be moved to the list of established showers. The August beta-Piscids (BPI, #342) is not a separate stream, but identical to the Northern delta-Aquariids, and should be discarded from the IAU Working List. We detected the Northern June Aquilids beginning on June 14, through its peak on July 11, and to the shower's end on August 2. The meteors move in a short-period sun grazing comet orbit. Our mean orbital elements are: q = 0.124 ± 0.002 AU, 1/a = 0.512 ± 0.014 AU^{-1}, i = 37°63 ± 0°35, omega = 324°90 ± 0°27, and Omega = 107°93 ± 0°91 (N = 131). This orbit is similar to that of sungrazer comet C/2009 U10.

Holman, David; Jenniskens, Peter

2012-10-01

131

Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site  

SciTech Connect

In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

Lee, Sang-yoon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carroll, Colin J [SONALYST INC.; Sunshine, Alexander [NA-243; Novikov, Alexander [CHNPP; Lebedev, Evgeny [CHNPP

2010-01-01

132

Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Diarrhea in Infants in Pakistan, India and Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of 10-mg zinc supplementation for the treatment of acute diarrhea in infants. Patients and Methods: A total of 1110 infants age 28 days to 5 months with acute diarrhea were enrolled and randomized to receive either zinc (n = 554) or placebo (n = 556) for 14

Christa L. Fischer Walker; Zulfiqar A. Bhutta; Nita Bhandari; Telahun Teka; Farhana Shahid; Sunita Taneja; Robert E. Black

2006-01-01

133

Soy isoflavone supplementation and bone mineral density in menopausal women: a 2-y multicenter clinical trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant estrogens that are abundant in soy. Although purported to protect against bone loss, the efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women remains controversial. Our aim was to test the effect of soy isoflav...

134

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a…

Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

2012-01-01

135

Teacher efficacy: A construct validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed an instrument to measure teacher efficacy and examined the relationship between teacher efficacy and observable teacher behaviors. Factor analysis of responses from 208 elementary school teachers to a 30-item Teacher Efficacy Scale yielded 2 substantial factors that corresponded to A. Bandura's 2-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy. A multitrait–multimethod analysis that supported both convergent and discriminant validity analyzed data from

Sherri Gibson; Myron H. Dembo

1984-01-01

136

The efficacy and safety study of dietary supplement PURIAM110 on non-insulin taking Korean adults in the stage of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus: protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multicenter trial-pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Diabetes has already become a threat to the nation and the individual due to its high prevalence rates and high medical expenses.\\u000a Therefore, preventing diabetes at an earlier stage is very important. Despite advances in antidiabetic agents, we have not\\u000a yet achieved any satisfying results in treating diabetes. Among various treatments, medicinal herbs and supplements for diabetes\\u000a are reported to

Jeong-Su Park; Hoyeon Go; Bo-Hyoung Jang; Yongcheol Shin; Seong-Gyu Ko

2011-01-01

137

Nutrition and nutritional supplementation  

PubMed Central

Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

Manissier, Patricia

2009-01-01

138

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

139

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

140

Studies on Intermittent Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discontinuous casein supplementationat 24-hour intervals of an only-gluten diet was reported previously to result in an incomplete growth recovery, as well as a delayed liver-cell maturation when the protein level in the diet was 10%. When such a discontinuous supplementation was carried out at 14% protein level, the growth recovery was sufficient to ensure a practically normal terminal body

Anna Ferro-Luzzi; P. A. Migliaccio; Donatella Sorrentino; A. Mariani

1972-01-01

141

Personal Teaching Efficacy, General Teaching Efficacy and Content Efficacy: A Comparison of First and Fifth Year Agriculture Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare first and fifth year agriculture teachers' on general teaching efficacy, personal teaching efficacy, and content efficacy. Teacher efficacy has been defined as a two dimensional construct composed of personal teaching and general teaching efficacy. Personal teaching efficacy involves a teachers' evaluation of their own capability to bring about student learning. General teaching

Scott Burris; Katy McLaughlin

2008-01-01

142

Making Sense of Dietary Supplements: The Dietary Supplements Labels Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the Dietary Supplements Labels Database, a new resource from the National Library of Medicine that integrates information from dietary supplement manufacturers, government agencies, and clinical research into an easy-to-use interface. This database contains information on more than 2,000 brands of dietary supplement and more than 800 active ingredients. This resource will greatly assist consumers and health care

Annette M. Healy

2008-01-01

143

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-01-01

144

Vitamin E levels during early iron supplementation in preterm infants.  

PubMed

On the basis of preliminary data, this larger bi-institutional continuation trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of early iron supplementation in preterm infants calls attention to the levels of vitamin E, a marker of antioxidant activity, during iron treatment. A total of 116 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive at 2 or 4 weeks of age ( N = 62, N = 54, respectively) 5 mg/kg/d of nonionic iron polymaltose complex concomitantly with a daily dose of 25 IU vitamin E (as dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate) from 2 weeks of age. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) levels, iron, ferritin, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were recorded from 2 to 8 weeks of age. The morbidities of prematurity associated with free radicals formation were also documented. A gradual increase of alpha-tocopherol levels within physiological range (0.8 to 3.5 mg/dL) was found in the 2-week and 4-week groups during the study period with no difference among the groups ( P > 0.05 for all comparisons). At 8 weeks of age, iron and ferritin levels, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were higher in the 2-week group. No correlation was observed between timing of both iron and vitamin E supplement and hemolysis or morbidities associated with prematurity. Thus, treatment of iron with vitamin E supplement at 2 weeks of age is, in our experience, an efficacious and safe treatment for improving anemia in preterm infants. PMID:19263337

Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Bauer, Sofia; Shainkin-Kestenbaum, Ruth; Shiff, Yakov; Bental, Yoram; Dolfin, Tzipora; Litmanovitz, Ita

2009-05-01

145

Selenium Supplementation for Autoimmune Thyroiditis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Many studies have reported that selenium (Se) has a close relationship with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The therapeutic effect of Se supplementation in AIT treatment remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of Se supplementation for the treatment of AIT. A structured literature search was undertaken to identify all randomized controlled trials conducted in patients with AIT receiving Se supplementation or placebo. Nine studies enrolling a total of 787 patients were included. The results showed that Se supplementation with duration 6 months significantly dropped the TPOAb titers but did not decrease the TgAb titers. Patients assigned to Se supplementation for 12-month duration showed significantly lower TPOAb titers and TgAb titers. Patients after Se supplementation had a higher chance to improve the mood or well-being compared with controls. Se supplementation is associated with a significant decrease in TPOAb titers at 6 and 12 months; meanwhile, the TgAb titers can be dropped at 12 months. After Se supplementation treatment, patients had a higher chance to improve the mood without significant adverse events. PMID:25574167

Fan, Yaofu; Xu, Shuhang; Zhang, Huifeng; Cao, Wen; Wang, Kun; Chen, Guofang; Di, Hongjie; Cao, Meng

2014-01-01

146

Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?  

PubMed

Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided. PMID:22465867

Manore, Melinda M

2012-04-01

147

Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds.  

PubMed

Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized l-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine. PMID:19786198

Amoako, Prince O; Uden, Peter C; Tyson, Julian F

2009-10-12

148

Selenium supplementation for autoimmune thyroiditis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Many studies have reported that selenium (Se) has a close relationship with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The therapeutic effect of Se supplementation in AIT treatment remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of Se supplementation for the treatment of AIT. A structured literature search was undertaken to identify all randomized controlled trials conducted in patients with AIT receiving Se supplementation or placebo. Nine studies enrolling a total of 787 patients were included. The results showed that Se supplementation with duration 6 months significantly dropped the TPOAb titers but did not decrease the TgAb titers. Patients assigned to Se supplementation for 12-month duration showed significantly lower TPOAb titers and TgAb titers. Patients after Se supplementation had a higher chance to improve the mood or well-being compared with controls. Se supplementation is associated with a significant decrease in TPOAb titers at 6 and 12 months; meanwhile, the TgAb titers can be dropped at 12 months. After Se supplementation treatment, patients had a higher chance to improve the mood without significant adverse events. PMID:25574167

Fan, Yaofu; Xu, Shuhang; Zhang, Huifeng; Cao, Wen; Wang, Kun; Chen, Guofang; Di, Hongjie; Cao, Meng; Liu, Chao

2014-01-01

149

Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part II: Efficacy and safety  

PubMed Central

This is the second of two papers which review issues concerning complementary medicines. The first reviewed the extent of use of complementary medicines, and issues related to the regulation and pharmaceutical quality of these products; the second considers evidence for the efficacy of several well-known complementary medicines, and discusses complementary-medicines pharmacovigilance. The term complementary medicines describes a range of pharmaceutical-type preparations, including herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils and dietary supplements, which mainly sit outside conventional medicine. The use of complementary medicines is a popular healthcare approach in the UK, and there are signs that the use of such products is continuing to increase. Patients and the public use complementary medicines for health maintenance, for the treatment or prevention of minor ailments, and also for serious, chronic illnesses. There is a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews to support the efficacy of certain herbal extracts and dietary supplements in particular conditions. However, many other preparations remain untested. Strictly speaking, evidence of efficacy (and safety) for herbal medicines should be considered to be extract specific. Pharmacovigilance for complementary medicines is in its infancy. Data are lacking in several areas relevant to safety. Standard pharmacovigilance tools have additional limitations when applied to investigating safety concerns with complementary medicines. PMID:12680880

Barnes, Joanne

2003-01-01

150

Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use. Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions. Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy. PMID:23576049

Dwyer, Johanna; Nahin, Richard L; Rogers, Gail T; Barnes, Patricia M; Jacques, Paul M; Sempos, Christopher T; Bailey, Regan

2013-01-01

151

Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

Farris, Jim

152

FDA Guide to Dietary Supplements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sale and variety of dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbal mixtures, and hormones have expanded tremendously in recent years, accounting for $6.5 billion in sales in 1996 alone. This resource will help users to understand this trend and the health claims made by supplement companies and to make educated decisions regarding their use. This site offers a revised version of an article which originally ran in the September-October 1998 FDA Consumer. The article addresses topics such as the definition of a dietary supplement, safety monitoring, understanding claims, and fraudulent products. An illustration of new requirements for dietary supplement labels and sources for more information are also provided.

Kurtzweil, Paula, 1958-.

1999-01-01

153

Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.  

PubMed

Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk. PMID:24667103

Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

2014-08-01

154

Special supplement introduction: hallucinations.  

PubMed

This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

2014-07-01

155

Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations  

PubMed Central

This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

2014-01-01

156

Supplements: modern miracles?  

PubMed

Our news editor, Lisa Schnirring, joked not long ago that The Physician and Sportsmedicine should run a "supplement of the month" column. If we did, filling the column wouldn't be a problem-narrowing the choices would be. You might have read this year about SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine), whey protein, glutamine, olive leaf extract, and glyconutrients, to name a few. But the story would tend to follow a standard pattern: Claims of "Great Benefit X" would usually give way to "Inconsistent Evidence of Y" or "Side Effect Z," and the various views would be supported by enthusiastic, cautious, or cautionary statements by proponents and skeptics. PMID:20086716

Hawthorne, S

1999-05-01

157

Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques  

SciTech Connect

This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlin, Jeremy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hu, Kianwei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blanc, P C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Am [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, H O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, M A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, M T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, M L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, C R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koehler, W E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, N P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, T H [KAERI; Cambell, L W [PNNL; Cheatham, J R [ORNL; Gesh, C J [PNNL; Hunt, A [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Ludewigt, B A [LBNL; Smith, L E [PNNL; Sterbentz, J [INL

2010-09-15

158

Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

1985-01-01

159

Fidanl›k Koflullar›nda Afl›l› Asma Fidan› Üretiminde Afl› Tipi ve Zamanlar›n›n Fidan Kalitesi Üzerine Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bac›l›¤›n youn olarak yap›ld›¤› ülkelerde olduu gibi yurdumuzda da baalanlar›n›n hemen tamam› filoksera zararl›s›yla bulafl›k bir durumdad›r. Filoksera zararl›s› as- ma köklerinde emgi yaparak beslenmekte, verimin dere- celi olarak azalmas›na, ürün miktar›n›n düflmesine ve so- nuçta omcan›n kuruyarak ölmesine neden olmaktad›r. Bu zararl› ile bulafl›k baalanlar›nda yerli üzüm çeflitlerinden al›nan çeliklerin köklendirilmesiyle elde edilen fidanlarla batesisi yap›lamamaktad›r. Çünkü Vitis vinifera

160

Progesterone supplementation in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: Recurrent miscarriages, the loss of three or more consecutive intrauterine pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation with the same partner, affect 1%–1.5% of the pregnant population. The inadequate secretion of progesterone in early pregnancy has been proposed as a cause of recurrent miscarriages. AIMS: The aim was to investigate the efficacy of progesterone supplementation in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a 9-year cohort study of women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages who attended a recurrent miscarriage clinic in a tertiary care university hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women with at least three unexplained recurrent miscarriages were included in the study. They were divided into three groups according to their initial and 48-h repeat progesterone levels. For women with inadequate endogenous progesterone secretion, natural progesterone vaginal pessaries 400 mg 12-hourly were offered until 12 weeks gestation. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions and 95% confidence intervals calculated for categorical variables and the chi-square test were used to show statistical significance. Medians and ranges were calculated for noncontinuous variables. RESULTS: Pregnancy cycles (n = 203) were analyzed to examine the miscarriage rate following progesterone supplementation. Overall live birth and miscarriage rates were 63% and 36%, respectively. When analyzed by the number of previous miscarriages there was a reduction in the miscarriage rate following progesterone supplementation in women with 4 previous miscarriages when compared with historical data. CONCLUSIONS: Progesterone supplementation may have beneficial effects in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages. PMID:23533097

Hussain, Munawar; El-Hakim, Samawal; Cahill, David J

2012-01-01

161

Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women’s Health  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

2012-01-01

162

76 FR 1174 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...bromodiphenhydramine hydrochloride, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, ammonium chloride, potassium guaiacolsulfonate, and menthol, was marketed under NDA 9-319. Pyribenzamine and Ephedrine Tablets, containing tripelennamine hydrochloride and 12...

2011-01-07

163

76 FR 11790 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...bromodiphenhydramine hydrochloride, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, ammonium chloride, potassium guaiacolsulfonate, and menthol, marketed under NDA 9-319); and Pyribenzamine and Ephedrine Tablets (containing tripelennamine hydrochloride and 12...

2011-03-03

164

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2013-07-01

165

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2012-07-01

166

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2011-07-01

167

37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47 Section 2.47 Patents, Trademarks...Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under...

2010-07-01

168

22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

2014-04-01

169

22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

2012-04-01

170

22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

2013-04-01

171

22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71...Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria...considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the...

2011-04-01

172

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2010-07-01

173

Pharmacological basis of traditional medicines and health supplements as curatives.  

PubMed

Traditional Oriental medicines and health supplements have been empirically used to treat various ailments but most of them have not been evaluated objectively to prove their efficacies. We have been investigating the medical benefits of traditional Oriental medicines and health supplements as alternatives and their varied actions and mechanisms by pharmacological approaches. The study on airway inflammation has shown that even a Kampo preparation, Bakumondo-to, has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory, secretory-modulating, and metabolic regulatory actions. All of its actions are based on the restoration of normal molecular and cellular functions through DNA transcriptional regulation. In other previous studies, we showed that a health supplement, royal jelly (RJ) has weak estrogenic activity. RJ competes with 17beta-estradiol for binding to the human estrogen receptors alpha and beta, although it is much weaker than diethylstilbestrol in binding affinity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with RJ enhances proliferation, and concomitant treatment with tamoxifen blocked this effect. A reporter gene assay showed that RJ enhanced transcription of the luciferase gene through the estrogen-responsive element in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of RJ restored the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor gene in the uteri of ovariectomized rats. We suggest that the diverse pharmacological functions of RJ can be ascribed, in part, to its estrogenic effects. We hypothesize that traditional medicine, which has multiple actions, may be better than Western medicine of a single component to treat various diseases including "Mibyou" (presymptomatic disease). Our findings provide new ideas about the nature of disorders nd disease-state development that involve complicated mechanisms and will contribute to novel principles to prevent diseases and establish new treatments. Adoption of the means of translational research should provide an objective background for efficacy and stimulate broader application and usage of traditional medicines and health supplements. PMID:17287592

Miyata, Takeshi

2007-02-01

174

Otlak Ayr›¤› (Agropyron cristatum)'nda Deiflik S›ra Aral›klar›, Biçim Yükseklikleri ve An›z Yakman›n Tohum Verimine ve Verim Unsurlar›na Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet: Bu araflt›rma Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi'nin deneme tarlas›nda 1987-1992 y›llar› aras›nda yürütülmüfl ve denemenin ilk y›l› d›fl›ndaki befl y›ll›k sonuçlar deerlendirilmifltir. Denemede farkl› s›ra aral›¤› (20, 30 ve 40 cm) ve biçim yükseklikleri (2.5, 5.0 ve 7.5 cm) ile an›z yakman›n otlak ayr›¤›n›n (Agropyron cristatum) tohum verimi ve baz› verim unsurlar›na etkileri incelenmifltir. Befl y›ll›k ortalamalara göre; s›ra aral›¤›n›n

Ali KOÇ; Mustafa TAN

175

Should You Take Dietary Supplements?  

MedlinePLUS

... managed,” advises Dr. Craig Hopp, an expert in botanicals research at NIH. Dietary supplements are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as foods, not as drugs. The label may claim certain health benefits. But unlike medicines, supplements can’t claim to cure, treat or ...

176

Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline) in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 ?g folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 ?g folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22). Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490 PMID:19635145

Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Christofides, Anna; O'Connor, Deborah L; Zlotkin, Stanley

2009-01-01

177

Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure. PMID:22747620

Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

2012-07-01

178

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

179

Psychology of Supplementation in Sport and Exercise: Motivational Antecedents and Biobehavioral Outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research concerning the physiological and biobehavioral effects of supplements commonly used in sport or exercise settings has multiplied rapidly over the last decade. However, less attention has been directed to understanding the motivational pathways leading to sport and exercise supplement use. This chapter summarizes known usage rates for sport/fitness supplements and describes motivational theories and constructs that may be of use for understanding individuals' use of these substances. In this respect, we contend that researchers should consider behavioral approaches, the theory of planned behavior, balance theory, achievement goal theory, social physique anxiety, and muscle dysmorphia as useful for developing an understanding of the psychological influences on supplement use. For some of the latter theories/constructs, research has already shown support for their explanatory abilities, whereas research is scant and the utility for understanding sport/exercise supplement use is yet to be determined for many of the theories. In addition to describing the motivation behind supplement use, this chapter summarizes the biobehavioral effects of a select group of supplements commonly used to improve performance, fitness, or health. Specifically, we consider psychobiological effects of caffeine, creatine, Ginkgo biloba, and St. John's wort related to enhanced arousal, improved memory and cognition, enhanced brain function and protection, and reduced depression. There is promising initial evidence for the efficacy of these compounds in producing favorable psychological outcomes, although certain shortcomings of many studies on these compounds must be taken into account before reaching definitive conclusions.

Lutz, Rafer; Arent, Shawn

180

Hypnotic efficacy of temazepam  

PubMed Central

1 Temazepam was evaluated in a strictly defined insomniac patient population under sleep laboratory conditions. Two protocols were used: a short-term (26-night) and a long-term (54-night) protocol evaluated the efficacy of the drug administered at night at 15 mg (short-term study) and 30 mg (long-term study), respectively. 2 Temazepam seemed to be both safe and effective at doses of 15 and 30 mg with up to 5 weeks of ingestion. 3 Suppression of slow wave sleep was observed at the high dose, but no suppression of REM sleep, found in studies with other benzodiazepines, was noted. 4 No evidence was found for development of tolerance or rebound effects. PMID:41543

Mitler, M. M.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Phillips, R. L.; Sterling, W. R.; Zarcone, V. P.; Spiegel, R.; Guilleminault, C.; Dement, W. C.

1979-01-01

181

Teacher Efficacy Beliefs:Understanding the Relationship Between Efficacy and Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools  

E-print Network

efficacy, The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Theperspective Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale assessesteachers’ sense of efficacy and student success, but only in reading. Later, specific expectancy scales

Harris, Margaret

2010-01-01

182

Nutritional Supplements in Canine Dermatoses  

PubMed Central

Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880

Ackerman, Lowell

1987-01-01

183

Iron Status and Analysis of Efficacy and Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose Treatment in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: We analyzed iron deficiency and the therapeutic response following intravenous ferric carboxymaltose in a large single-center inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort. Methods: 250 IBD patients were retrospectively analyzed for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. A subgroup was analyzed regarding efficacy and side effects of iron supplementation with ferric carboxymaltose. Results: In the cohort (n = 250),

Florian Beigel; Beate Löhr; Rüdiger P. Laubender; Cornelia Tillack; Fabian Schnitzler; Simone Breiteneicher; Maria Weidinger; Burkhard Göke; Julia Seiderer; Thomas Ochsenkühn; Stephan Brand

2012-01-01

184

The treatment of hypercholesterolemic children: Efficacy and safety of a combination of red yeast rice extract and policosanols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsThe prevention of cardiovascular risk, as occurs in lipoprotein disorders, is required since childhood. Aim of the study was to evaluate, in a group of children affected by primary dyslipidemia, the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a short-term treatment with a dietary supplement containing red yeast rice extract and policosanols.

O. Guardamagna; F. Abello; V. Baracco; B. Stasiowska; F. Martino

2011-01-01

185

Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?  

MedlinePLUS

... supplements you are already taking, including herbal or botanicals, to protect yourself against taking too much. Also, tell your doctor about any other medicines you are taking, to see if there could ...

186

Plutonium shipments - a supplement  

SciTech Connect

By means of a supplement to the stimulating analysis found in the comprehensive article by Professor Jon Van Dyke on `Sea Shipment of Japanese Plutonium under International Law`, published in Volume 24 of this journal, we feel that the following clarifications and additions are appropriate. Radioactive wastes are not covered by the 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. Fir this reason, the Basel Conference adopted on March 22, 1989, along with the convention, Resolution 5 on Harmonization of Procedures of the Basel Convention and the Code of Practice for International Transactions Involving Nuclear Wastes. In accordance with Resolution 5, the provisions of the Basel Convention were taken into full account during the elaboration of the IAEA code, which ultimately was adopted by Resolution GC(XXXIV)/530 of the General Conference on Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste (TMRW) of September 21, 1990. The IAEA code of practice and the respective regional instruments affirm, with respect to TMRW, the general principles of the Basel Convention, including the critical regime of prior notification and prior informed consent (PIC) that extend the scope of duties of notification, environmental impact assessment, and consultation with respect to transboundary interference as the duties have evolved under existing customary law.

Kwiatkowska, B.; Soons, A. [Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1994-10-01

187

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2013-09-01

188

Vitamin E and Selenium Supplementation Reduces Plasma Cortisol and Oxidative Stress in Dystocia-Affected Buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress around parturition in normally calved and dystocia-affected buffaloes\\u000a and the clinical efficacy of vitamin E and selenium (Se) in reducing the effects in buffaloes suffering from dystocia. Plasma\\u000a cortisol concentration, erythrocytic malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase\\u000a (GSH-Px) activities were evaluated in dystocia-affected (supplemented (n =

A. Sathya; S. Prabhakar; S. P. S. Sangha; S. P. S. Ghuman

2007-01-01

189

Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

2014-01-01

190

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

Wilborn, Colin

191

Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

2013-01-01

192

Proximate sources of collective teacher efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty of the teaching task that faces the school and the faculty's collective competence to be successful

Curt M. Adams; Patrick B. Forsyth

2006-01-01

193

Walking the talk: Fit WIC wellness programs improve self-efficacy in pediatric obesity prevention counseling. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Six sites of the California Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participated in a staff wellness pilot intervention designed to improve staff self-efficacy in counseling WIC clients about childhood overweight. A pre-post test design with intervention and control groups was used; outcome measures included staff perceptions of the intervention's effects on the workplace environment, their personal habits and health beliefs, and their counseling self-efficacy.

194

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

1984-01-01

195

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

1985-01-01

196

42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supplemental policy. 403.205...Supplemental Policies General Provisions...supplemental policy. (a...means a health insurance policy or other...form of health insurance contract that...supplemental policy does not include...health insurance policies or health...

2010-10-01

197

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2013-04-01

198

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2012-04-01

199

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2011-04-01

200

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2014-04-01

201

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2010-04-01

202

National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Office of Dietary Supplements Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of ... Watch a 1-minute animated video about the Office of Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets The ...

203

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and animal extracts (see box ... or over-the-counter) • Substituting supplements for prescription medicines • Taking too much of some supplements, such as ...

204

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and many other products. Dietary ... harm when people take them instead of prescribed medicines or when people take many supplements in combination. ...

205

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes (see box at right). ... or over-the-counter) Substituting supplements for prescription medicines Taking too much of some supplements, such as ...

206

14 CFR 221.81 - Suspension supplement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension supplement. 221.81 Section 221... ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Suspension of Tariff Provisions by Department § 221.81 Suspension supplement. (a) Suspension...

2010-01-01

207

FDA: Supplements, Meds Can Be Dangerous Mix  

MedlinePLUS

... Dallas Tuesday, November 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Supplements Drug Reactions Medicines TUESDAY, Nov. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Taking vitamins or other dietary supplements along with medication can be dangerous, the U.S. ...

208

Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). Materials and methods: A survey was used to assess sport- related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training

Malinauskas BM; Overton RF; Carraway VG; Cash BC

209

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely Many people take dietary supplements in an effort to be well and  

E-print Network

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely Many people take dietary supplements in an effort to be well and stay healthy. With so many dietary supplements available and so many claims made about their health of dietary supplements, discusses safety considerations, and suggests sources for additional information. Key

Bandettini, Peter A.

210

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2010-01-01

211

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2011-01-01

212

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2012-01-01

213

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2013-01-01

214

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2014-01-01

215

The use of dietary supplements by athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various “ergogenic” compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with

Ronald J. Maughan; Frederic Depiesse; Hans Geyer

2007-01-01

216

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue In the Beginning.. 1 ODS Activities Office of Dietary Supplements National Institutes of Health 6100 Executive Blvd. Rm. 3B01, MSC 7517 Celebrates Its 10th Birthday The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS

Bandettini, Peter A.

217

Immunity, Volume 37 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Immunity, Volume 37 Supplemental Information The NLRP12 Inflammasome Recognizes Yersinia pestis.c. with 1000 colony forming units (c.f.u.) of Y. pestis KIM1001-pYtbLpxL. Thirty days later, vaccinated or naïve mice were challenged s.c. with 500 c.f.u. of virulent Y. pestis KIM1001 and survival was monitored

218

A Supplement for Teaching Beowulf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests supplementing the teaching of "Beowulf" to high school students with (1) translation and grammatical analysis of parts of the original lines, (2) study of Anglo-Saxon poetic techniques, and (3) students' imitation of old English poetic techniques in New English. (SW)

Milosh, Joseph

1970-01-01

219

Cell, Volume 127 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

1 Cell, Volume 127 Supplemental Data Regulatory Functions of Nuclear Hexokinase1 Complex in Glucose were filtered through four layers of miracloth and centrifuged at 1000 xg for 10 min to pellet the nuclei. The pellet was washed three times in nuclei resuspension buffer (NRB), 20 mM Tris-HCl, 25

Sheen, Jen

220

Neuron, Volume 75 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 75 Supplemental Information Dopamine Enhances Model-Based over Model-Free Choice winning model can capture our key behavioral findings (i.e. the drug, similar to our prediction in Figure 2E. #12;Figure S2 Figure S2. Task performance increases

Smittenaar, Peter

221

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

222

Putting science behind botanical supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes the goals and activities of the Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements at Iowa State University and the University of Iowa, a multidisciplinary effort to investigate the bioactivity and bioavailability of three genera of medicinal plants: Echinacea, Hypericum, and...

223

Grunditz et al. SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS  

E-print Network

Grunditz et al. 1 SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Comparing FRAP of different fluorophores To compare YFP and Alexa-Fluor 594 FRAP measurements, YFP-expressing pyramidal cells were filled with Alexa-Fluor 594 through a patch pipette. Two-photon FRAP experiments were performed at 920 nm, and the recovery of both

Oertner, Thomas

224

Hydrogen supplemented diesel electric locomotive  

SciTech Connect

A system is disclosed for using internally generated electricity as the power to operate an electrolysis cell for the production of hydrogen gas. This hydrogen gas would be stored under pressure and used on demand as a fuel supplement as for hill ascension by a diesel locomotive.

Wilson, J.B.

1983-05-03

225

Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure remains unknown. Objective: The objective was to test the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide production and blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. Design: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled 6-wk trial was conducted to assess the effects of daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones (in aglycone units) on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in 24 menopausal women with 12 women per group. Changes in nitric oxide metabolism were assessed via a primed, constant-infusion protocol with [15N]arginine and [13C]- and [2H]citrulline. Changes in blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics were assessed via office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, forearm blood flow, and indexes of arterial compliance. Results: When compared with placebo and after control for pretreatment values, soy isoflavone supplementation had no effect on arginine flux, citrulline flux, nitric oxide synthesis, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, or estimates of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones over a 6-wk period had no effect on nitric oxide metabolism or blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. PMID:22552034

Taylor, Addison A; Smith, E O'Brian; Barnes, Stephen; Hachey, David L

2012-01-01

226

Resveratrol supplementation improves inflammatory biomarkers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with antioxidant capacity that shows beneficial effects on down-regulation of inflammatory mediators and metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that supplementation with resveratrol can further improve the efficacy of lifestyle modifications in the management of NAFLD. In this randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, 50 NAFLD patients were supplemented with either a 500-mg resveratrol capsule or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow an energy-balanced diet and received physical activity recommendations. Serum liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity were assessed at both baseline and the end of the study. In both groups, anthropometric measurements (weight, body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, and steatosis grade improved (P < 005). Resveratrol supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor ?B activity, serum cytokeratin-18, and hepatic steatosis grade, as compared with placebo supplementation (P < .05). For the treatment of NAFLD, our results showed that 12 weeks of supplementation of 500 mg resveratrol, along with lifestyle modification, is superior to lifestyle modification alone. This is at least partially due to the attenuation of inflammatory markers and hepatocellular apoptosis. More studies are needed to confirm and increase the clinical application of the present results. PMID:25311610

Faghihzadeh, Forouzan; Adibi, Peyman; Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Hekmatdoost, Azita

2014-10-01

227

Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

Brooks, Gordon P.

228

Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system

Hayoun Lee; Michael W. Deem

2002-01-01

229

Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

2008-01-01

230

The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy. Effect sizes for psychodynamic therapy are as large as those reported for other therapies that have been actively promoted as "empirically supported" and "evidence based." In addition, patients who receive psychodynamic therapy maintain therapeutic gains and appear to continue to…

Shedler, Jonathan

2010-01-01

231

Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal  

SciTech Connect

The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

Muscatello, A.C.

1998-12-31

232

Updated cost-effectiveness analysis of supplemental glutamine for parenteral nutrition of intensive-care patients.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:Intravenous (i.v.) glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition (PN) can improve clinical outcomes, reduce mortality and infection rates and shorten the length of hospital and/or intensive care unit (ICU) stays compared with standard PN. This study is a pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine whether i.v. glutamine supplementation of PN remains both a highly favourable and cost-effective option for Italian ICU patients.Subjects/Methods:A previously published discrete event simulation model was updated by incorporating the most up-to-date and clinically relevant efficacy data (a clinically realistic subgroup analysis from a published meta-analysis), recent cost data from the Italian health-care system and the latest epidemiology data from a large Italian ICU database (covering 230 Italian ICUs and more than 77?000 patients). Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results.Results:Parenteral glutamine supplementation can significantly improve ICU efficiency in Italy, as the additional cost of supplemented treatment is more than completely offset by cost savings in hospital care. Supplementation was more cost-effective (cost-effectiveness ratio (CER)=[euro ]35?165 per patient discharged alive) than standard, non-supplemented PN (CER=[euro ]40?156 per patient discharged alive), and it resulted in mean cost savings of [euro ]4991 per patient discharged alive or [euro ]1047 per patient admitted to the hospital. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results.Conclusions:Alanyl-glutamine supplementation of PN is a clinically and economically attractive strategy for ICU patients in Italy and may be applicable to selected ICU patient populations in other countries.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.255. PMID:25469466

Pradelli, L; Povero, M; Muscaritoli, M; Eandi, M

2014-12-01

233

Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

2008-01-01

234

Singapore High School Students' Creativity Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Singapore education adopted nurturing creativity and developing creativity efficacy among their students and children. This study investigated Singapore high school students' creativity efficacy based on the contemporary model of creativity (Amabile, 1983, 1996), self efficacy (Bandura, 1989, 1997) and inclusion education. Aims:…

Tan, Ai-Girl; Ho, Valerie; Yong, Lim-Chyi

2007-01-01

235

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

236

Teacher Efficacy in Classroom Management and Discipline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale for measuring teacher efficacy in classroom management and discipline is presented, along with results from a factor analysis of intercorrelations of items from the scale and items from two other teacher efficacy scales. Data sources included 119 preservice teacher education students and 42 student teachers. Results are presented indicating that classroom management\\/discipline efficacy is distinct from other types

Edmund T. Emmer; Julia Hickman

1991-01-01

237

Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher efficacy has proved to be powerfully related to many meaningful educational outcomes such as teachers’ persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior, as well as student outcomes such as achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs. However, persistent measurement problems have plagued those who have sought to study teacher efficacy. We review many of the major measures that have been used to

Megan Tschannen-Moran; Anita Woolfolk Hoy

2001-01-01

238

Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material  

SciTech Connect

This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

Dillon, M B

2011-03-03

239

SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Additional Bacterial Strains  

E-print Network

-1 rpsL3l sulA::Mu-d(Ap, lac, B::Tn9). On testing, this strain appears to require biotin and thiamine supplemented with 1 µg/ml each of thiamine and biotin to an OD600 of precisely 0.3, at which point half µg/ml each of thiamine and biotin, and 0.2-ml aliquots were then plated in duplicate into the wells

Courcelle, Justin

240

Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

. The supplemental feed- ing strategy required for each is different. Forage intake and diet crude protein Ruminal requirements Microbial fermentation in the rumen supplies most of the energy and protein metabolized by cattle. As in the host animal, microbes... in the rumen require a balanced supply of energy and nitrogen to function efficiently. The National Research Council (1984) proposed that ruminal microbes can synthesize about 113 grams of bacterial crude pro- tein from 1 kilogram of Total Digestible Nutrients...

McCollum III, Ted

1997-11-03

241

Perioperative analgesia and the effects of dietary supplements.  

PubMed

With over 50,000 dietary supplements available, resurgence in consumer interest over the past few decades has resulted in an explosion of use of these agents worldwide. Disillusionment with current medications and belief in "natural medicines" has resulted in a multibillion dollar industry. Active ingredients in a number of herbs are being tested for therapeutic potential, and some are efficacious, so herbal medicines cannot be dismissed. The prevalence of herbology is further encouraged by a relatively relaxed policy of the FDA regarding these compounds, which they consider foods. As herbal products are included in the "supplement" category, there is no existing protocol for standardization of these products. There are numerous examples of herbals that can adversely affect patient recovery and outcomes in anesthesia. The prudent anesthesia provider will make sure to obtain correct information as to accurate herbal usage of each patient and attempt to discontinue these products two to three weeks prior to the delivery of an anesthetic. Postoperative analgesia, bleeding, and level of sedation can be negatively impacted related to herbal products and herbal-drug interactions. Over 90 herbal products are associated with bleeding and this can be a specific problem intraoperatively or when considering placement of a regional anesthetic for postoperative pain management. PMID:24993438

Abe, Andrew; Kaye, Alan David; Gritsenko, Karina; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Adam Marc

2014-06-01

242

The Effects of Supplementation with Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cardiac Rhythm: Anti-Arrhythmic, Pro-Arrhythmic, Both or Neither? It Depends…  

PubMed Central

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (?-3) has been associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk, thereby concentrating attention on a potentially preventive effect regarding tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, recent randomized controlled trials challenge the efficacy of the additional application of ?-3 and its anti-arrhythmic effect under certain clinical conditions. The present paper reflects the results of earlier and recent clinical studies with respect to the individual background conditions that may determine the clinical outcome of ?-3 supplementation and thereby explain apparently conflicting clinical results. It is concluded that the efficacy of ?-3 supplementation to prevent cardiac arrhythmias strongly depends on the underlying clinical and pharmacological conditions, a hypothesis that also is supported by data from experimental animal studies and by molecular interactions of ?-3 at the cellular level. PMID:22485090

Rauch, Bernhard; Senges, Jochen

2012-01-01

243

Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

2002-03-01

244

Disinfection efficacy of organic chloramines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disinfection efficacies of model organic chloramines were investigated. Twenty amino acids and two nucleic acid bases were chlorinated separately with sodium hypochlorite at a Cl:N molar ratio of 0.4:1, and were then used to treat an E. coli suspension for 60min. DPD\\/FAS titration was carried out to obtain the concentration of the chlorinated nitrogenous organic compounds as a function

Martina M. Donnermair; Ernest R. Blatchley III

2003-01-01

245

Teachers' instructional efficacy and teachers' efficacy toward integration of information technologies in the classroom.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' instructional efficacy and their efficacy toward integration of technologies in the classroom. A sample of 309 French Canadian elementary school teachers volunteered and were administered a French Canadian version of the Teacher Efficacy Scale and Teachers' efficacy scale toward integration of technologies in the classroom. Analysis yielded, as expected, a positive and significant partial correlation between the two types of self-efficacy beliefs (.27 and .36). PMID:15362419

Dussault, Marc; Deaudelin, Colette; Brodeur, Monique

2004-06-01

246

Self-Efficacy and Burnout in Teaching: The Importance of Interpersonal-Relations Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between perceived self-efficacy and burnout among teachers. Self-efficacy has been defined operationally based on a three-dimensional conceptualization: task, relations and organization. Efficacy variables were three classroom efficacy factors: instruction (task), discipline control (task), and consideration (relations), and two organizational efficacy factors: inclusion (task) and influence (relations). Burnout was measured as both a three-dimensional measure comprised

Isaac A. Friedman

2003-01-01

247

Efficacy of combined or single use of Lactobacillus crispatus LT116 and L. johnsonii LT171 on broiler performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The objective of this research was to investigate the efficacy of combined or single use of Lactobacillus crispatus LT116 and Lactobacillus johnsonii LT171 on broiler performance.2. A total of 320 one-d-old male Ross broiler chicks were allocated in 4 experimental treatments for 6 weeks. The experimental treatments received a maize–soybean meal basal diet that was supplemented as follows: ‘control’,

H. R. Taheri; H. Moravej; F. Tabandeh; M. Zaghari; M. Shivazad

2010-01-01

248

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

2013-01-01

249

Effects of Microbial Phytase Supplementation and Soaking of Barley-Soybean Meal on Availability of Plant Phosphorus for Growing Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of phytase supplement, 1200 U\\/kg, produced by Aspergillus niger on phytin phosphorus (P) availability was assayed in a 6 × 6 Latin square designed digestibility and balance trial with growing pigs at live weight 35–88 kg. The pigs were fed on barley-soybean meal diets without inorganic P either soaked for 3 h or without soaking. The P content

Matti Näsi; Eija Helander

1994-01-01

250

Drug-Drug, Drug–Dietary Supplement, and Drug–Citrus Fruit and Other Food Interactions: What Have We Learned?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious drug-drug interactions have contributed to recent U.S. market withdrawals and also recent nonapprovals of a few new molecular entities. Many of these interactions involved the inhibition or induction of metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting in altered systemic exposure and adverse drug reactions or loss of efficacy. In addition to drug-drug interactions, drug–dietary supplement and drug–citrus fruit interactions, among

Shiew-Mei Huang; Lawrence J. Lesko

2004-01-01

251

Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

252

Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

1984-01-01

253

Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in adults predicts efficacy in children  

PubMed Central

Objective: Due to the challenges inherent in performing clinical trials in children, a systematic review of published clinical trials was performed to determine whether the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults can be used to predict the efficacy of AEDs in the pediatric population. Methods: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library searches (1970–January 2010) were conducted for clinical trials of partial-onset seizures (POS) and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) in adults and in children <2 and 2–18 years. Independent epidemiologists used standardized search and study evaluation criteria to select eligible trials. Forest plots were used to investigate the relative strength of placebo-subtracted effect measures. Results: Among 30 adjunctive therapy POS trials in adults and children (2–18 years) that met evaluation criteria, effect measures were consistent between adults and children for gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Placebo-subtracted median percent seizure reduction between baseline and treatment periods (ranging from 7.0% to 58.6% in adults and from 10.5% to 31.2% in children) was significant for 40/46 and 6/6 of the treatment groups studied. The ?50% responder rate (ranging from 2.0% to 43.0% in adults and from 3.0% to 26.0% in children) was significant for 37/43 and 5/8 treatment groups. In children <2 years, an insufficient number of trials were eligible for analysis. Conclusions: This systematic review supports the extrapolation of efficacy results in adults to predict a similar adjunctive treatment response in 2- to 18-year-old children with POS. PMID:22955136

Carman, Wendy J.; Thyagarajan, Veena; Daniels, Tony; Morris, Dexter L.; D'Cruz, O'Neill

2012-01-01

254

Computer access to research on dietary supplements: a database of federally funded dietary supplement research.  

PubMed

Dietary supplement use is prevalent in the United States, but support for supplement research has been relatively modest and only recently emphasized at the NIH. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 led to the creation of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the NIH to promote research on dietary supplements. In order to track federally funded dietary supplement research, the ODS developed a database known as Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). This article provides an overview of the development and potential uses of the CARDS database. In addition, we report that NIH-funded dietary supplement research steadily increased from fiscal year (FY) 1999 through 2002. The majority of NIH institutes or centers (ICs) funded research relevant to dietary supplements during this time, led by the National Cancer Institute and one of the newest NIH ICs, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CARDS data indicate that NIH-funded dietary supplement research from FY 1999 through 2002 involved primarily vitamins, minerals, botanicals and phytochemicals. Cancer and cardiovascular disease, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, collectively accounted for almost 45% of the research related to dietary supplements. A variety of types of research studies were funded, with the majority consisting of human intervention studies. This information is useful to evaluate trends in federally funded dietary supplement research, identify research gaps, and help research scientists identify potential sources of NIH funding. PMID:15987867

Haggans, Carol J; Regan, Karen S; Brown, Lynda M; Wang, Chunling; Krebs-Smith, Jim; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

2005-07-01

255

Fingerprinting of Materials: Technical Supplement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This supplement to the Guidelines for Maintaining a Chemical Fingerprinting Program has been developed to assist NASA personnel, contractors, and sub-contractors in defining the technical aspects and basic concepts which can be used in chemical fingerprinting programs. This material is not meant to be totally inclusive to all chemical fingerprinting programs, but merely to present current concepts. Each program will be tailored to meet the needs of the individual organizations using chemical fingerprinting to improve their quality and reliability in the production of aerospace systems.

Workman, Gary L.

1992-01-01

256

Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

257

Iron-fortified rice is as efficacious as supplemental iron drops in infants and young children.  

PubMed

How to improve iron status among infants and young children is of continued concern in low- to middle-income countries, including Brazil. In a double blind, 5-mo, home-based, randomized trial in Brazil, we gave one group of mildly anemic 6- to 24-mo-old children (n = 175) rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate using the Ultra Rice technology and a placebo solution (URG) and another group identical nonfortified rice and iron drops. We instructed parents on the correct dosage of iron drops and to feed their children rice as they normally would. We measured serum ferritin (SF) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at baseline and at 5 mo. At baseline, the prevalences of iron deficiency and anemia in the total sample were 73.1 and 100%, respectively. At 5 mo, SF and Hb increased in both groups, although the change in the URG was larger (P < 0.01). Adult participants were unable to distinguish cooked fortified rice from unfortified rice in terms of smell, color, or taste. As rice is normally consumed at home, MPF-fortified rice increased iron stores and reduced anemia in a group of mildly anemic children 6-24 mo old. In populations where young children are routinely fed approximately 100 g of cooked rice daily, fortifying it with iron may improve iron status at least as well as providing free iron drops. PMID:19889805

Beinner, Mark A; Velasquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Pessoa, Milene C; Greiner, Ted

2010-01-01

258

Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?  

PubMed

Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims. PMID:19998572

Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

2009-01-01

259

Effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on dry eye syndrome subjects: randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fish oil supplementation added to usual dry eye treatment in dry eye subjects in a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven typical dry eye subjects were selected from 43 candidates by the diagnostic criterion for dry eye in this study. They were assigned to the randomized fish oil group (n = 15) or the placebo group (n = 12). Fish oil group ingested fish oil capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1245 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 540 mg/day) for 12 weeks. Placebo group ingested placebo capsules without EPA or DHA. A visual analog scale test estimating subjective symptoms, the Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (BUT) measurement, fluorescein staining, and rose bengal staining were performed every 4 weeks during the 12-week supplementation period and 4-week washout period. The subjective symptom of "eye pain", BUT, and changes in rose bengal staining score of the fish oil group were significantly improved after 8-12 weeks of supplementation and/or 4 weeks of washout, compared to those of the placebo group. These results suggest that fish oil supplementation added to usual care may be effective in the treatment of dry eye. PMID:24190233

Kawakita, Tetsuya; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kawashima, Motoko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

2013-01-01

260

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) supplementation prevents cognitive impairment and amyloid deposition in APP/PS1 mice.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease hallmarked by extracellular A?(1-42) containing plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Progressively, memory deficits and cognitive disabilities start to occur as these hallmarks affect hippocampus and frontal cortex, regions highly involved in memory. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, which is high in the vicinity of A? plaques and NFTs, was found to influence ?-secretase activity, the molecular crux in A?(1-42) production. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an endogenous bile acid that downregulates CTGF expression in hepatocytes and has been shown to possess therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative models. To investigate the possible in vivo therapeutic effects of TUDCA, we provided 0.4% TUDCA-supplemented food to APP/PS1 mice, a well-established AD mouse model. Six months of TUDCA supplementation prevented the spatial, recognition and contextual memory defects observed in APP/PS1 mice at 8 months of age. Furthermore, TUDCA-supplemented APP/PS1 mice displayed reduced hippocampal and prefrontal amyloid deposition. These effects of TUDCA supplementation suggest a novel mechanistic route for Alzheimer therapeutics. PMID:22974733

Lo, Adrian C; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Nunes, Ana F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; D'Hooge, Rudi

2013-02-01

261

Magnesium status and the physical performance of volleyball players: effects of magnesium supplementation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation influences the physical performance of volleyball players, as the efficacy of this approach remains questionable. Twenty-five professional male volleyball players were assigned randomly to experimental (350 mg Mg · d(-1), 4 weeks) and control groups (500 mg maltodextrin · d(-1), 4 weeks) maintaining inter-group homogeneity of urinary magnesium. Erythrocyte, plasma and urinary magnesium levels, plasma creatine kinase activity, lactate production, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and plyometric (squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing) and isokinetic (peak torque, potency and total work) performances were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) supplementation. Levels of erythrocyte and urinary magnesium and creatine kinase activity and VO2 max remained within normal ranges in both groups. Plasma magnesium decreased significantly only within the experimental group. Significant decreases in lactate production and significant increases (of up to 3 cm) in countermovement jump and countermovement jump with arm swing values were detected in the experimental group following magnesium supplementation, but not in the control group at T1. It is concluded that magnesium supplementation improved alactic anaerobic metabolism, even though the players were not magnesium-deficient. PMID:24015935

Setaro, Luciana; Santos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Nunes, Newton; Greve, Júlia Maria; Colli, Célia

2014-01-01

262

The Use of Selected Nutrition Supplements and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Almost all patients with liver disease, especially advanced liver disease, have some evidence of malnutrition, including mineral/vitamin deficiency. A major health trend in the United States has been the significant growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including nutrition supplements and herbal agents. In the 1990s, the United States government created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), as well as the Office on Dietary Supplements, to extend our knowledge in these areas. CAM users are often highly educated and frequently use CAM therapy for chronic diseases, including chronic liver disease. Indeed, most studies suggest that patients with chronic liver disease frequently use nutrition supplements and CAM agents in addition to their traditional medicines. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of nutrition supplements and herbals in liver disease. This article will focus mainly on 7 selected agents (vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, silymarin, and glycyrrhizin), for which there have been not only in vitro and animal studies but also human clinical trials, and we will review both potential efficacy and safety issues. PMID:16772543

Hanje, A. James; Fortune, Brett; Song, Ming; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig

2014-01-01

263

The estimation of mineral contents in oriental supplements consumed by elite athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is twofold: to examine macro (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace mineral (iron) concentration in oriental supplements (OS), and to define OS prevalence in elite athletes. Participants of this study were 928 varsity athletes (male: 680, female: 248) with 23 sports types. Recent 3-month dietary supplements (DS) and OS practice was surveyed during training period, and mineral concentration in 72 randomly collected OS samples were analyzed. DS use was 41% and OS use was 20% in university elite athletes. Most common OS use informants were parents (74%). OS intake reason was for health maintenance (37%), energy supplement (25%), and recovery improvement (15%). Moreover, health maintenance was higher in females (47%) than males (32%) while energy supplement was higher in males (28%) than females (18%) (?2(8) = 17.676, p = 0.024). Beliefs in OS efficacy and importance were significantly higher in female athletes compared to male athletes (p < 0.05). Macro mineral concentration in OS was calcium (7.54 ppm), magnesium (4.63 ppm), and phosphorus (205.34 ppb) and trace mineral concentration in OS was iron (8.10 ppb), which was a small amount. An association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration in calcium, phosphorus, and iron was found, but no association between OS intake and magnesium. In conclusion, an association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration differed by the ingredients. Minerals in OS were very small amount, which would be improved for mineral balance in elite athletes.

Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

2013-01-01

264

Efficacy and safety of probiotics as adjuvant agents for Helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine whether probiotics could help to improve the eradication rates and reduce the side effects associated with anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment, and to investigate the optimal time and duration of probiotic administration during the treatment, thus providing clinical practice guidelines for eradication success worldwide. By searching Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index, all the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics as adjuvant agents of anti-H. pylori standard triple-therapy regimens with placebo or no treatment were selected. Statistical analysis was performed with the Comprehensive Meta Analysis Software. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Twenty-one RCTs involving a total of 3,814 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled eradication rates of the probiotic group were 80.3% (1,709/2,128) by intention-to-treat (ITT) and 83.8% (1,709/2,039) by pro-protocol analyses; the pooled relative risk (RR) by ITT for probiotic supplementation versus treatment without probiotics was 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–1.19]. A reduced risk of overall H. pylori therapy-related adverse effects was also found with probiotic supplementation (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40–0.91). The subgroup analyses showed that probiotic supplementation prior and subsequent to the treatment regimen both improved eradication rates for H. pylori infection. Furthermore, probiotic treatment lasting >2 weeks and including Lactobacillus or multiple probiotic strains significantly enhanced the efficacy. In conclusion, supplementation with probiotics for H. pylori eradication may be effective in increasing eradication rates and decreasing therapy-related side effects. Probiotic administration prior or subsequent to therapy and for a duration of >2 weeks may increase the eradication efficacy.

LV, ZHIFA; WANG, BEN; ZHOU, XIAOJIANG; WANG, FUCAI; XIE, YONG; ZHENG, HUILIE; LV, NONGHUA

2015-01-01

265

20 CFR 416.2030 - Optional supplementation: Variations in payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Optional supplementation: Variations in payments. 416.2030 Section 416.2030 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...Supplementation Provisions; Agreement; Payments § 416.2030 Optional supplementation: Variations in...

2010-04-01

266

43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 10010.25 Section 10010...ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement...

2014-10-01

267

43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 10010.25 Section 10010...ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement...

2013-10-01

268

43 CFR 10010.25 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 10010.25 Section 10010...ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.25 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) Supplement...

2011-10-01

269

14 CFR 21.113 - Requirement of supplemental type certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Requirement of supplemental type certificate. 21.113 Section 21.113 Aeronautics...PRODUCTS AND PARTS Supplemental Type Certificates § 21.113 Requirement of supplemental type certificate. Any person who alters a...

2010-01-01

270

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2014-04-01

271

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2011-04-01

272

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2010-04-01

273

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2012-04-01

274

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2013-04-01

275

THE INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS (IBIDS) DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database provides access to bibliographic citations and abstracts from published, international, scientific literature on dietary supplements. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Instit...

276

75 FR 29513 - Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...100429203-0204-01] Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure AGENCY: Bureau of the Census...approach to developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) presented in a report...Working Group on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure,'' which was recently...

2010-05-26

277

Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

... at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). “Some dietary supplements may increase the effect of your medication, and other dietary supplements may decrease it,” he says. Certain dietary supplements ...

278

Effect of micronutrient supplementation on diarrhoeal disease among stunted children in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of zinc combined with vitamin A or multiple micronutrients in preventing diarrhoea is unclear in African countries with high prevalence of HIV-exposed children. Potential modifying factors such as stunting need addressing. Objective To determine whether adding zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, to vitamin A reduces diarrhoea incidence, and whether this differs between strata of stunted or HIV-infected children. Methods We analyzed data from a randomized, controlled double-blinded trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00156832) of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6–24 months. Three cohorts of children: 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, received vitamin A, vitamin A plus zinc, or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc. The main outcome was incidence of diarrhoea. Poisson regression was used in intent-to-treat analyses. Stratified analyses followed testing for statistical interaction between intervention and stunting. Results We observed no significant differences in overall diarrhoea incidence among treatment arms. Stunting modified this effect with stunted HIV-uninfected children having significantly lower diarrhoea incidence if supplemented with zinc or multiple micronutrients compared to vitamin A alone (2.04 and 2.23 vs 3.92 episodes/year respectively, P=0.024). No meaningful sub-group analyses could be done in the cohort of HIV-infected children. Conclusion Compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, and with zinc and multiple micronutrients, reduced diarrhoea morbidity in stunted rural South African children. Efficacy of zinc supplementation in HIV-infected children needs confirmation in studies that represent the spectrum of disease severity and age groups. PMID:19174830

Chhagan, Meera K; Van den Broeck, Jan; Luabeya, Kany-Kany Angelique; Mpontshane, Nontobeko; Tucker, Katherine L; Bennish, Michael L

2008-01-01

279

Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users  

MedlinePLUS

... people who have no formal training in nutrition, botanicals, or medicine. While some of these sources, like the Web, ... like calcium and iron), or any herbal or botanical supplement you may have on your kitchen or medicine cabinet shelf. Because supplements come in so many ...

280

Measuring Vitamins and Minerals in Dietary Supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Describe 1) why information on vitamin and mineral intakes from dietary supplements is needed for estimating total nutrient intakes in populations 2) the current status and challenges in developing an analytically validated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) 3) lessons from pil...

281

Current Biology, Volume 21 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Supplemental Computational Considerations Supplemental References #12;2 octopus cuttlefish B2 0 10 20 30 40 50) and cuttlefish (B). A1. Raw #12;3 traces of bundle activity (left) and LFP (right) at the times denoted determines the input to LN (via the cholinergic AMLN synapse). B1. Similar to A1 in cuttlefish. Traces

Joskowicz, Leo

282

Supplement 8-A A Useful Theorem  

E-print Network

Supplement 8-A A Useful Theorem The following useful result appears in Pauli's 1930 "Handbuch on the right-hand side, the exact eigenfunctions.1 Neverthe- less, the theorem does allow us certain shortcuts 2 m 2 x2 W-36 Supplement 8-A A Useful Theorem #12;Using an observation of J. Schwinger

California at Santa Cruz, University of

283

Cell Reports, Volume 7 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Cell Reports, Volume 7 Supplemental Information AKAP-Anchored PKA Maintains Neuronal L-type Calcium Supplemental Figure Legends Figure S1 related to Figure 2: AKAP150 anchoring regulates PKA localization to dendritic spines. (A) Projection images of dendrite segments stained for AKAP150 (green) and PKA-RII (red

Scott, John D.

284

Supplement consumption in body builder athletes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330

Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh

2011-01-01

285

Supplement to Technical Information Small Radio Telescope  

E-print Network

Supplement to Technical Information about the Small Radio Telescope The SRT Digital Receiver (notes in the SRT 21-cm radio telescope. They are intended to supplement the Haystack [1] notes. Some, centered at the requested center frequency and that frequency ±0.360 MHz. Thus 18 points

Seager, Sara

286

Mechanisms of muscular adaptations to creatine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine supplementation is a widely used and heavily studied ergogenic aid. Athletes use creatine to increase muscle mass, strength, and muscle endurance. While the performance and muscle- building effects of creatine supplementation have been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for these muscular adaptations have been less studied. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine studies of the mechanisms

Eric S Rawson; Adam M Persky

2007-01-01

287

CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

These supplements to the June round of the Current Population Survey (conducted at five-year intervals starting in 1971) were designed to examine transitions in the American family and to measure the demographic implications of these transitions for children. The supplements ask ...

288

Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to  

E-print Network

Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to Abstract Algebra, Theory and Applications by Robert A Copyright Robert A. Beezer GNU Free Documentation License Sage Version 4.8 AATA Version 2011-12 #12;Preface This supplement explains how to use the open source software Sage to aid in your understanding

Beezer, Robert A.

289

Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to  

E-print Network

Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to Abstract Algebra, Theory and Applications by Robert A Robert A. Beezer GNU Free Documentation License Sage Version 5.2 AATA Version 2012-13 #12;Copyright 2011 This supplement explains how to use the open source software Sage to aid in your understanding of abstract algebra

Beezer, Robert A.

290

Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to  

E-print Network

Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to Abstract Algebra, Theory and Applications by Robert A Robert A. Beezer GNU Free Documentation License Sage Version 6.3 AATA Version 2014-15 #12;Copyright 2011;Preface This supplement explains how to use the open source software Sage to aid in your understanding

Beezer, Robert A.

291

Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to  

E-print Network

Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to Abstract Algebra, Theory and Applications by Robert A Robert A. Beezer GNU Free Documentation License Sage Version 5.11 AATA Version 2013-14 #12;Copyright 2011;Preface This supplement explains how to use the open source software Sage to aid in your understanding

Beezer, Robert A.

292

Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

2008-01-01

293

Differentiation of Positional Isomers of Hybrid Peptides Containing Repeats of ?-Nucleoside Derived Amino Acid (?-Nda-) and L-Amino Acids by Positive and Negative Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS n )  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new class of positional isomeric pairs of -Boc protected oligopeptides comprised of alternating nucleoside derived ?-amino acid (?-Nda-) and L-amino acid residues (alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ). The protonated dipeptide positional isomers with ?-Nda- at the N-terminus lose CH3OH, NH3, and C2H4O2, whereas these processes are absent for the peptides with L-amino acids at the N-terminus. Instead, the presence of L-amino acids at the N-terminus results in characteristic retro-Mannich reaction involving elimination of imine. A good correlation has been observed between the conformational structure of the peptides and the abundance of y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions in MS n spectra. In the case of tetrapeptide isomers that are reported to form helical structures in solution phase, no y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions are observed when the corresponding amide -NH- participates in the helical structures. In contrast, significant y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions are formed when the amide -NH- is not involved in the H-bonding. In the case of tetra- and hexapeptides, it is observed that abundant b{n/+} ions are formed, presumably with stable oxazolone structures when the C-terminus of the b{n/+} ions possessed L-amino acid and the ?-Nda- at the C-terminus appears to prevent the cyclization process leading to the absence of corresponding b{n/+} ions.

Raju, B.; Ramesh, M.; Srinivas, R.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Kiranmai, N.; Sarma, V. U. M.

2011-04-01

294

Botanical and Dietary Supplements for Menopausal Symptoms: What Works, What Doesn’t  

PubMed Central

All women reach menopause and approximately two-thirds of women develop menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes. Hormone therapy long was considered the first line of treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, given the results of the Women’s Health Initiative, many women are reluctant use exogenous hormones for symptomatic treatment and are turning to botanicals and dietary supplement (BDS) products for relief. Despite the fact that there is limited scientific evidence describing efficacy and long term safety of such products, many women find these “natural treatments” appealing. Peri- and postmenopausal women are amongst the highest users of these products, but 70% of women do not tell their health care providers about their use. Compounding this issue is the fact that few clinicians ask their patients about use of BDS, largely because they have not been exposed to alternative medical practices in their training and are unfamiliar with these products. This paper reviews the botanicals and dietary supplements commonly used in menopause, (such as black cohosh, red clover, soy products, among others) as well as the available data on efficacy and safety. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to December 2004 using terms related to botanical and dietary supplements and menopausal symptoms for peri- or postmenopausal women. Abstracts from relevant meetings as well as reference books and websites on herbal supplements were also searched. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were used if available; open trials and comparison group studies were used when RCTs were not available. The evidence to date suggests that black cohosh is safe and effective for reducing menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes and possibly mood disorders. Phytoestrogen extracts, including soy foods and red clover appear to have at best only minimal effect on menopausal symptoms but have positive health effects on plasma lipid concentrations and may reduce heart disease. St. John’s wort has been shown to improve mild to moderate depression in the general population and appears to show efficacy for mood disorders related to the menopausal transition. Other commonly used botanicals have limited evidence to demonstrate safety and efficacy for relief of symptoms related to menopause. PMID:16181020

Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

2006-01-01

295

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

Albert Bandura

1982-01-01

296

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one’s ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and

Mustafa Erol

2007-01-01

297

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and

Serap Çaliskan; Gamze S. Selçuk; Mustafa Erol

2007-01-01

298

Vitamin d supplementation in australia: implications for the development of supplementation guidelines.  

PubMed

High rates of vitamin D deficiency and testing have been reported in Australia, yet there are few reports regarding vitamin D supplement use. Australian wholesale sales data was obtained for vitamin D supplements for the period 2000-2011. There has been a threefold increase in supplement sales over the past decade, whereby over A$94 million supplements containing vitamin D in Australia were sold during the year 2010. There were eighty-nine manufacturers that produce a variety of 195 vitamin D products. The amount of vitamin D in these products varies considerably, from 40 to 1000?IU per unit, although supplements containing only vitamin D had the highest amount of vitamin D. There was a trend for sales to increase in winter months. Given the potential public health benefits of vitamin D, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of supplementation use and for the development of supplementation. PMID:25210624

Bilinski, Kellie; Talbot, Peter

2014-01-01

299

Vitamin D Supplementation in Australia: Implications for the Development of Supplementation Guidelines  

PubMed Central

High rates of vitamin D deficiency and testing have been reported in Australia, yet there are few reports regarding vitamin D supplement use. Australian wholesale sales data was obtained for vitamin D supplements for the period 2000–2011. There has been a threefold increase in supplement sales over the past decade, whereby over A$94 million supplements containing vitamin D in Australia were sold during the year 2010. There were eighty-nine manufacturers that produce a variety of 195 vitamin D products. The amount of vitamin D in these products varies considerably, from 40 to 1000?IU per unit, although supplements containing only vitamin D had the highest amount of vitamin D. There was a trend for sales to increase in winter months. Given the potential public health benefits of vitamin D, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of supplementation use and for the development of supplementation. PMID:25210624

Bilinski, Kellie; Talbot, Peter

2014-01-01

300

Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 2 The sum is over presynaptic spike times tj, and ffast represents

Columbia University

301

An Exploration of the Relationship Among Teacher Efficacy, Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Goal Consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the relationships among individual teacher efficacy, collective teacher efficacy, and goal consensus\\/vision.\\u000a Participants included 113 teachers of a high school located in the southwestern USA. During a teacher inservice meeting, teachers\\u000a completed three surveys that measured the variables under study. Correlational and regression analyses were performed to examine\\u000a the relationships among individual teacher efficacy, collective teacher efficacy,

Terri Barber Kurz; Stephanie L. Knight

2004-01-01

302

Supplemental report on cost estimates'  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

NONE

1992-04-29

303

Clinical safety and efficacy of probiotic administration following burn injury.  

PubMed

Provision of probiotics has been limited postburn by questionable potential for bacterial translocation and risk of infection in an immune-compromised population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of probiotic administration in acutely burned, pediatric patients. Subjects were randomized to receive probiotic (n = 10) vs placebo (n = 10) twice daily. The investigational product was initiated within 10 days of burn, and daily supplementation continued until wound closure. Nursing staff was provided education regarding optimal procedures to minimize potential for study product cross contamination. Clinical outcomes (infection, antibiotic, antifungal, and operative days, tolerance, and mortality) were recorded. Length of stay was modified for burn size. Student's t-test, ? test, and nonparametric Wilcoxon's rank-sum test were used for comparative analysis. No differences were noted (probiotic; placebo) for age (7.1 ± 2.2; 6.9 ± 1.7), burn size (38.0 ± 5.9; 45.5 ± 4.45), full thickness (24.6 ± 5.6; 32.1 ± 5.4), postburn day admit (0.8 ± 0.4; 1.1 ± 0.4), or inhalation injury (10%; 20%). Infection days, antibiotic use, constipation, and emesis were similar between groups. Trends toward increased antifungal and laxative use as well as diarrhea incidence were evident in the controls (P < .30). Flatulence was statistically higher with probiotics. The control group trended toward higher requirement for excision/graft procedure. Medical length of stay was not significantly different between groups; however, time required to complete wound healing was shortened with probiotics. This study documents safety and provides preliminary efficacy data relative to probiotic supplementation postburn. PMID:25559730

Mayes, Theresa; Gottschlich, Michele M; James, Laura E; Allgeier, Chris; Weitz, Julie; Kagan, Richard J

2015-01-01

304

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa  

E-print Network

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Update on the soybean aphid efficacy program Erin Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand Department of Entomology #12;Soybean aphid efficacy · Soybean aphid efficacy evaluation · Where to get more info, handouts #12;Soybean aphid efficacy program

Jurenka, Russell A.

305

Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol® and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.  

PubMed

A double-blind parallel group comparison design clinical study was conducted in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction to investigate the efficacy of a supplement containing Pycnogenol® and L-arginine. Subjects were instructed to take a supplement (Pycnogenol® 60?mg/day, L-arginine 690?mg/day and aspartic acid 552?mg/day) or an identical placebo for 8?weeks, and the results were assessed using the five-item erectile domain (IIEF-5) of the International Index of Erectile Function. Additionally, blood biochemistry, urinalysis and salivary testosterone were measured. Eight weeks of supplement intake improved the total score of the IIEF-5. In particular, a marked improvement was observed in 'hardness of erection' and 'satisfaction with sexual intercourse'. A decrease in blood pressure, aspartate transaminase and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GTP), and a slight increase in salivary testosterone were observed in the supplement group. No adverse reactions were observed during the study period. In conclusion, Pycnogenol® in combination with L-arginine as a dietary supplement is effective and safe in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. PMID:21618639

Aoki, Hiromitsu; Nagao, Junji; Ueda, Taro; Strong, Jeffry M; Schonlau, Frank; Yu-Jing, Song; Lu, Yan; Horie, Shigeo

2012-02-01

306

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

Çali?kan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

2007-04-01

307

TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY ON POROUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The efficacy of antimicrobial treatments to eliminate or control biological growth in the indoor environment can easily be tested on nonporous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment [i.e., gypsum ...

308

Reading Education: Is Self-Efficacy Important?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether relations existed between sixth, seventh, and eighth grade learners' and their teachers' efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies and whether student perceived efficacy beliefs were predictors of reading comprehension achievement as measured by a reading comprehension subtest score on a state…

Barkley, Jordan M.

2006-01-01

309

The Efficacy of Sensory Integration Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report on the status of research which has been de- signed to determine the effectiveness of occupational and physical therapy using sensory integration (SI) procedures. Sensory integration efficacy is the extent to which sensory integra- tion procedures have proven to be beneficial. (A reference list of sensory integration efficacy studies is available from

Sharon A. Cermak; Anne Henderson

310

The built environment and collective efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective efficacy, i.e., perception of mutual trust and willingness to help each other, is a measure of neighborhood social capital and has been associated with positive health outcomes including lower rates of assaults, homicide, premature mortality, and asthma. Collective efficacy is frequently considered a “cause”, but we hypothesized that environmental features might be the foundation for or the etiology of

Deborah A. Cohen; Sanae Inagami; Brian Finch

2008-01-01

311

Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

2012-01-01

312

Teacher Efficacy: A Study of Construct Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the structure of a construct generally labeled teacher efficacy. A sample of 342 prospective and experienced teachers was administered an efficacy questionnaire adapted from the research of Gibson and Dembo (1984). Factor analytic procedures with varimax rotation were used to generate a two-factor solution that accounted for 32 % of the variance in scale scores. Contrary to

Thomas R. Guskey; Perry D. Passaro

1994-01-01

313

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)  

Cancer.gov

The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the cancer prevention efficacy and safety of a daily combination of 30 milligrams (mg) of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate in 18,314 persons who were at high risk for lung cancer.

314

Self-Efficacy during Student Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated changes in teaching efficacy during student teaching using a modified version of the Teacher Efficacy Scale. The study occurred over three-quarters of one academic year, with the survey instrument administered to all student teachers at one small, private college during student teaching orientation. Students were placed in…

Fortman, Cheryl K.; Pontius, Richard

315

Effect of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves to vaccines and ovalbumin.  

PubMed Central

Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) from organic sources (Cr chelate and high Cr yeast) on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves following vaccination with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), para-influenza-3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Pasteurella haemolytica and ovalbumin (OVA). Using cross bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario, vaccines and OVA were given on d 0 and 21 after arrival in the feedlot. Immune responses of calves were measured as serum specific antibody titres against all antigens on d 0 and 28 or d 35. The anti-OVA antibody responses (trial 2) were further investigated by measuring antibody concentrations of calves weekly until d 55 after arrival in the feedlot. Supplemental Cr (0.14 ppm) from an amino acid-chelated source had no effect on antibody responses to IBR, P13 and BRSV, but enhanced (P < 0.05) antibody titres of calves in response to the BVD vaccine on d 28 or d 35. Supplemental Cr from Cr yeast had no effect on antibody titres of calves to any vaccines. Chromium from both sources (trial 1 and 2) had no effect on antibody responses of calves following vaccination with P. haemolytica. However, supplemental Cr (0.75 ppm) from Cr yeast enhanced (P < 0.05) serum antibody responses of calves to OVA during the primary response (d 14) and secondary response (d 35) following immunization. These data confirmed our previous finding that supplemental Cr can enhance humoral immune response of market-transit stressed calves, but its enhancement on vaccine efficacy was antigen-dependent and variable. PMID:8785720

Chang, G X; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N; Gallo, G F

1996-01-01

316

Research Review: The Role of Diet in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder--An Appraisal of the Evidence on Efficacy and Recommendations on the Design of Future Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The efficacy of three dietary treatments for ADHD has been repeatedly tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These interventions are restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE) and supplementation with free fatty acids (SFFA). There have been three systematic reviews and associated…

Stevenson, Jim; Buitelaar, Jan; Cortese, Samuele; Ferrin, Maite; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel; Simonoff, Emily; Wong, Ian C. K.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2014-01-01

317

Beware of Fraudulent Weight-Loss 'Dietary Supplements'  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... calling 1-800-FDA-1088 or visiting FDA online . back to top Dietary Supplements and FDA Dietary supplements, in general, are not FDA-approved. Under the law (Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994), dietary supplement firms do not ...

318

HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P < .03). In the melanoma-bearing mice treated with IR, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:20136435

Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

2010-02-01

319

47 CFR 87.473 - Supplemental eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Radiodetermination Service § 87.473 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses for radionavigation land test stations (MTF) will be granted only to applicants engaged in the development, manufacture or maintenance of aircraft...

2010-10-01

320

Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?  

PubMed Central

Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. PMID:23434906

Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Felice, Valentina Di

2013-01-01

321

Cell Stem Cell, Volume 5 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

, 100 µM -mercaptoethanol, Penicillin/Streptomycin (Invitrogen) supplemented with 50 ng/ml BMP4 (R% nonessential amino acids and penicillin/streptomycin. Heavy MEF-conditioned medium was harvested daily for 7

322

21 CFR 1002.11 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Required Manufacturers' Reports for Listed Electronic Products § 1002.11 Supplemental reports. Prior to the introduction into commerce of a new or modified model within a model or chassis family of a product listed in table 1 of §...

2010-04-01

323

Education Journal to have Electronic Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates plans for a new electronic supplement to the "Journal of Chemical Education" which will contain computer programs useful to chemistry teachers. Points out that the first issue will highlight programs for the Apple II computer. (ML)

Worthy, Ward

1987-01-01

324

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION  

E-print Network

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

Walker, Lawrence R.

325

Supplemental Information Molecular Cell, Volume 38  

E-print Network

(Supplemental Information). In Vitro Cleavage Assays In vitro cleavage reactions were performed essentially as described (Haley and Zamore, 2004; Shin, 2008). mRNA fragments transcribed in vitro and 5-cap

Bartel, David

326

19 CFR 204.4 - Supplemental investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...investigations. 204.4 Section 204.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF EFFECTS OF IMPORTS ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.4 Supplemental...

2010-04-01

327

Cardiac Effects of Ergogenic Aides and Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Great concern exists that athletes who regularly exercise are using dietary supplements and other purported ergogenic aids\\u000a as a means for enhancing athletic performance and altering body composition.

Holly J. Benjamin; Joseph A. Congeni

328

Taking Dietary Supplements with Heart, Blood Pressure, or Cholesterol Medicines: A Review of the Research for Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... B3) Vitamin E Vitamin K Magnesium Ginseng Echinacea Garlic supplements Ginger supplements Ginkgo biloba Omega-3 fatty ... supplements made from plants, such as: Ginseng Echinacea Garlic supplements Ginger supplements Ginkgo biloba Hawthorn Other supplements, ...

329

Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers  

PubMed Central

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Ériton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

2014-01-01

330

An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22432517

Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

2010-09-01

331

DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

weeks. The mean baseline levels of DNA repair incisions were 65·2 (95 % CI 60·4, 70·0) and 86·1 (95 % CI 76·2, 99·9) among the male smokers and well-nourished subjects, respectively. The male smokers also had high baseline levels of oxidised guanines in MNBC. After supplementation, only the male smokers supplemented with slow-release vitamin C tablets had increased DNA repair

Serena Guarnieri; Steffen Loft; Patrizia Riso; Marisa Porrini; Lotte Risom; Henrik E. Poulsen; Lars O. Dragsted; Peter Møller

2008-01-01

332

Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes.

Johanna T. Dwyer; Mary Frances Picciano; Joseph M. Betz; Kenneth D. Fisher; Leila G. Saldanha; Elizabeth A. Yetley; Paul M. Coates; John A. Milner; Jackie Whitted; Vicki Burt; Kathy Radimer; Jaimie Wilger; Katherine E. Sharpless; Joanne M. Holden; Karen Andrews; Janet Roseland; Cuiwei Zhao; Amy Schweitzer; James Harnly; Wayne R. Wolf; Charles R. Perry

2008-01-01

333

Efficacy of different strategies to treat anemia in children: a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia continues to be a major public health problem among children in many regions of the world, and it is still not clear which strategy to treat it is most effective. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and children's acceptance of several recognized strategies to treat anemia. Methods Non-breastfed children (n = 577), 6 to 43 mo of age, were screened for the trial; 267 were anemic (hemoglobin < 11.7 g/dL), and 266 of those were randomized into 1 of 5 treatments to received daily either: an iron supplement (IS), an iron+folic acid supplement (IFS), a multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS), a micronutrient-fortified complementary food as porridge powder (FCF), or zinc+iron+ascorbic acid fortified water (FW). The iron content of each daily dose was 20, 12.5, 10, 10 and 6.7 mg respectively. Hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, total iron, weight and height were measured at baseline and after 4 months of treatment. Morbidity, treatment acceptability and adherence were recorded during the intervention. Results All treatments significantly increased Hb and total iron concentration; ferritin did not change significantly. Groups MMS, IS and IFS increased Hb (g/dL) [1.50 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.83), 1.48 [(1.18, 1.78) and 1.57 (1.26, 1.88), respectively] and total iron ((?g/dL) [0.15 (0.01, 0.29), 0.19 (0.06, 0.31) and 0.12(-0.01, 0.25), respectively] significantly more than FCF [0.92 (0.64, 1.20)] but not to FW group [0.14 (0.04, 0.24)]. The prevalence of anemia was reduced to a greater extent in the MMS and IFS groups (72% and 69%, respectively) than in the FCF group (45%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in anthropometry or in the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections among treatment groups. The supplements MMS and IS were less acceptable to children, than IFS, FCF and FW. Conclusion The three supplements IS, ISF and MMS increased Hb more than the FCF; the supplements that contained micronutrients (IFS and MMS) were more effective for reducing the prevalence of anemia. In general, fortified foods were better accepted by the study participants than supplements. ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT00822380 PMID:20863398

2010-01-01

334

Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions  

PubMed Central

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

2014-01-01

335

Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

2014-01-01

336

Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

NONE

1995-11-01

337

Introduction to tobacco control supplement  

PubMed Central

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues. PMID:24732156

Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

2014-01-01

338

Obesity: drugs and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

In conjunction with lifestyle interventions, drugs are now recommended for obesity management when lifestyle interventions alone have not been effective and a patient's body mass index is 30 kg/m(2) or greater or 27 kg/m(2) or greater with the presence of one significant obesity-related comorbidity. Drugs should be viewed as potential long-term management because they control but do not resolve the underlying neurohormonal abnormalities often present in patients with obesity. Multiple trials of different drugs may be required before one that causes sufficient weight loss is identified. If 5% weight loss is not achieved at 12 weeks, the drug should be discontinued for lack of effectiveness. Drugs known to cause weight gain should be discontinued or their dosages should be decreased, or they should be replaced with more weight neutral drugs when possible. Dietary supplements and integrative medicine therapies have not been shown in studies to be effective for long-term management of obesity. PMID:25325917

Vesely, Jennifer M; DeMattia, Laure G

2014-10-01

339

How physicians should evaluate dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements occupy a unique niche within the realm of modern medicine. These products are often used by patients at their own discretion, in an unmonitored setting, and without the input of their physicians. Although laws pertaining to dietary supplement labeling prohibit specific claims for the treatment or prevention of disease, these products are widely used as "alternative" or "complementary" therapy. Dietary supplements are readily available, not classified as over-the-counter medications, and not regulated as such. Patients and providers alike often assume these products are at least safe and possibly effective. Historically, dietary supplement pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data have been limited and of meager quality. Information on dietary supplements in nonmedical literature is typically unreliable, and even in the medical literature, numerous studies have used products that were not well characterized. Although greater attention has recently focused on dietary supplement quality and integrity, complex issues persist and must be addressed when evaluating literature and advising patients. We seek to clarify many of these issues and make practical suggestions for the clinician. PMID:20493463

Glisson, James K; Walker, Larry A

2010-07-01

340

The use of dietary supplements by athletes.  

PubMed

Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various "ergogenic" compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with a sports nutrition professional. A few supplements may be helpful to athletes in specific circumstances, especially where food intake or food choice is restricted. Vitamin and mineral supplements should be used only when a food-based solution is not available. Sports drinks, energy bars, and protein-carbohydrate shakes may all be useful and convenient at specific times. There are well-documented roles for creatine, caffeine, and alkalinizing agents in enhancing performance in high-intensity exercise, although much of the evidence does not relate to specific athletic events. There are potential costs associated with all dietary supplements, including the risk of a positive doping result as a consequence of the presence of prohibited substances that are not declared on the label. PMID:18049988

Maughan, Ronald J; Depiesse, Frederic; Geyer, Hans

2007-01-01

341

Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products. PMID:24220164

Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

2013-01-01

342

Propafenone: noninvasive evaluation of efficacy.  

PubMed

Propafenone, a new antiarrhythmic drug, was administered to 60 patients with a history of refractory ventricular tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation in 16 and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 44. A noninvasive protocol was followed utilizing ambulatory monitoring and exercise testing for evaluation of drug effect. The protocol involved acute drug testing with 450 mg of propafenone followed by maintenance therapy with 150 to 300 mg t.i.d. for 4 days. The protocol was completed by 57 patients; in 3 patients side effects developed that necessitated discontinuation of the drug before evaluation. When evaluated by monitoring, 34 patients (60%) responded to the drug, with total elimination of runs of VT, a greater than 90% reduction in couplets and a greater than 50% decrease in the frequency of ventricular premature beats. Based on exercise testing, 36 patients (63%) were deemed responders. When both exercise and monitoring were considered, 30 of 57 patients (53%) responded to propafenone. The acute drug test predicted the response to maintenance therapy in 84% of patients. Propafenone did not change left ventricular function in patients with normal ejection fractions (greater than 50%). However, in those with an ejection fraction less than 50%, propafenone significantly reduced this value (34% vs 29%, p less than 0.01). Side effects occurred in 20 patients (33%) and included nausea, congestive heart failure, aggravation of arrhythmia and conduction abnormalities. Eleven patients have continued on propafenone for an average of 16 months with continued efficacy and freedom from side effects. PMID:6496369

Podrid, P J; Cytryn, R; Lown, B

1984-11-14

343

Anthelmintic efficacy on UK Thoroughbred stud farms.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic drugs have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. We undertook a comprehensive study to investigate efficacy of the four available broad-spectrum anthelmintic drugs on 16 Thoroughbred stud farms using the faecal egg count reduction test. Efficacy against strongyles was determined by calculating the percentage of reduction in faecal egg count between the group mean at Day 0 and Days 14-17 post-treatment and the 95% lower confidence intervals estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping. Individual strongyle faecal egg count reduction tests (n=429) were performed in which 179, 131, 89 and 30 horses were administered ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole, respectively. Moxidectin was efficacious in all tests (faecal egg count reduction range: 99.8-100%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 96.8-100%) and reduced efficacy of ivermectin (faecal egg count reduction range: 85.7-100%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 65-100%) was observed in one group of yearlings. Reduced pyrantel efficacy was observed in five groups of yearlings (faecal egg count reduction range: 0-73%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 0-59.5%), but pyrantel was found to be efficacious when administered to mares (faecal egg count reduction range: 98-99.4%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 91.8-99.3%). Low efficacy of fenbendazole was always observed (faecal egg count reduction range: 0.4-41%; 95% lower confidence intervals not calculable). Two further methods for estimating efficacy were applied and outputs obtained using all methodologies were in agreement. Efficacy against Parascaris equorum was assessed on four farms: fenbendazole had acceptable efficacy (faecal egg count reduction range: 97.5-99.9%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 96.3-99.1%), but reduced efficacy of ivermectin was observed (faecal egg count reduction range: 25.5-91.2%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 6.7-82.4%). Strongyle faecal egg count were analysed at approximately 2 week intervals for up to 12 weeks after anthelmintic drug administration to determine the egg reappearance period for moxidectin, ivermectin and pyrantel. The egg reappearance period for all three anthelmintic drugs was shorter than previously observed. Overall, our results indicate that ivermectin and moxidectin administration provided acceptable efficacy at 14 days; however, egg reappearance period results suggest that these products are working less effectively than measured previously. As shortened egg reappearance period is believed to be an early indicator of resistance, this highlights the issue of impending multi-drug resistance in strongyles on stud farms. PMID:24746779

Relf, Valerie E; Lester, Hannah E; Morgan, Eric R; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Matthews, Jacqueline B

2014-07-01

344

Role of dietary supplements in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a review.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. As the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension continues to grow among young adults, the population at risk for atherosclerotic CHD is ever increasing. More than a century of laboratory and human findings link cholesterol levels with a propensity to develop atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the major atherogenic lipoprotein, and numerous clinical trials have shown the efficacy of lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) for reducing CHD risk. New trial data have resulted in LDL-C goals being lowered over time and expansion of the population of patients that are candidates for LDL-lowering therapy to decrease their lifetime risk of CHD. Although statins are relatively safe and well tolerated, there are still significant numbers of patients who cannot tolerate them and many others who only require mild LDL-C reduction and prefer nonprescription alternatives to statin therapy. A number of dietary supplements and functional foods have been suggested to reduce LDL-C levels, but only a few have withstood the rigors of randomized controlled trials. Here we review the evidence in support of dietary supplements and their LDL-C-lowering effects. We also review supplements that, after initial excitement about their purported effect, were not found to lower LDL-C significantly. PMID:21122657

Nijjar, Prabhjot S; Burke, Frances M; Bloesch, Annette; Rader, Daniel J

2010-01-01

345

Supplement timing of cranberry extract plays a key role in promoting Caenorhabditis elegans healthspan.  

PubMed

Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry exact (CBE), rich in polyphenols, is consumed as a nutraceutical, and possesses anti-aging properties. Here, we examined the influence of timing on the beneficial effects of CBE supplementation in C. elegans. The prolongevity effect of CBE in different aged worms, young adults, middle-age adults, and aged adults, was determined. Early-start intervention with CBE prolonged the remaining lifespan of worms of different ages more robustly than late-start intervention. The effectiveness of CBE on stress responses and physiological behaviors in different aged worms was also investigated. The early-start intervention prominently promoted motility and resistance to heat shocks and V. cholera infection, especially in aged worms. Together, these findings suggest that the timing of CBE supplementation critically influences its beneficial effects on C. elegans lifespan and healthspan. It is of interest to further investigate whether the similar results would occur in humans. PMID:24566444

Guha, Sujay; Natarajan, Ojas; Murbach, Cole G; Dinh, Jessica; Wilson, Ethan C; Cao, Min; Zou, Sige; Dong, Yuqing

2014-01-01

346

Herbal materials used in dietary supplements: Comparison of luminescence methods for detection of irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In EU the treatment with ionising radiation is allowed for dried aromatic herbs, spices and seasonings, but not for herbal supplements and their ingredients. Nevertheless, controls carried out in EU at the product marketing stage, showed a large number of irradiated herbal supplements and herbal ingredients. Due to low sensitivity to radiation of this kind of products, the aim of this work was to test the efficacy of the luminescence-based methods in identifying irradiated herbal supplements. To this end, photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermo-luminescence (TL) measurements were performed on 24 products, including 8 herbal raw materials (plants or parts of plants) and 16 herbal extracts. The PSL technique, provided intermediate results, with a low number of total counts near to the upper negative limit, for all irradiated herbal extracts, showing possible limits in the detection of these products, specially in view of their use in mixtures with non-irradiated components. The TL method, was successfully applied to all herbal materials; in the case of herbal extracts, however, particular attention at the mineral separation step was necessary.

Bortolin, E.; Boniglia, C.; Gargiulo, R.; Onori, S.

2009-07-01

347

Choline supplementation in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) has high feasibility and tolerability  

PubMed Central

There are no biological treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), lifelong conditions associated with physical anomalies, brain damage, and neurocognitive abnormalities. In pre-clinical studies, choline partially ameliorates memory and learning deficits from prenatal alcohol exposure. This Phase I pilot study evaluated the feasibility, tolerability, and potential adverse effects of choline supplementation in children with FASD. We hypothesized that choline would be well-tolerated with minimal adverse events. The study design was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants included 20 children, ages 2.5–4.9y, with prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD diagnoses. Participants were randomly assigned to 500 mg. choline or placebo daily for nine months (10 active; 10 placebo). Primary outcome measures included feasibility, tolerability, adverse effects, and serum choline levels. Seventeen participants completed the study. Compliance was 82–87% as evidenced by parent-completed logsheets and dose counts. Periodic 24-hour dietary recalls showed no evidence of dietary confounding. Adverse events were minimal and were equivalent in the active and placebo arms with the exception of fishy body odor, which occurred only in the active group. There were no serious adverse events to research participants. This Phase I pilot study demonstrates that choline supplementation at 500 mg per day for nine months in children ages 2–5 is feasible and has high tolerability. Further examination of the efficacy of choline supplementation in FASD is currently underway. PMID:24176229

Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Fuglestad, Anita J.; Eckerle, Judith K.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Miller, Neely C.; Boys, Christopher J.; Brearley, Ann M.; Fink, Birgit A.; Hoecker, Heather L.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Georgieff, Michael K.

2013-01-01

348

Nutritional supplements for diabetes sold on the internet: business or health promotion?  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is one of the most widespread chronic disease. Although many medications are available for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, many people turn to nutritional supplements (NSs). In these years, the online sales have contributed to the growth of use of nutritional supplement. The aim of the research was to investigate the type of information provided by sales websites on NSs, and analyse the existence of scientific evidence about some of the most common ingredients found in available NSs for diabetes. Methods A web search was conducted in April 2012 to identify web sites selling NSs in the treatment of diabetes using Google, Yahoo and Bing! and the key word used was “diabetes nutritional supplements”. Website content was evaluated for the quality of information available to consumers and for the presence of a complete list of ingredients in the first NS suggested by the site. Subsequently, in order to analyze the scientific evidence on the efficacy of these supplements a PubMed search was carried out on the ingredients that were shared in at least 3 nutritional supplements. Results A total of 10 websites selling NSs were selected. Only half of the websites had a Food and Drug Administration disclaimer and 40% declared clearly that the NS offered was not a substitute for proper medication. A total of 10 NS ingredients were searched for on PubMed. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses or randomized control trials were present for all the ingredients except one. Most of the studies, however, were of poor quality and/or the results were conflicting. Conclusions Easy internet access to NSs lacking in adequate medical information and strong scientific evidence is a matter of public health concern, mainly considering that a misleading information could lead to an improper prevention both in healthy people and people suffering from diabetes. There is a clear need for more trials to assess the efficacy and safety of these NSs, better quality control of websites, more informed physicians and greater public awareness of these widely used products. PMID:23978193

2013-01-01

349

Antioxidant supplementation enhances bacterial peritonitis in mice by inhibiting phagocytosis.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are known to exhibit numerous health benefits including anti-ageing, anti-apoptotic and immuno-stimulatory effects. However, we present the data showing counterproductive effects of therapeutically relevant antioxidants on bacterial clearance by the immune system in a murine peritonitic model. The antioxidants ascorbic acid, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine augmented morbidity and mortality in mice carrying Eshcerichia coli-induced acute bacterial peritonitis. Treatment of peritonitic mice with antioxidants significantly increased their bacterial load in the range of 0.3-2 logs. Antioxidant administration to peritonitic mice resulted in decreased numbers of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells at the primary site of infection and increased neutrophil infiltration. Serum TNF-? levels were also decreased in antioxidant-treated peritonitic mice. In vitro experiments showed that antioxidants reduced the phagocytic efficacy of peritoneal macrophages by ~60-75% and also decreased E. coli-induced oxidative burst in macrophages cells. Taken together, our data indicate that the antioxidants increased the severity of peritonitis by decreasing the phagocytic efficiency, oxidative burst, and TNF-? production, and increasing neutrophil infiltration. Based on these results, we propose that antioxidant supplementation during the course of bacterial infection is not recommended as it could be detrimental for the host. In addition, the present study underlines the importance of timing and context of antioxidant administration rather than indiscriminate usage to gain the best possible therapeutic advantage of these redox compounds. PMID:24307637

Goswami, Manish; Sharma, Deepak; Khan, Nazir M; Checker, Rahul; Sandur, Santosh Kumar; Jawali, Narendra

2014-03-01

350

Testosterone supplementation for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women.  

PubMed

Over 50% of women are believed to be affected by female sexual dysfunction (FSD). When particularly distressful, FSD is known as hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). In contrast to male sexual dysfunction that has been extensively researched, there is less evidence addressing the treatment of HSDD in women, particularly with regard to the use of androgen therapy. A variety of testosterone products, including oral, injectable, and transdermal preparations, has been prescribed for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women, as well as in those with naturally occurring or surgically induced menopause. Although studies have shown some benefit with testosterone supplementation in women with HSDD, conflicting evidence and debate regarding the clinical efficacy of testosterone remain. Because of concern over potential adverse events, additional studies with longer follow-up periods are necessary before use of testosterone in women with HSDD becomes widespread. Initiation of testosterone therapy must be considered on an individual basis after a thorough discussion with the patient about risks and benefits. PMID:22392827

Woodis, C Brock; McLendon, Amber N; Muzyk, Andrew J

2012-01-01

351

Articaine for supplemental intraosseous anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effect of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for supplemental intraosseous injection in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty-seven emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an inferior alveolar nerve block and had moderate-to-severe pain upon endodontic access. The Stabident system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Success of the intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain upon endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The results demonstrated that anesthetic success was obtained in 86% (32 of 37) of the patients. Maximum mean heart rate was increased 32 beats/minute during the intraosseous injection. We can conclude that when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide profound pulpal anesthesia, the intraosseous injection of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine would be successful 86% of the time in achieving pulpal anesthesia in mandibular posterior teeth of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:17055903

Bigby, Jason; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

2006-11-01

352

Oxidation of Marine Omega-3 Supplements and Human Health  

PubMed Central

Marine omega-3 rich oils are used by more than a third of American adults for a wide range of purported benefits including prevention of cardiovascular disease. These oils are highly prone to oxidation to lipid peroxides and other secondary oxidation products. Oxidized oils may have altered biological activity making them ineffective or harmful, though there is also evidence that some beneficial effects of marine oils could be mediated through lipid peroxides. To date, human clinical trials have not reported the oxidative status of the trial oil. This makes it impossible to understand the importance of oxidation to efficacy or harm. However, animal studies show that oxidized lipid products can cause harm. Oxidation of trial oils may be responsible for the conflicting omega-3 trial literature, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The oxidative state of an oil can be simply determined by the peroxide value and anisidine value assays. We recommend that all clinical trials investigating omega-3 harms or benefits report the results of these assays; this will enable better understanding of the benefits and harms of omega-3 and the clinical importance of oxidized supplements. PMID:23738326

Albert, Benjamin B.; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

2013-01-01

353

NDA BATCH 2002-02  

SciTech Connect

QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2009-12-09

354

NDA Batch 2002-13  

SciTech Connect

QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

Hollister, R

2009-09-17

355

NDA BATCH 2008-05  

SciTech Connect

QC sample results (daily background check drums and 100-gram standard) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPPs Quality Assurance objectives for TRU Waste characterization. Replicate run was performed on the following drums LL85234292 and LL85101617. Replicate measurement results are acceptable at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2009-12-03

356

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques. Experiments w...

357

Developing Self-Efficacy through Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A coach's role is to develop and sustain the athlete's self-efficacy by ensuring performance success, communicating effectively, using role-modeling techniques, reducing anxiety-producing factors, and using positive reinforcement. (JN)

Feltz, Deborah L.; Weiss, Maureen R.

1982-01-01

358

Ferulic acid supplements abrogate oxidative impairments in liver and testis in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic antioxidant, in ameliorating oxidative stress in the testis and liver of diabetic pubertal rats. Male (6 wk old) rats were rendered diabetic by an acute dose (60 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) of streptozotocin (STZ) and were given oral supplementation of FA (50 mg/kg body weight/d on alternate days) for 4 weeks. The protective efficacy of FA was assessed by measuring markers of oxidative stress in the testis and liver along with the effect of stress on lipid profile in serum/testis. Terminally, the testis (cytosol and mitochondria) of STZ-administered rats exhibited a marked elevation in the status of lipid peroxidation and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to the non-diabetic controls. FA treatment completely normalized the oxidative impairments in the testis. Further, STZ-induced depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and elevated protein carbonyl content in the testis were restored to normalcy by FA treatment. The protective effects of FA were also discernible in the testis in terms of restoration of activities of various antioxidant enzymes in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, STZ-induced oxidative impairments in the liver were also abrogated significantly by FA treatment. STZ-induced perturbations in serum and testicular lipid profiles in the diabetic rats were also significantly attenuated by FA treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that oral supplementation of FA can significantly mitigate diabetes-associated oxidative impairments in the testis as well as in the liver and suggests the efficacy of FA as a complementary therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes-associated oxidative stress-mediated complications. PMID:18795822

Thyagaraju, Badanavalu Madaiah

2008-08-01

359

Principal self-efficacy and work engagement: assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian\\u000a Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal\\u000a self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work engagement was measured\\u000a by a modified version of the Utrecht Work

Roger A. Federici; Einar M. Skaalvik

360

Self-efficacy and achievement behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article self-efficacy research is reviewed in domains relevant to education. Research addressing cognitive skills, social skills, motor skills, and career choices has shown that self-efficacy is an important construct that helps to explain students' learning and performance of achievement-related behaviors. Research also has identified variables that are associated with educational contexts and that signal to students how well

Dale H. Schunk

1989-01-01

361

Self-Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

programs with high levels of self-efficacy (a belief in one's capabilities). These levels of self-efficacy frequently decline as pre-service teachers progress through their curriculum and make the transition to in-service teaching. A slight decline in these levels can be interpreted as a novice teacher's greater understanding of the complexity of the teaching process. Eighteen pre-service string teachers evaluated their levels

Gail V. Barnes

362

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2011-04-01

363

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2014-04-01

364

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2013-04-01

365

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2012-04-01

366

21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels...OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing...apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and...

2010-04-01

367

Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.  

PubMed

Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. PMID:20190347

de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

2010-02-01

368

The short-term effects of antioxidant and zinc supplements on oxidative stress biomarker levels in plasma: a pilot investigation  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if short-term Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) antioxidant and zinc supplementation affects biomarkers of oxidative stress, possibly serving as a predictor of their efficacy. Design Prospective interventional case series Methods Nineteen subjects, 12 with intermediate or advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (AREDS categories 3 or 4) and 7 non-AMD controls, were admitted to the Vanderbilt General Clinical Research Center and placed on a controlled diet for 7 days. Antioxidant and zinc supplements were stopped two weeks prior to study enrollment. Dietary supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E, 15 mg ?-carotene, 80 mg zinc oxide, and 2 mg cupric oxide per day was instituted on Study Day 2. Blood was drawn on Study Days 2 and 7, and plasma concentrations of cysteine (Cys), cystine (CySS), glutathione (GSH), isoprostane (IsoP), and isofuran (IsoF) were determined. Results Short-term AREDS supplementation significantly lowered mean plasma levels of CySS in participants on a regulated diet (p = 0.034). No significant differences were observed for Cys, GSH, IsoP, or IsoF. There were no significant differences between AMD patients and controls. Conclusions This pilot interventional study shows that a 5-day course of antioxidant and zinc supplements can modify plasma levels of CySS, suggesting that this oxidative stress biomarker could help predict how likely an individual is to benefit from AREDS supplementation. Further, CySS may be useful for the evaluation of new AMD therapies, particularly those hypothesized to affect redox status. PMID:22381365

Brantley, Milam A.; Osborn, Melissa P.; Sanders, Barton J.; Rezaei, Kasra A.; Lu, Pengcheng; Li, Chun; Milne, Ginger L.; Cai, Jiyang; Sternberg, Paul

2012-01-01

369

Maternal taurine supplementation attenuates maternal fructose-induced metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation and partially reverses adverse metabolic programming in offspring.  

PubMed

Excessive fructose consumption is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and high fructose intake during pregnancy can lead to compromised fetal development in the rat. Evidence suggests that the amino acid taurine can ameliorate fructose-induced IR and NAFLD in nonpregnant animals. This study investigated the efficacy of taurine supplementation on maternal fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction and neonatal health. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomized to four groups during pregnancy and lactation: (a) control diet (CON), (b) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT), (c) CON supplemented with fructose solution (F) and (d) F supplemented with taurine (FT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Maternal hyperinsulinemia, increased homeostasis model assessment of IR indices and elevated proinflammatory cytokines were observed in F group and normalized in FT group. Maternal fructose-induced hepatic steatosis accompanied with increased liver weight was ameliorated with taurine supplementation. Maternal hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase expression was significantly increased in the F group compared to the CON, CT and FT groups. Neonatal hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was increased in male F neonates compared to the CON, CT and FT groups and was increased in female F and FT neonates compared to CON and CT. Interleukin-1? expression was decreased in male CT and FT neonates compared to other male groups. Hepatic tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 was lower in the male FT group than the F group. These results demonstrate that maternal taurine supplementation can partially reverse fructose-induced maternal metabolic dysfunction and may ameliorate adverse developmental programming effects in offspring in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25576095

Li, M; Reynolds, C M; Sloboda, D M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

2015-03-01

370

Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.  

PubMed

Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals. PMID:24323888

Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

2014-03-01

371

Fat supplementation and reproduction in beef females.  

PubMed

Inadequate dietary energy intake and poor body condition can negatively affect reproductive function. Supplemental lipids have been used to increase energy density of the diet and may also have direct positive effects on reproduction in beef cattle. Several fatty acid sources have been studied as they relate to reproductive function. Common sources include sunflower, safflower, cottonseed, rice bran, soybeans, fishmeal, animal tallow, and calcium salts of fatty acids. Fats have been fed before and after calving, during the breeding season, and during heifer development. Response to fat has been investigated through measuring body weight and body condition score, age at puberty, postpartum interval, first-service conception rates, pregnancy rates, calving interval, calving difficulty, and calf birth and weaning weight. Animal response seems to depend on body condition score, age (parity), nutrients available in the diet, and type of fat supplemented. To elucidate potential mechanisms of action, scientists have investigated changes in follicular and uterine development, hormonal profiles, brain function, and embryonic development. Feeding supplemental fat has resulted in varied and inconsistent effects on reproductive function. Elucidating how supplemental fat can influence reproductive function has been a difficult process. The complexity of the reproductive system and makeup of fat supplements are often confounded by management conditions and forage quality both in research and commercial feeding situations. PMID:15471795

Funston, R N

2004-01-01

372

Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production  

SciTech Connect

The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. (Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Newark, NJ (USA)); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

1989-12-01

373

Seizure prophylaxis in an animal model of epilepsy by dietary fluoxetine supplementation.  

PubMed

Clinical and animal model evidence suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act as anticonvulsants. The present studies tested the possibility that the El mouse model of genetically predisposed/handling-triggered epilepsy would exhibit fewer seizures following SSRI treatment via dietary fluoxetine adulteration. In particular, potential bioenergetic and neural mechanisms for anticonvulsant efficacy of fluoxetine were explored using food intake/body weight monitoring and quantification of brain serotonin transporter protein. El mice consuming a chow diet ad libitum or yoked in quantity to fluoxetine diet intake exhibited seizure incidence of 40% in response to tail-suspension handling, whereas seizures were abolished (0%) among El mice consuming a fluoxetine-adultered diet over 7 days. A 3 day period of fluoxetine administration was insufficient to exert anticonvulsant efficacy and all treatment groups exhibited the same circadian locomotor activity patterns at the time of seizure susceptibility testing. Bioenergetic factors could not account for the anticonvulsant efficacy of fluoxetine since yoked diet controls with matched food intake, body weight change and blood glucose levels exhibited the same 40% seizure incidence as ad libitum chow controls. Importantly, the 7 day period of dietary fluoxetine exposure was effective in selectively reducing cell density in the parietal cortex and increasing serotonin transporter protein content in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary fluoxetine supplementation abolishes handling-induced seizure susceptibility in El mice via a neural remodeling mechanism independent of energy balance. PMID:17215106

Richman, Alyssa; Heinrichs, Stephen C

2007-04-01

374

Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

375

Efficacy Methods to Evaluate Health Communication and Marketing Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy

W. Douglas Evans; Jennifer Uhrig; Kevin Davis; Lauren McCormack

2009-01-01

376

Efficacy of instability resistance training.  

PubMed

The use of the stability ball as a platform for upper-body resistance training has gained much attention in recent years. However, the efficacy of such training regimens remains largely unstudied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of platform (unstable vs. stable, stability ball vs. flat bench) on strength and work capacity during barbell chest-press exercise. We also sought to determine the effects of a barbell chest-press training program performed on a stability ball or flat bench on strength, work capacity, and abdominal power. Fourteen young women (20 - 23 yr) performed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) barbell chest-press and the YMCA bench press test (YBT) on a stability ball and flat bench, as well as two field tests measuring abdominal power. The women were then assigned to perform 3 weeks of barbell chest-press training on a stability ball (SB group) or flat bench (FB group); assignment was balanced based on 1RM strength. Barbell chest-press training included 3 sets of 3 - 5 repetitions at loads greater or equal to 85 % of 1RM. The 1RM barbell chest-press, YBT, front abdominal power test (FAPT), and side abdominal power test (SAPT) were used to evaluate changes in strength, work capacity, and abdominal power, respectively. The chest-press tests were completed on both platforms following the training program. Platform (stability ball vs. flat bench) had no influence on strength, but work capacity was initially 12 % lower on the stability ball compared to the flat bench. In response to training, both groups significantly increased strength and work capacity, and there were no group differences. The increase in 1RM strength was 15 % and 16 % on the stability ball and flat bench for the SB group, and 16 % and 19 % for the FB group, respectively. The increase in work capacity was 32 % and 13 % on the stability ball and flat bench for the SB group, and 27 % and 26 % for the FB group, respectively. Both groups significantly improved on the FAPT, and there were no group differences. Performance on the FAPT improved by 5 % for the SB group, and 22 % for the FB group. Performance on the SAPT did not change. Barbell chest-press training performed on either the stability ball or flat bench increased strength and work capacity, and these changes were transferable across platforms. Thus, the stability ball is an effective platform for barbell chest-press training in untrained women over a short duration. PMID:17497582

Cowley, P M; Swensen, T; Sforzo, G A

2007-10-01

377

Introduction: Intradural Spinal Surgery video supplement.  

PubMed

This Neurosurgical Focus video supplement contains detailed narrated videos of a broad range of intradural pathology such as neoplasms, including intramedullary, extramedullary, and dumbbell tumors, vascular malformations, functional disorders, and rare conditions that are often overlooked or misdiagnosed such as arachnoid cysts, ventral spinal cord herniation, and dorsal arachnoid web. The intent of this supplement is to provide meaningful educational and instructional content at all levels of training and practice. As such, the selected video submissions each provide a comprehensive detailed narrative description and coordinated video that contains the entire spectrum of relevant information including imaging, operative setup and positioning, and exposure, as well as surgical strategies, techniques, and sequencing toward the safe and effective achievement of the operative objective. This level of detail often necessitated a more lengthy video duration than is typically presented in oral presentations or standard video clips from peer reviewed publications. Unfortunately, space limitations precluded the inclusion of several other excellent video submissions in this supplement. While most videos in this supplement reflect standard operative approaches and techniques there are also submissions that describe innovative exposures and techniques that have expanded surgical options such as ventral approaches, stereotactic guidance, and minimally invasive exposures. There is some redundancy in both the topics and techniques both to underscore fundamental surgical principles as well as to provide complementary perspective from different surgeons. It has been my privilege to serve as guest editor for this video supplement and I would like to extend my appreciation to Mark Bilsky, Bill Krauss, and Sander Connolly for reviewing the large number submitted videos. Most of all, I would like to thank the authors for their skill and effort in the preparation of the outstanding videos that constitute this video supplement. PMID:25175569

McCormick, Paul C

2014-09-01

378

Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant for…

Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

2004-01-01

379

Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a…

Takahashi, Sola

2011-01-01

380

Implementing phytosterols into medical practice as a cholesterol-lowering strategy: overview of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety.  

PubMed

More than 200 clinical trial reports and several meta-analyses have demonstrated that phytosterols (PSs), natural components of plants, induce clinically relevant reductions in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Here we review data regarding the biochemical effects and potential cardiovascular benefit of PSs as part of the dietary management of dyslipidemia. In addition to discussing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of PSs as hypocholesterolemic agents, this review provides an overview of PSs as an adjunctive therapy to cholesterol-lowering pharmaceuticals. Given this lack of evidence regarding the benefits of PSs for reducing cardiovascular end points, this review also discusses the present knowledge that exists about the ability for therapeutic dosages of PSs to confer protection from cardiovascular-related mortality and morbidity. Finally, this review summarizes the factors that affect PS efficacy and the Canadian regulations that govern the use of PSs as cholesterol-lowering agents in foods and supplements. PMID:25262863

AbuMweis, Suhad S; Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Frohlich, Jiri; Jones, Peter J H

2014-10-01

381

Protective efficacy of piperine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Piperine a trans-trans isomer of 1-piperoyl-piperidine was evaluated for its immunomodulatory activity to enhance the efficacy of rifampicin in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In-vitro immunomodulation of piperine was tested on mouse splenocytes for lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and macrophage activation. Protective efficacy of piperine was tested in a mice infection model of M. tuberculosis for the activation of Th-1 response and synergistic combination efficacy with rifampicin. Murine splenocytes exposed to piperine exhibited proliferation of T and B cell, increased Th-1 cytokines and enhanced macrophage activation. Piperine (1 mg/kg) in mice infected with M. tuberculosis activated the differentiation of T cells into Th-1 sub-population (CD4+ / CD8+ subsets). There was an increase in secretion of Th-1 cytokines (IFN-? and IL-2) by these cells. The qRT-PCR studies revealed corresponding increases in the mRNA transcripts of IFN-? and IL-2 in the infected lung tissues. Combination of piperine and rifampicin (1 mg/kg) exhibited better efficacy of and resulted in additional 1.4 to 0.8 log reduction in lung cfu as compared to rifampicin alone. The up-regulation of Th1 immunity by piperine can be synergistically combined with rifampicin to improve its therapeutic efficacy in immune-compromised TB patients. PMID:24880706

Sharma, Sandeep; Kalia, Nitin Pal; Suden, Pankaj; Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Kumar, Manoj; Ram, Anshu Beulah; Khajuria, Anamika; Bani, Sarang; Khan, Inshad Ali

2014-07-01

382

21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6180 Reproductive media and supplements...media and supplement are products that are used for assisted reproduction procedures. Media include liquid and powder...

2013-04-01

383

21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6180 Reproductive media and supplements...media and supplement are products that are used for assisted reproduction procedures. Media include liquid and powder...

2014-04-01

384

21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6180 Reproductive media and supplements...media and supplement are products that are used for assisted reproduction procedures. Media include liquid and powder...

2012-04-01

385

15 CFR Supplement No. 11 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 11 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 11 Supplement No. 11 to Part 760—Interpretation Definition of...

2010-01-01

386

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2010-10-01

387

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2013-10-01

388

48 CFR 1801.103 - Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) 1801.103 Section 1801.103... Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1801.103 Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) (a) Under the...

2012-10-01

389

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2014-10-01

390

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2011-10-01

391

48 CFR 1801.103 - Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) 1801.103 Section 1801.103... Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1801.103 Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) (a) Under the...

2014-10-01

392

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2012-10-01

393

DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

2013-01-01

394

15 CFR Supplement No. 6 to Part... - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Supplement No. 6 to Part 748-Authorities Issuing Import Certificates Under the Firearms Convention Commerce and Foreign Trade...Supplement No. 6 to Part 748—Authorities Issuing Import Certificates Under the Firearms Convention [Reserved] [Status...

2010-01-01

395

Block and Tub Supplements for Grazing Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Block supplements offer cattle producers a means of supplementing the diets of their grazing beef cattle. This publication discusses the types of blocks available and recommendations for the use of each....

Machen, Richard V.

2003-03-19

396

75 FR 71448 - Notice of Intent To Provide Supplemental Funding  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Notice of Intent To Provide Supplemental...90AM3204) with the Administration on Aging and a request for a supplemental application...SUMMARY: The Administration on Aging is announcing the availability of...

2010-11-23

397

38 CFR 21.7138 - Rates of supplemental educational assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...U.S.C. 3015(c), 3032(c); Pub. L. 99-576) (b) Increase in supplemental educational assistance rates (“kicker”). The Secretary concerned may increase the amount of supplemental educational assistance payable to an individual...

2013-07-01

398

38 CFR 21.7138 - Rates of supplemental educational assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...U.S.C. 3015(c), 3032(c); Pub. L. 99-576) (b) Increase in supplemental educational assistance rates (“kicker”). The Secretary concerned may increase the amount of supplemental educational assistance payable to an individual...

2010-07-01

399

38 CFR 21.7138 - Rates of supplemental educational assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...U.S.C. 3015(c), 3032(c); Pub. L. 99-576) (b) Increase in supplemental educational assistance rates (“kicker”). The Secretary concerned may increase the amount of supplemental educational assistance payable to an individual...

2012-07-01

400

38 CFR 21.7138 - Rates of supplemental educational assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...U.S.C. 3015(c), 3032(c); Pub. L. 99-576) (b) Increase in supplemental educational assistance rates (“kicker”). The Secretary concerned may increase the amount of supplemental educational assistance payable to an individual...

2011-07-01

401

38 CFR 21.7138 - Rates of supplemental educational assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...U.S.C. 3015(c), 3032(c); Pub. L. 99-576) (b) Increase in supplemental educational assistance rates (“kicker”). The Secretary concerned may increase the amount of supplemental educational assistance payable to an individual...

2014-07-01

402

DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

2013-01-01

403

32 CFR 644.460 - Supplemental agreement assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Completed Notice of Termination. (2) ENG Form 340 (Supplemental Agreement Accepting Proposed Restoration) or ENG Form 341 (Supplemental Agreement Transferring...terminal survey and condition report. (5) ENG Form 1440-R, or 1440A-R and...

2010-07-01

404

12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

2011-01-01

405

12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

2010-01-01

406

12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

2014-01-01

407

12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

2012-01-01

408

12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

2013-01-01

409

12 CFR Supplement I to Part 227 - Official Staff Commentary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Official Staff Commentary I Supplement I to Part 227 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Pt. 227, Supp. I Supplement I to Part 227—Official Staff...

2011-01-01

410

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2010-07-01

411

49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219 Section... § 1542.219 Supplementing law enforcement personnel. (a) When...qualified State, local, and private law enforcement personnel are...

2010-10-01

412

WELDING RESEARCH ~----------------------~--~ SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL. FEBRUARY 1990  

E-print Network

J ) WELDING RESEARCH ~----------------------~--~ SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL. FEBRUARY 1990 Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council All papers published in the Welding Journal's Welding Research Supplement undergo Peer Review before publication for: I) originality

Eagar, Thomas W.

413

48 CFR 1813.003 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (g))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (g)) 1813.003 Section 1813.003... SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES 1813.003 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (g)) (g) Acquisitions under...

2014-10-01

414

Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials involving 414 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements had higher concentrations of vitamin D in serum at term than those women who received no intervention or a placebo; however the magnitude of the response was highly heterogenous. Data from three trials involving 463 women suggest that women who receive vitamin D supplements during pregnancy less frequently had a baby with a birthweight below 2500 grams than those women receiving no treatment or placebo; statistical significance was borderline (RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.01). In terms of other conditions, there were no significant differences in adverse side effects including nephritic syndrome (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women); stillbirths (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women) or neonatal deaths (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women) between women who received vitamin D supplements in comparison with women who received no treatment or placebo. No studies reported on preterm birth, maternal death, admission to neonatal intensive care unit/special nursery or Apgar scores. Authors' conclusions Vitamin D supplementation in a single or continued dose during pregnancy increases serum vitamin D concentrations as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D at term. The clinical significance of this finding and the potential use of this intervention as a part of routine antenatal care are yet to be determined as the number of high quality trials and outcomes reported is too limited to draw conclusions on its usefulness and safety. Further rigorous randomised trials are required to evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. PMID:22336854

De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

2013-01-01

415

15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

2011-01-01

416

15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In Supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in Supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...Supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

2013-01-01

417

15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In Supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in Supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...Supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

2010-01-01

418

15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In Supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in Supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...Supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

2014-01-01

419

15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In Supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in Supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...Supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

2012-01-01

420

Supplemental Instruction for Improving First Year Results in Engineering Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have been made on the impact of supplemental instruction in supported courses, with most showing significantly better examination results for students attending supplemental instruction in comparison to those who do not. However, remarkably little attention has been devoted to following up whether the benefits of supplemental

Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Morner, Lise-Lotte

2012-01-01

421

Dietary supplement use among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Background. More than 50% of US adults, and an even larger proportion of cancer patients, use dietary supplements. Since many supplements require hepatic metabolism, they may be particularly likely to cause toxicities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about supplement use in patients with HCC. Methods. From 2008 to 2012, we gave newly diagnosed HCC patients at our institution a standardized questionnaire about dietary supplement use, demographic factors, and clinical characteristics. We then followed patients for four years or until time to death to examine the relationship with supplement use. Results. Of 146 patients, 71% had used vitamins and 45% herbal supplements. Most commonly used supplements were antioxidants (51%), multivitamins (46%), vitamin D (25%), and milk thistle (23%). People in mid-higher income brackets were more likely to use herbal supplements (19% of those earning <$30 000, 50% of those earning $30 000-60 000, and 34% of those earning >$60 000 used supplements). Hepatitis C (HCV) patients were more likely to use milk thistle than those without HCV (30% vs 13%, P = .03), and patients with hepatitis B (HBV) were more likely than non-HBV patients to use vitamin C (32% vs 14%, P = .01). Supplement use was not associated with overall survival. Conclusions. Like cancer patients in other studies, the majority of our HCC patients used dietary supplements. Supplement use was not associated with overall survival but should be studied in larger patient samples. PMID:25228537

Lee, Valerie; Goyal, Abhishek; Hsu, Christine C; Jacobson, Judith S; Rodriguez, Rosa D; Siegel, Abby B

2015-01-01

422

20 CFR 218.37 - When a supplemental annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false When a supplemental annuity ends. 218.37 Section 218.37 Employees...BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES When an Annuity Ends § 218.37 When a supplemental annuity ends. A supplemental annuity ends when the...

2011-04-01

423

20 CFR 218.37 - When a supplemental annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false When a supplemental annuity ends. 218.37 Section 218.37 Employees...BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES When an Annuity Ends § 218.37 When a supplemental annuity ends. A supplemental annuity ends when the...

2010-04-01

424

Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental

Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.

2014-01-01

425

28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

2014-07-01

426

28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

2012-07-01

427

7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

2011-01-01

428

28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

2010-07-01

429

7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

2012-01-01

430

7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

2013-01-01

431

7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-01-01 true Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

2014-01-01

432

28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

2011-07-01

433

28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

2013-07-01

434

7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

2010-01-01

435

Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

NONE

1993-08-06

436

Bibliography of Significant Advances in Dietary Supplement Research 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Dietary Supplements is pleased to provide you with this publication for the seventh consecutive year. The Office engages in a process of identifying exemplary papers on dietary supplements and disseminating this information through the Annual Bibliography of Significant Advances in Dietary Supplement Research to researchers, health professionals, and other interested individuals. This issue contains 25 original research

Rebecca B Costello

2005-01-01

437

Scientific basis and practical aspects of creatine supplementation for athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of studies have been published on creatine supplementation over the last decade. Many studies show that creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training augments gains in muscle strength and size. The underlying physiological mechanism(s) to explain this ergogenic effect remain unclear. Increases in muscle fiber hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain expression have been observed with creatine supplementation.

Jeff S. Volek; Eric S. Rawson

2004-01-01

438

The Physiological Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Hydration: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, Harris and colleagues demonstrated that oral creatine supplementation can enhance muscle creatine stores. Since then, creatine has become an important and popular ergogenic aid for improving athletic performance with reports of up to 74% of athletes supplementing with creatine. Although many recent studies have addressed the safety concerns of creatine supplementation on hydration status in hot and humid

Eric J. Sobolewski; Brennan J. Thompson; Abbie E. Smith; Eric D. Ryan

2011-01-01

439

Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes.  

PubMed

Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 +/- 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p < .05). Among supplement users, minerals, vitamins, sport drinks, energy drinks, and carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes. PMID:19403956

Braun, Hans; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Kleiner, Jens; Mester, Joachim; Schanzer, Wilhelm

2009-02-01

440

Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

2001-01-01

441

ORIGINAL PAPER Use of grit supplements by waterbirds: an experimental  

E-print Network

in the gizzard and in some species also as a dietary supplement (Gionfriddo and Best 1999). However, this impliesORIGINAL PAPER Use of grit supplements by waterbirds: an experimental assessment of strategies. Lead ammunition for hunting is being progressively banned in more countries, while grit supplementation

Green, Andy J.

442

Use of Botanicals in Food Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In the European Union, an elaborate legal framework regulates botanical products both under food and medicinal law. The decision as to which legal framework applies to an individual product may differ between the Member States. In the case of botanical food supplements, all food law provisions apply to their manufacturing, composition and marketing, including the new claims legislation. Methods:

P. Coppens; L. Delmulle; O. Gulati; D. Richardson; M. Ruthsatz; H. Sievers; S. Sidani

2006-01-01

443

[Costs versus benefits of oral nutritional supplements].  

PubMed

Health economics pretends to assign resources that are short in essence and that may be used for other purposes. Health costs analysis pretends to compare the pros and cons of several options among which an election can be made in order to obtain greater benefits with lower costs. The current legislation on prescription of enteral nutrition entails confusing definitions about the administration route and the requirements of home-based enteral nutrition, without a specific regulation comprising the prescription of oral supplements (OS). From the year 2000 to 2007, the consumption of homebased enteral nutrition in Andalusia increased considerably; the costs generated being multiplied by 37. Although the number of persons that daily consumed supplements was higher than the number of diets through nasogastric tube (DT) during the years evaluated, the costs derived from OS surpassed those of DT from the year 2005 due to the combination of two factors: a progressive increase in the number of persons to whom supplements were prescribed, and on the other hand the incorporation of more expensive specific formulations. The use of oral supplements seems to be cost/effective in hospitalized surgical patients (during the pre- and postsurgical period) and possibly in hospitalized malnourished elderly, especially after performing a hyponutrition screening. Although they may be effective, under other circumstances, such as ambulatory patients, studies with an adequate methodology are necessary in order to adopt clinical decisions based on evidence and cost analysis. PMID:19721897

Olveira, G; Tapia, M J; Colomo, N

2009-01-01

444

Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

445

Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. Volume 35  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special supplement of the Meteoritics and Planetary Science Society Journal contains the abstracts of 324 technical presentations, and the presentations of awards during the Annual meeting of the Meteoritical Society. The abstracts review current research on meteors and planetary sciences.

Sears, Derek W. G. (Editor); Binzel, Richard P. (Editor); Gaffey, Michael J. (Editor); Kraehenbuehl, Urs (Editor); Pieters, Carle M. (Editor); Shaw, Denis (Editor); Wieler, Rainer (Editor); Brownlee, Donald E. (Editor); Goldstein, Joseph I. (Editor); Lyon, Ian C. (Editor)

2000-01-01

446

Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

447

Solid waste fuel pellets provide fuel supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pelletized municipal solid wastes for a supplemental industrial fuel has been demonstrated. Ferrous materials are removed from these wastes by means of magnetic drums; glass and rubble are removed in the process of successive air and mechanical separation. The combustible material is shredded and compacted into pellets with a bulk density of 30 pcf. The effective fuel

H. K. Elo; F. R. Rhodes

1976-01-01

448

Supplemental Tables to the Annual Energy Outlook  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Supplemental tables were generated for the reference case of the AEO using the National Energy Modeling System, a computer-based model which produces annual projections of energy markets. Most of the tables were not published in the AEO, but contain regional and other more detailed projections underlying the AEO projections.

2014-01-01

449

Protein supplementation of human IVF culture media.  

PubMed

This review travels the road of protein supplementation in embryo culture development-from whole crude plasma in the mid Twentieth century moving through to the completely genetically engineered human albumin with successful births at the beginning of the Twenty-first. PMID:12005309

Blake, Deborah; Svalander, Peter; Jin, Meishan; Silversand, Christer; Hamberger, Lars

2002-03-01

450

Page 1 of 6 Supplemental Travel Authorization  

E-print Network

travel to countries that have been identified with higher health, safety, and security risks Travel Website and International Risk Analyst for further information. The ITSOC and Provost reviewPage 1 of 6 ` Supplemental Travel Authorization This form is for UA employees (Faculty, Staff

Wong, Pak Kin

451

Cell Host & Microbe, Volume 11 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Cell Host & Microbe, Volume 11 Supplemental Information Cofactors Required for TLR7- and TLR9 of HRS in mediating TLR7/9 signaling pathway. Related to Figure 4. Figure S4: TLR9 ubiquitination-wide TLR9 siRNA screen. Related to Figure 1. Table S1C: RAW and normalized primary data for the known TLR7

Nizet, Victor

452

Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Supplemental Feeding  

E-print Network

, and when more than 3 pounds of high energy supple- ments are used, it results in lower efficiency of feed conversion. E-63 05-01 Supplemental Feeding Bruce B. Carpenter and Charles R. Hart Assistant Professor and Extension Livestock Specialist, Associate...

Carpenter, Bruce B.; Hart, Charles R.

2001-05-31

453

INFORMATION COLLECTION RULE (ICR) SUPPLEMENTAL SURVEYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The primary purpose of the ICR Supplemental Surveys is to better characterize the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and other microorganisms and DBP precursors and to collect data pertaining to water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, etc.) The inf...

454

Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine common herbal supplements, explore potential risks associated with herbal use, and provide recommendations to the athletic trainer regarding patient care issues. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases 1990–2000 using the key words herbals, regulation, supplements, toxicity, and adulteration. Data Synthesis: The use of herbal products continues to grow. While the origins of some medications and herbal supplements are similar, clinical testing and understanding of most herbal remedies is lacking. Some herbal products may prove useful in an athletic setting; however, current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations do not ensure safe and effective products. A descriptive review focusing on specific considerations for the athletic trainer is provided. Conclusions/Recommendations: Despite their increasing tendency to seek natural therapies, athletes need to be aware that “natural” does not equal “safe.” Athletes are entitled to know that most herbs are not proven safe or effective under current FDA standards. The athletic trainer must be able to provide honest, unbiased information when educating athletes regarding herbal supplements. PMID:16558669

Storrs, Cordial M.

2001-01-01

455

Creatine Supplementation in Wisconsin High School Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Creatine is a nutritional supplement used to enhance athletic performance in collegiate and pro- fessional athletes. There is increasing evidence that high school athletes are using creatine as well. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of creatine sup- plementation as well as the behaviors and beliefs asso- ciated with creatine use in high school athletes. Methods:

Timothy A. McGuine; Jude C. Sullivan; David A. Bernhardt

2002-01-01

456

Molecular Cell, Volume 47 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Molecular Cell, Volume 47 Supplemental Information Expression Noise and Acetylation Profiles bursts in time (y axis: protein production). B) 8 gene deletions and one mutation (H2B K123R) (y axis-fusion reporters strains. The fluorescence and noise level of each mutation in each GFP-reporter strain

Barkai, Naama

457

Unit of Instruction: Writing, Teaching, Supplementing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was prepared to guide educators in developing curriculum using performance (behavioral) objectives that include content information. The material is presented in three units: writing a unit of instruction, teaching a unit of instruction, and supplementing a unit of instruction. Each unit contains terminal and specific objectives for…

Patton, Bob; And Others

458

Molecular Cell, Volume 37 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Molecular Cell, Volume 37 Supplemental Information Structure of a Blm10 Complex Reveals Common Mechanisms for Proteasome Binding and Gate Opening Kianoush Sadre-Bazzaz, Frank G. Whitby, Howard Robinson of the proteasome barrel to contact all seven proteasome -subunits in an interface that buries more than 10,000 Ã?2

Hill, Chris

459

Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

2013-06-01

460

Coenzyme Q supplementation in pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a fundamental abnormality in the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Because coenzyme Q (CoQ) is essential for mitochondrial function and efficient oxygen utilization as the electron carrier in the inner mitochondrial membrane, we hypothesized that CoQ would improve mitochondrial function and benefit PAH patients. To test this, oxidized and reduced levels of CoQ, cardiac function by echocardiogram, mitochondrial functions of heme synthesis and cellular metabolism were evaluated in PAH patients (N=8) in comparison to healthy controls (N=7), at baseline and after 12 weeks oral CoQ supplementation. CoQ levels were similar among PAH and control individuals, and increased in all subjects with CoQ supplementation. PAH patients had higher CoQ levels than controls with supplementation, and a tendency to a higher reduced-to-oxidized CoQ ratio. Cardiac parameters improved with CoQ supplementation, although 6-minute walk distances and BNP levels did not significantly change. Consistent with improved mitochondrial synthetic function, hemoglobin increased and red cell distribution width (RDW) decreased in PAH patients with CoQ, while hemoglobin declined slightly and RDW did not change in healthy controls. In contrast, metabolic and redox parameters, including lactate, pyruvate and reduced or oxidized gluthathione, did not change in PAH patients with CoQ. In summary, CoQ improved hemoglobin and red cell maturation in PAH, but longer studies and/or higher doses with a randomized placebo-controlled controlled design are necessary to evaluate the clinical benefit of this simple nutritional supplement. PMID:25180165

Sharp, Jacqueline; Farha, Samar; Park, Margaret M.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Lundgrin, Erika L.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Bongard, Robert D.; Merker, Marilyn P.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

2014-01-01

461

Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?  

PubMed

Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI. PMID:24458212

Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

2014-06-01

462

Caffeine supplementation and peak anaerobic power output.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine supplementation on peak anaerobic power output (Wmax). Using a counterbalanced, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 14 well-trained men completed three trials of a protocol consisting of a series of 6-s cycle ergometer sprints, separated by 5-min passive recovery periods. Sprints were performed at progressively increasing torque factors to determine the peak power/torque relationship and Wmax. Apart from Trial 1 (familiarisation), participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine or placebo, one hour before each trial. The effects of caffeine on blood lactate were investigated using capillary samples taken after each sprint. The torque factor which produced Wmax was not significantly different (p ? 0.05) between the caffeine (1.15 ± 0.08 N·m·kg(-1)) and placebo (1.13 ± 0.10 N·m·kg(-1)) trials. There was, however, a significant effect (p < 0.05) of supplementation on Wmax, with caffeine producing a higher value (1885 ± 303 W) than placebo (1835 ± 290 W). Analysis of the blood lactate data revealed a significant (p < 0.05) torque factor × supplement interaction with values being significantly higher from the sixth sprint (torque factor 1.0 N·m·kg(-1)) onwards following caffeine supplementation. The results of this study confirm previous reports that caffeine supplementation significantly increases blood lactate and Wmax. These findings may explain why the majority of previous studies, which have used fixed-torque factors of around 0.75 N·m·kg(-1) and thereby failing to elicit Wmax, have failed to find an effect of caffeine on sprinting performance. PMID:25275888

Glaister, Mark; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

2014-10-01

463

Middle school science teachers' teaching self-efficacy and students' science self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project 2061, initiated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), developed recommendations for what is essential in education to produce scientifically literate citizens. Furthermore, they suggest that teachers teach effectively. There is an abundance of literature that focuses on the effects of a teacher's science teaching self-efficacy and a student's science self-efficacy. However, there is no literature on the relationship between the two self-efficacies. This study investigated if there is a differential change in students' science self-efficacy over an academic term after instruction from a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy. Quantitative analysis of STEBI scores for teachers showed that mean STEBI scores did not change over one academic term. A t test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean SMTSL scores for students' science self-efficacy over the course of one academic term for a) the entire sample, b) each science class, and c) each grade level. In addition, ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean gain factor of students rated as low, medium, and high on science self-efficacy as measured by the SMTSL, when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. Finally, there was no statistically significant association between the pre- and post-instructional rankings of SMTSL by grade level when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. This is the first study of its kind. Studies indicated that teaching strategies typically practiced by teachers with high science teaching were beneficial to physics self-efficacy (Fencl & Scheel, 2005). Although it was unsuccessful at determining whether or not a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy has a differential affect on students' science self-efficacy, it is worth repeating on a more diverse sample of teacher and students over a longer period of time.

Pisa, Danielle

464

Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.  

PubMed

A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1. PMID:19682401

Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

2009-12-01

465

Evaluation of the efficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid on growth performance and tissue selenium retention in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new organic Se (2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid [HMSeBA]) source (SO) with sodium selenite (SS) and selenized yeast (SY) at various dietary levels for growth performance and tissue Se deposition in growing pigs. A total of 112 crossbred (Pietrain × [Large White × Landrace]) gilts were allotted at an average body weight of 26.73 kg to 7 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens of 2 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed basal diets unsupplemented or supplemented either with SS, SY, or SO each at 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg of diet for 32 d. Feed intake and BW were recorded during the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, blood, liver, and psoas major muscle of all gilts were collected for total Se and relative bioavailability determination. No differences were observed on final BW, ADG, ADFI, and G:F among dietary treatments. All Se-supplemented groups exhibited greater total Se contents in plasma (P < 0.01) and liver (P < 0.01) compared with unsupplemented control group. However, Se retention in psoas major muscle was improved only when organic Se source (SY or SO) was added to diets (P < 0.01). Regardless the Se level, the Se deposition in muscle was greater (P < 0.01) in pigs supplemented with SO than those supplemented with SY. Slope ratio assay confirmed the greater bioavailability of Se from organic compared with inorganic Se and also revealed that the relative bioavailability of Se from HMSeBA for plasma, liver, and muscle Se response was 170, 141, and 162%, respectively, for SY. This study shows a potential advantage of HMSeBA supplementation in the increase of Se contents in pig tissues, indicating that this new organic Se source could be an alternative source of Se in swine nutrition. PMID:24352955

Jlali, M; Briens, M; Rouffineau, F; Geraert, P-A; Mercier, Y

2014-01-01

466

Efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa), containing a known level of curcumin, and a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks.  

PubMed

A 3-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder (TMP), containing a known level of curcumin, and a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS; Improved Milbond-TX, IMTX, an adsorbent, Milwhite Inc., Houston, TX) to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) in broiler chicks. Four pen replicates of 5 chicks each were assigned to each of 7 dietary treatments, which included the basal diet not containing TMP, HSCAS, or AFB(1) (control); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% food grade TMP that contained 1.48% total curcuminoids (74 mg/kg); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% HSCAS; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% TMP and 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% HSCAS and 1.0 mg/kgAFB(1); and basal diet supplemented with 0.5% TMP, 0.5% HSCAS, and 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1). The addition of TMP to the AFB(1) diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved the weight gain of chicks, and the addition of HSCAS to the AFB(1) diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved feed intake and weight gain, and reduced relative liver weight. The addition of TMP or HSCAS and TMP with HSCAS ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB(1) on some of the serum chemistry parameters (total protein, albumin, cholesterol, calcium). Further, decreased antioxidant functions in terms of level of peroxides, superoxide dismutase activity, and total antioxidant concentration in liver homogenate due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of TMP, HSCAS, or both. The reduction in the severity of hepatic microscopic lesions due to supplementation of the AFB(1) diet with TMP and HSCAS demonstrated the protective action of the antioxidant and adsorbent used in the present study. PMID:18493001

Gowda, N K S; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Bermudez, A J; Chen, Y C

2008-06-01

467

Efficacy of Tower Medfly Eclosion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 16-repetition experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of the “tower” system for eclosion of sterile medflies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This system has now replaced the PARC system previously used in Florida S.I.T. programs. In addition to testing the efficacy of these eclosion systems, as compared to the PARC system, quality control was also monitored and evaluated. No significant

Mark Salvato; Tim Holler; John Worley; Joe Stewart

2004-01-01

468

Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime

Brett R Kuhn; Amy J Elliott

2003-01-01

469

Self-Efficacy and Music Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the second in a series of investigations attempting to clarify relationships between variables that impact on a young musician's ability to perform music (as assessed on a graded music examination). Consistent with studies on school academic subjects, our previous investigation demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy in…

McPherson, Gary E.; McCormick, John

2006-01-01

470

An Investigation of Teacher Stress and Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, which comprises part of a larger Western Australian research project on the relationships among teacher stress, perceptions of the school organizational climate, and beliefs in teacher efficacy, involves interviews with six secondary school teachers. The study focuses upon four major variables which may impact upon teachers' ability to…

Hutchinson, William

471

The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

1988-01-01

472

The efficacy of relaxation training with children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies that have examined the efficacy of relaxation training techniques in the treatment of childhood disorders. Methodological problems encountered in doing research in this area resemble those found in working with an adult population: imprecise definitions of subject populations and use of a variety of dependent variables from one study to another. Findings suggest that relaxation training

Neil C. Richter

1984-01-01

473

Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae microsclerotial granules  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil incorporation bioassays of dried microsclerotial (MS) preparations of three isolates of M. anisopliae isolates were conducted using third instar Tetanops myopaeformis (sugarbeet root maggot) in clay and/or clay loam field soils as a model system to demonstrate efficacy. At rates as low as 23 mg...

474

Curricular Evaluation Using Self-Efficacy Measurements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a methodology using self-efficacy measurements in curricular evaluation and assessment, and discusses their potential uses in pharmacy education. The suggested methodology includes item generation, validation, administration, and correlation with behavior. Describes an exploratory study using the methodology at the University of Arizona…

Plaza, Cecilia M.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Retterer, Jennifer; Herrier, Richard N.

2002-01-01

475

Planetarium instructional efficacy: A research synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to explore the instructional effectiveness of the planetarium in astronomy education using meta-analysis. A review of the literature revealed 46 studies related to planetarium efficacy. However, only 19 of the studies satisfied selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Selected studies were then subjected to coding procedures, which extracted information such as subject

Bruce D. Brazell

2009-01-01

476

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Infantile irritant diaper dermatitis (IIDD) is an inflammation of the infantile skin covering the groin, lower stomach, upper thighs and buttocks. Infantile irritant diaper dermatitis may become difficult to treat, if the area becomes infected or the infant develops allergy to medications applied to the area. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety

SUKANTA CHATTERJEE; NILANJANA PRAMANICK; SANTA CHATTOPADHYAY; KINKOR MUNIAN

477

Multiple use of dialyzers: Safety and efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple use of dialyzers: Safety and efficacy. The practice of multiple use of dialyzers was examined over a 15-month period on all 104 patients in a chronic maintenance hemodialysis facility. A computerized medical information system permitted analysis of the incidence of events in over 10,000 successive hemodialyses. It also allowed analysis of the events in 27 patients dialyzed for a

Kotagal S Kant; Victor E Pollak; Margaret Cathey; Dan Goetz; Rebecca Berlin; David F Eydel; Judy Tessel; Roberta Hall

1981-01-01

478

Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

2009-01-01

479

Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

2009-01-01

480

Calculating the efficacy of heat sterilization processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isothermal semi-logarithmic survival curves of certain bacterial spores, C. botulinum and B. sporothermodurans among them, are non-linear. Hence, the methods to calculate the efficacy of processes to destroy them need to be revised. These spores’ survival curves could be described by a power law model, which is based on the assumption that the spores’ heat resistances have a Weibull

Maria G. Corradini; Mark D. Normand; Micha Peleg

2005-01-01

481

Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or 2 g/kg of the powder, or 0.2 g/kg of colistin (an antibiotic) to corn- and soybean meal-based diets (n = 20 per group). Blood samples from five piglets per group were collected on days 7, 14, and 28 to determine serum AA concentrations. In Experiment 2, 12 barrows with an average initial body weight of 7.64 kg were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments, followed by surgical placement of a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. All of the diets contained 0.1% titanium oxide as a digestibility marker. The samples of terminal ileal digesta were collected on day 7 for determining AID of AA. Results show that dietary supplementation with the herbal powder increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations and AID of most AA by 10-50% and 10-16%, respectively. As an indicator of improved intestinal function, AID values of calcium were also enhanced in piglets supplemented with the herbal powder. Dietary supplementation of colistin increased serum concentrations and AID values of some AA by 8-44% and 10-15%, respectively, in comparison with the non-supplemented group. These novel findings demonstrate that the herbal powder can enhance the digestibility of dietary protein and the intestinal absorption of AA into the systemic circulation in post-weaning pigs, therefore providing a new mechanism for its growth- and immunity-promoting efficacy. PMID:18763018

Kong, X F; Yin, Y L; He, Q H; Yin, F G; Liu, H J; Li, T J; Huang, R L; Geng, M M; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z Y; Xie, M Y; Wu, G

2009-10-01

482

Micronutrient supplement use and diet quality in university students.  

PubMed

Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306) were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28%) and vitamin C (28%). A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001). Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them. PMID:25665159

Wiltgren, Adam R; Booth, Alison O; Kaur, Gunveen; Cicerale, Sara; Lacy, Kathleen E; Thorpe, Maree G; Keast, Russell S J; Riddell, Lynn J

2015-01-01

483

Dietary supplements for benign prostatic hyperplasia: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic condition in older men. The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) is to summarise the current evidence on the efficacy and adverse effects of dietary supplements for treating BPH with lower urinary tract symptoms. We searched 5 electronic databases and relevant overviews without limitations on language or publication status. Six SRs of 195 articles were included in this overview. Serenoa repens was reviewed in 3 studies and no specific effect on BPH symptoms and urinary flow measures was observed. However, ?-sitosterol, Pygeum africannum and Cernilton were reviewed in one study each, and significant improvement was observed for all three. All the included compounds have mild and infrequent adverse effects. SRs on ?-sitosterol, Pygeum africannum and Cernilton have not been updated since 2000, thus an update of reviews on these compounds will be necessary in the future. PMID:22883375

Kim, Tae-Hun; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Lee, Myeong Soo

2012-11-01

484

Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in treatment of atopic dermatitis in children  

PubMed Central

Some recent studies indicate that unsaturated fatty acids, components of cellular membranes and precursors of immunomodulators, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of some symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Since they cannot be synthesized by the human body, they must be provided with nutrition as the so called exogenous fatty acids: linoleic (a precursor of arachidonic acid) and ?-linolenic acid (a precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)). Their deficiency facilitates the development of some disorders, e.g. of the cardiovascular system or of the nervous system, or becomes the cause of intensification of ailments in their course e.g. pruritus and dryness in atopic dermatitis. Though clinical examinations to date confirm the efficacy of fatty acid supplementation in treatment of atopic dermatitis, their results are not explicit. PMID:24278056

Kaczmarski, Maciej; Sawicka-?ukowska, Ma?gorzata; Bobrus-Chociej, Anna

2013-01-01

485

Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice  

PubMed Central

Background Although cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Also cisplatin accumulation shows toxicity to normal tissues. In this study, we examined the possibility of HemoHIM both to enhance anticancer effect with cisplatin and to reduce the side effects of cisplatin in melanoma-bearing mice. Methods HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of 3 edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM with cisplatin were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice. We used a Cr51-release assay to measure the activity of NK/Tc cell and ELISA to evaluate the production of cytokines. Results In melanoma-bearing mice, cisplatin (4 mg/kg B.W.) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with cisplatin enhanced the decrease of both the tumor size (p < 0.1) and weight (p < 0.1). HemoHIM itself did not inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro, and did not disturb the effects of cisplatin in vitro. However HemoHIM administration enhanced both NK cell and Tc cell activity in mice. Interestingly, HemoHIM increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen. In melanoma-bearing mice treated with cisplatin, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of NK cells and Tc cells and the IL-2 and IFN-? secretion from splenocytes, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of cisplatin by HemoHIM. Also, HemoHIM reduced nephrotoxicity as seen by tubular cell of kidney destruction. Conclusion HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during cisplatin chemotherapy for enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:19292900

2009-01-01

486

Medicinal herbs: Drugs or dietary supplements?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of evaluating medicinal herbs is complex, and there is a need to carefully define a research strategy that addresses a solution to safe and efficacious herbal products. Notwithstanding the immense value of distilling the pharmacological activity of an herb into a chemical suitable for drug development, another approach is to develop a standardized herbal extract that yields consistent

Joseph Chang

2000-01-01

487

Protein Supplementation with Low Fat Meat after Resistance Training: Effects on Body Composition and Strength  

PubMed Central

Beef is a nutrient-rich, high-quality protein containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. In order to investigate the efficacy of a beef supplementation strategy on strength and body composition, we recruited 26 young healthy adults to participate in a resistance-training program of eight weeks, based on the use of isotonic machines and free weights at 75% of one repetition maximum. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, food group and control group, of 12 and 14 subjects respectively. Food group were supplemented after resistance training with a 135 g serving of lean beef (tinned meat), providing 20 g of protein and 1.7 g of fat. No supplementation was provided to control group. Fat mass, fat free mass, lean mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and muscle strength, assessed by one repetition maximum test, were evaluated in all subjects both at the beginning (week 0) and at the end (week 8) of the study. Pre- and post-training differences were evaluated with paired t-tests while group differences for each outcome parameter was evaluated with independent t-tests. At the end of the study the food group showed a significantly decrease in fat mass (week 0: 15.0 ± 6.7 kg; week 8: 13.1 ± 7.6 kg; ?: ?1.9 ± 2.9 kg; p < 0.05) and a significantly increase in fat free mass (week 0: 52.8 kg ± 9.4; week 8: 55.1 kg ± 10.9; ?: 2.3 ± 2.5 kg; p < 0.01). No significant differences in lean mass were found in either food group or control group. No significant differences in one repetition maximum tests were found between food group and control group. Tinned meat can be considered a nutrition strategy in addition to other proteins or amino acid supplements, but as with any other supplementation strategy, a proper nutrition plan must be coupled. PMID:25093275

Negro, Massimo; Vandoni, Matteo; Ottobrini, Sara; Codrons, Erwan; Correale, Luca; Buonocore, Daniela; Marzatico, Fulvio

2014-01-01

488

A soft circuit curriculum to promote technological self-efficacy  

E-print Network

The development of technological self-efficacy in young people can have a dramatic impact on diversity in the field of computing. Students'self-efficacy and scientific understanding can benefit from engaging in hands-on ...

Lovell, Emily Marie

2011-01-01

489

Self-efficacy and depressive affect in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to extend Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, we investigated the hypothesis that increases in self-efficacy, based on mastery experiences, would lead to improvements in mood and problem solving among dysphoric subjects.

Jeffrey Schwartz; Jefferson M. Fish

1989-01-01

490

Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part I. Regulation and quality  

PubMed Central

This is the first of two papers which review issues concerning complementary medicines. The first reviews the extent of use of complementary medicines, and issues related to the regulation and pharmaceutical quality of these products; the second considers evidence for the efficacy of several well-known complementary medicines, and discusses complementary-medicines pharmacovigilance. The term complementary medicines describes a range of pharmaceutical-type preparations, including herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils and dietary supplements, which mainly sit outside conventional medicine. The use of complementary medicines is a popular healthcare approach in the UK, and there are signs that the use of such products is continuing to increase. Patients and the public use complementary medicines for health maintenance, for the treatment or prevention of minor ailments, and also for serious, chronic illnesses. The pervasive use of complementary medicines raises several concerns. Many of these arise because most complementary medicines are not licensed as medicines, and therefore evidence of quality, efficacy and safety is not required before marketing. The regulatory framework for herbal medicines and dietary supplements is currently under review. A new system for registration of traditional herbal medicines will ensure that marketed products meet standards for quality and safety. At present, the pharmaceutical quality of many complementary medicines is a cause for concern. PMID:12630971

Barnes, Joanne

2003-01-01

491

Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.  

PubMed

Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of ?-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. PMID:23265457

Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2013-05-01

492