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1

Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

Powers, Michael

2004-01-01

2

THE PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF VITAMINS (C AND E), SELENIUM AND SILYMARIN SUPPLEMENTS AGAINST ALCOHOL TOXICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of vitamins (C and E), selenium and silymarin (an antioxidant complex from Silybum marianum) supplementation in reducing toxic effects of ethanol on liver weight and some blood parameters. Sixty male rabbits, individually housed in steel cages, were randomly divided into three groups. The first was a control group, the second received balanced diet

Abd Ali

3

Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Supplement Use and Beliefs About Safety and Efficacy Among Rural Older Adults in Southeast and South Central Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of herbal, botanical, and nonherbal dietary supplements (referred to as nonvitamin, nonmineral [NVNM] supplements) among rural older adults residing in southeast and south central Idaho, and explored perceptions of the safety and efficacy of these supplements. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 365 rural older adults participating in a congregate meals program at

Carol F. Kirkpatrick; Randy M. Page; Karen S. Hayward

2007-01-01

4

A change-point regression approach for efficacy evaluation of dietary supplements.  

PubMed

In clinical trials for dietary supplements and functional foods, the study population tends to be a mixture of healthy subjects and those who are not so healthy but are not definitely diseased (called "borderline subjects"). For such heterogeneous populations, the t-test and ANCOVA method often fail to provide the desired treatment efficacy. We propose an alternative approach for the efficacy evaluation of dietary supplements and functional foods based on a change-point linear regression model. The model does not require the assumption of a constant treatment effect and provides clinically interpretable results. By employing the AIC-based profile likelihood method, inferences can be made easily using standard statistical software. The proposed method was applied to the Garcinia study data, and the merit of the method was demonstrated by comparing it with traditional methods. PMID:19430619

Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Natsumi; Hattori, Satoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki

2009-05-01

5

Efficacy and tolerance of lactitol supplementation for adult constipation: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a common complaint in adults. Lactitol is an osmotic disaccharide laxative that increases fecal volume and stimulates peristalsis. In this paper, we present the first meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerance of lactitol for adult constipation. Methods We searched MEDLINE® and Embase, with no date or language restrictions, for studies of lactitol supplementation on adult constipation. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on pre- to posttreatment changes in stool frequency and consistency with lactitol among all studies, as well as a comparison of efficacy and tolerance outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lactitol versus lactulose. Results A total of eleven studies representing 663 distinct patients were included in the final analysis, including five single-arm studies, four RCTs comparing lactitol with lactulose, one RCT comparing lactitol with placebo, and one nonrandomized controlled trial comparing lactitol with stimulant laxatives. Weekly stool frequency was significantly increased with lactitol compared with baseline (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 1.56, P<0.001). Stool consistency also improved over the supplementation period with lactitol (SMD: 1.04, P<0.001). Approximately one-third of patients experienced an adverse event; however, symptoms were generally mild and rarely (5%) resulted in study withdrawal. In RCTs of lactitol versus lactulose, lactitol was slightly more effective than lactulose in increasing weekly stool frequency (SMD: 0.19, P=0.06). No statistically significant differences between lactitol and lactulose were identified in any other efficacy or tolerance outcome. Lactitol demonstrated favorable efficacy and tolerance in individual studies when compared to stimulant laxatives and placebo. Conclusion Lactitol supplementation is well tolerated and improves symptoms of adult constipation. The efficacy and tolerance of lactitol and lactulose are similar, with a trend for more frequent stools with lactitol. Limited evidence suggests lactitol is superior to stimulant laxatives and placebo for relieving constipation symptoms. PMID:25050074

Miller, Larry E; Tennila, Julia; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2014-01-01

6

Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in depression in adults: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The role of vitamin D in management of depression is unclear. Results from observational and emerging randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of vitamin D in depression lack consistency - with some suggesting a positive association while others show a negative or inconclusive association. Methods/Design The primary aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of RCTs to assess the effect of oral vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on depression symptoms measured by scales and the proportion of patients with symptomatic improvement according to the authors’ original definition. Secondary aims include assessing the change in quality of life, adverse events and treatment discontinuation. We will conduct the systematic review and meta-analysis according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We will search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1966 to present), EMBASE (1980 to present), CINAHL (1982 to present), PsychINFO (1967 to present) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Unpublished work will be identified by searching two major conferences: the International Vitamin Conference, the Anxiety Disorders and Depression Conference, while grey literature will be acquired by contacting authors of included studies. We will use the random-effects meta-analysis to synthesize the data by pooling the results of included studies. Discussion The results of this systematic review will be helpful in clarifying the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation and providing evidence to establish guidelines for implementation of vitamin D for depression in general practice and other relevant settings. Study registration Unique identifier: CRD42013003849. PMID:23927040

2013-01-01

7

Dietary supplements and herbal remedies for premenstrual syndrome (PMS): a systematic research review of the evidence for their efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women with PMS use alternative therapies, although there has been little research to demonstrate their efficacy. This systematic review provides a comprehensive discussion of dietary supplements and herbal remedies commonly used for premenstrual syndrome (PMS), including calcium, magnesium, vitamin B6, evening primrose oil, Vitex agnus castus, ginkgo biloba and St John's Wort. Randomized controlled trials of magnesium and evening

Sarah Canning; Mitch Waterman; Louise Dye

2006-01-01

8

Efficacy of a Tier 2 Supplemental Root Word Vocabulary and Decoding Intervention with Kindergarten Spanish-Speaking English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 standard protocol supplemental intervention designed simultaneously to develop root word vocabulary and reinforce decoding skills being taught to all students in the core beginning reading program with kindergarten Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs). Participating students were…

Nelson, J. Ron; Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

9

The Efficacy of Supplemental Early Literacy Instruction by Community-Based Tutors for Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to test the efficacy of a supplemental phonological awareness focused intervention delivered by community-based paraeducators with preschool children (M = 4.73 years) in eight Head Start classrooms in the rural Midwest. Participating children were randomly assigned to small groups within classrooms, which were…

Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Gonzalez, Jorge

2010-01-01

10

The Efficacy of Supplemental Early Literacy Instruction by Community-Based Tutors for Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to test the efficacy of a supplemental phonological awareness focused intervention delivered by community-based paraeducators with preschool children (M = 4.73 years) in eight Head Start classrooms in the rural Midwest. Participating children were randomly assigned to small groups within classrooms, which were in turn were randomly assigned to receive either treatment or

J. Ron Nelson; Elizabeth A. Sanders; Jorge Gonzalez

2009-01-01

11

Open phase II study on efficacy and safety of an oral amino acid functional cluster supplementation in cancer cachexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy and safety of an oral amino acid functional cluster (AFC) supplementation\\u000a in cachectic cancer patients. From April 2008 to March 2009, we carried out an open non-randomized phase II study on 25 cachectic\\u000a advanced (all stage IV) cancer patients with tumor at different sites who received an oral AFC

Clelia Madeddu; Antonio Macciò; Giorgio Astara; Elena Massa; Mariele Dessì; Giorgia Antoni; Filomena Panzone; Roberto Serpe; Giovanni Mantovani

2010-01-01

12

Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects.

Andrea Petróczi; Declan P Naughton; Gemma Pearce; Richard Bailey; Andrew Bloodworth; Michael McNamee

2008-01-01

13

Efficacy of Fat-Soluble Vitamin Supplementation in Infants With Biliary Atresia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Cholestasis predisposes to fat-soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiencies. A liquid multiple FSV preparation made with tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-1000 succinate (TPGS) is frequently used in infants with biliary atresia (BA) because of ease of administration and presumed efficacy. In this prospective multicenter study, we assessed the prevalence of FSV deficiency in infants with BA who received this FSV/TPGS preparation. METHODS: Infants received FSV/TPGS coadministered with additional vitamin K as routine clinical care in a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of corticosteroid therapy after hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE) for BA (identifier NCT 00294684). Levels of FSV, retinol binding protein, total serum lipids, and total bilirubin (TB) were measured 1, 3, and 6 months after HPE. RESULTS: Ninety-two infants with BA were enrolled in this study. Biochemical evidence of FSV insufficiency was common at all time points for vitamin A (29%–36% of patients), vitamin D (21%–37%), vitamin K (10%–22%), and vitamin E (16%–18%). Vitamin levels were inversely correlated with serum TB levels. Biochemical FSV insufficiency was much more common (15%–100% for the different vitamins) in infants whose TB was ?2 mg/dL. At 3 and 6 months post HPE, only 3 of 24 and 0 of 23 infants, respectively, with TB >2 mg/dL were sufficient in all FSV. CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical FSV insufficiency is commonly observed in infants with BA and persistent cholestasis despite administration of a TPGS containing liquid multiple FSV preparation. Individual vitamin supplementation and careful monitoring are warranted in infants with BA, especially those with TB >2 mg/dL. PMID:22891232

Magee, John C.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Haber, Barbara; Karpen, Saul J.; Raghunathan, Trivellore; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen; Suchy, Frederick J.; Kerkar, Nanda; Turmelle, Yumirle; Whitington, Peter F.; Robuck, Patricia R.; Sokol, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

14

Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) take a variety of health supplements in an attempt to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in treating patients with knee OA. Methods This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Forty nine men and women 45-90 (mean 68 ± SD 7.3) years of age with knee OA according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria for OA of the knee and with radiographic confirmed knee OA were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into 2 groups: One received MSM in doses of 1.125 grams 3 times daily for 12 weeks and the other received a placebo in the same dosing frequency. The primary outcomes were the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index for pain, stiffness and physical function, the Aggregated Locomotor Function (ALF) test that evaluates each patient's physical function, the SF-36 quality of life health survey and the visual-analogue-scale (VAS) for pain. The secondary outcomes were Knee Society Clinical Rating System for Knee Score (KSKS) and Function Score (KSFS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. All continuous variables were tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for Normal distribution. Changes within the groups and differences between the groups were calculated by repeated measures of analysis (ANOVA) with one nested variable. Results There were significant differences between treatment groups over time in WOMAC physical function (14.6 mm [CI: 4.3, 25.0]; p = 0.04) and in WOMAC total score (15.0 mm [CI: 5.1, 24.9]; p = 0.03). Treatment groups did not differ significantly in WOMAC pain (12.4 mm [CI: 0.0, 24.8]); p = 0.08) or WOMAC stiffness (27.2 mm [CI: 8.2, 46.2]; p = 0.08). There was a non-significant difference in SF-36 total score between treatment groups (11.6 [CI: 1.0, 22.1]; p = 0.54). A significant difference was found between groups in VAS for pain (0.7 s [CI: -0.9, 2.4]; p = 0.05). Secondary outcomes showed non-significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions Patients with OA of the knee taking MSM for 12 weeks showed an improvement in pain and physical function. These improvements, however, are small and it is yet to be determined if they are of clinical significance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01188213 PMID:21708034

2011-01-01

15

Creatine supplementation in health and disease: What is the evidence for long-term efficacy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine supplementation is an established ergogenic aid in sports and is now claimed to have therapeutical applications in a variety of diseases. The available literature mainly covers the short-term (one to several weeks) effects of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle function in health and disease, which is of little help to evaluate the long-term (two or more months) potential of

Wim Derave; Bert O. Eijnde; Peter Hespel

2003-01-01

16

Efficacy of a Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel as a Tear Film Supplement: A Masked Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P?=?0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P?=?0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness. PMID:24914681

Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

2014-01-01

17

Efficacy of Parenteral Nutrition Supplemented With Glutamine Dipeptide to Decrease Hospital Infections in Critically Ill Surgical Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Clinical benefits of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition may occur in hospitalized surgical patients, but efficacy data in different surgical subgroups are lacking. The objective was to determine whether glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition differentially affects nosocomial infection rates in selected subgroups of SICU patients. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition in SICU patients requiring parenteral nutrition and SICU care after surgery for pancreatic necrosis, cardiac, vascular, or colonic surgery. Subjects (n = 59) received isocaloric/isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition, providing 1.5 g/kg/d standard glutamine-free amino acids (STD-PN) or 1.0 g/kg/d standard amino acids + 0.5 g/kg/d glutamine dipeptide (GLN-PN). Enteral feedings were advanced as tolerated. Nosocomial infections were determined until hospital discharge. Results Baseline clinical/metabolic data were similar between groups. Plasma glutamine concentrations were low in all groups and were increased by GLN-PN. GLN-PN did not alter infection rates after pancreatic necrosis surgery (17 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN patients). In nonpancreatic surgery patients (12 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN), GLN-PN was associated with significantly decreased total nosocomial infections (STD-PN 36 vs GLN-PN 13, P < .030), bloodstream infections (7 vs 0, P < .01), pneumonias (16 vs 6, P < .05), and infections attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01), fungi, and enteric Gram-negative bacteria (each P < .05). Conclusions Glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition did not alter infection rates following pancreatic necrosis surgery but significantly decreased infections in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular, and colonic surgery. PMID:18596310

Estivariz, Concepcion F.; Griffith, Daniel P.; Luo, Menghua; Szeszycki, Elaina E.; Bazargan, Niloofar; Dave, Nisha; Daignault, Nicole M.; Bergman, Glen F.; McNally, Therese; Battey, Cindy H.; Furr, Celeste E.; Hao, Li; Ramsay, James G.; Accardi, Carolyn R.; Cotsonis, George A.; Jones, Dean P.; Galloway, John R.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

18

Plutonium NDA by thermal fluxmetry  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of calorific materials by calorimetry often encounter, in the case of samples with a volume {approx}1l or more, the difficulty of long measurement times. Nondestructive measurements at industrial production sites can sometimes be regarded as satisfactory, even with measurements that might carry a higher uncertainty, provided that the long measurement times can be significantly reduced. With this in mind, the authors have developed a spider-like thermal flux-meter for making quick nondestructive measurements of thermal powers up to 20 W for sample containers with a volume between 0.5 and 10l. The Fluxmeters developed are constructionally adapted to several different types of measurement features. The authors describe three types of fluxmeters that are suitable for rapid measurement times and have accuracies from 1 to a few percent for storage recesses or production facilities in the paper. Usually 5 to 8, and up to 25, fluxmeters are working simultaneously to reduce the mean measurement duration for a sample. The paper presents the results of an inventory control period involving the measurement of several hundred containers within 3 days by a three-man team.

Monier, J.; Sanson, C.; Bourrelly, P.; Patin, H.; Schoepp, R.

1987-01-01

19

Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments. Methods This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum) or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5). The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment. Results For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0.05) but no change in the active group. Descriptive statistics for the mean minimum, mean maximum, and minimum to maximum ratio on the nonexposed study zone showed a significant and dramatic difference between baseline and month 4 and between baseline and month 5.5 (P<0.05) in the active group, indicating decreasing anisotropy of the skin. High-frequency ultrasound on the exposed study zone revealed that skin thickness was significantly decreased in the placebo group during winter but was stable in the treated group (P<0.01). The photography scaling and self-assessment questionnaire revealed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion These results indicate that the skin is prone to seasonal changes during winter, particularly in exposed areas. The data also indicate that oral supplementation can be a safe treatment, with no serious side effects, and may prevent or even eliminate the negative effects of winter on the skin. PMID:24255597

Fanian, Ferial; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Messikh, Rafat; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Guichard, Alexandre; Kenari, Kamran Hejazi; Humbert, Philippe

2013-01-01

20

Efficacy of supplementation of selected medicinal mushrooms with inorganic selenium salts.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of supplementation with inorganic forms of selenium (Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3) in concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mM of three medicinal mushroom species: Agrocybe aegerita, Hericium erinaceus and Ganoderma lucidum. Tested mushroom species grew in Se additions of 0-0.6 mM (A. aegerita and H. erinaceus), while growth of G. lucidum bodies was observed for 0-0.8 mM. For the latter mushroom species, the total Se content was the highest. Content of Seorg was diverse; for control bodies it was the highest for G. lucidum (only organic forms were present), lower for A. aegerita (84% organic forms) and the lowest for H. erinaceus (56% organic forms). Accumulation of Se(IV) was generally significantly higher than Se(VI) for all tested mushroom species. There was no significant decrease of A. aegerita or G. lucidum biomass with the exception of G. lucidum bodies growing under 0.8 mM of Se species addition (15.51 ± 6.53 g). Biomass of H. erinaceus bodies was the highest under 0.2 (197.04 ± 8.73 g), control (191.80 ± 6.06 g) and 0.1 mM (185.04 ± 8.73 g) of both inorganic salts. The addition to the medium of Se salts brought about macroscopic changes in the fruiting bodies of the examined mushrooms. Concentrations exceeding 0.4 mM caused diminution of carpophores or even their total absence. In addition, colour changes of fruiting bodies were also recorded. At Se concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mM, A. aegerita fruiting bodies were distinctly lighter and those of H. erinaceus changed colour from purely white to white-pink. PMID:25310808

Niedzielski, Przemys?aw; Mleczek, Miros?aw; Siwulski, Marek; G?secka, Monika; Kozak, Lidia; Rissmann, Iwona; Miko?ajczak, Patrycja

2014-12-01

21

A Bridge to Developing Efficacious Science Teachers of All Students: Community-Based Service-Learning Supplemented with Explicit Discussions and Activities about Diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored the effects of community-based service-learning (CBSL), supplemented with discussions and activities about diversity, on the self-efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers regarding equitable science teaching and learning for diverse student groups. The study was conducted with 81 preservice teachers enrolled in four sections of an elementary science methods course over a semester. Employing a mixed-methods research design, data were collected using pretests-posttests with the study sample and semistructured interviews with a subsample. The results support the value of preservice teachers engaging in CBSL experiences, supplemented with discussions and activities about diversity, as a way to improve their self-efficacy beliefs regarding equitable science teaching and learning of all students.

Cone, Neporcha

2009-08-01

22

Design and fabrication of NDA standards  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Facility, TA-55, at Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently producing NDA calibration standards used by various laboratories in the DOE complex. These NIST traceable standards have been produced to calibrate NDA instruments for accountability measurements used for resolving shipper/receiver differences, and for accountability in process residues and process waste. Standards are needed to calibrate various NDA (Non-destructive Assay) instruments such as neutron coincidence counters, gamma-ray counters, and calorimeters. These instruments measure various ranges of nuclear material being produced in the DOE nuclear community. Los Alamos National Laboratory has taken a lead role in fabrication of uranium and plutonium standards, along with other actinides such as neptunium and americium. These standards have been fabricated for several laboratories within the complex. This paper will summarize previous publications detailing the careful planning encompassing components such as precise weighing, destructive analysis, and the use of post fabrication NDA measurements to confirm that the standards meet all preliminary expectations before use in instrument calibration. The paper will also describe the specialized containers, diluents, and the various amount of nuclear materials needed to accommodate the calibration ranges of the instruments.

Long, S.M.; Hsue, S.T.

1996-04-01

23

A Bridge to Developing Efficacious Science Teachers of All Students: Community-Based Service-Learning Supplemented with Explicit Discussions and Activities about Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effects of community-based service-learning (CBSL), supplemented with discussions and activities about\\u000a diversity, on the self-efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers regarding equitable science teaching and learning\\u000a for diverse student groups. The study was conducted with 81 preservice teachers enrolled in four sections of an elementary\\u000a science methods course over a semester. Employing a mixed-methods research design,

Neporcha Cone

2009-01-01

24

Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Background World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a premix added to F-75 and F-100. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for safety and effectiveness of high-dose VA supplementation (VAS) in treatment of children with SAM. Methods A comprehensive literature review was undertaken for all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies from 1950 to 2012. Studies identified for full review were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology using a set of pre-defined criteria: indirectness; inconsistency; imprecision; and study limitations. A quality rating of high, moderate, or low was then assigned to each study, and only those attaining moderate to high were considered in making recommendations. Results Of the 2072 abstracts screened, 38 met criteria for full review, and 20 were rated moderate to high quality. Only one study replicated the WHO VA protocol in children with SAM. Indirectness was a critical limitation, as studies were not exclusive to children with SAM. There was inconsistency across trials for definitions of malnutrition, morbidities, and ages studied; and imprecision arising from sub-group analyses and small sample sizes. Evidence showed improved outcomes associated with low-dose compared to high-dose VAS, except in cases presenting with signs of VAD, measles, and severe diarrhea or shigellosis. Adverse outcomes related to respiratory infection, diarrhea, and growth were associated with high-dose VAS in children who were predominantly adequately nourished. No adverse effects of the high dose were found in children with SAM in the trial that replicated the WHO VA guideline. Conclusion This is the first systematic review of the safety and efficacy of high-dose VAS in treatment of SAM. We recommend a low-dose VAS regimen for children with SAM, except in cases presenting with measles, severe diarrhea (shigellosis), and any indication of VAD. Further research is needed in exclusively malnourished children and to explore alternate delivery strategies. PMID:24028603

2013-01-01

25

Efficacy of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and plasma homocysteine concentration in coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to conduct an updated meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to estimate the effect of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). An extensive search of PubMed was conducted to identify RCTs that compared folic acid with placebo therapy. The mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a measure of the correlation between folic acid supplementation and endothelial function/plasma homocysteine concentration. Of the 377 patients included in this analysis, 191 patients underwent folic acid supplementation and 186 individuals underwent placebo treatment. Compared with the use of a placebo, folic acid supplementation alone exhibited significant efficacy on increasing flow-mediated dilation (FMD; MD, 57.72 ?m; 95% CI, 50.14–65.31; P<0.05) and lowering the concentration of plasma homocysteine (MD, ?3.66 ?mol/l; 95% CI, ?5.44–?1.87; P<0.05; I2, 87%). There was no significant change in the response to end diastolic diameter, glyceryl-trinitrate diameter, heart rate, baseline and peak hyperemic flow and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the folic acid and placebo groups (P>0.05). Therefore, the meta-analysis indicated that 5 mg folic acid daily supplementation for >4 weeks significantly improved FMD and lowered the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with CAD. However, more RCTs are required in order to confirm these observations. PMID:24940394

YI, XIN; ZHOU, YANLI; JIANG, DINGSHENG; LI, XIAOYAN; GUO, YI; JIANG, XUEJUN

2014-01-01

26

NDA accountability measurement needs in the DOE plutonium community  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this first ATEX report is to identify the twenty most vital nondestructive assay (NDA) accountability measurement needs in the DOE plutonium community to DOE and to contractor safeguards RandD managers in order to promote resolution of these needs. During 1987, ATEX identified sixty NDA accountability measurement problems, many of which were common to each of the DOE sites considered. These sixty problems were combined into twenty NDA accountability measurement needs that exist within five major areas: NDA ''standards'' representing various nuclear materials and matrix composition; Impure nuclear materials compounds, residues, and wastes; Product-grade nuclear materials; Nuclear materials process holdup and in-process inventory; and Nuclear materials item control and verification. 2 figs.

Ostenak, C.A.

1988-08-31

27

Multivitamin supplementation in HIV infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: the protocol for a randomized double blinded placebo controlled efficacy trial  

PubMed Central

Background Use of multivitamin supplements during the pre-HAART era has been found to reduce viral load, enhance immune response, and generally improve clinical outcomes among HIV-infected adults. However, immune reconstitution is incomplete and significant mortality and opportunistic infections occur in spite of HAART. There is insufficient research information on whether multivitamin supplementation may be beneficial as adjunct therapy for HIV-infected individuals taking HAART. We propose to evaluate the efficacy of a single recommended daily allowance (RDA) of micronutrients (including vitamins B-complex, C, and E) in slowing disease progression among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in Uganda. Methods/Design We are using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study design. Eligible patients are HIV-positive adults aged at least 18 years, and are randomized to receive either a placebo; or multivitamins that include a single RDA of the following vitamins: 1.4 mg B1, 1.4 mg B2, 1.9 mg B6, 2.6 mcg B12, 18 mg niacin, 70 mg C, 10 mg E, and 0.4 mg folic acid. Participants are followed for up to 18 months with evaluations at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The study is primarily powered to examine the effects on immune reconstitution, weight gain, and quality of life. In addition, we will examine the effects on other secondary outcomes including the risks of development of new or recurrent disease progression event, including all-cause mortality; ARV regimen change from first- to second-line therapy; and other adverse events as indicated by incident peripheral neuropathy, severe anemia, or diarrhea. Discussions The conduct of this trial provides an opportunity to evaluate the potential benefits of this affordable adjunct therapy (multivitamin supplementation) among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in a developing country setting. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01228578 PMID:23151221

2012-01-01

28

The efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis supplementation in the management of overweight and obesity: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the use of the African Bush Mango, Irvingia gabonensis for body weight reduction in obese and overweight individuals. Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant RCTs. The bibliographies of located articles were also searched. No age, gender, or language restrictions were imposed. The reporting quality of identified RCTs was assessed using a methodological checklist adapted from the Consolidated Standard of Reporting Trials Statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and assessed the reporting quality of included studies. Three RCTs were identified, and all were included. The RCTs all had flaws in the reporting of their methodology. All RCTs reported statistically significant reductions in body weight and waist circumference favoring I. gabonensis over placebo. The results from the RCTs also suggest positive effects of I. gabonensis supplementation on the blood lipid profile. Adverse events included headache and sleep difficulty. Due to the paucity and poor reporting quality of the RCTs, the effect of I. gabonensis on body weight and related parameters are unproven. Therefore, I. gabonensis cannot be recommended as a weight loss aid. Future research in this area should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:23419021

Onakpoya, Igho; Davies, Lucy; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

2013-03-01

29

Clinical efficacy and cost comparison of an amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide combination versus hydrochlorothiazide and wax-matrix potassium supplement in the treatment of essential hypertension.  

PubMed

To compare the clinical efficacy and cost of therapy with an amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide combination versus hydrochlorothiazide and a wax-matrix potassium supplement, we reviewed the medical records of 20 hypertensive men who had received both treatments. The review period included 5.9 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- SE) months on hydrochlorothiazide and wax-matrix potassium and 5.3 +/- 0.7 months after changeover to the amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide combination. Control of blood pressure, maintenance of serum potassium levels, and number of outpatient visits were similar before and after the change in therapy. The monthly cost of medication, based on the lowest listed price in the Drug Topics Red Book and also in the Red Book Update, was approximately 12% higher for the hydrochlorothiazide and wax-matrix potassium regimen than for the amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide combination, whereas the federal agency contract price for the latter was significantly higher. The change to the amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide combination reduced the mean number of tablets taken daily from 5.3 +/- 0.6 to 1.25 +/- 0.1, suggesting a more convenient therapeutic regimen. PMID:3731211

Vardan, S; Rapacke, J; Mookherjee, S

1986-01-01

30

Can Claims, Misleading Information, and Manufacturing Issues Regarding Dietary Supplements Be Improved in the United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are assessed through the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) OTC drug review. Prescription drugs are approved through the rigorous new drug application (NDA) process. In contrast, dietary supplements are regulated as foods, and the FDA must determine that a dietary supplement ingredient poses a \\

James E. Gibson; David A. Taylor

2005-01-01

31

A neutron method for NDA analysis in the SAPPHIRE Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of Project SAPPHIRE, the top secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) the re-packing of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable US containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the U-235 content of each container for Nuclear Criticality Safety and compliance purposes; (3) the packaging

1995-01-01

32

ORO appraisal strategy involving use of NDA instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORO has used the following nondestructive assay (NDA) systems for verifying uranium inventories at contractor-operated installations: gamma spectroscopy, thickness-corrected gamma spectroscopy, passive neutron measurement, and random driver measurement. A brief description of each system is given and results of in-field measurements performed on contractors' inventories utilizing each system are discussed. (DLC)

Lux

1977-01-01

33

Emerging Supplements in Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

2012-01-01

34

Safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 supplementation in early chronic Peyronie's disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study.  

PubMed

No oral medication has proved to be clearly beneficial for Peyronie's disease (PD). We investigated the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) supplementation in patients with early chronic PD. We conducted a randomized clinical trial of 186 patients with chronic early PD. Patients were randomly assigned to either 300 mg CoQ(10) daily (n=93) or similar regimen of placebo (n=93) for 24 weeks. Erectile function (EF), pain during erection, plaque volume, penile curvature and treatment satisfaction using patient versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire were assessed at baseline and every 4 weeks during study period. EF was assessed using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), and pain was evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10). All patients also responded to a Global Assessment Question, 'Has the treatment you have been taking during this study improved your erections?' After 24 weeks, mean IIEF-5 score, mean VAS score and mean EDITS score improved significantly in patients receiving CoQ(10) (all P<0.01). Mean plaque size and mean penile curvature degree were decreased in the CoQ(10) group, whereas a slight increase was noted in the placebo group (both P=0.001). Mean index of IIEF-5 in 24-week treatment period was 17.8 ± 2.7 in the CoQ(10) group and 8.8 ± 1.5 in the placebo group (P=0.001). Of the patients in CoQ(10) group, 11 (13.6%) had disease progression vs 46 (56.1%) in placebo group (P=0.01). In patients with early chronic PD, CoQ(10) therapy leads plaque size and penile curvature reduction and improves EF. PMID:20720560

Safarinejad, M R

2010-01-01

35

Dietary supplements for football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplemens. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a

P. Hespel; R. J. Maughan; P. L. Greenhaff

2006-01-01

36

Neutron method for NDA in the Sapphire Project  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Project Sapphire, the top-secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons-grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) repacking of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable U.S. containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the {sup 235}U content of each container for nuclear criticality safety and compliance purposes; (3) packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of the Sapphire operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for {sup 235}U content.

Lewis, K.D. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

37

A neutron method for NDA analysis in the SAPPHIRE Project  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Project SAPPHIRE, the top secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) the re-packing of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable US containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the U-235 content of each container for Nuclear Criticality Safety and compliance purposes; (3) the packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) the shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of SAPPHIRE operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for U-235 content.

Lewis, K.D.

1995-01-09

38

A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this direction, such as improving both the plutonium isotopic distribution measurement and the multiplicity counter, so that the assays can be performed on any plutonium samples instead of only pure oxides. Advances have also been made on uranium bulk measurements by the development of the active well coincidence counter. Meanwhile, several large bulk-handling facilities have been coming on line under IAEA safeguards. These facilities require full-time inspectors to be present whenever the plant is operating. The IAEA requested help so that measurements can be made even when inspectors are not present. The evolution and success of unattended NDA has been responsible for the capability of the IAEA to monitor large bulk-handling facilities without substantial increase in inspection effort. The integration of NDA with containment & surveillance measures and automation has been crucial to reducing inspection manpower. These systems have developed to the point where the IAEA can make credible conclusions on large high-throughput plants such as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication or reprocessing plants.

Sprinkle, J. K. (James K.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Hsue, S.-T. (Sin-Tao); Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.)

2001-01-01

39

Neutron method for NDA in the Sapphire Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of Project Sapphire, the top-secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons-grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) repacking of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable U.S. containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the ²³⁵U content of each container for nuclear criticality safety and compliance purposes; (3) packaging of the fissile material

1995-01-01

40

SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Supplement 1  

E-print Network

1 SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Supplement 1: Details about references, targeted epitopes and cross;286(13):11337-45" DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M111.223503 #12;2 Supplemental 2: Fig. S2. Effect of therapeutic anti-EGFR or -HER2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods 1.1 Description of the Ecosystem Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure 1. Chlorophyll concentrations and chlorophyll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Figure 2. Culture-based example of issue regarding the correct identification

Boss, Emmanuel S.

42

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... And, are they safe? What Is a Dietary Supplement? Dietary supplements are substances you might use to ... buy dietary supplements. Should I Take a Dietary Supplement? Do you need one? Maybe you do, but ...

43

Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

Klann, R. T.

2000-02-29

44

Results from the first Waste and Residue NDA Measurements School  

SciTech Connect

The first Waste and Residue Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements School was given at Los Alamos on June 3--7, 1996. This school is a new part of the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Safeguards Training Program, with additional instructor support from the National Transuranic Waste Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Westinghouse savannah River Company, Pajarito Scientific Corporation, and Canberra Industries. The school was attended by 22 safeguards and waste measurement personnel from DOE facilities, and included lectures on waste characterization requirements, the WIPP Performance Demonstration Program, waste and residue NDA techniques, and a workshop discussion on waste assay issues. Hands-on training modules with 55-gallon-drum waste assay systems were held using a Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner, a Tomographic Gamma-ray Scanner, two Add-a-Source Waste-Drum Assay Systems, a Californium Shuffler, and a Differential Die-away system that included Combined Thermal-Epithermal Neutron Interrogation (CTEN). This paper will describe the new school and report on the measurement results obtained during the school with the above-mentioned waste-drum assay systems.

Ensslin, N.; Abhold, M.; Coop, K.; Prettyman, T.; Rinard, P.; Sheppard, G.; Smith, H.A.

1996-09-01

45

The Efficacy of Zinc Supplementation on Outcome of Children with Severe Pneumonia. A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To compare the clinical outcome of children having severe pneumonia, with and without zinc supplementation by a randomized\\u000a double-blind placebo controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study, 128 children (3–60 months old) admitted to the hospital with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into 2\\u000a groups (64 in each) that received either zinc sulfate (2 mg\\/kg\\/d, maximum 20 mg in 2 divided doses, for 5 days) or

Ehsan Valavi; Mehran Hakimzadeh; Ahmad Shamsizadeh; Majid Aminzadeh; Arash Alghasi

46

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... risk. Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Dietary Supplements: Tips for Women Print and Share (PDF 123KB) ... 10877-382-4357. - To Learn More about Dietary Supplements Using Dietary Supplements Weight Loss Fraud NIH Office ...

47

Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure1  

E-print Network

Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure1 Supplemental Figure 1 Bidirectional state transition;Supplemental Figure 2 The responsiveness to single mossy fiber inputs during UP and DOWN periods A. The firing and UP periods in state IV. The EPSP amplitude in DOWN was also larger than that in UP. #12;Supplemental

Fujisawa, Shigeyoshi

48

Effects of NDA, a new plant growth retardant, on cell culture growth of Zea mays L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new plant growth retardant, the norbornenodiazetine derivative 5-(4-chlorophenyl) - 3,4,5,9,10 - pentaaza - tetracyclo -\\u000a 5,4,1,02.6,08.11- dodeca - 3,9 - diene (NDA) was tested for its effects on growth ofZea mays suspension cultures. It was shown that NDA could inhibit cell division almost completely at a concentration of 5× 10?5 M, while 80% of cells could be considered viable.

Klaus Grossmann; Wilhelm Rademacher; Johannes Jung

1983-01-01

49

Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends Supp. Fig. 1. Fluorescence images of 3-D clusters) for Integrative Biology This journal is (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009 #12;Supplemental Figures

Tsien, Roger Y.

50

A rational regulatory approach for positron emission tomography imaging probes: from "first in man" to NDA approval and reimbursement.  

PubMed

We propose a new regulatory approach for positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging probes, essential tools in today's medicine. Even though the focus of this paper is on positron-emitting labeled probes, it is also justified to extend this proposed regulatory approach to other diagnostic nuclear medicine radiopharmaceuticals. Key aspects of this proposal include: (1) PET molecular imaging probes would be placed in a "no significant risk" category, similar to that category for devices in current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, based on overwhelming scientific evidence that demonstrates their faultless safety profile; (2) the FDA-sanctioned Radioactive Drug Research Committee (RDRC) will oversee all diagnostic research with these probes. The newly defined RDRC should approve "first in man" use; supervise a broader spectrum of diagnostic research protocols, including those looking to demonstrate initial efficacy, as well as multicenter clinical trials and the use of molecular imaging probes as a screening tool in drug discovery. The current investigational new drug (IND) mechanism is thus eliminated for these diagnostic probes; (3) when a molecular imaging probe has demonstrated diagnostic efficacy, FDA approval (i.e., NDA) will be sought. The review will be done by a newly constituted Radioactive Drug Advisory Committee (RDAC) composed of experts chosen by the professional societies, who would provide a binding assessment of the adequacy of the safety and efficacy data. When the RDAC recommends its diagnostic use on scientific and medical grounds, the molecular imaging probe becomes FDA approved. After a molecular imaging probe is approved for a diagnostic indication, the existing mechanism to seek reimbursement will be utilized; and (4) the FDA would retain its direct oversight function for traditional manufacturers engaged in commercial distribution of the approved diagnostic molecular imaging probes (i.e., under NDA) to monitor compliance with existing US Pharmacopeia (USP) requirements. With abbreviated and more appropriate regulations, new PET molecular imaging probes for diagnostic use would be then rapidly incorporated into the mainstream diagnostic medicine. Equally importantly, this approach would facilitate the use of molecular imaging in drug discovery and development, which would substantially reduce the costs and time required to bring new therapeutic drugs to market. PMID:15564146

Barrio, Jorge R; Marcus, Carol S; Hung, Joseph C; Keppler, Jennifer S

2004-01-01

51

Automatic identification of NDA measured items: Use of E-tags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how electronic identification devices or E-tags could reduce the time spent by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors making nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements. As one example, the use of E-tags with a high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) is discussed in detail. Sections of the paper include inspection procedures, system description, software, and future plans. Mounting of E-tabs, modifications to the HLNC, and the use of tamper indicating devices are also discussed. The technology appears to have wide application to different types of nuclear facilities and inspections and could significantly change NDA inspection procedures.

Chitumbo, K.; Olsen, R.; Hatcher, C. R.; Kadner, S. P.

52

Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals  

PubMed Central

This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

Williams, Melvin

2006-01-01

53

Methionine Supplementation Options in Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Methionine is essential or limiting amino acid for poultry. An experiment was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of DL-methionine and herbal methionine supplement on growth and performance of broiler chickens. Three hundred commercial broiler (VenCobb) chicks were procured and randomly divided into three groups (n = 100), one control (T ) and two treatments (T and T

V. H. Kalbande; K. Ravikanth; S. Maini; D. S. Rekhe

2009-01-01

54

PRECLINICAL RESEARCH CLINICAL RESEARCH NDA REVIEW Results from laboratory and animal  

E-print Network

SCIENCE RESEARCH In this phase, researchers tests the drug/ therapy in the laboratory or in animals beforePRECLINICAL RESEARCH CLINICAL RESEARCH NDA REVIEW IND Results from laboratory and animal research (FDA). An IND application seeks permission to use the drug/therapy in a Phase I trial. PHASE I The drug/therapy

Kim, Duck O.

55

Nutritional supplements for the treatment of ADHD.  

PubMed

Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appears to have modest benefit for improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Many other natural supplements are widely used in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side effects. This review synthesizes and evaluates the scientific evidence regarding the potential efficacy and side effects of natural supplements and herbal remedies for ADHD. We provide clinicians with recommendations regarding their potential use and role in overall ADHD treatment. PMID:25220092

Bloch, Michael H; Mulqueen, Jilian

2014-10-01

56

Creating NDA working standards through high-fidelity spent fuel modeling  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is developing advanced non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel assemblies to advance the state-of-the-art in safeguards measurements. These measurements aim beyond the capabilities of existing methods to include the evaluation of plutonium and fissile material inventory, independent of operator declarations. Testing and evaluation of advanced NDA performance will require reference assemblies with well-characterized compositions to serve as working standards against which the NDA methods can be benchmarked and for uncertainty quantification. To support the development of standards for the NGSI spent fuel NDA project, high-fidelity modeling of irradiated fuel assemblies is being performed to characterize fuel compositions and radiation emission data. The assembly depletion simulations apply detailed operating history information and core simulation data as it is available to perform high fidelity axial and pin-by-pin fuel characterization for more than 1600 nuclides. The resulting pin-by-pin isotopic inventories are used to optimize the NDA measurements and provide information necessary to unfold and interpret the measurement data, e.g., passive gamma emitters, neutron emitters, neutron absorbers, and fissile content. A key requirement of this study is the analysis of uncertainties associated with the calculated compositions and signatures for the standard assemblies; uncertainties introduced by the calculation methods, nuclear data, and operating information. An integral part of this assessment involves the application of experimental data from destructive radiochemical assay to assess the uncertainty and bias in computed inventories, the impact of parameters such as assembly burnup gradients and burnable poisons, and the influence of neighboring assemblies on periphery rods. This paper will present the results of high fidelity assembly depletion modeling and uncertainty analysis from independent calculations performed using SCALE and MCNP. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

Skutnik, Steven E [ORNL] [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Romano, Catherine E [ORNL] [ORNL; Trellue, Holly [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01

57

Dietary supplement drug therapies for depression.  

PubMed

Many dietary supplements are readily accessible and commonly used for the treatment of depression. A dietary supplement is a product intended to supplement the diet but is not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can take action against dietary supplement manufacturers for products only after they are marketed, mainly if the product is found to be unsafe or if false or misleading claims are made about the product. Few dietary supplement products have been adequately studied for their safety and efficacy. Of the five products reviewed in this article (L-methylfolate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], omega-3 fatty acids, L-tryptophan, and inositol), only omega-3 fatty acids and SAM-e have sufficient supporting evidence for their efficacy to warrant safe use. PMID:22589230

Howland, Robert H

2012-06-01

58

Diabetes and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... and skin reactions following large doses. Top Herbal Supplements There is no strong evidence that herbal supplements ... ODS’s Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium . Top Other Supplements There is no strong evidence that supplements of ...

59

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

60

Survey of DOE NDA practices for CH-Tru waste certification--illustrated with a greater than 10,000 drum NDA data base  

SciTech Connect

We have compiled a greater than 10,000 CH-TRU waste drum data base from seven DOE sites which have utilized such multiple NDA measurements within the past few years. Most of these nondestructive assay (NDA) technique assay result comparisons have been performed on well-characterized, segregated waste categories such as cemented sludges, combustibles, metals, graphite residues, glasses, etc., with well-known plutonium isotopic compositions. Waste segregation and categorization practices vary from one DOE site to another. Perhaps the most systematic approach has been in use for several years at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), operated by Rockwell International, and located near Golden, Colorado. Most of the drum assays in our data base result from assays of RFP wastes, with comparisons available between the original RFP assays and PAN assays performed independently at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Solid Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility. Most of the RFP assays were performed with hyperpure germanium (HPGe)-based SGS assay units. However, at least one very important waste category, processed first-stage sludges, is assayed at RFP using a sludge batch-sampling procedure, prior to filling of the waste drums. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.; Smith, J.R.

1988-01-01

61

NDA PDP Program PuO{sub 2} increased particle size specification and design  

SciTech Connect

Provisions in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan require an assessment of performance for nondestructive waste assay (NDA) systems employed in the program. This requirement is in part fulfilled through the use of Performance Demonstration programs. In order to optimize the quality and quantity of information acquired during a given Performance Demonstration Program cycle, the assessment employed is to be carefully specified and designed. The assessment must yield measurement system performance data meaningful with respect to NDA system capability to accommodate attributes of interest known to occur in actual waste forms. The design and specification of the increased particle size PuO{sub 2} PDP working reference materials (WRMs) is directed at providing a straightforward mechanism to assess waste NDA system capability to account for biases introduced by large PuO{sub 2} particles. The increased particle size PuO{sub 2} PDP WRM design addresses actual waste form attributes associated with PuO{sub 2} particle size and distributions thereof, the issue of a known and stable WRM configuration and equally important appropriate certification and tractability considerations.

Marshall, R.S.; Taggart, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Becker, G.K.; Woon, W.Y. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

62

Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

2009-01-01

63

Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

1996-09-01

64

A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGE spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 55% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays.

Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

1996-12-31

65

Supplemental Figure 1 Supplemental Figure 2  

E-print Network

Supplemental Figure 1 #12;Supplemental Figure 2 #12;Supplemental Figure Legends Supplemental Figure 1 The RT-qPCR assay has a broad dynamic range and specifically detects). Finally, to ensure that we can detect splicing inhibition, we examined splicing reactions supplemented

Ares Jr., Manny

66

Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... print | view as pdf | share Create PDF Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | T - Z General Supplement Information Dietary Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: ...

67

Fall 2014 Transfer Supplemental  

E-print Network

Fall 2014 Transfer Supplemental Applica2on Tutorial #12;t Accessing Your Supplemental Applica2on Click here to access your Supplemental Applica2on. The Supplemental Applica2on must be completed by SDSU upper division transfer applicants

Gallo, Linda C.

68

USP Verified Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... USP Verified Dietary Supplements Tweet USP Verified Dietary Supplements USP Verified dietary supplements are products that have ... it means . Where to Find USP Verified Dietary Supplements View USP Verified products and where they can ...

69

Production of NDA Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project  

SciTech Connect

The production of Non Destructive Assay (NDA) Working Reference Materials (WRMs) that are traceable to nationally recognized standards was undertaken to support implementation of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project (CEP). The WRMs produced for the CEP project consist of Increased Am/Pu mass ration (IAP) and depleted Uranium (DU) WRMs. The CEP IAP/DU WRM set provides radioactive material standards for use in combination with 55 gallon drum waste matrix surrogates for the assessment of waste NDA assay system performance. The Production of WRMs is a meticulous process that is not without certain trials and tribulations. Problems may arise at any of the various stages of WRM production which include, but are not limited to; material characterization (physical, chemical, and isotopic), material blend parameters, personnel radiation exposure, gas generation phenomenon, traceability to national standards, encapsulation, statistical evaluation of the data, and others. Presented here is an overall description of the process by which the CEP WRMs were produced and certified as well as discussions pertaining to some of the problems encountered and how they were solved.

Noll, P.D. Jr.; Marshall, R.S.

1998-11-17

70

The use of dietary supplements in oncology.  

PubMed

The use of dietary supplements among patients affected by cancer is extensive, with an estimated 20-90 % of patients using these products. Their use of these products is often not shared with the treating physician. This is because patients perceive or believe that their physicians are indifferent or negative toward the use of dietary supplements. As a result, patients may obtain information about dietary supplements from unreliable sources, exposing themselves to unnecessary risks. Since there are limited scientific data on the efficacy and safety of many dietary supplements, advising patients about when to use them during the course of illness is a clinical challenge. Improving the communication process between the health care team and their patients in this area is critical. We describe a practical patient-centered approach to managing dietary supplement use in cancer care. This approach makes use of all available scientific data relating to the safety and efficacy of these supplements combined with how to have an open, patient-centered discussion with patients about their needs and expectations. PMID:25228351

Frenkel, Moshe; Sierpina, Victor

2014-11-01

71

76 FR 78283 - Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...discuss the available efficacy and safety data for supplemental new drug application (sNDA) 22395/S-013, QUTENZA (capsaicin 8%) Patch, by NeurogesX, Inc., for the proposed indication of management of neuropathic pain (nerve pain)...

2011-12-16

72

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely  

MedlinePLUS

... help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Dietary Supplements Dietary supplements were defined in a law passed ... evidence of benefit against the common cold. Dietary Supplement Use in the United States According to the ...

73

Taking iron supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ... ABOUT IRON SUPPLEMENTS Iron supplements may be taken as capsules, tablets, chewable tablets, and liquids. The most common tablet size is ...

74

Dietary Supplements for Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Article Body If you provide your ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

75

[Efficacy studies].  

PubMed

Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

2014-07-01

76

Sampling and verification methods for the uncertainty analysis of NDA and NDE waste characterization systems  

SciTech Connect

Use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and evaluation (NDE) systems in critical waste characterization requires a realistic assessment of the uncertainty in the measurements. The stated uncertainty must include potential effects of a variety of complicating external factors on the expected bias and precision. These factors include material heterogeneity (matrix effects), fluctuating background levels, and other variable operating conditions. Uncertainty figures from application of error propagation methods to data from controlled laboratory experiments using standard test materials can grossly underestimate the expected error. This paper reviews the standard error propagation method of uncertainty analysis, discusses some of its limitations, and presents an alternative approach based on sampling and verification. Examples of application of sampling and verification methods to measurement systems at INEL are described.

Blackwood, L.G.

1997-01-01

77

How the NDA Provides Transparency and Visibility of the Technical Deliverability of the R and D Programme - 13303  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) was created under the UK Energy Act 2004 to ensure the UK historic civil public sector nuclear legacy sites are decommissioned safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment. The delivery will involve carrying out many unique projects within a high hazard environment requiring the very highest standards in safety, security and environmental management. Unique problems require unique solutions and there is a substantial amount of research and development required for each project. The NDA's R and D strategic objective is to ensure that delivery of the NDA's mission is technically underpinned by sufficient and appropriate research and development. This drives a requirement to provide transparency and visibility of the technical deliverability of the programme through the technical baseline and accompanying research and development requirements. The NDA need to have confidence in the technical deliverability of the Site License Companies (SLCs) plans, provide overall visibility of R and D across the NDA Estate and ensure that appropriate R and D is being carried out in a timely manner. They need to identify where coordinated R and D programmes may be advantageous as a result of common needs, risks and opportunities and ensure key R and D needs across NDA are identified, prioritised and work programmes are costed and scheduled in the Lifetime Plans for individual sites and SLCs. Evidence of the Site License Company's approach and their corresponding technical underpinning programmes is achieved through submission of a number of outputs collectively known as TBuRDs (Technical Baseline and Underpinning Research and Development Requirements). This paper is a summary of the information generated by an independent review of those TBuRDs. It highlights some of the key messages, synergies and common R and D activities across the estate. It demonstrates the value of a consistent approach to collecting R and D data across multiple Sites with a view to enhancing knowledge transfer and improving delivery efficiency. It will be of interest to all who are running R and D programmes where other programmes may be carrying out similar activities. (authors)

Seed, Ian; James, Paula [Cogentus Consulting (United Kingdom)] [Cogentus Consulting (United Kingdom); Brownridge, Melanie; McMinn, Mervin [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - NDA (United Kingdom)] [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - NDA (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

78

Universitt Regensburg Diploma Supplement  

E-print Network

Universität Regensburg Diploma Supplement This Diploma Supplement model was developed by the European Commission, Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES. The purpose of the supplement is to provide and successfully completed by the individual named on the original qualification to which this supplement

Schubart, Christoph

79

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

80

MUD and Self Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying Bandura's social learning theory, this paper proposes a theoretical framework for analysing the effect of MUD playing on users' self efficacy. Three types of self efficacy – computer self efficacy (CSE), social self efficacy (SSE) and generalized self efficacy (GSE) – are introduced. A possible hypothesis – successful performance, vicarious experience, hearing positive verbal persuasion and massive exposure during

Kwan Min Lee

2000-01-01

81

?-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update.  

PubMed

?-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic ?-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that ?-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. ?-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with ?-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from ?-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using ?-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. ?-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic potential of ?-alanine supplementation for elite athletes performing repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports which require repeated maximal efforts (e.g., rugby and soccer), needs scientific confirmation. PMID:24276304

Bellinger, Phillip M

2014-06-01

82

Intercollegiate student athlete use of nutritional supplements and the role of athletic trainers and dietitians in nutrition counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of university student athletes was conducted to determine supplement use, perceived efficacy of supplements, availability and use of nutrition services, and perceived nutrition knowledge of athletic trainers. Results from 236 athletes showed that 88% used one or more nutritional supplements, yet perceived efficacy was moderate (2.9 or less; 5-point scale). Classes (69.4%), brochures (75%), and individual counseling (47%)

Robert D. Burns; M. Rosita Schiller; Mark A. Merrick; Kay N. Wolf

2004-01-01

83

Quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials containing uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of inspection agencies and facility operators to measure powders containing several actinides is increasingly necessary as new reprocessing techniques and fuel forms are being developed. These powders are difficult to measure with nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques because neutrons emitted from induced and spontaneous fission of different nuclides are very similar. A neutron multiplicity technique based on first principle methods was developed to measure these powders by exploiting isotope-specific nuclear properties, such as the energy-dependent fission cross sections and the neutron induced fission neutron multiplicity. This technique was tested through extensive simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code and by one measurement campaign using the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and two measurement campaigns using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) with various (alpha,n) sources and actinide materials. Four potential applications of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4) weapons verification in arms control agreements. This technique still has several challenges which need to be overcome, the largest of these being the challenge of having high-precision active and passive measurements to produce results with acceptably small uncertainties.

Goddard, Braden

84

Children and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Children and Dietary Supplements September 2012 Research has shown that many children ... about external links More About Children and Dietary Supplements What the Science Says Other Clinical Digests Subscriptions ...

85

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer Can botanicals be dietary supplements? To be classified as a dietary supplement , a ... use in capsules or tablets. Are botanical dietary supplements standardized? Standardization is a process that manufacturers may ...

86

Tobacco Use Supplement: An Overview  

Cancer.gov

1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current

87

Suppression of NDA-type alternative mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in arabidopsis thaliana modifies growth and metabolism, but not high light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport.  

PubMed

The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)? ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins. PMID:24486764

Wallström, Sabá V; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L; Escobar, Matthew A; Geisler, Daniela A; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G

2014-05-01

88

Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on  

PubMed Central

Calcium supplements have been widely used by older men and women. However, in little more than a decade, authoritative recommendations have changed from encouraging the widespread use of calcium supplements to stating that they should not be used for primary prevention of fractures. This substantial shift in recommendations has occurred as a result of accumulated evidence of marginal antifracture efficacy, and important adverse effects from large randomized controlled trials of calcium or coadministered calcium and vitamin D supplements. In this review, we discuss this evidence, with a particular focus on increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements, which we first described 5 years ago. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D marginally reduce total fractures but do not prevent hip fractures in community-dwelling individuals. They also cause kidney stones, acute gastrointestinal events, and increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Any benefit of calcium supplements on preventing fracture is outweighed by increased cardiovascular events. While there is little evidence to suggest that dietary calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is also little evidence that it is associated with fracture risk. Therefore, for the majority of people, dietary calcium intake does not require close scrutiny. Because of the unfavorable risk/benefit profile, widespread prescribing of calcium supplements to prevent fractures should be abandoned. Patients at high risk of fracture should be encouraged to take agents with proven efficacy in preventing vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. PMID:25114781

Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R.

2013-01-01

89

Efficacy of climate forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ?110%, which increases to ?145% when its indirect

J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

2005-01-01

90

Efficacy of climate forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the ``efficacy'' of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ~110%, which increases to ~145% when its indirect

J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

2005-01-01

91

Supplemental Information for Graham et al. Supplemental Figures  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental Information for Graham et al. � Supplemental Figures o Supplemental to those shown in Figure 2. o Supplemental Figure 2: Sliding of Spo0J dimers along foci or Spo0J-dependent SMC localization. o Supplemental Figure 3: Larger images

Rudner, David

92

Maternal Beliefs about Vitamin Efficacy in Four U.S. Subcultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread use of supplemental vitamins continues in the absence of clear scientific evidence of efficacy. Observations in a variety of pediatric health settings suggest that their use may be based on expectations rooted in a variety of culturally based attitudes and beliefs. Mothers of well babies in four ethnic groups answered questionnaires, indicating their expectations of vitamin efficacy. We called

Maxene Johnston; Merrill E. Sarty

1978-01-01

93

Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement with a low dose of ephedra and caffeine in overweight\\/obese premenopausal female subjects.Design:A 9-month, double-blind, randomized control study compared the efficacy and safety of a dietary supplement with ephedra and caffeine to a control supplement.Subjects:Sixty-one healthy, premenopausal women with body mass index (BMI) from 27 to 39 kg\\/m2 were randomly

R M Hackman; P J Havel; H J Schwartz; J C Rutledge; M R Watnik; E M Noceti; S J Stohs; J S Stern; C L Keen

2006-01-01

94

DOES IT WORK? TESTING THE EFFICACY OF FEED SUPPLEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancements in equine nutrition have boomed in the last several years. In the past, nutritional research focused on the nutritional content and availability of various feedstuffs with an eye on providing a balanced ration to meet the energy and nutrient needs of the equine athlete. More recent research has followed the example of human sports nutrition and has examined the

KENNETH H. MCKEEVER

95

The efficacy of supplementing ethoxyquin in poultry feed  

E-print Network

Effect of alpha tocopherol on the relative proportions of peroxide products in the autoxidation of linolenate TABLE 3 The effects of lipid peroxidation on aspects of membrane structure and function 26 TABLE 4 Activities of the important antioxidant... Effect of alpha tocopherol on the relative proportions of peroxide products in the autoxidation of linolenate TABLE 3 The effects of lipid peroxidation on aspects of membrane structure and function 26 TABLE 4 Activities of the important antioxidant...

Srinivasan, Lavanya Janardan

2012-06-07

96

The Efficacy, Safety, and Practicality of Treatments for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining interventions for adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reviewed to evaluate their efficacy. These efficacy findings were supplemented with a preliminary system for judging safety and practicality. Results suggest that the stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) is safe and well-established empirically, but has some problems with inconvenience and noncompliance. Preliminary research supports the efficacy, safety, and practicality of

Bradley H. Smith; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Michael T. Willoughby; Steven Evans

2000-01-01

97

Review of nutritional supplements for the treatment of bipolar depression.  

PubMed

Many patients view psychotropics with skepticism and fear and view nutritional supplements as more consistent with their values and beliefs. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the evidence base for nutritional supplements in the treatment of bipolar depression (BD). A literature search for all randomized, controlled clinical trials using nutritional supplements in the treatment of BD was conducted via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE computerized database. The studies were organized into essential nutrients/minerals, nonessential nutrients, and combinations of nutritional products. Among essential nutrients/minerals, omega-3-fatty acids (O3FAs) have the strongest evidence of efficacy for bipolar depression, although some studies failed to find positive effects from O3FAs. Weak evidence supports efficacy of vitamin C whereas no data support the usefulness of folic acid and choline. Among nonessential nutrients, cytidine is the least supported treatment. Studies of N-acetylcysteine have not resolved its efficacy in treating acute depressive episodes relative to placebo. However, one study demonstrates its potential to improve depressive symptoms over time and the other, though nonsignificant, suggests it has a prophylactic effect. Studies of inositol have been mostly negative, except for 1 study. Those that were negative were underpowered but demonstrated numerically positive effects for inositol. There is no evidence that citicholine is efficacious for uncomplicated BD depression, though it may have value for comorbid substance abuse among BD patients. Finally, combination O3FA-cytidine lacks evidence of efficacy. The findings of this review do not support the routine use of nutritional supplements in the treatment or prophylaxis of BD depression. Studies with more rigorous designs are required before definitive conclusions can be made. Despite the inadequacy of the existing data, clinicians should remain open to the value of nutritional supplements: after all, lithium is a mineral too. PMID:24353094

Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Dunlop, Boadie W

2014-05-01

98

Fluoride Treatments and Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

Fluoride Treatments and Supplements What Is It? What It's Used For Preparation How It's Done Follow-Up Risks When To Call a Professional ... water and drinks made from it Prescription fluoride supplements Small amounts of fluoride in food Dental office ...

99

Who Needs Supplements?  

MedlinePLUS

Certain people benefit from taking supplements. Are you one of them? 34069 InteliHealth 2009-02-02 t InteliHealth Medical Content 2011-02-02 If you are on ... you can’t, consider taking a 500-milligram supplement daily. These are inexpensive and easy to take. ...

100

Chromium Nicotinate Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To evaluate differences in body composition, upper and lower body strength, and macronutrient intake in female collegiate athletes consuming a supplement of Cr Nic or a placeboThis study investigated the relationship between chromium nicotinate (Cr Nic) supplementation and strength, body composition, and macronutrient intake in female collegiate athletes participating in off-season strength training. Seventeen collegiate athletes were randomly

D. S. Jennings; P. B. Brevard; J. A. Flohr; J. W. Gloeckner

1997-01-01

101

Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?  

MedlinePLUS

Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Feb 26,2014 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so many ...

102

Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol Beware of Fraudulent ‘Dietary Supplements’ Search the Consumer Updates Section See more fraudulent ... FDA-1088 or online . back to top Dietary Supplements and FDA Dietary supplements, in general, are not ...

103

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

104

Supplemental instruction in chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

Lundeberg, Mary A.

105

?lk Halka Arzlarin Uzun Vadeli Performanslari ve Ucuz Fiyat Olgusu: ?stanbul Menkul Kiymetler Borsasi'nda Sektörel Kar ? ilatirmali Bir Uygulama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet: Bu çalimanin amaci, ?stanbul Menkul Kiymetler Borsasi'nda uzun vadede ucuz fiyat olgusunu test etmektir. Bu amaçla çalimada 1990-1999 yillari arasinda ilk kez halka arz edilen 185 hisse senedi analize tabi tutulmutur. Aratirmada ortalama anormal getiriler ve birikimli ortalama anormal getiriler hesaplanmitir. 36 aylik süreçte ortalama anormal getiriler 13 ayda pozitif, 23 ayda negatif de ?ere sahiptir. 36 ayin sonunda,

Soner AKKOÇ

106

Evaluation of Arginine and Glutamine as Dietary Supplements to Enhance Edwardsiella ictaluri Vaccine Effectivness in Channel Catfish  

E-print Network

for maintaining the industry's profitability and sustainability. Vaccination is a proven effective strategy for disease control in aquaculture; however, improvements in vaccine efficacy are still needed. Because amino acid supplementation not only enhances fish...

Pohlenz Castillo, Camilo

2012-02-14

107

Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?  

MedlinePLUS

... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

108

Supplemental Material for Spessard and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material for Spessard and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for: Progress Toward Mass Spectral Facility. #12;Supplemental Material for Spessard and Stoltz 2 O O Br O O 1. LDA, THF, -78 (EI) m/z calcd for 236.1775, found 236.1776. #12;Supplemental Material for Spessard and Stoltz 3 O O 1

Stoltz, Brian M.

109

Supplements for exotic pets.  

PubMed

The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. PMID:25155668

Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

2014-09-01

110

Diabetes and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... conditions. More information about eating and diabetes . Physical Activity The NDEP recommends that people with diabetes set ... et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled ...

111

Supplements to Textbook Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

Holmes, Ken

1994-01-01

112

Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

2008-01-15

113

Herbal Supplements and Anesthesia  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... including all vitamins, herbal supplements and other alternative substances. These products can interfere with anesthesia and potentially ... complications during surgery. Be sure to bring all substances with you, prescription or over-the-counter, when ...

114

Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus  

E-print Network

Page i Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus Fifth Edition Version: October, 2003 Jerrold E Answers for the Internet Supplement 107 Practice Final Examination 123 Practice Final Examination Solutions 129 #12;Page iii Preface The Structure of this Supplement. This Internet Supplement is in- tended

Wilkerson, Clarence

115

CAPITAL INSURANCE AGENCY, INC. Supplemental  

E-print Network

CAPITAL INSURANCE AGENCY, INC. Supplemental Hospital Plans For EmployEEs oF thE statE oF Florida-payments and any special fees. Supplemental Hospital coverage is additional coverage designed especially to help. The level of supplemental coverage is based upon the plan you select; it's your choice. Supplemental ho

Fernandez, Eduardo

116

Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus  

E-print Network

Page i Internet Supplement for Vector Calculus Fifth Edition Version: October, 2003 Jerrold E Answers for the Internet Supplement 107 Practice Final Examination 123 Practice Final Examination Solutions 129 #12; Page iii Preface The Structure of this Supplement. This Internet Supplement is in­ tended

Hulshof, Joost

117

The International Research on Infant Supplementation initiative.  

PubMed

The International Research on Infant Supplementation trials emerged as an attempt to develop a credible evidence base to guide policy decision making in this area. The fact that infant diets in developing country settings are more often deficient in multiple micronutrients rather than in single nutrients and/or energy was increasingly recognized during the 1990s. The concept of a "foodlet," a crushable hybrid between a tablet and a food that is water dispersible, was developed at the first IRIS meeting in Rio de Janeiro in 1999. Trials were performed in 4 countries: Indonesia, Peru, South Africa, and Vietnam. Four different formulations of foodlets were tested: a daily placebo supplement, a daily iron supplement, a daily multiple micronutrient supplement, and a weekly multiple micronutrient supplement with a placebo on the other 6 d. The multiple micronutrient foodlets contained adequate daily intakes of 13 micronutrients considered most likely to be inadequate in infant diets. The foodlets were produced in Peru and distributed to all 4 of the country study sites. The methods used in the efficacy trials were standardized across countries, and the trials were carried out in infants 6-11 mo of age for 6 mo. Anthropometry was measured monthly and morbidity checked daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the trial. The data and the biological samples collected in each country were analyzed centrally. The results of this remarkable international collaboration are encouraging and, hopefully, will spur the development of programs in this area of nutrition interventions. PMID:15735106

Gross, Rainer; Benade, Spinnler; Lopez, Guillermo

2005-03-01

118

The use of dietary supplement among soldiers from the macedonian special operations regiment.  

PubMed

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and type of dietary supplement used, reasons for use, and sources of supplement information among Macedonian elite Soldiers. Methods: Anonymous self-reported questionnaires containing questions about demographic characteristics and dietary supplementation practices were distributed to 134 Soldiers, of whom 80 were recruited from the Ranger Battalion (R) and 54 from the Special Force Battalion (SF). Results: The Soldiers completed and returned 132 questionnaires. Overall, 66.6% of the Soldiers, including 70.3% of SF and 64.1% of R, reported using supplements within the 3 months before the survey. On average, each of these Soldiers used 3.7 ? 2.9 supplements. The most commonly used supplements were multivitamins (50.0%) and vitamin C (47.7%). The most frequently cited reason for using supplements was to improve general health (51.6%). Primary sources of supplement information were friends (42.0%) and books/magazines (40.9%). Conclusions: Dietary supplement use was found to be common and widespread among this military subpopulation. Given this, and the fact that the majority of the Soldiers do not receive accurate information about supplements, educational intervention regarding the safety and efficacy of these products is needed if unnecessary or harmful supplementation practices are to be prevented. PMID:23526317

Kjertakov, Metodija; Hristovski, Robert; Racaj, Muhamet

2013-01-01

119

An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.  

PubMed

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

2011-01-01

120

An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products  

PubMed Central

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

2011-01-01

121

42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section...MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections...mandatory supplemental benefit. (b) Optional supplemental benefits. Except as...

2010-10-01

122

Türkiye Evcil Koyun (Ovis ammon aries)'lar›n›n ‹flkembe Siliyat (Protozoa: Ciliophora) Faunas› Hakk›nda Bir Ön Çal›flma: II- Familya Ophryoscolecidae (Entodiniomorphida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet : Türkiye evcil koyun (Ovis ammon aries)'lar›n›n iflkembesinde yaflayan Ophryoscolecidae familyas›na dahil siliyat protozoon içerii araflt›r›lm›flt›r. Araflt›rma sonucunda 8 cins (Diplodinium, Eudiplodinium, Ostracodinium, Metadinium, Enoploplastron, Polyplastron, Epidinium ve Ophryoscolex) alt›nda 10 tür ve 11 forma tayin edilmifltir. En yüksek görülme s›kl›¤›na sahip cins ve tür s›ras›yla Metadinium (% 85.71) ile bu cinse dahil belirlenen 2 türden biri olan M.

Bayram GÖÇMEN; Saim TORUN; Nimet ÖKTEM

1999-01-01

123

Gene supplementation therapy for recessive forms of inherited retinal dystrophies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, gene supplementation therapy for inherited retinal degeneration has come of age. Early proof-of-concept studies in animal models of disease showed modest, but genuine improvements in retinal function and\\/or survival. Further development of the vectors used for gene transfer to the retina has led to better treatment efficacy in a wide variety of animal models, leading in

A J Smith; J W B Bainbridge; R R Ali

2012-01-01

124

Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal.\\u000aMETHODS: We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000 mg of elemental [corrected] calcium as calcium carbonate

Rebecca D. Jackson; Andrea Z. LaCroix; Margery Gass; Robert B. Wallace; John Robbins; Cora E. Lewis; Tamsen Bassford; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Henry R. Black; Patricia L. Blanchette; Denise E. Bonds; Robert L. Brunner; Robert G. Brzyski; Bette Caan; Jane A. Cauley; Rowan T. Chlebowski; Steven R. Cummings; Iris A. Granek; Jennifer Hays; Gerardo Heiss; Susan L. Hendrix; Barbara V. Howard; Judith Hsia; F. Allan Hubbell; Karen K. C. Johnson; Howard Judd; Jane Morley Kotchen; Lewis H. Kuller; Robert D. Langer; Norman L. Lasser; Marian C. Limacher; Shari E. Ludlam; JoAnn E. Manson; Karen L. Margolis; Joan McGowan; Judith K. Ockene; Mary Jo OSullivan; Lawrence Phillips; Ross L. Prentice; Gloria E. Sarto; Marcia L. Stefanick; Linda Van Horn; Jean Wactawski-Wende; Evelyn Whitlock; Garnet L. Anderson; Annlouise R. Assaf; David H. Barad

2006-01-01

125

Development of the nano-dust analyzer (NDA) for detection and compositional analysis of nanometer-size dust particles originating in the inner heliosphere.  

PubMed

A linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer is developed for the detection and chemical analysis of nanometer-sized particles originating near the Sun. Nano-dust particles are thought to be produced by mutual collisions between interplanetary dust particles slowly spiraling toward the Sun and are accelerated outward to high velocities by interaction with the solar wind plasma. The WAVES instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft reported the detection, strong temporal variation, and potentially high flux of these particles. Here we report on the optimization and the results from the detailed characterization of the instrument's performance using submicrometer sized dust particles accelerated to 8-60 km/s. The Nano Dust Analyzer (NDA) concept is derived from previously developed detectors. It has a 200 cm(2) effective target area and a mass resolution of approximately m/?m = 50. The NDA instrument is designed to reliably detect and analyze nanometer-sized dust particles while being pointed close to the Sun's direction, from where they are expected to arrive. Measurements by such an instrument will determine the size-dependent flux of the nano-dust particles and its variations, it will characterize the composition of the nano-dust and, ultimately, it may determine their source. The flight version of the NDA instrument is estimated to be <5 kg and requires <10 W for operation. PMID:24689626

O'Brien, L; Auer, S; Gemer, A; Grün, E; Horanyi, M; Juhasz, A; Kempf, S; Malaspina, D; Mocker, A; Moebius, E; Srama, R; Sternovsky, Z

2014-03-01

126

The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status. PMID:19081429

Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

2008-12-01

127

SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURE LEGENDS SUPPLEMENTAL FIG S1. Lrat-/-  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURE LEGENDS SUPPLEMENTAL FIG S1. Lrat-/- mice at P10 in the VAD diet group show group. The asterisk indicates a difference from all other groups at PSUPPLEMENTAL FIG S2.110.086157 Copyright 2010 by The Society for the Study of Reproduction. #12;Supplemental Figure S1 BOR

Palczewski, Krzysztof

128

Maternal Supplement Use During Pregnancy  

E-print Network

Background: There is little consensus regarding the need for vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy. The composition and use of supplements among pregnant women varies greatly. Toxicity or inadequacy of nutrients could have health...

Bratton, Mallory Michelle

2012-05-31

129

Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?  

MedlinePLUS

... well as those who are pregnant. Most prenatal supplements contain 600 micrograms per day of folic acid. ... amount recommended for pregnant women from food and supplements combined. For women who are capable of becoming ...

130

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Administrative Supplements  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SBIR Development Center announces the opportunity for current STTR Phase I and Phase II grantees to seek supplemental project funding via the Administrative Supplement mechanism.

131

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

132

Psychology: Teacher Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

Stark, Rebecca

133

Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... as pdf | share Create PDF Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | T - Z General Supplement Information Dietary Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: ...

134

Supplemental Adaptive IntraVolume  

E-print Network

Supplemental Scan data � Will be used to generate Z/V/W base products � Will be included in Level II dataWSR88D Supplemental Adaptive IntraVolume LowLevel Scan (SAILS) DQ Decision Brief Joe N Chrisman #12;Supplemental Adaptive IntraVolume LowLevel Scan (SAILS) � Concept � Add a new LowLevel* scan

135

GRAND DANUBE NO SINGLE SUPPLEMENT  

E-print Network

GRAND DANUBE PASSAGE NO SINGLE SUPPLEMENT FOR SOLO TRAVELERS 800-323-7373 www contact us for current pricing and informa- tion. Single supplement waived for solo travelers! (Limited insight into local history and culture. featuring SOFIA & PRAGUE GRAND DANUBE PASSAGE NO SINGLE SUPPLEMENT

136

Supplemental Material Table of Contents  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental Material Table of Contents Text on the multiple individuals per population phylogeny: pg 4 Supplemental Figure 1: Phylogram of U. stansburiana populations from the complete data set that included multiple individuals per population. pg 5 Supplemental Table 1: Population locations and years

Kuchta, Shawn R.

137

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

2008-01-01

138

Supplement use by young athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supple- ment use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the

Jill Anne McDowall

139

Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site  

SciTech Connect

In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

Lee, Sang-yoon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carroll, Colin J [SONALYST INC.; Sunshine, Alexander [NA-243; Novikov, Alexander [CHNPP; Lebedev, Evgeny [CHNPP

2010-01-01

140

Dietary supplement adverse events: Report of a one-year poison center surveillance project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The safety and efficacy of dietary supplements is of growing concern to regulators, health-care providers and consumers. Few\\u000a scientific data exist on clinical effects and potential toxicities of marketed products. Harmful supplements may not be identified\\u000a for months or years with existing adverse event monitoring mechanisms. Retrospective review of poison center statistics to\\u000a capture supplement-associated toxicity also has limitations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We

Christine A. Haller; Tom Kearney; Stephen Bent; Richard Ko; Neal L. Benowitz; Kent Olson

2008-01-01

141

Efficacy of climate forcings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

2005-09-01

142

Use of enteral nutritional supplementation: a survey of level II and III neonatal units in England.  

PubMed

Enteral nutritional supplementation is widely used in preterm babies on Neonatal Units (NNUs). There is little published evidence on appraising their long-term efficacy. We evaluated the current practice of enteral nutritional supplementation in 96 level II and III NNUs in England. 96%, 98%, 98% and 56% units use breast milk fortification (BMF), iron, multivitamins and folic acid supplementation respectively. Iron, multivitamins and folic acid supplements are routinely commenced in babies < 35 weeks gestation by 73%, 68% and 39% NNUs respectively. Seventy eight percent NNUs only use BMF for babies that are not gaining weight. Continuing variable practice of enteral nutritional supplementation and current use of anecdotal evidence and best guess recommendations highlights the need for a unified approach and collaborative multinational research to produce standardised guidelines. PMID:24034203

Ahmed, Mansoor; Brent, Julie; Ginn, Emma

2013-09-01

143

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

144

Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of preterm infants on disease risk and neurodevelopment: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Supplementation of preterm formulas with long- chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is based on their ef- fectiveness to increase blood status and improve visual outcomes. Dispute remains over their efficacy on global development. Objective: The objective was to compare the effects of LCPUFA- supplemented with those of control formulas on neurodevelopment and diseases associated with prematurity. Design: We systematically

Lisa G Smithers; Robert A Gibson; Andrew McPhee; Maria Makrides

145

QA Objectives for NDA with the Residues Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)  

SciTech Connect

The PFP facility utilizes a Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) to perform assays on cans of ash for WIPP characterization measurements. This report documents the conformance of SGSAS to the precision and accuracy radioassay QAOs, and reports the minimum detectable concentration (MDC). The QAO measurement runs supplied in this document were for a billet can geometry. The measurements were performed in August 2000. This document covers assays performed until October 27, 2000. The billet cans containing stabilized residues will be loaded into pipe overpack containers (POC) for shipment to WIPP. The WIPP-WAC defines four nominal test levels for NDA, which are in alpha curies and grams of weapons grade (WG) Pu. Due to intended utilization of the SGSAS system for the materials mentioned above, it is presently only being qualified for the two highest QAO ranges. The sources used for the QAO measurements are plutonium standards, which have been calibrated using calorimetry techniques. This report documents the analysis of test data for the SGSAS system at the nominal 10 gram and 160 gram levels. The MDC was determined using a billet can filled with diatomaceous earth but no plutonium present. Since the system is not being qualified for TRU vs low-level waste (LLW) sorting the MDC will primarily provide verification that the detection level for the system is well below the QAO ranges for which the system is being qualified. The MDC reflects the best sensitivity for a particular assay system and specific assay conditions (i.e. count time, sample configuration) when no added radioactivity is present. As such, no radioactive sources were required for the MDC determination. As with the accuracy and precision QAOs, the MDC is valid for the billet cans.

WESTSIK, G.A.

2001-04-05

146

Milk-Based Nutritional Supplements in Conjunction With Lifestyle Intervention in Overweight Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited data on successful weight management approaches among adolescents from underserved communities. The primary aim of this study was to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of a lifestyle intervention with milk-based supplements among adolescents from underserved communities. The secondary aims of this study were to assess change in adiposity indices and metabolic indices and

Caroline Apovian; Sherman Bigornia; Diana Cullum-Dugan; Chris Schoonmaker; Joanna Radziejowska; Jenna Phipps; Noyan Gokce; Nawfal Istfan; Alan Meyers; Carine Lenders

2009-01-01

147

Does Multivitamin Supplementation Prevent Infections in Healthy Elderly Subjects? A Controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We performed a double blind ran- domized study in order to assess the efficacy of a multivitarnin supplement for the prevention of common infections in healthy elderly sub- jects. Non-institutionalized, independent sub- jects over 60 years of age, living in the Nevers area (central France) were recruited by an- nouncements and randomly assigned to a treat- ment or a

Michel CHAVANCE; Bernard HERBETH; Alain LEMOINE; Bao-Ping ZHU

148

Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques  

SciTech Connect

This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlin, Jeremy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hu, Kianwei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blanc, P C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Am [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, H O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, M A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, M T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, M L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, C R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koehler, W E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, N P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, T H [KAERI; Cambell, L W [PNNL; Cheatham, J R [ORNL; Gesh, C J [PNNL; Hunt, A [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Ludewigt, B A [LBNL; Smith, L E [PNNL; Sterbentz, J [INL

2010-09-15

149

Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6?mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35?kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (?.40 ± .06 and ?.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058

Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

2013-01-01

150

Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine.  

PubMed

Creatine has become one of the most popular dietary supplements in the sports nutrition market. The form of creatine that has been most extensively studied and commonly used in dietary supplements is creatine monohydrate (CM). Studies have consistently indicated that CM supplementation increases muscle creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations by approximately 15-40%, enhances anaerobic exercise capacity, and increases training volume leading to greater gains in strength, power, and muscle mass. A number of potential therapeutic benefits have also been suggested in various clinical populations. Studies have indicated that CM is not degraded during normal digestion and that nearly 99% of orally ingested CM is either taken up by muscle or excreted in urine. Further, no medically significant side effects have been reported in literature. Nevertheless, supplement manufacturers have continually introduced newer forms of creatine into the marketplace. These newer forms have been purported to have better physical and chemical properties, bioavailability, efficacy, and/or safety profiles than CM. However, there is little to no evidence that any of the newer forms of creatine are more effective and/or safer than CM whether ingested alone and/or in combination with other nutrients. In addition, whereas the safety, efficacy, and regulatory status of CM is clearly defined in almost all global markets; the safety, efficacy, and regulatory status of other forms of creatine present in today's marketplace as a dietary or food supplement is less clear. PMID:21424716

Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Shao, Andrew; Inoue, Toshitada; Kreider, Richard B

2011-05-01

151

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

152

Efficacy of OTC analgesics.  

PubMed

For many 'over-the-counter' (OTC) analgesics, there is little information available about their relative efficacy. We have examined information available in a series of Cochrane reviews of single doses of analgesic drugs in acute pain and migraine for its relevance for analgesic products commonly available without prescription, at doses generally equivalent to two tablets. Pain following third molar extraction was used as a homogeneous acute pain model; with the outcome of at least 50% maximum pain relief over 6 h. For many OTC drugs, there was no information available. For some OTC drugs, there was at least some information available either for the marketed product itself, or from studies that used the same doses of drug or drugs. For acute pain, data from third molar extraction studies showed that several OTC products were highly efficacious, principally non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac) and combination products based on ibuprofen; aspirin and paracetamol-based products were less efficacious. Fixed-dose combinations, especially those with ibuprofen, provided high levels of analgesia. For migraine headache, the outcome used was pain initially moderate or severe becoming no worse than mild pain (no pain, mild pain) at 2 h. Single-dose ibuprofen 400 mg was better than aspirin and paracetamol. PMID:23163544

Moore, R A; Derry, C

2013-01-01

153

Supplementing National Menu Labeling  

PubMed Central

The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

White, Lexi C.

2012-01-01

154

FDA Guide to Dietary Supplements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sale and variety of dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbal mixtures, and hormones have expanded tremendously in recent years, accounting for $6.5 billion in sales in 1996 alone. This resource will help users to understand this trend and the health claims made by supplement companies and to make educated decisions regarding their use. This site offers a revised version of an article which originally ran in the September-October 1998 FDA Consumer. The article addresses topics such as the definition of a dietary supplement, safety monitoring, understanding claims, and fraudulent products. An illustration of new requirements for dietary supplement labels and sources for more information are also provided.

Kurtzweil, Paula, 1958-.

1999-01-01

155

Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.  

PubMed

Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk. PMID:24667103

Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

2014-08-01

156

Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

Farris, Jim

157

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-03-01

158

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-01-01

159

Otlak Ayr›¤› (Agropyron cristatum)'nda Deiflik S›ra Aral›klar›, Biçim Yükseklikleri ve An›z Yakman›n Tohum Verimine ve Verim Unsurlar›na Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet: Bu araflt›rma Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi'nin deneme tarlas›nda 1987-1992 y›llar› aras›nda yürütülmüfl ve denemenin ilk y›l› d›fl›ndaki befl y›ll›k sonuçlar deerlendirilmifltir. Denemede farkl› s›ra aral›¤› (20, 30 ve 40 cm) ve biçim yükseklikleri (2.5, 5.0 ve 7.5 cm) ile an›z yakman›n otlak ayr›¤›n›n (Agropyron cristatum) tohum verimi ve baz› verim unsurlar›na etkileri incelenmifltir. Befl y›ll›k ortalamalara göre; s›ra aral›¤›n›n

Ali KOÇ; Mustafa TAN

160

Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?  

PubMed

Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided. PMID:22465867

Manore, Melinda M

2012-04-01

161

Data supplement #1 Data supplement 1. Synthetic peptides are internalized into THP-1 cells within 30  

E-print Network

Data supplement #1 Data supplement 1. Synthetic peptides are internalized into THP-1 cells within supplement #2 Data supplement 2. Treatment with either anti-CD300F mAb or TAT-YADL results in a significant compared with LPS-treated samples, *** supplement #3 Data supplement 3. CD300F or TAT

Lee, Won-Ha

162

Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use. Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions. Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy. PMID:23576049

Dwyer, Johanna; Nahin, Richard L; Rogers, Gail T; Barnes, Patricia M; Jacques, Paul M; Sempos, Christopher T; Bailey, Regan

2013-01-01

163

Antioxidative and immunomodulatory effects of tributyrin supplementation on experimental colitis.  

PubMed

Tributyrin (TBT) is a TAG composed of three butyric acids that has beneficial effects on ulcerative colitis due to its trophic, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of action of TBT supplementation in the prevention of mucosal damage in experimental colitis. Mice received either a control diet or a TBT-supplemented diet for 15 d. Colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulphate administration during the last 7 d. Mucosal damage and the activation of immune cells and cytokines were determined by histological score, flow cytometry and ELISA. Leucocyte rolling and adhesion were assessed by intravital microscopy. Oxidative stress was determined by monitoring hydroperoxide concentration and evaluating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. Intestinal permeability was analysed using diethylenetriaminepentaacetate acid (99mTcDTPA). Compared with the colitis group, the animals in the colitis+TBT group had reduced mucosal damage and neutrophil and eosinophil mucosal infiltration, which were associated with a higher percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg) and higher levels of transforming growth factor ? and IL-10 in the lamina propria. The level of in vivo leucocyte adhesion in the colon microvasculature was reduced after TBT supplementation. A lower level of hydroperoxide and higher levels of SOD and catalase activities were associated with TBT supplementation. TBT-supplemented mice showed reduced intestinal permeability to the levels intermediate between the control and colitis groups. In conclusion, the present results show that TBT has positive effects on colonic restructuring in experimental colitis. Additionally, TBT supplementation changes the immune response by controlling inflammation and regulating the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and Treg. PMID:22906779

Leonel, Alda J; Teixeira, Lílian G; Oliveira, Rafael P; Santiago, Andrezza F; Batista, Nathália V; Ferreira, Talita R; Santos, Rosana C; Cardoso, Valbert N; Cara, Denise C; Faria, Ana M C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline

2013-04-28

164

Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH  

PubMed Central

Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg) was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03) with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body. PMID:18990209

Berardi, John M; Logan, Alan C; Rao, A Venket

2008-01-01

165

Enhanced Reduction of Fasting Total Homocysteine Levels With Supraphysiological Versus Standard Multivitamin Dose Folic Acid Supplementation in Renal Transplant Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mild fasting hyperhomocysteinemia commonly observed in chronic (ie, $6 months posttransplantation) renal transplant recipients (RTRs) can be effectively treated with combined B-vitamin supplementation featuring supraphysiological doses of folic acid. There are no controlled data evaluating the comparative efficacy of supraphysiological versus standard multivitamin dose folic acid supplementation in reducing fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) levels among RTRs. We block-randomized 60

Andrew J. Beaulieu; Reginald Y. Gohh; Haewook Han; David Hakas; Paul F. Jacques; Jacob Selhub; Andrew G. Bostom

166

An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine in overweight humans the short-term safety and efficacy for weight loss of an herbal supplement containing Ma Huang, Guarana and other ingredients.DESIGN: An 8 week randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study of a herbal dietary supplement (72 mg\\/day ephedrine alkaloids and 240 mg\\/day caffeine).SUBJECTS: Overweight men and women (body mass index, ?29 and ?35 kg\\/m2).MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome

CN Boozer; JA Nasser; SB Heymsfield; V Wang; G Chen; JL Solomon

2001-01-01

167

Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part II: Efficacy and safety  

PubMed Central

This is the second of two papers which review issues concerning complementary medicines. The first reviewed the extent of use of complementary medicines, and issues related to the regulation and pharmaceutical quality of these products; the second considers evidence for the efficacy of several well-known complementary medicines, and discusses complementary-medicines pharmacovigilance. The term complementary medicines describes a range of pharmaceutical-type preparations, including herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils and dietary supplements, which mainly sit outside conventional medicine. The use of complementary medicines is a popular healthcare approach in the UK, and there are signs that the use of such products is continuing to increase. Patients and the public use complementary medicines for health maintenance, for the treatment or prevention of minor ailments, and also for serious, chronic illnesses. There is a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews to support the efficacy of certain herbal extracts and dietary supplements in particular conditions. However, many other preparations remain untested. Strictly speaking, evidence of efficacy (and safety) for herbal medicines should be considered to be extract specific. Pharmacovigilance for complementary medicines is in its infancy. Data are lacking in several areas relevant to safety. Standard pharmacovigilance tools have additional limitations when applied to investigating safety concerns with complementary medicines. PMID:12680880

Barnes, Joanne

2003-01-01

168

JANAF thermochemical tables, 1978 supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic tabulations previously published in NSRDS–NBS 37, the 1974 Supplement (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311 (1974), and the 1975 Supplement (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 1 (1975) are extended by 131 new and revised tables. The JANAF Thermochemical Tables cover the thermodynamic properties over a wide temperature range with single phase tables for the crystal, liquid,

M. W. Chase; J. L. Curnutt; R. A. McDonald; A. N. Syverud

1978-01-01

169

OMB CIRCULAR A-133 COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENT  

E-print Network

OMB CIRCULAR A-133 COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENT 2008 EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OFFICE.................................................................................... 1-3 Overview of this Supplement for Children (SMP)............................ 4-10.553 10.557 ­ Special Supplemental Nutrition Program

McQuade, D. Tyler

170

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know The majority of adults in the United States take one or more ... like glucosamine, probiotics, and fish oils. The Dietary Supplement Label All products labeled as a dietary supplement ...

171

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

172

Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women's Health  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

2012-01-01

173

Pharmacological basis of traditional medicines and health supplements as curatives.  

PubMed

Traditional Oriental medicines and health supplements have been empirically used to treat various ailments but most of them have not been evaluated objectively to prove their efficacies. We have been investigating the medical benefits of traditional Oriental medicines and health supplements as alternatives and their varied actions and mechanisms by pharmacological approaches. The study on airway inflammation has shown that even a Kampo preparation, Bakumondo-to, has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory, secretory-modulating, and metabolic regulatory actions. All of its actions are based on the restoration of normal molecular and cellular functions through DNA transcriptional regulation. In other previous studies, we showed that a health supplement, royal jelly (RJ) has weak estrogenic activity. RJ competes with 17beta-estradiol for binding to the human estrogen receptors alpha and beta, although it is much weaker than diethylstilbestrol in binding affinity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with RJ enhances proliferation, and concomitant treatment with tamoxifen blocked this effect. A reporter gene assay showed that RJ enhanced transcription of the luciferase gene through the estrogen-responsive element in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of RJ restored the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor gene in the uteri of ovariectomized rats. We suggest that the diverse pharmacological functions of RJ can be ascribed, in part, to its estrogenic effects. We hypothesize that traditional medicine, which has multiple actions, may be better than Western medicine of a single component to treat various diseases including "Mibyou" (presymptomatic disease). Our findings provide new ideas about the nature of disorders nd disease-state development that involve complicated mechanisms and will contribute to novel principles to prevent diseases and establish new treatments. Adoption of the means of translational research should provide an objective background for efficacy and stimulate broader application and usage of traditional medicines and health supplements. PMID:17287592

Miyata, Takeshi

2007-02-01

174

Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure. PMID:22747620

Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

2012-07-01

175

Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.  

PubMed

Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

2013-01-01

176

Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline) in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 ?g folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 ?g folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22). Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490 PMID:19635145

Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Christofides, Anna; O'Connor, Deborah L; Zlotkin, Stanley

2009-01-01

177

Supplement use during an intergroup clinical trial for breast cancer (S0221).  

PubMed

The use of supplements during chemotherapy is controversial, partly due to the potential effect of antioxidants on reduced efficacy of chemotherapy-related cytotoxicity. We examined supplement use among breast cancer patients registered to a clinical trial (SWOG 0221) before diagnosis and during treatment. Patients (n = 1,467) completed questionnaires regarding multivitamin and supplement use at trial registration (baseline) to capture use before diagnosis. Of these patients, 1,249 completed a 6-month followup questionnaire to capture use during treatment. We examined the use of vitamins C, D, E, B6, B12, folic acid, and calcium at these timepoints, as well as physician recommendations regarding supplement use. The use of vitamins C, E, folic acid, and calcium decreased during treatment, while the use of vitamin B6 increased. Five hundred seventy four patients (51 %) received no physician recommendations regarding supplement use. Among the remaining 49, 10 % were advised not to take multivitamins and/or supplements, 7 % were advised to use only multivitamins, and 32 % received recommendations to use multivitamins and/or supplements. Among patients who took vitamin C before diagnosis, those who were advised not to take supplements were >5 times more likely not to use of vitamin C during treatment than those not advised to stop use (OR = 5.27, 95 % CI 1.13-24.6). Previous non-users who were advised to take a multivitamin were nearly 5 times more likely to use multivitamins during treatment compared to those who received no recommendation (OR = 4.66, 95 % CI 2.10-10.3). In this clinical trial for high-risk breast cancer, supplement use generally decreased during treatment. Upon followup from the clinical trial, findings regarding supplement use and survival outcomes will better inform physician recommendations for patients on adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23306462

Zirpoli, Gary R; Brennan, Patrick M; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Unger, Joseph M; Budd, G Thomas; Hershman, Dawn L; Moore, Halle C F; Stewart, James; Isaacs, Claudine; Hobday, Timothy; Salim, Muhammad; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Gralow, Julie R; Albain, Kathy S; Ambrosone, Christine B

2013-02-01

178

Psychology of Supplementation in Sport and Exercise: Motivational Antecedents and Biobehavioral Outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research concerning the physiological and biobehavioral effects of supplements commonly used in sport or exercise settings has multiplied rapidly over the last decade. However, less attention has been directed to understanding the motivational pathways leading to sport and exercise supplement use. This chapter summarizes known usage rates for sport/fitness supplements and describes motivational theories and constructs that may be of use for understanding individuals' use of these substances. In this respect, we contend that researchers should consider behavioral approaches, the theory of planned behavior, balance theory, achievement goal theory, social physique anxiety, and muscle dysmorphia as useful for developing an understanding of the psychological influences on supplement use. For some of the latter theories/constructs, research has already shown support for their explanatory abilities, whereas research is scant and the utility for understanding sport/exercise supplement use is yet to be determined for many of the theories. In addition to describing the motivation behind supplement use, this chapter summarizes the biobehavioral effects of a select group of supplements commonly used to improve performance, fitness, or health. Specifically, we consider psychobiological effects of caffeine, creatine, Ginkgo biloba, and St. John's wort related to enhanced arousal, improved memory and cognition, enhanced brain function and protection, and reduced depression. There is promising initial evidence for the efficacy of these compounds in producing favorable psychological outcomes, although certain shortcomings of many studies on these compounds must be taken into account before reaching definitive conclusions.

Lutz, Rafer; Arent, Shawn

179

SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP -1 Rev. 101/20102014  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP - 1 Rev. 101/20102014 SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS January, 20102014 These Supplemental General Conditions are to modify, supplement, void, supersede and amend be deemed to include the Standard General Conditions and the Supplemental General Conditions. INDEXTABLE

Kamat, Vineet R.

180

Could antioxidant supplementation prevent pre-eclampsia?  

PubMed

Pre-eclampsia is a disorder characterised by pregnancy-induced hypertension and new-onset proteinuria occurring in the second half of pregnancy. Worldwide, approximately 2-3% of all pregnant women develop pre-eclampsia. The condition is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Abnormal placentation is an important predisposing factor for pre-eclampsia, while endothelial activation appears to be central to the pathophysiological changes, possibly indicative of a two-stage disorder characterised by reduced placental perfusion and a maternal syndrome. There is increasing evidence that pre-eclampsia is associated with both increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defences, which has led to the hypothesis that oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, perhaps acting as the link in a two-stage model of pre-eclampsia. In support of this hypothesis a small, but important, preliminary study has shown a highly significant (P=0.02) reduction in the incidence of pre-eclampsia in women at risk who were taking a supplement of vitamins C and E from mid-pregnancy. Furthermore, these findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is at least partly responsible for the endothelial dysfunction of pre-eclampsia. Several larger multicentre trials are currently underway to evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost benefits of antioxidant supplementation during pregnancy for the prevention of pre-eclampsia in both low- and high-risk women, including women with diabetes. The results of these trials are awaited with interest. PMID:16313693

Holmes, Valerie A; McCance, David R

2005-11-01

181

Fitness Supplements as a Gateway Substance for Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use  

PubMed Central

Approximately 3.0% of young Americans have used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). A traditional model of adolescent substance use, the gateway hypothesis, suggests that drug use follows a chronological, causal sequence, whereby initial use of a specific drug leads to an increased likelihood of future drug use. Therefore, the use of illicit appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APED), such as AASs, also follows an analogous progression, whereby legal APEDs, (e.g., nutritional supplements) precedes illicit APED use. We examined the relationship between nutritional supplement use, beliefs about APEDs, and APED use in 201 male (n = 100) and female (n = 101) undergraduates. Participants completed measures of muscle dysmorphia (MDDI), body checking (BCQ, MBCQ), eating disorder symptoms (EDE–Q), perfectionism (FMPS), positive beliefs about the efficacy–safety of AAS use and APED use patterns. A series of covariance structure models (CSM) showed body image disturbance, compulsive exercise, illicit drug use, and perfectionism, independent of gender, were significant predictors of positive beliefs about AAS. Those who used both fat burning and muscle building supplements reported the strongest beliefs in AAS efficacy–safety, which was associated with higher likelihood of current illicit APED use. There was evidence of significant indirect relationships between supplement use and illicit APED use through contact with other AAS users and beliefs about AAS. The potential role for nutritional supplement use in the initiation of illegal APED use is discussed. Future prevention efforts may benefit from targeting legal APED users in youth. PMID:22486333

Hildebrandt, Tom; Harty, Seth; Langenbucher, James W.

2013-01-01

182

Glycerol Supplementation in Dairy Cows and Calves  

E-print Network

Glycerol Supplementation in Dairy Cows and Calves Anna Werner Omazic Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Nordqvist #12;Glycerol Supplementation in Dairy Cows and Calves Abstract The production of biodiesel from-product and a promising feed supplement for farm animals. This thesis provides information about the supplemental feeding

183

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue ODS vitamin D conference Sept 5-6 1 ODS practicum on supplements 1 News for researchers 2 New supplement assessment tool 2 Past and upcoming events prize 7 Publications by ODS staff 8 Office of Dietary Supplements National Institutes of Health 6100

Bandettini, Peter A.

184

Winter 2007 Office of Dietary Supplements  

E-print Network

Winter 2007 Office of Dietary Supplements Update Volume 5, Issue 1 National Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ODS Surveys Dietary Supplement Education in Academia ODS to Conduct Course on Dietary Inside this issue Supplement Education in Academia 1 ODS Offers Course on Supplements

Bandettini, Peter A.

185

Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

2011-01-01

186

Complementary and alternative medicine for autism spectrum disorders: rationale, safety and efficacy.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine is widely used for children with autism spectrum disorder, despite uncertainty regarding efficacy. This review describes complementary and alternative practices commonly used among this population, the rationale for the use of each practice, as well as the side-effect profile and evidence for efficacy. The existing evidence base indicates that melatonin can be recommended as a treatment for sleeping disturbances associated with autism spectrum disorder, while secretin can be rejected as an efficacious treatment for broader autistic symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the efficacy of modified diets, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, immune therapy, and vitamin and fatty acid supplementation. There is a clear need for methodologically rigorous studies to provide evidence-based guidance to families and clinicians regarding complementary and alternative practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23682728

Whitehouse, Andrew J O

2013-09-01

187

Supplemental figures and legends, Supplemental table legends, and Methods Lindquist, et al. manuscript  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental figures and legends, Supplemental table legends, and Methods Lindquist, et al. manuscript Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure S1. Confirmed hit status in secondary screens, relative described in the text and Supplemental Methods) is denoted with a line whereas unconfirmed candidate genes

Sabatini, David M.

188

Oral strategies to supplement older adults' dietary intakes: comparing the evidence.  

PubMed

Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population. PMID:19146503

Silver, Heidi J

2009-01-01

189

Effect of Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation on the Outcome of Malaria Episodes Treated with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine  

PubMed Central

Folic acid supplementation may potentially alter the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment in children with malaria. However, there is lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials and effects of folic acid supplementation on clinical efficacy of SP therapy remain moderately understood among children. In a double masked, placebo-controlled trial among preschool children in Pemba Island (Tanzania), iron and folic acid supplementation (Fe/FA) showed an increased risk of hospitalizations and death. In the present paper, we evaluated if folic acid supplementation reduced the efficacy of malaria treatment and thereby contributed to observed adverse effects. During the study, 1648 children had confirmed malarial episodes and received either sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment and iron folic acid or SP treatment and placebo. These children were evaluated for recovery and incidence of hospitalization during the next 15, 30, and 140 days. Two groups did not differ in malarial episode or hospitalization rate on subsequent 15, 30, and 140 days. Altered efficacy of SP by folic acid was not observed and did not contribute to adverse events in the previous trial. This trial is registered with Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN59549825. PMID:24575311

Black, Robert E.; Kabole, Ibrahim; Dhingra, Usha; Ramsan, Mahdi

2014-01-01

190

Effect of iron/folic Acid supplementation on the outcome of malaria episodes treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.  

PubMed

Folic acid supplementation may potentially alter the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment in children with malaria. However, there is lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials and effects of folic acid supplementation on clinical efficacy of SP therapy remain moderately understood among children. In a double masked, placebo-controlled trial among preschool children in Pemba Island (Tanzania), iron and folic acid supplementation (Fe/FA) showed an increased risk of hospitalizations and death. In the present paper, we evaluated if folic acid supplementation reduced the efficacy of malaria treatment and thereby contributed to observed adverse effects. During the study, 1648 children had confirmed malarial episodes and received either sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment and iron folic acid or SP treatment and placebo. These children were evaluated for recovery and incidence of hospitalization during the next 15, 30, and 140 days. Two groups did not differ in malarial episode or hospitalization rate on subsequent 15, 30, and 140 days. Altered efficacy of SP by folic acid was not observed and did not contribute to adverse events in the previous trial. This trial is registered with Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN59549825. PMID:24575311

Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Robert E; Kabole, Ibrahim; Dutta, Arup; Dhingra, Usha; Ramsan, Mahdi

2014-01-01

191

Trial using multiple micronutrient food supplement and its effect on cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To test the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient food supplement (MMFS) on the nutrition status of school children and its\\u000a effect on cognition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A MMFS was developed containing chelated ferrous sulphate and microencapsulated vitamin A, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, niacin,\\u000a calcium pantothenate, vitaminC, vitamin E, lysine and calcium and the efficacy of the MMFS was assessed in 7–11 year

Malavika Vinod Kumar; S. Rajagopalan

2008-01-01

192

Protein supplementation in U.S. military personnel.  

PubMed

Protein supplements (PSs) are, after multivitamins, the most frequently consumed dietary supplement by U.S. military personnel. Warfighters believe that PSs will improve health, promote muscle strength, and enhance physical performance. The estimated prevalence of regular PS use by military personnel is nearly 20% or more in active-duty personnel, which is comparable to collegiate athletes and recreationally active adults, but higher than that for average U.S. civilians. Although the acute metabolic effects of PS ingestion are well described, little is known regarding the benefits of PS use by warfighters in response to the metabolic demands of military operations. When dietary protein intake approaches 1.5 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), and energy intake matches energy expenditure, the use of PSs by most physically active military personnel may not be necessary. However, dismounted infantry often perform operations consisting of long periods of strenuous physical activity coupled with inadequate dietary energy and protein intake. In these situations, the use of PSs may have efficacy for preserving fat-free mass. This article reviews the available literature regarding the prevalence of PS use among military personnel. Furthermore, it highlights the unique metabolic stressors affecting U.S. military personnel and discusses potential conditions during which protein supplementation might be beneficial. PMID:24027181

Pasiakos, Stefan M; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

2013-11-01

193

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

Wilborn, Colin

194

Dietary supplement use among academic pharmacists  

PubMed Central

United States sales of dietary supplements exceeded $18 billion in 2002, indicating that dietary supplement use is common among the American public. This report describes a survey of academic pharmacists and their use of dietary supplements and herbs. To date, most data comes from retail or community pharmacists, so a survey was developed to collect information regarding dietary supplement and herb usage from academic pharmacists. Academic pharmacists are probably the most knowledgeable group in regards to assessing the clinical value of supplements. Our results showed that 54% of academic pharmacists have used dietary supplements or herbs. However, it is interesting to note that most of the dietary supplements listed were not in the top ten most commonly used supplements. In addition, there was no excessive use of supplements or herbs by this group of pharmacists since the majority of respondents listed multivitamins. PMID:25214915

Murphy, Michael S.; Wertheimer, Albert I.; Mackowiak, Elaine D.

195

Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

2013-01-01

196

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2014-01-01

197

Clioquinol Synergistically Augments Rescue by Zinc Supplementation in a Mouse Model of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc deficiency due to poor nutrition or genetic mutations in zinc transporters is a global health problem and approaches to providing effective dietary zinc supplementation while avoiding potential toxic side effects are needed. Methods/Principal Findings Conditional knockout of the intestinal zinc transporter Zip4 (Slc39a4) in mice creates a model of the lethal human genetic disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). This knockout leads to acute zinc deficiency resulting in rapid weight loss, disrupted intestine integrity and eventually lethality, and therefore provides a model system in which to examine novel approaches to zinc supplementation. We examined the efficacy of dietary clioquinol (CQ), a well characterized zinc chelator/ionophore, in rescuing the Zip4intest KO phenotype. By 8 days after initiation of the knockout neither dietary CQ nor zinc supplementation in the drinking water was found to be effective at improving this phenotype. In contrast, dietary CQ in conjunction with zinc supplementation was highly effective. Dietary CQ with zinc supplementation rapidly restored intestine stem cell division and differentiation of secretory and the absorptive cells. These changes were accompanied by rapid growth and dramatically increased longevity in the majority of mice, as well as the apparent restoration of the homeostasis of several essential metals in the liver. Conclusions These studies suggest that oral CQ (or other 8-hydroxyquinolines) coupled with zinc supplementation could provide a facile approach toward treating zinc deficiency in humans by stimulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24015258

Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Finkelstein, David; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Andrews, Glen K.

2013-01-01

198

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2014-04-01

199

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2013-04-01

200

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2011-04-01

201

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2010-04-01

202

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119...119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an...

2012-04-01

203

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2011-01-01

204

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2014-01-01

205

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2012-01-01

206

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2013-01-01

207

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2010-01-01

208

C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(c)XML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.C: XML  

E-print Network

C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(c)XML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.C: XML For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang This supplement covers the following topics: · Creating XML to format and display query results and process database operations in Oracle. 1 #12;C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement

Liang, Y. Daniel

209

C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(d)JavaXML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.D: Java and XML  

E-print Network

C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(d)JavaXML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.D: Java and XML For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang This supplement introduces how to use Java is required for this supplement. To learn XML, please read Supplement VI.C, "XML." 0 Introduction

Liang, Y. Daniel

210

Tryptophan supplementation induces a positive bias in the processing of emotional material in healthy female volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The serotonin precursor l-tryptophan (TRP) is available as a nutritional supplement and is licensed as an antidepressant in a number of countries. However, evidence of its efficacy as the primary treatment for depression is limited, and the direct action of TRP on the symptoms of depression and anxiety has not been well-characterised.Objectives  The present study assessed whether TRP induces cognitive changes

Susannah E. Murphy; Calogero Longhitano; Rachael E. Ayres; Philip J. Cowen; Catherine J. Harmer

2006-01-01

211

Articles Lead in Calcium Supplements  

E-print Network

Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method’s limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 µg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7 % and a 90–100 % lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 µg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 µg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85 % of the antacids and 100 % of the infant formulas). Key words: antacids, bonemeal, calcium supplements, dolomite, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), infant formulas, lead, nutritional supplements, oyster shell, vitamins. Environ Health Perspect 108:309–313 (2000). [Online 21 February 2000

Genine M. Scelfo; A. Russell Flegal

212

Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Iron Therapy for HCV-Positive Haemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Iron supplementation is the cornerstone of anaemia management in haemodialysis (HD) patients. However, efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive HD patients is yet to be elucidated. Methods: Sixty-six maintenance HD patients with suboptimal response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) were administered IV iron. Each patient received 100 mg\\/session IV iron sucrose for

Serkan Kahraman; Rahmi Yilmaz; Gultekin Genctoy; Mustafa Arici; Bulent Altun; Yunus Erdem; Unal Yasavul; Cetin Turgan

2005-01-01

213

Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

2014-01-01

214

Supplemental Instruction Welcome to a new semester of Supplemental Instruction! We would like to take this opportunity  

E-print Network

Supplemental Instruction Welcome to a new semester of Supplemental Instruction! We would like? Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a series of review sessions for students taking historically difficult courses

Faber, Xander

215

The Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract (CTNS): design implications. CTNS report no. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract (CTNS) is a 13-year study designed primarily to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a vitamin-mineral supplement containing recommended daily allowance (RDA) dosages in preventing age-related cataract or delaying its progression. As secondary objectives the study will collect data on incidence and progression rates as well as risk factors for

2003-01-01

216

Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report  

PubMed Central

Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

2014-01-01

217

Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

It has long been appreciated that a healthy lifestyle plays a critical role in cardiovascular health. It is now apparent that the same is true in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prospective cohort data originating from recently published randomized trials on the medical treatment of BPH and prevention of prostate cancer have been invaluable. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise and the intake of specific macronutrients and micronutrients through regular diet play a beneficial role. Most strikingly, the magnitude of these effects is similar to medical therapies using alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. The use of supplements for prostate disease is a multibillion dollar business in the United States, and supplements are more commonly prescribed than medical therapy in many countries. In contrast to consumption of micronutrients through regular diet, supplemental intake of micronutrients and phytotherapies currently lack evidence to support their efficacy. PMID:19570489

Poon, Kenneth S; McVary, Kevin T

2009-07-01

218

Proximate sources of collective teacher efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty of the teaching task that faces the school and the faculty's collective competence to be successful

Curt M. Adams; Patrick B. Forsyth

2006-01-01

219

Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

2006-01-01

220

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

1984-01-01

221

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

1985-01-01

222

Combined analysis of pharmacokinetic and efficacy data of preclinical studies with statins markedly improves translation of drug efficacy to human trials.  

PubMed

Correct prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) and the safety and efficacy of novel compounds based on preclinical data, is essential but often fails. In the current study, we aimed to improve the predictive value of ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) transgenic mice regarding the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of various statins in humans by combining pharmacokinetic with efficacy data. The efficacy of five currently marketed statins (atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin) in hypercholesterolemic patients (low-density lipoprotein ? 160 mg/dl) was ranked based on meta-analysis of published human trials. Additionally, a preclinical combined PK efficacy data set for these five statins was established in E3L mice that were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of drug intervention in which statins were supplemented to the diet. Plasma and tissue levels of the statins were determined on administration of (radiolabeled) drugs (10 mg/kg p.o.). As expected, all statins reduced plasma cholesterol in the preclinical model, but a direct correlation between cholesterol lowering efficacy of the different statins in mice and in humans did not reach statistical significance (R(2) = 0.11, P < 0.57). It is noteworthy that, when murine data were corrected for effective liver uptake of the different statins, the correlation markedly increased (R(2) = 0.89, P < 0.05). Here we show for the first time that hepatic uptake of statins is related to their cholesterol-lowering efficacy and provide evidence that combined PK and efficacy studies can substantially improve the translational value of the E3L mouse model in the case of statin treatment. This strategy may also be applicable for other classes of drugs and other preclinical models. PMID:24049060

van de Steeg, E; Kleemann, R; Jansen, H T; van Duyvenvoorde, W; Offerman, E H; Wortelboer, H M; Degroot, J

2013-12-01

223

Nutrition supplementation for diabetic wound healing: a systematic review of current literature.  

PubMed

There are 25.8 million people with diabetes in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet). This number is expected to increase by 1 million per year. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) occur in patients with a history of poorly controlled blood glucose. Almost 30% of people with diabetes aged 40 years or older experience DFUs caused by an impaired nerve sensation. It is one of the more persistent types of chronic wounds, which poses an economic burden on individuals and society and reduces the quality of life of patients and their families. This paper reviews the efficacy of nutrition supplementation in diabetic wound healing, including both human and animal studies. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methods, the search was conducted in PubMed and ISI's Web of Science databases. Studies in which diabetic wounds/foot ulcers were treated with specific nutritional or herbal suplements were selected. This review includes 4 human and 9 animal studies that met the criteria of the search. Positive outcomes in the human studies were not significant while the nutritional supplements used in the animal studies were effective and promoted wound healing. The most notable effect of supplementation with curcumin, L-Arginine, or vitamin E have been shown in animal sudies. More human studies need to be conducted to determine the efficacy of these nutritional supplements in promoting wound healing. PMID:24053007

Maier, Haiyan M; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Spicer, Maria T

2013-01-01

224

Deiflik fiekillerde Üretilen fieker Pancar› Posas› Silaj›n›n Süt ‹nei ve Kuzu Rasyonlar›nda Kullan›lma Olanaklar›* 1. Kaliteli fieker Pancar› Posas› Silaj›n›n Elde Edilmesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet: Bu çal›flmada, yafl fleker pancar› posas›n›n daha verimli ve uzun süre kullanma olana¤› salayacak silolama yöntemleri araflt›r›lm›flt›r. Bu amaçla, fleker pancar› posas›, kuru maddesi (KM) % 20, %25 ve %30'a yükseltilecek flekilde buday saman› yada kuru ot ile kar›flt›r›l›p, %5 oran›nda melas ve farkl› düzeylerde üre (buday saman› içeren gruplar için % 0, 1, 1.5 ve 2; kuru ot

Oktay KAPLAN; Taylan AKSU

225

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Available in PDF ( ... how much do you really know about dietary supplements? Yes, some can be beneficial to your health — ...

226

43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section...7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a...in Indian religion or culture. (b) Allotted...

2010-10-01

227

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue Multivitamins Conference May 15-17 1.S. Department of Health and Human Services Conference Evaluates the Value of Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

Bandettini, Peter A.

228

16 CFR 1.86 - Supplemental statements.  

...Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.86 Supplemental statements. Except for proposals for legislation, as provided in CEQ Regulation (40 CFR 1502.9(c)), the Commission shall publish supplements to either draft or final environmental...

2014-01-01

229

18 CFR 740.13 - Supplemental instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the...

2010-04-01

230

36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.  

...Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential Libraries? § 1280.96 Supplemental rules. Library directors may establish appropriate supplemental rules governing use of Presidential libraries and adjacent buildings and areas under...

2014-07-01

231

Depleted uranium disposition study -- Supplement, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Weapons and Materials Planning has requested a supplemental study to update the recent Depleted Uranium Disposition report. This supplemental study addresses new disposition alternatives and changes in status.

Becker, G.W.

1993-11-01

232

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics  

MedlinePLUS

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics There are multiple steroid/supplemental treatments for Duchenne although there is little agreement ( ... Deflazacort Albuterol Creatine Anabolic Steroids Calcium blockers Gentamycin Prednisone This is a catabolic steroid that slows the ...

233

Original article Dietary antioxidant supplementation  

E-print Network

Original article Dietary antioxidant supplementation did not affect declining sperm function a control or antioxidant diet. Aged males showed a sig- nificant decrease in number of spermatozoa. The mechanism involved may be associated with either the antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Immunity, Volume 37 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Immunity, Volume 37 Supplemental Information The NLRP12 Inflammasome Recognizes Yersinia pestis.c. with 1000 colony forming units (c.f.u.) of Y. pestis KIM1001-pYtbLpxL. Thirty days later, vaccinated or naïve mice were challenged s.c. with 500 c.f.u. of virulent Y. pestis KIM1001 and survival was monitored

235

A Supplement for Teaching Beowulf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests supplementing the teaching of "Beowulf" to high school students with (1) translation and grammatical analysis of parts of the original lines, (2) study of Anglo-Saxon poetic techniques, and (3) students' imitation of old English poetic techniques in New English. (SW)

Milosh, Joseph

1970-01-01

236

Structure, Volume 20 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

1 Structure, Volume 20 Supplemental Information The Crystal Structure of the Intact E. coli Rel at 37!C by induction with 1mM IPTG for 3 hours. In both cases, harvested cells were opened by sonication robot in sitting drop experiments with a 0.2+0.2 µl drop size. Hexagonal crystals containing the RelB2E2

Passmore, Lori A.

237

JANAF thermochemical tables, 1975 supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic tabulations previously published in NSRDS-NBS-37 and the 1974 supplement (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 311 [1974]) are extended by 158 new and revised tables. The JANAF Thermochemical Tables cover the thermodynamic properties over a wide temperature range with single phase tables for the crystal, liquid, and ideal gas state. The properties given are heat capacity, entropy, Gibbs

M. W. Chase; J. L. Curnutt; H. Prophet; R. A. McDonald; A. N. Syverud

1975-01-01

238

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

239

Benefits of Vitamin D Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical trials show that vitamin D supplementation at higher levels than previously recommended is beneficial for many conditions. It decreases the frequency of falls and fractures, helps prevent cardiovascular disease, and reduces symptoms of colds or influenza. Benefits are also seen in diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, Crohn disease, pain, depression, and possibly autism. Sunlight does not cause an overdose of

Joel M. Kauffman

2009-01-01

240

Faculty Development through Supplemental Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salem State College (Massachusetts) has used a supplemental instruction program as a professional development vehicle for faculty as well as an instructional aid for students. Over time, the program also evolved into a means to encourage leadership qualities in students and stimulate interest in teaching as a career. (MSE)

Marshall, Sherrin

1994-01-01

241

Effectiveness of Supplemental Educational Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the modifications of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (known as the No Child Left Behind Act) gave parents of low-income students in low-performing schools a choice of Supplemental Educational Services (SEdS). SEdS include tutoring or other academic support services offered outside the regular school day, at no charge to students…

Deke, John; Gill, Brian; Dragoset, Lisa; Bogen, Karen

2014-01-01

242

Cell, Volume 137 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

, and MEFs were cultured in DMEM with 10% Inactivated Fetal Bovine Serum (IFS). The Human Multiple Myeloma with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) supplemented with 2 mM glutamine. XG-7 cells were additionally, Platinum Pfx Polymerase, SimplyBlue Coomassie G, Silverquest Staining kit, and inactivated fetal calf serum

Sabatini, David M.

243

MedlinePlus: Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Drugs, Supplements, and Herbal Information Drugs Learn about your prescription ... included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies to learn ...

244

Forms Supplement page -1 Export Administration Regulations January 2001  

E-print Network

Forms Supplement page - 1 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 2 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 3 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 4 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12

Bernstein, Daniel

245

ISAB 2003-3 Supplementation Report ISAB Review of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation  

E-print Network

ISAB 2003-3 Supplementation Report 1 ISAB Review of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation of supplementation in the Columbia River Basin. Northwest Fisheries Science Center Request In a September 14, 2001 letter, NOAA Fisheries requested that the ISAB consider the benefits and risks of supplementation

246

SUPPLEMENTAL TEXT Supplement 1: Derivation of the relation between D-A stoichiometry and ratio S  

E-print Network

1 SUPPLEMENTAL TEXT Supplement 1: Derivation of the relation between D-A stoichiometry and ratio molecule. Supplement 2: Relation of raw PRE to accurate-E: derivation Crosstalk-uncorrected proximity ratio 1 1 1 raw PR raw PR l d E E l E - + + - = - + - - (S9) #12;3 SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURE LEGENDS Fig. S1

Michalet, Xavier

247

Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page i Supplement to  

E-print Network

Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page i Supplement to Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences 2009­2010 Academic Year #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate ........................................................................................................................16 #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page ii 8.3 Summer

Bardsley, John

248

CENG New Supplemental Travel Funds Policy Effective immediately faculty supplemental travel funds administered through the Dean's  

E-print Network

CENG New Supplemental Travel Funds Policy Effective immediately faculty supplemental travel funds and administration of CENG supplemental travel funds are subject to the following constraints: The funds may be used to the supplemental travel award account for use by other faculty. All university/state restrictions on travel apply

Mohanty, Saraju P.

249

Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page i Supplement to  

E-print Network

Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page i Supplement to Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences 2008�2009 Academic Year #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate ........................................................................................................................16 #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page ii 8.3 Summer

Bardsley, John

250

Supplemental On-Line Materials Supplemental on line materials 1 of 12  

E-print Network

Supplemental On-Line Materials Supplemental on line materials 1 of 12 Robotic ObservationsX: Enhanced Carbon Biomass and Export at 55S Supplemental on line materials 2 of 12 Carbon Explorer / Patch to NZ B #12;Bishop et al. SOFeX: Enhanced Carbon Biomass and Export at 55S Supplemental on line

Bishop, James K.B.

251

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely Many people take dietary supplements in an effort to be well and  

E-print Network

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely Many people take dietary supplements in an effort to be well and stay healthy. With so many dietary supplements available and so many claims made about their health of dietary supplements, discusses safety considerations, and suggests sources for additional information. Key

Bandettini, Peter A.

252

Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). Materials and methods: A survey was used to assess sport- related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training

Malinauskas BM; Overton RF; Carraway VG; Cash BC

253

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue In the Beginning.. 1 ODS Activities Office of Dietary Supplements National Institutes of Health 6100 Executive Blvd. Rm. 3B01, MSC 7517 Celebrates Its 10th Birthday The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS

Bandettini, Peter A.

254

SUPPLEMENTAL LABELING Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc.  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL LABELING Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. P. O. Box 18300 Greensboro, North Carolina to this supplemental label, read and follow all applicable directions, restrictions, and precautions on the EPA registered label on or attached to the pesticide product container. This Supplemental Labeling contains

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

255

Supplement to Guide to Graduate Programs  

E-print Network

Supplement to Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences 2012­2013 Academic Year #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page i Contents 1 Academic Year Calendar...................................................................................................................... 15 #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page ii 8.2 Spring

Bardsley, John

256

Supplemental Figure 1 Reproducibility of biological replicates.  

E-print Network

Supplemental Figure 1 Reproducibility of biological replicates. (A) Pairwise comparisons of three. In these replicates the SILAC labels were switched, hence the negative correlation. Supplemental Figure 2 Curation in the SCUD database with those identified in this publication. Supplemental Figure 3 Changes in the Ub

Martin, Alain

257

Supplement to The Imnaha Subbasin Plan Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Supplement to The Imnaha Subbasin Plan Introduction This document has been written by Craig Rabe in these documents. This supplement was reviewed by the Imnaha Technical and Planning Teams during the fall of 2004. This supplement is presented in four sections that correspond to information requested by the Northwest Power

258

Supplement to Guide to Graduate Programs  

E-print Network

Supplement to Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences 2011­2012 Academic Year #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page i Contents 1 Academic Year Calendar...................................................................................................................... 15 #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page ii 8.2 Spring

Bardsley, John

259

Supplement to Guide to Graduate Programs  

E-print Network

Supplement to Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences 2010­2011 Academic Year #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page i Contents 1 Academic Year Calendar........................................................................................................................ 16 #12;Supplement to "Guide to Graduate Programs in Mathematical Sciences" page ii 8.3 Summer

Bardsley, John

260

Supplemental Compensation Involving Work Within the University  

E-print Network

Supplemental Compensation Involving Work Within the University Policy 3.35 Applies to: Staff Policy to receive supplemental compensation if release time is not a feasible option. Performance of work outside for Supplemental Compensation as they receive overtime pay or compensatory time off for additional work performed.1

Howat, Ian M.

261

The use of dietary supplements by athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various “ergogenic” compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with

Ronald J. Maughan; Frederic Depiesse; Hans Geyer

2007-01-01

262

Nutritional supplements for pregnant and lactating bitches.  

PubMed

This review covers the use of common nutritional supplements for the bitch and puppies. Basic nutrients, including fat, protein, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acid supplementation, will be discussed. Newer supplements, such as probiotics for stimulation of the immune system of the bitch and puppy, and for the non-pharmaceutical treatment of weaning diarrhea, will also be covered. PMID:18554708

Greco, Deborah S

2008-08-01

263

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue Multivitamins Conference May 15-17 1 on Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements to be Held May 15-17 The National Institutes of Health will convene a 3-day state-of-the-science conference titled Multivitamin/Mineral [MVM] Supplements and Chronic Disease

Bandettini, Peter A.

264

Dietary supplementation practices of Singaporean athletes.  

PubMed

The supplementation practices of elite athletes in Singapore were studied using an anonymous questionnaire. Information was sought on not only the type of supplements used but also dosage, rationale for use, and other factors that might influence supplement use including selected demographic parameters and sources of information relating to supplements. Data was collected from 160 athletes across a spectrum of 30 sports. Use of supplements was widespread, with 77% of respondents acknowledging use of at least 1 product. Respondents ingested a total of 59 different supplements, with each athlete using on average 3.6 +/- 0.3 different products. Sports drinks, caffeine, vitamin C, multivitamin/mineral supplements, and essence of chicken were some of the most commonly ingested products, confirming that while vitamin/mineral supplements are popular, sports supplements and traditional/herbal preparations were also well accepted. Respondents preferred to source information pertaining to supplements from "significant others" and other readily accessible sources. A small number of respondents acknowledged the use of International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned or restricted substances, highlighting the need for athletes to consult sports medicine professionals with specialist knowledge of dietary supplements in advance of initiating any supplementation regime. PMID:14669932

Slater, Gary; Tan, Benedict; Teh, Kong Chuan

2003-09-01

265

Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation alleviates diabetes in rodents.  

PubMed

As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing at an alarming rate, effective nutritional and exercise strategies for the prevention of this disease are required. Specific dietary components with antidiabetic efficacy could be one aspect of these strategies. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of the most abundant green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, TEAVIGO), in rodent models of type 2 diabetes mellitus and H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. We assessed glucose and insulin tolerance in db/db mice and ZDF rats after they ingested EGCG. Using gene microarray and real-time quantitative RT-PCR we investigated the effect of EGCG on gene expression in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells as well as in liver and adipose tissue of db/db mice. EGCG improved oral glucose tolerance and blood glucose in food-deprived rats in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol were reduced and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was enhanced. In H4IIE cells, EGCG downregulated genes involved in gluconeogenesis and the synthesis of fatty acids, triacylgycerol, and cholesterol. EGCG decreased the mRNA expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in H4IIE cells as well as in liver and adipose tissue of db/db mice. Glucokinase mRNA expression was upregulated in the liver of db/db mice in a dose-dependent manner. This study shows that EGCG beneficially modifies glucose and lipid metabolism in H4IIE cells and markedly enhances glucose tolerance in diabetic rodents. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16988119

Wolfram, Swen; Raederstorff, Daniel; Preller, Mareike; Wang, Ying; Teixeira, Sandra R; Riegger, Christoph; Weber, Peter

2006-10-01

266

Putting to rest the myth of creatine supplementation leading to muscle cramps and dehydration.  

PubMed

Creatine is one of the most popular athletic supplements with sales surpassing 400 million dollars in 2004. Due to the popularity and efficacy of creatine supplementation over 200 studies have examined the effects of creatine on athletic performance. Despite the abundance of research suggesting the effectiveness and safety of creatine, a fallacy appears to exist among the general public, driven by media claims and anecdotal reports, that creatine supplementation can result in muscle cramps and dehydration. Although a number of published studies have refuted these claims, a recent position statement by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) in 2000 advised individuals who are managing their weight and exercising intensely or in hot environments to avoid creatine supplementation. Recent reports now suggest that creatine may enhance performance in hot and/or humid conditions by maintaining haematocrit, aiding thermoregulation and reducing exercising heart rate and sweat rate. Creatine may also positively influence plasma volume during the onset of dehydration. Considering these new published findings, little evidence exists that creatine supplementation in the heat presents additional risk, and this should be taken into consideration as position statements and other related documents are published. PMID:18184753

Dalbo, V J; Roberts, M D; Stout, J R; Kerksick, C M

2008-07-01

267

Influence of training status on high-intensity intermittent performance in response to ?-alanine supplementation.  

PubMed

Recent investigations have suggested that highly trained athletes may be less responsive to the ergogenic effects of ?-alanine (BA) supplementation than recreationally active individuals due to their elevated muscle buffering capacity. We investigated whether training status influences the effect of BA on repeated Wingate performance. Forty young males were divided into two groups according to their training status (trained: T, and non-trained: NT cyclists) and were randomly allocated to BA and a dextrose-based placebo (PL) groups, providing four experimental conditions: NTPL, NTBA, TPL, TBA. BA (6.4 g day(-1)) or PL was ingested for 4 weeks, with participants completing four 30-s lower-body Wingate bouts, separated by 3 min, before and after supplementation. Total work done was significantly increased following supplementation in both NTBA (p = 0.03) and TBA (p = 0.002), and it was significantly reduced in NTPL (p = 0.03) with no difference for TPL (p = 0.73). BA supplementation increased mean power output (MPO) in bout 4 for the NTBA group (p = 0.0004) and in bouts 1, 2 and 4 for the TBA group (p ? 0.05). No differences were observed in MPO for NTPL and TPL. BA supplementation was effective at improving repeated high-intensity cycling performance in both trained and non-trained individuals, highlighting the efficacy of BA as an ergogenic aid for high-intensity exercise regardless of the training status of the individual. PMID:24500111

de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2014-05-01

268

Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

2008-01-01

269

Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal  

SciTech Connect

The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

Muscatello, A.C.

1998-12-31

270

Current Opinion in Ophthalmology Nutritional Supplements for Dry Eye Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Essential Fatty Acids have been of interest in the treatment of systemic and ocular diseases, and is most recently of interest in the area of dry eye disease. Recent Findings Systemic and Topical Omega – 3 Fatty Acids and Omega – 6 Fatty Acids have been used recently as an adjunctive treatment for patients with dry eye disease. They appear to have efficacy against the symptoms of dry eye that many patients experience. This is postulated to secondary to the anti-inflammatory effects that have been previously described. While this effect is promising, more investigation is warranted in order to standardize indication for use, and composition and dosing for treatment. Summary The use of essential fatty acids as a nutritional supplement is a novel treatment for patients with dry eye syndrome. PMID:21597374

Rand, Allison L.; Asbell, Penny A.

2011-01-01

271

Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material  

SciTech Connect

This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

Dillon, M B

2011-03-03

272

SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Additional Bacterial Strains  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Additional Bacterial Strains DM4000 and its derivatives DM4000 priA2::kan (JC18983) and DM4000 priA2::kan dnaC809 (JC19008) have been described previously {Sandler et al., 1996 post-UV) -20 0 20 40 60 80 1 0.1 0.01 Rateofsynthesis(3H) -20 0 20 40 60 80 priA2 dnaC809priA2 B

Courcelle, Justin

273

Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

. The supplemental feed- ing strategy required for each is different. Forage intake and diet crude protein Ruminal requirements Microbial fermentation in the rumen supplies most of the energy and protein metabolized by cattle. As in the host animal, microbes... in the rumen require a balanced supply of energy and nitrogen to function efficiently. The National Research Council (1984) proposed that ruminal microbes can synthesize about 113 grams of bacterial crude pro- tein from 1 kilogram of Total Digestible Nutrients...

McCollum III, Ted

1997-11-03

274

Dietary and prophylactic iron supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild hypoferremia represents an aspect of the ability of the body to withhold iron from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa,\\u000a and from neoplastic cells. However, our iron-withholding defense system can be thwarted by practices that enhance iron overload\\u000a such as indiscriminate iron fortification of foods, medically prescribed iron supplements, alcohol ingestion, and cigarette\\u000a smoking. Elevated standards for normal levels of

Susan Kent; Eugene D. Weinberg; Patricia Stuart-Macadam

1990-01-01

275

Efficacy and safety of ginseng.  

PubMed

Ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer) has been a popular herbal remedy used in eastern Asian cultures for thousands of years. In North America, the ginseng species indigenous to both Canada and the United States (Panax quinquefolium) represents an important industry for both domestic and export markets. There are numerous theories and claims describing the efficacy of ginseng, which can combat stress, enhance both the central and immune systems and contribute towards maintaining optimal oxidative status against certain chronic disease states and aging. Risk issues concerning the safety of ginseng at recommended dosages are less prominent and scientifically based. While some epidemiological or clinical studies have reported indications of efficacy for specific health benefits or potential toxicity, there are an equal number of studies that provide contradictory evidence. This situation has led to questionable conclusions concerning specific health benefits or risks associated with ginseng. Recent advances in the development of standardized extracts for both Panax ginseng (G-115) and Panax quinquefolius (CNT-2000) have and will continue to assist in the assessment of efficacy and safety standards for ginseng products. This paper reviews the scientific literature and evidence for ginseng efficacy and safety derived mostly from in vitro and animal studies and places emphasis on the need for more randomized, double-blinded, placebo clinical studies that can provide unequivocal conclusions. An example of the efficacy and safety of ginseng is provided with the description of biological activity of a North American ginseng extract (NAGE), which includes illustrating mechanisms for antioxidant activity without prooxidant properties. PMID:11276295

Kitts, D; Hu, C

2000-12-01

276

Dietary germanium biotite supplementation enhances the induction of antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in pigs  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the potential ability of germanium biotite (GB) to stimulate the production of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). To this aim, we measured the total FMDV-specific antibody responses and IgM production after vaccination against FMD both experimentally and in the field. GB supplementation with FMDV vaccination stimulated the production of anti-FMDV antibodies, and effectively increased IFN-? and TNF-? levels. These results suggest that GB may be a novel alternative feed supplement that can serve as a boosting agent and an immunostimulator for increasing the efficacy of FMDV vaccination in pigs. PMID:24690605

Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoo, Han Sang

2014-01-01

277

Adolescent work experience and self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Ordinary least squares regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. Findings – The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms. Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy

Keith A. Cunnien; Nicole MartinRogers; Jeylan T. Mortimer

2009-01-01

278

Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to college students (N

Michael J. Stasio; Kim Curry; Kelly M. Sutton-Skinner; Destinee M. Glassman

2008-01-01

279

Effect of Supplemental Antioxidants Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Coenzyme Q10 for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 83.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature to identify and assess the evidence for the efficacy of the antioxidant supplements vitamin C, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 for the prevention and treatment of cardio...

2003-01-01

280

Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

2008-01-01

281

Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher efficacy has proved to be powerfully related to many meaningful educational outcomes such as teachers’ persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior, as well as student outcomes such as achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs. However, persistent measurement problems have plagued those who have sought to study teacher efficacy. We review many of the major measures that have been used to

Megan Tschannen-Moran; Anita Woolfolk Hoy

2001-01-01

282

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

283

Teacher Efficacy in Classroom Management and Discipline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale for measuring teacher efficacy in classroom management and discipline is presented, along with results from a factor analysis of intercorrelations of items from the scale and items from two other teacher efficacy scales. Data sources included 119 preservice teacher education students and 42 student teachers. Results are presented indicating that classroom management\\/discipline efficacy is distinct from other types

Edmund T. Emmer; Julia Hickman

1991-01-01

284

The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious…

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

2011-01-01

285

Linking Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy to Their Mathematical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching efficacy and compared them to their mathematical performance. Participants included 89 early childhood preservice teachers at a Midwestern university. Instruments included the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

Bates, Alan B.; Latham, Nancy; Kim, Jin-ah

2011-01-01

286

Sexual offender treatment efficacy revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have recently addressed current views of sexual offender treatment efficacy. Some maintain that offenders\\u000a can gain from treatment while others argue that the vast majority cannot. Some researchers say that the field of sexual offender\\u000a treatment is too new to be able to determine whether or not treatment works. This latter group notes that most studies in\\u000a this

Margaret A. Alexander

1999-01-01

287

Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

1984-01-01

288

Supplemental Information 10 11 12 13  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental Information 10 11 12 13 40 Ar/ 36 Ar 5000 10000 15000 20000 NLD13, 28.1 RA NLD14, 17) Kola SB2 Kola LV1 NLD-27 fit NLD-27 fit NLD-27 fit NLD-27 fit Supplemental Figure 1. 20 Ne/22 Ne and 40.03 1.04 1.05 NLD 27 RR (NLD 27) source Supplemental Figure 2. Hyperbolic mixing between shallow level

Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

289

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength\\u000a and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement\\u000a for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor\\u000a does one depend on the other. Strength

Colin Wilborn

2008-01-01

290

Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

291

[Dual copy-supplement collimator].  

PubMed

Dual Copy-Supplement Collimator consists of two lead conic sections centered on one common radioactive source and having a lot of small square holes on them. When scanning electron beams strike X-Ray target and create some X-Ray fields while passing through the primary section, they penetrate the secondary section and generate even smaller field units(FU). Using these FUs would compose various treatment fields with different energy (dosage). It is able not only to replace many existing collimators such as MLC, but also to make the conformal radiotherapy easier. PMID:12583291

Wang, Z K; Lian, X; Wang, Y

2001-01-01

292

Carnitine Supplementation for Cancer-Related Fatigue  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, researchers will assess the prevalence of carnitine deficiencies in cancer patients and examine the effect of carnitine supplementation in patients experiencing moderate to severe fatigue.

293

Self-Efficacy and Burnout in Teaching: The Importance of Interpersonal-Relations Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between perceived self-efficacy and burnout among teachers. Self-efficacy has been defined operationally based on a three-dimensional conceptualization: task, relations and organization. Efficacy variables were three classroom efficacy factors: instruction (task), discipline control (task), and consideration (relations), and two organizational efficacy factors: inclusion (task) and influence (relations). Burnout was measured as both a three-dimensional measure comprised

Isaac A. Friedman

2003-01-01

294

Safety and efficacy of NovaSil clay as a dietary supplement to prevent aflatoxicosis  

E-print Network

that dietary inclusion of NSP (0.25%) significantly reduced AFB1 bioavailability without exerting overt toxicity. The second objective was to evaluate potential adverse effects of chronic ingestion of dietary NSP using male and female S-D rats in the absence...

Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans

2006-04-12

295

SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP -1 Rev. 01/2014  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP - 1 Rev. 01/2014 SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS January, 2014 These Supplemental General Conditions are to modify, supplement, void, supersede and amend The University of Michigan to include the Standard General Conditions and the Supplemental General Conditions. TABLE OF CONTENTS Article

Kamat, Vineet R.

296

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

2013-01-01

297

Electronic Supplement Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan Electronic Supplement Physical Review Letters  

E-print Network

Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan 1 Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Universal behavior of the initial stage of drop impact Evert Klaseboera-Stokes-Reynolds-Young-Laplace 9 Scaling of hd 10 Experimental data of drop and bubble impact #12;Electronic Supplement ­ Physical

Chan, Derek Y C

298

VIRGINIA BUSINESS Advertising SupplementVIRGINIA BUSINESSVIRGINIA BUSINESS Advertising Supplement INNINNOOVATIVATIVATIVATIVATIVATIVATIVATIVATIVATIVATIVATIOwww.vt.edu  

E-print Network

VIRGINIA BUSINESS Advertising SupplementVIRGINIA BUSINESSVIRGINIA BUSINESS Advertising Supplement.vt.edu Owww.vt.edu OOwww.vt.edu Owww.vt.edu ONN #12;VIRGINIA BUSINESS Advertising Supplement IDEASATWORK VT2 by mosquitoes to minimizing brain injuries among athletes,Virginia Tech researchers are making inroads

Buehrer, R. Michael

299

NASA Thesaurus supplement: A four part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The four-part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes the Hierarchical Listing (Part 1), Access Vocabulary (Part 2), Definitions (Part 3), and Changes (Part 4). The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies and accepted upper/lowercase forms for new terms.

1989-01-01

300

Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of calcium (Ca) in reducing bone loss is debated. In a randomized placebo-controlled double-masked study, we investigated the effects of oral Ca supplements on femoral shaft (FS), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), and on the incidence of vertebral fracture in vitamin-D-replete elderly. Ninety-three healthy subjects (72.1±0.6 years) were randomly allocated to three

T. Chevalley; R. Rizzoli; V. Nydegger; D. Slosman; C.-H. Rapin; J.-P. Michel; H. Vasey; J.-P. Bonjour

1994-01-01

301

Anti-Cancer Efficacy of Silybin Derivatives - A Structure-Activity Relationship  

PubMed Central

Silybin or silibinin, a flavonolignan isolated from Milk thistle seeds, is one of the popular dietary supplements and has been extensively studied for its antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-cancer properties. We have envisioned that potency of silybin could be further enhanced through suitable modification/s in its chemical structure. Accordingly, here, we synthesized and characterized a series of silybin derivatives namely 2,3-dehydrosilybin (DHS), 7-O-methylsilybin (7OM), 7-O-galloylsilybin (7OG), 7,23-disulphatesilybin (DSS), 7-O-palmitoylsilybin (7OP), and 23-O-palmitoylsilybin (23OP); and compared their anti-cancer efficacy using human bladder cancer HTB9, colon cancer HCT116 and prostate carcinoma PC3 cells. In all the 3 cell lines, DHS, 7OM and 7OG demonstrated better growth inhibitory effects and compared to silybin, while other silybin derivatives showed lesser or no efficacy. Next, we prepared the optical isomers (A and B) of silybin, DHS, 7OM and 7OG, and compared their anti-cancer efficacy. Isomers of these three silybin derivatives also showed better efficacy compared with respective silybin isomers, but in each, there was no clear cut silybin A versus B isomer activity preference. Further studies in HTB cells found that DHS, 7OM and 7OG exert better apoptotic activity than silibinin. Clonogenic assays in HTB9 cells further confirmed that both the racemic mixtures as well as pure optical isomers of DHS, 7OM and 7OG were more effective than silybin. Overall, these results clearly suggest that the anti-cancer efficacy of silybin could be significantly enhanced through structural modifications, and identify strong anti-cancer efficacy of silybin derivatives, namely DHS, 7OM, and 7OG, signifying that their efficacy and toxicity should be evaluated in relevant pre-clinical cancer models in rodents. PMID:23555889

Agarwal, Chapla; Wadhwa, Ritambhara; Deep, Gagan; Biedermann, David; Gažák, Radek; K?en, Vladimír; Agarwal, Rajesh

2013-01-01

302

Efficacy of oral iodised oil is associated with anthropometric status in severely iodine-deficient schoolchildren in rural Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of anthropometric status on the efficacy of an oral supplement of iodised oil (1 ml Lipiodol Ultrafluide, 490 mg I; Laboratoire Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France) was examined in 8–10-year-old schoolchildren (n 197) of Ntcheu, a severely I-deficient district of Malawi. The study was a controlled trial using the I concentration of casual urine samples to monitor the I status.

C. A. Furnee; C. E. West; Haar van der F; J. G. A. J. Hautvast

2000-01-01

303

Mechanism of the antiproliferative effect of milk mineral and other calcium supplements on colonic epithelium.  

PubMed

Recently we have shown that supplemental dietary calcium precipitates luminal cytolytic surfactants and thus inhibits colonic epithelial proliferation, which may decrease the risk of colon cancer. In Western diets, milk products are quantitatively the most important source of dietary calcium. However, they also contain large amounts of phosphate, which has been hypothesized to inhibit the antiproliferative effect of calcium. Therefore, we studied in rats the possible differential antiproliferative effects of dairy calcium, calcium carbonate, and calcium phosphate, supplemented to a Western high-risk control diet. We observed that fecal bile acid excretion was similar in the various diet groups, whereas fatty acid excretion was stimulated by the calcium supplements in the order calcium carbonate > calcium phosphate > milk mineral. In fecal water, concentrations of bile acids and fatty acids were drastically decreased in the supplemented groups, resulting in decreased cytolytic activity of fecal water. In vitro incubation of fecal water from the control group with insoluble calcium phosphate also decreased the high concentrations of surfactants and their cytolytic activity. The response of the colonic epithelium to these primary luminal effects of calcium was a decrease in cell damage and cell proliferation. Only minor differences between the supplements were observed. The concentration of serum gastrin, the possible trophic effect of which could counteract the antiproliferative effect of calcium, was increased by the supplements, but no significant correlation was observed between serum gastrin concentration and epithelial proliferation. We conclude that dietary calcium precipitates luminal surfactants and thus inhibits cytolytic activity, epithelial cell damage, and colonic proliferation. The similar efficacy of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and milk mineral indicates that the antiproliferative effect of milk mineral is mediated by its calcium content and is not inhibited by phosphate. PMID:8261469

Govers, M J; Termont, D S; Van der Meer, R

1994-01-01

304

Long-term intermittent multiple micronutrient supplementation enhances hemoglobin and micronutrient status more than iron + folic acid supplementation in Bangladeshi rural adolescent girls with nutritional anemia.  

PubMed

Previous short-term supplementation studies showed no additional hematologic benefit of multiple micronutrients (MMN) compared with iron + folic acid (IFA) in adolescent girls. This study examines whether long-term once- or twice-weekly supplementation of MMN can improve hemoglobin (Hb) and micronutrient status more than twice-weekly IFA supplementation in anemic adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Anemic girls (n = 324) aged 11-17 y attending rural schools were given once- or twice-weekly MMN or twice-weekly IFA, containing 60 mg iron/dose in both supplements, for 52 wk in a randomized double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 26 and 52 wk. Intent to treat analysis showed no significant difference in the Hb concentration between treatments at either 26 or 52 wk. However, after excluding girls with hemoglobinopathy and adjustment for baseline Hb, a greater increase in Hb was observed with twice-weekly MMN at 26 wk (P = 0.045). Although all 3 treatments effectively reduced iron deficiency, once-weekly MMN produced significantly lower serum ferritin concentrations than the other treatments at both 26 and 52 wk. Both once- and twice-weekly MMN significantly improved riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C status compared with IFA. Overall, once-weekly MMN was less efficacious than twice-weekly MMN in improving iron, riboflavin, RBC folic acid, and vitamin A levels. Micronutrient supplementation beyond 26 wk was likely important in sustaining improved micronutrient status. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of MMN intervention in this population and have implications for programming. PMID:20702745

Ahmed, Faruk; Khan, Moududur R; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Karim, Rezaul; Williams, Gail; Torlesse, Harriet; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Dalmiya, Nita; Banu, Cadi P; Nahar, Badrun

2010-10-01

305

Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose. PMID:24790886

Dharmasena, Aruna

2014-01-01

306

Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial  

PubMed Central

Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG) ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS) in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women) with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years) were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value) decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920), 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451), 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021), 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047), 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1), respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021). The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation) (p = 0.047) but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p < 0.05). The WBG supplementation was generally well-tolerated. Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG supplementation. PMID:22243626

2012-01-01

307

Summer 2010 School of Social Sciences Supplement  

E-print Network

Summer 2010 School of Social Sciences Supplement Nottingham Trent University Alumni Association Welcome to this special Network supplement for all former students of NTU's School of Social Sciences. Like the University itself, the School of Social Sciences has changed a great deal in recent years. We

Evans, Paul

308

Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs Updated:Oct 15,2014 Some foods — even healthy ones — can make your medications less effective. Healthy ... that to maintain consistency and balance.” Interactions from Supplements and Other Medications Dr. Gandy said food isn’ ...

309

Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

2008-01-01

310

Supplement to Art for Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document provides art activities for the classroom teacher who is not an art specialist. It contains activities which supplement experiences provided by the art teacher as well as activities designed to measure the achievement level of students in concept skills related to art and the principles of design. The supplement is divided into three…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

311

How Physicians Should Evaluate Dietary Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplements occupy a unique niche within the realm of modern medicine. These products are often used by patients at their own discretion, in an unmonitored setting, and without the input of their physicians. Although laws pertaining to dietary supplement labeling prohibit specific claims for the treatment or prevention of disease, these products are widely used as “alternative” or “complementary”

James K. Glisson; Larry A. Walker

2010-01-01

312

Nutritional claims for functional foods and supplements.  

PubMed

Food labels are an important educational tool to assist consumers in making healthy food choices. In addition to mandatory nutritional labeling information, manufacturers have a variety of options on the food/supplement packages to communicate the nutrition/health benefits of their products. This paper describes the different types of claims that can be made for foods and supplements. PMID:16466840

Agarwal, Sanjiv; Hordvik, Stein; Morar, Sandra

2006-04-01

313

SUPPLEMENT TO G. GRUBB: "DISTRIBUTIONS AND OPERATORS"  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENT TO G. GRUBB: "DISTRIBUTIONS AND OPERATORS" Springer Verlag, New York 2009 Additional for (x, y) Q, 0 for (x, y) / Q. 1 #12;2 SUPPLEMENT TO G. GRUBB: "DISTRIBUTIONS AND OPERATORS" (a) Find TO G. GRUBB: "DISTRIBUTIONS AND OPERATORS" 3 (b) Find all solutions u S (R) to the equation xN u = 0

Grubb, Gerd

314

Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book: Supplement II  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is Supplement II to Edition I of the Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book, EAPA 3:0527, which was published in October, 1976, by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The series of documents is intended to provide a desk-top reference for use by the Transportation Energy Conservation Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration. The supplements contain statistics which update

Shonka

1977-01-01

315

Monitoring the Use of All Medicines and Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... Compartir Monitoring the Use of All Medicines and Supplements Over-the-Counter and Prescription Medicines There are ... symptoms with minimal side effects. Nutritional and Herbal Supplements Vitamins and other nutritional and herbal supplements are ...

316

Supplemental Material Neuron, 68(5), 921935, Dec. 2010.  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material Neuron, 68(5), 921­935, Dec. 2010. Calcium store depletion induces persistent at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 Supplemental Figure S1 ..................................................................... 2 Supplemental Figure S2 ..................................................................... 3

Narayanan, Rishikesh

317

Responses to Questions about Codex and Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Responses to Questions about Codex and Dietary Supplements In July of 2005, the Codex Alimentarius Commission ... work has Codex undertaken on vitamin and mineral supplements? In the early 1990's, the Codex Committee on ...

318

Supplemental Material Molecular Antagonism between X-Chromosome and  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material Molecular Antagonism between X-Chromosome and Autosome Signals Determines National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 Table of Contents Supplemental Figure 1 ....................................................................................................................1 sea-2 transcript levels in different sea-2 mutants. Supplemental Figure 2

Meyer, Barbara

319

75 FR 53970 - Notice To Award an Expansion Supplement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Families Notice To Award an Expansion Supplement AGENCY: Office of Community Services...ACTION: Notice to award an expansion supplement under the American Recovery and Reinvestment...has awarded a single source expansion supplement to Community Action Program Legal...

2010-09-02

320

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLLEN, BROODREARING AND CONSUMPTION OF POLLEN SUPPLEMENTS  

E-print Network

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLLEN, BROODREARING AND CONSUMPTION OF POLLEN SUPPLEMENTS BY HONEYBEES KEITH Australia, 5064 SUMMARY Two field experiments with a commercial pollen supplement provide information on possible relationships between pollen, broodrearing and consumption of the supplement. When colonies were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

Supplemental Material Sloppiness, robustness, and evolvability in systems  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material Sloppiness, robustness, and evolvability in systems biology Bryan C. Daniels of the supplemental material are organized corresponding to the order of the main text. Included in the supplemental

Sethna, James P.

322

14 CFR 121.597 - Flight release authority: Supplemental operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release authority: Supplemental operations...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.597 Flight release authority: Supplemental...

2010-01-01

323

15 CFR 930.101 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Supplemental coordination for proposed activities. 930.101...Governments § 930.101 Supplemental coordination for proposed activities. ...believes should be subject to supplemental coordination. The State agency's...

2013-01-01

324

15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.  

...2014-01-01 false Supplemental coordination for proposed activities. 930.66...Permit § 930.66 Supplemental coordination for proposed activities. ...believes should be subject to supplemental coordination. The State agency's...

2014-01-01

325

15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Supplemental coordination for proposed activities. 930.66...Permit § 930.66 Supplemental coordination for proposed activities. ...believes should be subject to supplemental coordination. The State agency's...

2011-01-01

326

42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 Section 403.205 Public...PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General Provisions § 403.205 Medicare supplemental policy. (a) Except as specified in...

2011-10-01

327

42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 Section 403.205 Public...PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General Provisions § 403.205 Medicare supplemental policy. (a) Except as specified in...

2013-10-01

328

42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 Section 403.205 Public...PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General Provisions § 403.205 Medicare supplemental policy. (a) Except as specified in...

2012-10-01

329

42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 Section 403.205 Public...PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General Provisions § 403.205 Medicare supplemental policy. (a) Except as specified in...

2010-10-01

330

42 CFR 403.220 - Supplemental Health Insurance Panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220 Section 403.220 Public...403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance Panel (Panel) consists of— (1) The...

2013-10-01

331

42 CFR 403.220 - Supplemental Health Insurance Panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220 Section 403.220 Public...403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance Panel (Panel) consists of— (1) The...

2011-10-01

332

42 CFR 403.220 - Supplemental Health Insurance Panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220 Section 403.220 Public...403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance Panel (Panel) consists of— (1) The...

2012-10-01

333

21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Reproductive media and supplements. 884.6180 Section...Reproduction Devices § 884.6180 Reproductive media and supplements. (a) Identification. Reproductive media and supplement are products that are...

2013-04-01

334

21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Reproductive media and supplements. 884.6180 Section...Reproduction Devices § 884.6180 Reproductive media and supplements. (a) Identification. Reproductive media and supplement are products that are...

2012-04-01

335

21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Reproductive media and supplements. 884.6180 Section...Reproduction Devices § 884.6180 Reproductive media and supplements. (a) Identification. Reproductive media and supplement are products that are...

2011-04-01

336

21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.  

... 2014-04-01 false Reproductive media and supplements. 884.6180 Section...Reproduction Devices § 884.6180 Reproductive media and supplements. (a) Identification. Reproductive media and supplement are products that are...

2014-04-01

337

Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

Zuo, Zhong

2013-01-01

338

Magnesium status and the physical performance of volleyball players: effects of magnesium supplementation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation influences the physical performance of volleyball players, as the efficacy of this approach remains questionable. Twenty-five professional male volleyball players were assigned randomly to experimental (350 mg Mg · d(-1), 4 weeks) and control groups (500 mg maltodextrin · d(-1), 4 weeks) maintaining inter-group homogeneity of urinary magnesium. Erythrocyte, plasma and urinary magnesium levels, plasma creatine kinase activity, lactate production, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and plyometric (squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing) and isokinetic (peak torque, potency and total work) performances were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) supplementation. Levels of erythrocyte and urinary magnesium and creatine kinase activity and VO2 max remained within normal ranges in both groups. Plasma magnesium decreased significantly only within the experimental group. Significant decreases in lactate production and significant increases (of up to 3 cm) in countermovement jump and countermovement jump with arm swing values were detected in the experimental group following magnesium supplementation, but not in the control group at T1. It is concluded that magnesium supplementation improved alactic anaerobic metabolism, even though the players were not magnesium-deficient. PMID:24015935

Setaro, Luciana; Santos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Nunes, Newton; Greve, Júlia Maria; Colli, Célia

2014-01-01

339

The Use of Selected Nutrition Supplements and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Almost all patients with liver disease, especially advanced liver disease, have some evidence of malnutrition, including mineral/vitamin deficiency. A major health trend in the United States has been the significant growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including nutrition supplements and herbal agents. In the 1990s, the United States government created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), as well as the Office on Dietary Supplements, to extend our knowledge in these areas. CAM users are often highly educated and frequently use CAM therapy for chronic diseases, including chronic liver disease. Indeed, most studies suggest that patients with chronic liver disease frequently use nutrition supplements and CAM agents in addition to their traditional medicines. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of nutrition supplements and herbals in liver disease. This article will focus mainly on 7 selected agents (vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, silymarin, and glycyrrhizin), for which there have been not only in vitro and animal studies but also human clinical trials, and we will review both potential efficacy and safety issues. PMID:16772543

Hanje, A. James; Fortune, Brett; Song, Ming; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig

2014-01-01

340

Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report  

SciTech Connect

The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

Not Available

1991-10-01

341

Effect of Prenatal Zinc Supplementation on Birthweight  

PubMed Central

Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthweight between the study groups, although the effect of iron-zinc supplementation on the mean birthweight was masked by a strong interaction between the type of supplement and the iron status of participants [F (1,179)=5.614, p=0.019]. Prenatal iron-zinc supplementation was effective in increasing the mean birthweight among anaemic and iron-deficient women but not among women with elevated iron stores in early pregnancy. PMID:19902797

Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

2009-01-01

342

Vitamin D Supplementation in Australia: Implications for the Development of Supplementation Guidelines  

PubMed Central

High rates of vitamin D deficiency and testing have been reported in Australia, yet there are few reports regarding vitamin D supplement use. Australian wholesale sales data was obtained for vitamin D supplements for the period 2000–2011. There has been a threefold increase in supplement sales over the past decade, whereby over A$94 million supplements containing vitamin D in Australia were sold during the year 2010. There were eighty-nine manufacturers that produce a variety of 195 vitamin D products. The amount of vitamin D in these products varies considerably, from 40 to 1000?IU per unit, although supplements containing only vitamin D had the highest amount of vitamin D. There was a trend for sales to increase in winter months. Given the potential public health benefits of vitamin D, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of supplementation use and for the development of supplementation.

Bilinski, Kellie; Talbot, Peter

2014-01-01

343

Vitamin d supplementation in australia: implications for the development of supplementation guidelines.  

PubMed

High rates of vitamin D deficiency and testing have been reported in Australia, yet there are few reports regarding vitamin D supplement use. Australian wholesale sales data was obtained for vitamin D supplements for the period 2000-2011. There has been a threefold increase in supplement sales over the past decade, whereby over A$94 million supplements containing vitamin D in Australia were sold during the year 2010. There were eighty-nine manufacturers that produce a variety of 195 vitamin D products. The amount of vitamin D in these products varies considerably, from 40 to 1000?IU per unit, although supplements containing only vitamin D had the highest amount of vitamin D. There was a trend for sales to increase in winter months. Given the potential public health benefits of vitamin D, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of supplementation use and for the development of supplementation. PMID:25210624

Bilinski, Kellie; Talbot, Peter

2014-01-01

344

Cost of Pycnogenol Supplementation and Traditional Diabetes Treatments per Unit of Improved Health Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Pycnogenol® may be cost effective in reducing the risk for diabetes-related complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Diabetic retinopathy may be a good target area for Pycnogenol supplementation because of Pycnogenol’s proven efficacy in improving\\u000a diabetic retinopathy, diabetes-related cardiovascular disease, and other diabetes-related health complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The cost of diabetes treatment may be reduced after Pycnogenol supplementation but a long term study should

Gayle Bentley; Frank Schonlau; Sherma Zibadi; Ronald Ross Watson

345

Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions  

PubMed Central

Dietary fiber (DF) is a term that reflects to a heterogenous group of natural food sources, processed grains and commercial supplements. Several forms of DF have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of DF in metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of DF on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of DF, but also quite variable. This article focuses on the role, mechanism of action and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk, and explores the effects of DF on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of DF. PMID:19931537

Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

2010-01-01

346

Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 2 The sum is over presynaptic spike times tj, and ffast represents

Columbia University

347

Botanical and Dietary Supplements for Menopausal Symptoms: What Works, What Doesn’t  

PubMed Central

All women reach menopause and approximately two-thirds of women develop menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes. Hormone therapy long was considered the first line of treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, given the results of the Women’s Health Initiative, many women are reluctant use exogenous hormones for symptomatic treatment and are turning to botanicals and dietary supplement (BDS) products for relief. Despite the fact that there is limited scientific evidence describing efficacy and long term safety of such products, many women find these “natural treatments” appealing. Peri- and postmenopausal women are amongst the highest users of these products, but 70% of women do not tell their health care providers about their use. Compounding this issue is the fact that few clinicians ask their patients about use of BDS, largely because they have not been exposed to alternative medical practices in their training and are unfamiliar with these products. This paper reviews the botanicals and dietary supplements commonly used in menopause, (such as black cohosh, red clover, soy products, among others) as well as the available data on efficacy and safety. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to December 2004 using terms related to botanical and dietary supplements and menopausal symptoms for peri- or postmenopausal women. Abstracts from relevant meetings as well as reference books and websites on herbal supplements were also searched. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were used if available; open trials and comparison group studies were used when RCTs were not available. The evidence to date suggests that black cohosh is safe and effective for reducing menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes and possibly mood disorders. Phytoestrogen extracts, including soy foods and red clover appear to have at best only minimal effect on menopausal symptoms but have positive health effects on plasma lipid concentrations and may reduce heart disease. St. John’s wort has been shown to improve mild to moderate depression in the general population and appears to show efficacy for mood disorders related to the menopausal transition. Other commonly used botanicals have limited evidence to demonstrate safety and efficacy for relief of symptoms related to menopause. PMID:16181020

Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

2006-01-01

348

Self-efficacy, motivation, and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the relation of self-efficacy to motivation and performance in cognitive and sport domains. Self-efficacy refers to one's beliefs about accomplishing a task and can influence choice of activities. effort, persistence. and achievement. People enter activities with varying levels of self-efficacy derived from prior experience, personal qualities, and social support. As they work on tasks they acquire information

Dale H. Schunk

1995-01-01

349

Efficacy, Emotions and the Habit of Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political behavior is triggered by the presence of a variety of material and cognitive resources, including political efficacy.\\u000a The dominant view conceptualizes efficacy as capital, used to overcome obstacles to participation. Our theory suggests that\\u000a unlike other resources, efficacy aids in the development of habitual participation by activating a particular negative emotion,\\u000a anger. Using the 1990–1992 NES Panel, we find

Nicholas A. Valentino; Krysha Gregorowicz; Eric W. Groenendyk

2009-01-01

350

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

Albert Bandura

1982-01-01

351

Herbal ephedra\\/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine long-term safety and efficacy for weight loss of an herbal Ma Huang and Kola nut supplement (90\\/192 mg\\/day ephedrine alkaloids\\/caffeine).Design: Six-month randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial.Subjects: A total of 167 subjects (body mass index (BMI) 31.8±4.1 kg\\/m2) randomized to placebo (n=84) or herbal treatment (n=83) at two outpatient weight control research units.Measurements: Primary outcome measurements were changes

CN Boozer; PA Daly; P Homel; JL Solomon; D Blanchard; JA Nasser; R Strauss; T Meredith

2002-01-01

352

34 CFR 200.88 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. 200.88...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. (a) For...determining compliance with the comparability requirement in...

2013-07-01

353

34 CFR 200.88 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. 200.88...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. (a) For...determining compliance with the comparability requirement in...

2011-07-01

354

34 CFR 200.88 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. 200.88...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. (a) For...determining compliance with the comparability requirement in...

2010-07-01

355

34 CFR 200.88 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...  

...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. 200.88...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. (a) For...determining compliance with the comparability requirement in...

2014-07-01

356

34 CFR 200.88 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. 200.88...supplement, not supplant and comparability determinations. (a) For...determining compliance with the comparability requirement in...

2012-07-01

357

Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. (4) Coordinate supplementation research planning and field evaluation program activities and management recommendations for the Nez Perce Tribe.

Arnsberg, Billy D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1993-02-02

358

The efficacy of denture cleansers.  

PubMed

The efficacy of two soaking cleansers, a toothbrush/paste and a brush with soap and water have been compared in relation to their ability to remove three types of soil from dentures. A 4 week cross-over trial involving a panel of 80 volunteers was used. Each denture was scored for stain, calculus and disclosed plaque, both before and after cleaning with one of the chosen cleaners. A soaking cleanser used at 50 degrees C was more effective than the other products at removing plaque and stain. There was no difference amongst the materials in terms of calculus removal, the scores being low in all cases. The reliability of scoring is influenced by the presence of large numbers of low 'before-cleaning' scores. This problem can be overcome by using a selection criterion which requires a certain minimum level of soil to be present before cleaning. PMID:8603160

McCabe, J F; Murray, I D; Kelly, P J

1995-09-01

359

Some limitations on the external validity of psychotherapy efficacy studies and suggestions for future research.  

PubMed

Increased emphasis on identifying empirically supported treatments (ESTs) has enhanced the scientific basis for psychotherapy practice, but uncritical acceptance of ESTs as the basis for credentialing and policy decisions risks stifling innovation and creativity in the field. There are limitations inherent in efficacy studies of psychotherapy that can constrain external validity. This article discusses several limitations on the external validity of efficacy studies, as well as other issues related to evaluating psychotherapy outcome research. These limitations and concerns include: 1) the practice of maximizing homogeneity by selecting participants diagnosed with a single Axis I disorder; 2) the practice of requiring manualized therapies for efficacy research; 3) the assumption that lasting and meaningful changes occur and can be assessed within a relatively short time frame; 4) the assumption that valid assessments of outcome can be conducted in randomized control trials studies without concern for researcher allegiance; and 5) the view that evidence of effectiveness from non-RCT design studies can be ignored. Finally, alternative research approaches for studying psychotherapy that can potentially supplement knowledge gained from efficacy studies and foster continued innovation and creativity in the field are discussed. PMID:23091884

Shean, Glenn D

2012-01-01

360

Efficacy or inefficacy, that's the question: Burnout and work engagement, and their relationships with efficacy beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We challenge traditional view that lack of efficacy — measured with the corresponding reversed efficacy scale (Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI) — is a burnout dimension. Instead, we claim that in addition to exhaustion and cynicism, inefficacy — measured with a newly developed scale — characterizes burnout. MBI-efficacy is apparently related to work engagement, considered as the positive antithesis of burnout.

Wilmar B. Schaufeli; Marisa Salanova

2007-01-01

361

Examining the influence of other-efficacy and self-efficacy on personal performance.  

PubMed

This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (M(age) = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts. PMID:21808081

Dunlop, William L; Beatty, Daniel J; Beauchamp, Mark R

2011-08-01

362

Supplement 16, Authors: A To Z  

E-print Network

.? The efficacy of N~ (2*-chloro-4'-nitropheny]^5~ chlorosalicylamide in the treatment of taeniasis ulcer of the urinary bladder. A clinical....? The efficacy of N~ (2*-chloro-4'-nitropheny]^5~ chlorosalicylamide in the treatment of taeniasis ulcer of the urinary bladder. A clinical...

Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Beard, Mary I.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

1966-01-01

363

Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: While "teaching self-efficacy" has been supported as an important construct related to teacher competence (eg. Goddard, Hoy & Hoy, 2000), little is known about how in-service teachers think about themselves as writers, or writing self-efficacy, particularly as it relates to writing performance. The present study is a preliminary…

Lavelle, Ellen

2006-01-01

364

Teacher Efficacy: Influence of Principal Leadership Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings of a study that explored the relationships among principals' leadership behaviors and teacher efficacy in Wisconsin middle schools involved in building-level change efforts. An adaptation of Bandura's social cognitive learning theory of self-efficacy (A. Woolfolk and W. Hoy 1993) provided the theoretical framework.…

Hipp, Kristine A.

365

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

Çali?kan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

2007-04-01

366

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)  

Cancer.gov

The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the cancer prevention efficacy and safety of a daily combination of 30 milligrams (mg) of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate in 18,314 persons who were at high risk for lung cancer.

367

Lessons Learned in Engineering. Supplement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations. The supplemental CD contains accompanying PowerPoint presentations.

Blair, James C.; Ryan, Robert S.; Schultzenhofer, Luke A.

2011-01-01

368

Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions  

PubMed Central

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

2014-01-01

369

Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

2014-01-01

370

Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3 x 10(exp -4) Newton/sq meter (1 x 10(exp -6) torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K (200 R) and 361 K (650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 cu meter (120 gallon) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars.

Dempsey, P. J.; Stochl, R. J.

1995-01-01

371

Vitamin D supplementation in athletes.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health. Emerging evidence is finding that vitamin D deficiency can have a profound effect on immunity, inflammation and muscle function. Studies in athletes have found that vitamin D status varies among different populations and is dependent on skin color, early- or late-day training, indoor training and geographic location. Although dietary assessment studies have found that athletes worldwide do not meet the dietary intake recommendations for vitamin D, the most probable reason for poor status is inadequate synthesis due to lack of sun exposure. Studies in athletic populations suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may reduce stress fractures, total body inflammation, common infectious illnesses, and impaired muscle function, and may also aid in recovery from injury. Given that compromised vitamin D status can potentially impact an athlete's overall health and training efficiency, vitamin D status should be routinely assessed so that athletes can be coached to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentration of ?30 and preferably ?40 ng/ml. Recommendations will be dependent on the athlete's current 25(OH)D concentration, but can include regular safe sun exposure and/or dietary supplementation combined with increased vitamin D intake. PMID:23765355

Larson-Meyer, Enette

2013-01-01

372

Introduction to tobacco control supplement.  

PubMed

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues. PMID:24732156

Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

2014-05-01

373

Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

NONE

1995-11-01

374

39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or her designee, or the Chief Postal...

2013-07-01

375

39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or...

2011-07-01

376

39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or her designee or his...

2010-07-01

377

39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or her designee, or the Chief Postal...

2012-07-01

378

Cardiac Effects of Ergogenic Aides and Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Great concern exists that athletes who regularly exercise are using dietary supplements and other purported ergogenic aids\\u000a as a means for enhancing athletic performance and altering body composition.

Holly J. Benjamin; Joseph A. Congeni

379

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND SLEEP  

E-print Network

Previous research has found omega-3 fatty acid supplementation advantageous in reducing depressive symptoms. One of the central diagnostic symptoms of depression is sleep disturbance. Accordingly, this study was designed to examine the effects...

Prohaska, Jennifer A.

2008-10-24

380

30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Management, General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The...

2010-07-01

381

30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Management, General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The...

2011-07-01

382

Supplemental Materials and Methods Populations sampled  

E-print Network

Supplemental Materials and Methods Populations sampled The American populations sampled have been. The sampling locations for the Asian populations are as follows: Chukchi: Anadyr, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug; Koryaks: Esso, Kamchatka; Even: Topolinoe, Yakutia; Mongolian: Ulan Bator, Mongolia. The Altaian samples

Rosenberg, Noah

383

COMMERICAL MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATOR EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION SUPPLEMENT  

E-print Network

COMMERICAL MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATOR EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION SUPPLEMENT _________________________________________________________ Applicants for positions involving the operation of a commercial motor vehicle must comply with Title 49 CFR: _______________ Please list the following information for each unexpired commercial motor vehicle operator license

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

384

7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental...under Public Law 106-387 will be made available to dairy operations in connection with normal milk...

2013-01-01

385

7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental...under Public Law 106-387 will be made available to dairy operations in connection with normal milk...

2010-01-01

386

7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental...under Public Law 106-387 will be made available to dairy operations in connection with normal milk...

2011-01-01

387

7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.  

...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental...under Public Law 106-387 will be made available to dairy operations in connection with normal milk...

2014-01-01

388

7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental...under Public Law 106-387 will be made available to dairy operations in connection with normal milk...

2012-01-01

389

7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits...additional authorized tofu and cheese issued to women who receive Food Packages V and VII that...food package is reserved for issuance to women, infants and child...

2012-01-01

390

7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.  

...SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits...additional authorized tofu and cheese issued to women who receive Food Packages V and VII that...food package is reserved for issuance to women, infants and child...

2014-01-01

391

7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits...additional authorized tofu and cheese issued to women who receive Food Packages V and VII that...food package is reserved for issuance to women, infants and child...

2011-01-01

392

7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits...additional authorized tofu and cheese issued to women who receive Food Packages V and VII that...food package is reserved for issuance to women, infants and child...

2010-01-01

393

7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits...additional authorized tofu and cheese issued to women who receive Food Packages V and VII that...food package is reserved for issuance to women, infants and child...

2013-01-01

394

47 CFR 87.447 - Supplemental eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Operational Fixed Stations § 87.447 Supplemental eligibility. An applicant for an operational fixed station must certify that:...

2010-10-01

395

Do fat supplements increase physical performance?  

PubMed

Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. PMID:23434906

Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

2013-02-01

396

44 CFR 295.33 - Supplementing claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Claims Evaluation § 295.33 Supplementing claims. A Claimant may amend the...

2010-10-01

397

FDA: Supplements, Meds Can Be Dangerous Mix  

MedlinePLUS

... warns. Dietary supplements can alter the absorption and metabolism of prescription and over-the-counter medications, the ... children, he added. "Parents should know that children's metabolisms are so unique, that at different ages they ...

398

Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?  

PubMed Central

Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. PMID:23434906

Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Felice, Valentina Di

2013-01-01

399

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Or visit the FDA Web site at www.fda.gov . SafetynHealthnSciencenNutrition May ... before they are marketed. If the dietary supplement contains a NEW ingredient, that ingredient will be reviewed by FDA (not ...

400

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MAINTAINING REC-ORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2013-01-01

401

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MAINTAINING REC- ORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2012-01-01

402

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... MAINTAINING RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2010-01-01

403

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

...MAINTAINING REC-ORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2014-01-01

404

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MAINTAINING RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2011-01-01

405

20 CFR 901.38 - Supplemental charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Supplemental charges. 901.38 Section 901.38 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974...

2010-04-01

406

Medications, injections, and supplements for arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

The body naturally makes both glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. They are important for healthy cartilage in your joints. These two substances come in supplement form and can be bought over-the-counter. ...

407

Supplemental Information Neuron, Volume 67 When giving is good  

E-print Network

1 Supplemental Information Neuron, Volume 67 When giving is good: Ventromedial prefrontal cortex Knutson Inventory of Supplemental Information Supplemental Figure 1, related to Figure 2. This figure contribution and liking. Supplemental Table 1. Performance and reaction time in behavioral study, related

Knutson, Brian

408

Supplement to the Mainstem Lower Columbia River and  

E-print Network

Supplement Supplement to the Mainstem Lower Columbia River and Columbia River Estuary Subbasin Plan River Estuary Partnership SUPPLEMENT TEXT.DOC #12;#12;Contents 1 Introduction Mainstem SUPPLEMENT TEXT.DOC III #12;#12;Acronyms and Abbreviations APRE Artificial Production Review

409

Guide to over-the-counter sports supplements for athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplements are used by at least 40% of athletes, and depending on the sport, up to 100%. Often multiple supplements are taken in higher than normal doses. Both competitive and recreational athletes take supplements, though sometimes for different reasons. Some take them to support a poor quality diet; others take supplements because they simply feel that an ordinary diet,

Norbert Baume; Ien Hellemans; Martial Saugy

2007-01-01

410

Levels of supplementation for grazing beef heifers.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

2014-06-01

411

Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers  

PubMed Central

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastiao; de Barros, Livia Vieira; Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

2014-01-01

412

Effect of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves to vaccines and ovalbumin.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) from organic sources (Cr chelate and high Cr yeast) on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves following vaccination with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), para-influenza-3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Pasteurella haemolytica and ovalbumin (OVA). Using cross bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario, vaccines and OVA were given on d 0 and 21 after arrival in the feedlot. Immune responses of calves were measured as serum specific antibody titres against all antigens on d 0 and 28 or d 35. The anti-OVA antibody responses (trial 2) were further investigated by measuring antibody concentrations of calves weekly until d 55 after arrival in the feedlot. Supplemental Cr (0.14 ppm) from an amino acid-chelated source had no effect on antibody responses to IBR, P13 and BRSV, but enhanced (P < 0.05) antibody titres of calves in response to the BVD vaccine on d 28 or d 35. Supplemental Cr from Cr yeast had no effect on antibody titres of calves to any vaccines. Chromium from both sources (trial 1 and 2) had no effect on antibody responses of calves following vaccination with P. haemolytica. However, supplemental Cr (0.75 ppm) from Cr yeast enhanced (P < 0.05) serum antibody responses of calves to OVA during the primary response (d 14) and secondary response (d 35) following immunization. These data confirmed our previous finding that supplemental Cr can enhance humoral immune response of market-transit stressed calves, but its enhancement on vaccine efficacy was antigen-dependent and variable. PMID:8785720

Chang, G X; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N; Gallo, G F

1996-04-01

413

Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 ?g from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 ?g [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 ?g folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations. PMID:23698160

Zappacosta, Bruno; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Persichilli, Silvia; Pounis, George; Ruggeri, Stefania; Minucci, Angelo; Carnovale, Emilia; Andria, Generoso; Ricci, Roberta; Scala, Iris; Genovese, Orazio; Turrini, Aida; Mistura, Lorenza; Giardina, Bruno; Iacoviello, Licia

2013-01-01

414

Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubtful allegations of adverse effects of creatine supplementation have been released through the press media and through\\u000a scientific publications. In the present review we have tried to separate the wheat from the chaff by looking for the experimental\\u000a evidence of any such claims. Anecdotal reports from athletes have appeared on muscle cramp and gastrointestinal complaints\\u000a during creatine supplementation, but the

Hyo Jeong Kim; Chang Keun Kim; A. Carpentier; Jacques R. Poortmans

2011-01-01

415

Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows  

E-print Network

decreases, and so does diet quality. Then, supple- mentation may become necessary even if animal numbers are reduced. Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows Stephen P. Hammack and Ronald J. Gill* *Extension Beef Cattle Specialist and Extension Live... decreases, and so does diet quality. Then, supple- mentation may become necessary even if animal numbers are reduced. Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows Stephen P. Hammack and Ronald J. Gill* *Extension Beef Cattle Specialist and Extension Live...

Hammack, Stephen P.; Gill, Ronald J.

2000-05-03

416

Supplemental feeding program for California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2-year supplemental feeding program for the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was of insufficient length to definitely show that a dependable food supply will stimulate additional breeding; however, production did increase during the study, and food supply appears a likely cause. Because no undesirable effects of feeding were noted, and because condor production is now critically low, an expanded supplemental feeding program is recommended.

Wilbur, S.R.; Carrier, W.D.; Borneman, J.C.

1974-01-01

417

Supplement 2, Authors: A To C  

E-print Network

: ? ?? ? By MILDRED A. Doss, Zoologist and JUDITH M. HUMPHREY, Assistant Zoologist ZOOLOGICAL DIVISION, BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY ISSUED OCTOBER, 1954 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON: 1954 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents..., "Washington, D. C. - - - - Price 50 cents INDEX-CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY Supplement 2. Authors: A to ? By MILDRED A. Doss, zoologist, and JUDITH M. HUMPHREY assistant zoologist. PREFACE Supplement 1 covered the A and ? authors...

Doss, Mildred A.; Humphrey, Judith M.

1954-01-01

418

NDA BATCH 2002-02  

SciTech Connect

QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2009-12-09

419

NDA BATCH 2008-05  

SciTech Connect

QC sample results (daily background check drums and 100-gram standard) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPPs Quality Assurance objectives for TRU Waste characterization. Replicate run was performed on the following drums LL85234292 and LL85101617. Replicate measurement results are acceptable at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2009-12-03

420

Use of creatine and other supplements by members of civilian and military health clubs: a cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

A survey was used to collect anonymous cross-sectional data on demographics, exercise habits, and use of creatine and other supplements by exercisers in civilian (C) and military (M) health clubs. M (n = 133) reported more aerobic training and less use of creatine and protein supplements than C (n = 96, p <.05). Supplement users (SU, n = 194) and nonusers (SNU, n = 35) engaged in similar frequency and duration of aerobic exercise, as well as number of resistance exercise repetitions, but SU completed more sets for each resistance exercise (x- +/- SE, 5 +/- 1) than SNU (3 +/- 1, p < or =.05). Significant (p < or =.05) associations were observed between SU and resistance training goal of strength (as opposed to endurance), as well as greater frequency of resistance training. Male gender, resistance training goal of strength, lower frequency and duration of aerobic training, and use of protein, b-hydroxy-b-methyl butyrate, and androstenedione/dehydroepiandrosterone supplements were all associated with creatine use (p <.05). For creatine users, the dose and length of creatine supplementation was 12.2 +/- 2.7 g.day-1 for 40 +/- 5 weeks. Popular magazines were the primary source of information on creatine (69%) compared to physicians (14%) or dietitians (10%, p < or =.0001). This study underscores two potential public health concerns: (a) reliance on popular media rather than allied-health professionals for information on creatine, and (b) use of creatine, a popular supplement with unknown long-term effects, in combination with other anabolic supplements of questionable efficacy and/or safety. PMID:10997951

Sheppard, H L; Raichada, S M; Kouri, K M; Stenson-Bar-Maor, L; Branch, J D

2000-09-01

421

Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products. PMID:24220164

Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

2013-01-01

422

Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents. PMID:25070694

Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

2014-09-01

423

Supplemental Data Figure Legends Supplemental Figure 1: Immune cell populations in wild type versus SXR KO animals as  

E-print Network

Supplemental Data Figure Legends Supplemental Figure 1: Immune cell populations in wild type versus SXR KO animals as described in percent of total cells in the spleen. Supplemental Figure 2: Total is indicated. Supplemental Figure 3: Surface staining of lymphoma tumor cells purified from SXR KO animals

Blumberg, Bruce

424

Effect of Dietary Fish Meal Replacement by Poultry By-Product Meal with Different Grain Source and Enzyme Supplementation on Performance, Feces Recovery, Body Composition and Nutrient Balance of Nile Tilapia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of replacing Fish Meal (FM) with Poultry By-product Meal (PBM) in Nile tilapia diets on an ideal protein basis with different grain sources and enzyme supplementation was evaluated under condition of cement pond culture. An experimental diet was formulated contain 30% crude protein, 5% ether extract and 3355 Kcal ME\\/Kg. Four other diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous

M. A. Soltan

2009-01-01

425

Research Review: The Role of Diet in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder--An Appraisal of the Evidence on Efficacy and Recommendations on the Design of Future Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The efficacy of three dietary treatments for ADHD has been repeatedly tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These interventions are restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE) and supplementation with free fatty acids (SFFA). There have been three systematic reviews and associated…

Stevenson, Jim; Buitelaar, Jan; Cortese, Samuele; Ferrin, Maite; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel; Simonoff, Emily; Wong, Ian C. K.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2014-01-01

426

Supplementation to DICOM Supplement 32 (digital x-ray) for digitized film image and computed radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

DICOM Supplement 32 defined Information Object Definitions (IODs) and corresponding Storage SOP Classes for Digital X- ray (DX) projection image. The scope of the Supplement was to support DX imags produced by Flat Panel (FP) detectors, Computed Radiography (CR) and Digitized Film (DF) images. We thought it may be necessary to have more attributes to fully describe CR and DF

Tsuguhisa Katoh; Hidetoshi Saitoh; Mitsuomi Matsumoto; Naoto Ohbayashi; Takehito Sasaki; Satoru Shimanishi

1999-01-01

427

VOLUME 13 SUPPLEMENT 1 AES 2012 Abstract Supplement -Epilepsy Currents Online  

E-print Network

VOLUME 13 SUPPLEMENT 1 AES 2012 Abstract Supplement - Epilepsy Currents Online AES 2012 Annual..................................................................................................476 Pediatric Epilepsy Highlights Session: Monday, December 3.....................................................................................................492 The Journal of the American Epilepsy Society #12;1.045 TELE-EPILEPSY: DEVELOPING A MULTI-MODAL DEVICE

Besio, Walter G.

428

The relation between teachers' personal teaching efficacy and students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious and believe they are able to effectively teach science are more comfortable teaching science (Plourde, 2002) and more likely to commit classroom time to teaching science. Additionally, they are better equipped to challenge and support students as they develop their science skills and efficacy beliefs. Therefore, it was expected that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for science would be related to their students' science efficacy. Similarly, it was predicted that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for inquiry science would be related to their students' inquiry science efficacy. It was expected that the relation between teacher and student efficacy would not differ by students' gender. Data was collected from 26 middle school science teachers who were participating in a professional development program and 660 students from their classes. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses were completed to evaluate the relation between teacher and student efficacy for science and inquiry science. Planned analyses revealed no significant predictors of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. Exploratory analyses were then conducted which added student grade and a measure evaluating the quality of teacher-student relationships to the original HLM analyses. Results indicated a significant interaction between the quality of teacher-student relationships and student grade on the prediction of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. A discussion of the results along with limitations of the study and avenues for future research will be provided.

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

429

Efficacy of different strategies to treat anemia in children: a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia continues to be a major public health problem among children in many regions of the world, and it is still not clear which strategy to treat it is most effective. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and children's acceptance of several recognized strategies to treat anemia. Methods Non-breastfed children (n = 577), 6 to 43 mo of age, were screened for the trial; 267 were anemic (hemoglobin < 11.7 g/dL), and 266 of those were randomized into 1 of 5 treatments to received daily either: an iron supplement (IS), an iron+folic acid supplement (IFS), a multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS), a micronutrient-fortified complementary food as porridge powder (FCF), or zinc+iron+ascorbic acid fortified water (FW). The iron content of each daily dose was 20, 12.5, 10, 10 and 6.7 mg respectively. Hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, total iron, weight and height were measured at baseline and after 4 months of treatment. Morbidity, treatment acceptability and adherence were recorded during the intervention. Results All treatments significantly increased Hb and total iron concentration; ferritin did not change significantly. Groups MMS, IS and IFS increased Hb (g/dL) [1.50 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.83), 1.48 [(1.18, 1.78) and 1.57 (1.26, 1.88), respectively] and total iron ((?g/dL) [0.15 (0.01, 0.29), 0.19 (0.06, 0.31) and 0.12(-0.01, 0.25), respectively] significantly more than FCF [0.92 (0.64, 1.20)] but not to FW group [0.14 (0.04, 0.24)]. The prevalence of anemia was reduced to a greater extent in the MMS and IFS groups (72% and 69%, respectively) than in the FCF group (45%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in anthropometry or in the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections among treatment groups. The supplements MMS and IS were less acceptable to children, than IFS, FCF and FW. Conclusion The three supplements IS, ISF and MMS increased Hb more than the FCF; the supplements that contained micronutrients (IFS and MMS) were more effective for reducing the prevalence of anemia. In general, fortified foods were better accepted by the study participants than supplements. ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT00822380 PMID:20863398

2010-01-01

430

Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

2010-03-01

431

The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

2014-10-01

432

Supplement timing of cranberry extract plays a key role in promoting Caenorhabditis elegans healthspan.  

PubMed

Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry exact (CBE), rich in polyphenols, is consumed as a nutraceutical, and possesses anti-aging properties. Here, we examined the influence of timing on the beneficial effects of CBE supplementation in C. elegans. The prolongevity effect of CBE in different aged worms, young adults, middle-age adults, and aged adults, was determined. Early-start intervention with CBE prolonged the remaining lifespan of worms of different ages more robustly than late-start intervention. The effectiveness of CBE on stress responses and physiological behaviors in different aged worms was also investigated. The early-start intervention prominently promoted motility and resistance to heat shocks and V. cholera infection, especially in aged worms. Together, these findings suggest that the timing of CBE supplementation critically influences its beneficial effects on C. elegans lifespan and healthspan. It is of interest to further investigate whether the similar results would occur in humans. PMID:24566444

Guha, Sujay; Natarajan, Ojas; Murbach, Cole G; Dinh, Jessica; Wilson, Ethan C; Cao, Min; Zou, Sige; Dong, Yuqing

2014-01-01

433

The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

2014-01-01

434

Nutritional supplements for diabetes sold on the internet: business or health promotion?  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is one of the most widespread chronic disease. Although many medications are available for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, many people turn to nutritional supplements (NSs). In these years, the online sales have contributed to the growth of use of nutritional supplement. The aim of the research was to investigate the type of information provided by sales websites on NSs, and analyse the existence of scientific evidence about some of the most common ingredients found in available NSs for diabetes. Methods A web search was conducted in April 2012 to identify web sites selling NSs in the treatment of diabetes using Google, Yahoo and Bing! and the key word used was “diabetes nutritional supplements”. Website content was evaluated for the quality of information available to consumers and for the presence of a complete list of ingredients in the first NS suggested by the site. Subsequently, in order to analyze the scientific evidence on the efficacy of these supplements a PubMed search was carried out on the ingredients that were shared in at least 3 nutritional supplements. Results A total of 10 websites selling NSs were selected. Only half of the websites had a Food and Drug Administration disclaimer and 40% declared clearly that the NS offered was not a substitute for proper medication. A total of 10 NS ingredients were searched for on PubMed. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses or randomized control trials were present for all the ingredients except one. Most of the studies, however, were of poor quality and/or the results were conflicting. Conclusions Easy internet access to NSs lacking in adequate medical information and strong scientific evidence is a matter of public health concern, mainly considering that a misleading information could lead to an improper prevention both in healthy people and people suffering from diabetes. There is a clear need for more trials to assess the efficacy and safety of these NSs, better quality control of websites, more informed physicians and greater public awareness of these widely used products. PMID:23978193

2013-01-01

435

[Dabigatran (Pradaxa): efficacy and safety].  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in developing new, orally available anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. In Europe, the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are more commonly prescribed for thrombosis prevention, but require parenteral administration, platelets monitoring twice a week during the first month. Furthermore, LMWH are not synthetic. All of these characteristics can be an obstacle to optimal patient care, particularly when outpatient dosing is required after early discharge. New oral anticoagulants that require no monitoring and can be administered in a fixed dose without drug-drug and drug-food interactions would clearly offer practical advantages if shown to be safe and effective. dabigatran étexilate, a new oral, direct thrombin inhibitor, is the prodrug of the active compound dabigatran, which binds reversibly to thrombin with high affinity and specificity. This agent has a rapid onset of action, a predictable and reproducible that permit once-daily dosing. To date, more than 8,000 patients have been studied in clinical trials, and more than 38,000 individuals are enrolled in ongoing trials. Three major prospective, randomized, double-blind non-inferiority trials have compared the efficacy and safety of dabigatran étexilate (150 mg or 220 mg once-daily) starting postoperatively, with subcutaneous enoxaparin, in patients undergoing hip (RE-NOVATE trial) or knee arthroplasty (RE-MOBILIZE and RE-MODEL). Based on these trial results, dabigatran étexilate is approved for use in the European Union and Canada for primary prevention of VTE in patients having undergone elective total hip and knee arthroplasty. Pradaxa is now on the market in France since December 2008. PMID:19875000

Rosencher, N; Bellamy, L

2009-09-01

436

Evidence for supplemental treatments in androgenetic alopecia.  

PubMed

Currently, topical minoxidil and finasteride are the only treatments that have been FDA approved for the treatment of female pattern hair loss and androgenetic alopecia. Given the incomplete efficacy and sife effect profile of these medications, some patients utilize alternative treatments to help improve this condition. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence underlying the efficacy of these alternative approaches, including biotin, caffeine, melatonin, a marine extract, and zinc. PMID:25007363

Famenini, Shannon; Goh, Carolyn

2014-07-01

437

Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.  

PubMed

Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals. PMID:24323888

Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

2014-03-01

438

Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production  

SciTech Connect

The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. (Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Newark, NJ (USA)); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

1989-12-01

439

Developing Self-Efficacy through Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A coach's role is to develop and sustain the athlete's self-efficacy by ensuring performance success, communicating effectively, using role-modeling techniques, reducing anxiety-producing factors, and using positive reinforcement. (JN)

Feltz, Deborah L.; Weiss, Maureen R.

1982-01-01

440

Testing Compounds for Efficacy against Schistosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this four year funding period, attempts were made to determine the efficacy of the compound Niclosamide as a potential Topical Antipenetrant (TAP) against cercariae (ineffective larval) of Schistosoma mansoni, S. haemotobium, and S.japonicum in mon...

J. I. Bruce

1990-01-01

441

Quantifying Influenza Vaccine Efficacy and Antigenic Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new measure of antigenic distance between influenza A vaccine\\u000aand circulating strains. The measure correlates well with efficacies of the\\u000aH3N2 influenza A component of the annual vaccine between 1971 and 2004, as do\\u000aresults of a theory of the immune response to influenza following vaccination.\\u000aThis new measure of antigenic distance is correlated with vaccine efficacy

Vishal Gupta; David J. Earl; Michael W. Deem

2005-01-01

442

Self-Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

programs with high levels of self-efficacy (a belief in one's capabilities). These levels of self-efficacy frequently decline as pre-service teachers progress through their curriculum and make the transition to in-service teaching. A slight decline in these levels can be interpreted as a novice teacher's greater understanding of the complexity of the teaching process. Eighteen pre-service string teachers evaluated their levels

Gail V. Barnes

443

Self-efficacy beliefs and tennis performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and methodological aspects of self-efficacy theory are assessed in this study, and the tennis performance of 40 active players (M age = 26.6 years) serves as the criterion variable. On a theoretical level, only self-efficacy beliefs, and not response-outcome expectations or the valence thereof, were consistently and significantly related to 12 dimensions of tennis performance. This phenomenon pertained to

Julian Barling; Mike Abel

1983-01-01

444

78 FR 59325 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Further Implementation of Trafficking in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Further Implementation of Trafficking...Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to further implement...trafficking in persons policy and to supplement Governmentwide changes...

2013-09-26

445

Supplemental Material An MLL/COMPASS subunit functions in the C. elegans dosage compensation complex to  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material An MLL/COMPASS subunit functions in the C. elegans dosage compensation Supplemental Figure 1 ....................................................................................................................1 DPY-30 and ASH-2 antibody specificity. Supplemental Figure 2

Meyer, Barbara

446

Development of a Career Task Self-Efficacy Scale: The Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study consisted of developing the Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale (KTSES). The KTSES is a 30-item scale measuring a person's self-efficacy for tasks corresponding to Kuder's 10 occupational interest areas (Kuder Zytowski, 1991). Responses from the KTSES were compared with responses to the Self-Esteem Inventory (SES; Rosenberg, 1965) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE; Taylor Betz, 1983) to

Jennifer L. Lucas; Connie R. Wanberg; Donald G. Zytowski

1997-01-01

447

Social-Cognitive Predictors of Health Behavior: Action Self-Efficacy and Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social-cognitive variables on preventive nutrition and behavioral intentions were studied in 580 adults at 2 points in time. The authors hypothesized that optimistic self-beliefs operate in 2 phases and made a distinction between action self-efficacy (preintention) and coping self-efficacy (pmtintan- tion). Risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, and action self-efficacy were specified as predictors of the intention at Wave

448

Social–Cognitive Predictors of Health Behavior: Action Self-Efficacy and Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social–cognitive variables on preventive nutrition and behavioral intentions were studied in 580 adults at 2 points in time. The authors hypothesized that optimistic self-beliefs operate in 2 phases and made a distinction between action self-efficacy (preintention) and coping self-efficacy (postintention). Risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, and action self-efficacy were specified as predictors of the intention at Wave 1.

Ralf Schwarzer; Britta Renner

2000-01-01

449

Comparative Efficacy of an Organic Acid Blend and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate as Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens: Effects on Performance, Gut Histology, and Small Intestinal Milieu  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the efficacy of organic acids as a growth promoter for broiler chickens relative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). Broiler chickens were supplemented with graded doses of an organic acid blend (OAB, 1?g and 2?g/kg diet) and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 0.5?g and 1?g/kg diet) for 35 days. Supplementation of OAB improved (P < .001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and increased protein accretion (P < .001). Dietary acidification caused pH of the gizzard to decline linearly (P < .01) with the dose of supplemental OAB. In the lower intestine, pH remained unaffected by dietary treatments. Unlike BMD, supplemental OAB selectively promoted growth of lactobacilli in the small intestine. Moreover, compared to BMD, OAB tended to maintain the villi in the small intestine at a greater height. Although benefits of exceeding the dose of supplemental organic acids more than 1?g/kg diet are not always conspicuous, based on the live weight and feed conversion data, supplementation of 2?g organic acid per kg diet may be recommended for total replacement of AGPs in broiler diet. PMID:20445787

Samanta, Saikat; Haldar, Sudipto; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

2010-01-01

450

Re-thinking the dietary supplement laws and regulations 14 years after the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act implementation.  

PubMed

In 1994, after intensive lobbying by the supplement industry, US federal legislation passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, and essentially removed so-called 'dietary supplements' from the US Food and Drug Administration control. Some companies are marketing herbal medications in the USA as dietary supplements. Even some dietary supplement manufacturers produce a 'mimic drug' rather than a 'dietary supplement'. The US Food and Drug Administration is able to do nothing except wait for the next incident to occur before other dietary supplement products have also caused serious effects. In the present article, the author discusses international regulations and laws of dietary supplements, and hopes to see more new laws and regulations to assure people of continued access to high-quality natural healthcare products and dietary supplements. PMID:19085198

Jiang, Tao

2009-06-01

451

Dietary Supplement Polypharmacy: An Unrecognized Public Health Problem?  

PubMed Central

Excessive and inappropriate use of medications, or ‘polypharmacy’, has been recognized as a public health problem. In addition, there is growing use of dietary supplements in the United States; however, little is known about the patterns of supplement use. Recent reports in the literature of cases of excessive or inappropriate use of herbal dietary supplements leading to the term ‘polyherbacy’. The clinical vignettes described in this article highlight the need for further research on the nature and extent of multiple and inappropriate dietary supplement use or ‘dietary supplement polypharmacy’. Clinical interviewing and population surveys both address this issue in complementary ways, and provide a further understanding of dietary supplement use patterns. PMID:18955288

Gryzlak, Brian M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Wallace, Robert B.

2010-01-01

452

[Whey protein and creatine as nutritional supplements].  

PubMed

Nutritional supplements are very popular especially among athletes although some studies show either controversial or even negative results. However, whey protein and creatine seem to have positive effects on muscle size, strength and athletic performance without major adverse effects and high costs. Most studies have shown that supplementation of whey protein can enhance muscle growth in response to resistance training. Some studies also suggest that whey may enhance recovery from heavy exercise and possibly decrease muscle damage and soreness. Creatine supplementation increases the intracellular pool of phosphocreatine in skeletal muscle. Phosphocreatine provides a reserve of energy to rapidly regenerate ATP, which is consumed as a result of muscle contraction. Creatine has been studied in hundreds of clinical trials and has shown benefits including increased muscle strength, power and size. PMID:21553504

Sundell, Jan; Hulmi, Juha; Rossi, Jari

2011-01-01

453

Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle function and is a contributing factor for cachexia, bone loss, and frailty. Resistance training produces several physiological adaptations which improve aging musculoskeletal health, such as increased muscle and bone mass and strength. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may further lead to greater physiological benefits. We performed meta-analyses which indicate creatine supplementation combined with resistance training has a positive effect on aging muscle mass and upper body strength compared to resistance training alone. Creatine also shows promise for improving bone mineral density and indices of bone biology. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training could be an effective intervention to improve aging musculoskeletal health. PMID:24190049

Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Forbes, Scott C

2014-04-01

454

Introduction: minimally invasive spine surgery video supplement.  

PubMed

This video supplement of Neurosurgery Focus is devoted to minimally invasive spine surgery. Minimally invasive spine surgery has gained popularity amongst patients and physicians over the past decade because it has been shown in select instances to lower blood loss and reduce length of hospital stay for appropriately selected candidates. This supplement includes videos from many of the leaders in the field. Pioneers like Frank LaMarca, Paul Park, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Juan Uribe, and Mike Wang have all sent in videos depicting minimally invasive spinal deformity surgery options. The supplement also includes videos from several different countries, demonstrating how widespread and nuanced minimally invasive spinal procedures have become. Drs. Barbagallo, Certo, Sciacca, and Albanese from Italy; Drs. Gragnaniello and Seex from Australia; and Drs. Liao, Wu, Huang, Wang, Chang, Cheng, and Shih from Taiwan have all sent in nuanced surgical videos that will be of interest to many viewers. I personally enjoyed viewing videos on lumbar degenerative disease surgery depicting unique surgical nuances to treat common problems. Dr. Beejal Amin, Dr. Harel Deutsch, Dr. Daniel Lu, and Dr. Adam Kanter have each submitted videos depicting lumbar decompression and/or fusion for lumbar degenerative stenosis and spondylosis. This supplement also included videos depicting the minimally invasive treatment of uncommon spinal pathologies as well. Videos from Dr. Fred Geisler, Dr. John O'Toole, and Dr. Noel Perin covered topics as varied as sacroiliac joint dysfunction, spinal arteriovenous malformations, and sympathetic chain surgery. I hope that you enjoy this issue of Neurosurgical Focus devoted to videos depicting the surgical nuances of minimally invasive spinal surgery. This video supplement has international appeal, and it has been an honor to be a guest editor on this superb supplement. PMID:23829838

Mummaneni, Praveen V

2013-07-01

455

Quality assurance issues in the use of dietary supplements, with special reference to protein supplements.  

PubMed

The use of dietary supplements is widespread in the general population, in athletes and recreational exercisers, and in military personnel. A wide array of supplements is available, but protein-containing products are consistently among the most popular, especially among those who engage in resistance training. There are significant risks associated with the use of unregulated dietary supplements. Risks include the absence of active ingredients, the presence of harmful substances (including microbiological agents and foreign objects), the presence of toxic agents, and the presence of potentially dangerous prescription-only pharmaceuticals. There is ample evidence of athletes who have failed doping tests because of the use of dietary supplements. There is also growing evidence of risks to health and of serious adverse events, including a small number of fatalities, as a result of supplement use. The risk associated with the use of protein powders produced by major manufacturers is probably low, and the risk can be further reduced by using only products that have been tested under one of the recognized supplement quality assurance programs that operate in various countries. Nevertheless, a small risk remains, and athletes, soldiers, and other consumers should conduct a cost-benefit analysis before using any dietary supplements. PMID:24027186

Maughan, Ronald J

2013-11-01

456

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).  

PubMed

Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23320910

Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

2013-01-01

457

Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Supplemental Feeding  

E-print Network

, and when more than 3 pounds of high energy supple- ments are used, it results in lower efficiency of feed conversion. E-63 05-01 Supplemental Feeding Bruce B. Carpenter and Charles R. Hart Assistant Professor and Extension Livestock Specialist, Associate..., and when more than 3 pounds of high energy supple- ments are used, it results in lower efficiency of feed conversion. E-63 05-01 Supplemental Feeding Bruce B. Carpenter and Charles R. Hart Assistant Professor and Extension Livestock Specialist, Associate...

Carpenter, Bruce B.; Hart, Charles R.

2001-05-31

458

Cell Host & Microbe, Volume 14 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

A in Drosophila are mediated by Rab11, PKA, and Epac. Figure S2, related to Figure 2. Figure S3: AdditionalG4>CtxAwingG4>CtxA+Rab11 wingG4>Rab11 SupplementalFigure2 AB CD EF GH Sec15-GFP wingG4>CtxA wingG4>CtxA wingG4>CtxA+Rab11 wingG4>CtxA+Rab11 DeltaDECad #12;Sec15-GFP Rab11 SupplementalFigure2,continued

Nizet, Victor

459

Hypocitraturia despite potassium citrate tablet supplementation.  

PubMed

Citrate supplementation is widely used in the prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis with hypocitraturia. Potassium citrate is the most commonly used citrate agent for this indication. In patients with chronic diarrheal syndromes, the absorption of potassium citrate can be affected. We describe a patient who presented with recurrent nephrolithiasis and chronic diarrhea and was found to have severe hypocitraturia despite citrate supplementation with potassium citrate tablets, likely due to inadequate gastrointestinal absorption of citrate from the slow-release wax-matrix tablets. PMID:17406150

Shenoy, Chetan

2006-01-01

460

The short-term effects of antioxidant and zinc supplements on oxidative stress biomarker levels in plasma: a pilot investigation  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if short-term Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) antioxidant and zinc supplementation affects biomarkers of oxidative stress, possibly serving as a predictor of their efficacy. Design Prospective interventional case series Methods Nineteen subjects, 12 with intermediate or advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (AREDS categories 3 or 4) and 7 non-AMD controls, were admitted to the Vanderbilt General Clinical Research Center and placed on a controlled diet for 7 days. Antioxidant and zinc supplements were stopped two weeks prior to study enrollment. Dietary supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E, 15 mg ?-carotene, 80 mg zinc oxide, and 2 mg cupric oxide per day was instituted on Study Day 2. Blood was drawn on Study Days 2 and 7, and plasma concentrations of cysteine (Cys), cystine (CySS), glutathione (GSH), isoprostane (IsoP), and isofuran (IsoF) were determined. Results Short-term AREDS supplementation significantly lowered mean plasma levels of CySS in participants on a regulated diet (p = 0.034). No significant differences were observed for Cys, GSH, IsoP, or IsoF. There were no significant differences between AMD patients and controls. Conclusions This pilot interventional study shows that a 5-day course of antioxidant and zinc supplements can modify plasma levels of CySS, suggesting that this oxidative stress biomarker could help predict how likely an individual is to benefit from AREDS supplementation. Further, CySS may be useful for the evaluation of new AMD therapies, particularly those hypothesized to affect redox status. PMID:22381365

Brantley, Milam A.; Osborn, Melissa P.; Sanders, Barton J.; Rezaei, Kasra A.; Lu, Pengcheng; Li, Chun; Milne, Ginger L.; Cai, Jiyang; Sternberg, Paul

2012-01-01

461

An international study on dietary supplementation use in dancers.  

PubMed

Little is known of the prevalence and motives of dietary supplement use amongst dancers from different cultures. Investigating supplement use, presumed effects, and other factors may be crucial for improving educational and nutritional advice provided for this cohort. Therefore, this study investigated the use of dietary supplements in 334 dancers from 53 countries, who completed a digitally based 35-question survey detailing demographic information and the use of dietary supplementation. Supplement use was prevalent amongst this international cohort, with 48% reporting regular supplement use. Major motives for supplement use were to improve health, boost immunity, and reduce fatigue. Forty-five percent believed that dancing increased the need for supplementation, whilst 30% recognized that there were risks associated with nutritional supplementation. The most frequently consumed supplements were vitamin C (60%), multivitamins (67%), and caffeine (72%). A smaller group of participants declared the use of whey protein (21%) or creatine (14%). Supplements were mainly obtained from pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Dancers recognized their lack of knowledge in dietary supplement use and relied on peer recommendations instead of sound evidence-based advice from acknowledged nutrition or health care professionals. This study demonstrates that dietary supplement use is internationally prevalent amongst dancers. Continued efforts are warranted with regard to information dissemination. PMID:25433260

Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

2014-12-01

462

Mapping the Nomological Network of Career Self-Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined degree to which personality hardiness, career beliefs, self-efficacy, and occupational choice status related to career self-efficacy among 181 college juniors and seniors. Results indicated that motivation, self-efficacy, occupational choice status, and commitment correlated significantly to career self-efficacy. (Author/NB)

Niles, Spencer G.; Sowa, Claudia J.

1992-01-01

463

Multifaceted Impact of Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Academic Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed the psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Found that parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children, children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, children's perceived social efficacy and ability to manage peer pressure,…

Bandura, Albert; And Others

1996-01-01

464

Teacher Efficacy and Diversity: Implications for Teacher Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teacher efficacy in the context of diversity, focusing on: whether elementary school teachers' feelings of efficacy would differ according to their students' language backgrounds; whether the teachers' feelings of efficacy in teaching standard English speaking students would relate to their feelings of efficacy in teaching…

Tasan, Andrea P.

465

Efficacy Methods to Evaluate Health Communication and Marketing Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy

W. Douglas Evans; Jennifer Uhrig; Kevin Davis; Lauren McCormack

2009-01-01

466

Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD.  

PubMed

Twenty children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were treated with either Ritalin (10 children) or dietary supplements (10 children), and outcomes were compared using the Intermediate Visual and Auditory/Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT) and the WINKS two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures and with Tukey multiple comparisons. Subjects in both groups showed significant gains (p less than 0.01) on the IVA/CPT's Full Scale Response Control Quotient and Full Scale Attention Control Quotient (p less than 0.001). Improvements in the four sub-quotients of the IVA/CPT were also found to be significant and essentially identical in both groups: Auditory Response Control Quotient (p less than 0.001), Visual Response Control Quotient (p less than 0.05), Auditory Attention Quotient (p less than 0.001), and Visual Attention Quotient (p less than 0.001). Numerous studies suggest that biochemical heterogeneous etiologies for AD/HD cluster around at least eight risk factors: food and additive allergies, heavy metal toxicity and other environmental toxins, low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets, mineral imbalances, essential fatty acid and phospholipid deficiencies, amino acid deficiencies, thyroid disorders, and B-vitamin deficiencies. The dietary supplements used were a mix of vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, amino acids, essential fatty acids, phospholipids, and probiotics that attempted to address the AD/HD biochemical risk factors. These findings support the effectiveness of food supplement treatment in improving attention and self-control in children with AD/HD and suggest food supplement treatment of AD/HD may be of equal efficacy to Ritalin treatment. PMID:12946241

Harding, Karen L; Judah, Richard D; Gant, Charles

2003-08-01

467

Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials involving 414 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements had higher concentrations of vitamin D in serum at term than those women who received no intervention or a placebo; however the magnitude of the response was highly heterogenous. Data from three trials involving 463 women suggest that women who receive vitamin D supplements during pregnancy less frequently had a baby with a birthweight below 2500 grams than those women receiving no treatment or placebo; statistical significance was borderline (RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.01). In terms of other conditions, there were no significant differences in adverse side effects including nephritic syndrome (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women); stillbirths (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women) or neonatal deaths (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women) between women who received vitamin D supplements in comparison with women who received no treatment or placebo. No studies reported on preterm birth, maternal death, admission to neonatal intensive care unit/special nursery or Apgar scores. Authors' conclusions Vitamin D supplementation in a single or continued dose during pregnancy increases serum vitamin D concentrations as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D at term. The clinical significance of this finding and the potential use of this intervention as a part of routine antenatal care are yet to be determined as the number of high quality trials and outcomes reported is too limited to draw conclusions on its usefulness and safety. Further rigorous randomised trials are required to evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. PMID:22336854

De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Pena-Rosas, Juan Pablo

2013-01-01

468

Effects of phosphatidylserine supplementation on exercising humans.  

PubMed

Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is a ubiquitous phospholipid species that is normally located within the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. PtdSer has been implicated in a myriad of membrane-related functions. As a cofactor for a variety of enzymes, PtdSer is thought to be important in cell excitability and communication. PtdSer has also been shown to regulate a variety of neuroendocrine responses that include the release of acetylcholine, dopamine and noradrenaline. Additionally, PtdSer has been extensively demonstrated to influence tissue responses to inflammation. Finally, PtdSer has the potential to act as an effective antioxidant, especially in response to iron-mediated oxidation. The majority of the available research that has investigated the effects of PtdSer supplementation on humans has concentrated on memory and cognitive function; patients experiencing some degree of cognitive decline have traditionally been the main focus of investigation. Although investigators have administered PtdSer through intravenous and oral routes, oral supplementation has wider appeal. Indeed, PtdSer is commercially available as an oral supplement intended to improve cognitive function, with recommended doses usually ranging from 100 to 500 mg/day. The main sources that have been used to derive PtdSer for supplements are bovine-cortex (BC-PtdSer) and soy (S-PtdSer); however, due to the possibility of transferring infection through the consumption of prion contaminated brain, S-PtdSer is the preferred supplement for use in humans. Although the pharmacokinetics of PtdSer have not been fully elucidated, it is likely that oral supplementation leads to small but quantifiable increases in the PtdSer content within the cell membrane.A small number of peer-reviewed full articles exist that investigate the effects of PtdSer supplementation in the exercising human. Early research indicated that oral supplementation with BC-PtdSer 800 mg/day moderated exercise-induced changes to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in untrained participants. Subsequently, this finding was extended to suggest that S-PtdSer 800 mg/day reduced the cortisol response to overtraining during weight training while improving feeling of well-being and decreasing perceived muscle soreness. However, equivocal findings from our laboratory might suggest that the dose required to undertake this neuroendocrine action may vary between participants.Interestingly, recent findings demonstrating that short-term supplementation with S-PtdSer 750 mg/day improved exercise capacity during high-intensity cycling and tended to increase performance during intermittent running might suggest an innovative application for this supplement. With the findings from the existing body of literature in mind, this article focuses on the potential effects of PtdSer supplementation in humans during and following exercise. PMID:16869708

Kingsley, Michael

2006-01-01

469

Dietary supplement users vary in attitudes and sources of dietary supplement information in East and West geographic regions: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Over 50% of adults currently use dietary supplements (DS) but manufacturers do not have to prove the safety or efficacy of a DS before it is marketed. Therefore, consumers may be exposed to inaccurate DS information, may lack confidence in choosing appropriate DS and may seek advice for usage. The objective of this study was to examine trends in usage, attitudes, and sources of information regarding DS according to geographic location, demographic group, and lifestyle choices. Methods Eligible individuals completed a 10-item researcher-developed survey tool to determine DS use, sources of DS information, and DS-related knowledge and attitudes over the previous year. Healthy participants (637 individuals aged 21–75 years) from two population-based cohorts that had been recruited for lipoprotein assessment studies at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts and University of California at Davis. Outcome measures included participants’ use, beliefs regarding essentiality of DS, confidence in choosing appropriate DS, and sources of information on DS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to examine differences in survey responses between groups. Results Of the total population 72.7% reported taking dietary supplements in the previous year. Those living on the West Coast (80.3%) had greater use than those living on the East Coast (60.7%). Those on the East Coast were more likely to believe DS were essential to health (48.7%) and to feel confident in choosing DS that were appropriate for them (51.0%). Overall, physicians were the most frequent source of DS information for more than 50% of participants on both coasts. Conclusion Because DS usage is widespread, health care providers and nutrition educators must encourage patients to discuss their DS use and be equipped to provide information conducive to safe, efficacious consumption. Tailoring interventions for healthcare providers, media sources, industry, and the public may allow for dissemination of up-to-date information regarding DS. PMID:23899171

2013-01-01

470

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND COLLECTIVE EFFICACY  

PubMed Central

Collective efficacy, or perception of mutual trust and willingness to help each other, is a measure of neighborhood social capital and has been associated with positive health outcomes including lower rates of assaults, homicide, premature mortality, and asthma. Collective efficacy is frequently considered a “cause”, but we hypothesized that environmental features might be the foundation for, or the etiology of personal reports of neighborhood collective efficacy. We analyzed data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study (LA FANS) together with geographical data from Los Angeles County to determine which social and environmental features were associated with personal reports of collective efficacy, including presence of parks, alcohol outlets, elementary schools and fast food outlets. We used multi-level modeling controlling for age, education, annual family income, sex, marital status, employment and race/ethnicity at the individual level. At the tract level we controlled for tract level disadvantage, the number of off-sale alcohol outlets per roadway mile; the number of parks and the number of fast-food outlets within the tract and within one-half mile of the tract’s boundaries. We found that parks were independently and positively associated with collective efficacy; alcohol outlets were negatively associated with collective efficacy only when tract level disadvantage was not included in the model. Fast food outlets and elementary schools were not linearly related to collective efficacy. Certain environmental features may set the stage for neighborhood social interactions, thus serving as a foundation for underlying health and well-being. Altering these environmental features may have greater than expected impact on health. PMID:17644395

Cohen, Deborah A; Inagami, Sanae; Finch, Brian

2009-01-01

471

Impact of Lactobacillus reuteri Supplementation on Anti-Helicobacter pylori Levofloxacin-Based Second-Line Therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has the potential burden of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. The occurrence of side effects is among the major drawbacks of such regimens. GI manifestations may be related to alterations in the intestinal microflora. Probiotics can prevent or reduce antibiotic-associated side effects and have an inhibitory effect on H. pylori. Methods. To define the efficacy of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation in H. pylori eradication and in preventing GI-associated side effects during a second-line levofloxacin triple therapy. 90 H. pylori-positive patients receive for 7 days a second-line triple therapy with esomeprazole, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin with L. reuteri for 14 days (group 1) and without probiotic supplementation (group 2). Each subject received a validated questionnaire to record symptoms everyday for 4 weeks from the start of therapy. H. pylori status and side effects were assessed 6 weeks after treatment. Results. The eradication rate was significantly influenced by probiotic supplementation with L. reuteri (group 1: 36/45, 80%; group 2: 28/45 62%; P < 0.05). The incidence of nausea and diarrhoea in group 1 was significantly lower than that in group 2. Conclusion. In H. pylori-positive subjects L. reuteri supplementation increases the eradication rate while reducing the incidence of the most common side effects associated with antibiotic therapy in second-line treatment. PMID:22690211

Ojetti, Veronica; Bruno, Giovanni; Ainora, Maria Elena; Gigante, Giovanni; Rizzo, Gianluca; Roccarina, Davide; Gasbarrini, Antonio

2012-01-01

472

49 CFR 1114.29 - Supplementation of responses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.29 Supplementation...who has responded to a request for discovery with a response that was complete...the modified procedure through new requests for supplementation...

2011-10-01

473

49 CFR 1114.29 - Supplementation of responses.  

... RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.29 Supplementation...who has responded to a request for discovery with a response that was complete...the modified procedure through new requests for supplementation...

2014-10-01

474

12 CFR Supplement I to Part 227 - Official Staff Commentary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Official Staff Commentary I Supplement I to Part 227 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Pt. 227, Supp. I Supplement I to Part 227—Official Staff Commentary Subpart...

2011-01-01

475

15 CFR Supplement No. 9 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

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2014-01-01

476

15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part... - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-01-01

477

15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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2013-01-01

478

15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 760—Interpretation The...

2014-01-01

479

15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 760—Interpretation The...

2011-01-01

480

15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 760 - Interpretation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 760—Interpretation The...

2012-01-01