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1

Efficacy of Supplementation in Filipino Children  

PubMed Central

Introduction: At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. Objective: The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Methodology: Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Study Design: Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. Results: A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25) of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12) of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13). Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC) count, with the level progression statistically significant. Conclusion: Overall, the results were statistically significant in terms of RBC count alone. Therefore, this study demonstrated that compliance with intake of supplementation is a factor in improving the hematological parameters of these subjects. To address iron deficiency anemia, a similar endeavor may establish a system of support in Lingap Center to ensure the screening and therapeutic management of this population.

Tayao, Charisse Marie S.

2015-01-01

2

Efficacy of over-the-counter nutritional supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 million people in the United States report using nutritional supplements. Most people are under the impression\\u000a that nutritional supplements offer health benefits and are closely regulated to ensure safety and efficacy. Unfortunately,\\u000a the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 allows for the promotion of nutritional supplements without review\\u000a by the United States Food and Drug

Michael H. Davidson; Chris T. Geohas

2003-01-01

3

Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

Powers, Michael

2004-01-01

4

Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 3% mepivacaine in irreversible pulpitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the efficacy of a supplemental intraosseous injection of 3% mepivacaine in mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Intraosseous injection pain, subjective heart rate increase, and pain ratings during endodontic treatment were also assessed.Study Design. Forty-eight patients with irreversible pulpitis received conventional inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Electric pulp testing was used to determine pulpal anesthesia. Patients who were

Deron Reisman; Al Reader; Robert Nist; Mike Beck; Joel Weaver

1997-01-01

5

Evidence of clinically relevant efficacy for dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.  

PubMed

Beyond the well-known effects on blood pressure (BP) of the DASH and the Mediterranean diets, a large number of studies have investigated the possible a BP-lowering effect from different dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, mostly antioxidant agents with a high tolerability and safety profile. In particular, a relatively large body of evidence support the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamin C, cocoa flavonoids, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, and aged garlic extract. However there is a need for data about the long-term safety of a large part of these products. Moreover, further clinical research is advisable to identify between the available active nutraceuticals and those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for widespread use in a general population with low added cardiovascular risk related to uncomplicated hypertension. PMID:23430658

Cicero, Arrigo F G; Borghi, Claudio

2013-06-01

6

Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho province were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing two groups receiving iron fortified instant noodles or iron supplementation for 6 months and a control group, with children in all groups having been dewormed. Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for haemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haemoglobinopathies analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on haemoglobin concentration, SF, TfR, body iron, and anaemic status as outcome variables. The improvement of haemoglobin, SF, and body iron level in the group receiving iron fortification was 42% (2.6 g/L versus 6.2 g/L), 20% (23.5 ?g/L versus 117.3 ?g/L), and 31.3% (1.4 mg/kg versus 4.4 mg/kg) of that in the iron supplementation group. The prevalence of anaemia dropped to 15.1% in the control group, with an additional reduction of anaemia of 8.5% in the iron supplementation group. The additional reduction due to iron fortification was 5.4%, which amounts to well over 50% of the impact of supplementation. In conclusion, the efficacy of iron fortification based on reduction of prevalence of anaemia, and on the change in haemoglobin level, is about half of the maximum impact of supplementation in case of optimal compliance. Thus, in a population of anaemic children with mild iron deficiency, iron fortification should be the preferred strategy to combat anaemia. PMID:17147795

Thi Le, Huong; Brouwer, Inge D; Burema, Jan; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

2006-01-01

7

Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity  

PubMed Central

The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day?1). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51?mL O2/kg?min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals. PMID:24967264

Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; Richard, Nicholas S.; Judge, Lawrence W.

2014-01-01

8

Versatile neutron NDA  

SciTech Connect

Non-destructive analysis (NDA) of bulk samples is a major tool in international safeguards and domestic MC&A. Yet, enhancements are needed to reduce inspection time, financial cost, and radiation exposure-while improving reliability and accuracy-particularly for mixtures of fissile and fertile isotopes. Perhaps the greatest remaining direction for NDA improvement is the development of a single controllable neutron source that would add versatility and capability. One of the primary prospects is a switchable radioactive neutron source (SRNS) that has been under advanced-concept development at Argonne with DOE funding. The SRNS would be in a sealed capsule that can be remotely switched on and off, or pulsed at a controllable rate. Li({alpha}, n) or Be({alpha}, n) reactions could give a choice of sub-threshold or hard-spectrum neutrons at yields ranging from 10{sup 4}/s to more than 10{sup 8}s. The SRNS would provide improved capabilities for (1) simultaneous or alternating interrogation with fast and slow neutrons, (2) detection of the first few seconds of delayed neutrons, (3) measurements in the presence of high neutron and/or gamma background, and (4) inspection of heterogeneous materials. When the neutrons are switched off, the source would be portable with vastly reduced shielding. Proof-of-concept with a single switchable plate has been established under laboratory conditions.

DeVolpi, A.

1995-07-01

9

The efficacy of vitamin D supplementation during a prolonged submarine patrol.  

PubMed

Submariners spend prolonged periods submerged without sunlight exposure and may benefit from vitamin D supplementation to maintain vitamin D status. The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily vitamin D supplementation on maintenance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during a 3-month submarine patrol. Submariners were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 16), 1,000 IU/day (n = 20), or 2,000 IU/day (n = 17). Anthropometrics, self-reported dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, serum markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) parameters of the tibia were determined before and after the patrol. Prior to departure, 49 % of the subjects were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Following the patrol, 25(OH)D increased in all groups (p < 0.001): 3.3 ± 13.1 (placebo), 4.6 ± 11.3 (1,000 IU/day), and 13 ± 14 nmol/L (2,000 IU/day). The changes in 25(OH)D levels were dependent upon the baseline concentration of 25(OH)D and body mass (p < 0.001). Osteocalcin increased by 38 % (p < 0.01), and pQCT analyses revealed small, yet significant increases in indices of tibial structure and strength (p < 0.05) that were independent of supplementation. These data suggest that vitamin D status was low prior to the patrol, and the subsequent changes in vitamin D status were dependent on the baseline 25(OH)D levels and body mass. Furthermore, short-term skeletal health does not appear to be negatively affected by 3 months of submergence in spite of a suboptimal response to vitamin D supplementation. PMID:25005834

Gasier, Heath G; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Colin R; McAdams, Douglas C; Lutz, Laura J; McClung, James P

2014-09-01

10

Efficacy of a Tier 2 Supplemental Root Word Vocabulary and Decoding Intervention with Kindergarten Spanish-Speaking English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 standard protocol supplemental intervention designed simultaneously to develop root word vocabulary and reinforce decoding skills being taught to all students in the core beginning reading program with kindergarten Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs). Participating students were…

Nelson, J. Ron; Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

11

Efficacy of a Tier 2 Supplemental Root Word Vocabulary and Decoding Intervention With Kindergarten Spanish-Speaking English Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 standard protocol supplemental intervention designed simultaneously to develop root word vocabulary and reinforce decoding skills being taught to all students in the core beginning reading program with kindergarten Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs). Participating students were drawn from six public elementary schools in the Midwest. Within classrooms,

J. Ron Nelson; Patricia F. Vadasy; Elizabeth A. Sanders

2011-01-01

12

The efficacy and safety of early supplementation of iron polymaltose complex in preterm infants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of early nonionic iron supplementation in preterm infants. Infants with gestational age < or = 32 weeks who were fed enriched human milk were assigned concurrently to receive 5 mg/kg/d enteral iron polymaltose complex (IPC) at 2 or 4 weeks of age. The levels of hemoglobin, reticulocytes, serum iron, ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor were recorded at 2, 4, and 8 weeks of age. The incidence of morbidities associated with prematurity and the need for red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) were recorded. The 2-week group (n = 32) had a better iron status than the 4-week group (n = 36) at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks of age. The incidence of morbidities associated with prematurity was not different among the groups ( P = 0.26). RBCT was required in one infants of the 2-week group and in 10 infants in the 4-week group ( P = 0.045). The number needed to treat to prevent one RBCT was five. Supplementation of 5 mg/kg/d enteral IPC to preterm infants fed enriched human milk as early as 2 weeks of age was more beneficial to iron status than at 4 weeks of age, and was associated with decreased need for RBCTs and no increase in the incidence of morbidities associated with prematurity. PMID:17304425

Arnon, Shmuel; Shiff, Yakov; Litmanovitz, Ita; Regev, Rivka H; Bauer, Sofia; Shainkin-Kestenbaum, Ruth; Bental, Yoram; Dolfin, Tzipora

2007-02-01

13

Efficacy of an oral hyaluronate and collagen supplement as a preventive treatment of elbow dysplasia.  

PubMed

One hundred and five Labrador dogs were randomly divided into two groups to determine the number of animals that develop elbow dysplasia when treated with an oral supplement compared to untreated ones. Efficacy of the oral treatment was also evaluated once illness was diagnosed. The supplement (Hyaloral) contained hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed collagen, glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and gamma oryzanol. Clinical evaluation of the elbow joints was completed at months 3, 6, 12, and 20 by orthopaedic evaluations, radiography, serologic and blood analysis, and veterinarian evaluation of dysplasia symptoms. All side effects were recorded. In the control group, 33.3% of the dogs developed radiographic evidence of elbow dysplasia compared to 18.5% in the treated group. Symptoms of dysplasia at 12 months differed between the treated (12.5%) and control (61.5%) animals, and were significantly different at 20 months (p < 0.05). Differences in lameness along with movement and swelling of the elbows between groups were observed after 12 months. The treated group had improved significantly by the last visit (p < 0.05). No adverse side effects were reported. In conclusion, oral treatment with Hyaloral may have a potential cumulative action that provides protection against dysplasia and significantly improves symptoms of elbow dysplasia. PMID:25234322

Martí-Angulo, Simón; García-López, Núria; Díaz-Ramos, Ana

2014-12-01

14

Efficacy of an oral hyaluronate and collagen supplement as a preventive treatment of elbow dysplasia  

PubMed Central

One hundred and five Labrador dogs were randomly divided into two groups to determine the number of animals that develop elbow dysplasia when treated with an oral supplement compared to untreated ones. Efficacy of the oral treatment was also evaluated once illness was diagnosed. The supplement (Hyaloral) contained hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed collagen, glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and gamma oryzanol. Clinical evaluation of the elbow joints was completed at months 3, 6, 12, and 20 by orthopaedic evaluations, radiography, serologic and blood analysis, and veterinarian evaluation of dysplasia symptoms. All side effects were recorded. In the control group, 33.3% of the dogs developed radiographic evidence of elbow dysplasia compared to 18.5% in the treated group. Symptoms of dysplasia at 12 months differed between the treated (12.5%) and control (61.5%) animals, and were significantly different at 20 months (p < 0.05). Differences in lameness along with movement and swelling of the elbows between groups were observed after 12 months. The treated group had improved significantly by the last visit (p < 0.05). No adverse side effects were reported. In conclusion, oral treatment with Hyaloral may have a potential cumulative action that provides protection against dysplasia and significantly improves symptoms of elbow dysplasia. PMID:25234322

García-López, Núria; Díaz-Ramos, Ana

2014-01-01

15

Efficacy of antithrombin III supplementation in animal models of fulminant Escherichia coli endotoxemia or bacteremia.  

PubMed

Plasma antithrombin III (ATIII) levels decrease early during gram-negative septicemia, and even a moderate decrease in this major inhibitor of the coagulation system is associated with serious disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Herein the efficacy of high-dose (at least 250 units/kg) ATIII supplementation in animal models of Escherichia coli endotoxemia or bacteremia is reported. An endotoxemic rat model demonstrated that: (1) DIC occurs very early, before the appearance of deleterious cardiovascular abnormalities; (2) ATIII prophylaxis attenuates DIC, metabolic dysfunction, and organ damage; (3) ATIII prophylaxis increases permanent survival; (4) ATIII treatment one hour after endotoxin challenge attenuates DIC, metabolic dysfunction, and organ damage, although not as well as when given prophylactically, and survival is not increased. An endotoxemic sheep pulmonary dysfunction model demonstrated that: (1) ATIII prophylaxis prevents the typical decrease in arterial oxygen partial pressure; (2) ATIII prophylaxis combined with alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor significantly attenuates indices of pulmonary dysfunction. An E. coli bacteremic baboon model demonstrated that ATIII prophylaxis and treatment significantly attenuate indices of DIC and organ damage and prevent death in an otherwise completely lethal dose bacterial challenge. In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with high doses of ATIII may be efficacious in disease states of impending disseminated intravascular coagulation, such as primary or secondary gram-negative septicemia. PMID:2679067

Emerson, T E; Fournel, M A; Redens, T B; Taylor, F B

1989-09-11

16

Efficacy and safety of Chlorella supplementation in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chlorella in 18 patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. METHODS: Eighteen adults with chronic infection by HCV genotype 1 received daily oral supplementation of Chlorella for 12 wk. Changes in the RNA levels of HCV, as well as those of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were evaluated following this treatment period. Paired t tests were conducted to compare the means of the different variables at the beginning and end of the study. Side effects and quality of life aspects were also compared between weeks 0 and 12 of the study period. RESULTS: A majority 84.61% of the patients had a significant decrease in their ALT levels from week 0 to week 12. Evaluation of side effects showed that Chlorella was well tolerated. Quality of life assessment showed that 76.9 of the participants reported an improvement in their energy levels and 46.1% reported an improvement in their perception of general health. Although 69.23% also showed a decrease in their AST levels, this was not statistically significant. Most patients that exhibited an improvement in their ALT and AST levels also showed a tendency toward a decreased HCV viral load. The HCV RNA levels showed a decrease in 69.23% of the patients, which along with changes in AST/ALT ratios from week 0 to week 12, these results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Chlorella supplementation was well tolerated in patients with chronic HCV and associated with a significant decrease in ALT liver enzyme levels. PMID:23467073

Azocar, Jose; Diaz, Arley

2013-01-01

17

Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area. PMID:18537692

Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

2008-06-01

18

Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects.

Andrea Petróczi; Declan P Naughton; Gemma Pearce; Richard Bailey; Andrew Bloodworth; Michael McNamee

2008-01-01

19

Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this LAB supplement in the management of nursing home residents. Methods Nineteen subjects (8M, 11F; mean age 77.1 ± 10.1) suffering with chronic constipation were assigned to receive LAB (3.0 × 1011 CFU/g) twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner) a day for 2 weeks in November 2008. Subjects draw up a questionnaire on defecation habits (frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool), and we collected fecal samples from the subjects both before entering and after ending the trial, to investigate LAB levels and inhibition of harmful enzyme activities. Results were tested with SAS and Student's t-test. Results Analysis of questionnaire showed that there was an increase in the frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit after LAB treatment, but there were no significant changes. And it also affects the intestinal environment, through significantly increase (p < 0.05) fecal LAB levels. In addition, tryptophanase and urease among harmful enzyme activities of intestinal microflora were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after LAB treatment. Conclusion LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation. PMID:20137076

2010-01-01

20

Efficacy of a Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel as a Tear Film Supplement: A Masked Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P?=?0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P?=?0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness. PMID:24914681

Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

2014-01-01

21

Efficacy of Supplemental Phonics-Based Instruction for Low-Skilled Kindergarteners in the Context of Language Minority Status and Classroom Phonics Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the efficacy of supplemental phonics instruction for 84 low-skilled language minority (LM) kindergarteners and 64 non-LM kindergarteners at 10 urban public schools. Paraeducators were trained to provide the 18-week (January–May) intervention. Students performing in the bottom half of their classroom language group (LM and non-LM) were randomly assigned either to individual supplemental instruction (treatment) or to classroom

Patricia F. Vadasy; Elizabeth A. Sanders

2010-01-01

22

Modern NDA needs at Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

As the missions within the nuclear weapons complex change, so do the accountability measurement needs. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements have played a key role in accounting for special nuclear materials (SNM), and as time goes on, more and more reliance is made on this type of measurement. Key questions NDA instrument designers ask are: Which isotopes are of interest? What matrix are they in? What other isotopes are present? What container configuration will it be measured through? What precision and accuracy is required? What level of resolution is required? At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the desire to make direct measurements of SNM isotopes has prompted the evaluation to these and other questions. This paper will outline the current NDA needs at SRS. The discussion includes the types of materials that require measurement ,including the very difficult waste measurements. The special challenges associated with these measurement efforts will also be discussed.

Holt, S.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

23

Design and fabrication of NDA standards  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Facility, TA-55, at Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently producing NDA calibration standards used by various laboratories in the DOE complex. These NIST traceable standards have been produced to calibrate NDA instruments for accountability measurements used for resolving shipper/receiver differences, and for accountability in process residues and process waste. Standards are needed to calibrate various NDA (Non-destructive Assay) instruments such as neutron coincidence counters, gamma-ray counters, and calorimeters. These instruments measure various ranges of nuclear material being produced in the DOE nuclear community. Los Alamos National Laboratory has taken a lead role in fabrication of uranium and plutonium standards, along with other actinides such as neptunium and americium. These standards have been fabricated for several laboratories within the complex. This paper will summarize previous publications detailing the careful planning encompassing components such as precise weighing, destructive analysis, and the use of post fabrication NDA measurements to confirm that the standards meet all preliminary expectations before use in instrument calibration. The paper will also describe the specialized containers, diluents, and the various amount of nuclear materials needed to accommodate the calibration ranges of the instruments.

Long, S.M.; Hsue, S.T.

1996-04-01

24

Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources and study selection PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov searched in June and November 2012. Two authors independently reviewed and selected eligible randomised controlled trials, based on predetermined selection criteria. Results Out of 2240 articles retrieved from databases and relevant bibliographies, 50 randomised controlled trials with 294?478 participants (156?663 in intervention groups and 137?815 in control groups) were included in the final analyses. In a fixed effect meta-analysis of the 50 trials, supplementation with vitamins and antioxidants was not associated with reductions in the risk of major cardiovascular events (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.02; I2=42%). Overall, there was no beneficial effect of these supplements in the subgroup meta-analyses by type of prevention, type of vitamins and antioxidants, type of cardiovascular outcomes, study design, methodological quality, duration of treatment, funding source, provider of supplements, type of control, number of participants in each trial, and supplements given singly or in combination with other supplements. Among the subgroup meta-analyses by type of cardiovascular outcomes, vitamin and antioxidant supplementation was associated with a marginally increased risk of angina pectoris, while low dose vitamin B6 supplementation was associated with a slightly decreased risk of major cardiovascular events. Those beneficial or harmful effects disappeared in subgroup meta-analysis of high quality randomised controlled trials within each category. Also, even though supplementation with vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular death in high quality trials, and vitamin E supplementation with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction, those beneficial effects were seen only in randomised controlled trials in which the supplements were supplied by the pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion There is no evidence to support the use of vitamin and antioxidant supplements for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23335472

2013-01-01

25

Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Background World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a premix added to F-75 and F-100. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for safety and effectiveness of high-dose VA supplementation (VAS) in treatment of children with SAM. Methods A comprehensive literature review was undertaken for all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies from 1950 to 2012. Studies identified for full review were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology using a set of pre-defined criteria: indirectness; inconsistency; imprecision; and study limitations. A quality rating of high, moderate, or low was then assigned to each study, and only those attaining moderate to high were considered in making recommendations. Results Of the 2072 abstracts screened, 38 met criteria for full review, and 20 were rated moderate to high quality. Only one study replicated the WHO VA protocol in children with SAM. Indirectness was a critical limitation, as studies were not exclusive to children with SAM. There was inconsistency across trials for definitions of malnutrition, morbidities, and ages studied; and imprecision arising from sub-group analyses and small sample sizes. Evidence showed improved outcomes associated with low-dose compared to high-dose VAS, except in cases presenting with signs of VAD, measles, and severe diarrhea or shigellosis. Adverse outcomes related to respiratory infection, diarrhea, and growth were associated with high-dose VAS in children who were predominantly adequately nourished. No adverse effects of the high dose were found in children with SAM in the trial that replicated the WHO VA guideline. Conclusion This is the first systematic review of the safety and efficacy of high-dose VAS in treatment of SAM. We recommend a low-dose VAS regimen for children with SAM, except in cases presenting with measles, severe diarrhea (shigellosis), and any indication of VAD. Further research is needed in exclusively malnourished children and to explore alternate delivery strategies. PMID:24028603

2013-01-01

26

Impact of folate supplementation on the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in preventing malaria in pregnancy: the potential of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate.  

PubMed

Malaria remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children under the age of 5 years and pregnant women. To counterbalance the malaria burden in pregnancy, an intermittent preventive treatment strategy has been developed. This is based on the use of the antifolate sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, taken at specified intervals during pregnancy, and reports show that this approach reduces the malaria burden in pregnancy. Pregnancy is also associated with the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), especially in women with low folate status, and folic acid supplementation is recommended in pregnancy to lower the risk of NTDs. Thus, in malaria-endemic areas, pregnant women have to take both antifolate medication to prevent malaria and folic acid to lower the risk of NTDs. However, the concomitant use of folate and antifolate is associated with a decrease in antifolate efficacy, exposing pregnant women to malaria. Thus, there is genuine concern that this strategy may not be appropriate. We have reviewed work carried out on malaria folate metabolism and antifolate efficacy in the context of folate supplementation. This review shows that: (i) the folate supplementation effect on antifolate efficacy is dose-dependent, and folic acid doses required to protect pregnant women from NTDs will not decrease antifolate activity; and (ii) 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, the predominant form of folate in the blood circulation, could be administered (even at high dose) concomitantly with antifolate without affecting antifolate efficacy. Thus, strategies exist to protect pregnant women from malaria while maintaining adequate folate levels in the body to reduce the occurrence of NTDs. PMID:24126794

Nzila, Alexis; Okombo, John; Molloy, Anne M

2014-02-01

27

Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and procedures  

SciTech Connect

Report No. 4 is precursory to Report No. 5 {open_quotes}Determination of the Quantity and Locations of the Pu Currently Retained in the Cimarron Fuel Plant Systems{close_quotes} which will be presented upon completion of the decontamination of the Cimarron Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility. This report presents the Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) procedures which were developed and used by Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (successor to Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation) to measure equipment hold-up of plutonium materials for inventory purposes during operation of the plant. These procedures are also used to measure plutonium contamination on the equipment removed from the Material Balance Areas (MBA`s) during final decontamination. Report No. 5 will compare the measurements taken during this final decontamination period to previous inventory hold-up measurements, the date will be statistically analyzed, and a long-term assessment of the performance of the NDA equipment will be described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

28

Methods and techniques of NDA (nondestructive assay)  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) refers to techniques and instruments developed to measure nuclear materials in the many forms in which they occur throughout the fuel cycle. These techniques were first developed to support nuclear safeguards inspections and nuclear material accountability; they are also used extensively for process and quality control. Most accountability measurements are based on analytical chemistry and require that a sample be drawn and analyzed destructively. Destructive analysis can not be applied to many of the product materials found in the fuel cycle, such as fuel rods and assemblies, because of their high monetary value. Also, many waste and scrap materials can not be adequately sampled for destructive analysis because of their heterogenous nature. This situation led to the development of nondestructive analysis techniques. This paper presents an overview of the major NDA techniques and instrumentation in use today. The instrumentation described below is now used frequently by safeguards inspectors and facility operators alike. 19 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Reilly, T.D.

1988-01-01

29

Efficacy of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and plasma homocysteine concentration in coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to conduct an updated meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to estimate the effect of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). An extensive search of PubMed was conducted to identify RCTs that compared folic acid with placebo therapy. The mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a measure of the correlation between folic acid supplementation and endothelial function/plasma homocysteine concentration. Of the 377 patients included in this analysis, 191 patients underwent folic acid supplementation and 186 individuals underwent placebo treatment. Compared with the use of a placebo, folic acid supplementation alone exhibited significant efficacy on increasing flow-mediated dilation (FMD; MD, 57.72 ?m; 95% CI, 50.14–65.31; P<0.05) and lowering the concentration of plasma homocysteine (MD, ?3.66 ?mol/l; 95% CI, ?5.44–?1.87; P<0.05; I2, 87%). There was no significant change in the response to end diastolic diameter, glyceryl-trinitrate diameter, heart rate, baseline and peak hyperemic flow and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the folic acid and placebo groups (P>0.05). Therefore, the meta-analysis indicated that 5 mg folic acid daily supplementation for >4 weeks significantly improved FMD and lowered the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with CAD. However, more RCTs are required in order to confirm these observations. PMID:24940394

YI, XIN; ZHOU, YANLI; JIANG, DINGSHENG; LI, XIAOYAN; GUO, YI; JIANG, XUEJUN

2014-01-01

30

Is Supplementation Efficacious in Maintaining Adequate Plasma Levels of Vitamin A and E for Thalassemic Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation? A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Thalassemia along with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can lead to major oxidative stress. Vitamins A and E are antioxidants which protect membrane from lipid peroxidation. We sought to determine for the first time, whether vitamins A and E supplementation is efficacious in maintaining or increasing plasma level of these vitamins in thalassemic children undergoing HSCT. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 50 children with ?-thalassemia major hospitalized for HSCT. Patients took a daily multivitamin. Plasma vitamins A and E levels were measured at four different times: on admission, HSCT day (day 0), day 7 and day 14 after HSCT. Findings : Plasma vitamin A and E were abnormal on admission in most patients (62.0% and 60.0% respectively). Ratio of patient with normal to abnormal plasma level of the vitamins improved from baseline to a peak on day 7 then deteriorated afterward until day 14. There was an increasingly positive correlation between daily oral intake and plasma vitamin A at different times, but plasma vitamin E showed inverse correlation at first which tended towards no correlation subsequently. In multivariate analysis, supplementation significantly changed plasma level of vitamin A at different measurement time (P=0.001) within study subjects. But, plasma level of vitamin E showed no significant difference (P=0.2). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that oral supplementation could have beneficial effects due to increasing plasma vitamin A level and preventing plasma vitamin E depletion.

Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Hamidieh, Amir-Ali; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Kazempanah, Sahebeh; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Mansouri, Ava; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

2014-01-01

31

Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a pre...

32

NDA issues with RFETS vitrified waste forms  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the purpose of determining the feasibility of using a segmented gamma scanner (SGS) to accurately perform non-destructive analysis (NDA) on certain Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) vitrified waste samples. This study was performed on a full-scale vitrified ash sample prepared at LANL according to a procedure similar to that anticipated to be used at RFETS. This sample was composed of a borosilicate-based glass frit, blended with ash to produce a Pu content of {approximately}1 wt %. The glass frit was taken to a degree of melting necessary to achieve a full encapsulation of the ash material. The NDA study performed on this sample showed that SGSs with either {1/2}- or 2-inch collimation can achieve an accuracy better than 6 % relative to calorimetry and {gamma}-ray isotopics. This accuracy is achievable, after application of appropriate bias corrections, for transmissions of about {1/2} % through the waste form and counting times of less than 30 minutes. These results are valid for ash material and graphite fines with the same degree of plutonium particle size, homogeneity, sample density, and sample geometry as the waste form used to obtain the results in this study. A drum-sized thermal neutron counter (TNC) was also included in the study to provide an alternative in the event the SGS failed to meet the required level of accuracy. The preliminary indications are that this method will also achieve the required accuracy with counting times of {approximately}30 minutes and appropriate application of bias corrections. The bias corrections can be avoided in all cases if the instruments are calibrated on standards matching the items.

Hurd, J.; Veazey, G.

1998-12-31

33

Efficacy of Enteral Supplementation Enriched with Glutamine, Fiber, and Oligosaccharide on Mucosal Injury following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.  

PubMed

The combination of glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharides (GFO) is thought to be beneficial for alleviating gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by chemotherapy. A commercial enteral supplementation product (GFO) enriched with these 3 components is available in Japan. We performed a retrospective study to test whether oral GFO decreased the severity of mucosal injury following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of 44 HSCT patients, 22 received GFO and 22 did not. Severity of diarrhea/mucositis, overall survival, weight loss, febrile illness/documented infection, intravenous hyperalimentation days/hospital days, engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and cumulative incidence of relapse were studied. Sex, age, performance status, diagnosis, disease status, and treatment variables were similar in both groups. There were fewer days of diarrhea grade 3-4 in patients receiving GFO than in those who did not (0.86 vs. 3.27 days); the same was true for days of mucositis grade 3-4 (3.86 vs. 6.00 days). Survival at day 100 was 100% in the GFO group, but only 77.3% for the patients not receiving GFO (p = 0.0091, log-rank test). Weight loss and the number of days of intravenous hyperalimentation were better in the GFO group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Although not significant, less gut bacterial translocation with Enterococcus species developed in the GFO group (p = 0.0728) than in the non-GFO group. Other outcomes were not affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative clinical study of GFO supplementation to alleviate mucosal injury after allo-HSCT. We conclude that glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharide supplementation is an effective supportive therapy to decrease the severity of mucosal damage in HSCT. PMID:25493082

Iyama, Satoshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Hashimoto, Akari; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Ibata, Soushi; Ono, Kaoru; Murase, Kazuyuki; Takada, Kohichi; Sato, Yasushi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Miyanishi, Koji; Akizuki, Emi; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Mizugichi, Toru; Takimoto, Rishu; Kobune, Masayoshi; Hirata, Koichi; Kato, Junji

2014-09-01

34

Efficacy of Enteral Supplementation Enriched with Glutamine, Fiber, and Oligosaccharide on Mucosal Injury following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The combination of glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharides (GFO) is thought to be beneficial for alleviating gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by chemotherapy. A commercial enteral supplementation product (GFO) enriched with these 3 components is available in Japan. We performed a retrospective study to test whether oral GFO decreased the severity of mucosal injury following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of 44 HSCT patients, 22 received GFO and 22 did not. Severity of diarrhea/mucositis, overall survival, weight loss, febrile illness/documented infection, intravenous hyperalimentation days/hospital days, engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and cumulative incidence of relapse were studied. Sex, age, performance status, diagnosis, disease status, and treatment variables were similar in both groups. There were fewer days of diarrhea grade 3–4 in patients receiving GFO than in those who did not (0.86 vs. 3.27 days); the same was true for days of mucositis grade 3–4 (3.86 vs. 6.00 days). Survival at day 100 was 100% in the GFO group, but only 77.3% for the patients not receiving GFO (p = 0.0091, log-rank test). Weight loss and the number of days of intravenous hyperalimentation were better in the GFO group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Although not significant, less gut bacterial translocation with Enterococcus species developed in the GFO group (p = 0.0728) than in the non-GFO group. Other outcomes were not affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative clinical study of GFO supplementation to alleviate mucosal injury after allo-HSCT. We conclude that glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharide supplementation is an effective supportive therapy to decrease the severity of mucosal damage in HSCT. PMID:25493082

Iyama, Satoshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Hashimoto, Akari; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Ibata, Soushi; Ono, Kaoru; Murase, Kazuyuki; Takada, Kohichi; Sato, Yasushi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Miyanishi, Koji; Akizuki, Emi; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Mizugichi, Toru; Takimoto, Rishu; Kobune, Masayoshi; Hirata, Koichi; Kato, Junji

2014-01-01

35

Emerging Supplements in Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

2012-01-01

36

Considerations for NDA in Waste and D and D Applications  

SciTech Connect

Non Destructive Assay (NDA) is a common tool for waste characterization, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) applications. However there are many things which must be considered in order to set up and run an efficient, cost effective, and successful NDA program for these applications. This paper covers some of these issues and points out examples of how they can affect the programmatic decisions. Most NDA programs were established initially based on measurements performed in a fixed geometry in a laboratory or process work environment. When the process is moved into the rugged environment of the D and D world, issues such as temperature variations, significant changes in background radiation levels, difficulties in operating the equipment when working in personal protective equipment (PPE), difficulties in setting up equipment in appropriate locations for performing measurements, all contribute to the possibility of additional measurement uncertainties or significant measurement errors which may not have been initially considered. For this reason, a good NDA program should have a strong technical lead, who is out in the field performing walk downs of the area and items to be measured, evaluating the problems which the operators are experiencing in performing field measurements, and writing easy to use measurement plans for upcoming measurements.

Gillespie, Bruce [Canberra Industries 2425 Stevens Center Drive, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

2008-01-15

37

Dietary supplements for football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplemens. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a

P. Hespel; R. J. Maughan; P. L. Greenhaff

2006-01-01

38

Safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 supplementation in early chronic Peyronie's disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study.  

PubMed

No oral medication has proved to be clearly beneficial for Peyronie's disease (PD). We investigated the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) supplementation in patients with early chronic PD. We conducted a randomized clinical trial of 186 patients with chronic early PD. Patients were randomly assigned to either 300 mg CoQ(10) daily (n=93) or similar regimen of placebo (n=93) for 24 weeks. Erectile function (EF), pain during erection, plaque volume, penile curvature and treatment satisfaction using patient versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire were assessed at baseline and every 4 weeks during study period. EF was assessed using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), and pain was evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10). All patients also responded to a Global Assessment Question, 'Has the treatment you have been taking during this study improved your erections?' After 24 weeks, mean IIEF-5 score, mean VAS score and mean EDITS score improved significantly in patients receiving CoQ(10) (all P<0.01). Mean plaque size and mean penile curvature degree were decreased in the CoQ(10) group, whereas a slight increase was noted in the placebo group (both P=0.001). Mean index of IIEF-5 in 24-week treatment period was 17.8 ± 2.7 in the CoQ(10) group and 8.8 ± 1.5 in the placebo group (P=0.001). Of the patients in CoQ(10) group, 11 (13.6%) had disease progression vs 46 (56.1%) in placebo group (P=0.01). In patients with early chronic PD, CoQ(10) therapy leads plaque size and penile curvature reduction and improves EF. PMID:20720560

Safarinejad, M R

2010-01-01

39

A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this direction, such as improving both the plutonium isotopic distribution measurement and the multiplicity counter, so that the assays can be performed on any plutonium samples instead of only pure oxides. Advances have also been made on uranium bulk measurements by the development of the active well coincidence counter. Meanwhile, several large bulk-handling facilities have been coming on line under IAEA safeguards. These facilities require full-time inspectors to be present whenever the plant is operating. The IAEA requested help so that measurements can be made even when inspectors are not present. The evolution and success of unattended NDA has been responsible for the capability of the IAEA to monitor large bulk-handling facilities without substantial increase in inspection effort. The integration of NDA with containment & surveillance measures and automation has been crucial to reducing inspection manpower. These systems have developed to the point where the IAEA can make credible conclusions on large high-throughput plants such as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication or reprocessing plants.

Sprinkle, J. K. (James K.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Hsue, S.-T. (Sin-Tao); Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.)

2001-01-01

40

The efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food SourceTM...

41

Performance of NDA techniques on a vitrified waste form  

SciTech Connect

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is currently considering the use of vitrified transuranic (TRU)-waste forms for the final disposition of several waste materials. To date, however, little nondestructive assay (NDA) data have been acquired in the general NDA community to assist in this endeavor. This paper describes the efforts to determine constraints and operating parameters for using NDA instrumentation on vitrified waste. The present study was conducted on a sample composed of a plutonium-contaminated ash, similar to that found in the RFETS inventory, and a borosilicate-based glass. The vitrified waste item was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using methods and equipment similar to those being proposed by RFETS to treat their ash material. The focus of this study centered on the segmented gamma scanner (SGS) with 1/2-inch collimation, a technique that is presently available at RFETS. The accuracy and precision of SGS technology was evaluated, with particular attention to bias issues involving matrix geometry, homogeneity, and attenuation. Tomographic gamma scanning was utilized in the determination of the waste form homogeneity. A thermal neutron technique was also investigated and comparisons made with the gamma results.

Hurd, J.R.; Veazey, G.W.; Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.; Ricketts, T.E.; Nakaoka, R.K.

1997-11-01

42

Combined Iron and Zinc Supplementation in Infants Improved Iron and Zinc Status, but Interactions Reduced Efficacy in a Multicountry Trial in Southeast Asia1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiencies of iron and zinc are prevalent worldwide. Interactions between these micronutrients thereforehave important consequences, also for supplementation. To investigate effectson hemoglobin and zinc concentrations and interactions of iron and zinc supplementation in infants, data from 4 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials in Indonesia,Thailand,andVietnamwerepooled.Infants(n ¼2468),aged4-6mo,weresupplementeddailywithiron(10mg) and\\/or zinc (10 mg) for 6 mo. At 3 sites, infants were given vitamin A

Frank T. Wieringa; Jacques Berger; Marjoleine A. Dijkhuizen; Adi Hidayat; Nguyen X. Ninh

43

Omurilik Yaralanmalar›nda Üst Ekstremite Tuzak Nöropatileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet Omurilik yaralanmal› hastalarda üst ekstremitelerde tuzak nöropatileri normal popülasyondan daha s›k gözlenmektedir. Ça- l›flmam›z›n amac›, omurilik yaralanmal› hastalar›m›zda üst ekstremite tuzak nöropati varl›¤› ve s›kl›¤›n› araflt›rmakt›r. Bu çal›flmaya, 4 aydan uzun süre önce travmatik omurilik yaralanmas› geçirmifl yafllar› 11 ila 56 aras›nda deiflen 31 hasta dahil edildi. Tüm hastalar›n hastal›k öyküsü, hastal›k süresi, yafl, cinsiyet, lezyon seviyesi, lezyon tipi

Nurten UZUN; Derya ULUDÜZ

44

PRECLINICAL RESEARCH CLINICAL RESEARCH NDA REVIEW Results from laboratory and animal  

E-print Network

PRECLINICAL RESEARCH CLINICAL RESEARCH NDA REVIEW IND Results from laboratory and animal research The researcher files a new drug application (NDA) based on the result of the clinical trial. To receive approval of treatment centers. PHASE IV This is a post-marketing phase, where the FDA may require the researcher

Kim, Duck O.

45

Adequacy of hyaluronan binding assay and a new fertility index derived from it for measuring of male fertility potential and the efficacy of supplement therapy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to statistically prove that the HBA(®) test is an efficient practical method for andrologists to determine the fertility potential as well as to measure the efficiency of oral supplement therapy in case of male infertility. In the study, 175 patients were involved and it also included the follow-up studies of 39 patients after supplement therapy. Completing the 'classic' spermatological parameters with the results of HBA(®) test, the authors have also determined a new fertility index to be used for practical rating of the measure of fertility potential. After the supplement therapy, both sperm density and hyaluronan binding capacity increased significantly. The authors are convinced that the HBA(®) analysis is an objective, standardisable test, which provides a better approach to fertility potential. This analysis enables us to detect spermatozoa that were previously misjudged as normal by morphological assay and also makes the efficiency of the therapy more measurable. PMID:24890860

Szucs, M; Osvath, P; Laczko, I; Jakab, A

2015-06-01

46

Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

Klann, R. T.

2000-02-29

47

Results from the first Waste and Residue NDA Measurements School  

SciTech Connect

The first Waste and Residue Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements School was given at Los Alamos on June 3--7, 1996. This school is a new part of the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Safeguards Training Program, with additional instructor support from the National Transuranic Waste Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Westinghouse savannah River Company, Pajarito Scientific Corporation, and Canberra Industries. The school was attended by 22 safeguards and waste measurement personnel from DOE facilities, and included lectures on waste characterization requirements, the WIPP Performance Demonstration Program, waste and residue NDA techniques, and a workshop discussion on waste assay issues. Hands-on training modules with 55-gallon-drum waste assay systems were held using a Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner, a Tomographic Gamma-ray Scanner, two Add-a-Source Waste-Drum Assay Systems, a Californium Shuffler, and a Differential Die-away system that included Combined Thermal-Epithermal Neutron Interrogation (CTEN). This paper will describe the new school and report on the measurement results obtained during the school with the above-mentioned waste-drum assay systems.

Ensslin, N.; Abhold, M.; Coop, K.; Prettyman, T.; Rinard, P.; Sheppard, G.; Smith, H.A.

1996-09-01

48

Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

49

Efficacy of multivitamin/mineral supplementation to reduce chronic disease risk: a critical review of the evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

abstract We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of MVM supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were examined. The majority of scientific studies investigating the use of MVM supplements in chronic disease risk reduction reported no significant effect. However, the largest and longest RCT of MVM supplements conducted to date, the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS II), found a modest and significant reduction in total and epithelial cancer incidence in male physicians, consistent with the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. In addition, PHS II found a modest and significant reduction in the incidence of nuclear cataract, in agreement with several other RCTs and observational, prospective cohort studies. The effects of MVM use on other subtypes of cataract and age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. Neither RCTs nor prospective cohort studies are without their limitations. The placebo-controlled trial design of RCTs may be inadequate for nutrient interventions, and residual confounding, measurement error, and the possibility of reverse causality are inherent to any observational study. National surveys show that micronutrient inadequacies are widespread in the US and that dietary supplements, of which MVMs are the most common type, help fulfill micronutrient requirements in adults and children. PMID:24941429

Angelo, Giana; Drake, Victoria J; Frei, Balz

2014-06-18

50

The efficacy of micronutrient supplementation in reducing the prevalence of anaemia and deficiencies of zinc and iron among adolescents in Sri Lanka  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of combined iron and zinc over the iron- or zinc-only supplementation in correcting deficiency and possible interactive effects in a group of adolescent school children. Subjects and methods: Schoolchildren (n=821) of 12–16 years of age were randomized into ...

51

Session 31B - Panel: Opportunities in the UK with the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA)  

SciTech Connect

The NDA participated in a panel session 31B on Wednesday afternoon starting at 3:15. The NDA is a non-departmental public body, set up in April 2005 under the Energy Act 2004 to take strategic responsibility for the UK's nuclear legacy. Details of their organization and history are located on their web site at www.nda.gov.uk. Also copies of their Power Point presentations made at WM'06 are available on their web site. Their core objective is to ensure that the 20 civil public sector nuclear sites under our ownership are decommissioned and cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment for this and future generations. They lead the development of a unified and coherent decommissioning strategy, working in partnership with regulators and site licensees to achieve best value, optimum impact on local communities, and the highest environmental standards. The NDA's main task is the decommissioning and clean up of civil nuclear sites. If the Government decides it is necessary, however, the Energy Act 2004 allows the NDA to take responsibility for sites currently operated by, or on behalf of, the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Resources will then be transferred from the MoD to meet the costs of clean up. The NDA made a number of presentations to allow conference delegates the opportunity to understand some of the major aspects of their work and to interact with NDA staff. These included the following topics and gave opportunity for audience discussion: - A brief presentation to update on progress by the NDA; - Outline of low level waste management and the prioritisation process; - Discussion of the competition schedule related to low level waste management and the Drigg site. The following presentations and handout were delivered in various sessions of the conference as noted below and are available on their web page including the WM'06 Plenary Session presentation by Sir Anthony Cleaver, Chairman of the NDA. During Session 31B, the following Power Point presentations were made. NDA Overview by David Hayes, Director of Special Projects National M and O Contractor Work Prioritisation Process by Mark Wareing, including topics on: - Need for prioritisation; - Development of the process; - Using the process as a measure of progress. Competition by Ron Gorham, Head of Procurement, including topics on: - The current model; - What NDA are actually competing; - The acquisition process; - NDA aspirations for competition; - NDA aspirations from the market. Low Level Waste Contracting in the UK by Adrian Simper, Expenditure and Programme Strategy Manager, including topics on: - Low Level Waste: NDA responsibilities, Definitions, Arisings; - Proposed NDA Procurement for LLW Management: Scope, Contracting approach, Timetable. The NDA responded to questions from the audience and also announced that the NDA will be holding a special Industry Day for potential contractors interested in the first NDA competition - the Low Level Waste Repository near Drigg in Cumbria. The event is scheduled on the 25-26 April 2006 with more details on their web site at www.nda.gov.uk. (authors)

Benda, Gary; Hayes, David; Gorham, Ron; Wareing, Mark; Simper, Adrian; Selby, Terry

2006-07-01

52

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

supplements containing multiple vitamins and minerals (MVMs) to help prevent chronic diseases. More than one-users? · What is the efficacy of single vitamin/ mineral supplement use in chronic disease prevention? · What, Issue 3 July 2006 Page 2 (The term MVM referred to any supplement containing three or more vitamins

Bandettini, Peter A.

53

RUMINATIONS ON NDA MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY COMPARED TO DA UNCERTAINTY  

SciTech Connect

It is difficult to overestimate the importance that physical measurements performed with nondestructive assay instruments play throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They underpin decision making in many areas and support: criticality safety, radiation protection, process control, safeguards, facility compliance, and waste measurements. No physical measurement is complete or indeed meaningful, without a defensible and appropriate accompanying statement of uncertainties and how they combine to define the confidence in the results. The uncertainty budget should also be broken down in sufficient detail suitable for subsequent uses to which the nondestructive assay (NDA) results will be applied. Creating an uncertainty budget and estimating the total measurement uncertainty can often be an involved process, especially for non routine situations. This is because data interpretation often involves complex algorithms and logic combined in a highly intertwined way. The methods often call on a multitude of input data subject to human oversight. These characteristics can be confusing and pose a barrier to developing and understanding between experts and data consumers. ASTM subcommittee C26-10 recognized this problem in the context of how to summarize and express precision and bias performance across the range of standards and guides it maintains. In order to create a unified approach consistent with modern practice and embracing the continuous improvement philosophy a consensus arose to prepare a procedure covering the estimation and reporting of uncertainties in non destructive assay of nuclear materials. This paper outlines the needs analysis, objectives and on-going development efforts. In addition to emphasizing some of the unique challenges and opportunities facing the NDA community we hope this article will encourage dialog and sharing of best practice and furthermore motivate developers to revisit the treatment of measurement uncertainty.

Salaymeh, S.; Ashley, W.; Jeffcoat, R.

2010-06-17

54

Efficacy of Whey Protein Supplementation on Resistance Exercise–Induced Changes in Lean Mass, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function in Mobility-Limited Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to mobility-limited older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplementation to an isocaloric control on changes in whole-body lean mass, mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, and stair-climbing performance in older mobility-limited adults in response to 6 months of resistance training (RT). Methods. Eighty mobility-limited adults aged 70–85 years were randomized to receive WPC (40g/day) or an isocaloric control for 6 months. All participants also completed a progressive high-intensity RT intervention. Sample sizes were calculated based on the primary outcome of change in whole-body lean mass to give 80% power for a 0.05-level, two-sided test. Results. Lean mass increased 1.3% and 0.6% in the WPC and control groups, respectively. Muscle cross-sectional area was increased 4.6% and 2.9% in the WPC and control groups, respectively, and muscle strength increased 16%–50% in WPC and control groups. Stair-climbing performance also improved in both groups. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the change in any of these variables between groups. Conclusions. These data suggest that WPC supplementation at this dose does not offer additional benefit to the effects of RT in mobility-limited older adults. PMID:23114462

2013-01-01

55

Review and Ranking of NDA Techniques to Determine Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

A number of efforts are under way to improve nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) safeguard applications. These efforts have largely focused on advancing individual NDA approaches to assay plutonium content. Although significant improvements have been made in NDA techniques, relatively little work has been done to thoroughly and systematically compare the methods. A comparative review of the relative strengths and weaknesses of current NDA techniques brings a new perspective to guide future research. To gauge the practicality and effectiveness of the various relevant NDA approaches, criteria have been developed from two broad categories: functionality and operability. The functionality category includes accuracy estimates, measurement time, plutonium verification capabilities, and assembly or fuel rod assay. Since SNF composition changes with operational history and cooling times, the viability of certain NDA approaches will also change over time. While active interrogation approaches will benefit from reduced background radiation, passive assays will lose the information contained in short-lived isotopes. Therefore, the expected assay accuracy as a function of time is considered. The operability category attempts to gauge the challenges associated with the application of different NDA techniques. This category examines the NDA deploy-ability, measurement capabilities and constraints in spent fuel pools, required on-site facilities, NDA technique synergies, and the extent to which the measurements are obtrusive to the facility. Each topic listed in the categories will be given a numerical score used to rank the different NDA approaches. While the combined numerical score of each technique is informative, the individual-topic scoring will allow for a more-tailored ranking approach. Since the needs and tools of the International Atomic Energy Agency differ from those of a recycling facility, the best assay technique may change with users and SNF characteristics. This ranking system will also examine the merits of a staged inspection with quick measurements followed by more-accurate assays of suspicious SNF. The final results of this ranking process will be used to guide the NDA safeguards research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Cheatham, Jesse R [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

56

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

57

CSER 94-015: New portable NDA equipment for use in SNM audits  

SciTech Connect

A criticality safety review is presented for the use of two portable NDA detectors from Los Alamos during an IAEA inspection of the SNM at PFP. The units are an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and a High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC). Approval for their employment is based on the inherent safety of the containers to be assayed, one at a time, and because their designs conform with the acceptability criteria which allow the other NDA detectors currently employed at the facility.

Hess, A.L.

1994-12-12

58

Impact of NDA Uncertainites on NCS at the K-25 Site  

SciTech Connect

The K-25 Building at the East Tennessee Technology Park is relying on the use of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) methods for characterizing hold-up materials in process equipment. The characterization data is used for many purposes including mass estimates for nuclear criticality safety (NCS) and waste disposition. This paper addresses the sensitivity of certain parameters in the NDA process to overall mass measurement results.

Kevin Kimball (NISYS Corp.), Ian Gauld (ORNL)

2008-05-29

59

Exact Analysis of Different Detector Algorithms for NDA Carrier Phase Recovery of 16-APSK Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the new digital video broadcasting standard for satellite communications (DVB-S2), 16-ary amplitude-phase shift keying (APSK) is recommended as modulation scheme, together with 2\\/4\\/8-PSK and 32-APSK as alternatives. For carrier phase recovery with feedback loops, decision-directed (DD) and non- data aided (NDA) detector algorithms are basically applicable to 16-APSK schemes. In a recent paper, however, a hybrid NDA\\/DD solution has

W. Gappmair; O. Koudelka; S. Cioni; A. Vanelli-Coralli

2007-01-01

60

Nutrition and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

1999-08-01

61

Supplemental Material Supplemental methods  

E-print Network

Photoshop using regions similar to those shown in Supplemental figure 1. Technetium experiments. Technetium-99m experiments were done by labeling Suc-e9-xPLG(MeC)Ax-r9-k(DTPA) (MeC = methylcysteine) peptide with technetium-99m and injecting the probe intravenously into animals (n=3). Organs were counted using a gamma

Tsien, Roger Y.

62

The efficacy of vitamin C supplementation on reducing total serum cholesterol in human subjects: a review and analysis of 51 experimental trials  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Observational studies in humans have shown an inverse relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and total serum cholesterol. However, experimental studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the ability of vitamin C to reduce total serum cholesterol. Methods Published reports of trials studying the effects of vitamin C on serum lipids were identified by a search of Medline from 1966 to 2004. Data from 51 experimental studies comprising of 1666 pooled subjects were selected for analysis. Results A very strong negative association was observed between baseline total serum cholesterol and the percent change in cholesterol (r = ?0.585, p<0.001). When subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their baseline total serum cholesterol levels, the following weighted mean percent changes in cholesterol from baseline were observed: normal cholesterol (<199mg/dl): 0.91±6.8% (n=508); borderline high cholesterol (200–239mg/dl): 3.90±5.78% (n=605); high cholesterol (240–279mg/dl): 11.40±7.96% (n=300); severe cholesterol (>280mg/dl): 14.30±8.36% (n=253). A significant inverse relationship was found between the baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations and mean percent change in total cholesterol from baseline (r = ?0.500, p<0.005). It was also observed that the high and severe baseline cholesterol groups possessed lower baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations than those in the normal cholesterol groups (0.79 and 0.55 versus 1.24 mg/dl respectively). Conclusion This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the cholesterol lowering and cardio-protective benefit of vitamin C supplementation may be in its ability to elevate plasma vitamin C concentrations in those patients who initially possess lower than normal vitamin C plasma concentrations. PMID:19674666

McRae, Marc P.

2006-01-01

63

Older Adults Who Use Vitamin\\/Mineral Supplements Differ from Nonusers in Nutrient Intake Adequacy and Dietary Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo measure nutrient intake adequacy of vitamin\\/mineral supplement users and nonusers aged 51 years and older, determine the efficacy of supplement practices in compensating for dietary deficits, and identify predictors of supplement use.

Rhonda S. Sebastian; Linda E. Cleveland; Joseph D. Goldman; Alanna J. Moshfegh

2007-01-01

64

The efficacy and safety study of dietary supplement PURIAM110 on non-insulin taking Korean adults in the stage of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus: protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multicenter trial-pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has already become a threat to the nation and the individual due to its high prevalence rates and high medical expenses. Therefore, preventing diabetes at an earlier stage is very important. Despite advances in antidiabetic agents, we have not yet achieved any satisfying results in treating diabetes. Among various treatments, medicinal herbs and supplements for diabetes are reported to show generally good efficacy and safety data. In particular, PURIAM110, a compound from orange fruits and mulberry leaves, is supposed to prevent the progress of type II diabetes mellitus and improve diabetic symptoms. This is the first reported pilot study about the protective effect of the orange fruits and mulberry leaves mixture against pre-diabetes on Korean adults. Based on these positive results of herb-derived components, extended studies of dietary supplements have to be done to suggest confirmative evidences. Methods/Design The efficacy and safety study of PURIAM110 is a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, and multi-center clinical trial. A total of 45 subjects will participate in this study for 6 weeks. Discussion The present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of PURIAM110 for pre-diabetes, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). In addition, PURIAM110 can be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for diabetes patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN44779824 PMID:21310088

2011-01-01

65

75 FR 21298 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; VIMPAT -NDA 22-253  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...application (NDA) 22-253 for VIMPAT TABLETS and is publishing this notice of that...product, VIMPAT (lacosamide). VIMPAT tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy in...application (NDA 22-253) for VIMPAT tablets was submitted on September 28,...

2010-04-23

66

Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals  

PubMed Central

This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

Williams, Melvin

2006-01-01

67

Biofortified orange maize is as efficacious as a vitamin A supplement in Zambian children even in the presence of high liver reserves of vitamin A: a community-based, randomized placebo-controlled trial123456  

PubMed Central

Background: Biofortification is a strategy to relieve vitamin A (VA) deficiency. Biofortified maize contains enhanced provitamin A concentrations and has been bioefficacious in animal and small human studies. Objective: The study sought to determine changes in total body reserves (TBRs) of vitamin A with consumption of biofortified maize. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled biofortified maize efficacy trial was conducted in 140 rural Zambian children. The paired 13C-retinol isotope dilution test, a sensitive biomarker for VA status, was used to measure TBRs before and after a 90-d intervention. Treatments were white maize with placebo oil (VA?), orange maize with placebo (orange), and white maize with VA in oil [400 ?g retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) in 214 ?L daily] (VA+). Results: In total, 133 children completed the trial and were analyzed for TBRs (n = 44 or 45/group). Change in TBR residuals were not normally distributed (P < 0.0001); median changes (95% CI) were as follows: VA?, 13 (?19, 44) ?mol; orange, 84 (21, 146) ?mol; and VA+, 98 (24, 171) ?mol. Nonparametric analysis showed no statistical difference between VA+ and orange (P = 0.34); both were higher than VA? (P = 0.0034). Median (95% CI) calculated liver reserves at baseline were 1.04 (0.97, 1.12) ?mol/g liver, with 59% >1 ?mol/g, the subtoxicity cutoff; none were <0.1 ?mol/g, the deficiency cutoff. The calculated bioconversion factor was 10.4 ?g ?-carotene equivalents/1 ?g retinol by using the middle 3 quintiles of change in TBRs from each group. Serum retinol did not change in response to intervention (P = 0.16) but was reduced with elevated C-reactive protein (P = 0.0029) and ?-1-acid glycoprotein (P = 0.0023) at baseline. Conclusions: ?-Carotene from maize was efficacious when consumed as a staple food in this population and could avoid the potential for hypervitaminosis A that was observed with the use of preformed VA from supplementation and fortification. Use of more sensitive methods other than serum retinol alone, such as isotope dilution, is required to accurately assess VA status, evaluate interventions, and investigate the interaction of VA status and infection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01814891. PMID:25411289

Gannon, Bryan; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A; Schmaelzle, Samantha; Chileshe, Justin; Kalungwana, Ngándwe; Mosonda, Mofu; Pixley, Kevin; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

2014-01-01

68

Nutritional supplements for the treatment of ADHD.  

PubMed

Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appears to have modest benefit for improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Many other natural supplements are widely used in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side effects. This review synthesizes and evaluates the scientific evidence regarding the potential efficacy and side effects of natural supplements and herbal remedies for ADHD. We provide clinicians with recommendations regarding their potential use and role in overall ADHD treatment. PMID:25220092

Bloch, Michael H; Mulqueen, Jilian

2014-10-01

69

Dietary supplements.  

PubMed

The amount of published information on dietary supplements mushroomed in the 1990s. In fewer than 5 years, publications increased at least 100-fold in the medical literature alone. Dietary supplements are an uncharted territory that warrants complete and accurate exploration. One should not be surprised that disease and illness may respond to dietary supplements. Nutrition is the foundation to good health, and dietary supplements may prove to be some of the most powerful medicines ever discovered. An especially exciting discovery is that dietary supplements may enhance the effects of specific drugs. This discovery may lead to more effective and safer protocols for the treatment of cancer, heart and lung disease, and a host of chronic medical conditions. Information about dietary supplements is becoming more common in the popular medical literature and is creating increased curiosity and an increased awareness. The explosion of the dietary supplement market is compelling physicians to become aware of dietary supplements. Whether or not they are used in clinical practice is a decision for the individual physician. Given the increasing number of patients who are using dietary supplements, however, it is imperative that physicians have a good understanding of this topic. Considering the increasing complexity and magnitude of this topic, physician specialization may be essential. There are many good reference books, review articles, and internet sites on specific supplements that probably should be part of every physician's reference library. The accompanying box provides a brief list of such sources. PMID:11795085

Massey, Patrick B

2002-01-01

70

Dietary supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of

RON J. MAUGHAN; DOUG S. KING; Trevor Lea

2004-01-01

71

Dietary supplements.  

PubMed

For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

2004-01-01

72

Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends Supp. Fig. 1. Fluorescence images of 3-D clusters labeled nuclei, and green is rhodamine dextran blood pool. Scale bar is 20 m. Supplementary Material (ESI Supplementary Material (ESI) for Integrative Biology This journal is (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009 #12

Tsien, Roger Y.

73

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

74

NRF-Based NDA of Nuclear Material Using Monochromatic ?-Ray Beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is useful for nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials such as spent nuclear fuel. Counting precision of the NRF-based measurement system can be affected by background counts from self-activity of spent fuel and coherent scattering such as Rayleigh, nuclear Thomson, and Delbrück scattering. In this talk, the measurement principle and calculated uncertainties of the proposed detection system are presented.

Shizuma, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Angell, C. T.; Hajima, R.; Minato, F.; Suyama, K.; Seya, M.; Johnson, M. S.; McNabb, D. P.

2015-10-01

75

Development of NDA instruments for the Los Alamos SIS (Special Isotope Separation) Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Alamos Special Isotope Separation Facility produces special plutonium isotopes and converts plutonium scrap by using the molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) process in a gaseous plutonium hexafluoride (PuFâ) phase. To provide important process-development and accountability information, we have developed and installed four nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for that facility. These instruments are (1) an in-line plutonium isotopic analysis

T. K. Li; P. M. Rinard; C. M. Schneider; J. D. Atencio; D. H. Hyman; K. E. Kroncke; R. Siebelist; O. Holbrooks; J. K. Halbig

1989-01-01

76

ML-oriented NDA carrier synchronization for general rotationally symmetric signal constellations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We point out that the nondecision-aided (NDA) carrier synchronizer, maximizing the low Es\\/No limit of the likelihood function averaged over a general 2?\\/N-rotationally symmetric signal constellation, reduces to the familiar timing-aided Nth power synchronizer; this extends a result of D'Andrea, Mengali and Reggiannini (1988) where only M-PSK constellations have been considered. Whereas in the case of M-PSK the tracking error

Marc Moeneclaey; Geert de Jonghe

1994-01-01

77

A new detection algorithm (NDA) based on fuzzy cellular neural networks for white blood cell detection.  

PubMed

White blood cell detection is one of the most basic and key steps in the automatic recognition system of white blood cells in microscopic blood images. Its accuracy and stability greatly affect the operating speed and recognition accuracy of the whole system. But there are only a few methods available for cell detection or segmentation due to the complexity of the microscopic images. This paper focuses on this issue. Based on the detailed analysis of the existing two methods--threshold segmentation followed by mathematical morphology (TSMM), and the fuzzy logic method--a new detection algorithm (NDA) based on fuzzy cellular neural networks is proposed. NDA combines the advantages of TSMM and the fuzzy logic method, and overcomes their drawbacks. With NDA, we can detect almost all white blood cells, and the contour of each detected cell is nearly complete. Its adaptability is strong and the running speed is expected to be comparatively high due to the easy hardware implementation of FCN. Experimental results show good performance. PMID:16445244

Shitong, Wang; Min, Wang

2006-01-01

78

Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

2009-01-01

79

A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGE spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 55% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays.

Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

1996-12-31

80

Potassium Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... vegetables, and other plant sources such as nuts, seeds, whole grains, and beans is likely to be ... the FDA wrote new rules to improve the quality of manufacturing for dietary supplements and the proper ...

81

Sports Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... supplements. Instead, try these tips for getting better game: Make downtime a priority. Studies show that teens ... Meditating or visualizing your success during the next game may improve your performance; sitting quietly and focusing ...

82

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Figure 2. Culture-based example of issue regarding the correct identification is based on the formulation of Evans and Parslow (1985), with slight modifications following Moore et al latitude and based on the light model of Evans and Parslow (1985). As in Evans and Parslow (1985

Boss, Emmanuel S.

83

Dietary supplements commonly used for prevention.  

PubMed

The use of complimentary and alternative medicine is on the rise. This article reviews some of the commonly used herbal supplements and others focusing mainly on disease prevention. A summary table of medical conditions is provided, and when possible, a summary of efficacy and safety is provided to facilitate decision making. PMID:18928828

Najm, Wadie; Lie, Désirée

2008-12-01

84

Production of NDA Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project  

SciTech Connect

The production of Non Destructive Assay (NDA) Working Reference Materials (WRMs) that are traceable to nationally recognized standards was undertaken to support implementation of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project (CEP). The WRMs produced for the CEP project consist of Increased Am/Pu mass ration (IAP) and depleted Uranium (DU) WRMs. The CEP IAP/DU WRM set provides radioactive material standards for use in combination with 55 gallon drum waste matrix surrogates for the assessment of waste NDA assay system performance. The Production of WRMs is a meticulous process that is not without certain trials and tribulations. Problems may arise at any of the various stages of WRM production which include, but are not limited to; material characterization (physical, chemical, and isotopic), material blend parameters, personnel radiation exposure, gas generation phenomenon, traceability to national standards, encapsulation, statistical evaluation of the data, and others. Presented here is an overall description of the process by which the CEP WRMs were produced and certified as well as discussions pertaining to some of the problems encountered and how they were solved.

Noll, P.D. Jr.; Marshall, R.S.

1998-11-17

85

Portable NDA equipment for enrichment measurements for the HEU transparency program  

SciTech Connect

In October 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) and MINATOM agreed to use portable non-destructive assay (NDA) equipment to measure the {sup 235}U enrichment of material subject to the HEU Transparency agreement. A system based on the ''enrichment meter'' method and high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors had been previously developed for this application. Instead, sodium iodide (NaI) detectors were chosen to measure {sup 235}U enrichment because HPGe systems might reveal sensitive information. Although the accuracy of the NaI systems is less than an HPGe system, it still satisfies the transparency requirements. The equipment consists of a collimated NaI detector, a Canberra Inspector Multi-channel Analyzer, and a laptop computer. The units have been used to confirm the enrichment of material at Russian facilities since January 1997. This paper compares the performance of the NaI systems with the HPGe system and discusses some significant differences.

Decman, D J; Glaser, J; Hernandez, J M; Luke, S J

1999-07-20

86

A hybrid approach to the neutron transport K-eigenvalue problem using NDA-based algorithms  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide more physically accurate solutions to the neutron transport equation it has become increasingly popular to use Monte Carlo simulation to model nuclear reactor dynamics. These Monte Carlo methods can be extremely expensive, so we turn to a class of methods known as hybrid methods, which combine known deterministic and stochastic techniques to solve the transport equation. In our work, we show that we can simulate the action of a transport sweep using a Monte Carlo simulation in order to solve the k-eigenvalue problem. We'll accelerate the solution using nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) as in [1,2]. Our work extends the results in [1] to use Monte Carlo simulation as the high-order solver. (authors)

Willert, J. A.; Kelley, C. T. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Knoll, D. A.; Park, H. [Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01

87

Portable NDA Equipment for Enrichment Measurements in the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program has used portable nondestructive assay (NDA) equipment to measure the {sup 235}U enrichment of material subject to the transparency agreement since 1997. The equipment is based on the 'enrichment meter' method and uses low-resolution sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors. Although systems using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors can produce more accurate results we have found that the results with NaI(Tl) detectors are quite adequate for the requirements of the transparency agreement. This paper will describe the details of the equipment's operation, calibration, testing, and deployment in Russia. We will also provide a comparison of the units originally deployed in 1997 with the upgraded systems that were deployed in 2003.

Decman, D J; Bandong, B B; Wong, J L; Valentine, J D; Luke, S J

2008-06-02

88

MUD and Self Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

Lee, Kwan Min

2000-01-01

89

Wading through the quagmire: making sense of dietary supplement utilization.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, numerous studies conducted in the United States have attempted to estimate the prevalence of supplement use among the population (e.g., the National Health and Nutrition Survey and the National Health Interview Surveys). Despite these efforts, the true extent of supplement use is unclear. The literature pertaining to the prevalence of supplement use refers to a confusing array of ambiguous terms. Forming accurate conclusions about supplement use is confounded by differences in terminology and methodology between studies. Direct comparisons between studies are therefore inherently problematic. The emphasis in future investigations should be on standardizing the study design; recording data on daily, weekly, or even monthly use in order to establish the safety and efficacy of supplement use; and adopting a consistent, uniform definition of the term supplement. PMID:15384918

Brownie, Sonya; Myers, Stephen

2004-07-01

90

OLDER ADULTS WHO USE VITAMIN/MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS DIFFER FROM NONUSERS IN NUTRIENT INTAKE ADEQUACY AND DIETARY ATTITUDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to measure nutrient intake adequacy of vitamin/mineral supplement users and nonusers 51 years and older, determine the efficacy of current supplement practices, and identify predictors of supplement use. Two 24-hour recalls, and demographic and attitude information fro...

91

Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice

Brenda Hartman-Craven; Anna Christofides; Deborah L O'Connor

2009-01-01

92

Intercollegiate student athlete use of nutritional supplements and the role of athletic trainers and dietitians in nutrition counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of university student athletes was conducted to determine supplement use, perceived efficacy of supplements, availability and use of nutrition services, and perceived nutrition knowledge of athletic trainers. Results from 236 athletes showed that 88% used one or more nutritional supplements, yet perceived efficacy was moderate (2.9 or less; 5-point scale). Classes (69.4%), brochures (75%), and individual counseling (47%)

Robert D. Burns; M. Rosita Schiller; Mark A. Merrick; Kay N. Wolf

2004-01-01

93

?-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update.  

PubMed

?-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic ?-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that ?-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. ?-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with ?-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from ?-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using ?-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. ?-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic potential of ?-alanine supplementation for elite athletes performing repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports which require repeated maximal efforts (e.g., rugby and soccer), needs scientific confirmation. PMID:24276304

Bellinger, Phillip M

2014-06-01

94

Using NDA Techniques to Improve Safeguards Metrics on Burnup Quantification and Plutonium Content in LWR SNF  

SciTech Connect

Globally, there exists a long history in reprocessing in evaluation of the shipper/receiver difference (SRD) on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) received and processed. Typically, the declared shipper s values for uranium and plutonium in SNF (based on calculations involving the initial manufacturer s data and reactor operating history) are used as the input quantities to the head-end process of the facility. Problems have been encountered when comparing these values with measured results of the input accountability tank contents. A typical comparison yields a systematic bias indicated as a loss of 5 7 percent of the plutonium (Pu) and approximately 1 percent for the uranium (U). Studies suggest that such deviation can be attributed to the non-linear nature of the axial burnup values of the SNF. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Texas A&M University are co-investigating the development of a new method, via Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques, to improve the accuracy in burnup and Pu content quantification. Two major components have been identified to achieve this objective. The first component calculates a measurement-based burnup profile along the axis of a fuel rod. Gamma-ray data is collected at numerous locations along the axis of the fuel rod using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector designed for a wide range of gamma-ray energies. Using two fission products, 137Cs and 134Cs, the burnup is calculated at each measurement location and a profile created along the axis of the rod based on the individual measurement locations. The second component measures the U/Pu ratio using an HPGe detector configured for relatively low-energy gamma-rays including x-rays. Fluorescence x-rays from U and Pu are measured and compared to the U/Pu ratio determined from a destructive analysis of the sample. This will be used to establish a relationship between the measured and actual values. This relationship will be combined with the burnup analysis results to establish a relationship between fission product activity and Pu content. It is anticipated that this new method will allow receiving facilities to make a limited number of NDA, gamma-ray, measurements to confirm the shipper declared values for burnup and Pu content thereby improving the SRD.

Saavedra, Steven F [ORNL; Charlton, William S [Texas A& M University; Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL; Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL

2010-01-01

95

Integrating Herbs and Supplements in Managed Care: A Pharmacy Perspective  

PubMed Central

Herbal and other dietary supplements are popular among patients. Whether and how to establish and manage an herbal formulary remains a challenge for conventional managed-care organizations. Pharmacists and clinicians depend on evidence-based guidelines to help determine which products (whether pharmaceutical or herbal) to make available to patients. Evidence from randomized controlled trials that supports the use of most herbal supplements is scarce, yet for some supplements, credible evidence supports the possibility of efficacy. Quality control remains of concern for the supplement industry and for patients and clinicians considering the use of supplements. Clinicians may improve care by both disseminating educational materials and making available to patients popular quality-controlled herbal supplements deemed safe and effective. Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) has adopted a comprehensive and systematic approach to managing and stocking herbal supplements that can serve as a model for other conventional and managed care organizations. KPNW's dedicated Natural Products Advisory Committee (NPAC) has made considerable progress toward developing a constructive response to KPNW patients' herbal supplement use. Making supplements available at pharmacies can improve clinical outcomes, patient convenience, and quality control. NPAC currently limits its reviews to randomized, controlled trials and data from meta-analyses and systematic reviews for single-ingredient supplements. As interest in this area maintains steady growth, NPAC will continue to study how best to meet patients' needs. PMID:21331210

Elder, Charles; Mossbrucker, Pat; Davino-Ramaya, Carrie M; Bez, Ileana; Lin, Margaret M; Terry, Theresa A; Thomas, Emily A; Jones, Sean

2008-01-01

96

Dietary supplement research portfolio at the NIH, 2009-2011.  

PubMed

The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009-2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement-related funding for FYs 2009-2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women's reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wambogo, Edwina A; Regan, Karen S; Davis, Cindy D

2014-04-01

97

Quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials containing uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of inspection agencies and facility operators to measure powders containing several actinides is increasingly necessary as new reprocessing techniques and fuel forms are being developed. These powders are difficult to measure with nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques because neutrons emitted from induced and spontaneous fission of different nuclides are very similar. A neutron multiplicity technique based on first principle methods was developed to measure these powders by exploiting isotope-specific nuclear properties, such as the energy-dependent fission cross sections and the neutron induced fission neutron multiplicity. This technique was tested through extensive simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code and by one measurement campaign using the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and two measurement campaigns using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) with various (alpha,n) sources and actinide materials. Four potential applications of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4) weapons verification in arms control agreements. This technique still has several challenges which need to be overcome, the largest of these being the challenge of having high-precision active and passive measurements to produce results with acceptably small uncertainties.

Goddard, Braden

98

The use of TI-208 gamma rays for safeguards, nondestructive-assay (NDA) measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines two cases where gamma rays from Tl-208, including the 2614keV gamma ray, were used to detect anomalies in waste material. In addition to the characterization of waste for waste acceptance, and compliance with environmental and transportation laws, there is a safeguards element as well. The more sophisticated method of NDA at Y-12 includes a means to detect shielded special nuclear material (SNM). Excess count rates in the 2614keV gamma ray from Tl-208 are an indication of potential shielded HEU in waste as well as other containers. The 2614keV gamma ray is easy to monitor routinely. When a large 2614keV peak is detected, further investigation can be conducted from the gamma spectrum. This paper describes this further investigation in two cases. In one case self-shielded HEU was detected. In the other case the Tl-208 gamma rays came from a piece of Th-232 metal.

Oberer, R. B.; Chiang, L. G.; Norris, M. J.; Gunn, C. A.; Adaline, B. C.

2009-05-26

99

Tobacco Use Supplement: An Overview  

Cancer.gov

1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current

100

Herbal Products and Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... that all herbal health products and supplements are safer than medicines just because they occur in nature ... too long. View larger and print from your internet browser Can herbal health products or supplements change ...

101

Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on  

PubMed Central

Calcium supplements have been widely used by older men and women. However, in little more than a decade, authoritative recommendations have changed from encouraging the widespread use of calcium supplements to stating that they should not be used for primary prevention of fractures. This substantial shift in recommendations has occurred as a result of accumulated evidence of marginal antifracture efficacy, and important adverse effects from large randomized controlled trials of calcium or coadministered calcium and vitamin D supplements. In this review, we discuss this evidence, with a particular focus on increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements, which we first described 5 years ago. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D marginally reduce total fractures but do not prevent hip fractures in community-dwelling individuals. They also cause kidney stones, acute gastrointestinal events, and increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Any benefit of calcium supplements on preventing fracture is outweighed by increased cardiovascular events. While there is little evidence to suggest that dietary calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is also little evidence that it is associated with fracture risk. Therefore, for the majority of people, dietary calcium intake does not require close scrutiny. Because of the unfavorable risk/benefit profile, widespread prescribing of calcium supplements to prevent fractures should be abandoned. Patients at high risk of fracture should be encouraged to take agents with proven efficacy in preventing vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. PMID:25114781

Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R.

2013-01-01

102

Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of thermally-injured Salmonella from liquid egg white  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recovery of Salmonella from liquid egg white (LEW) is complicated by thermal and innate LEW antimicrobial-induced injury. Numerous supplements have been reported to promote the recovery of injured bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of twelve media supplements to ...

103

Does a liquid supplement improve energy and protein consumption in nursing home residents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One popular strategy to improve the acceptance and efficacy of oral liquid supplements in long-term care is dispensing them during the medication pass, although few studies support its effectiveness. This study evaluated the impact of a supplement medication pass program on energy and nutrient consumption and weight in nursing home residents. Findings indicate that residents maintained their prestudy weight and

Robin E. Remsburg; Terri Sobel; Ashli Cohen; Cheryl Koch; Charlotte Radu

2001-01-01

104

Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.  

PubMed

Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

2013-09-01

105

Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements  

PubMed Central

Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

2013-01-01

106

Quantitative analysis of sphingosine-1-phosphate by HPLC after napthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) derivatization.  

PubMed

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important sphingolipid signaling molecule that regulates numerous cellular processes. In this paper we report a new method to quantify the levels of S1P in biological samples that relies on derivatization with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and quantification by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The limit of detection (LOD) using S1P standards was 20.9fmol (12.6nM), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 69.6fmol (41.7nM). The recovery of S1P standards was up to 97.5%. The mean relative standard deviations (RSD) for the intra- and inter-day assay were 4.1% and 7.7%, respectively. To validate this procedure, we quantified the S1P levels in plasma from human, horse, and mouse (mean values of 0.45, 0.25, and 1.23microM, respectively). We also used this technique to evaluate the S1P content in mouse tissues, as well as in rat neuronal cell cultures before and after sphingosine treatment. The results demonstrate that this new procedure can provide fast, sensitive, and reproducible S1P quantification, and offers several advantages over existing methods. The technique also may be used for determining the activity, as well as the inhibition, of sphingosine kinase. In the future it could be an important tool for investigators studying the role of S1P in signal transduction, cell growth and differentiation, and disease pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:19285924

He, Xingxuan; Huang, Chien-Ling; Schuchman, Edward H

2009-04-01

107

Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement with a low dose of ephedra and caffeine in overweight\\/obese premenopausal female subjects.Design:A 9-month, double-blind, randomized control study compared the efficacy and safety of a dietary supplement with ephedra and caffeine to a control supplement.Subjects:Sixty-one healthy, premenopausal women with body mass index (BMI) from 27 to 39 kg\\/m2 were randomly

R M Hackman; P J Havel; H J Schwartz; J C Rutledge; M R Watnik; E M Noceti; S J Stohs; J S Stern; C L Keen

2006-01-01

108

The Efficacy, Safety, and Practicality of Treatments for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining interventions for adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reviewed to evaluate their efficacy. These efficacy findings were supplemented with a preliminary system for judging safety and practicality. Results suggest that the stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) is safe and well-established empirically, but has some problems with inconvenience and noncompliance. Preliminary research supports the efficacy, safety, and practicality of

Bradley H. Smith; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Michael T. Willoughby; Steven Evans

2000-01-01

109

Folate supplementation during methotrexate therapy for patients with psoriasis.  

PubMed

Methotrexate is a folate antagonist that is a well-established therapy for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. In some patients, methotrexate is associated with significant side effects and toxicity. Folate supplementation is often used to ameliorate methotrexate-associated side effects and toxicities. We sought to demonstrate that folate supplementation during methotrexate therapy reduces both toxicity and side effects without compromising efficacy. A MEDLINE search of the search terms "methotrexate," "folic acid," "folinic acid," and "leucovorin" was performed and literature relevant to the use of folates as a supplement to methotrexate was reviewed. According to studies reviewed, the use of folate supplements in patients treated with methotrexate reduces the incidence of hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal intolerance without impairing the efficacy of methotrexate. Both folic acid and folinic acid are equally effective; however, folic acid is more cost effective. It must be noted that there are relatively few studies that have addressed folate supplementation with the use of methotrexate for the treatment of psoriasis. After examining the available data from the literature and drawing from clinical experience, we advise folate supplementation for every patient who receives methotrexate. PMID:16198787

Strober, Bruce E; Menon, Kavita

2005-10-01

110

In vitro studies of the effect of MAb NDA 4 linked to toxin on the proliferation of a human EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell line and of gibbon MLA leukemia cell line.  

PubMed

The rejection of allografts is mediated by cytolytic T cells and antibody-secreting B cells. Selective ablation of these activated cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes may offer a a method of controlling allograft rejection. An immunotoxin was prepared from the monoclonal antibody (mAb) NDA 4, which recognizes a differentiation antigen (NDA 4) common to activated B and T cells. MAb NDA 4 was conjugated to the ribosome-inhibiting protein gelonin via a cleavable disulfide bond provided by a crosslinking reagent. The purified immunotoxin was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity on NDA 4 positive T and B cell lines. Conjugation of mAb NDA 4 to gelonin increased the in vitro cytotoxicity by a concentration factor of 1000, compared to gelonin alone. The specificity and saturability of mAb NDA 4 binding, as well as the number of antigenic sites per cell on resting versus activated T lymphocytes, were also evaluated. Resting T cells expressed 400-800 sites per cell. PHA-activated T cells and the MLA T cell leukemia expressed 10,000 to 80,000 sites per cell. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from allografted baboons in quiescence or undergoing rejection were compared for NDA 4 expression by flow cytometry. Lymphocytes obtained from baboons rejecting a heart allograft expressed NDA 4, whereas transplant recipients in quiescence showed no detectable NDA 4. These results suggest that mAb NDA 4-derived immunotoxins may be valuable for the selective depletion of activated lymphocytes while sparing the resting population. PMID:1849463

Harris, P; Reed, E; King, D W; Suciu-Foca, N

1991-04-15

111

Evaluation of Arginine and Glutamine as Dietary Supplements to Enhance Edwardsiella ictaluri Vaccine Effectivness in Channel Catfish  

E-print Network

for maintaining the industry's profitability and sustainability. Vaccination is a proven effective strategy for disease control in aquaculture; however, improvements in vaccine efficacy are still needed. Because amino acid supplementation not only enhances fish...

Pohlenz Castillo, Camilo

2012-02-14

112

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH BLUEBERRY EXTRACTS IMPROVES THE SURVIVAL AND FUNCTION OF GRAFTED EMBRYONIC DOPAMINE NEURONS IN RATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transplantation of embryonic dopamine (DA) neurons into the striatum is a viable treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, transplanted cells survive poorly. This study provides evidence that dietary supplementation with blueberry extract (BBE) provides an efficacious, easily administered a...

113

The efficacy of supplementing ethoxyquin in poultry feed  

E-print Network

diet and fed to 120 SCWL for 8 weeks. The primary and secondary immune responses were assessed by determining the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus. Analysis of BW, feed conversion, and organ weight revealed... antibody titer values of the different groups of SCWL in response to varying levels of ethoxyquin 80 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 Cellular sources of free radicals Page FIGURE 2 Chemical structure of thiobarbituric acid 13 FIGURE 3 Chemical structure...

Srinivasan, Lavanya Janardan

1992-01-01

114

Say "Si" to Supplementals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A supplemental instruction program was designed to assist students in mastering course concepts and to increase student competence in reading, reasoning, and study skills. Supplemental leaders, upper division students whose course competency has been certified by course instructors, attend course lectures where they take notes and complete…

Harrington, Judy; Moore, Diane

115

Supplemental instruction in chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

Lundeberg, Mary A.

116

Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice  

PubMed Central

Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874) were re-analysed using association [?2] and 'strength of association' tests [?] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520) reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%), creatine (36.1%), whey protein (30.6%), iron (29.8%), caffeine (23.8%), and ginseng (8.3%) for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%), doctors' advice (24.2%), enhancing endurance (20.0%), ability to train longer (13.3%), and provided by the governing body (3.8%). Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (? < .7). The best associations were for the ability to train longer with creatine (reported by 73.9%, ?2 = 49.14, p < .001; ? = .307, p < .001), and maintaining strength with creatine (reported by 62.6%, ?2 = 97.08, p < .001; ? = .432, p < .001) and whey protein (reported by 56.1%, ?2 = 97.82, p < .001; ? = .434, p < .001). Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements. PMID:17997853

Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P; Mazanov, Jason; Holloway, Allison; Bingham, Jerry

2007-01-01

117

The effects of age on skeletal muscle and the phosphocreatine energy system: can creatine supplementation help older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine supplementation has been found to significantly increase muscle strength and hypertrophy in young adults (? 35 yr) particularly when consumed in conjunction with a resistance training regime. Literature examining the efficacy of creatine supplementation in older adults (55-82 yr) suggests creatine to promote muscle strength and hypertrophy to a greater extent than resistance training alone. The following is a

Vincent J Dalbo; Michael D Roberts; Chris M Lockwood; Patrick S Tucker; Richard B Kreider; Chad M Kerksick

2009-01-01

118

Meta-analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA). We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs), identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for

Sarah Brien; Phil Prescott; George Lewith

2009-01-01

119

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

2013-01-01

120

Diet and psoriasis, part III: role of nutritional supplements.  

PubMed

Patients with psoriasis are increasingly turning to the use of alternative and complementary medicine to manage their psoriasis. Patients often inquire about what dietary supplements may be beneficial, including the use of oral vitamin D, vitamin B12, selenium, and omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils. In this review we examine the extent to which each of these common nutritional interventions has been studied for the treatment of psoriasis. We weighed evidence from both controlled and uncontrolled prospective trials. The evidence of benefit was highest for fish oils. For other supplements, there is need for additional large, randomized clinical trials to establish evidence of efficacy. PMID:24780177

Millsop, Jillian W; Bhatia, Bhavnit K; Debbaneh, Maya; Koo, John; Liao, Wilson

2014-09-01

121

An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products  

PubMed Central

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

2011-01-01

122

Supplements to Textbook Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

Holmes, Ken

1994-01-01

123

Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... like iron, vitamin A, zinc, niacin, and folic acid, especially when a person uses more than a ... pregnant should get 400 mcg/day of folic acid from fortified foods and/or dietary supplements to ...

124

Iron supplements (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

125

Dietary Supplements for Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

126

Using Dietary Supplements Wisely  

MedlinePLUS

... or plant part (such as leaves, flowers, or seeds) that is used for its flavor, scent, and/ ... are processed, labeled, and packaged consistently and meet quality standards. Once a dietary supplement is on the ...

127

Who Needs Supplements?  

MedlinePLUS

... are getting adequate intake of necessary vitamins and minerals. To avoid indigestion, take the multivitamin with food. ... menstruation may need to take a multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains iron to meet the daily ...

128

Fluoride Treatments and Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

Fluoride Treatments and Supplements What Is It? What It's Used For Preparation How It's Done Follow-Up ... When To Call a Professional What Is It? Fluoride is a naturally occurring element that strengthens teeth. ...

129

A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes  

PubMed Central

Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement’s usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

Smith, Rachel N.; Agharkar, Amruta S.; Gonzales, Eric B.

2014-01-01

130

CURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT UNDERGRADUATE CATALOG  

E-print Network

to the Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Computer Science. The Bachelor's degree in Computer Science/MathematicsCURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT 2008­2009 UNDERGRADUATE CATALOG C O O FL L E G E S T A T E N I S L A N D T h e C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w Y o r k #12;CURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT TO THE UNDERGRADUATE

Rosen, Jay

131

Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal.\\u000aMETHODS: We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000 mg of elemental [corrected] calcium as calcium carbonate

Rebecca D. Jackson; Andrea Z. LaCroix; Margery Gass; Robert B. Wallace; John Robbins; Cora E. Lewis; Tamsen Bassford; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Henry R. Black; Patricia L. Blanchette; Denise E. Bonds; Robert L. Brunner; Robert G. Brzyski; Bette Caan; Jane A. Cauley; Rowan T. Chlebowski; Steven R. Cummings; Iris A. Granek; Jennifer Hays; Gerardo Heiss; Susan L. Hendrix; Barbara V. Howard; Judith Hsia; F. Allan Hubbell; Karen K. C. Johnson; Howard Judd; Jane Morley Kotchen; Lewis H. Kuller; Robert D. Langer; Norman L. Lasser; Marian C. Limacher; Shari E. Ludlam; JoAnn E. Manson; Karen L. Margolis; Joan McGowan; Judith K. Ockene; Mary Jo OSullivan; Lawrence Phillips; Ross L. Prentice; Gloria E. Sarto; Marcia L. Stefanick; Linda Van Horn; Jean Wactawski-Wende; Evelyn Whitlock; Garnet L. Anderson; Annlouise R. Assaf; David H. Barad

2006-01-01

132

Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of 15 days of betaine supplementation on muscle endurance, power performance and rate of fatigue in active college-aged men. METHODS: Twenty-four male subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group (BET; 20.4 ± 1.3 years; height: 176.8 ± 6.6 cm; body mass: 77.8 ± 13.4

Jay R Hoffman; Nicholas A Ratamess; Jie Kang; Stefanie L Rashti; Avery D Faigenbaum

2009-01-01

133

Randomized, double-blind trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with fish oil and borage oil in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo test the efficacy and safety of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid, a precursor of arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in preterm infants.

Mary S Fewtrell; Rebecca A Abbott; Kathy Kennedy; Atul Singhal; Ruth Morley; Eleanor Caine; Cherry Jamieson; Forrester Cockburn; Alan Lucas

2004-01-01

134

Herbals and natural dietary supplements in psychiatric practice.  

PubMed

There is some evidence that links the increase of mental disorders' prevalence with a deterioration of Western countries' nutritional habits and it is found that the use of herbal and "natural" food supplements to treat different disorders is increasing. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach. We reviewed the most commonly used herbal and dietary supplements for which a certain efficacy on psychiatric symptoms or disorders has been claimed, checking current Pubmed-indexed literature (the most important being St. John's wort, Omega-3 fatty acids, valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, folate, B vitamins, SAMe, Inositol). There is an evidence of efficacy for some of these herbs an supplements, but current studies are often insufficient to reach a final conclusion; still patents are being requested and registered. Many different areas (including efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, adequate shelf life, drug and non-pharmacological interactions) need to be thoroughly studied; moreover political decisions need to be scientifically guided in order to best serve psychiatric patients' interests and to prevent the usage of expensive and sometimes un-useful therapies. This implies that a scientific strategy has to be used to rule out any third-part economical interest which could in any way influence therapeutic choices. PMID:20030623

Chiappedi, Matteo; Bejor, Maurizio

2010-06-01

135

Development of the nano-dust analyzer (NDA) for detection and compositional analysis of nanometer-size dust particles originating in the inner heliosphere.  

PubMed

A linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer is developed for the detection and chemical analysis of nanometer-sized particles originating near the Sun. Nano-dust particles are thought to be produced by mutual collisions between interplanetary dust particles slowly spiraling toward the Sun and are accelerated outward to high velocities by interaction with the solar wind plasma. The WAVES instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft reported the detection, strong temporal variation, and potentially high flux of these particles. Here we report on the optimization and the results from the detailed characterization of the instrument's performance using submicrometer sized dust particles accelerated to 8-60 km/s. The Nano Dust Analyzer (NDA) concept is derived from previously developed detectors. It has a 200 cm(2) effective target area and a mass resolution of approximately m/?m = 50. The NDA instrument is designed to reliably detect and analyze nanometer-sized dust particles while being pointed close to the Sun's direction, from where they are expected to arrive. Measurements by such an instrument will determine the size-dependent flux of the nano-dust particles and its variations, it will characterize the composition of the nano-dust and, ultimately, it may determine their source. The flight version of the NDA instrument is estimated to be <5 kg and requires <10 W for operation. PMID:24689626

O'Brien, L; Auer, S; Gemer, A; Grün, E; Horanyi, M; Juhasz, A; Kempf, S; Malaspina, D; Mocker, A; Moebius, E; Srama, R; Sternovsky, Z

2014-03-01

136

Leucine Supplementation Protects from Insulin Resistance by Regulating Adiposity Levels  

PubMed Central

Background Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD), supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group) was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3) in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation is lacking in already obese animals, a phenomenon possibly related to the extent of the obesity before starting the supplementation. PMID:24086364

Binder, Elke; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J.; André, Caroline; Elie, Melissa; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y.; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Belluomo, llaria; Duchampt, Adeline; Clark, Samantha; Aubert, Agnes; Mezzullo, Marco; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pagotto, Uberto; Layé, Sophie; Mithieux, Gilles; Cota, Daniela

2013-01-01

137

Dietary supplement adverse events: Report of a one-year poison center surveillance project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The safety and efficacy of dietary supplements is of growing concern to regulators, health-care providers and consumers. Few\\u000a scientific data exist on clinical effects and potential toxicities of marketed products. Harmful supplements may not be identified\\u000a for months or years with existing adverse event monitoring mechanisms. Retrospective review of poison center statistics to\\u000a capture supplement-associated toxicity also has limitations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We

Christine A. Haller; Tom Kearney; Stephen Bent; Richard Ko; Neal L. Benowitz; Kent Olson

2008-01-01

138

What's Medicare Supplement (Medigap) Insurance?  

MedlinePLUS

... How to compare Medigap policies Medigap & travel What's Medicare Supplement Insurance (Medigap)? A Medicare Supplement Insurance (Medigap) policy, sold ... care, hearing aids, eyeglasses, or private-duty nursing. Insurance plans that aren't Medigap Some types of ...

139

Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?  

MedlinePLUS

... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

140

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

141

Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Supplemental nutrients for cattle--as concentrated feeds, harvested forages, or a complementary grazing program--accounts for a significant portion of annual production costs in a cattle operation. The producer should know how a supplement affects...

McCollum III, Ted

1997-11-03

142

Should You Take Dietary Supplements?  

MedlinePLUS

... You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More When you reach for that ... powder or liquid form. Common supplements include vitamins, minerals and herbal products, also known as botanicals. People ...

143

Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?  

MedlinePLUS

... Hoax? Updated:Feb 26,2014 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so ...

144

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Administrative Supplements  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SBIR Development Center announces the opportunity for current STTR Phase I and Phase II grantees to seek supplemental project funding via the Administrative Supplement mechanism.

145

Too little, too late: ineffective regulation of dietary supplements in the United States.  

PubMed

Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk. PMID:25602879

Starr, Ranjani R

2015-03-01

146

Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site  

SciTech Connect

In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

Lee, Sang-yoon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carroll, Colin J [SONALYST INC.; Sunshine, Alexander [NA-243; Novikov, Alexander [CHNPP; Lebedev, Evgeny [CHNPP

2010-01-01

147

Supplemental Language Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supplemental Language Study Group (SLSG) program at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, Colorado) is described. The program was developed following a student's expression of interest in learning "exotic" languages unavailable in the standard foreign language curriculum at the university. This student-run club offers several weekly…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

148

Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

Plant, Geoff

1988-01-01

149

Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... Black Cohosh Botanical Dietary Supplements Bromelain Butterbur Vitamin B1 Vitamin B12 Vitamin B6 C Calcium Carnitine Cartilage (Bovine ... God Vine Turmeric V Valerian Vitamin A Vitamin B1 Vitamin B12 Vitamin B6 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin ...

150

Belief in the efficacy of alternative medicine among general practitioners in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey among 293 GPs in the Netherlands showed that many believe in the efficacy of common alternative procedures. High scores were especially found for manual therapy, yoga, acupuncture, hot bath therapy and homoeopathy. Other procedures, such as iridology, faith healing and many food supplements, were considered less useful.

Paul Knipschild; Jos Kleijnen; Gerben ter Riet

1990-01-01

151

Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6?mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35?kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (?.40 ± .06 and ?.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058

Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

2013-01-01

152

Efficacy of Computer-Assisted Instruction for the Development of Early Literacy Skills in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the efficacy of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to supplement a phonics-based reading curriculum for preschoolers and kindergartners in an urban public school system. The CAI programs provided exercises in phonological awareness and basic phonics skills. We compared treatment classes using CAI with control classes…

Macaruso, Paul; Rodman, Alyson

2011-01-01

153

Walking the Talk: Fit WIC Wellness Programs Improve Self-Efficacy in Pediatric Obesity Prevention Counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six sites of the California Special Supplemental Nu- trition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participated in a staff well- ness pilot intervention de- signed to improve staff self- efficacy in counseling WIC clients about childhood overweight. A pre-post test design with intervention and con- trol groups was used; out- come measures included staff perceptions of the intervention's effects

Patricia B. Crawford; Wendi Gosliner; Poppy Strode; Sarah E. Samuels; Claudia Burnett; Lisa Craypo; Antronette K. Yancey

2004-01-01

154

Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

2013-01-01

155

Androgen supplementation during aging: development of a physiologically appropriate protocol.  

PubMed

Men show an age-related decline in the circulating levels of testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Consequently, there is interest in developing androgen supplementation paradigms for old men that replicate the hormone profiles of young adults. In the present study, we used old (21-26 years old) male rhesus monkeys as a model to examine the efficacy of an androgen supplementation paradigm that comprised oral T administration (12 mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the evening, and two oral DHEA administrations, 3 hr apart (0.04 mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the morning. After 5 days of repeated hormone supplementation, serial blood samples were remotely collected from each animal hourly across the 24-hr day, and assayed for cortisol, DHEAS, T, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2). Following androgen supplementation, T levels were significantly elevated and this was associated with a more sustained nocturnal elevation of T's primary bioactive metabolites, DHT and E1 and E2. Plasma DHEAS levels were also significantly elevated after androgen supplementation; DHEAS levels rose in the early morning and gradually declined during the course of the day, closely mimicking the profiles observed in young adults (7-12 years old); in contrast, cortisol levels were unaltered by the supplementation. Together the data demonstrate a non-invasive androgen supplementation paradigm that restores youthful circulating androgen levels in old male primates. Because this paradigm preserves the natural circulating circadian hormone patterns, we predict that it will produce fewer adverse side effects, such as perturbed sleep or cognitive impairment. PMID:24134213

Urbanski, Henryk F; Sorwell, Krystina G; Garyfallou, Vasilios T; Garten, Jamie; Weiss, Alison; Renner, Laurie; Neuringer, Martha; Kohama, Steven G

2014-04-01

156

Androgen Supplementation During Aging: Development of a Physiologically Appropriate Protocol  

PubMed Central

Abstract Men show an age-related decline in the circulating levels of testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Consequently, there is interest in developing androgen supplementation paradigms for old men that replicate the hormone profiles of young adults. In the present study, we used old (21–26 years old) male rhesus monkeys as a model to examine the efficacy of an androgen supplementation paradigm that comprised oral T administration (12?mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the evening, and two oral DHEA administrations, 3?hr apart (0.04?mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the morning. After 5 days of repeated hormone supplementation, serial blood samples were remotely collected from each animal hourly across the 24-hr day, and assayed for cortisol, DHEAS, T, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2). Following androgen supplementation, T levels were significantly elevated and this was associated with a more sustained nocturnal elevation of T's primary bioactive metabolites, DHT and E1 and E2. Plasma DHEAS levels were also significantly elevated after androgen supplementation; DHEAS levels rose in the early morning and gradually declined during the course of the day, closely mimicking the profiles observed in young adults (7–12 years old); in contrast, cortisol levels were unaltered by the supplementation. Together the data demonstrate a non-invasive androgen supplementation paradigm that restores youthful circulating androgen levels in old male primates. Because this paradigm preserves the natural circulating circadian hormone patterns, we predict that it will produce fewer adverse side effects, such as perturbed sleep or cognitive impairment. PMID:24134213

Sorwell, Krystina G.; Garyfallou, Vasilios T.; Garten, Jamie; Weiss, Alison; Renner, Laurie; Neuringer, Martha; Kohama, Steven G.

2014-01-01

157

Recent Advances in Berry Supplementation and Age-Related Cognitive Decline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To summarize recent findings and current concepts in the beneficial effects of berry consumption on brain function during aging. Berryfruit supplementation has continued to demonstrate efficacy in reversing age-related cognitive decline in animal studies. In terms of the mechanisms behind the effe...

158

An Evaluation of the Supplemental Instruction Programme in a First Year Calculus Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supplemental Instruction (SI) incorporates collaborative learning in small, peer-led, group settings in order to integrate instruction in learning and reasoning skills with course content. Several meta-analyses speak to the efficacy of SI but fail to address selection bias due to ability/motivation and gender. In this study, SI was paired with a…

Fayowski, V.; MacMillan, P. D.

2008-01-01

159

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a…

Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

2012-01-01

160

Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

161

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

162

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

163

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-03-01

164

Vitamin E levels during early iron supplementation in preterm infants.  

PubMed

On the basis of preliminary data, this larger bi-institutional continuation trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of early iron supplementation in preterm infants calls attention to the levels of vitamin E, a marker of antioxidant activity, during iron treatment. A total of 116 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive at 2 or 4 weeks of age ( N = 62, N = 54, respectively) 5 mg/kg/d of nonionic iron polymaltose complex concomitantly with a daily dose of 25 IU vitamin E (as dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate) from 2 weeks of age. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) levels, iron, ferritin, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were recorded from 2 to 8 weeks of age. The morbidities of prematurity associated with free radicals formation were also documented. A gradual increase of alpha-tocopherol levels within physiological range (0.8 to 3.5 mg/dL) was found in the 2-week and 4-week groups during the study period with no difference among the groups ( P > 0.05 for all comparisons). At 8 weeks of age, iron and ferritin levels, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were higher in the 2-week group. No correlation was observed between timing of both iron and vitamin E supplement and hemolysis or morbidities associated with prematurity. Thus, treatment of iron with vitamin E supplement at 2 weeks of age is, in our experience, an efficacious and safe treatment for improving anemia in preterm infants. PMID:19263337

Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Bauer, Sofia; Shainkin-Kestenbaum, Ruth; Shiff, Yakov; Bental, Yoram; Dolfin, Tzipora; Litmanovitz, Ita

2009-05-01

165

Efficacy of OTC analgesics.  

PubMed

For many 'over-the-counter' (OTC) analgesics, there is little information available about their relative efficacy. We have examined information available in a series of Cochrane reviews of single doses of analgesic drugs in acute pain and migraine for its relevance for analgesic products commonly available without prescription, at doses generally equivalent to two tablets. Pain following third molar extraction was used as a homogeneous acute pain model; with the outcome of at least 50% maximum pain relief over 6 h. For many OTC drugs, there was no information available. For some OTC drugs, there was at least some information available either for the marketed product itself, or from studies that used the same doses of drug or drugs. For acute pain, data from third molar extraction studies showed that several OTC products were highly efficacious, principally non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac) and combination products based on ibuprofen; aspirin and paracetamol-based products were less efficacious. Fixed-dose combinations, especially those with ibuprofen, provided high levels of analgesia. For migraine headache, the outcome used was pain initially moderate or severe becoming no worse than mild pain (no pain, mild pain) at 2 h. Single-dose ibuprofen 400 mg was better than aspirin and paracetamol. PMID:23163544

Moore, R A; Derry, C

2013-01-01

166

Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use. Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions. Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy. PMID:23576049

Dwyer, Johanna; Nahin, Richard L; Rogers, Gail T; Barnes, Patricia M; Jacques, Paul M; Sempos, Christopher T; Bailey, Regan

2013-01-01

167

Maternal Supplement Use During Pregnancy  

E-print Network

supplementation are not consistent. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends general, prenatal supplementation only for women who smoke, abuse alcohol/drugs, have iron deficiency anemia, have poor quality diets, are vegans, and women with ?2 fetuses (2, 8... in the diet of US pregnant women by evaluating both the composition and frequency of supplement intake. 2 Research questions Primary research question: How much vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium, iron, iodine, and choline did women...

Bratton, Mallory Michelle

2012-05-31

168

FDA Guide to Dietary Supplements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sale and variety of dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbal mixtures, and hormones have expanded tremendously in recent years, accounting for $6.5 billion in sales in 1996 alone. This resource will help users to understand this trend and the health claims made by supplement companies and to make educated decisions regarding their use. This site offers a revised version of an article which originally ran in the September-October 1998 FDA Consumer. The article addresses topics such as the definition of a dietary supplement, safety monitoring, understanding claims, and fraudulent products. An illustration of new requirements for dietary supplement labels and sources for more information are also provided.

Kurtzweil, Paula, 1958-.

1999-01-01

169

Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH  

PubMed Central

Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg) was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03) with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body. PMID:18990209

Berardi, John M; Logan, Alan C; Rao, A Venket

2008-01-01

170

Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

1985-01-01

171

Supplemental Data ENCODE dataset  

E-print Network

Supplemental Data Figure S1 ~2.5 Mb of ENCODE dataset AHI1, ASPM, FOXP2 and GPR56 Figure S1.99 2.68 0.0036 GPR56 rs3848270 57446991 T 0.55 0.13 13.25 2.78 0.0028 GPR56 rs3916059 57447303 G 0.58 0.12 11.66 2.77 0.0028 GPR56 rs6499906 57447754 T 0.56 0.13 13.38 2.92 0.0018 GPR56 rs3760061 57448857 A 0

Reich, David

172

Supplementing National Menu Labeling  

PubMed Central

The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

White, Lexi C.

2012-01-01

173

Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women’s Health  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

2012-01-01

174

Randomised controlled trial of tyrosine supplementation on neuropsychological performance in phenylketonuria  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To test the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation, as an adjunct to dietary treatment, on neuropsychological test performance in individuals with phenylketonuria.?DESIGN—A randomised controlled trial of tyrosine supplementation using a double blind crossover procedure with three four week phases.?SETTING—The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto.?PARTICIPANTS—21 individuals with phenylketonuria (ages 6 to 28 years, mean 11.3).?INTERVENTION—Participants were given 100 mg/kg body weight/d of L-tyrosine or L-alanine (placebo).?RESULTS—At baseline, performance on several of the neuropsychological test measures was correlated with tyrosine levels. Dietary supplements of tyrosine increased plasma tyrosine concentrations; however, no change in test performance was found across the tyrosine and placebo phases of the study.?CONCLUSIONS—Tyrosine supplementation of this type does not appear to alter neuropsychological performance in individuals with phenylketonuria.?? PMID:9579151

Smith, M. L.; Hanley, W.; Clarke, J.; Klim, P.; Schoonheyt, W.; Austin, V.; Lehotay, D.

1998-01-01

175

Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women's Health.  

PubMed

Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women's health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

Snelten, Courtney S; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L

2012-06-01

176

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2010-07-01

177

Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... view as pdf | share Create PDF Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

178

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2012-07-01

179

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2014-07-01

180

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2011-07-01

181

40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

2013-07-01

182

Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline) in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 ?g folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 ?g folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22). Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490 PMID:19635145

Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Christofides, Anna; O'Connor, Deborah L; Zlotkin, Stanley

2009-01-01

183

Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?  

MedlinePLUS

... you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Not all "natural" products are safe, and they are not tested or regulated like other drugs and medicines. Taking too much of a dietary supplement can have ... or herbal products. Tell your doctor about any supplements you are ...

184

Neuron, Volume 55 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 55 Supplemental Data Differential Attention-Dependent Response Modulation across in firing rate across the undifferentiated neural population. We recorded 218 neurons (142 in monkey A, 76 between animals. Supplemental Figure 1B shows the average firing rate of the visually responsive neurons

Sejnowski, Terrence J.

185

Neuron, Volume 70 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 70 Supplemental Information Synaptophysin Regulates the Kinetics of Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Central Neurons Sung E. Kwon and Edwin R. Chapman #12;#12;#12;#12;Supplemental Figure Legends pool in wt and syp -/- neurons. (A) Schematic diagram of SV2A-pHluorin. The pHluorin was inserted

Kemnitz, Joseph

186

Neuron, volume 77 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

1 Neuron, volume 77 Supplemental Information Developmental Refinement of Vesicle Cycling (`mature') or 5-7 days (`immature') after targeted transfection of CA3. To selectively transfect neurons-10 min). Neurons were suspended in MEM plus glutamax (Gibco 41090, supplemented with 11% fetal calf serum

Oertner, Thomas

187

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

188

Psychology of Supplementation in Sport and Exercise: Motivational Antecedents and Biobehavioral Outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research concerning the physiological and biobehavioral effects of supplements commonly used in sport or exercise settings has multiplied rapidly over the last decade. However, less attention has been directed to understanding the motivational pathways leading to sport and exercise supplement use. This chapter summarizes known usage rates for sport/fitness supplements and describes motivational theories and constructs that may be of use for understanding individuals' use of these substances. In this respect, we contend that researchers should consider behavioral approaches, the theory of planned behavior, balance theory, achievement goal theory, social physique anxiety, and muscle dysmorphia as useful for developing an understanding of the psychological influences on supplement use. For some of the latter theories/constructs, research has already shown support for their explanatory abilities, whereas research is scant and the utility for understanding sport/exercise supplement use is yet to be determined for many of the theories. In addition to describing the motivation behind supplement use, this chapter summarizes the biobehavioral effects of a select group of supplements commonly used to improve performance, fitness, or health. Specifically, we consider psychobiological effects of caffeine, creatine, Ginkgo biloba, and St. John's wort related to enhanced arousal, improved memory and cognition, enhanced brain function and protection, and reduced depression. There is promising initial evidence for the efficacy of these compounds in producing favorable psychological outcomes, although certain shortcomings of many studies on these compounds must be taken into account before reaching definitive conclusions.

Lutz, Rafer; Arent, Shawn

189

A synthetic stimulant never tested in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is identified in multiple dietary supplements.  

PubMed

A synthetic stimulant never before studied in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), was suspected of being present in dietary supplements. DMBA is an analogue of the pharmaceutical stimulant, 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA), which was recently banned by the US Food and Drug Administration. We obtained all dietary supplements sold by US distributors that listed an ingredient on the label, such as AMP Citrate, that might be a marketing name for DMBA. Supplements were analyzed for the presence and quantity of DMBA. Fourteen supplements met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed by two separate laboratories using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometry and a reference standard. The identity of DMBA was confirmed in 12 supplements in the range of 13 to 120?mg DMBA per serving. Following recommendations on the supplement label for maximum daily intake, customers would consume from 26 to 320?mg of DMBA per day. Supplements containing DMBA were marketed to improve athletic performance, increase weight loss and enhance brain function. DMBA has never before been detected in supplements. The stimulant has never been studied in humans; its efficacy and safety are entirely unknown. Regulatory agencies should act expeditiously to warn consumers and remove DMBA from all dietary supplements. PMID:25293509

Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

2015-01-01

190

Total Measurement Uncertainty for NDA for SNM in Process Materials and Waste D.R. Davidson, M.J. Koskelo, B.M. Gillespie, R.D. M c Elroy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-Destructive Assay for safeguards and waste applications requires accurate determination of the Pu and U content of the samples. NDA systems must be designed to handle a variety of sample sizes, chemical forms, isotopics and matrices, all of which complicate the analysis of the measurement data. Canberra has evaluated regulatory requirements and nuclear material types worldwide to identify a standard

T. Nishida

191

Efficacy of radioiodine urinalysis  

SciTech Connect

Little exists in the literature to support the efficacy of urinalysis for demonstrating thyroid uptake of radioiodine. A review was made of a variety of kinetic models. Computer analysis and graphics were used to assess the variables in the two models chosen for this study. The applicability of each model was tested by using data obtained from a group of euthyroid subjects. The results indicate that using an integral urine-sampling method and a three-component model yields minimum detectable thyroid uptakes which fall well below required reporting limits. Furthermore, the results show that integral urine samples obtained in the first few hours post exposure may be used to predict major thyroid uptakes in time for effective thyroid blocking.

Broga, D.W.; Berk, H.W.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.

1986-05-01

192

Hypnotic efficacy of temazepam  

PubMed Central

1 Temazepam was evaluated in a strictly defined insomniac patient population under sleep laboratory conditions. Two protocols were used: a short-term (26-night) and a long-term (54-night) protocol evaluated the efficacy of the drug administered at night at 15 mg (short-term study) and 30 mg (long-term study), respectively. 2 Temazepam seemed to be both safe and effective at doses of 15 and 30 mg with up to 5 weeks of ingestion. 3 Suppression of slow wave sleep was observed at the high dose, but no suppression of REM sleep, found in studies with other benzodiazepines, was noted. 4 No evidence was found for development of tolerance or rebound effects. PMID:41543

Mitler, M. M.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Phillips, R. L.; Sterling, W. R.; Zarcone, V. P.; Spiegel, R.; Guilleminault, C.; Dement, W. C.

1979-01-01

193

Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.  

PubMed

Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

2013-01-01

194

Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

2011-01-01

195

Office of Dietary Supplements Inside this issue  

E-print Network

Office of Dietary Supplements Update Inside this issue ODS vitamin D conference Sept 5-6 1 ODS it or to which the nutrient has been added, and by taking vitamin D-containing dietary supplements. Questions practicum on supplements 1 News for researchers 2 New supplement assessment tool 2 Past and upcoming events

Bandettini, Peter A.

196

Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

1982-01-01

197

Neuron, Volume 77 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Cells Mona M. Garvert and Tim Gollisch Inventory: - Supplemental Figure S1 (related to Figure 2 is Gaussian white noise, sampled in discrete time steps, with standard deviation and that the temporal filter

Gollisch, Tim

198

Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)  

MedlinePLUS

... of Dietary Supplements or the National Library of Medicine, both part of the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Disclaimer: All information contained in the Dietary ...

199

Supplemental Life Insurance Benefit Highlights  

E-print Network

it comes down to it, contemplating some pretty unpleasant things is hard to do. But whenSupplemental Life income. 1 Death Rates by Age, Sex and Race: 1970 to 1997, U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract

200

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian's relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

201

Neuron, Volume 52 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 52 Supplemental Data Optimal Information Storage in Noisy Synapses under Resource EPSP amplitude. Blue squares: fraction of neuron pairs belonging to a bin centered on that synaptic.49. Unconnected pairs of neurons as well as very weak connections (

Chklovskii, Dmitri "Mitya"

202

Neuron, Volume 79 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 79 Supplemental Information Molecular and Functional Asymmetry at a Vertebrate by immunofluorescence with various antibodies against Cx34.7 and Cx36. To aid future studies of the two neuronal

Rash, John E.

203

Neuron, Volume 68 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 68 Supplemental Information Cortical Preparatory Activity: Representation rate (across all neurons) for the condition with the strongest preparatory response (red). Such conditions were found separately for each neuron. They were then averaged after normalizing each neuron

Columbia University

204

Neuron, Volume 59 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 59 Supplemental Data High-Resolution Intracellular Recordings Using a Real-resolution intracellular recordings using a real-time interaction between the neuron and a computational model

Destexhe, Alain

205

Prevention and treatment of erectile dysfunction using lifestyle changes and dietary supplements: what works and what is worthless, part II.  

PubMed

It seems naïve to believe that some plants or herbs do not contain specific compounds that could benefit patients with ED. Many supplements have not been investigated in a laboratory or clinical research setting before commercial sale, however,which creates a complex situation. If efficacy is or is not demonstrated through adequate research, then the benefit or lack thereof cannot be mentioned on the label. Furthermore, clinicians and the public cannot be made aware of which compounds or supplements are effective because no general standards for sale exist under the current guidelines. Dietary supplements have received a tremendous amount of publicity. The large and growing market for ED treatment seems to have contributed partly to the promotion of numerous supplements and their apparent benefits. Whether these dietary supplements have merit is questionable. Some supplements may produce results opposite to those advertised. Other supplements may be enjoying the benefits of the placebo effect. Because a placebo response of 25% to 50% has been recorded in clinical trials with effective agents, it is understandable that some supplements enjoy financial success despite the limited research espousing their use. If one to two of four individuals or one of three individuals who try a dietary supplement gain some benefit for their ED, the market for these supplements will remain extraordinary. On a larger scale, of 100,000 men who try a supplement, approximately 25,000 to 50,000 will claim some success. The challenge for clinicians is to discuss the placebo response properly and the need for good research before any intervention, especially supplements, can be advocated for general use. Table 2 summarizes some popular ED supplements and general conclusions that can be drawn from clinical investigations. Some dietary supplements may have an active ingredient that benefits patients with certain types of ED. An exciting area of future dietary supplement research is the ability of certain agents to have a synergistic effect with prescription agents for ED, thereby improving response rates in men that have failed approved ED therapy initially, especially with oral agents. Randomized clinical trials are the best method of determining which dietary supplements will become a part of conventional medicine. Therefore, more randomized trials for dietary supplements are needed so that they may have the opportunity to become a part of the mainstream milieu, which means that more funding needs to be made available for ED research. The coming years of research should bring enormous excitement and objectivity to this area of medicine. PMID:15123406

Moyad, Mark A; Barada, James H; Lue, Tom F; Mulhall, John P; Goldstein, Irwin; Fawzy, Ahmed

2004-05-01

206

Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on\\u000a training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two\\u000a nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have\\u000a positive

Jim Farris

2008-01-01

207

Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Supplemental Feeding  

E-print Network

such as forage testing and fecal analysis. Results of these tests can indicate the diet quality of free-ranging animals. For more information on these technologies see: http://cnrit.tamu.edu/ganlab/ and http://soilcrop.tamu.edu/soiltest/index.html Supplementation.... For more information, see Extension publication B-6067, Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle. What to supplement When evaluating supplements, remember that there are no ?magic bullets.? Animals will perform as long as the supplement compensates...

Carpenter, Bruce B.; Hart, Charles R.

2001-05-31

208

Infliximab: efficacy in psoriasis.  

PubMed

Moderate to severe psoriasis often needs to be addressed with standard disease modifying therapies such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin or ultraviolet radiation, which have their potential benefits and limitations. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is elevated in psoriatic plaques compared to non lesional skin as well as in the plasma of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Infliximab, a TNF-? blocker, has been recommended for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in adults who have failed to respond to these therapies or who cannot tolerate them. Its specific action on the bound and membrane forms of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? has made it the molecule of choice for obtaining quicker and longer remission in recalcitrant cases. However, the widespread use of infliximab in the Indian subcontinent is limited by its cost. This article reviews the international guidelines for use of infliximab, its dosage patterns, and efficacy in chronic plaque psoriasis, nail psoriasis, erythrodermic psoriasis, and pustular psoriasis as well as Indian experience. PMID:23974692

Arsiwala, Shehnaz

2013-07-01

209

Plutonium shipments - a supplement  

SciTech Connect

By means of a supplement to the stimulating analysis found in the comprehensive article by Professor Jon Van Dyke on `Sea Shipment of Japanese Plutonium under International Law`, published in Volume 24 of this journal, we feel that the following clarifications and additions are appropriate. Radioactive wastes are not covered by the 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. Fir this reason, the Basel Conference adopted on March 22, 1989, along with the convention, Resolution 5 on Harmonization of Procedures of the Basel Convention and the Code of Practice for International Transactions Involving Nuclear Wastes. In accordance with Resolution 5, the provisions of the Basel Convention were taken into full account during the elaboration of the IAEA code, which ultimately was adopted by Resolution GC(XXXIV)/530 of the General Conference on Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste (TMRW) of September 21, 1990. The IAEA code of practice and the respective regional instruments affirm, with respect to TMRW, the general principles of the Basel Convention, including the critical regime of prior notification and prior informed consent (PIC) that extend the scope of duties of notification, environmental impact assessment, and consultation with respect to transboundary interference as the duties have evolved under existing customary law.

Kwiatkowska, B.; Soons, A. [Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1994-10-01

210

Iodine Supplementation: Usage “with a Grain of Salt”  

PubMed Central

Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used “with a grain of salt,” because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders. PMID:25873950

Prete, Alessandro; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

2015-01-01

211

Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Iron Therapy for HCV-Positive Haemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Iron supplementation is the cornerstone of anaemia management in haemodialysis (HD) patients. However, efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive HD patients is yet to be elucidated. Methods: Sixty-six maintenance HD patients with suboptimal response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) were administered IV iron. Each patient received 100 mg\\/session IV iron sucrose for

Serkan Kahraman; Rahmi Yilmaz; Gultekin Genctoy; Mustafa Arici; Bulent Altun; Yunus Erdem; Unal Yasavul; Cetin Turgan

2005-01-01

212

Clioquinol Synergistically Augments Rescue by Zinc Supplementation in a Mouse Model of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc deficiency due to poor nutrition or genetic mutations in zinc transporters is a global health problem and approaches to providing effective dietary zinc supplementation while avoiding potential toxic side effects are needed. Methods/Principal Findings Conditional knockout of the intestinal zinc transporter Zip4 (Slc39a4) in mice creates a model of the lethal human genetic disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). This knockout leads to acute zinc deficiency resulting in rapid weight loss, disrupted intestine integrity and eventually lethality, and therefore provides a model system in which to examine novel approaches to zinc supplementation. We examined the efficacy of dietary clioquinol (CQ), a well characterized zinc chelator/ionophore, in rescuing the Zip4intest KO phenotype. By 8 days after initiation of the knockout neither dietary CQ nor zinc supplementation in the drinking water was found to be effective at improving this phenotype. In contrast, dietary CQ in conjunction with zinc supplementation was highly effective. Dietary CQ with zinc supplementation rapidly restored intestine stem cell division and differentiation of secretory and the absorptive cells. These changes were accompanied by rapid growth and dramatically increased longevity in the majority of mice, as well as the apparent restoration of the homeostasis of several essential metals in the liver. Conclusions These studies suggest that oral CQ (or other 8-hydroxyquinolines) coupled with zinc supplementation could provide a facile approach toward treating zinc deficiency in humans by stimulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24015258

Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Finkelstein, David; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Andrews, Glen K.

2013-01-01

213

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2014-01-01

214

Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

2014-01-01

215

Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) Juice Supplementation Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Necrosis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-supplementation with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) on heart weight, infarct size, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic\\u000a and non-enzymatic antioxidants, cardiac ATPases and histopathology of isoproterenol (IP)-induced cardiac necrosis (CN) in\\u000a rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg\\/kg, s.c.) for 2 days at an

Ravirajsinh N. Jadeja; Menaka C. Thounaojam; Dipak K. Patel; Ranjitsinh V. Devkar; A. V. Ramachandran

2010-01-01

216

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2013-01-01

217

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2011-01-01

218

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2012-01-01

219

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2014-01-01

220

7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

2010-01-01

221

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

Wilborn, Colin

222

Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

2013-01-01

223

Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report  

PubMed Central

Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

2014-01-01

224

Walking the talk: Fit WIC wellness programs improve self-efficacy in pediatric obesity prevention counseling. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Six sites of the California Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participated in a staff wellness pilot intervention designed to improve staff self-efficacy in counseling WIC clients about childhood overweight. A pre-post test design with intervention and control groups was used; outcome measures included staff perceptions of the intervention's effects on the workplace environment, their personal habits and health beliefs, and their counseling self-efficacy.

225

Clinical studies of red clover (Trifolium pratense) dietary supplements in menopause: a literature review.  

PubMed

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae) botanical dietary supplements have received much attention recently for their potential use in the treatment of menopause symptoms, maintenance/improvement of bone and cardiovascular health, and reported benign effects on the breast and endometrium. Literature searches of four computerized databases were run to identify clinical studies of red clover botanical dietary supplements. The manufacturer of the red clover products used in the majority of the studies was contacted for unpublished information and/or clarification regarding the chemical content of their products. Red clover studies were reviewed that pertained to women's health or menopause. Clinical evidence is presently lacking to support the efficacy of semipurified red clover isoflavone extracts for alleviation of climacteric vasomotor symptoms or reduction of low-density lipoprotein levels in the blood. Furthermore, the safety of use of red clover isoflavone supplements in patients with breast or endometrial cancer has not been established. Limited evidence suggests possible efficacy in maintenance of bone health and improvement of arterial compliance, a risk factor for atherosclerosis. This literature review covers red clover botanical dietary supplement clinical studies having a possible impact on the health care of mature and menopausal women, and provides historical perspective regarding the traditional uses of red clover. PMID:16645539

Booth, Nancy L; Piersen, Colleen E; Banuvar, Suzanne; Geller, Stacie E; Shulman, Lee P; Farnsworth, Norman R

2006-01-01

226

Nutrition supplementation for diabetic wound healing: a systematic review of current literature.  

PubMed

There are 25.8 million people with diabetes in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet). This number is expected to increase by 1 million per year. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) occur in patients with a history of poorly controlled blood glucose. Almost 30% of people with diabetes aged 40 years or older experience DFUs caused by an impaired nerve sensation. It is one of the more persistent types of chronic wounds, which poses an economic burden on individuals and society and reduces the quality of life of patients and their families. This paper reviews the efficacy of nutrition supplementation in diabetic wound healing, including both human and animal studies. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methods, the search was conducted in PubMed and ISI's Web of Science databases. Studies in which diabetic wounds/foot ulcers were treated with specific nutritional or herbal suplements were selected. This review includes 4 human and 9 animal studies that met the criteria of the search. Positive outcomes in the human studies were not significant while the nutritional supplements used in the animal studies were effective and promoted wound healing. The most notable effect of supplementation with curcumin, L-Arginine, or vitamin E have been shown in animal sudies. More human studies need to be conducted to determine the efficacy of these nutritional supplements in promoting wound healing. PMID:24053007

Maier, Haiyan M; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Spicer, Maria T

2013-01-01

227

Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.  

PubMed

Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. PMID:24861737

Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

2014-06-01

228

From Biological to Program Efficacy: Promoting Dialogue among the Research, Policy, and Program Communities12  

PubMed Central

The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H.

2014-01-01

229

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2013-04-01

230

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2011-04-01

231

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2014-04-01

232

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2010-04-01

233

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft EIS, final EIS, or supplemental EIS may be supplemented at any time. An EIS shall be supplemented whenever the Administration determines...

2012-04-01

234

Progress in Developing Dietary Supplement Databases: The Analytically Validated Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) and Dietary Supplement Label Databases (DSLD)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although an estimated 50% of the US population consumes dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on bioactive constituents in them are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database deve...

235

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

1985-01-01

236

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

1984-01-01

237

D'Alembert's Supplemented Principle and Newton's Five Supplemented Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract In this article, the elucidation of the inconsistency of the type 3 = 6 found in the literature while arriving at Euler's equations, which describe the rotation about a fixed point of a rigid body, is presented. For this purpose, the law of dynamic equilibrium referred to as D'Alembert's supplemented principle is developed, which-being a generalisation of Newton's

Alfred Stepniewski

238

Editor's Announcement: The Journal's New Supplement Series  

E-print Network

Beginning in 2007, this journal will publish a new series of supplements for special issues. This new supplements series is intended to remove some special issues from the regular-issues space budget and thereby help to avoid the crowding...

Barnett, William A.

2007-02-01

239

Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... of when taking blood thinners , also called anticoagulants. Vitamin supplements can also disrupt a carefully balanced dosage of ... about the drug or my condition? Learn more: Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Over-the-Counter Medications and ...

240

7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Supplemental payments. 1430.511 Section 1430.511 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental payments. (a)...

2010-01-01

241

Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

Campbell, Bill

242

ISAB 2003-3 Supplementation Report ISAB Review of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation  

E-print Network

ISAB 2003-3 Supplementation Report 1 ISAB Review of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation to natural populations of salmon and steelhead where supplementation was broadly viewed as those salmon are the empirical results of salmon supplementation to date? What has worked, and what aspects are largely

243

Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication taking into account its resistance to antibiotics.  

PubMed

The discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) provided a possibility to cure effectively patients with peptic ulcers. Recent studies have shown varying susceptibility of H. pylori strains to antibiotics and increasing resistance to some of the recommended drugs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the currently recommended eradication schemes and to assess the increasing resistance of H. pylori strains to recommended antibiotics. Furthermore, the effect of probiotics (Lacidofil) on the efficacy of first-line treatment with amoxicillin and clarithromycin was analyzed. The study population consisted of 641 patients: 192 received amoxicillin with clarithromycin and proton pump inhibitor (PPI), 241 - tetracycline, tinidazole, bismuth and PPI, 53 - amoxicillin with clarithromycin and PPI supplemented with Lacidofil. The efficacy of eradication treatment was evaluated by the (13)C-urease breath test. The microbiological examination included 111 samples of H. pylori. The present study demonstrated low efficacy of the tetracycline, tinidazole, bismuth and PPI scheme i.e. 71.4%, moderate efficacy of the amoxicillin with clarithromycin and PPI scheme i.e. 85.9%, whereas the supplementation with Lacidofil significantly increased the efficacy of eradication to 94.3%. The microbiological examination revealed a relatively high level of primary resistance to clarithromycin (22.2%) and a high level to metronidazole (46.7%), with no resistance to amoxicillin. However, the most important finding is the high level of secondary resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole (more than 66% in both cases). The present findings suggest the need for modification of the recommended eradication schemes. PMID:17033111

Ziemniak, W

2006-09-01

244

In situ object counting system (ISOCSi3T{sup M}) technique: A cost-effective tool for NDA verification in IAEA Safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear material measurements using the ISOCS technique are playing an increasing role in IAEA verification activities. The ISOCS capabilities include: a high sensitivity to the presence of U and Pu; the ability to detect very small amounts of material; and the ability to measure items of different shapes and sizes. In addition, the numerical absolute efficiency calibration of a germanium detector used in the technique does not require any calibration standards or reference materials. The ISOCS modelling software performs an absolute efficiency calibration for items with various container shapes, container wall materials, material compositions, material fill-heights, U/Pu weight fractions and even heterogeneously distributed emitting materials. In a number of cases, some key parameters, such as the matrix density and U/Pu weight fraction, can be determined in addition to the emitting material mass and isotopic composition. These capabilities provide a verification solution suitable for a majority of cases where quantitative and isotopic analysis should be performed. Taking into account these advantages, the technique becomes a cost-effective solution for nuclear material non-destructive assay (NDA) verification. At present, the IAEA uses the ISOCS for a wide range of applications including the quantitative analysis of U scrap materials, U/Pu contaminated solid wastes, U fuel elements, U hold-up materials. Additionally, the ISOCS is also applied to some specific verification cases such as the measurement of PuBe neutron sources and the quantification of fission products in solid wastes. In reprocessing facilities with U/Pu waste compaction or facilities with item re-batching, the continuity-of-knowledge can be assured by applying either video surveillance systems together with seals (requiring attaching/detaching and verification activities for each seal) or verification of operator declarations using quantitative measurements for items selected on a random basis. In some cases, the first option is too expensive and places a high demand on inspector and operator time. Quantitative NDA based on the ISOCS technique verifies these materials and significantly decreases the resources required for assuring the continuity-of-knowledge. (authors)

Nizhnik, V.; Belian, A.; Shephard, A.; Lebrun, A. [Dept. of Safeguards, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, A1400 (Austria)

2011-07-01

245

The Regulation and Expression of the Creatine Transporter: A Brief Review of Creatine Supplementation in Humans and Animals  

PubMed Central

Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most popular ergogenic sport supplements used today. It is a nonessential dietary compound that is both endogenously synthesized and naturally ingested through diet. Creatine ingested through supplementation has been observed to be absorbed into the muscle exclusively by means of a creatine transporter, CreaT1. The major rationale of creatine supplementation is to maximize the increase within the intracellular pool of total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine). There is much evidence indicating that creatine supplementation can improve athletic performance and cellular bioenergetics, although variability does exist. It is hypothesized that this variability is due to the process that controls both the influx and efflux of creatine across the cell membrane, and is likely due to a decrease in activity of the creatine transporter from various compounding factors. Furthermore, additional data suggests that an individual's initial biological profile may partially determine the efficacy of a creatine supplementation protocol. This brief review will examine both animal and human research in relation to the regulation and expression of the creatine transporter (CreaT). The current literature is very preliminary in regards to examining how creatine supplementation affects CreaT expression while concomitantly following a resistance training regimen. In conclusion, it is prudent that future research begin to examine CreaT expression due to creatine supplementation in humans in much the same way as in animal models. PMID:18500965

Schoch, Ryan D; Willoughby, Darryn; Greenwood, Mike

2006-01-01

246

The use of folic acid supplementation in psoriasis patients receiving methotrexate: a survey in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

There is little literature on the use of folic acid supplementation in psoriasis patients being treated with methotrexate. Under the auspices of the British Association of Dermatologists we surveyed, using a questionnaire, the use of folic acid supplementation with methotrexate therapy for psoriasis by dermatologists in the UK. Six-hundred and fifteen questionnaires were sent and 153 responses were received (25%). One-hundred and fourteen of the responders (75%) used folic acid supplementation with methotrexate in psoriasis patients. Thirty (26%) of these used folic acid supplementation in all patients taking methotrexate and 84 (74%) used folic acid only under certain circumstances, the most common of which was an elevated erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume. Forty-six per cent of respondents believed that folic acid supplementation reduced nausea and 60% believed that folic acid did not interfere with the efficacy of methotrexate. A wide variety of dosing regimens were used for folic acid supplementation. In the absence of guidelines and controlled trials, there is great variation in the indication for use, dosing regimens used and beliefs regarding methotrexate supplementation for psoriasis. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to address these questions. PMID:10971481

Kirby, B; Lyon, C C; Griffiths, C E; Chalmers, R J

2000-06-01

247

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2011-01-01

248

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2012-01-01

249

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2013-01-01

250

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2010-01-01

251

7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

2014-01-01

252

Food and Vitamins and Supplements! Oh My!  

E-print Network

Food and Vitamins and Supplements! Oh My! Demystifying nutrition: the value of food, vitamins School 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur Boston, MA 02115 #12;Food and Vitamins and Supplements! Oh My! Demystifying nutrition: the value of food, vitamins and supplements Moderator Walter Willett, DrPH, MD Chair

Goodrich, Lisa V.

253

14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211 Aeronautics...Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate...is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of the flight at...

2014-01-01

254

14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211 Aeronautics...Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate...is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of the flight at...

2013-01-01

255

14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211 Aeronautics...Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate...is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of the flight at...

2012-01-01

256

14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211 Aeronautics...Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate...is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of the flight at...

2011-01-01

257

Nutritional supplements for pregnant and lactating bitches.  

PubMed

This review covers the use of common nutritional supplements for the bitch and puppies. Basic nutrients, including fat, protein, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acid supplementation, will be discussed. Newer supplements, such as probiotics for stimulation of the immune system of the bitch and puppy, and for the non-pharmaceutical treatment of weaning diarrhea, will also be covered. PMID:18554708

Greco, Deborah S

2008-08-01

258

Nutritional supplements for pregnant and lactating bitches.  

PubMed

This review covers the use of common nutritional supplements for the bitch and puppies. Basic nutrients, including fat, protein, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acid supplementation, will be discussed. Newer supplements, such as probiotics for stimulation of the immune system of the bitch and puppy, and for the non-pharmaceutical treatment of weaning diarrhea, will also be covered. PMID:19501341

Greco, Deborah S

2009-05-01

259

Some properties of (fw) and (fwr)-supplemented module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to further the study of (fw) and (fwr)-supplemented module. We study the relation between generalized weakly supplemented module (briefly (WGS)-module) and weakly supplemented module and any amply supplemented module M is weakly supplemented. Also any semilocal and locally Noetherian with radical small in M is weakly supplemented module.

Abed, Majid Mohammed; Abubakar, Mohamed; Ahmad, Abd Ghafur

2014-06-01

260

Neuron, Volume 81 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

(VMNP) p. 49 V-11. Periesophageal neuropils (PENP) p. 51 V-12. Gnathal ganglia (GNG) p. 53 VI. GuideNeuron, Volume 81 Supplemental Information A Systematic Nomenclature for the Insect Brain Kei Ito Health Sciences Center. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2013.12.017 Table of Contents Introduction p

261

Putting science behind botanical supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes the goals and activities of the Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements at Iowa State University and the University of Iowa, a multidisciplinary effort to investigate the bioactivity and bioavailability of three genera of medicinal plants: Echinacea, Hypericum, and...

262

Hydrogen supplemented diesel electric locomotive  

SciTech Connect

A system is disclosed for using internally generated electricity as the power to operate an electrolysis cell for the production of hydrogen gas. This hydrogen gas would be stored under pressure and used on demand as a fuel supplement as for hill ascension by a diesel locomotive.

Wilson, J.B.

1983-05-03

263

Aerospell Supplemental Spell Check File  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospell is a supplemental spell check file that can be used as a resource for researchers, writers, editors, students, and others who compose scientific and technical texts. The file extends the general spell check dictionaries of word processors by adding more than 13,000 words used in a broad range of aerospace and related disciplines.

2000-01-01

264

A Supplement for Teaching Beowulf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests supplementing the teaching of "Beowulf" to high school students with (1) translation and grammatical analysis of parts of the original lines, (2) study of Anglo-Saxon poetic techniques, and (3) students' imitation of old English poetic techniques in New English. (SW)

Milosh, Joseph

1970-01-01

265

Structure, Volume 20 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Structure, Volume 20 Supplemental Information A Protein Export Pathway Involving Escherichia coli. The negative control was the non-secreting ompX strain complemented with OmpX (HB101) p15A plasmid. Recombinant is related to Figure 1 and Figure 2. This figure shows the E. coli outer membrane extraction and planar lipid

McIntosh, Lawrence P.

266

CAPITAL PROGRAMMING GUIDE SUPPLEMENT TO  

E-print Network

CAPITAL PROGRAMMING GUIDE V 3.0 SUPPLEMENT TO OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULAR A­11-Developmental Item O&M Operations and Maintenance OMB Office of Management and Budget OFPP Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of Management and Budget PIR Post-implementation Review RMO Resource Management

US Army Corps of Engineers

267

AJHG, Volume 84 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

AJHG, Volume 84 Supplemental Data Genotype-Imputation Accuracy across Worldwide Human Populations 3. #12;AJHG, Volume 84 Figure S2. Difference in Imputation Accuracy Assessed with One Subset.e., subtracting values in the right plot from corresponding values in the left plot). #12;AJHG, Volume 84 Figure S

Rosenberg, Noah

268

Bibliography of Publications, 1981 Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1981 supplement adds recently produced publications to the basic bibliography of resource materials produced by the Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Individualized Schooling as an aid to educators in dealing with diversity among students. Detailed abstracts are provided for items listed in each of seven categories: (1) books…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Research and Development Center for Individualized Schooling.

269

Immunity, Volume 37 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Immunity, Volume 37 Supplemental Information The NLRP12 Inflammasome Recognizes Yersinia pestis.c. with 1000 colony forming units (c.f.u.) of Y. pestis KIM1001-pYtbLpxL. Thirty days later, vaccinated or naïve mice were challenged s.c. with 500 c.f.u. of virulent Y. pestis KIM1001 and survival was monitored

270

Cell, Volume 128 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

were expressed as 6x-His N-terminal fusion proteins in BL21(DE3) Codon+ (RIL) E. coli grown in auto, and Christopher P. Hill SUPPLEMENTAL EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Plasmid Construction ALIX Protein Expression Constructs), and ALIX proteins were expressed as either 6x-His or GST N-terminal fusion proteins. For ALIXBro1-V

Hill, Chris

271

Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

was overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) Rosetta2 (Novagen). Cells expressing the recombinant protein were lysed not shown). Dcr1D2d and E224Q Dcr1D2d were overexpressed as His6-Sumo tag fusion proteins as describedSupplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Protein Purification A list of expression

Bartel, David

272

Cell, Volume 136 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

. Wold (University of Iowa). The RPA was expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) pLysS and purified. Venkitaraman, and Stephen C. Kowalczykowski SUPPLEMENTAL EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Protein expression protein, about 8 g of cell paste from 3 liters of culture were suspended in 40 ml of PBS (140 mM NaCl, 2

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

273

Structure, Volume 20 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

., 2008). Both protein complexes were expressed in E. coli BL21 DE3 (Novagen) in shaker flasks growing 1 Structure, Volume 20 Supplemental Information The Crystal Structure of the Intact E. coli Rel). For each protein, any aggregated protein was pelleted by centrifugation and the refolded protein further

Passmore, Lori A.

274

Cancer Cell, 19 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Cancer Cell, 19 Supplemental Information Defective Regulation of Autophagy upon Leucine Deprivation Reveals a Targetable Liability of Human Melanoma Cells In Vitro and In Vivo Joon-Ho Sheen, Roberto Zoncu hyperactivated MAPK signaling in Mel-STR and Mel-STMK cells using dual phosphorylation of Thr-202 and Tyr-204

Sabatini, David M.

275

Cell, Volume 137 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Supplemental Experimental Procedures Materials and Cell Lines Reagents were obtained from the following sources cell lines: FR4, XG-7, U266, KMS-12BM, KMS-12PE, PE2, 8226, OCI-MY5, KMS-28BM were provided by the Kuehl lab. The EJM, MM-1S, JJN-3, and 47 Human Multiple Myeloma cell lines were kindly provided by Ken

Sabatini, David M.

276

Cell, Volume 136 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

/ml) for indicated time. The NF-B reporter B cell line GTPT3 and its NEMO-deficient subclone F40 have been describedCell, Volume 136 1 Supplemental Data Specific Recognition of Linear Ubiquitin Chains by NEMO (Operon) and Lys63-diUb chains (Boston Biochem) were purchased. Antibodies against NEMO were from BD, Cell

Komander, David

277

Developmental Cell 14 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

1 Developmental Cell 14 Supplemental Data piggyBac-Based Mosaic Screen Identifies a Postmitotic of moderate and severe is according to cell number (inset) and axonal projections, as Table S2: neuroblast line. Elav (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision) is an RNA-binding protein widely used as a marker of all

Luo, Liqun

278

Developmental Cell 11 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

1 Developmental Cell 11 Supplemental Data Ablation in Mice of the mTORC Components raptor, rictor FOXO3a, phospho-GSKS9 , total GSK3, phospho-PKC (pan) (II Ser660), total PKC (Cell Signaling). Imaging Targeted Alleles Targeted ES cells of 129S5 origin were used to produce chimeric mice by blastocyst

Sabatini, David M.

279

Cell, Volume 138 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

1 Cell, Volume 138 Supplemental Data Defining Network Topologies that Can Achieve Biochemical, which is capable of perfect adaptation, the B-nullcline (black line) is unchanged while the C-nullcline (red lines) moves horizontally with the change of input. For the second network, the situation

Lim, Wendell

280

Cell, Volume 126 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Cell, Volume 126 Supplemental Data An ARGONAUTE4-Containing Nuclear Processing Center Colocalized and rdr2 Mutant Nuclei rdr2 #12;Table S1. Nuclei Counts for the Characterization of the Nucleolar Dot Frequency of localization displayed in figure images Total nuclei examined (n) AGO4 nucleolar dot

Jacobsen, Steve

281

Cell, Volume 127 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

1 Cell, Volume 127 Supplemental Data Regulatory Functions of Nuclear Hexokinase1 Complex in Glucose the nuclei. The pellet was washed three times in nuclei resuspension buffer (NRB), 20 mM Tris-HCl, 25-fold enrichment during the nuclei isolation process before protein gel loading. Thus, the ratio for HXK

Sheen, Jen

282

How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary “choices” were ...

283

Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D requirements have become one of the most highly debated and controversial topics in nutrition. Recommendations for vitamin D intake during pregnancy are a central part of this discussion. The publication of a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women by Hollis and cow...

284

Vattikuti and Chow Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

(GABA ) 10 msec E and I neuron threshold potential -50 mV E and I neuron resting potential -60 mV NMDA equilibrium potential (Eleak) -70 mV E membrane capacitance (CE) 0.5 nF I membrane capacitance (CI) 0.2 nVattikuti and Chow Supplemental Information Membrane and synaptic equations Voltage and current

285

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

286

Neuron, Volume 73 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 73 Supplemental Information Distinct Neuronal Coding Schemes in Memory Revealed., "Distinct Neuronal Coding Schemes in Memory Revealed by Selective Erasure of Fast Synchronous Synaptic neurons from mouse cortex that were infected with lentiviruses expressing mCherry only (Control) or m

Pillow, Jonathan

287

Neuron, Volume 56 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

1 Neuron, Volume 56 Supplemental Data Posterior Parietal Cortex Encodes Autonomously Selected Motor-instructed trials and their time course. Data from 100 LIP and 91 PRR neurons are shown in A and B, respectively. Population histograms averaged across all isolated LIP (top) and PRR (bottom) neurons during saccade (red

Andersen, Richard

288

Neuron, Volume 54 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 54 Supplemental Data A Neural Circuit Model of Flexible Sensorimotor Mapping pools do overlap, then for those neurons which are activated by both sensory stimuli (A and B), their g, the monkey had already seen hundreds of stimuli. The probability that a typical neuron was never activated

Columbia University

289

Neuron, Volume 58 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 58 Supplemental Data One-Dimensional Dynamics of Attention and Decision Making the spontaneous firing rate iS for each recorded neuron Ni ...1= (where N is now the number of recorded neurons S ^- . The correlation coefficient (the dotted lines) differs from Sr because the mean across neurons is subtracted from

Columbia University

290

Neuron, volume 52 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, volume 52 Supplemental Data A Central Source of Movement Variability Mark M. Churchland. Recording sites (black dots, one per neuron) for monkey A. The large circle outlines the limits. In making these penetrations, our intent was to record from neurons in caudal PMd and in M1 that exhibited

Shenoy, Krishna V.

291

Neuron, Volume 60 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 60 Supplemental Data Probabilistic Population Codes for Bayesian Decision Making information would be to connect each MT neuron to a single LIP neuron which then perfectly integrates its inputs. One problem with this approach is that LIP neurons are likely to saturate very quickly

Latham, Peter

292

Neuron, Volume 62 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 62 Supplemental Data Uncoupling Dendrite Growth and Patterning: Single-Cell Knockout the addition of 4 µM of cytosine arabinoside (Sigma: Cat. C6645). In all experiments, neurons were used between 4 and 6 days after plating. Immunofluorescence staining of cultured neurons Hippocampal cells were

Luo, Liqun

293

Neuron, Volume 78 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 78 Supplemental Information Associative Learning Enhances Population Coding colored dot denotes the mean response for two neurons to each of four stimuli. Each colored ellipse) For a positive relationship, neuron pairs with positive signal correlation and large noise correlation have

Gentner, Timothy

294

Neuron, Volume 81 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 81 Supplemental Information Adaptation Disrupts Motion Integration in the Primate the model to neurons adapted within 120 degrees of their preferred directions. Related to Figure 4. Supp of pattern selectivity in such a neuron is driven by the loss of responsivity in V1 to stimulus directions

Pillow, Jonathan

295

Neuron, volume 70 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, volume 70 Supplemental Information Cortical Map Plasticity Improves Learning. In all of these groups, a larger percentage of neurons in A1 responded to low-frequency tones versus high in A1 neurons. First, A1 sites in these three groups shifted their receptive fields so that a larger

Kilgard, Michael P.

296

Neuron, Volume 73 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 73 Supplemental Information Bhlhb5 and Prdm8 Form a Repressor Complex Involved in Neuronal Circuit Assembly Sarah E. Ross, Alejandra E. McCord, Cynthia Jung, Denize Atan, Stephanie I. Mok complex involved in neuronal circuit assembly Sarah E. Ross, Alejandra E. McCord, Cynthia Jung, Denize

Ross, Sarah E.

297

Neuron, volume 58 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, volume 58 Supplemental Data A Map for Horizontal Disparity in Monkey V2 Gang Chen, Haidong disparity). #12;Figure S5 Supplementary Figure S5. Neuronal and optical signals from individual neurons Disparity tuning of 27 neurons recorded from three hemispheres of three monkeys. Red dots: neural response

Roe, Anna Wang

298

Neuron, Volume 80 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

1 Neuron, Volume 80 Supplemental Information The Basal Ganglia Is Necessary for Learning Spectral produced by RA-projecting HVC neurons is transformed into a specific motor program through connections to neurons in motor cortex analogue RA, which control vocal musculature. (bottom) Within this framework

299

Neuron, Volume 81 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 81 Supplemental Information Neural Dynamics of Reaching following Incorrect of neural responses to external cues in delayed and non-delayed reach trials. (A-B) Percentage of neurons (mean across reach directions). Green: % of neurons in delayed reaching conditions whose FR following

Shenoy, Krishna V.

300

Neuron, Volume 55 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 55 Supplemental Data Dopamine Mediates Context-Dependent Modulation of Sensory to a transgenic line expressing cameleon in the touch neurons, we found that the PLM neurons in gsa-1 gof mutants), and makes their tap habituation phenotype uninterpretable. Neuronal PKCs and tap habituation In C. elegans

Schafer, William R.

301

Neuron, Volume 72 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 72 Supplemental Information A 4 Hz Oscillation Adaptively Synchronizes Prefrontal. Classification of VTA neurons. (Top) 2-D plot of peak-to-trough ratio and peak-to-peak time (see right) of spike waveforms (1 Hz - 5 kHz). Green and blue dots indicate putative dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons

Fujisawa, Shigeyoshi

302

Improved efficacy in onychomycosis therapy.  

PubMed

The success rate of onychomycosis treatment is limited by several factors, including the access of the therapeutic agent to the fungal mass, the presence of conidia, and the susceptibility of the different infectious agents to the antifungals. Different strategies used to improve efficacy of the currently available antifungal treatments, their rationale, and the published evidence of their beneficial effects are reviewed. An improved efficacy was demonstrated for some of these strategies, such as combined oral and topical antifungal therapies, whereas most of them lack clear and direct evidence of an increase in therapeutic success. PMID:24079584

Gupta, Aditya K; Paquet, Maryse

2013-01-01

303

Cardiovascular complications of calcium supplements.  

PubMed

There is longstanding concern that calcium supplements might increase cardiovascular risk in patients with renal impairment. The Auckland Calcium Study suggested that the same problem occurs in older people taking these supplements for prevention of osteoporosis. Our subsequent meta-analyses, (which followed protocols finalized before the data was available) confirmed that calcium supplements, with or without vitamin D, adversely affected risk of myocardial infarction and, possibly, stroke. Several groups have re-visited these data, consistently finding an adverse effect of calcium on myocardial infarction, not always statistically significant because some meta-analyses have been under-powered. Whether or not an adverse effect of calcium plus vitamin D on myocardial infarction is found depends on whether two specific groups of subjects are included-those in the Women's Health Initiative who were already taking calcium at the time of randomization, and subjects from an open, cluster-randomized study in which baseline cardiovascular risk was different between groups. Vitamin D alone does not affect vascular risk, so it is unlikely that differences between calcium alone and calcium plus vitamin D are real, and they are more likely to result from the inclusion of studies at high risk of bias. The mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects are uncertain but may be mediated by the increase in serum calcium following supplement ingestion, and the effects of this on vascular function and coagulation. Available evidence suggests the risks of calcium supplements outweigh any small benefits on fracture incidence, so the case for their use is weak. PMID:25491763

Reid, Ian R; Bristow, Sarah M; Bolland, Mark J

2015-04-01

304

Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure remains unknown. Objective: The objective was to test the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide production and blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. Design: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled 6-wk trial was conducted to assess the effects of daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones (in aglycone units) on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in 24 menopausal women with 12 women per group. Changes in nitric oxide metabolism were assessed via a primed, constant-infusion protocol with [15N]arginine and [13C]- and [2H]citrulline. Changes in blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics were assessed via office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, forearm blood flow, and indexes of arterial compliance. Results: When compared with placebo and after control for pretreatment values, soy isoflavone supplementation had no effect on arginine flux, citrulline flux, nitric oxide synthesis, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, or estimates of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones over a 6-wk period had no effect on nitric oxide metabolism or blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. PMID:22552034

Taylor, Addison A; Smith, E O'Brian; Barnes, Stephen; Hachey, David L

2012-01-01

305

Resveratrol supplementation improves inflammatory biomarkers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with antioxidant capacity that shows beneficial effects on down-regulation of inflammatory mediators and metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that supplementation with resveratrol can further improve the efficacy of lifestyle modifications in the management of NAFLD. In this randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, 50 NAFLD patients were supplemented with either a 500-mg resveratrol capsule or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow an energy-balanced diet and received physical activity recommendations. Serum liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity were assessed at both baseline and the end of the study. In both groups, anthropometric measurements (weight, body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, and steatosis grade improved (P < 005). Resveratrol supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor ?B activity, serum cytokeratin-18, and hepatic steatosis grade, as compared with placebo supplementation (P < .05). For the treatment of NAFLD, our results showed that 12 weeks of supplementation of 500 mg resveratrol, along with lifestyle modification, is superior to lifestyle modification alone. This is at least partially due to the attenuation of inflammatory markers and hepatocellular apoptosis. More studies are needed to confirm and increase the clinical application of the present results. PMID:25311610

Faghihzadeh, Forouzan; Adibi, Peyman; Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Hekmatdoost, Azita

2014-10-01

306

A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

2010-01-01

307

Dietary germanium biotite supplementation enhances the induction of antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in pigs  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the potential ability of germanium biotite (GB) to stimulate the production of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). To this aim, we measured the total FMDV-specific antibody responses and IgM production after vaccination against FMD both experimentally and in the field. GB supplementation with FMDV vaccination stimulated the production of anti-FMDV antibodies, and effectively increased IFN-? and TNF-? levels. These results suggest that GB may be a novel alternative feed supplement that can serve as a boosting agent and an immunostimulator for increasing the efficacy of FMDV vaccination in pigs. PMID:24690605

Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoo, Han Sang

2014-01-01

308

Evaluating treatment efficacy by triangulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project 'Efficacy of Support Groups for Mexican American Widows' was evaluated by triangulating results collected from different points of view. These included changes after one year in (1) measurement scores of standardized instruments, (2) assessment of adjustment to role of widow by the outsider and (3) evaluation by the widow herself. When subjects were categorized by their assignment to

Margarita Kay; Jill Guernsey de Zapien; Carmen Altamirano Wilson; Marianne Yoder

1993-01-01

309

The Influence of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Metacognitive Prompting on Genetics Problem Solving Ability among High School Students in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the…

Aurah, Catherine Muhonja

2013-01-01

310

The Efficacy of a 9-Month Treadmill Walking Program on the Exercise Capacity and Weight Reduction for Adolescents with Severe Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the efficacy of a 9-month treadmill walking (TW) program on exercise capacity and body mass index (BMI) for adolescents with severe autism. Ten youth residing in a residential/school treatment facility were assigned to either a supplemental treadmill walking (TW) or control group. Both groups continued to participate in their…

Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Rendoff, Andrew D.; Grover, Travis; Beets, Michael W.

2007-01-01

311

Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal  

SciTech Connect

The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

Muscatello, A.C.

1998-12-31

312

Efficacy Beliefs of Special Educators: The Relationships among Collective Efficacy, Teacher Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine the relationship between reported levels of teacher self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and job satisfaction in special educators, teachers in one school district completed three surveys measuring these constructs. The results indicated that teacher self-efficacy had a direct effect on job satisfaction. It was further found…

Viel-Ruma, Kim; Houchins, David; Jolivette, Kristine; Benson, Gwen

2010-01-01

313

Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

2008-01-01

314

Confirmatory Analysis of Computer Self-Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended previous exploratory work on computer self-efficacy and tested a four-factor self-efficacy model. Results for 414 college students demonstrate support for the hypothesized model. Survey questions appeared relevant in most situations. (SLD)

Torkzadeh, Gholamreza; Koufteros, Xenophon; Pflughoeft, Kurt

2003-01-01

315

Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material  

SciTech Connect

This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

Dillon, M B

2011-03-03

316

Cell, Volume 139 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Cell, Volume 139 Supplemental Data Retinal Input Instructs Alignment of Visual Topographic Maps-488 (green) in V1. In EphA3ki/ki a single injection in V1 labels dLGN cell somas in a single area. D expressed as percent of the L-M axis of the cortical hemisphere. Line represents best-fit regression, R2 = 0

Stryker, Michael

317

Neuron, Volume 53 Supplemental Data  

E-print Network

Neuron, Volume 53 Supplemental Data Temporal Target Restriction of Olfactory Receptor NeuronsA Protein Expression #12;(A) Pan-neuronal expression of UAS-sema-1a RNAi using elav-Gal4 results in a marked equivalent to 25h APF at 25°C). (B) Pan-neuronal expression of UAS-PlexinA RNAi using elav-Gal4 results

Luo, Liqun

318

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

Albert Bandura

1984-01-01

319

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

320

Singapore High School Students' Creativity Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Singapore education adopted nurturing creativity and developing creativity efficacy among their students and children. This study investigated Singapore high school students' creativity efficacy based on the contemporary model of creativity (Amabile, 1983, 1996), self efficacy (Bandura, 1989, 1997) and inclusion education. Aims:…

Tan, Ai-Girl; Ho, Valerie; Yong, Lim-Chyi

2007-01-01

321

Personal Teaching Efficacy: Developmental Relationships in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Personal Teaching Efficacy Scale (Ashton, Olejnik, Crocker, & McAuliffe, 1982), the authors explored the comparative efficacy of six groups of educators with various levels of teaching experience. The efficacy scores were higher for more experienced educators in some instances, whereas in other simulated classroom situations, the preservice students scored higher. We discuss the meanings of the different patterns.

Carolyn R. Benz; Larry Bradley; M. Kay Alderman; Mary Ann Flowers

1992-01-01

322

The efficacy of low temperature plasma (LTP) sterilization, a new sterilization technique.  

PubMed

The efficacy of low temperature plasma (LTP) sterilization, a newly developed sterilization procedure was tested. Following experiments were carried out: Determination of the most resistant test organism, influence of 10% and 20% defibrinated sheep blood or varying salt concentrations on the efficacy of the sterilization process, influence of the carrier position in the sterilization chamber and in the sterilization pouches, influence of a loaded sterilization chamber, comparative efficacy of EO and LTP, steel carriers with a blood burden of 0%, 5% and 10%, comparative efficacy of EO and LTP, strip carriers in endoscopes, blood burden 0% and 10%, with and without adaptors, evaluation of two bioindicator models. B. pumilus was the test spore that overall seemed to be most resistant to the sterilization procedure. Supplementation of the test suspension with blood or saline crystals resulted in significantly reduced efficacy and has to be avoided in practical operation. The fully loaded sterilization chamber or the position of germ carriers on the shelves had no negative influence on the effectivity of the sterilization process. There were no significant differences between EO and LTP, the blood burden not exceeding 5%. 10% blood burden resulted in a significantly weaker action of LTP. For sterilization of long lumens adaptors containing hydrogen peroxide are necessary. An appropriate bioindicator tube model is introduced. PMID:8397686

Höller, C; Martiny, H; Christiansen, B; Rüden, H; Gundermann, K O

1993-07-01

323

Supplemental conditionally essential nutrients in cardiovascular disease therapy.  

PubMed

Conditionally essential nutrients (CENs) are organic compounds that are ordinarily produced by the body in amounts sufficient to meet its physiological requirements. However, in disorders, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), and in other physiologically stressful conditions, their biosynthesis may be inadequate. Under these circumstances, CENs become essential nutrients, comparable to vitamins. The CENs of primary importance in CVD, based on the quantity and quality of human clinical studies, are l-arginine, l-carnitine, propionyl-l-carnitine, and coenzyme Q10. Controlled studies of these CENs are reviewed in depth. Taurine is a CEN of secondary importance caused by a limited human database. Other putative CENs include alpha-lipoic acid, betaine, chondroitin sulfate, glutamine, and d-ribose, each of which is mentioned in passing. Collectively, CENs have demonstrated favorable clinical effects in CVDs, including chronic heart failure, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and in CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and lipoprotein(a). Limited research has pointed to possible benefits in CVD therapy accruing from supplementation with several CENs in combination. Additional controlled clinical studies of CENs in CVD are urgently needed. In view of the efficacy and safety of appropriate supplementation with CENs, it is strongly suggested that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable of these potentially important additions to the CVD therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:16407731

Kendler, Barry S

2006-01-01

324

Perioperative analgesia and the effects of dietary supplements.  

PubMed

With over 50,000 dietary supplements available, resurgence in consumer interest over the past few decades has resulted in an explosion of use of these agents worldwide. Disillusionment with current medications and belief in "natural medicines" has resulted in a multibillion dollar industry. Active ingredients in a number of herbs are being tested for therapeutic potential, and some are efficacious, so herbal medicines cannot be dismissed. The prevalence of herbology is further encouraged by a relatively relaxed policy of the FDA regarding these compounds, which they consider foods. As herbal products are included in the "supplement" category, there is no existing protocol for standardization of these products. There are numerous examples of herbals that can adversely affect patient recovery and outcomes in anesthesia. The prudent anesthesia provider will make sure to obtain correct information as to accurate herbal usage of each patient and attempt to discontinue these products two to three weeks prior to the delivery of an anesthetic. Postoperative analgesia, bleeding, and level of sedation can be negatively impacted related to herbal products and herbal-drug interactions. Over 90 herbal products are associated with bleeding and this can be a specific problem intraoperatively or when considering placement of a regional anesthetic for postoperative pain management. PMID:24993438

Abe, Andrew; Kaye, Alan David; Gritsenko, Karina; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Adam Marc

2014-06-01

325

Triiodothyronine supplementation for hypothalamic obesity.  

PubMed

Patients with suprasellar lesions develop profound hypothalamic obesity and listlessness with no effective treatment. We added triiodothyronine (T(3)) supplementation in 3 such patients and present their response. All had previous nutritional counseling without benefit. All were treated for diabetes insipidus (DI) and hypopituitarism; serum free thyroxine (T(4)) level was normal. A 24-year-old woman (pineal tumor and astrocytoma) had weight gain (4.7 kg/yr for 3 years), cold intolerance, fatigue, dry skin, and constipation; after T(3), she lost 14 kg over 27 months and reported overall improvement. Her bone mineral density also improved. A 10.6-year-old boy (optic glioma) was gaining 6 kg/yr for 4 years; after T(3) supplement, he lost 4.3 kg over 11 months. A 12-year-old girl (mixed germ cell tumor) had weight gain (8.3 kg/yr for 3 years) and listlessness; after T(3), she lost 8.1 kg over 16 months and had improved alertness. All patients were asymptomatic despite supraphysiologic T(3) levels. We suggest that T(3) may serve as a simple and effective supplement, which can promote weight loss and improve the well being of these patients with hypothalamic obesity. PMID:12404183

Fernandes, J K; Klein, M J; Ater, Joann L; Kuttesch, John F; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, Rena

2002-11-01

326

Development of a Career Task Self-Efficacy Scale: The Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three instruments were completed by 345 undergraduates: Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale (KTSES), Self-Esteem Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale. The construct validity of the KTSES was supported, and some relationship was found between career task self-efficacy and self-esteem/career decision-making self-efficacy. (SK)

Lucas, Jennifer L.; And Others

1997-01-01

327

The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

2011-01-01

328

Reconceptualizing Efficacy in Substance Use Prevention Research: Refusal Response Efficacy and Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy in Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to utilize the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to expand the construct of efficacy in the adolescent substance use context. Using survey data collected from 2,129 seventh-grade students in 39 rural schools, we examined the construct of drug refusal efficacy and demonstrated relationships among response efficacy (RE), self-efficacy (SE), and adolescent drug use. Consistent with the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analyses of a 12-item scale yielded a three-factor solution: refusal RE, alcohol-resistance self-efficacy (ASE), and marijuana-resistance self-efficacy (MSE). Refusal RE and ASE/MSE were negatively related to alcohol use and marijuana use, whereas MSE was positively associated with alcohol use. These data demonstrate that efficacy is a broader construct than typically considered in drug prevention. Prevention programs should reinforce both refusal RE and substance-specific resistance SE. PMID:23330857

Choi, Hye Jeong; Krieger, Janice L.; Hecht, Michael L.

2014-01-01

329

Examining the evidence: progesterone supplementation during fresh and frozen embryo transfer.  

PubMed

ART has evolved over time and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) is now a frequently performed, successful option. During the last decade, cryopreservation techniques have received considerable interest, whereas interest in the priming and preparation of the endometrium prior to and after embryo transfer was more limited. The available evidence for the rationale and timing of progesterone supplementation as well as an understanding of the differences among progesterone formulations with respect to efficacy, optimum use, and patient preference is worth examining. A Summit was convened to review the literature on progesterone supplementation in ART and after FET and to provide guidance on the most clinically relevant issues. Utilizing an innovative consensus-building model to examine the evidence, Summit faculty drafted summit statements prior to the meeting, completed a literature search, and created a presentation based on this. At the conclusion of their discussion the faculty developed final summit statements, evaluating the strength of the evidence supporting each statement, and rating their level of support for each statement. The clinically relevant topic areas were the rationale for progesterone supplementation, timing and appropriate dosing, whether progesterone sérum levels reflect outcomes, and distinguishing among progesterone formulations with respect to efficacy, tolerability, and patient preference/satisfaction. PMID:25679949

Shapiro, Daniel; Boostanfar, Robert; Silverberg, Kaylen; Yanushpolsky, Elena Hesina

2014-12-01

330

Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

2002-03-01

331

The Safety and Efficacy of Parent\\/Nurse-Controlled Analgesia in Patients Less than Six Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 5 yr, we have treated nonsurgical and postoperative pain in children ,6 yr of age by using a patient-controlled analgesia pump to deliver small- dose continuous IV opioid infusions supplemented by parent- and nurse-controlled opioid bolus dosing. We call this technique parent-\\/nurse-controlled analgesia (PNCA). Because the safety and efficacy of PNCA have not been previously evaluated, we

Constance L. Monitto; Robert S. Greenberg; Sabine Kost-Byerly; Randall Wetzel; Carol Billett; Ruth M. Lebet; Myron Yaster

2000-01-01

332

Complex disease-associated pharmacogenetics: drug efficacy, drug safety, and confirmation of a pathogenetic hypothesis (Alzheimer's disease)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics can be applied successfully to the drug discovery and development pipeline at multiple phases. We review drug-target screening using high throughput SNP associations with complex diseases testing more than 1 800 candidate targets with approximately 7 000 SNPs. Alzheimer's disease data are provided as an example. The supplementation of target-selected screening with genome-wide SNP association, to

A D Roses; A M Saunders; Y Huang; J Strum; K H Weisgraber; R W Mahley

2007-01-01

333

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

2013-01-01

334

78 FR 11967 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Updated Trafficking Definition and Supplemental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 271, 273...RIN 0584-AD97 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Updated...Trafficking Definition and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-- Food...

2013-02-21

335

Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

336

Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of calcium (Ca) in reducing bone loss is debated. In a randomized placebo-controlled double-masked study, we investigated the effects of oral Ca supplements on femoral shaft (FS), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), and on the incidence of vertebral fracture in vitamin-D-replete elderly. Ninety-three healthy subjects (72.1±0.6 years) were randomly allocated to three

T. Chevalley; R. Rizzoli; V. Nydegger; D. Slosman; C.-H. Rapin; J.-P. Michel; H. Vasey; J.-P. Bonjour

1994-01-01

337

Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements\\u000a to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy\\u000a (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence\\u000a one of these regulatory factors, the result is

Bill Campbell

2008-01-01

338

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength\\u000a and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement\\u000a for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor\\u000a does one depend on the other. Strength

Colin Wilborn

2008-01-01

339

Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

1984-01-01

340

Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in adults predicts efficacy in children  

PubMed Central

Objective: Due to the challenges inherent in performing clinical trials in children, a systematic review of published clinical trials was performed to determine whether the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults can be used to predict the efficacy of AEDs in the pediatric population. Methods: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library searches (1970–January 2010) were conducted for clinical trials of partial-onset seizures (POS) and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) in adults and in children <2 and 2–18 years. Independent epidemiologists used standardized search and study evaluation criteria to select eligible trials. Forest plots were used to investigate the relative strength of placebo-subtracted effect measures. Results: Among 30 adjunctive therapy POS trials in adults and children (2–18 years) that met evaluation criteria, effect measures were consistent between adults and children for gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Placebo-subtracted median percent seizure reduction between baseline and treatment periods (ranging from 7.0% to 58.6% in adults and from 10.5% to 31.2% in children) was significant for 40/46 and 6/6 of the treatment groups studied. The ?50% responder rate (ranging from 2.0% to 43.0% in adults and from 3.0% to 26.0% in children) was significant for 37/43 and 5/8 treatment groups. In children <2 years, an insufficient number of trials were eligible for analysis. Conclusions: This systematic review supports the extrapolation of efficacy results in adults to predict a similar adjunctive treatment response in 2- to 18-year-old children with POS. PMID:22955136

Carman, Wendy J.; Thyagarajan, Veena; Daniels, Tony; Morris, Dexter L.; D'Cruz, O'Neill

2012-01-01

341

Effect of intestinal parasite treatment on the efficacy of oral iodized oil for correcting iodine deficiency in schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Oral supplementation with iodized oil for correction of iodine deficiency in a population has advantages over intramuscular injection but the duration of effect is shorter. The relation of intestinal parasite treatment and efficacy of oral iodized oil was examined in an intervention study in 8-10-y-old schoolchildren in Malawi. Severely iodine-deficient schoolchildren with a single parasitic infestation of Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 44), hookworm (n = 42), or Entamoeba histolytica (n = 24) were randomly allocated to receive or not receive treatment before taking a 1-mL oral supplement (490 mg I) of iodized ethyl esters from poppy seed oil. The urinary iodine concentration was measured at various time points after supplementation to define the time intervals before urinary iodine concentrations returned to 0.40 mumol/L, indicating moderate iodine deficiency. Treatment with metronidazole for E. histolytica increased the protection period from 2.0 to 21.0 wk (P < 0.05). For all untreated children together, the duration of effect was 9.2 wk shorter (P < 0.001) than that for their treated peers (16.8 wk). We conclude that intestinal parasitic infestations reduce the efficacy of oral supplementation with iodized ethyl esters by interfering with absorption. PMID:9394695

Furnée, C A; West, C E; van der Haar, F; Hautvast, J G

1997-12-01

342

Supplemental Information on Policy -Salary Supplement for the Health Insurance Subsidy  

E-print Network

Supplemental Information on Policy - Salary Supplement for the Health Insurance Subsidy Created this: "Graduate Assistant salary includes a supplement for health insurance in accordance with FSU of the semester. · The Spring semester charge covers insurance for Spring and Summer semesters. · If a student

Weston, Ken

343

2010 FCRPS2010 FCRPS Supplemental BiOpSupplemental BiOp  

E-print Network

Structure of theStructure of the Supplemental BiOpSupplemental BiOp #12;How the pieces fit togetherHow the pieces fit together The 2010 Supplemental BiOp integrates the 2008 RPA and the AMIP The AMIP and its data, · New information on biological effects of climate change, · New information on cormorant

344

Health characteristics of older Australian dietary supplement users compared to non-supplement users.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dietary and health supplement use among Australians aged 65 years and over, and to contrast the health differences between supplement users and non-supplement users. Data was obtained from 1,263 randomly selected older Australians, who provided general demographic data, in addition to information related to their health, symptoms experienced and uses of medication, including dietary supplements. Supplement use was reported by 43% of the sample (52% of females and 35% of males). This investigation has revealed distinct differences in the health profile of older supplement users compared to non-users. Although there was no difference in the number of visits to medical doctors or self-rated health status between supplement users and non-supplement users, supplement users were more likely to report arthritis and osteoporosis, and experience more symptoms and consume more medication than non-supplement users. In contrast, there was a reduced likelihood of taking a supplement for those with hypertension and by those using blood pressure medication and heart tablets. These results suggest that older dietary supplement users may benefit from education and professional advice to assist them make appropriate and informed choices, particularly if they expect these preparations to attenuate their health concerns. PMID:15563442

Brownie, Sonya; Rolfe, Margaret

2004-01-01

345

Health characteristics of older Australian dietary supplement users compared to non-supplement users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dietary and health supplement use among Australians aged 65 years and over, and to contrast the health differences between supplement users and non-supplement users. Data was obtained from 1,263 randomly selected older Australians, who provided general demographic data, in addition to information related to their health, symptoms experienced and

Sonya Brownie; Margaret I Rolfe

2004-01-01

346

Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

347

Fingerprinting of Materials: Technical Supplement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This supplement to the Guidelines for Maintaining a Chemical Fingerprinting Program has been developed to assist NASA personnel, contractors, and sub-contractors in defining the technical aspects and basic concepts which can be used in chemical fingerprinting programs. This material is not meant to be totally inclusive to all chemical fingerprinting programs, but merely to present current concepts. Each program will be tailored to meet the needs of the individual organizations using chemical fingerprinting to improve their quality and reliability in the production of aerospace systems.

Workman, Gary L.

1992-01-01

348

Comparative Efficacy of Two Different Dosages of Intrathecal Magnesium Sulphate Supplementation in Subarachnoid Block  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal anaesthesia is the primary anaesthetic technique for many types of surgeries. Adjuncts to the local anaesthetics (LA) used in spinal anaesthesia can exhibit undesirable side-effects like respiratory depression, urinary retention, pruritis, haemodynamic instability and nausea and vomiting, limiting their use. Magnesium when used in therapeutic doses avoids all of these side-effects. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized double blind study on 90 patients, 30 in each group, scheduled for orthopaedic lower limb surgery under subarachnoid block. Group I: received bupivacaine (0.5%), 12.5 mg + 0.5 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline, Group II received bupivacaine (0.5%), 12.5 mg + 0.2 ml (50 mg) of preservative free 25 % magnesium sulphate + 0.3 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline Group III: received bupivacaine (0.5%) 12.5 mg + 0.3 ml (75 mg) of 25 % magnesium sulphate + 0.2 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline for subarachnoid block. The onset and duration of sensory block, the highest dermatomal level of sensory block, motor block, time to complete motor block recovery and duration of spinal anaesthesia were recorded. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA was applied to determine the significance of difference between different groups. If p-value was significant then Turkey’s Post Hoc Multicomparison test was applied. Values of p<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The time of maximum sensory block, time of onset of motor block, duration of sensory block, duration of motor block and time of analgesia request were prolonged in patients given magnesium 50mg and 75mg along with local anaesthetic intrathecally. Conclusion: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, magnesium when administered intrathecally along with local anaesthetics prolongs the duration of spinal analgesia without adverse effects. PMID:25120997

Kathuria, Binesh; Gupta, Aanchal; Grewal, Anju; Sood, Dinesh

2014-01-01

349

Iron-fortified rice is as efficacious as supplemental iron drops in infants and young children.  

PubMed

How to improve iron status among infants and young children is of continued concern in low- to middle-income countries, including Brazil. In a double blind, 5-mo, home-based, randomized trial in Brazil, we gave one group of mildly anemic 6- to 24-mo-old children (n = 175) rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate using the Ultra Rice technology and a placebo solution (URG) and another group identical nonfortified rice and iron drops. We instructed parents on the correct dosage of iron drops and to feed their children rice as they normally would. We measured serum ferritin (SF) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at baseline and at 5 mo. At baseline, the prevalences of iron deficiency and anemia in the total sample were 73.1 and 100%, respectively. At 5 mo, SF and Hb increased in both groups, although the change in the URG was larger (P < 0.01). Adult participants were unable to distinguish cooked fortified rice from unfortified rice in terms of smell, color, or taste. As rice is normally consumed at home, MPF-fortified rice increased iron stores and reduced anemia in a group of mildly anemic children 6-24 mo old. In populations where young children are routinely fed approximately 100 g of cooked rice daily, fortifying it with iron may improve iron status at least as well as providing free iron drops. PMID:19889805

Beinner, Mark A; Velasquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Pessoa, Milene C; Greiner, Ted

2010-01-01

350

Safety and efficacy of NovaSil clay as a dietary supplement to prevent aflatoxicosis  

E-print Network

of the world, necessitating research initiatives for intervention strategies designed to diminish biological exposure. Calcium montmorillonite clays (e.g. NovaSil Plus, NSP) have been found to tightly bind and inactivate aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract...

Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans

2006-04-12

351

NASA Thesaurus supplement: A four part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The four-part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes the Hierarchical Listing (Part 1), Access Vocabulary (Part 2), Definitions (Part 3), and Changes (Part 4). The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies and accepted upper/lowercase forms for new terms.

1989-01-01

352

The Use of Selected Nutrition Supplements and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Almost all patients with liver disease, especially advanced liver disease, have some evidence of malnutrition, including mineral/vitamin deficiency. A major health trend in the United States has been the significant growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including nutrition supplements and herbal agents. In the 1990s, the United States government created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), as well as the Office on Dietary Supplements, to extend our knowledge in these areas. CAM users are often highly educated and frequently use CAM therapy for chronic diseases, including chronic liver disease. Indeed, most studies suggest that patients with chronic liver disease frequently use nutrition supplements and CAM agents in addition to their traditional medicines. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of nutrition supplements and herbals in liver disease. This article will focus mainly on 7 selected agents (vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, silymarin, and glycyrrhizin), for which there have been not only in vitro and animal studies but also human clinical trials, and we will review both potential efficacy and safety issues. PMID:16772543

Hanje, A. James; Fortune, Brett; Song, Ming; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig

2014-01-01

353

VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION OF BREASTFED INFANTS: A RANDOMIZED DOSE-RESPONSE TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfed infants require supplementation with vitamin D but little is known about the necessary dose. This double blind trial evaluated four different doses of vitamin D. Methods Exclusively breastfed infants (N=213) were randomized at 1 month to one of 4 doses, which they received through 9 months while receiving no formula. The supplements provided daily 200 IU, 400 IU, 600 IU or 800 IU of vitamin D. The primary endpoint was plasma 25(OH)D level and secondary outcomes were plasma PTH and calcium, and illness incidence. The study was conducted during winter at 41° N. Results Most infants had low (<50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D levels at 1 month, but with supplementation levels rose. Overall, levels of 25(OH)D differed significantly in proportion to vitamin D dose. There were no effects of vitamin D on illness incidence or growth. Low levels were common, with 7.8% of levels being <50 nmol/L and 15 infants having 2 to 4 low levels. Conclusion The 4 doses of vitamin D produced different plasma levels of 25(OH)D. The higher doses were somewhat more efficacious in maintaining vitamin D sufficiency in breastfed infants. The findings support the recommended dose of 400 IU/d and stress the need to start supplementation at birth. PMID:24858141

Ziegler, Ekhard E.; Nelson, Steven E.; Jeter, Janice M.

2014-01-01

354

Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose. PMID:24790886

Dharmasena, Aruna

2014-01-01

355

Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose. PMID:24790886

Dharmasena, Aruna

2014-01-01

356

Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions  

PubMed Central

Dietary fiber (DF) is a term that reflects to a heterogenous group of natural food sources, processed grains and commercial supplements. Several forms of DF have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of DF in metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of DF on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of DF, but also quite variable. This article focuses on the role, mechanism of action and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk, and explores the effects of DF on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of DF. PMID:19931537

Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

2010-01-01

357

Efficacy and safety of probiotics as adjuvant agents for Helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine whether probiotics could help to improve the eradication rates and reduce the side effects associated with anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment, and to investigate the optimal time and duration of probiotic administration during the treatment, thus providing clinical practice guidelines for eradication success worldwide. By searching Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index, all the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics as adjuvant agents of anti-H. pylori standard triple-therapy regimens with placebo or no treatment were selected. Statistical analysis was performed with the Comprehensive Meta Analysis Software. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Twenty-one RCTs involving a total of 3,814 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled eradication rates of the probiotic group were 80.3% (1,709/2,128) by intention-to-treat (ITT) and 83.8% (1,709/2,039) by pro-protocol analyses; the pooled relative risk (RR) by ITT for probiotic supplementation versus treatment without probiotics was 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–1.19]. A reduced risk of overall H. pylori therapy-related adverse effects was also found with probiotic supplementation (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40–0.91). The subgroup analyses showed that probiotic supplementation prior and subsequent to the treatment regimen both improved eradication rates for H. pylori infection. Furthermore, probiotic treatment lasting >2 weeks and including Lactobacillus or multiple probiotic strains significantly enhanced the efficacy. In conclusion, supplementation with probiotics for H. pylori eradication may be effective in increasing eradication rates and decreasing therapy-related side effects. Probiotic administration prior or subsequent to therapy and for a duration of >2 weeks may increase the eradication efficacy. PMID:25667617

LV, ZHIFA; WANG, BEN; ZHOU, XIAOJIANG; WANG, FUCAI; XIE, YONG; ZHENG, HUILIE; LV, NONGHUA

2015-01-01

358

76 FR 25 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical...amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS)...

2011-01-03

359

21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Reproductive media and supplements. 884.6180 Section...Reproduction Devices § 884.6180 Reproductive media and supplements. (a) Identification. Reproductive media and supplement are products that are...

2010-04-01

360

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2011-04-01

361

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2013-04-01

362

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2010-04-01

363

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2012-04-01

364

21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. 119.1 Section 119.1 Food and...Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of...

2014-04-01

365

THE INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS (IBIDS) DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database provides access to bibliographic citations and abstracts from published, international, scientific literature on dietary supplements. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Instit...

366

75 FR 29513 - Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...100429203-0204-01] Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure AGENCY: Bureau of the Census...approach to developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) presented in a report...Working Group on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure,'' which was recently...

2010-05-26

367

14 CFR 121.597 - Flight release authority: Supplemental operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release authority: Supplemental operations...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.597 Flight release authority: Supplemental...

2010-01-01

368

14 CFR 121.597 - Flight release authority: Supplemental operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight release authority: Supplemental operations...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.597 Flight release authority: Supplemental...

2014-01-01

369

14 CFR 121.597 - Flight release authority: Supplemental operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight release authority: Supplemental operations...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.597 Flight release authority: Supplemental...

2012-01-01

370

14 CFR 121.597 - Flight release authority: Supplemental operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight release authority: Supplemental operations...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.597 Flight release authority: Supplemental...

2013-01-01

371

14 CFR 121.597 - Flight release authority: Supplemental operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight release authority: Supplemental operations...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.597 Flight release authority: Supplemental...

2011-01-01

372

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLLEN, BROODREARING AND CONSUMPTION OF POLLEN SUPPLEMENTS  

E-print Network

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLLEN, BROODREARING AND CONSUMPTION OF POLLEN SUPPLEMENTS BY HONEYBEES KEITH Australia, 5064 SUMMARY Two field experiments with a commercial pollen supplement provide information on possible relationships between pollen, broodrearing and consumption of the supplement. When colonies were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

AIMing towards improved antitumor efficacy.  

PubMed

Using the structure-activity relationship emerging from previous Letter, and guided by pharmacokinetic properties, new AIMs have been prepared with both improved efficacy against human glioblastoma cells and cell permeability as determined by fluorescent confocal microscopy. We present our first unambiguous evidence for telomeric G4-forming oligonucleotide anisotropy by NMR resulting from direct interaction with AIMs, which is consistent with both our G4 melting studies by CD, and our working hypothesis. Finally, we show that AIMs induce apoptosis in SNB-19 cells. PMID:25782743

Weaver, Matthew J; Kearns, Alison K; Stump, Sascha; Li, Chun; Gajewski, Mariusz P; Rider, Kevin C; Backos, Donald S; Reigan, Philip R; Beall, Howard D; Natale, Nicholas R

2015-04-15

374

Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

375

SUPPLEMENT TO G. GRUBB: "DISTRIBUTIONS AND OPERATORS"  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENT TO G. GRUBB: "DISTRIBUTIONS AND OPERATORS" Springer Verlag, New York 2009 Additional for (x, y) Q, 0 for (x, y) / Q. 1 #12;2 SUPPLEMENT TO G. GRUBB: "DISTRIBUTIONS AND OPERATORS" (a) Find TO G. GRUBB: "DISTRIBUTIONS AND OPERATORS" 3 (b) Find all solutions u S (R) to the equation xN u = 0

Grubb, Gerd

376

Compliance Supplement. OMB Circular A-133.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a supplement to Circular A-133 (1990) from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which extended the government's "single audit process" for agencies that administer federal financial assistance programs to higher education institutions and non-profit organizations. This supplement is based on the 1996 Amendments (the Single…

Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC.

377

Journal Supplements Focused on Physical Activity Measurement  

Cancer.gov

This journal supplement summarizes and builds upon a workshop which convened researchers from diverse sectors and organizations to critically review the state-of-the-science. The supplement discusses current technologies for objective physical activity monitoring, provides recommendations for the use of these technologies, and explores future directions in the development of new tools and approaches.

378

USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

379

Current Biology, Volume 21 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

Supplemental Computational Considerations Supplemental References #12;2 octopus cuttlefish B2 0 10 20 30 40 50) and cuttlefish (B). A1. Raw #12;3 traces of bundle activity (left) and LFP (right) at the times denoted determines the input to LN (via the cholinergic AMLN synapse). B1. Similar to A1 in cuttlefish. Traces

Joskowicz, Leo

380

Supplement consumption in body builder athletes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330

Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh

2011-01-01

381

CURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT to the UNDERGRADUATE CATALOG  

E-print Network

Mathematical Structures for Computer Science An intermediate-level programming and discrete mathematics courseCURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT to the UNDERGRADUATE CATALOG 2004-2005 This Curriculum Supplement contains where concepts of discrete structures will be applied to computer science. Topics include elementary set

Rosen, Jay

382

CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

These supplements to the June round of the Current Population Survey (conducted at five-year intervals starting in 1971) were designed to examine transitions in the American family and to measure the demographic implications of these transitions for children. The supplements ask ...

383

Measuring Vitamins and Minerals in Dietary Supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: Describe 1) why information on vitamin and mineral intakes from dietary supplements is needed for estimating total nutrient intakes in populations 2) the current status and challenges in developing an analytically validated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) 3) lessons from pil...

384

Better Living for Texans A Supplemental Nutrition  

E-print Network

, Texas Health and Human Services Commission (HHSC), and Food and Nutrition Services (FNS) of USDA. BLTBetter Living for Texans A Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Relevance In Texas, 17 of seven Texans receives benefits from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known

385

Principals' transformational leadership and teachers' collective efficacy.  

PubMed

The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership. PMID:18567210

Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu

2008-04-01

386

Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 2 The sum is over presynaptic spike times tj, and ffast represents

Columbia University

387

Patient supplemented epidural analgesia after major abdominal surgery with bupivacaine\\/fentanyl or ropivacaine\\/fentanyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To compare analgesic efficacy and occurrence of motor block and other side effects during patient supplemented epidural analgesia\\u000a (PSEA) with either ropivacaine\\/fentanyl or bupivacaine\\/fentanyl mixtures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 32 ASA I–III patients undergoing major abdominal surgery received an epidural\\u000a catheter at the T8–T10, followed by integrated general epidural anesthesia. Postoperative epidural analgesia was provided using a patient

Marco Berti; Guido Fanelli; Andrea Casati; Andrea Albertin; Sara Palmisano; Francesco Deni; Valeria Perotti; Giorgio Torri

2000-01-01

388

Botanical and Dietary Supplements for Menopausal Symptoms: What Works, What Doesn’t  

PubMed Central

All women reach menopause and approximately two-thirds of women develop menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes. Hormone therapy long was considered the first line of treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, given the results of the Women’s Health Initiative, many women are reluctant use exogenous hormones for symptomatic treatment and are turning to botanicals and dietary supplement (BDS) products for relief. Despite the fact that there is limited scientific evidence describing efficacy and long term safety of such products, many women find these “natural treatments” appealing. Peri- and postmenopausal women are amongst the highest users of these products, but 70% of women do not tell their health care providers about their use. Compounding this issue is the fact that few clinicians ask their patients about use of BDS, largely because they have not been exposed to alternative medical practices in their training and are unfamiliar with these products. This paper reviews the botanicals and dietary supplements commonly used in menopause, (such as black cohosh, red clover, soy products, among others) as well as the available data on efficacy and safety. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to December 2004 using terms related to botanical and dietary supplements and menopausal symptoms for peri- or postmenopausal women. Abstracts from relevant meetings as well as reference books and websites on herbal supplements were also searched. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were used if available; open trials and comparison group studies were used when RCTs were not available. The evidence to date suggests that black cohosh is safe and effective for reducing menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes and possibly mood disorders. Phytoestrogen extracts, including soy foods and red clover appear to have at best only minimal effect on menopausal symptoms but have positive health effects on plasma lipid concentrations and may reduce heart disease. St. John’s wort has been shown to improve mild to moderate depression in the general population and appears to show efficacy for mood disorders related to the menopausal transition. Other commonly used botanicals have limited evidence to demonstrate safety and efficacy for relief of symptoms related to menopause. PMID:16181020

Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

2006-01-01

389

78 FR 13543 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...242, 245, and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...technical amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

2013-02-28

390

76 FR 76318 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Appendix A to Chapter 2 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...technical amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

2011-12-07

391

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

Albert Bandura

1982-01-01

392

Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report  

SciTech Connect

The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

Not Available

1991-10-01

393

Supplemental report on cost estimates'  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

NONE

1992-04-29

394

Examining the influence of other-efficacy and self-efficacy on personal performance.  

PubMed

This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (M(age) = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts. PMID:21808081

Dunlop, William L; Beatty, Daniel J; Beauchamp, Mark R

2011-08-01

395

Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

2011-01-01

396

Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to…

Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

2009-01-01

397

Dietary Supplementation of Vitamin E and ?-Lipoic Acid Upregulates Cell Growth and Signaling Genes in Rat Myocardium  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease appears equivocal, however the use of more potent antioxidant combinations than those traditionally used may exert a more positive effect. We have shown previously that supplementation of vitamin E and ?-lipoic acid increases cardiac performance during post-ischemia reperfusion in older rats and increases Bcl-2 levels in endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vitamin E and ?-lipoic acid supplementation on myocardial gene expression with a view to determine their mechanism of action. Young male rats received either a control (n=7) or vitamin E and ?-lipoic acid supplemented diet (n=8) for 14 weeks. RNA from myocardial tissue was then amplified and samples were pooled within groups and competitively hybridized to 8.5K oligonucleotide rat microarrays. The relative expression of each gene was then compared to the control sample. Animals that received the antioxidant-supplemented diet exhibited upregulation (>1.5×) of 13 genes in the myocardium with 2 genes downregulated. Upregulated genes include those involved in cell growth and maintenance (LynB, Csf1r, Akt2, Tp53), cell signaling (LynB, Csf1r) and signal transduction (Pacsin2, Csf1r). Downregulated genes encode thyroid (Thrsp) and F-actin binding proteins (Nexilin). PMID:23675004

Marsh, Susan A.; Mason, Steven; Ward, Leigh C.; Coombes, Jeff S.

2006-01-01

398

Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation and Loss of Bone Mineral Density in Women Undergoing Breast Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

An unintended consequence of breast cancer therapies is an increased risk of osteoporosis due to accelerated bone loss. We conducted a systematic review of calcium and/or vitamin D (Ca±D) supplementation trials for maintaining bone mineral density (BMD) in women with breast cancer using the “before-after” data from the Ca±D supplemented comparison group of trials evaluating the effect of drugs such as bisphosphonates on BMD. Whether Ca±D supplements increase BMD in women undergoing breast cancer therapy has never been tested against an unsupplemented control group. However, results from 16 trials indicate that the Ca±D doses tested (500-1500 mg calcium; 200-1000 IU vitamin D) were inadequate to prevent BMD loss in these women. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality in women with breast cancer. Because calcium supplements may increase cardiovascular disease risk, future trials should evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ca±D supplementation in women undergoing breast cancer therapy. PMID:23932583

Datta, Mridul; Schwartz, Gary G.

2013-01-01

399

Disinfection efficacy of organic chloramines.  

PubMed

The disinfection efficacies of model organic chloramines were investigated. Twenty amino acids and two nucleic acid bases were chlorinated separately with sodium hypochlorite at a Cl:N molar ratio of 0.4:1, and were then used to treat an E. coli suspension for 60 min. DPD/FAS titration was carried out to obtain the concentration of the chlorinated nitrogenous organic compounds as a function of time. In addition, membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) was used to quantify inorganic chloramines (mono-, di-, and trichloramine). The results of these experiments showed that the organic chloramines examined in this research had little or no effect on the viability of E. coli. MIMS analyses demonstrated that there was no quantifiable formation of inorganic chloramines when the organic nitrogen compounds were chlorinated. PMID:12600384

Donnermair, Martina M; Blatchley, Ernest R

2003-04-01

400

Iron supplementation: overcoming technical and practical barriers.  

PubMed

Iron supplementation is probably the best available option to effectively address iron deficiency in pregnant women and young children because it can be targeted specifically to these high-risk groups. However, technical and practical barriers exist: limited information on the effectiveness of supplementation interventions, side effects that affect compliance, and supply/distribution constraints. An innovative approach to addressing these constraints is the use of sprinkles of powdered, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate that can be added directly to any semi-liquid food without changing their taste or consistency. This technique has been tested in initial trials in Ghana and found to be as effective as iron drops. Another approach to improve the effectiveness of iron interventions is through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. These interventions can help modify consumer behavior in some cases, but in some countries, geographic location, variations in language and population size can make the cost of IEC programs very high. IEC strategies in Indonesia aimed at increasing demand for iron supplements by systematic dissemination of specific messages, improving the quality and variety of tablets, increasing the availability and access to supplements by engaging the commercial sector, enrolling traditional birth attendants and other community volunteers in selling supplements. Key issues to be addressed include clarifying optimal starting points and duration of supplementation interventions--based on individual status or population prevalence, defining hemoglobin and ferritin cutoffs at which treatment should be instigated and evaluating the effectiveness of intermittent supplementation with multiple micronutrients. PMID:11925496

Mora, Jose O

2002-04-01

401

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa  

E-print Network

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Update on the soybean aphid efficacy program Erin Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand Department of Entomology #12;Soybean aphid efficacy · Soybean aphid efficacy evaluation · Where to get more info, handouts #12;Soybean aphid efficacy program

Jurenka, Russell A.

402

Variable Efficacy of Repeated Annual Influenza Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions have differed in studies that have compared vaccine efficacy in groups receiving influenza vaccine for the first time to efficacy in groups vaccinated more than once. For example, the Hoskins study [Hoskins, T. W., Davis, J. R., Smith, A. J., Miller, C. L. & Allchin, A. (1979) Lancet i, 33-35] concluded that repeat vaccination was not protective in the

Derek J. Smith; Stephanie Forrest; David H. Ackley; Alan S. Perelson

1999-01-01

403

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)  

Cancer.gov

The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the cancer prevention efficacy and safety of a daily combination of 30 milligrams (mg) of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate in 18,314 persons who were at high risk for lung cancer.

404

Pro-inflammatory properties of shark cartilage supplement.  

PubMed

The erosion and breakdown of cartilage is generally recognized to be an integral manifestation of arthritic disease, which is often accompanied by the development and progression of inflammation associated with it. Commercial shark cartilage (SC) is a popular dietary supplement taken for the prevention and/or control of chronic disease, including arthritis. The efficacy of SC in maintaining joint health remains questionable; there is a lack of sufficient reliable information on its effect on immunocompetent cells, and the potential health risks involved have not been adequately assessed. Our earlier in vitro studies showed that SC extracts induce a Th1-type inflammatory cytokine response in human leucocytes, and collagen type II alpha 1 protein was shown to be an active cytokine-inducing component in SC. In this study, we further define the cellular response to SC stimulation by classifying leucocytes into primary and secondary responders employing enriched leucocyte subpopulations. Inhibitors of specific signaling pathways were used to verify the functional effect of SC on specific pathway(s) utilized. Results indicate the monocyte/macrophage as the initially responding cell, followed by lymphocytes and the production of interferon-?. Chemokines, MCP-1 and RANTES, were produced at significant levels in stimulated leucocyte cultures. Initial cellular activation is likely followed by activation of Jun Kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways. This study presents evidence of significant immunological reactivity of components of commercial SC supplement, which could pose a potential health risk for consumers, particularly those with underlying inflammatory disease such as irritable bowel syndrome and arthritis. PMID:25600427

Merly, Liza; Smith, Sylvia L

2015-04-01

405

Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 ?g from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 ?g [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 ?g folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations. PMID:23698160

Zappacosta, Bruno; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Persichilli, Silvia; Pounis, George; Ruggeri, Stefania; Minucci, Angelo; Carnovale, Emilia; Andria, Generoso; Ricci, Roberta; Scala, Iris; Genovese, Orazio; Turrini, Aida; Mistura, Lorenza; Giardina, Bruno; Iacoviello, Licia

2013-01-01

406

Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended. PMID:24846474

Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

2014-07-01

407

Research Review: The Role of Diet in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder--An Appraisal of the Evidence on Efficacy and Recommendations on the Design of Future Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The efficacy of three dietary treatments for ADHD has been repeatedly tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These interventions are restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE) and supplementation with free fatty acids (SFFA). There have been three systematic reviews and associated…

Stevenson, Jim; Buitelaar, Jan; Cortese, Samuele; Ferrin, Maite; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel; Simonoff, Emily; Wong, Ian C. K.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2014-01-01

408

Efficacy of in-feed preparations of an anticoccidial, multienzyme, prebiotic, probiotic, and herbal essential oil mixture in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected broilers.  

PubMed

The efficacies of 5 widely used dietary supplements were investigated on performance indices, fecal oocyst excretion, lesion score, and intestinal tract measurements in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected birds by using a comparative model. This study included 2,400 sexed Ross 308 broiler chicks that were equally divided in 2 groups: the infected group, experimentally infected with oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. at 14 d of age, and the healthy controls. The birds in both groups were further divided equally into 6 groups, of which one was fed a basal diet and served as control without treatment and the other 5 served as experimental treatments. These 5 groups were fed 5 diets containing preparations of 60 mg/kg of anticoccidial salinomycin (SAL), 1 g/kg of multienzyme (ENZ), 1 g/kg of probiotic (PRO), 1 g/kg of prebiotic (PRE), and 40 mg/kg of an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM). Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed significant improvement in the infected animals, which indicates that dietary supplemental regimens with SAL, ENZ, PRO, and PRE initiated in 1-d-old chicks reduced adverse effects after challenge with coccidiosis; however, chicks that were administered EOM failed to show such improvement. Uninfected chickens showed significant improvement in FCR with supplements SAL, PRE, and EOM, which signifies significant (P < 0.01) infection by supplement interactions for BW gain and FCR. In the infected group, all of the supplements reduced the severity of coccidiosis lesions (P < 0.01) induced by mixed Eimeria spp. through the middle and lower regions of the small intestines, whereas supplementation with SAL or EOM alone was effective (P < 0.01) in reducing oocyst excretion compared with the control treatment. The data indicated that use of these subtherapeutically efficacious supplements (except EOM) in broiler production can lessen the depression in growth due to coccidial challenge. PMID:24570461

Bozkurt, M; Aysul, N; Küçükyilmaz, K; Aypak, S; Ege, G; Catli, A U; Aksit, H; Cöven, F; Seyrek, K; Cinar, M

2014-02-01

409

Efficacy, Dosage, and Duration of Action of Branched Chain Amino Acid Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in long-lasting cognitive impairments for which there is currently no accepted treatment. A well-established mouse model of mild to moderate TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI), shows changes in network excitability in the hippocampus including a decrease in net synaptic efficacy in area CA1 and an increase in net synaptic efficacy in dentate gyrus. Previous studies identified a novel therapy consisting of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), which restored normal mouse hippocampal responses and ameliorated cognitive impairment following FPI. However, the optimal BCAA dose and length of treatment needed to improve cognitive recovery is unknown. In the current study, mice underwent FPI then consumed 100?mM BCAA supplemented water ad libitum for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10?days. BCAA therapy ameliorated cognitive impairment at 5 and 10?days duration. Neither BCAA supplementation at 50?mM nor BCAAs when dosed 5?days on then 5?days off was sufficient to ameliorate cognitive impairment. These results suggest that brain injury causes alterations in hippocampal function, which underlie and contribute to hippocampal cognitive impairment, which are reversible with at least 5?days of BCAA treatment, and that sustaining this effect is dependent on continuous treatment. Our findings have profound implications for the clinical investigation of TBI therapy. PMID:25870584

Elkind, Jaclynn A.; Lim, Miranda M.; Johnson, Brian N.; Palmer, Chris P.; Putnam, Brendan J.; Kirschen, Matthew P.; Cohen, Akiva S.

2015-01-01

410

HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P < .03). In the melanoma-bearing mice treated with IR, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:20136435

Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

2010-02-01

411

NDA BATCH 2002-02  

SciTech Connect

QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2009-12-09

412

NDA Batch 2002-13  

SciTech Connect

QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

Hollister, R

2009-09-17

413

NDA BATCH 2008-05  

SciTech Connect

QC sample results (daily background check drums and 100-gram standard) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPPs Quality Assurance objectives for TRU Waste characterization. Replicate run was performed on the following drums LL85234292 and LL85101617. Replicate measurement results are acceptable at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2009-12-03

414

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MAINTAINING RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2011-01-01

415

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... MAINTAINING RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2010-01-01

416

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MAINTAINING REC- ORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2012-01-01

417

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MAINTAINING REC-ORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2014-01-01

418

15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MAINTAINING REC-ORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports...to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather modification activities submitted under § 908.4, §...

2013-01-01

419

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION  

E-print Network

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

Walker, Lawrence R.

420

21 CFR 814.108 - Supplemental applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.108 Supplemental applications. After FDA...

2010-04-01

421

21 CFR 814.39 - PMA supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Premarket Approval Application (PMA) § 814.39 PMA supplements. Link to an...

2010-04-01

422

Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows  

E-print Network

decreases, and so does diet quality. Then, supple- mentation may become necessary even if animal numbers are reduced. Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows Stephen P. Hammack and Ronald J. Gill* *Extension Beef Cattle Specialist and Extension Live...

Hammack, Stephen P.; Gill, Ronald J.

2000-05-03

423

CURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT to the GRADUATE CATALOG  

E-print Network

- sions of the "nature and nurture" explanation? What major factors affect students' educability? WhatCURRICULUM SUPPLEMENT to the GRADUATE CATALOG COLLEGE OF STATEN ISLANDT h e C i t y U n i v e r s i

Rosen, Jay

424

18 CFR 45.5 - Supplemental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.5 Supplemental information. (a) Required by Commission. Applicants under this part...

2011-04-01

425

18 CFR 45.5 - Supplemental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.5 Supplemental information. (a) Required by Commission. Applicants under this part...

2013-04-01

426

18 CFR 45.4 - Supplemental applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.4 Supplemental applications. (a) New positions. In the event of a change or changes...

2012-04-01

427

18 CFR 45.5 - Supplemental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.5 Supplemental information. (a) Required by Commission. Applicants under this part...

2010-04-01

428

18 CFR 45.4 - Supplemental applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.4 Supplemental applications. (a) New positions. In the event of a change or changes...

2014-04-01

429

18 CFR 45.4 - Supplemental applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.4 Supplemental applications. (a) New positions. In the event of a change or changes...

2013-04-01

430

18 CFR 45.4 - Supplemental applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.4 Supplemental applications. (a) New positions. In the event of a change or changes...

2011-04-01

431

18 CFR 45.4 - Supplemental applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.4 Supplemental applications. (a) New positions. In the event of a change or changes...

2010-04-01

432

18 CFR 45.5 - Supplemental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.5 Supplemental information. (a) Required by Commission. Applicants under this part...

2012-04-01

433

18 CFR 45.5 - Supplemental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 45.5 Supplemental information. (a) Required by Commission. Applicants under this part...

2014-04-01

434

Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers  

PubMed Central

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Ériton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

2014-01-01

435

An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22432517

Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

2010-09-01

436

Rationales for micronutrient supplementation in diabetes.  

PubMed

Available evidence--some well-documented, some only preliminary--suggests that properly-designed nutritional insurance supplementation may have particular value in diabetes. Comprehensive micronutrient supplementation providing ample doses of antioxidants, yeast-chromium, magnesium, zinc, pyridoxine, gamma-linolenic acid, and carnitine, may aid glucose tolerance, stimulate immune defenses, and promote wound healing, while reducing the risk and severity of some of the secondary complications of diabetes. PMID:6325854

McCarty, M F; Rubin, E J

1984-02-01

437

Creatine Supplementation in Strength-Power Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exogenous ingestion of creatine (Cr) is typically used as a performance enhancing (ergogenic) supplement because it is\\u000a known to improve performance in muscular strength and power activities, enhance short bursts of muscular endurance, and allow\\u000a for greater muscular overload in order to improve training effectiveness. Creatine has become one of the most popular ingested\\u000a nutritional supplements due to its

Darryn S. Willoughby

438

Nutrition and Supplements for Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses dietary guidelines and nutritional supplements that have been proven to be beneficial in the treatment\\u000a of pain. First, a strong foundational diet is presented, including anti-inflammatory ingredients. Next, several key supplements\\u000a that are helpful for pain conditions are discussed. The chapter is completed with a discussion of some of the most common\\u000a chronic pain conditions, with specific

Maria Sulindro-Ma; Charise L. Ivy; Amber C. Isenhart

439

Texas 4-H Beef Quiz Bowl Supplement  

E-print Network

of feed? Answer: High protein (30-45 percent) feed Source: Extension publication B-1526, Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction of Beef Cows Page number: 3 Division: Both Question: Body condition determines the amount and type of winter feed... supplements that will be needed. Beside mineral and vitamin supplements, thin cows usually need large amounts of what type of feed? Answer: High energy feeds (+70 percent TDN) Source: Extension publication B-1526, Body Condition, Nutrition and Reproduction...

Chilek, Kevin

2003-11-07

440

Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products. PMID:24220164

Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

2013-01-01

441

Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions  

PubMed Central

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

2014-01-01

442

Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy.  

PubMed

Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa) after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone. PMID:25652639

Khera, Mohit

2015-01-01

443

Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

NONE

1995-11-01

444

Introduction to tobacco control supplement  

PubMed Central

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues. PMID:24732156

Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

2014-01-01

445

Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Multivitamin Supplementation at the Initiation of HAART on HIV Disease Progression and Mortality in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Context Large randomized trials have previously shown that high-dose micronutrient supplementation can increase CD4 counts and reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression and mortality among individuals not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the safety and efficacy of such supplementation has not been established in the context of HAART. Objective To test the hypothesis that high-dose multivitamin supplementation vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation decreases the risk of HIV disease progression or death and improves immunological, virological, and nutritional parameters in patients with HIV initiating HAART. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of high-dose vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation for 24 months in 3418 patients with HIV initiating HAART between November 2006 and November 2008 in 7 clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Intervention The provision of daily oral supplements of vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E at high levels or standard levels of the recommended dietary allowance. Main Outcome Measure The composite of HIV disease progression or death from any cause. Results The study was stopped early in March 2009 because of evidence of increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) in patients receiving the high-dose multivitamin supplement. At the time of stopping, 3418 patients were enrolled (median follow-up, 15 months), and there were 2374 HIV disease progression events and 453 observed deaths (2460 total combined events). Compared with standard-dose multivitamin supplementation, high-dose supplementation did not reduce the risk of HIV disease progression or death. The absolute risk of HIV progression or death was 72% in the high-dose group vs 72% in the standard-dose group (risk ratio [RR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96–1.04). High-dose supplementation had no effect on CD4 count, plasma viral load, body mass index, or hemoglobin level concentration, but increased the risk of ALT elevations (1239 events per 1215 person-years vs 879 events per 1236 person-years; RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11–1.87) vs standard-dose supplementation. Conclusion In adults receiving HAART, use of high-dose multivitamin supplements compared with standard-dose multivitamin supplements did not result in a decrease in HIV disease progression or death but may have resulted in an increase in ALT levels. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00383669 PMID:23073950

Isanaka, Sheila; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Hawkins, Claudia; Spiegelman, Donna; Okuma, James; Aboud, Said; Guerino, Chalamilla; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

2013-01-01

446

A clinical study comparing the efficacy and sensitivity of home vs combined whitening.  

PubMed

This randomized clinical study assessed efficacy in terms of color change and production of sensitivity after home whitening alone and home whitening supplemented with in-office bleaching. Thirty-six subjects (aged 19 to 58 years) were randomly assigned to one of three different treatment groups: (A) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays; (B) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays supplemented with in-office bleaching with 9% hydrogen peroxide (in the same trays); or (C) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays supplemented with in-office bleaching with 27% hydrogen peroxide (in the same trays). The efficacy of tooth whitening was assessed by determining the color change associated with the six upper anterior teeth using a value-ordered shade guide. Sensitivity was self-assessed with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS). Tooth shade and sensitivity were assessed at the following points: pretreatment; immediately after the home whitening phase; immediately after the in-office phase (groups B and C); and one week post active treatment. At the one week follow-up visit, subjects in group A had a mean (SD) color change of 5.9 (1.83) (teeth were lighter) immediately after cessation of treatment (p<0.01). Subjects in groups B and C experienced a greater change in mean (SD) shade immediately following their respective in-office treatments of 5.1 (1.53) and 5.4 (1.55). However, within one week, the shade of these teeth regressed to a similar degree to that achieved by subjects treated in group A. Overall, no significant difference in shade change or sensitivity was produced between the three groups. Investigators concluded that the in-office element of combined whitening produced no significant difference in tooth color or sensitivity when compared with home whitening alone. PMID:21859318

Dawson, P F L; Sharif, M O; Smith, A B; Brunton, P A

2011-01-01

447

Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

2010-03-01

448

Disposition of Flavonoids Impacts their Efficacy and Safety.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are important dietary phytochemicals with broad human exposures and a variety of claimed biological effects. Although traditional sources of flavonoids are fruits and vegetables, dietary supplements have become an important source of flavonoids. The enthusiasm for all things about flavonoids expressed by scientists and public alike has sometimes overlooked an important point: these compounds are usually not bioavailable or have very low bioavailability. The current review focused on factors that affect bioavailability of flavonoids, which in turn impact their efficacy and toxicity. These factors include physicochemical and biological ones, with the emphasis on the latter, including membrane permeation, enzymatic metabolism, and excretion by efflux transporters. Current evidence indicates that naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides typically need to be de-glycosylated before they are absorbed, because intact flavonoid glycosides are poorly absorbed. However, once absorbed, flavonoid aglycones undergo rapid and extensive first-pass metabolism via conjugation and subsequent excretion of the conjugates, which makes them poorly bioavailable. Fortunately, the presence of enteric and enterohepatic recycling allows the flavonoids to be accumulated in vivo over time, because the recycling increases contact time between the flavonoids and target tissues. We believe that continued studies in this area will help scientists devise a better means to improve oral bioavailability of flavonoids so we can one day fully enjoy the health benefits of ingesting flavonoids. PMID:25658129

Ma, Yong; Zeng, Min; Sun, Rongjin; Hu, Ming

2014-01-01

449

Herbs in epilepsy: evidence for efficacy, toxicity, and interactions.  

PubMed

Herbs and dietary supplements enjoy widespread use in the treatment of epilepsy although supportive data yielding efficacy and safety are lacking. Ten specific products, American hellebore, betony, blue cohosh, kava, mistletoe, mugwort, pipsissiwa, skullcap, valerian, and melatonin, have either multiple-cited recommendations for use in epilepsy or a rationale for antiepileptic action and are discussed in detail. These items paradoxically often have a proconvulsant effect in addition to potentially serious adverse effects. Herb-drug interactions also occur at the level of the P450 hepatic enzyme system of drug catabolism and the P-glycoprotein transport system regulating the entry of exogenous compounds into the vasculature or blood-brain barrier. Thus, significant pharmacokinetic interactions may occur, in addition to pharmacodynamic interactions and proconvulsant effects of alternative medications themselves. Patients should be inquired as to the nature of any alternative medicine products they are using, with the view that these products may be reasonable if traditional antiepileptic drug therapy is continued, potential adverse effects of the alternative agents are monitored, and the alternative and traditional agents do not conflict. PMID:22062945

Pearl, Phillip L; Drillings, Ian M; Conry, Joan A

2011-09-01

450

Clinical efficacy and mechanism of probiotics in allergic diseases  

PubMed Central

A complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors partially contributes to the development of allergic diseases by affecting development during prenatal and early life. To explain the dramatic increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases, the hygiene hypothesis proposed that early exposure to infection prevented allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis has changed to the microbial hypothesis, in which exposure to microbes is closely linked to the development of the early immune system and allergic diseases. The intestinal flora may contribute to allergic disease through its substantial effect on mucosal immunity. Based on findings that exposure to microbial flora early in life can change the Th1/Th2 balance, thus favoring a Th1 cell response, probiotics may be beneficial in preventing allergic diseases. However, evidence from clinical and basic research to prove the efficacy of probiotics in preventing allergy is lacking. To date, studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the usefulness of probiotics in allergic diseases. It is difficult to demonstrate an exact effect of probiotics on asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy because of study limitations, such as different first supplementation period, duration, different strains, short follow-up period, and host factors. However, many studies have demonstrated a significant clinical improvement in atopic dermatitis with the use of probiotics. An accurate understanding of the development of human immunity, intestinal barrier function, intestinal microbiota, and systemic immunity is required to comprehend the effects of probiotics on allergic diseases. PMID:24223597

Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Hyung Young; Lee, So-Yeon; Seo, Ju-Hee; Lee, Eun

2013-01-01

451

Components of an anticancer diet: dietary recommendations, restrictions and supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol.  

PubMed

The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol's development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol's safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs. PMID:22254073

Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

2011-01-01

452

Supplement Timing of Cranberry Extract Plays a Key Role in Promoting Caenorhabditis elegans Healthspan  

PubMed Central

Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry exact (CBE), rich in polyphenols, is consumed as a nutraceutical, and possesses anti-aging properties. Here, we examined the influence of timing on the beneficial effects of CBE supplementation in C. elegans. The prolongevity effect of CBE in different aged worms, young adults, middle-age adults, and aged adults, was determined. Early-start intervention with CBE prolonged the remaining lifespan of worms of different ages more robustly than late-start intervention. The effectiveness of CBE on stress responses and physiological behaviors in different aged worms was also investigated. The early-start intervention prominently promoted motility and resistance to heat shocks and V. cholera infection, especially in aged worms. Together, these findings suggest that the timing of CBE supplementation critically influences its beneficial effects on C. elegans lifespan and healthspan. It is of interest to further investigate whether the similar results would occur in humans. PMID:24566444

Guha, Sujay; Natarajan, Ojas; Murbach, Cole G.; Dinh, Jessica; Wilson, Ethan C.; Cao, Min; Zou, Sige; Dong, Yuqing

2014-01-01

453

Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol  

PubMed Central

The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs. PMID:22254073

Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

2010-01-01

454

Dietary supplementation of calcium may counteract obesity in mice mediated by changes in plasma fatty acids.  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to assess the impact of calcium and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on plasma fatty acid profiles and to evaluate potential synergistic effects of both compounds against dietary obesity. Mice separated into five experimental groups were followed: control (C), high-fat diet (HF), HF with calcium (Ca), HF plus CLA and HF with both Ca and CLA. Plasma metabolites and fatty acids were determined by commercial kits and gas chromatography, respectively. Both dietary calcium and CLA supplementation contributed to lower body fat gain under a HF diet. Maximum efficacy was seen with calcium; no additional effect was associated with the combined treatment with CLA. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and HOMA index were in accordance with an altered glucose/insulin homeostasis in the HF and HF + CLA groups, whereas control levels were attained under Ca-enriched diets. Plasma fatty acids showed minor changes associated to CLA treatment, but a high impact on PUFA was observed under Ca-enriched diets. Our results show that the mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of calcium supplementation is mediated mainly by changes in PUFA plasma profile. In addition, the lack of synergy on body weight reduction in combination with associated lipid profiles of calcium and CLA suggests that calcium may interfere with absorption and/or bioactivity of CLA, which can be of relevance when using CLA-fortified dairy products against human obesity. PMID:23729396

Laraichi, Sarah; Parra, Pilar; Zamanillo, Rocío; El Amarti, Ahmed; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

2013-08-01

455

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice supplementation attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac necrosis in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-supplementation with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) on heart weight, infarct size, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, cardiac ATPases and histopathology of isoproterenol (IP)-induced cardiac necrosis (CN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) for 2 days at an interval of 24 h caused significant (P < 0.05) infarct in myocardium and increase in heart weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase and plasma marker enzymes, while there was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and Na(+)-K(+) and Mg(+2)ATPases. Pre-supplementation with PJ for 30 consecutive days and treated with IP on days 29th and 30th showed significantly (P < 0.05) lesser increase in heart weight, infarct size, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, Ca(+2) ATPase and a significant protective effect in endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) and Mg(+2) ATPases compared to IP alone treated group. Present study provides first scientific report on protective effect of supplementation of Pomegranate juice against IP-induced CN in rats. PMID:20509006

Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thounaojam, Menaka C; Patel, Dipak K; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

2010-09-01

456

The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

2014-10-01

457

Nutritional supplements for diabetes sold on the internet: business or health promotion?  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is one of the most widespread chronic disease. Although many medications are available for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, many people turn to nutritional supplements (NSs). In these years, the online sales have contributed to the growth of use of nutritional supplement. The aim of the research was to investigate the type of information provided by sales websites on NSs, and analyse the existence of scientific evidence about some of the most common ingredients found in available NSs for diabetes. Methods A web search was conducted in April 2012 to identify web sites selling NSs in the treatment of diabetes using Google, Yahoo and Bing! and the key word used was “diabetes nutritional supplements”. Website content was evaluated for the quality of information available to consumers and for the presence of a complete list of ingredients in the first NS suggested by the site. Subsequently, in order to analyze the scientific evidence on the efficacy of these supplements a PubMed search was carried out on the ingredients that were shared in at least 3 nutritional supplements. Results A total of 10 websites selling NSs were selected. Only half of the websites had a Food and Drug Administration disclaimer and 40% declared clearly that the NS offered was not a substitute for proper medication. A total of 10 NS ingredients were searched for on PubMed. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses or randomized control trials were present for all the ingredients except one. Most of the studies, however, were of poor quality and/or the results were conflicting. Conclusions Easy internet access to NSs lacking in adequate medical information and strong scientific evidence is a matter of public health concern, mainly considering that a misleading information could lead to an improper prevention both in healthy people and people suffering from diabetes. There is a clear need for more trials to assess the efficacy and safety of these NSs, better quality control of websites, more informed physicians and greater public awareness of these widely used products. PMID:23978193

2013-01-01

458

Morbidity and mortality reduction by supplemental vitamin A or beta-carotene in CBA mice given total-body gamma-radiation  

SciTech Connect

Male CBA mice received graded doses (450-750 rad) of total-body gamma-radiation (TBR) from a dual-beam /sup 137/Cs irradiator. Commencing directly after TBR, 2 days later, or 6 days later, groups of mice received supplemental vitamin A (Vit A) or beta-carotene (beta-Car), compounds previously found to reduce radiation disease in mice subjected to partial-body X-irradiation. Given directly after TBR, supplemental Vit A decreased mortality, evidenced by increases in the radiation dose required to kill 50% of the mice within 30 days (LD50/30). In one experiment, Vit A increased the LD50/30 from 555 to 620 rad; in another experiment, Vit A increased the dose from 505 to 630 rad. Similarly, in a third experiment, supplemental beta-Car increased the LD50/30 from 510 to 645 rad. Additionally, each compound increased the survival times, even of those mice that died within 30 days. In addition to reduction of mortality and prolongation of survival time, supplemental Vit A moderated weight loss, adrenal gland hyperemia, thymus involution, and lymphopenia--all signs of radiation toxicity. Delaying the supplementation for 2 days after irradiation did not greatly reduce the efficacy of Vit A; however, delaying supplementation for 6 days decreased its effect almost completely.

Seifter, E.; Rettura, G.; Padawer, J.; Stratford, F.; Weinzweig, J.; Demetriou, A.A.; Levenson, S.M.

1984-11-01

459

Oxidation of Marine Omega-3 Supplements and Human Health  

PubMed Central

Marine omega-3 rich oils are used by more than a third of American adults for a wide range of purported benefits including prevention of cardiovascular disease. These oils are highly prone to oxidation to lipid peroxides and other secondary oxidation products. Oxidized oils may have altered biological activity making them ineffective or harmful, though there is also evidence that some beneficial effects of marine oils could be mediated through lipid peroxides. To date, human clinical trials have not reported the oxidative status of the trial oil. This makes it impossible to understand the importance of oxidation to efficacy or harm. However, animal studies show that oxidized lipid products can cause harm. Oxidation of trial oils may be responsible for the conflicting omega-3 trial literature, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The oxidative state of an oil can be simply determined by the peroxide value and anisidine value assays. We recommend that all clinical trials investigating omega-3 harms or benefits report the results of these assays; this will enable better understanding of the benefits and harms of omega-3 and the clinical importance of oxidized supplements. PMID:23738326

Albert, Benjamin B.; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

2013-01-01

460

Fresh frozen plasma supplement to massive red blood cell transfusion.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of supplemental fresh frozen plasma (FFP) therapy after massive packed red cell (PRBC) replacement for hemorrhagic shock was studied in 22 conditioned dogs. Ten dogs were randomized to received FFP, balanced electrolyte solution (BES), and PRBC, while 12 dogs received BES and PRBC. Coagulation factor activity for Factors I, II, V, VII and VIII, as well as antithrombin III (AT III), prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time, were measured at preshock, postshock, postresuscitation, and postshock day two. All coagulation factor activities fell with shock and decreased further with resuscitation in both groups. Factor II (a procoagulant) and AT III (an anticoagulant) fell significantly less after resuscitation in the plasma dogs; otherwise, no postresuscitation differences were seen. The changes in factor activity from postresuscitation until day two reflected factor half life and molecular weight, independent of FFP therapy. These data show that prophylactic FFP therapy does not efficiently restore coagulation activity. Consequently, routine FFP therapy for its procoagulant effects after hemorrhagic shock should be abandoned pending controlled studies in man. PMID:4051600

Martin, D J; Lucas, C E; Ledgerwood, A M; Hoschner, J; McGonigal, M D; Grabow, D

1985-01-01

461

Antioxidant supplementation enhances bacterial peritonitis in mice by inhibiting phagocytosis.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are known to exhibit numerous health benefits including anti-ageing, anti-apoptotic and immuno-stimulatory effects. However, we present the data showing counterproductive effects of therapeutically relevant antioxidants on bacterial clearance by the immune system in a murine peritonitic model. The antioxidants ascorbic acid, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine augmented morbidity and mortality in mice carrying Eshcerichia coli-induced acute bacterial peritonitis. Treatment of peritonitic mice with antioxidants significantly increased their bacterial load in the range of 0.3-2 logs. Antioxidant administration to peritonitic mice resulted in decreased numbers of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells at the primary site of infection and increased neutrophil infiltration. Serum TNF-? levels were also decreased in antioxidant-treated peritonitic mice. In vitro experiments showed that antioxidants reduced the phagocytic efficacy of peritoneal macrophages by ~60-75% and also decreased E. coli-induced oxidative burst in macrophages cells. Taken together, our data indicate that the antioxidants increased the severity of peritonitis by decreasing the phagocytic efficiency, oxidative burst, and TNF-? production, and increasing neutrophil infiltration. Based on these results, we propose that antioxidant supplementation during the course of bacterial infection is not recommended as it could be detrimental for the host. In addition, the present study underlines the importance of timing and context of antioxidant administration rather than indiscriminate usage to gain the best possible therapeutic advantage of these redox compounds. PMID:24307637

Goswami, Manish; Sharma, Deepak; Khan, Nazir M; Checker, Rahul; Sandur, Santosh Kumar; Jawali, Narendra

2014-03-01

462

Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish

Byrne

2003-01-01

463

VOLUME 13 SUPPLEMENT 1 AES 2012 Abstract Supplement -Epilepsy Currents Online  

E-print Network

VOLUME 13 SUPPLEMENT 1 AES 2012 Abstract Supplement - Epilepsy Currents Online AES 2012 Annual..................................................................................................476 Pediatric Epilepsy Highlights Session: Monday, December 3.....................................................................................................492 The Journal of the American Epilepsy Society #12;1.045 TELE-EPILEPSY: DEVELOPING A MULTI-MODAL DEVICE

Besio, Walter G.

464

Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

465

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques. Experiments w...

466

Effect of Warm-Supplementing Kidney Yang (WSKY) added to risperidone on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the quality of life, efficacy and safety of Warm-Supplementing Kidney Yang (WSKY) added to risperidone in patients with schizophrenia.Design: A randomized controlled trial.Setting: The outpatient and inpatient departments of three hospitals.Subjects: One hundred and twenty patients with clinically diagnosed schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms were included in the study.Intervention: All 120 patients were randomly assigned to double-blind

Zhen-hua Chen; Gao-hua Wang; Xiao-ping Wang; Yun-xiang Huo; Ming-hua Yang; Li Li; Hong-bing Mei

2009-01-01

467

Comparison of glucosamine sulfate and a polyherbal supplement for the relief of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN25438351  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of a dietary supplement derived from South American botanicals was compared to glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis subjects in a Mumbai-based multi-center, randomized, double-blind study. METHODS: Subjects (n = 95) were screened and randomized to receive glucosamine sulfate (n = 47, 1500 mg\\/day) or reparagen (n = 48, 1800 mg\\/day), a polyherbal consisting of 300 mg

Komal Mehta; Jayesh Gala; Surendra Bhasale; Sattayasheel Naik; Millind Modak; Harshad Thakur; Nivedita Deo; Mark JS Miller

2007-01-01

468

Dietary interventions, lifestyle changes, and dietary supplements in preventing gestational diabetes mellitus: a literature review.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased rates of fetal morbidity and mortality, both during the pregnancy and in the postnatal life. Current treatment of GDM includes diet with or without medications, but this management is expensive and poorly cost-effective for the health care systems. Strategies to prevent such condition would be preferable with respect to its treatment. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate studies reporting the efficacy of the most used approaches to prevent GDM as well as evidences of efficacy and safety of dietary supplementations. Systematic literature searches were performed in electronic databases, covering the period January 1983 to April 2014. Randomized controlled clinical trials were included. Quality of the articles was evaluated with the Jadad scale. We did not evaluate those articles that were already entered in the most recent systematic reviews, and we completed the research with the trials published thereafter. Of 55 articles identified, 15 randomized controlled trials were eligible. Quality and heterogeneity of the studies cannot allow firm conclusions. Anyway, trials in which only intake or expenditure has been targeted mostly reported negative results. On the contrary, combined lifestyle programs including diet control (orienting food intake, restricting energy intake) associated with moderate but continuous physical activity exhibit better efficacy in reducing GDM prevalence. The results from dietary supplements with myoinositol or probiotics are promising. The actual evidences provide enough arguments for implementing large-scale, high-quality randomized controlled trials looking at the possible benefits of these new approaches for preventing GDM. PMID:25409159

Facchinetti, Fabio; Dante, Giulia; Petrella, Elisabetta; Neri, Isabella

2014-11-01

469

76 FR 33170 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inclusion of Option Amounts in Limitations on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0750-AH23 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inclusion...amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...addressed in Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS)...

2011-06-08

470

76 FR 71465 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Management of Manufacturing Risk in Major...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0750-AH30 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Management...amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement to implement...2011, to amend Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS)...

2011-11-18

471

26 CFR 31.3402(o)-1 - Extension of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. 31.3402(o)-1...supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. (a) In general. ...supplemental unemployment compensation benefits made after December...

2010-04-01

472

Self-Efficacy and Hispanic College Students: Validation of the College Self-Efficacy Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy theory was proposed as an important determinant in Hispanic college student adjustment. Self-efficacy refers to the strength of a person's belief that they are able to produce a given behavior, and operationally. college self-efficacy was defined as a student's degree of confidence that they could successfully complete a given college-related task (e.g., taking notes, asking a question in class,

V. Scott Solberg; Karen OBrien; Pete Villareal; Richard Kennel; Betsy Davis

1993-01-01

473

Social-Cognitive Predictors of Health Behavior: Action Self-Efficacy and Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social-cognitive variables on preventive nutrition and behavioral intentions were studied in 580 adults at 2 points in time. The authors hypothesized that optimistic self-beliefs operate in 2 phases and made a distinction between action self-efficacy (preintention) and coping self-efficacy (pmtintan- tion). Risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, and action self-efficacy were specified as predictors of the intention at Wave

474

Self-Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

programs with high levels of self-efficacy (a belief in one's capabilities). These levels of self-efficacy frequently decline as pre-service teachers progress through their curriculum and make the transition to in-service teaching. A slight decline in these levels can be interpreted as a novice teacher's greater understanding of the complexity of the teaching process. Eighteen pre-service string teachers evaluated their levels

Gail V. Barnes

475

Self-efficacy beliefs and tennis performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and methodological aspects of self-efficacy theory are assessed in this study, and the tennis performance of 40 active players (M age = 26.6 years) serves as the criterion variable. On a theoretical level, only self-efficacy beliefs, and not response-outcome expectations or the valence thereof, were consistently and significantly related to 12 dimensions of tennis performance. This phenomenon pertained to

Julian Barling; Mike Abel

1983-01-01

476

Self-efficacy and achievement behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article self-efficacy research is reviewed in domains relevant to education. Research addressing cognitive skills, social skills, motor skills, and career choices has shown that self-efficacy is an important construct that helps to explain students' learning and performance of achievement-related behaviors. Research also has identified variables that are associated with educational contexts and that signal to students how well

Dale H. Schunk

1989-01-01

477

Maternal taurine supplementation attenuates maternal fructose-induced metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation and partially reverses adverse metabolic programming in offspring.  

PubMed

Excessive fructose consumption is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and high fructose intake during pregnancy can lead to compromised fetal development in the rat. Evidence suggests that the amino acid taurine can ameliorate fructose-induced IR and NAFLD in nonpregnant animals. This study investigated the efficacy of taurine supplementation on maternal fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction and neonatal health. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomized to four groups during pregnancy and lactation: (a) control diet (CON), (b) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT), (c) CON supplemented with fructose solution (F) and (d) F supplemented with taurine (FT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Maternal hyperinsulinemia, increased homeostasis model assessment of IR indices and elevated proinflammatory cytokines were observed in F group and normalized in FT group. Maternal fructose-induced hepatic steatosis accompanied with increased liver weight was ameliorated with taurine supplementation. Maternal hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase expression was significantly increased in the F group compared to the CON, CT and FT groups. Neonatal hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was increased in male F neonates compared to the CON, CT and FT groups and was increased in female F and FT neonates compared to CON and CT. Interleukin-1? expression was decreased in male CT and FT neonates compared to other male groups. Hepatic tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 was lower in the male FT group than the F group. These results demonstrate that maternal taurine supplementation can partially reverse fructose-induced maternal metabolic dysfunction and may ameliorate adverse developmental programming effects in offspring in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25576095

Li, M; Reynolds, C M; Sloboda, D M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

2015-03-01

478

Clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics.  

PubMed

Creatine plays a central role in energy metabolism and is synthesized in the liver, kidney and pancreas. In healthy patients, it is transported via the blood stream to the muscles, heart and brain with high and fluctuating energy demands by the molecule creatine transporter. Creatine, although naturally synthesized in the human body, can be ingested in the form of supplements and is commonly used by athletes. The purpose of this review was to assess the clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics. Creatine metabolism disorders have so far been described at the level of two synthetic steps, guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), and at the level of the creatine transporter 1(CrT1). GAMT and AGAT deficiency respond positively to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate whereas in CrT1 defect, it is not able to replenish creatine in the brain with oral creatine supplementation. There are also data concerning the short and long-term therapeutic benefit of creatine supplementation in children and adults with gyrate atrophy (a result of the inborn error of metabolism with ornithine delta- aminotransferase activity), muscular dystrophy (facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, Becker dystrophy, Duchenne dystrophy and sarcoglycan deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy), McArdle's disease, Huntington's disease and mitochondria-related diseases. Hypoxia and energy related brain pathologies (brain trauma, cerebral ischemia, prematurity) might benefit from Cr supplementation. This review covers also the basics of creatine metabolism and proposed mechanisms of action. PMID:19751179

Evangeliou, Athanasios; Vasilaki, Konstantina; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

2009-11-01

479

Dietary Supplement Polypharmacy: An Unrecognized Public Health Problem?  

PubMed Central

Excessive and inappropriate use of medications, or ‘polypharmacy’, has been recognized as a public health problem. In addition, there is growing use of dietary supplements in the United States; however, little is known about the patterns of supplement use. Recent reports in the literature of cases of excessive or inappropriate use of herbal dietary supplements leading to the term ‘polyherbacy’. The clinical vignettes described in this article highlight the need for further research on the nature and extent of multiple and inappropriate dietary supplement use or ‘dietary supplement polypharmacy’. Clinical interviewing and population surveys both address this issue in complementary ways, and provide a further understanding of dietary supplement use patterns. PMID:18955288

Gryzlak, Brian M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Wallace, Robert B.

2010-01-01

480

Evidence for supplemental treatments in androgenetic alopecia.  

PubMed

Currently, topical minoxidil and finasteride are the only treatments that have been FDA approved for the treatment of female pattern hair loss and androgenetic alopecia. Given the incomplete efficacy and sife effect profile of these medications, some patients utilize alternative treatments to help improve this condition. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence underlying the efficacy of these alternative approaches, including biotin, caffeine, melatonin, a marine extract, and zinc. PMID:25007363

Famenini, Shannon; Goh, Carolyn

2014-07-01

481

Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

482

Impact of Lactobacillus reuteri Supplementation on Anti-Helicobacter pylori Levofloxacin-Based Second-Line Therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has the potential burden of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. The occurrence of side effects is among the major drawbacks of such regimens. GI manifestations may be related to alterations in the intestinal microflora. Probiotics can prevent or reduce antibiotic-associated side effects and have an inhibitory effect on H. pylori. Methods. To define the efficacy of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation in H. pylori eradication and in preventing GI-associated side effects during a second-line levofloxacin triple therapy. 90 H. pylori-positive patients receive for 7 days a second-line triple therapy with esomeprazole, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin with L. reuteri for 14 days (group 1) and without probiotic supplementation (group 2). Each subject received a validated questionnaire to record symptoms everyday for 4 weeks from the start of therapy. H. pylori status and side effects were assessed 6 weeks after treatment. Results. The eradication rate was significantly influenced by probiotic supplementation with L. reuteri (group 1: 36/45, 80%; group 2: 28/45 62%; P < 0.05). The incidence of nausea and diarrhoea in group 1 was significantly lower than that in group 2. Conclusion. In H. pylori-positive subjects L. reuteri supplementation increases the eradication rate while reducing the incidence of the most common side effects associated with antibiotic therapy in second-line treatment. PMID:22690211

Ojetti, Veronica; Bruno, Giovanni; Ainora, Maria Elena; Gigante, Giovanni; Rizzo, Gianluca; Roccarina, Davide; Gasbarrini, Antonio

2012-01-01

483

Restoration of impaired nitric oxide production in MELAS syndrome with citrulline and arginine supplementation  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most common mitochondrial disorders. Although the pathogenesis of stroke-like episodes remains unclear, it has been suggested that mitochondrial proliferation may result in endothelial dysfunction and decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability leading to cerebral ischemic events. This study aimed to assess NO production in subjects with MELAS syndrome and the effect of the NO precursors arginine and citrulline. Using stable isotope infusion techniques, we assessed arginine, citrulline, and NO metabolism in control subjects and subjects with MELAS syndrome before and after arginine or citrulline supplementation. The results showed that subjects with MELAS had lower NO synthesis rate associated with reduced citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis rate, and plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations, and higher plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and arginine clearance. We conclude that the observed impaired NO production is due to multiple factors including elevated ADMA, higher arginine clearance, and, most importantly, decreased de novo arginine synthesis secondary to decreased citrulline availability. Arginine and, to a greater extent, citrulline supplementation increased the de novo arginine synthesis rate, the plasma concentrations and flux of arginine and citrulline, and NO production. De novo arginine synthesis increased markedly with citrulline supplementation, explaining the superior efficacy of citrulline in increasing NO production. The improvement in NO production with arginine or citrulline supplementation supports their use in MELAS and suggests that citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect than arginine. These findings can have a broader relevance for other disorders marked by perturbations in NO metabolism. PMID:22325939

El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Hsu, Jean W.; Emrick, Lisa T.; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Craigen, William J.; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

2014-01-01

484

The estimation of mineral contents in oriental supplements consumed by elite athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is twofold: to examine macro (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace mineral (iron) concentration in oriental supplements (OS), and to define OS prevalence in elite athletes. Participants of this study were 928 varsity athletes (male: 680, female: 248) with 23 sports types. Recent 3-month dietary supplements (DS) and OS practice was surveyed during training period, and mineral concentration in 72 randomly collected OS samples were analyzed. DS use was 41% and OS use was 20% in university elite athletes. Most common OS use informants were parents (74%). OS intake reason was for health maintenance (37%), energy supplement (25%), and recovery improvement (15%). Moreover, health maintenance was higher in females (47%) than males (32%) while energy supplement was higher in males (28%) than females (18%) (?2(8) = 17.676, p = 0.024). Beliefs in OS efficacy and importance were significantly higher in female athletes compared to male athletes (p < 0.05). Macro mineral concentration in OS was calcium (7.54 ppm), magnesium (4.63 ppm), and phosphorus (205.34 ppb) and trace mineral concentration in OS was iron (8.10 ppb), which was a small amount. An association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration in calcium, phosphorus, and iron was found, but no association between OS intake and magnesium. In conclusion, an association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration differed by the ingredients. Minerals in OS were very small amount, which would be improved for mineral balance in elite athletes. PMID:25566427

Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

2013-01-01

485

Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle function and is a contributing factor for cachexia, bone loss, and frailty. Resistance training produces several physiological adaptations which improve aging musculoskeletal health, such as increased muscle and bone mass and strength. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may further lead to greater physiological benefits. We performed meta-analyses which indicate creatine supplementation combined with resistance training has a positive effect on aging muscle mass and upper body strength compared to resistance training alone. Creatine also shows promise for improving bone mineral density and indices of bone biology. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training could be an effective intervention to improve aging musculoskeletal health. PMID:24190049

Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Forbes, Scott C

2014-04-01

486

The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation  

PubMed Central

The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiativ