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1

Efficacy of nutritional supplements used by athletes.  

PubMed

Findings on the efficacy of nutritional supplements used by athletes are reviewed. Many athletes have turned away from anabolic steroids and toward nutritional supplements in the hope of gaining a competitive edge without threatening their health. Athletes may require slightly more protein than sedentary people do to maintain positive nitrogen balance, but it is dubious whether extra dietary protein will help someone to achieve athletic goals. Purified amino acids have become a popular if expensive form of protein supplementation; there is no scientific evidence, however, to support their use. Excessive protein supplementation can lead to dehydration, gout, liver and kidney damage, calcium loss, and gastrointestinal effects. Supplementation with vitamins and minerals in excess of recommended daily allowances appears to have no effect on muscle mass or athletic performance. Other substances touted as having ergogenic properties are carnitine, cobamamide, growth hormone releasers, octacosanol, and ginseng; again, there is no reliable scientific evidence to support claims that products containing these compounds have ergogenic potential, and heavy supplementation may lead to adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are promoted through unsubstantiated claims by magazine advertisements, health food stores, coaches, and other sources. The FDA considers nutritional supplements to be foodstuffs, not drugs, and therefore has not required that they be proved safe and effective. Dosage guidelines are inadequate, and quality control is poor. The FDA has begun to revise regulations governing labeling and health claims for these products. There is little if any evidence that nutritional supplements have ergogenic effects in athletes consuming a balanced diet, and some products have the potential for harm. PMID:8137607

Beltz, S D; Doering, P L

1993-12-01

2

Dietary Supplements During Pregnancy: Need, Efficacy and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

National surveys indicate that as many as 97% of women living in the United States are advised by their health care providers\\u000a to take multivitamin, multimineral (MVMM) supplements during pregnancy, and 7–36% of pregnant women use botanical supplements\\u000a during this time. Although there is evidence of benefit from some of these preparations, efficacy has not been established\\u000a for most of

Mary Frances Picciano; Michelle Kay McGuire

3

Efficacy of twice weekly iron supplementation in anemic adolescent girls.  

PubMed

Two hundred and forty four girls with different hemoglobin levels were selected, of which forty-one were non-anemic. The rest were graded as mildly, moderately or severely anemic and supplemented with 60 mg of iron daily or twice weekly for twelve weeks. There was no significant difference in the increase in hemoglobin levels between daily and twice weekly-supplemented subjects at the end of the study. Unpleasant side effects of supplementation were experienced by 57.8% of the daily supplemented subjects as against 5.9% of twice weekly-supplemented ones. Twice weekly supplementation could be recommended for overcoming anemia in adolescent girls. PMID:14722370

Shobha, S; Sharada, D

2003-12-01

4

Effect of zinc on efficacy of iron supplementation in improving iron and zinc status in women.  

PubMed

Iron and zinc may interact in micronutrient supplements and thereby decrease efficacy. We investigated interactive effects of combined zinc and iron supplementation in a randomized controlled trial conducted in 459 Guatemalan women. Four groups were supplemented for 12 weeks: (1) weekly iron and folic acid (IFA); (2) weekly IFA and 30?mg zinc; (3) daily IFA; (4) daily IFA and 15?mg zinc. Effects were assessed by generalized linear regression. Baseline hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was 137.4 ± 15.5?g/L, 13% were anemic and 54% had zinc deficiency. Hb cconcentrations were similar by supplement type, but Hb concentrations improved significantly in anemic women at baseline (increase of 21.8?g/L). Mean percentage changes in serum ferritin were significantly higher in daily compared to weekly supplemented groups (86% versus 32%). The addition of zinc to IFA supplements had no significant impact on iron or zinc status. In conclusion, adding zinc to IFA supplements did not modify efficacy on iron status or improve zinc status, but daily supplementation was more efficacious than weekly in improving iron stores. PMID:22720141

Nguyen, Phuong; Grajeda, Ruben; Melgar, Paul; Marcinkevage, Jessica; Flores, Rafael; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Martorell, Reynaldo

2012-01-01

5

Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

Powers, Michael

2004-01-01

6

Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 3% mepivacaine in irreversible pulpitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the efficacy of a supplemental intraosseous injection of 3% mepivacaine in mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Intraosseous injection pain, subjective heart rate increase, and pain ratings during endodontic treatment were also assessed.Study Design. Forty-eight patients with irreversible pulpitis received conventional inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Electric pulp testing was used to determine pulpal anesthesia. Patients who were

Deron Reisman; Al Reader; Robert Nist; Mike Beck; Joel Weaver

1997-01-01

7

Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho

Huong Thi Le; Inge D Brouwer; Jan Burema; Khan Cong Nguyen; Frans J Kok

2006-01-01

8

Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Present study was carried out to evaluate acute and subacute toxicity and efficacy of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) based herbal antioxidant supplement (HAOS). Materials and Methods: In vivo toxicity studies were performed in male balb ‘C’ mice by oral administration. Acute toxicity study was done at doses ranging from 2000 to 10 000 mg/ kg while in subacute studies, HAOS was given at doses of 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for any toxic sign and symptoms periodically. At completion of study animals were sacrificed; their hematological, biochemical parameters were analyzed and histopathology of vital organs was done. In vivo efficacy studies in human volunteers were done and the levels of vitamin A and Vitamin C in blood samples were analyzed in comparison to a similar commercially available formulation. Results: No mortality and any clinical signs of toxicity were found in HAOS administered group of animals. There were no significant alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters. Histopathological analysis of vital organs showed normal architecture in all the HAOS administered groups. Human studies showed an increase of 32% and 172% in Vitamin A and Vitamin C levels respectively in term of bioavailability. Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

Ali, Rashid; Ali, Raisuddin; Jaimini, Abhinav; Nishad, Dhruv Kumar; Mittal, Gaurav; Chaurasia, Om Prakash; Kumar, Raj; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Singh, Shashi Bala

2012-01-01

9

Efficacy and tolerance of lactitol supplementation for adult constipation: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a common complaint in adults. Lactitol is an osmotic disaccharide laxative that increases fecal volume and stimulates peristalsis. In this paper, we present the first meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerance of lactitol for adult constipation. Methods We searched MEDLINE® and Embase, with no date or language restrictions, for studies of lactitol supplementation on adult constipation. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on pre- to posttreatment changes in stool frequency and consistency with lactitol among all studies, as well as a comparison of efficacy and tolerance outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lactitol versus lactulose. Results A total of eleven studies representing 663 distinct patients were included in the final analysis, including five single-arm studies, four RCTs comparing lactitol with lactulose, one RCT comparing lactitol with placebo, and one nonrandomized controlled trial comparing lactitol with stimulant laxatives. Weekly stool frequency was significantly increased with lactitol compared with baseline (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 1.56, P<0.001). Stool consistency also improved over the supplementation period with lactitol (SMD: 1.04, P<0.001). Approximately one-third of patients experienced an adverse event; however, symptoms were generally mild and rarely (5%) resulted in study withdrawal. In RCTs of lactitol versus lactulose, lactitol was slightly more effective than lactulose in increasing weekly stool frequency (SMD: 0.19, P=0.06). No statistically significant differences between lactitol and lactulose were identified in any other efficacy or tolerance outcome. Lactitol demonstrated favorable efficacy and tolerance in individual studies when compared to stimulant laxatives and placebo. Conclusion Lactitol supplementation is well tolerated and improves symptoms of adult constipation. The efficacy and tolerance of lactitol and lactulose are similar, with a trend for more frequent stools with lactitol. Limited evidence suggests lactitol is superior to stimulant laxatives and placebo for relieving constipation symptoms.

Miller, Larry E; Tennila, Julia; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2014-01-01

10

Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity  

PubMed Central

The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day?1). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51?mL O2/kg?min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals.

Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; Richard, Nicholas S.; Judge, Lawrence W.

2014-01-01

11

Dietary supplement use and prostate cancer risk in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial.  

PubMed

We investigated dietary supplement use and prostate cancer risk in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET). CARET was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing a daily dose of 30 mg beta-carotene + 25,000 IU retinyl palmitate for lung cancer prevention (1985-1996; active follow-up occurred through 2005). Secondary outcomes, including prostate cancer, were also assessed. Participants were queried about dietary supplements, health history, family history of cancer, smoking, and lifestyle habits. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated multivariate-adjusted relative risk [and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)] of prostate cancer for dietary supplement users and nonusers with or without the high-dose CARET vitamins during the intervention and postintervention phases. After an average of 11 years of follow-up, 890 prostate cancer cases were reported. Neither the CARET nor other supplements were associated with total prostate cancer risk. For aggressive prostate cancer, men in the CARET intervention arm who used additional supplements had a relative risk for aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason >or=7 or stage III/IV) of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.03-2.24; P < 0.05), relative to all others. These associations disappeared in the postintervention period (0.75; 95% CI, 0.51-1.09). Conversely, there was no association of CARET + other supplements with nonaggressive disease, relative to all others. There was no effect modification by smoking or time on CARET intervention in any analyses. CARET only included smokers, so findings reported here may not apply to nonsmokers. Our results are consistent with other studies suggesting that dietary supplements may influence prostate cancer risk. PMID:19661078

Neuhouser, Marian L; Barnett, Matt J; Kristal, Alan R; Ambrosone, Christine B; King, Irena B; Thornquist, Mark; Goodman, Gary G

2009-08-01

12

Dietary Supplement Use and Prostate Cancer Risk in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial  

PubMed Central

We investigated dietary supplement use and prostate cancer risk in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET). CARET was a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial testing a daily dose of 30 mg ?-carotene + 25,000 IU retinyl palmitate for lung cancer prevention (1985-1996; active follow-up occurred through 2005). Secondary outcomes, including prostate cancer, were also assessed. Participants were queried about dietary supplements, health history, family history of cancer, smoking and lifestyle habits. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated multivariate-adjusted relative risk (and 95% confidence intervals) of prostate cancer for dietary supplement users and non-users with or without the high-dose CARET vitamins during the intervention and post-intervention phases. After an average of 11 years of follow-up, 890 prostate cancer cases were reported. Neither the CARET nor other supplements were associated with total prostate cancer risk. For aggressive prostate cancer, men in the CARET intervention arm who used additional supplements had a relative risk for aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason ? 7 or stage III/IV) of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.03-2.24, p<0.05), relative to all others. These associations disappeared in the post-intervention period (0.75, 95%CI 0.51, 1.09). Conversely, there was no association of CARET + other supplements with non-aggressive disease, relative to all others. There was no effect modification by smoking or time on CARET intervention in any analyses. CARET only included smokers so findings reported here may not apply to non-smokers. Our results are consistent with other studies suggesting that dietary supplements may influence prostate cancer risk.

Neuhouser, Marian L; Barnett, Matt J; Kristal, Alan R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; King, Irena B; Thornquist, Mark; Goodman, Gary G.

2009-01-01

13

Efficacy and safety of dietary supplements containing CLA for the treatment of obesity: evidence from animal and human studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are widely promoted as weight loss agents avail- able over the counter and via the Internet. In this review, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLA supplementation based on peer-reviewed published results from random- ized, placebo-controlled, human intervention trials lasting more than 4 weeks. We also review findings from experi- mental studies

Thomas M. Larsen; Søren Toubro; Arne Astrup

2003-01-01

14

Efficacy and safety of protein supplements for U.S. Armed Forces personnel: consensus statement.  

PubMed

To provide evidence-based guidance regarding the efficacy and safety of dietary protein supplement (PS) use by members of the U.S. Armed Forces, a panel of internationally recognized experts in the fields of protein metabolism and dietary supplement research was convened by the Department of Defense Center Alliance for Dietary Supplement Research and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command. To develop a consensus statement, potential benefits, risks, and strategies to optimize military performance through PS use were considered in the context of specific warfighter populations and occupational demands. To maintain muscle mass, strength, and performance during periods of substantial metabolic demand and concomitant negative energy balance the panel recommended that warfighters consume 1.5-2.0 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) of protein. However, if metabolic demand is low, such as in garrison, protein intake should equal the current Military Dietary Reference Intake (0.8-1.5 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)). Although PS use generally appears to be safe for healthy adults, warfighters should be educated on PS quality, given quality-control and contamination concerns with commercial dietary supplements. To achieve recommended protein intakes, the panel strongly urges consumption of high-quality protein-containing whole foods. However, when impractical, the use of PSs (20-25 g per serving or 0.25-0.3 g · kg(-1) per meal), particularly after periods of strenuous physical activity (e.g., military training, combat patrols, and exercise), is acceptable. The committee acknowledges the need for further study of protein requirements for extreme, military-specific environmental conditions and whether unique metabolic stressors associated with military service alter protein requirements for aging warfighters. PMID:24027189

Pasiakos, Stefan M; Austin, Krista G; Lieberman, Harris R; Askew, E Wayne

2013-11-01

15

The Efficacy of Supplemental Early Literacy Instruction by Community-Based Tutors for Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to test the efficacy of a supplemental phonological awareness focused intervention delivered by community-based paraeducators with preschool children (M = 4.73 years) in eight Head Start classrooms in the rural Midwest. Participating children were randomly assigned to small groups within classrooms, which were…

Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Gonzalez, Jorge

2010-01-01

16

Dietary supplements and herbal remedies for premenstrual syndrome (PMS): a systematic research review of the evidence for their efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women with PMS use alternative therapies, although there has been little research to demonstrate their efficacy. This systematic review provides a comprehensive discussion of dietary supplements and herbal remedies commonly used for premenstrual syndrome (PMS), including calcium, magnesium, vitamin B6, evening primrose oil, Vitex agnus castus, ginkgo biloba and St John's Wort. Randomized controlled trials of magnesium and evening

Sarah Canning; Mitch Waterman; Louise Dye

2006-01-01

17

The safety and efficacy of a dietary herbal supplement and gallic acid for weight loss.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the safety and efficacy of NT, a dietary herbal supplement made from rhubarb, ginger, astragulus, red sage, and turmeric, combined with gallic acid (GA) to reduce food intake and cause weight loss. A total of 105 healthy subjects, 18-60 years old with a body mass index of 25-35 kg/m(2) and on no chronic medication, were randomized to a 300 mg/1.2 g NT-GA combination, a 600 mg/2.4 g NT-GA combination, or placebo in three divided doses daily for 24 weeks. Food intake was measured at baseline and 2 weeks, and safety parameters were followed regularly. Pharmacokinetic studies of a 200 mg/800 g NT-GA combination and 800 mg GA alone were performed with and without food. There was no dose-related weight loss or reduction in food intake at the 8-week analysis, and the study was terminated early. Pharmacokinetic studies showed plasma levels of GA did not increase above 10 microM and were not dose-related. The NT-GA at all concentrations was well tolerated, but was ineffective in causing weight loss or in suppressing food intake. Pharmacokinetics suggested that GA plasma levels were limited by oral absorption, and may be the reason for lack of efficacy. PMID:17472485

Roberts, Andrew T; Martin, Corby K; Liu, Zhijun; Amen, Ronald J; Woltering, Eugene A; Rood, Jennifer C; Caruso, Mary K; Yu, Ying; Xie, Hui; Greenway, Frank L

2007-03-01

18

Confidence in the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements among United States active duty army personnel  

PubMed Central

Background United States Army Soldiers regularly use dietary supplements (DS) to promote general health, enhance muscle strength, and increase energy, but limited scientific evidence supports the use of many DS for these benefits. This study investigated factors associated with Soldiers’ confidence in the efficacy and safety of DS, and assessed Soldiers’ knowledge of federal DS regulatory requirements. Methods Between 2006 and 2007, 990 Soldiers were surveyed at 11 Army bases world-wide to assess their confidence in the effectiveness and safety of DS, knowledge of federal DS regulations, demographic characteristics, lifestyle-behaviors and DS use. Results A majority of Soldiers were at least somewhat confident that DS work as advertised (67%) and thought they are safe to consume (71%). Confidence in both attributes was higher among regular DS users than non-users. Among users, confidence in both attributes was positively associated with rank, self-rated diet quality and fitness level, education, and having never experienced an apparent DS-related adverse event. Fewer than half of Soldiers knew the government does not require manufacturers to demonstrate efficacy, and almost a third incorrectly believed there are effective pre-market federal safety requirements for DS. Conclusions Despite limited scientific evidence supporting the purported benefits and safety of many popular DS, most Soldiers were confident that DS are effective and safe. The positive associations between confidence and DS use should be considered when developing DS-related interventions or policies. Additionally, education to clarify Soldiers’ misperceptions about federal DS safety and efficacy regulations is warranted.

2012-01-01

19

Efficacy and safety of Chlorella supplementation in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chlorella in 18 patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. METHODS: Eighteen adults with chronic infection by HCV genotype 1 received daily oral supplementation of Chlorella for 12 wk. Changes in the RNA levels of HCV, as well as those of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were evaluated following this treatment period. Paired t tests were conducted to compare the means of the different variables at the beginning and end of the study. Side effects and quality of life aspects were also compared between weeks 0 and 12 of the study period. RESULTS: A majority 84.61% of the patients had a significant decrease in their ALT levels from week 0 to week 12. Evaluation of side effects showed that Chlorella was well tolerated. Quality of life assessment showed that 76.9 of the participants reported an improvement in their energy levels and 46.1% reported an improvement in their perception of general health. Although 69.23% also showed a decrease in their AST levels, this was not statistically significant. Most patients that exhibited an improvement in their ALT and AST levels also showed a tendency toward a decreased HCV viral load. The HCV RNA levels showed a decrease in 69.23% of the patients, which along with changes in AST/ALT ratios from week 0 to week 12, these results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Chlorella supplementation was well tolerated in patients with chronic HCV and associated with a significant decrease in ALT liver enzyme levels.

Azocar, Jose; Diaz, Arley

2013-01-01

20

Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area. PMID:18537692

Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

2008-06-01

21

Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects.

Andrea Petróczi; Declan P Naughton; Gemma Pearce; Richard Bailey; Andrew Bloodworth; Michael McNamee

2008-01-01

22

Efficacy of some antioxidants supplementation in reducing oxidative stress post sodium tungstate exposure in male wistar rats.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of some antioxidants against sodium tungstate induced oxidative stress in male wistar rats. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100ppm in drinking water) for three months except for control group. In the same time, many rats were supplemented orally with different antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), n-acetylcysteine (NAC), quercetin or naringenin (0.30mM)) for five consecutive days a week for the same mentioned period before. Exposure to sodium tungstate significantly (P<0.05) inhibit blood ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, liver and blood reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels in tissues. ALA acid and NAC supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure increased GSH and also, was beneficial in the recovery of altered superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, besides, significantly reducing blood and tissue reactive oxygen species and TBARS levels. The results suggest a more pronounced efficacy of ALA acid and NAC supplementation than quercetin or naringenin supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure in preventing induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24613855

Sachdeva, S; Flora, S J S

2014-04-01

23

Efficacy of Fat-Soluble Vitamin Supplementation in Infants With Biliary Atresia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Cholestasis predisposes to fat-soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiencies. A liquid multiple FSV preparation made with tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-1000 succinate (TPGS) is frequently used in infants with biliary atresia (BA) because of ease of administration and presumed efficacy. In this prospective multicenter study, we assessed the prevalence of FSV deficiency in infants with BA who received this FSV/TPGS preparation. METHODS: Infants received FSV/TPGS coadministered with additional vitamin K as routine clinical care in a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of corticosteroid therapy after hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE) for BA (identifier NCT 00294684). Levels of FSV, retinol binding protein, total serum lipids, and total bilirubin (TB) were measured 1, 3, and 6 months after HPE. RESULTS: Ninety-two infants with BA were enrolled in this study. Biochemical evidence of FSV insufficiency was common at all time points for vitamin A (29%–36% of patients), vitamin D (21%–37%), vitamin K (10%–22%), and vitamin E (16%–18%). Vitamin levels were inversely correlated with serum TB levels. Biochemical FSV insufficiency was much more common (15%–100% for the different vitamins) in infants whose TB was ?2 mg/dL. At 3 and 6 months post HPE, only 3 of 24 and 0 of 23 infants, respectively, with TB >2 mg/dL were sufficient in all FSV. CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical FSV insufficiency is commonly observed in infants with BA and persistent cholestasis despite administration of a TPGS containing liquid multiple FSV preparation. Individual vitamin supplementation and careful monitoring are warranted in infants with BA, especially those with TB >2 mg/dL.

Magee, John C.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Haber, Barbara; Karpen, Saul J.; Raghunathan, Trivellore; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen; Suchy, Frederick J.; Kerkar, Nanda; Turmelle, Yumirle; Whitington, Peter F.; Robuck, Patricia R.; Sokol, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

24

Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this LAB supplement in the management of nursing home residents. Methods Nineteen subjects (8M, 11F; mean age 77.1 ± 10.1) suffering with chronic constipation were assigned to receive LAB (3.0 × 1011 CFU/g) twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner) a day for 2 weeks in November 2008. Subjects draw up a questionnaire on defecation habits (frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool), and we collected fecal samples from the subjects both before entering and after ending the trial, to investigate LAB levels and inhibition of harmful enzyme activities. Results were tested with SAS and Student's t-test. Results Analysis of questionnaire showed that there was an increase in the frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit after LAB treatment, but there were no significant changes. And it also affects the intestinal environment, through significantly increase (p < 0.05) fecal LAB levels. In addition, tryptophanase and urease among harmful enzyme activities of intestinal microflora were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after LAB treatment. Conclusion LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation.

2010-01-01

25

Efficacy of a Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel as a Tear Film Supplement: A Masked Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P?=?0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P?=?0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness.

Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

2014-01-01

26

Efficacy of combined iron and zinc supplementation on micronutrient status and growth in Vietnamese infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate the effect of combined iron–zinc supplementation on micronutrient status, growth and morbidity.Design:Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled supplementation trial.Setting:Rural district of Que Vo, in the Red River Delta in Vietnam.Subjects:A total of 915 breast-fed infants aged 4–7 months were included and 784 completed the study.Interventions:The Fe-group received daily and for a 6-month period 10 mg of iron, the Zn-group 10 mg

J Berger; N X Ninh; N C Khan; N V Nhien; D K Lien; N Q Trung; H H Khoi

2006-01-01

27

The safety and efficacy of oral docosahexaenoic acid supplementation for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterised by progressive inflammatory and fibrotic destruction of the biliary ducts. There are no effective medical therapies and presently high dose ursodeoxycholic acid is no longer recommended due to significant adverse events in a recent clinical trial. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction is associated with PSC in both children and adults. Since CFTR dysfunction leads to altered fatty acid metabolism, specifically reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), we hypothesised that DHA supplementation might be an effective therapy for patients with PSC. Aim To determine the safety and efficacy of oral DHA supplementation for the treatment of PSC. Methods We conducted a 12 month open-label pilot study to evaluate safety of oral DHA and its effects on serum alkaline phosphatase as a primary outcome measure in 23 patients with PSC. DHA was administered orally at 800 mg twice per day. Secondary outcomes included changes in other liver function tests and fibrosis biomarkers. Results A 1.7-fold increase in serum DHA levels was observed with supplementation. The mean alkaline phosphatase level (±S.E.) at baseline was 357.8 ± 37.1 IU compared to 297.1 ± 23.7 IU (P < 0.05) after 12 months of treatment. There were no changes in other liver function tests and fibrosis biomarkers. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions Oral DHA supplementation is associated with an increase in serum DHA levels and a significant decline in alkaline phosphatase levels in patients with PSC. These data support the need for a rigorous trial of DHA therapy in PSC.

Martin, C. R.; Blanco, P. G.; Keach, J. C.; Petz, J. L.; Zaman, M. M.; Bhaskar, K. R.; Cluette-Brown, J. E.; Gautam, S.; Sheth, S.; Afdhal, N. H.; Lindor, K. D.; Freedman, S. D.

2013-01-01

28

Efficacy of Parenteral Nutrition Supplemented With Glutamine Dipeptide to Decrease Hospital Infections in Critically Ill Surgical Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Clinical benefits of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition may occur in hospitalized surgical patients, but efficacy data in different surgical subgroups are lacking. The objective was to determine whether glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition differentially affects nosocomial infection rates in selected subgroups of SICU patients. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition in SICU patients requiring parenteral nutrition and SICU care after surgery for pancreatic necrosis, cardiac, vascular, or colonic surgery. Subjects (n = 59) received isocaloric/isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition, providing 1.5 g/kg/d standard glutamine-free amino acids (STD-PN) or 1.0 g/kg/d standard amino acids + 0.5 g/kg/d glutamine dipeptide (GLN-PN). Enteral feedings were advanced as tolerated. Nosocomial infections were determined until hospital discharge. Results Baseline clinical/metabolic data were similar between groups. Plasma glutamine concentrations were low in all groups and were increased by GLN-PN. GLN-PN did not alter infection rates after pancreatic necrosis surgery (17 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN patients). In nonpancreatic surgery patients (12 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN), GLN-PN was associated with significantly decreased total nosocomial infections (STD-PN 36 vs GLN-PN 13, P < .030), bloodstream infections (7 vs 0, P < .01), pneumonias (16 vs 6, P < .05), and infections attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01), fungi, and enteric Gram-negative bacteria (each P < .05). Conclusions Glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition did not alter infection rates following pancreatic necrosis surgery but significantly decreased infections in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular, and colonic surgery.

Estivariz, Concepcion F.; Griffith, Daniel P.; Luo, Menghua; Szeszycki, Elaina E.; Bazargan, Niloofar; Dave, Nisha; Daignault, Nicole M.; Bergman, Glen F.; McNally, Therese; Battey, Cindy H.; Furr, Celeste E.; Hao, Li; Ramsay, James G.; Accardi, Carolyn R.; Cotsonis, George A.; Jones, Dean P.; Galloway, John R.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

29

Plutonium NDA by thermal fluxmetry  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of calorific materials by calorimetry often encounter, in the case of samples with a volume {approx}1l or more, the difficulty of long measurement times. Nondestructive measurements at industrial production sites can sometimes be regarded as satisfactory, even with measurements that might carry a higher uncertainty, provided that the long measurement times can be significantly reduced. With this in mind, the authors have developed a spider-like thermal flux-meter for making quick nondestructive measurements of thermal powers up to 20 W for sample containers with a volume between 0.5 and 10l. The Fluxmeters developed are constructionally adapted to several different types of measurement features. The authors describe three types of fluxmeters that are suitable for rapid measurement times and have accuracies from 1 to a few percent for storage recesses or production facilities in the paper. Usually 5 to 8, and up to 25, fluxmeters are working simultaneously to reduce the mean measurement duration for a sample. The paper presents the results of an inventory control period involving the measurement of several hundred containers within 3 days by a three-man team.

Monier, J.; Sanson, C.; Bourrelly, P.; Patin, H.; Schoepp, R.

1987-01-01

30

Fish oil supplementation enhanced CPT-11 (irinotecan) efficacy against MCF7 breast carcinoma xenografts and ameliorated intestinal side-effects  

PubMed Central

The cancer chemotherapeutic efficacy of the topoisomerase I inhibitor, CPT-11 (irinotecan) is often limited by the induction of severe delayed diarrhoea. In animal studies, CPT-11 use is associated with histopathological damage to the mucosa of the small and large intestines. Results from the present study demonstrate that 60 mg CPT-11 per kg body weight (i.v. q4d × 6) halted the growth, but did not cause significant regression, of MCF7 human breast carcinoma xenografts in mice fed a diet containing 7% corn oil. However, when the diet of the MCF7-bearing mice was supplemented with 3% or 6% fish oil, the same CPT-11 treatment caused significant regression of the MCF7 xenograft. Histomorphometric analyses of intestinal mucosa of mice treated with CPT-11 and fed the diet containing 7% corn oil indicated that treatment with CPT-11 induced structural changes in the intestinal mucosa which persisted at least 5 days after the last dose of CPT-11. The intestinal mucosal architecture of mice that were treated with CPT-11 and fed the diets containing fish oil was largely unchanged from the architecture of the group of mice which did not receive CPT-11. These findings indicate that fish oil supplements may be a useful adjunct to CPT-11 treatment. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Hardman, W E; Moyer, M P; Cameron, I L

1999-01-01

31

[Chemical composition and efficacy of the multimixture as a dietary supplement: a literature review].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to identify all papers already published on the nutritional supplement known as multimixture (MM) in journals with high level of scientific rigor and to evaluate the effectiveness of this product as a food supplement. The methodology was based on searching at Medline and Scielo databases, without limit of date, using the keyword multimixture. Thirty one articles were analyzed. Because of the small portion that is recommended for daily consumption, the MM cannot be considered an important source of energy, protein and minerals. Its high proportion of magnesium and/or calcium can impair the absorption of iron. Its use increases the fiber content of the diet, which can reduce the absorption of nutrients, which is not interesting in the case of malnourished children. Its high amount of phytate seems to be no problem because the prior treatment to which the bran is submitted reduces the chelating power of this compound. The possibility of poisoning by cyanide come from the cassava leaf is not discarded. Regarding the ability to promote the nutritional state, 12 out of 15 studies concluded its ineffectiveness. Considering risks and benefits and the available evidence in the literature, is not justified the use of MM as a strategy for prevention and control of malnutrition. PMID:21049162

Ferreira, Haroldo Silva; Cavalcante, Sybelle Araújo; Assunção, Monica Lopes de

2010-10-01

32

Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments. Methods This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum) or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5). The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment. Results For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0.05) but no change in the active group. Descriptive statistics for the mean minimum, mean maximum, and minimum to maximum ratio on the nonexposed study zone showed a significant and dramatic difference between baseline and month 4 and between baseline and month 5.5 (P<0.05) in the active group, indicating decreasing anisotropy of the skin. High-frequency ultrasound on the exposed study zone revealed that skin thickness was significantly decreased in the placebo group during winter but was stable in the treated group (P<0.01). The photography scaling and self-assessment questionnaire revealed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion These results indicate that the skin is prone to seasonal changes during winter, particularly in exposed areas. The data also indicate that oral supplementation can be a safe treatment, with no serious side effects, and may prevent or even eliminate the negative effects of winter on the skin.

Fanian, Ferial; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Messikh, Rafat; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Guichard, Alexandre; Kenari, Kamran Hejazi; Humbert, Philippe

2013-01-01

33

Supplementation of nicotinic acid with NAMPT inhibitors results in loss of in vivo efficacy in NAPRT1-deficient tumor models.  

PubMed

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a metabolite essential for cell survival and generated de novo from tryptophan or recycled from nicotinamide (NAM) through the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-dependent salvage pathway. Alternatively, nicotinic acid (NA) is metabolized to NAD through the nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1 (NAPRT1)-dependent salvage pathway. Tumor cells are more reliant on the NAMPT salvage pathway making this enzyme an attractive therapeutic target. Moreover, the therapeutic index of NAMPT inhibitors may be increased by in NAPRT-deficient tumors by NA supplementation as normal tissues may regenerate NAD through NAPRT1. To confirm the latter, we tested novel NAMPT inhibitors, GNE-617 and GNE-618, in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor models. While NA did not protect NAPRT1-deficient tumor cell lines from NAMPT inhibition in vitro, it rescued efficacy of GNE-617 and GNE-618 in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor xenografts in vivo. NA co-treatment increased NAD and NAM levels in NAPRT1-deficient tumors to levels that sustained growth in vivo. Furthermore, NAM co-administration with GNE-617 led to increased tumor NAD levels and rescued in vivo efficacy as well. Importantly, tumor xenografts remained NAPRT1-deficient in the presence of NA, indicating that the NAPRT1-dependent pathway is not reactivated. Protection of NAPRT1-deficient tumors in vivo may be due to increased circulating levels of metabolites generated by mouse liver, in response to NA or through competitive reactivation of NAMPT by NAM. Our results have important implications for the development of NAMPT inhibitors when considering NA co-treatment as a rescue strategy. PMID:24403854

O'Brien, Thomas; Oeh, Jason; Xiao, Yang; Liang, Xiaorong; Vanderbilt, Alexander; Qin, Ann; Yang, Lulu; Lee, Leslie B; Ly, Justin; Cosino, Ely; LaCap, Jennifer A; Ogasawara, Annie; Williams, Simon; Nannini, Michelle; Liederer, Bianca M; Jackson, Peter; Dragovich, Peter S; Sampath, Deepak

2013-12-01

34

Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources and study selection PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov searched in June and November 2012. Two authors independently reviewed and selected eligible randomised controlled trials, based on predetermined selection criteria. Results Out of 2240 articles retrieved from databases and relevant bibliographies, 50 randomised controlled trials with 294?478 participants (156?663 in intervention groups and 137?815 in control groups) were included in the final analyses. In a fixed effect meta-analysis of the 50 trials, supplementation with vitamins and antioxidants was not associated with reductions in the risk of major cardiovascular events (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.02; I2=42%). Overall, there was no beneficial effect of these supplements in the subgroup meta-analyses by type of prevention, type of vitamins and antioxidants, type of cardiovascular outcomes, study design, methodological quality, duration of treatment, funding source, provider of supplements, type of control, number of participants in each trial, and supplements given singly or in combination with other supplements. Among the subgroup meta-analyses by type of cardiovascular outcomes, vitamin and antioxidant supplementation was associated with a marginally increased risk of angina pectoris, while low dose vitamin B6 supplementation was associated with a slightly decreased risk of major cardiovascular events. Those beneficial or harmful effects disappeared in subgroup meta-analysis of high quality randomised controlled trials within each category. Also, even though supplementation with vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular death in high quality trials, and vitamin E supplementation with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction, those beneficial effects were seen only in randomised controlled trials in which the supplements were supplied by the pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion There is no evidence to support the use of vitamin and antioxidant supplements for prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

2013-01-01

35

Efficacy of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and plasma homocysteine concentration in coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to conduct an updated meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to estimate the effect of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). An extensive search of PubMed was conducted to identify RCTs that compared folic acid with placebo therapy. The mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a measure of the correlation between folic acid supplementation and endothelial function/plasma homocysteine concentration. Of the 377 patients included in this analysis, 191 patients underwent folic acid supplementation and 186 individuals underwent placebo treatment. Compared with the use of a placebo, folic acid supplementation alone exhibited significant efficacy on increasing flow-mediated dilation (FMD; MD, 57.72 ?m; 95% CI, 50.14–65.31; P<0.05) and lowering the concentration of plasma homocysteine (MD, ?3.66 ?mol/l; 95% CI, ?5.44–?1.87; P<0.05; I2, 87%). There was no significant change in the response to end diastolic diameter, glyceryl-trinitrate diameter, heart rate, baseline and peak hyperemic flow and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the folic acid and placebo groups (P>0.05). Therefore, the meta-analysis indicated that 5 mg folic acid daily supplementation for >4 weeks significantly improved FMD and lowered the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with CAD. However, more RCTs are required in order to confirm these observations.

YI, XIN; ZHOU, YANLI; JIANG, DINGSHENG; LI, XIAOYAN; GUO, YI; JIANG, XUEJUN

2014-01-01

36

NDA issues with RFETS vitrified waste forms  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the purpose of determining the feasibility of using a segmented gamma scanner (SGS) to accurately perform non-destructive analysis (NDA) on certain Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) vitrified waste samples. This study was performed on a full-scale vitrified ash sample prepared at LANL according to a procedure similar to that anticipated to be used at RFETS. This sample was composed of a borosilicate-based glass frit, blended with ash to produce a Pu content of {approximately}1 wt %. The glass frit was taken to a degree of melting necessary to achieve a full encapsulation of the ash material. The NDA study performed on this sample showed that SGSs with either {1/2}- or 2-inch collimation can achieve an accuracy better than 6 % relative to calorimetry and {gamma}-ray isotopics. This accuracy is achievable, after application of appropriate bias corrections, for transmissions of about {1/2} % through the waste form and counting times of less than 30 minutes. These results are valid for ash material and graphite fines with the same degree of plutonium particle size, homogeneity, sample density, and sample geometry as the waste form used to obtain the results in this study. A drum-sized thermal neutron counter (TNC) was also included in the study to provide an alternative in the event the SGS failed to meet the required level of accuracy. The preliminary indications are that this method will also achieve the required accuracy with counting times of {approximately}30 minutes and appropriate application of bias corrections. The bias corrections can be avoided in all cases if the instruments are calibrated on standards matching the items.

Hurd, J.; Veazey, G.

1998-12-31

37

Preliminary airfoil testing experience in the NDA cryogenic wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small two-dimensional high-speed cryogenic wind tunnel was constructed at the Japanese National Defense Academy (NDA) in 1985. The authors describe the present status of the NDA cryogenic wind tunnel and give some preliminary airfoil testing results and experience. Two airfoil models, a NACA 0012 and a R4 airfoil model, were constructed. The R4 test results were compared with those

Yutaka Yamaguchi; Yasuo Nakauchi; Masahiro Yorozu; Teruo Saito

1991-01-01

38

Efficacy of Chromium(III) Supplementation on Growth, Body Composition, Serum Parameters, and Tissue Chromium in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium(III) is often claimed to have a positive effect on body composition, while the responses in researches with supplementation\\u000a of different chemical form of chromium are various and inconsistent. We have studied the effects of 6 weeks of treatment with\\u000a three different forms of chromium (300 ?g\\/kg) as chromium chloride, chromium tripicolinate, and chromium nanocomposite (CrNano)\\u000a on growth, body composition, serum parameters,

L. Y. Zha; M. Q. Wang; Z. R. Xu; L. Y. Gu

2007-01-01

39

NDA SYSTEM RESPONSE MODELING AND ITS APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect

The Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant (PORTS) is a uranium enrichment facility that was historically used to enrich uranium to levels that range from 2% to greater than 97%. The feed material for PORTS was obtained from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) that produced uranium in the form of UF6 that was enriched to about 1 to 2%. The enrichment process involves a multistage process by which gaseous UF{sub 6} passed through a diffusion barrier in each stage. The porous diffusion barrier in each stage retards the rate of the diffusion of the heavier {sup 238}U atoms relative to the diffusion of the lighter {sup 235}U atoms. By this process the product stream is slightly enriched by each stage of the process. Each stage consists of a compressor, converter and a motor. There are more than 4000 stages that are linked together with piping of various diameters to form the PORTS cascade. The cascade spans three interconnected buildings and comprises miles of piping, thousands of seals, converters, valves, motors, and compressors. During operation, PORTS process equipment contained UF{sub 6} gas with uranium enrichment that increased in the process stream from the first to the last stage in a known manner. Gaseous UF{sub 6} moving through the PORTS process equipment had potential to form deposits within the process equipment by several mechanisms, including solidification due to incorrect temperature and pressure conditions during the process, inleakage of atmospheric moisture that chemically reacts with UF{sub 6} to form hydrated uranyl fluoride solids, reduction reactions of UF{sub 6} with cascade metals, and UF{sub 6} condensation on the internal equipment surfaces. As a result, the process equipment of the PORTS contains a variable and unknown quantity of uranium with variable enrichment that has been deposited within the equipment during plant operations. The exact chemical form of this uranium is variable, although it is expected that the bulk of the material is of the form of uranyl fluoride that will become hydrated on exposure to moisture in air when the systems are no longer buffered. The deposit geometry and thickness is uncertain and variable. However, a reasonable assessment of the level of material holdup in this equipment is necessary to support decommissioning efforts. The assessment of nuclear material holdup in process equipment is a complex process that requires integration of process knowledge, nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, and computer modeling to maximize capabilities and minimize uncertainty. The current report is focused on the use of computer modeling and simulation of NDA measurements.

Vinson, D.

2010-03-01

40

Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, ?-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a preworkout supplement (SUP) containing caffeine, creatine, ?-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days. We hypothesized that little to no changes in kidney and liver clinical blood markers or resting heart rate and blood pressure (BP) would be observed. In addition, we hypothesized that body composition and performance would improve in recreationally active males after 28 days of supplementation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, participants were randomly assigned to ingest one scoop of either the SUP or placebo every day for 28 days, either 20 minutes before exercise or ad libitum on nonexercise days. Resting heart rate and BP, body composition, and fasting blood samples were collected before and after supplementation. Aerobic capacity as well as muscular strength and endurance were also measured. Significant (P < .05) main effects for time were observed for resting heart rate (presupplementation, 67.59 ± 7.90 beats per minute; postsupplementation, 66.18 ± 7.63 beats per minute), systolic BP (presupplementation, 122.41 ± 11.25 mm Hg; postsupplementation, 118.35 ± 11.58 mm Hg), blood urea nitrogen (presupplementation, 13.12 ± 2.55 mg/dL; postsupplementation, 15.24 ± 4.47 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (presupplementation, 34.29 ± 16.48 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.76 ± 4.71 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase (presupplementation, 32.76 ± 19.72 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.88 ± 9.68 IU/L). Significant main effects for time were observed for body fat percentage (presupplementation, 15.55% ± 5.79%; postsupplementation, 14.21% ± 5.38%; P = .004) and fat-free mass (presupplementation, 70.80 ±9.21 kg; postsupplementation, 71.98 ± 9.27 kg; P = .006). A significant decrease in maximal oxygen consumption (presupplementation, 47.28 ± 2.69 mL/kg per minute; postsupplementation, 45.60 ± 2.81 mL/kg per minute) and a significant increase in percentage of oxygen consumption per unit time at which ventilatory threshold occurred (presupplementation, 64.38% ± 6.63%; postsupplementation, 70.63% ± 6.39%) and leg press one-repetition maximum (presupplementation, 218.75 ± 38.43 kg; postsupplementation, 228.75 ± 44.79 kg) were observed in the SUP only. No adverse effects were noted for renal and hepatic clinical blood markers, resting heart rate, or BP. Supplements containing similar ingredients and doses should be safe for ingestion periods lasting up to 28 days in healthy, recreationally trained, college-aged men. PMID:24916558

Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Fairman, Ciaran M; Spradley, Brandon D; Tai, Chih-Yin; Falcone, Paul H; Carson, Laura R; Mosman, Matt M; Joy, Jordan M; Kim, Michael P; Serrano, Eric R; Esposito, Enrico N

2014-05-01

41

Review and Ranking of NDA Techniques to Determine Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of efforts are under way to improve nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) safeguard applications. These efforts have largely focused on advancing individual NDA approaches to assay plutonium content. Although significant improvements have been made in NDA techniques, relatively little work has been done to thoroughly and systematically compare the methods. A comparative review of

Jesse R Cheatham; John C Wagner

2010-01-01

42

Supplementation of Nicotinic Acid with NAMPT Inhibitors Results in Loss of In Vivo Efficacy in NAPRT1-Deficient Tumor Models1  

PubMed Central

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a metabolite essential for cell survival and generated de novo from tryptophan or recycled from nicotinamide (NAM) through the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-dependent salvage pathway. Alternatively, nicotinic acid (NA) is metabolized to NAD through the nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1 (NAPRT1)-dependent salvage pathway. Tumor cells are more reliant on the NAMPT salvage pathway making this enzyme an attractive therapeutic target. Moreover, the therapeutic index of NAMPT inhibitors may be increased by in NAPRT-deficient tumors by NA supplementation as normal tissues may regenerate NAD through NAPRT1. To confirm the latter, we tested novel NAMPT inhibitors, GNE-617 and GNE-618, in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor models. While NA did not protect NAPRT1-deficient tumor cell lines from NAMPT inhibition in vitro, it rescued efficacy of GNE-617 and GNE-618 in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor xenografts in vivo. NA co-treatment increased NAD and NAM levels in NAPRT1-deficient tumors to levels that sustained growth in vivo. Furthermore, NAM co-administration with GNE-617 led to increased tumor NAD levels and rescued in vivo efficacy as well. Importantly, tumor xenografts remained NAPRT1-deficient in the presence of NA, indicating that the NAPRT1-dependent pathway is not reactivated. Protection of NAPRT1-deficient tumors in vivo may be due to increased circulating levels of metabolites generated by mouse liver, in response to NA or through competitive reactivation of NAMPT by NAM. Our results have important implications for the development of NAMPT inhibitors when considering NA co-treatment as a rescue strategy.

O'Brien, Thomas; Oeh, Jason; Xiao, Yang; Liang, Xiaorong; Vanderbilt, Alexander; Qin, Ann; Yang, Lulu; Lee, Leslie B; Ly, Justin; Cosino, Ely; LaCap, Jennifer A; Ogasawara, Annie; Williams, Simon; Nannini, Michelle; Liederer, Bianca M; Jackson, Peter; Dragovich, Peter S; Sampath, Deepak

2013-01-01

43

Efficacy of supplemented buffered peptone water for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli from broiler retail products.  

PubMed

Broiler retail samples (n=113) were analyzed to determine (i) the effectiveness of buffered peptone water (BPW) supplemented with blood and antibiotics for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, (ii) if a 1:4 enrichment ratio performs similarly as a 1:9 ratio, and (iii) if BPW is similar to Bolton broth for enumeration of Campylobacter spp. in retail broiler meat using the most probably number (MPN) procedure. Chi-square comparison showed that BPW performed similarly as Bolton broth (P< or =0.05) for Campylobacter isolation in breast tenders, boneless breasts, split breasts and skin samples. However, BPW showed a lower detection rate (P> or =0.05) for thighs and boneless thighs. When the results were combined, BPW performed similarly as Bolton broth for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. (P< or =0.05). BPW at an enrichment ratio of 1:4 was statistically similar to Bolton broth or BPW at a ratio of 1:9. No differences were observed between the MPN data from Bolton broth and the MPN data from BPW (P< or =0.50). A multiplex PCR assay revealed that ca. 48% of the isolates obtained from Bolton broth and 59% of the isolates obtained with BPW were C. coli. Both Bolton broth and BPW allowed for the growth of C. jejuni and C. coli from the same sample. Remarkably, a large genomic variability was observed by PFGE analysis of the isolates collected from the same sample with Bolton broth or BPW, which confirms that more than one genotype can successfully multiply during enrichment and be recoverable on agar plates. These findings suggest that BPW could be used as an enrichment medium for isolation of Campylobacter from retail broiler samples. The implications of the high number of C. coli isolates found in this study is discussed. PMID:17257696

Oyarzabal, Omar A; Backert, Steffen; Nagaraj, Manonmani; Miller, Robert S; Hussain, Syeda K; Oyarzabal, Esteban A

2007-04-01

44

Prevalence of 25-OH Vitamin D Deficiency in a Population of Hemodialysis Patients and Efficacy of an Oral Ergocalciferol Supplementation Regimen  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Optimal dosing regimens for 25-OH vitamin D (VitD) deficiency are unknown in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of prescribing ergocalciferol supplementation based on KDOQI guidelines for chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages III–IV in HD patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 96 urban, predominately African-American HD patients at a single-center dialysis unit with VitD insufficiency or deficiency treated with ergocalciferol. Patients were classified as either compliant or non-compliant with supplementation as determined by review of pharmacy records. The primary outcome was VitD levels 6 months after initiation of treatment and secondary outcomes were VitD levels at 11 months, bone/mineral and anemia parameters. Results The population was predominately African-American (69%) and Hispanic (28%). There were 61 individuals in the compliant group and 35 individuals in the non-compliant group. The compliant group was older but otherwise similar in demographics and co-morbid conditions to the non-compliant group. After 6 months of treatment, the compliant group had a significant increase in VitD level (14.7 ± 6.0 to 28.7 ± 10.0 ng/ml, p < 0.0001) compared to the non-compliant group (14.7 ± 5.5 to 14.8 ± 7.1 ng/ml, p = 0.95). There were no differences in the incidence of hypercalcemia between the two groups. Except for a decrease in phosphorus in the compliant group (5.6 ± 1.6 to 4.9 ± 1.7 mg/dl, p = 0.004), there were no significant difference in bone/mineral or anemia parameters including dosing of darbepoetin. Conclusion An ergocalciferol-prescribing strategy using the KDOQI guidelines for stage III–IV kidney disease in HD patients with VitD deficiency or insufficiency is inadequate to achieve repletion or maintenance of normal VitD levels.

Porter, Anna; Gilmartin, Cheryl; Srisakul, Usasiri; Arruda, Jose; Akkina, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

45

Efficacy of mini VIDAS for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat enriched in Bolton broth, with or without the supplementation of blood.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of the mini VIDAS automated immunoassay chemistry system to detect Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat enriched in Bolton broth supplemented with lysed blood (B+B) or without blood (B-B), and to detect positive samples at 24 versus 48 h after enrichment. Retail broiler meat was enriched and tested for Campylobacter spp. with the mini VIDAS and with an agar plate. Isolates were speciated with a multiplex PCR and typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate relatedness of isolates collected from subsamples enriched in B+B or B-B. The number of Campylobacter-positive samples by mini VIDAS was similar (P > 0.05) to the results found with traditional plating media for naturally contaminated broiler meat, regardless of whether the comparison was made between B+B and B-B, or among different meat products (breast, tenders, and thighs). More positive samples were found at 48 h of enrichment than at 24 h of enrichment (P < 0.05). A Campylobacter jejuni:Campylobacter coli ratio of 4:1 was found in this study. Most of the isolates from both subsamples (B+B and B-B) were similar or identical by PFGE analysis, except for a few samples in which the PFGE profiles of the isolates from the subsamples were different. Mini VIDAS allowed for the detection of Campylobacter spp. within 48 h after enrichment. However, the sensitivity is similar to plate media, and retail broiler samples need to be enriched for 48 h to avoid false negatives. PMID:19903413

Liu, Lin; Hussain, Syeda K; Miller, Robert S; Oyarzabal, Omar A

2009-11-01

46

Neutron method for NDA in the Sapphire Project  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Project Sapphire, the top-secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons-grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) repacking of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable U.S. containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the {sup 235}U content of each container for nuclear criticality safety and compliance purposes; (3) packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of the Sapphire operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for {sup 235}U content.

Lewis, K.D. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

47

A neutron method for NDA analysis in the SAPPHIRE Project  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Project SAPPHIRE, the top secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) the re-packing of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable US containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the U-235 content of each container for Nuclear Criticality Safety and compliance purposes; (3) the packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) the shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of SAPPHIRE operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for U-235 content.

Lewis, K.D.

1995-01-09

48

A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this direction, such as improving both the plutonium isotopic distribution measurement and the multiplicity counter, so that the assays can be performed on any plutonium samples instead of only pure oxides. Advances have also been made on uranium bulk measurements by the development of the active well coincidence counter. Meanwhile, several large bulk-handling facilities have been coming on line under IAEA safeguards. These facilities require full-time inspectors to be present whenever the plant is operating. The IAEA requested help so that measurements can be made even when inspectors are not present. The evolution and success of unattended NDA has been responsible for the capability of the IAEA to monitor large bulk-handling facilities without substantial increase in inspection effort. The integration of NDA with containment & surveillance measures and automation has been crucial to reducing inspection manpower. These systems have developed to the point where the IAEA can make credible conclusions on large high-throughput plants such as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication or reprocessing plants.

Sprinkle, J. K. (James K.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Hsue, S.-T. (Sin-Tao); Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.)

2001-01-01

49

Instrumentation and operation of NDA cryogenic wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NDA's (National Defense Academy of Japan) 0.06-m×0.3-m cryogenic wind tunnel was constructed in 1985 for testing transonic airfoils and for other basic research of fluid mechanics. Stainless steel SUS 304 was chosen as the material of the pressure shell, and a centrifugal compressor was chosen as the compressor. External insulation was adopted for the tunnel. Although no information was

Yutaka Yamaguchi; Hidekei Kaba; Shizuyuki Yoshida; Nobumitsu Kuribayashi; Yasuo Nakauchi; Teruo Saito

1989-01-01

50

Performance of NDA techniques on a vitrified waste form  

SciTech Connect

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is currently considering the use of vitrified transuranic (TRU)-waste forms for the final disposition of several waste materials. To date, however, little nondestructive assay (NDA) data have been acquired in the general NDA community to assist in this endeavor. This paper describes the efforts to determine constraints and operating parameters for using NDA instrumentation on vitrified waste. The present study was conducted on a sample composed of a plutonium-contaminated ash, similar to that found in the RFETS inventory, and a borosilicate-based glass. The vitrified waste item was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using methods and equipment similar to those being proposed by RFETS to treat their ash material. The focus of this study centered on the segmented gamma scanner (SGS) with 1/2-inch collimation, a technique that is presently available at RFETS. The accuracy and precision of SGS technology was evaluated, with particular attention to bias issues involving matrix geometry, homogeneity, and attenuation. Tomographic gamma scanning was utilized in the determination of the waste form homogeneity. A thermal neutron technique was also investigated and comparisons made with the gamma results.

Hurd, J.R.; Veazey, G.W.; Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.; Ricketts, T.E.; Nakaoka, R.K.

1997-11-01

51

Anesthetic Efficacy of Supplemental Buccal and Lingual Infiltrations of Articaine and Lidocaine after an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) decreases in patients with irreversible pulpitis. It was hypothesized that supplemental infiltration of lidocaine and articaine may improve the success rates.

Vivek Aggarwal; Anurag Jain; Debipada Kabi

2009-01-01

52

Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.  

PubMed

Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance cow performance during lactation. Forage UIP and microbial protein supply were adequate to meet the metabolizable protein requirements of lactating beef cows under the conditions of this study. PMID:15583059

Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

2005-01-01

53

Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

Klann, R. T.

2000-02-29

54

Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play ...

55

Efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, LA. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food Source disks with the disk itself. Although all the bait supplements in this study resulted in a slightly greater number of treated stations discovered compared with control stations, only the application of the aqueous solution combined with the disk caused a significant increase in the number of stations discovered by termites. This treatment resulted in a significantly greater rate of discovery of treated stations versus control stations after only 14 d in the field. Termites were able to discover six times as many treated as control stations after 14 d, 9 times as many after 28 d, and 12 times as many after 42 d. These findings provide evidence that the diffusion of an aqueous solution into the soil underneath monitoring stations significantly decreased the length of time required for termites to infest stations. PMID:19610435

Cornelius, Mary L; Lyn, Margaret; Williams, Kelley S; Lovisa, Mary P; De Lucca, Anthony J; Lax, Alan R

2009-06-01

56

Review and Ranking of NDA Techniques to Determine Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

A number of efforts are under way to improve nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) safeguard applications. These efforts have largely focused on advancing individual NDA approaches to assay plutonium content. Although significant improvements have been made in NDA techniques, relatively little work has been done to thoroughly and systematically compare the methods. A comparative review of the relative strengths and weaknesses of current NDA techniques brings a new perspective to guide future research. To gauge the practicality and effectiveness of the various relevant NDA approaches, criteria have been developed from two broad categories: functionality and operability. The functionality category includes accuracy estimates, measurement time, plutonium verification capabilities, and assembly or fuel rod assay. Since SNF composition changes with operational history and cooling times, the viability of certain NDA approaches will also change over time. While active interrogation approaches will benefit from reduced background radiation, passive assays will lose the information contained in short-lived isotopes. Therefore, the expected assay accuracy as a function of time is considered. The operability category attempts to gauge the challenges associated with the application of different NDA techniques. This category examines the NDA deploy-ability, measurement capabilities and constraints in spent fuel pools, required on-site facilities, NDA technique synergies, and the extent to which the measurements are obtrusive to the facility. Each topic listed in the categories will be given a numerical score used to rank the different NDA approaches. While the combined numerical score of each technique is informative, the individual-topic scoring will allow for a more-tailored ranking approach. Since the needs and tools of the International Atomic Energy Agency differ from those of a recycling facility, the best assay technique may change with users and SNF characteristics. This ranking system will also examine the merits of a staged inspection with quick measurements followed by more-accurate assays of suspicious SNF. The final results of this ranking process will be used to guide the NDA safeguards research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Cheatham, Jesse R [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

57

Impact of NDA Uncertainites on NCS at the K-25 Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The K-25 Building at the East Tennessee Technology Park is relying on the use of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) methods for characterizing hold-up materials in process equipment. The characterization data is used for many purposes including mass estimates for nuclear criticality safety (NCS) and waste disposition. This paper addresses the sensitivity of certain parameters in the NDA process to overall mass

Kevin Kimball

2008-01-01

58

Efficacy of Whey Protein Supplementation on Resistance Exercise-Induced Changes in Lean Mass, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function in Mobility-Limited Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to mobility-limited older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplementation to an isocaloric control on changes in whole-body lean mass, mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, and stair-climbing performance in older mobility-limited adults in response to 6 months of resistance training (RT). Methods. Eighty mobility-limited adults aged 70–85 years were randomized to receive WPC (40g/day) or an isocaloric control for 6 months. All participants also completed a progressive high-intensity RT intervention. Sample sizes were calculated based on the primary outcome of change in whole-body lean mass to give 80% power for a 0.05-level, two-sided test. Results. Lean mass increased 1.3% and 0.6% in the WPC and control groups, respectively. Muscle cross-sectional area was increased 4.6% and 2.9% in the WPC and control groups, respectively, and muscle strength increased 16%–50% in WPC and control groups. Stair-climbing performance also improved in both groups. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the change in any of these variables between groups. Conclusions. These data suggest that WPC supplementation at this dose does not offer additional benefit to the effects of RT in mobility-limited older adults.

2013-01-01

59

Düflük Çevre S›cakl›¤›nda Yetifltirilen Yumurta Tavuklar›nda Rasyona Kat›lan Kromun Verim ve Ham Besin Maddelerinin Sindirilme Derecesi Üzerine Etkisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet: Bu araflt›rma, 710.3 ppb krom içeren rasyona kat›lan Krom Picolinat›n (CrPi), düflük çevre s›cakl›¤›nda yetifltirilen yumurta tavuklar›nda, verim ve ham besin maddelerinin sindirilme derecesi üzerine etkilerini belirlemek amac›yla, her birinde 46 haftal›k 30 adet yumurta tavuu bulunan 4 grupta yürütülmüfltür. Rasyona kat›lan krom düzeyleri araflt›rma gruplar›n› oluflturmufltur. Buna göre, krom ilave edilmeyen rasyonla beslenen grup Kontrol grubunu, 100 ppb

O. Nihat; Talat GÜLER

60

Nutrition and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

1999-08-01

61

Mobile Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements of Standard Waste Boxes (SWB)  

SciTech Connect

A mobile NDA system was composed and qualified for Safeguards measurements of multiple standard waste boxes (SWB) generated as a result of clean-out activities at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The system included a neutron slab counter and high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. PC/FRAM software was used to determine the isotopic composition of plutonium residue contained in the waste in order to interpret two independent measurement results provided by total neutron counting and gamma energy analysis (GEA). The measurement procedure developed to estimate transuranic (TRU) content of boxes was based on assumptions about characteristics of the matrix and material distribution. The neutron slab counter was calibrated with various plutonium working standards that were placed in a surrogate SWB specifically made to simulate miscellaneous waste debris. Transmission measurements with a californium source were used to correct for the matrix effects. An In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was used to acquire spectra from SWBs and ISOCS software was applied to generate the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. Infinite energy extrapolation was introduced to correct GEA results for self-attenuation. The gamma and neutron results obtained on multiple SWBs are compared and discussed in the paper. Revised measurement positions for the detector and the transmission source are also suggested based on experience gained during the measurements.

Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, James R.; Mapili, Gabriel M.

2006-11-01

62

The efficacy of vitamin C supplementation on reducing total serum cholesterol in human subjects: a review and analysis of 51 experimental trials  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Observational studies in humans have shown an inverse relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and total serum cholesterol. However, experimental studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the ability of vitamin C to reduce total serum cholesterol. Methods Published reports of trials studying the effects of vitamin C on serum lipids were identified by a search of Medline from 1966 to 2004. Data from 51 experimental studies comprising of 1666 pooled subjects were selected for analysis. Results A very strong negative association was observed between baseline total serum cholesterol and the percent change in cholesterol (r = ?0.585, p<0.001). When subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their baseline total serum cholesterol levels, the following weighted mean percent changes in cholesterol from baseline were observed: normal cholesterol (<199mg/dl): 0.91±6.8% (n=508); borderline high cholesterol (200–239mg/dl): 3.90±5.78% (n=605); high cholesterol (240–279mg/dl): 11.40±7.96% (n=300); severe cholesterol (>280mg/dl): 14.30±8.36% (n=253). A significant inverse relationship was found between the baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations and mean percent change in total cholesterol from baseline (r = ?0.500, p<0.005). It was also observed that the high and severe baseline cholesterol groups possessed lower baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations than those in the normal cholesterol groups (0.79 and 0.55 versus 1.24 mg/dl respectively). Conclusion This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the cholesterol lowering and cardio-protective benefit of vitamin C supplementation may be in its ability to elevate plasma vitamin C concentrations in those patients who initially possess lower than normal vitamin C plasma concentrations.

McRae, Marc P.

2006-01-01

63

Automatic identification of NDA measured items: Use of E-tags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how electronic identification devices or E-tags could reduce the time spent by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors making nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements. As one example, the use of E-tags with a high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) is discussed in detail. Sections of the paper include inspection procedures, system description, software, and future plans. Mounting of E-tabs, modifications to the HLNC, and the use of tamper indicating devices are also discussed. The technology appears to have wide application to different types of nuclear facilities and inspections and could significantly change NDA inspection procedures.

Chitumbo, K.; Olsen, R.; Hatcher, C. R.; Kadner, S. P.

64

The efficacy and safety study of dietary supplement PURIAM110 on non-insulin taking Korean adults in the stage of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus: protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multicenter trial-pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has already become a threat to the nation and the individual due to its high prevalence rates and high medical expenses. Therefore, preventing diabetes at an earlier stage is very important. Despite advances in antidiabetic agents, we have not yet achieved any satisfying results in treating diabetes. Among various treatments, medicinal herbs and supplements for diabetes are reported to show generally good efficacy and safety data. In particular, PURIAM110, a compound from orange fruits and mulberry leaves, is supposed to prevent the progress of type II diabetes mellitus and improve diabetic symptoms. This is the first reported pilot study about the protective effect of the orange fruits and mulberry leaves mixture against pre-diabetes on Korean adults. Based on these positive results of herb-derived components, extended studies of dietary supplements have to be done to suggest confirmative evidences. Methods/Design The efficacy and safety study of PURIAM110 is a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, and multi-center clinical trial. A total of 45 subjects will participate in this study for 6 weeks. Discussion The present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of PURIAM110 for pre-diabetes, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). In addition, PURIAM110 can be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for diabetes patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN44779824

2011-01-01

65

CSER 94-015: New portable NDA equipment for use in SNM audits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A criticality safety review is presented for the use of two portable NDA detectors from Los Alamos during an IAEA inspection of the SNM at PFP. The units are an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and a High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC). A...

A. L. Hess

1994-01-01

66

NDA Technology for Uranium Resource Evaluation. Progress Report, October 1--December 31, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contract for NDA Technology for Uranium Resource Evaluation in Group Q-1 is described. The work has focused on gamma-ray calculations in support of borehole logging measurements and surface gamma-ray surveys. Phase II calculations deal with the gamma-...

H. O. Menlove

1978-01-01

67

77 FR 15110 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The committee will discuss an efficacy supplement for new drug application (NDA) 21-572, TRUVADA (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) Tablet, submitted by Gilead Sciences, Inc. The supplemental application proposes an indication...

2012-03-14

68

Efficient solutions to the NDA-NCA low-order eigenvalue problem  

SciTech Connect

Recent algorithmic advances combine moment-based acceleration and Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) methods to accelerate the computation of the dominant eigenvalue in a k-eigenvalue calculation. In particular, NDA-NCA [1], builds a sequence of low-order (LO) diffusion-based eigenvalue problems in which the solution converges to the true eigenvalue solution. Within NDA-NCA, the solution to the LO k-eigenvalue problem is computed by solving a system of nonlinear equation using some variant of Newton's method. We show that we can speed up the solution to the LO problem dramatically by abandoning the JFNK method and exploiting the structure of the Jacobian matrix. (authors)

Willert, J. A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Kelley, C. T. [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

2013-07-01

69

Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce

T. K. Li; S. F. Klosterbuer; H. O. Menlove

1996-01-01

70

TRU DRUM NDE AND NDA WITH THE WASTE INSPECTION TOMOGRAPHY MOBILE TRAILER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) mobile trailer was developed and is operated by the Waste Inspection Technology Company (WITCO). WIT is designed for the unique characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste drums by performing high-energy 2 MV x-ray NonDestructive Examination (NDE) and gamma NonDestructive Assay (NDA). WIT provides for drum characterization through x-ray inspection of drum content and gamma assay determination

Richard T. Bernardi

71

Survey of DOE NDA practices for CH-Tru waste certification--illustrated with a greater than 10,000 drum NDA data base  

SciTech Connect

We have compiled a greater than 10,000 CH-TRU waste drum data base from seven DOE sites which have utilized such multiple NDA measurements within the past few years. Most of these nondestructive assay (NDA) technique assay result comparisons have been performed on well-characterized, segregated waste categories such as cemented sludges, combustibles, metals, graphite residues, glasses, etc., with well-known plutonium isotopic compositions. Waste segregation and categorization practices vary from one DOE site to another. Perhaps the most systematic approach has been in use for several years at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), operated by Rockwell International, and located near Golden, Colorado. Most of the drum assays in our data base result from assays of RFP wastes, with comparisons available between the original RFP assays and PAN assays performed independently at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Solid Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility. Most of the RFP assays were performed with hyperpure germanium (HPGe)-based SGS assay units. However, at least one very important waste category, processed first-stage sludges, is assayed at RFP using a sludge batch-sampling procedure, prior to filling of the waste drums. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.; Smith, J.R.

1988-01-01

72

A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGE spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 55% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays.

Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

1996-12-31

73

Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

2009-01-01

74

Herbal supplements: Facts and myths--talking to your patients about herbal supplements.  

PubMed

The use of herbal supplements in the United States is steadily growing and raises concerns about safety, efficacy, and how they affect safe patient care. The direct health risks associated with herbal supplements include hypertension, prolonged bleeding, and the potential for drug-herb interactions. These potential drug interactions are of particular concern for patients undergoing anesthesia. This article provides a review of literature on the 10 most popular herbal supplements and addresses the herbal supplements' reported use, possible adverse effect(s), patient teaching, possible drug interaction(s), and recommendations regarding discontinuation before surgery. PMID:16935738

Messina, Barbara Ann M

2006-08-01

75

Chitosan Supplementation and Fecal Fat Excretion in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few weight loss supplements are clinically tested for efficacy, yet their proliferation continues. Chitosan-based supplements are sold as fat trappers and fat magnets. They purportedly block fat absorption and cause weight loss without food restriction. We quantified the in vivo effect of a chitosan product on fat absorption.Research Methods and Procedures: Participants (n = 15) consumed five meals per

Matthew D. Gades; Judith S. Stern

2003-01-01

76

Efficacy of Multivitamin Supplementation Containing Vitamins B 6 and B 12 and Folic Acid as Adjunctive Treatment with a Cholinesterase Inhibitor in Alzheimer's Disease: A 26Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Taiwanese Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated serum homocysteine levels have been associated with the development of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The combined use of a mecobalamin capsule preparation, which contains vitamin B12 0.5 mg with an active methyl base, and an over-the-counter nutritional supplement that contains folic acid 1 mg and pyridoxine hyperchloride 5 mg may be effective as a homocysteine-lowering vitamin regimen.ObjectiveThe aim of this

Yu Sun; Chien-Jung Lu; Kuo-Liong Chien; Sien-Tsong Chen; Rong-Chi Chen

2007-01-01

77

Reading Intervention in Middle and High Schools: Implementation Fidelity, Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teachers' efficacy and implementation in the context of a supplemental intervention for struggling adolescent readers. It examined teachers' efficacy at the start of their intervention training and investigated relationships among teachers' efficacy, implementation, and students' reading progress. The efficacy and…

Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Carter, Janis C.; Rintamaa, Margaret

2013-01-01

78

A randomized comparative trial of testosterone and protein supplements for weight loss in HIV+ men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents findings from a randomized trial that compared the efficacy of 1) 400 mg biweekly IM injections of testosterone plus daily “placebo” standard nutritional supplements (containing 8 g of protein per serving), 2) high protein (37 g per serving) supplements and placebo IM injections, and 3) both testosterone and high protein supplements, in the treatment of HIV-related weight

Glenn J Wagner; Judith G Rabkin; Richard Rabkin

2001-01-01

79

Efficacy of Nutritional Ergogenic Aids in Hot Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many athletes seeking a competitive edge rely on nutritional ergogenic aids to improve performance. Carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) supplementation appear efficacious at enhancing endurance exercise performance when studied under ideal circumstances...

B. R. Ely S. N. Cheuvront

2010-01-01

80

A hybrid approach to the neutron transport K-eigenvalue problem using NDA-based algorithms  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide more physically accurate solutions to the neutron transport equation it has become increasingly popular to use Monte Carlo simulation to model nuclear reactor dynamics. These Monte Carlo methods can be extremely expensive, so we turn to a class of methods known as hybrid methods, which combine known deterministic and stochastic techniques to solve the transport equation. In our work, we show that we can simulate the action of a transport sweep using a Monte Carlo simulation in order to solve the k-eigenvalue problem. We'll accelerate the solution using nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) as in [1,2]. Our work extends the results in [1] to use Monte Carlo simulation as the high-order solver. (authors)

Willert, J. A.; Kelley, C. T. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Knoll, D. A.; Park, H. [Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01

81

How the NDA Provides Transparency and Visibility of the Technical Deliverability of the R and D Programme - 13303  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) was created under the UK Energy Act 2004 to ensure the UK historic civil public sector nuclear legacy sites are decommissioned safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment. The delivery will involve carrying out many unique projects within a high hazard environment requiring the very highest standards in safety, security and environmental management. Unique problems require unique solutions and there is a substantial amount of research and development required for each project. The NDA's R and D strategic objective is to ensure that delivery of the NDA's mission is technically underpinned by sufficient and appropriate research and development. This drives a requirement to provide transparency and visibility of the technical deliverability of the programme through the technical baseline and accompanying research and development requirements. The NDA need to have confidence in the technical deliverability of the Site License Companies (SLCs) plans, provide overall visibility of R and D across the NDA Estate and ensure that appropriate R and D is being carried out in a timely manner. They need to identify where coordinated R and D programmes may be advantageous as a result of common needs, risks and opportunities and ensure key R and D needs across NDA are identified, prioritised and work programmes are costed and scheduled in the Lifetime Plans for individual sites and SLCs. Evidence of the Site License Company's approach and their corresponding technical underpinning programmes is achieved through submission of a number of outputs collectively known as TBuRDs (Technical Baseline and Underpinning Research and Development Requirements). This paper is a summary of the information generated by an independent review of those TBuRDs. It highlights some of the key messages, synergies and common R and D activities across the estate. It demonstrates the value of a consistent approach to collecting R and D data across multiple Sites with a view to enhancing knowledge transfer and improving delivery efficiency. It will be of interest to all who are running R and D programmes where other programmes may be carrying out similar activities. (authors)

Seed, Ian; James, Paula [Cogentus Consulting (United Kingdom)] [Cogentus Consulting (United Kingdom); Brownridge, Melanie; McMinn, Mervin [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - NDA (United Kingdom)] [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - NDA (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

82

Food and food supplements with hypocholesterolemic effects.  

PubMed

Hypercholesterolemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. Control of cholesterol levels through therapeutic drugs, notably statins, have significantly reduced the risk for developing atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases. However, adverse effects associated with therapeutic drugs warrant to find other alternative approaches for managing hypercholesterolemia, especially for those with borderline cholesterol levels. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hypercholesterolemia and reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. This review summarized current patents on food supplements with claims of hypocholesterolemic effects. They can be mainly divided into four categories based on the active ingredients in the supplements: 1) plant sterols or stanols; 2) fiber or polysaccharides; 3) microorganism-derived; and 4) soy protein and phytoestrogens. The efficacy, mechanisms of action and potential side effects are reviewed for each of the four categories. The hypocholesterolemic effects of plant sterols, fiber, Monascus products and soy protein preparations have been consistently demonstrated in clinical trails whereas the efficacy of some probiotic bacteria and phytoestrogens-containing supplements remains to be established. Accumulative clinical data show that plant sterols, fiber, soy protein and phytoestrogen are generally considered safe and cause no obvious side effects. However, additional clinical studies are required to establish the safety profiles of certain probiotic bacteria as food supplements. PMID:20653522

Deng, Ruitang

2009-01-01

83

Dietary Supplements Task Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Dietary Supplements Task Force was charged with examining the issues regarding dietary supplements and developing a regulatory framework for these products. To facilitate the orderly development of regulatory strategies, the Task Force divided the uni...

1992-01-01

84

Using NDA Techniques to Improve Safeguards Metrics on Burnup Quantification and Plutonium Content in LWR SNF  

SciTech Connect

Globally, there exists a long history in reprocessing in evaluation of the shipper/receiver difference (SRD) on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) received and processed. Typically, the declared shipper s values for uranium and plutonium in SNF (based on calculations involving the initial manufacturer s data and reactor operating history) are used as the input quantities to the head-end process of the facility. Problems have been encountered when comparing these values with measured results of the input accountability tank contents. A typical comparison yields a systematic bias indicated as a loss of 5 7 percent of the plutonium (Pu) and approximately 1 percent for the uranium (U). Studies suggest that such deviation can be attributed to the non-linear nature of the axial burnup values of the SNF. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Texas A&M University are co-investigating the development of a new method, via Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques, to improve the accuracy in burnup and Pu content quantification. Two major components have been identified to achieve this objective. The first component calculates a measurement-based burnup profile along the axis of a fuel rod. Gamma-ray data is collected at numerous locations along the axis of the fuel rod using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector designed for a wide range of gamma-ray energies. Using two fission products, 137Cs and 134Cs, the burnup is calculated at each measurement location and a profile created along the axis of the rod based on the individual measurement locations. The second component measures the U/Pu ratio using an HPGe detector configured for relatively low-energy gamma-rays including x-rays. Fluorescence x-rays from U and Pu are measured and compared to the U/Pu ratio determined from a destructive analysis of the sample. This will be used to establish a relationship between the measured and actual values. This relationship will be combined with the burnup analysis results to establish a relationship between fission product activity and Pu content. It is anticipated that this new method will allow receiving facilities to make a limited number of NDA, gamma-ray, measurements to confirm the shipper declared values for burnup and Pu content thereby improving the SRD.

Saavedra, Steven F [ORNL; Charlton, William S [Texas A& M University; Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL; Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL

2010-01-01

85

Tobacco Use Supplement: An Overview  

Cancer.gov

1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current

86

Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for process areas in a MOX (mixed oxide) facility  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been designed and installed in the process area of an automated mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. These instruments employ neutron coincidence counting methods to measure the spontaneous-fission rate of plutonium in the powders, pellets, and fuel pins in the process area. The spontaneous fission rate and the plutonium isotopic ratios determine the mass of plutonium in the sample. Measurements can be either attended or unattended. The fuel-pin assay system (FPAS) resides above the robotic conveyor system and measures the plutonium content in fuel-pin trays containing up to 24 pins (/approximately/1 kg of plutonium). The material accountancy glove-box (MAGB) counters consist of two slab detectors mounted on the sides of the glove box to measure samples of powder or pellets as they are brought to the load cell. Samples measured by the MAGB counters may contain up to 18 kg of MOX. This paper describes the design and performance of four systems: the fuel-pin assay system and three separate MAGB systems. The paper also discusses the role of Monte Carlo transport techniques in the detector design and subsequent instrument calibration. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.

1989-01-01

87

The use of TI-208 gamma rays for safeguards, nondestructive-assay (NDA) measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines two cases where gamma rays from Tl-208, including the 2614keV gamma ray, were used to detect anomalies in waste material. In addition to the characterization of waste for waste acceptance, and compliance with environmental and transportation laws, there is a safeguards element as well. The more sophisticated method of NDA at Y-12 includes a means to detect shielded special nuclear material (SNM). Excess count rates in the 2614keV gamma ray from Tl-208 are an indication of potential shielded HEU in waste as well as other containers. The 2614keV gamma ray is easy to monitor routinely. When a large 2614keV peak is detected, further investigation can be conducted from the gamma spectrum. This paper describes this further investigation in two cases. In one case self-shielded HEU was detected. In the other case the Tl-208 gamma rays came from a piece of Th-232 metal.

Oberer, R. B.; Chiang, L. G.; Norris, M. J.; Gunn, C. A.; Adaline, B. C.

2009-05-26

88

Intercollegiate student athlete use of nutritional supplements and the role of athletic trainers and dietitians in nutrition counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of university student athletes was conducted to determine supplement use, perceived efficacy of supplements, availability and use of nutrition services, and perceived nutrition knowledge of athletic trainers. Results from 236 athletes showed that 88% used one or more nutritional supplements, yet perceived efficacy was moderate (2.9 or less; 5-point scale). Classes (69.4%), brochures (75%), and individual counseling (47%)

Robert D. Burns; M. Rosita Schiller; Mark A. Merrick; Kay N. Wolf

2004-01-01

89

Dietary supplement research portfolio at the NIH, 2009-2011.  

PubMed

The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009-2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement-related funding for FYs 2009-2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women's reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wambogo, Edwina A; Regan, Karen S; Davis, Cindy D

2014-04-01

90

[Efficacy studies].  

PubMed

Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

2014-07-01

91

Suppression of NDA-type alternative mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in arabidopsis thaliana modifies growth and metabolism, but not high light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport.  

PubMed

The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)? ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins. PMID:24486764

Wallström, Sabá V; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L; Escobar, Matthew A; Geisler, Daniela A; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G

2014-05-01

92

Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the extent and determinants of vitamin supplementation in early pregnancy. Some 246 women were recruited in the antenatal clinics of a major teaching hospital and asked to complete a brief questionnaire relating to sources of advice and details of diet and vitamin supplementation during the index pregnancy. Further information was abstracted from routine antenatal records. A total of fifty-seven women (23%) took some form of vitamin supplement during the index pregnancy. Factors which affected supplementation included advice received from diverse sources and whether or not the women took iron supplements. Somewhat surprisingly, supplementation was not affected by age, social class or reproductive history. PMID:2500521

Best, A; Little, J; MacPherson, M

1989-04-01

93

Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.  

PubMed

A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of ?-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements highlighted in this review needs to be conducted using team-sport athletes and using team-sport-relevant testing (e.g. single- and multiple-sprint performance). It should also be considered that there is no guarantee that dietary supplements that improve isolated performance (i.e. single-sprint or jump performance) will remain effective in the context of a team-sport match. Thus, more research is also required to investigate the effects of dietary supplements on simulated or actual team-sport performance. A second aim of this review was to investigate any health issues associated with the ingestion of the more commonly promoted dietary supplements. While most of the supplements described in the review appear safe when using the recommended dose, the effects of higher doses (as often taken by athletes) on indices of health remain unknown, and further research is warranted. Finally, anecdotal reports suggest that team-sport athletes often ingest more than one dietary supplement and very little is known about the potential adverse effects of ingesting multiple supplements. Supplements that have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious when ingested on their own may have adverse effects when combined with other supplements. More research is required to investigate the effects of ingesting multiple supplements (both on performance and health). PMID:21058748

Bishop, David

2010-12-01

94

?-Alanine Supplementation for Athletic Performance: An Update.  

PubMed

Bellinger, PM. ?-alanine supplementation for athletic performance: An update. J Strength Cond Res 28(6): 1751-1770, 2014-?-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic ?-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that ?-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. ?-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with ?-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from ?-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using ?-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. ?-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic potential of ?-alanine supplementation for elite athletes performing repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports which require repeated maximal efforts (e.g., rugby and soccer), needs scientific confirmation. PMID:24276304

Bellinger, Phillip M

2014-06-01

95

Effects of Supplemental Ascorbic Acid on the Performance and Immunity of Commercial Broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of supplemental ascorbic acid on the performance of broiler chickens. Three hundred thirty Ross chicks were divided into 5 groups of 66 each, comprising 3 replicates. They were fed 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 ppm of supplemental ascorbic acid, respectively, for a period of 6 wk. The performance data revealed

J. D. Lohakare; M. H. Ryu; T.-W. Hahn; J. K. Lee; B. J. Chae

2005-01-01

96

Ülkemizde 2005-2006, 2006-2007 ve 2007-2008 Y›llar›nda Grip Sürveyans› ve ‹zole Edilen ‹nfluenza Virusu Sufllar›n›n Tiplendirimi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girifl ‹nfluenza viruslar›n›n neden olduu infeksiyonlar›n tüm dünyada önemli bir halk sal›¤› sorunu olduu; yüksek morbi- dite ve mortalite oranlar› ile karakterize olan bu önemli hasta- l›¤›n, salg›nlar s›ras›nda hastanelere baflvurularda ve yat›fllar- da art›fla, özellikle risk grubundan bireyler aras›nda ölümlere, ülke genelinde ise ekonomik kay›plara neden olduu bilin- mektedir (1). Mevsimsel gribin bu tip olumsuzluklar›n›n yan› s›ra, belirli aral›klarla

Meral Akçay-Çiblak; Seyhan Aslan; Emel Bozkaya; Selim Badur

2008-01-01

97

administrative_supplement_health_educator  

Cancer.gov

1 NCI Guidelines for Administrative Supplements for a Community Health Educator (CHE) for Outreach, Education, Coordination, and Evaluation Supplement Title: Administrative Supplements for a Community Health Educator (CHE) for Outreach, Education,

98

administrative_supplement_patient_navigator  

Cancer.gov

1 NCI Guidelines for Administrative Supplements for Patient Navigators for the Cancer Care Continuum Supplement Title: Administrative Supplements for Patient Navigators for the Cancer Care Continuum Available Funds: $100,000/year direct costs

99

Pyruvate supplementation for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several slimming aids being sold as food supplements are widely available. One of them is pyruvate. Its efficacy in causing weight reduction in humans has not been fully established. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy of pyruvate in reducing body weight.Methods: Electronic and non-electronic searches were conducted to identify all relevant human randomised clinical

Igho Onakpoya; Katherine Hunt; Barbara Wider; Edzard Ernst

2012-01-01

100

Effect of four-day psyllium supplementation on bowel preparation for colonoscopy:A prospective double blind randomized trial [ISRCTN76623768  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with new onset constipation or presumed hemorrhoid bleeding frequently require the use of both fiber supplements and diagnostic colonoscopy. We sought to determine whether preliminary fiber supplementation would alter the tolerability or efficacy of a standard bowel preparation for colonoscopy METHODS: A prospective, double blind, randomized trial was designed to compare a short course of a psyllium-based supplement

Walter A Salwen; Marc D Basson

2004-01-01

101

Meta-analysis of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation of Formula and Infant Cognition  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infant formula is supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) because they are hypothesized to improve cognition. Several randomized controlled clinical trials have examined the effect of LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula on cognitive development. We conducted this meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula on early cognitive development. METHODS: Two authors searched PubMed, PsychInfo, and Scopus for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the efficacy of LCPUFA supplementation of infant formulas on cognition. Our analysis was restricted to randomized controlled clinical trials that examined the effect of LCPUFA supplementation on infant cognition using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Our primary outcome was the weighted mean difference in Bayley Scales of Infant Development score between infants fed formula supplemented with LCPUFA compared with unsupplemented formula. We conducted secondary subgroup analyses and meta-regression to examine the effects of study sample, LCPUFA dose, and trial methodologic quality on measured efficacy of supplementation. RESULTS: Twelve trials involving 1802 infants met our inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis demonstrated no significant effect of LCPUFA supplementation of formula on infant cognition. There was no significant heterogeneity or publication bias between trials. Secondary analysis failed to show any significant effect of LCPUFA dosing or prematurity status on supplementation efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: LCPUFA supplementation of infant formulas failed to show any significant effect on improving early infant cognition. Further research is needed to determine if LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula has benefits for later cognitive development or other measures of neurodevelopment.

Qawasmi, Ahmad; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

2012-01-01

102

Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement with a low dose of ephedra and caffeine in overweight\\/obese premenopausal female subjects.Design:A 9-month, double-blind, randomized control study compared the efficacy and safety of a dietary supplement with ephedra and caffeine to a control supplement.Subjects:Sixty-one healthy, premenopausal women with body mass index (BMI) from 27 to 39 kg\\/m2 were randomly

R M Hackman; P J Havel; H J Schwartz; J C Rutledge; M R Watnik; E M Noceti; S J Stohs; J S Stern; C L Keen

2006-01-01

103

Self-Efficacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a comprehensive summary of the topic written by one of its pioneers. The site provides a definition of self-efficacy, characteristics of efficacious people, and a description of how self-efficacy can be developed or undermined. The author describes self-efficacy in social, family and school settings and in various stages of life. There is also a short bibliography.

Bandura, Albert; University, Stanford

104

Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... we know so little about whether MVMs have health benefits is that studies often use different products, making ... vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other substances that benefit health. Dietary supplements might help in some situations to ...

105

Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... Black Cohosh Botanical Dietary Supplements Butterbur Vitamin B12 Vitamin B6 C Calcium Carnitine Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) Cat's ... Vine Turmeric V Valerian Vitamin A Vitamin B12 Vitamin B6 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K ...

106

Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation  

MedlinePLUS

... able to synthesize additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin ... a vitamin supplement or from adequate exposure to sunlight. A number of factors decrease the amount of ...

107

Supplements to Textbook Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

Holmes, Ken

1994-01-01

108

administrative_supplement_target  

Cancer.gov

NCI Guidelines for Administrative Supplements in Support of Expanding the Childhood Cancer TARGET Initiative Title: Childhood Cancer TARGET Initiative Expansion – Tissue Collections and Characterization Announcement Number: NOT-OD-09-056 NIH Announces

109

Nutritional Supplement Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dietary supplement compositions containing one or more compounds such as arginine, selenium, calcium, calcium sources, morphine precursors (e.g., reticuline), morphine, and morphine-6.beta.-glucuronide are provided.

G. B. Stefano K. J. Mantione P. Cadet W. Zhu

2005-01-01

110

Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... of getting too much of some nutrients, like iron, vitamin A, zinc, niacin, and folic acid, especially ... their newborn babies. Pregnant women should take an iron supplement as recommended by their health care provider. ...

111

ADHD and nutritional supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) use nutritional therapies (supplements and elimination\\u000a diets) as a treatment strategy. This article reviews the use of supplements in ADHD. Several nutrients have known roles in\\u000a the support of brain function. Nutrient sufficiency during brain development is critical. Because 1) data indicate that many\\u000a American schoolchildren do not meet nutritional recommendations, 2) the prefrontal

Marianne M. Glanzman

2009-01-01

112

The International Research on Infant Supplementation initiative.  

PubMed

The International Research on Infant Supplementation trials emerged as an attempt to develop a credible evidence base to guide policy decision making in this area. The fact that infant diets in developing country settings are more often deficient in multiple micronutrients rather than in single nutrients and/or energy was increasingly recognized during the 1990s. The concept of a "foodlet," a crushable hybrid between a tablet and a food that is water dispersible, was developed at the first IRIS meeting in Rio de Janeiro in 1999. Trials were performed in 4 countries: Indonesia, Peru, South Africa, and Vietnam. Four different formulations of foodlets were tested: a daily placebo supplement, a daily iron supplement, a daily multiple micronutrient supplement, and a weekly multiple micronutrient supplement with a placebo on the other 6 d. The multiple micronutrient foodlets contained adequate daily intakes of 13 micronutrients considered most likely to be inadequate in infant diets. The foodlets were produced in Peru and distributed to all 4 of the country study sites. The methods used in the efficacy trials were standardized across countries, and the trials were carried out in infants 6-11 mo of age for 6 mo. Anthropometry was measured monthly and morbidity checked daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the trial. The data and the biological samples collected in each country were analyzed centrally. The results of this remarkable international collaboration are encouraging and, hopefully, will spur the development of programs in this area of nutrition interventions. PMID:15735106

Gross, Rainer; Benade, Spinnler; Lopez, Guillermo

2005-03-01

113

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy.

Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

2013-01-01

114

Meta-analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA). We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs), identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for

Sarah Brien; Phil Prescott; George Lewith

2009-01-01

115

Efficacy of climate forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the ``efficacy'' of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ~110%, which increases to ~145% when its indirect

J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

2005-01-01

116

Efficacy of climate forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ?110%, which increases to ?145% when its indirect

J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

2005-01-01

117

An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products  

PubMed Central

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

2011-01-01

118

The Efficacy, Safety, and Practicality of Treatments for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining interventions for adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reviewed to evaluate their efficacy. These efficacy findings were supplemented with a preliminary system for judging safety and practicality. Results suggest that the stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) is safe and well-established empirically, but has some problems with inconvenience and noncompliance. Preliminary research supports the efficacy, safety, and practicality of

Bradley H. Smith; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Michael T. Willoughby; Steven Evans

2000-01-01

119

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

2008-01-01

120

Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

Plant, Geoff

1988-01-01

121

administrative_supplement_reentry_career  

Cancer.gov

NCI Guidelines for Administrative Supplements to Promote Re-Entry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers Title: Administrative Supplements to Promote Re-Entry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers Announcement Number: NOT-OD-09-056

122

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

123

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Administrative Supplements  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SBIR Development Center announces the opportunity for current STTR Phase I and Phase II grantees to seek supplemental project funding via the Administrative Supplement mechanism.

124

Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)  

MedlinePLUS

... to conduct searches of the database: DSLD On Market = Label information from dietary supplement products that are currently on the U.S. market DSLD Off Market = Label information from dietary supplement ...

125

administrative_supplement_alliance_nanotechnology  

Cancer.gov

NCI Guidance for Administrative Supplements for NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer Grants and Cooperative Agreements Title: NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer Administrative Supplements to support efforts in the use of nanomaterials,

126

A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Recent evidence shows that subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significantly lower levels of glutathione than typically developing children. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of two commonly used glutathione supplements in subjects diagnosed with an ASD to determine their efficacy in increasing blood glutathione levels in subjects diagnosed with an ASD. Material/Methods The study was an eight-week, open-label trial using oral lipoceutical glutathione (n=13) or transdermal glutathione (n=13) in children, 3–13 years of age, with a diagnosis of an ASD. Subjects underwent pre- and post-treatment lab testing to evaluate plasma reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, cysteine, taurine, free and total sulfate, and whole-blood glutathione levels. Results The oral treatment group showed significant increases in plasma reduced glutathione, but not whole-blood glutathione levels following supplementation. Both the oral and transdermal treatment groups showed significant increases in plasma sulfate, cysteine, and taurine following supplementation. Conclusions The results suggest that oral and transdermal glutathione supplementation may have some benefit in improving some of the transsulfuration metabolites. Future studies among subjects diagnosed with an ASD should further explore the pharmacokinetics of glutathione supplementation and evaluate the potential effects of glutathione supplementation upon clinical symptoms.

Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Audhya, Tapan; Geier, Mark R.

2011-01-01

127

Supplement use by young athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supple- ment use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the

Jill Anne McDowall

128

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

2008-01-01

129

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals from the foods you eat. In fact, research has not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) help to manage diabetes. Still, more and more people use dietary supplements. ...

130

Development of the nano-dust analyzer (NDA) for detection and compositional analysis of nanometer-size dust particles originating in the inner heliosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer is developed for the detection and chemical analysis of nanometer-sized particles originating near the Sun. Nano-dust particles are thought to be produced by mutual collisions between interplanetary dust particles slowly spiraling toward the Sun and are accelerated outward to high velocities by interaction with the solar wind plasma. The WAVES instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft reported the detection, strong temporal variation, and potentially high flux of these particles. Here we report on the optimization and the results from the detailed characterization of the instrument's performance using submicrometer sized dust particles accelerated to 8-60 km/s. The Nano Dust Analyzer (NDA) concept is derived from previously developed detectors. It has a 200 cm2 effective target area and a mass resolution of approximately m/?m = 50. The NDA instrument is designed to reliably detect and analyze nanometer-sized dust particles while being pointed close to the Sun's direction, from where they are expected to arrive. Measurements by such an instrument will determine the size-dependent flux of the nano-dust particles and its variations, it will characterize the composition of the nano-dust and, ultimately, it may determine their source. The flight version of the NDA instrument is estimated to be <5 kg and requires <10 W for operation.

O'Brien, L.; Auer, S.; Gemer, A.; Grün, E.; Horanyi, M.; Juhasz, A.; Kempf, S.; Malaspina, D.; Mocker, A.; Moebius, E.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.

2014-03-01

131

Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of 15 days of betaine supplementation on muscle endurance, power performance and rate of fatigue in active college-aged men. METHODS: Twenty-four male subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group (BET; 20.4 ± 1.3 years; height: 176.8 ± 6.6 cm; body mass: 77.8 ± 13.4

Jay R Hoffman; Nicholas A Ratamess; Jie Kang; Stefanie L Rashti; Avery D Faigenbaum

2009-01-01

132

Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal.\\u000aMETHODS: We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000 mg of elemental [corrected] calcium as calcium carbonate

Rebecca D. Jackson; Andrea Z. LaCroix; Margery Gass; Robert B. Wallace; John Robbins; Cora E. Lewis; Tamsen Bassford; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Henry R. Black; Patricia L. Blanchette; Denise E. Bonds; Robert L. Brunner; Robert G. Brzyski; Bette Caan; Jane A. Cauley; Rowan T. Chlebowski; Steven R. Cummings; Iris A. Granek; Jennifer Hays; Gerardo Heiss; Susan L. Hendrix; Barbara V. Howard; Judith Hsia; F. Allan Hubbell; Karen K. C. Johnson; Howard Judd; Jane Morley Kotchen; Lewis H. Kuller; Robert D. Langer; Norman L. Lasser; Marian C. Limacher; Shari E. Ludlam; JoAnn E. Manson; Karen L. Margolis; Joan McGowan; Judith K. Ockene; Mary Jo OSullivan; Lawrence Phillips; Ross L. Prentice; Gloria E. Sarto; Marcia L. Stefanick; Linda Van Horn; Jean Wactawski-Wende; Evelyn Whitlock; Garnet L. Anderson; Annlouise R. Assaf; David H. Barad

2006-01-01

133

Articaine for Supplemental Intraosseous Anesthesia in Patients With Irreversible Pulpitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effect of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for supplemental intraosseous injection in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty-seven emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an inferior alveolar nerve block and had moderate-to-severe pain upon endodontic access. The Stabident

Jason Bigby; Al Reader; John Nusstein; Mike Beck; Joel Weaver

2006-01-01

134

For my wellness, not just my illness: North Americans' use of dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Passage of the DSHEA in 1994 created a new "liminal" category for the FDA: dietary supplements are regulated as neither food nor drugs. However, there appears to be a significant disconnect between the "official" discourse surrounding dietary supplements and supplement users' actual practices. Despite this discrepancy, and the inadequacy of surveys to capture the dynamics of pharmaceutical practice, there is little ethnographic information available on the ways that Americans think about or use dietary supplements. We offer some preliminary observations from a pilot ethnographic study of Americans' use of dietary supplements in which we consider not only the reasons why people are using supplements, but how they are using them, and how their experimentation has been influenced by the information they seek and receive from a variety of sources. We illustrate how anthropological studies of supplement related practice can help us better understand Americans' attraction to and use of dietary supplements, and suggest that anthropology can contribute to a more balanced perspective on supplement use-one that moves the study of supplements beyond surveys and randomized controlled studies of efficacy to considerations of patterns of use in context, user expectations, and measures of perceived effectiveness. PMID:16841188

Nichter, Mark; Thompson, Jennifer Jo

2006-06-01

135

The challenges of iodine supplementation: a public health programme perspective.  

PubMed

An adequate iodine intake during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood is particularly critical for optimal brain development of the foetus and of children 7-24 months of age. While the primary strategy for sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency remains universal salt iodisation, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend a complementary strategy of iodine supplements as a temporary measure when salt iodisation could not be implemented. This article aims to review current evidence on efficacy and implications of implementing iodine supplementation as a public health measure to address iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation seems unlikely to reach high coverage in a rapid, equitable and sustained way. Implementing the programme requires political commitment, effective and efficient supply, distribution and targeting, continuous education and communication and a robust monitoring system. Thus, universal salt iodisation should remain the primary strategy to eliminate iodine deficiency. PMID:20172473

Untoro, Juliawati; Timmer, Arnold; Schultink, Werner

2010-02-01

136

Leucine Supplementation Protects from Insulin Resistance by Regulating Adiposity Levels  

PubMed Central

Background Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD), supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group) was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3) in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation is lacking in already obese animals, a phenomenon possibly related to the extent of the obesity before starting the supplementation.

Binder, Elke; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco J.; Andre, Caroline; Elie, Melissa; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y.; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Belluomo, llaria; Duchampt, Adeline; Clark, Samantha; Aubert, Agnes; Mezzullo, Marco; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pagotto, Uberto; Laye, Sophie; Mithieux, Gilles; Cota, Daniela

2013-01-01

137

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

138

Productive Performance and Immune Response of Laying Hens as Affected by Dietary Propolis Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of supplemental Propolis on productiv e performance and immune response of laying hens. One hundred and twenty Hy-Line White strain were divided into four groups of 30 each. They were fed 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg of supplemental Propolis for 8 weeks (46-54wk). Chickens in all groups were reared under the

A. Galal; A. M. Abd El-Motaal; A. M. H. Ahmed; T. G. Zaki

2008-01-01

139

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

140

Nutrient supplementation: improving male fertility fourfold.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress can contribute to impairment in spermatogenesis leading to male-factor infertility. The effectiveness of various antioxidants (such as carnitine, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, zinc, folic acid, and coenzyme Q10) is variable with respect to improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates. A recent Cochrane review determined that men taking antioxidants had a statistically significant increase in both live birth rates and pregnancy rates. For those undergoing assisted reproduction, the odds ratio that antioxidant use would improve pregnancy rates was 4.18, with a 4.85-fold improvement in live birth rate also noted. Further investigation with randomized, controlled clinical trials is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in the medical management and treatment of male infertility. PMID:23775385

Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Shin, David

2013-07-01

141

Use of enteral nutritional supplementation: a survey of level II and III neonatal units in England.  

PubMed

Enteral nutritional supplementation is widely used in preterm babies on Neonatal Units (NNUs). There is little published evidence on appraising their long-term efficacy. We evaluated the current practice of enteral nutritional supplementation in 96 level II and III NNUs in England. 96%, 98%, 98% and 56% units use breast milk fortification (BMF), iron, multivitamins and folic acid supplementation respectively. Iron, multivitamins and folic acid supplements are routinely commenced in babies < 35 weeks gestation by 73%, 68% and 39% NNUs respectively. Seventy eight percent NNUs only use BMF for babies that are not gaining weight. Continuing variable practice of enteral nutritional supplementation and current use of anecdotal evidence and best guess recommendations highlights the need for a unified approach and collaborative multinational research to produce standardised guidelines. PMID:24034203

Ahmed, Mansoor; Brent, Julie; Ginn, Emma

2013-09-01

142

Special supplement introduction: hallucinations.  

PubMed

This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

2014-07-01

143

Androgen supplementation during aging: development of a physiologically appropriate protocol.  

PubMed

Abstract Men show an age-related decline in the circulating levels of testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Consequently, there is interest in developing androgen supplementation paradigms for old men that replicate the hormone profiles of young adults. In the present study, we used old (21-26 years old) male rhesus monkeys as a model to examine the efficacy of an androgen supplementation paradigm that comprised oral T administration (12?mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the evening, and two oral DHEA administrations, 3?hr apart (0.04?mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the morning. After 5 days of repeated hormone supplementation, serial blood samples were remotely collected from each animal hourly across the 24-hr day, and assayed for cortisol, DHEAS, T, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2). Following androgen supplementation, T levels were significantly elevated and this was associated with a more sustained nocturnal elevation of T's primary bioactive metabolites, DHT and E1 and E2. Plasma DHEAS levels were also significantly elevated after androgen supplementation; DHEAS levels rose in the early morning and gradually declined during the course of the day, closely mimicking the profiles observed in young adults (7-12 years old); in contrast, cortisol levels were unaltered by the supplementation. Together the data demonstrate a non-invasive androgen supplementation paradigm that restores youthful circulating androgen levels in old male primates. Because this paradigm preserves the natural circulating circadian hormone patterns, we predict that it will produce fewer adverse side effects, such as perturbed sleep or cognitive impairment. PMID:24134213

Urbanski, Henryk F; Sorwell, Krystina G; Garyfallou, Vasilios T; Garten, Jamie; Weiss, Alison; Renner, Laurie; Neuringer, Martha; Kohama, Steven G

2014-04-01

144

[Physical activity and dietary supplements].  

PubMed

The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has examined the scientific literature to evaluate the performance and health-related aspects of consuming dietary supplements in the context of physical activity. Certain nutritional supplements such as creatine and caffeine have documented ergogenic effects in specific situations. However, for the moderately physically active adult and healthy individual, who already consumes an energy- and nutrient balanced diet, consuming any currently legal dietary supplement does not seem to confer additional benefits on performance or health. PMID:19732518

Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Harald S; Hansen, Mette; Kiens, Bente; Kvorning, Thue; Nielsen, Lars N; Rasmussen, Lone B; Aagaard, Peter G

2009-08-17

145

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

146

QA Objectives for NDA with the Residues Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)  

SciTech Connect

The PFP facility utilizes a Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) to perform assays on cans of ash for WIPP characterization measurements. This report documents the conformance of SGSAS to the precision and accuracy radioassay QAOs, and reports the minimum detectable concentration (MDC). The QAO measurement runs supplied in this document were for a billet can geometry. The measurements were performed in August 2000. This document covers assays performed until October 27, 2000. The billet cans containing stabilized residues will be loaded into pipe overpack containers (POC) for shipment to WIPP. The WIPP-WAC defines four nominal test levels for NDA, which are in alpha curies and grams of weapons grade (WG) Pu. Due to intended utilization of the SGSAS system for the materials mentioned above, it is presently only being qualified for the two highest QAO ranges. The sources used for the QAO measurements are plutonium standards, which have been calibrated using calorimetry techniques. This report documents the analysis of test data for the SGSAS system at the nominal 10 gram and 160 gram levels. The MDC was determined using a billet can filled with diatomaceous earth but no plutonium present. Since the system is not being qualified for TRU vs low-level waste (LLW) sorting the MDC will primarily provide verification that the detection level for the system is well below the QAO ranges for which the system is being qualified. The MDC reflects the best sensitivity for a particular assay system and specific assay conditions (i.e. count time, sample configuration) when no added radioactivity is present. As such, no radioactive sources were required for the MDC determination. As with the accuracy and precision QAOs, the MDC is valid for the billet cans.

WESTSIK, G.A.

2001-04-05

147

32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...9(c), proposed actions may require review of existing NEPA documentation. If...same way as an original EA or EIS. No new scoping is required for a supplemental EIS filed...the filing of the original ROD. If the review indicates no need for a supplement,...

2013-07-01

148

37 CFR 1.625 - Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...is not limited to patents and printed publications or to subject matter that has been...

2013-07-01

149

Clinical effect of cidofovir and a diet supplemented with Spirulina platensis in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiviral product cidofovir and a diet supplemented with Spirulina platensis were tested for their efficacy to prevent or delay\\/reduce mortality due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Cidofovir was injected intramuscularly at 200 mg\\/kg shrimp mean body weight (MBW) at the moment of WSSV challenge. Spirulina was supplemented in

M. M. Rahman; C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla; M. Wille; V. Alday Sanz; L. Audoorn; J. Neyts; M. B. Pensaert; P. Sorgeloos; H. J. Nauwynck

2006-01-01

150

NDA technology for uranium resource evaluation. Progress report July 1-December 31, 1979. [Gamma spectra calculations; field prototype photoneutron logging probe  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the time period from July 1, 1979 to December 31, 1979, on the contract for Nondestructive Nuclear Analysis (NDA) Technology for Uranium Resource Evaluation in Group Q-1. Calculational effort was focused on improving the accuracy with which detector response function maps can be generated for subsequent enfolding with ONETRAN angular flux data. Experimental effort was highlighted by a field test of the prototype photoneutron logging probe at the Grand Junction DOE calibration facility. The probe demonstrated adequate durability in the field and sufficient sensitivity to uranium to function at competitive logging speeds.

Evans, M.L.

1980-08-01

151

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

152

Alkaline Mineral Supplementation Decreases Pain in Rheumatoid Arthri- tis Patients: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of an alkaline mineral supplement as a means of sup- pressing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and to check whether any change occurs in the circulating beta-endorphin concentration. Thirty-seven patients with moderately active RA of at least two years duration, who were receiving stable pharmacological treatment, participated

Regina Maria Cseuz; Istvan Barna; Tamas Bender; Jürgen Vormann

2008-01-01

153

Glutamine Supplementation in Cancer Patients Receiving Bone Marrow Transplantation and High Dose Chemotherapy1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamine supplementation of enteral and parenteral nutrition support has received increased attention in the research community over the past decade. Glutamine may become a conditionally essential nutrient during certain catabolic states, including after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The administration of enteral or parenteral glutamine seems safe and also potentially efficacious in some patient groups undergoing intensive treatment for cancer. Studies

Thomas R. Ziegler

154

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a…

Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

2012-01-01

155

Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets  

MedlinePLUS

... view as pdf | share Create PDF Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

156

Impact of vitamin A supplementation on infant and childhood mortality  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vitamin A is important for the integrity and regeneration of respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia and is involved in regulating human immune function. It has been shown previously that vitamin A has a preventive effect on all-cause and disease specific mortality in children under five. The purpose of this paper was to get a point estimate of efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in reducing cause specific mortality by using Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) guidelines. Methods A literature search was done on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional data bases using various free and Mesh terms for vitamin A and mortality. Data were abstracted into standardized forms and quality of studies was assessed according to standardized guidelines. Pooled estimates were generated for preventive effect of vitamin A supplementation on all-cause and disease specific mortality of diarrhea, measles, pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. We did a subgroup analysis for vitamin A supplementation in neonates, infants 1-6 months and children aged 6-59 months. In this paper we have focused on estimation of efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in children 6-59 months of age. Results for neonatal vitamin A supplementation have been presented, however no recommendations are made as more evidence on it would be available soon. Results There were 21 studies evaluating preventive effect of vitamin A supplementation in community settings which reported all-cause mortality. Twelve of these also reported cause specific mortality for diarrhea and pneumonia and six reported measles specific mortality. Combined results from six studies showed that neonatal vitamin A supplementation reduced all-cause mortality by 12 % [Relative risk (RR) 0.88; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.98]. There was no effect of vitamin A supplementation in reducing all-cause mortality in infants 1-6 months of age [RR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.88-1.26]. Pooled results for preventive vitamin A supplementation showed that it reduced all-cause mortality by 25% [RR 0.75; 95 % CI 0.64-0.88] in children 6-59 months of age. Vitamin A supplementation also reduced diarrhea specific mortality by 30% [RR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.58-0.86] in children 6-59 months. This effect has been recommended for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool. Vitamin A supplementation had no effect on measles [RR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.43-1.16], meningitis [RR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.22-2.48] and pneumonia [RR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.67-1.30] specific mortality. Conclusion Preventive vitamin A supplementation reduces all-cause and diarrhea specific mortality in children 6-59 months of age in community settings in developing countries.

2011-01-01

157

Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH  

PubMed Central

Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg) was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03) with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

Berardi, John M; Logan, Alan C; Rao, A Venket

2008-01-01

158

Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use. Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions. Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy.

Dwyer, Johanna; Nahin, Richard L; Rogers, Gail T; Barnes, Patricia M; Jacques, Paul M; Sempos, Christopher T; Bailey, Regan

2013-01-01

159

Can maternal dietary supplements help in preventing infant malnutrition?  

PubMed

Many nutritional intervention programmes throughout the world have targeted food supplements towards women during the "at risk" periods of pregnancy and lactation. Some of these programmes, together with a number of small-scale scientific studies, have attempted to evaluate the efficacy of supplementation in terms of birth outcome or lactational performance. After reviewing the available evidence it is concluded: (a) that supplementation during late pregnancy can have a significant beneficial effect on birthweight in women who are genuinely "at risk" due to an inadequate home diet; (b) that statistical projections would predict that the increase in birthweight should be accompanied by a significant decrease in neonatal mortality; (c) that supplementation during lactation is most unlikely to increase breast-milk output or significantly improve its composition except perhaps in extremely malnourished women. Since pregnant women form a small and easily identifiable target group, and since the potential benefits of extra food may be substantial, it is recommended that future efforts are focussed in this direction. Large-scale effectiveness and cost-benefit trials are required with neonatal mortality as the primary outcome. PMID:1957632

Prentice, A M

1991-01-01

160

Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

Curriculum Review, 1979

1979-01-01

161

Efficacy of climate forcings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

2005-09-01

162

Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on\\u000a training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two\\u000a nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have\\u000a positive

Jim Farris

2008-01-01

163

[Dietary supplements and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Dietary supplements and so-called "functional foods" are advertised for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies available that show that these products reduce "hard cardiovascular outcomes" such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Moreover, some studies have shown that dietary supplementation might do more harm than good. Therefore, prior to a general recommendation more data on safety and effectiveness are necessary. PMID:24937080

Weingärtner, N; Elsässer, A; Weingärtner, O

2014-07-01

164

NDA techniques for spent fuel verification and radiation monitoring. Report on activities 6a and 6b of Task JNT C799 (SAGOR). Finnish support programme to the IAEA safeguards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of NDA methods exist for measurement of spent fuel at various stages of the disposition process. Each of the methods has weaknesses and strengths that make them applicable to one or more stages in disposition. Both passive and active methods are...

M. Tarvainen F. Levai T. E. Valentine M. Abhold B. Moran

1997-01-01

165

[Nutrient supplements - possibilities and limitations].  

PubMed

The consumption of micronutrient-supplements by the general public has become widespread; between 25 and more than 40% of individuals questioned in western developed nations confirm to regularly consume such products. In principle, there are two product categories for micronutrient-supplements - medicinal products (drugs) and foodstuffs. The latter are marketed as food supplements (FS) and dietary foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes (FSMP). FS serve the general supplementation of any consumer whilst foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses are directed at consumers with special dietary requirements; FSMP are intended for the dietary management of patients. There are clearly defined legal frameworks for those product categories. Independently of their legal product status, six areas of application can be characterised for micronutrient-supplements: general and special supplementation, primary prevention, compensation of disease-related deficits, therapeutic function and containment of diseases or avoidance of subsequent damages (secondary and tertiary function). Gauged with the mean-intake, micro nutrient supply in Germany is sufficient (exception: folic acid and vitamin D; partially also iodine). However, the intake of vitamins E, C, B1 and B2 as well as the minerals calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine could be improved in 20-50% of the general public. Micro nutrient preparations in physiological dose could contribute to closing this gap in supply. PMID:23758028

Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

2013-05-01

166

Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

1982-01-01

167

Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure. PMID:22747620

Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

2012-07-01

168

Clozapine: Efficacy and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clozapine (Clozaril) represents the first major advance in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia since the introduction of antipsychotics into clinical practice in the 1950s. Studies consistently support its efficacy for reducing positive symptoms in acutely psychotic patients and in treatment-resistant patients, for preventing positive symptom exacerbations as a maintenance treatment, and for reducing symptoms of hostility and violence. There is

Robert W. Buchanan

1995-01-01

169

Percutaneous Echocardiographically Guided Pericardiocentesis in Pediatric Patients: Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of echocardiographically (echo) guided pericardiocentesis in pediatric patients. Echo-guided pericardiocenteses performed in pediatric patients (age ?16 years) at the Mayo Clinic between 1980 and 1997 were identified. Presentation, cause and characteristics of the effusion, details of the pericardiocentesis procedure, and outcome were determined by comprehensive chart review supplemented

Teresa S. M. Tsang; Eyad K. El-Najdawi; James B. Seward; Donald J. Hagler; William K. Freeman; Patrick W. O’Leary

1998-01-01

170

Belief in the efficacy of alternative medicine among general practitioners in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey among 293 GPs in the Netherlands showed that many believe in the efficacy of common alternative procedures. High scores were especially found for manual therapy, yoga, acupuncture, hot bath therapy and homoeopathy. Other procedures, such as iridology, faith healing and many food supplements, were considered less useful.

Paul Knipschild; Jos Kleijnen; Gerben ter Riet

1990-01-01

171

Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6?mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35?kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (?.40 ± .06 and ?.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600.

Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

2013-01-01

172

Teaching Diversity by Using Instructional Technology: Application of Self-Efficacy and Cultural Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examines the use of an instructional technology of utilizing the online forum as a tool for improving self-efficacy related to cultural competency among social work graduate students. As a supplement to face-to-face classes, students (n=103) were encouraged to participate in an Online Diversity Forum (ODF).…

Lee, E. Othelia; Bertera, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

173

Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

2013-01-01

174

The effect of the dietary supplement, Chitosan, on body weight: a randomised controlled trial in 250 overweight and obese adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Chitosan, a deacetylated chitin, is a widely available dietary supplement purported to decrease body weight and serum lipids through gastrointestinal fat binding. Although evaluated in a number of trials, its efficacy remains in dispute.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of chitosan for weight loss in overweight and obese adults.DESIGN AND SETTING: A 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, conducted at the

C Ni Mhurchu; S D Poppitt; A-T McGill; F E Leahy; D A Bennett; R B Lin; D Ormrod; L Ward; C Strik; A Rodgers

2004-01-01

175

A critical appraisal of probiotics (as drugs or food supplements) in gastrointestinal diseases.  

PubMed

Probiotics may be registered as food supplements or drugs. This article summarizes differences in European regulations of probiotics registered as food supplements and drugs, as well as issues related to the quality of probiotic products. For registration as a drug, the European Medicines Agency demands extensive and detailed quality, efficacy and safety evidence; whereas compulsory analyses requested for food supplements consist only in a nutritional analysis. As a result, the quality of those probiotics registered as drugs, compared to food supplements, is in general controlled with higher standards. Despite these differences and whatever the status of the probiotic product, its efficacy and safety has to be documented in well conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, this paper reviews recent evidence on the use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases, evaluating all the existing information up to January 2014. In all eligible published studies in which use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases were investigated and reported, no language limitations were applied. Special focus is placed on RCTs (or their meta-analyses) showing positive results, so that the findings may be applicable to everyday clinical practice. Currently, the best documented clinical areas appear to be probiotics efficacy for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children and for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea both in children and in adults. In other gastrointestinal conditions, some promising observations are emerging, but no definitive conclusions can be reached at present. PMID:24568124

Passariello, Annalisa; Agricole, Pascal; Malfertheiner, Peter

2014-06-01

176

Dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides attenuates allergic peritonitis in mice.  

PubMed

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are a prebiotic supplement, which can enhance immunological responses in the host to activate mucosal immunity probably through regulation of gastrointestinal microflora. Nonetheless, the therapeutic potential of prebiotics on allergic pathologies has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of dietary supplementation with FOS on a murine model of allergic peritonitis induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Male C3H/HeN mice were intraperitoneally administrated with OVA (1 ?g) bi-weekly (Day 0-42, total four times) and were fed a diet containing 0 or 2.5% FOS ad libitum (Day 7-43). At Day 43, mice were killed and several parameters were evaluated. As results, supplementation with FOS alleviated OVA-related peritoneal inflammation characterized by trafficking of polymorphonuclear leukocytes such as eosinophils and neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity. Also, FOS significantly suppressed the protein level of interleukin (IL)-5 and eotaxin in the peritoneal lavage fluid elicited by OVA. In addition, a FOS-supplemented diet significantly reduced the serum allergen specific-IgG(1) level, whereas it significantly increased total IgA levels in the cecal contents as compared with a control diet in the presence of OVA. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with FOS can prevent/ameliorate allergic peritoneal inflammation induced by OVA. The efficacy can at least partially be associated with the regulation of Ig class switching and inhibition of the local expression of IL-5 and eotaxin. PMID:22580001

Yasuda, Akiko; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Yanagisawa, Rie; Ichinose, Takamichi; Tanaka, Michitaka; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Takano, Hirohisa

2012-06-15

177

Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

2011-01-01

178

Effects of formic acid and phytase supplementation on digestibility and use of phosphorus and zinc in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Two studies, arranged according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were conducted to assess effects of dietary acidification on fungal 3-phytase (PHY) efficacy in growing pigs. In Exp. 1, effects of supplementing 500 units/kg feed of PHY and 4.7 g/kg HCOOH either alone or in combination on the use of P and Zn in growing pigs fed a pelleted diet based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) meal were investigated. In Exp. 2 the same dietary treatments were fed except that PHY supplementation was increased to 1000 units/kg. In both experiments, PHY supplementation increased (P < 0.05) P digestibility and retention. A PHY × HCOOH supplementation interaction on P balance was observed (P < 0.05), indicating that the combination of the additives may increase P digestibility and retention. Effects of HCOOH and PHY on Zn use followed a similar pattern. Supplementation of 1000 units/kg of PHY further increased P and Zn retention compared to supplementation of 500 units/kg. In conclusion, the present study indicated that HCOOH supplementation to diets with microbial PHY may increase PHY efficacy. PMID:23365333

Blank, R; Naatjes, M; Baum, C; Köhling, K; Ader, P; Roser, U; Susenbeth, A

2012-12-01

179

MMRM versus MI in Dealing with Missing Data—A Comparison Based on 25 NDA Data Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both multiple imputation (MI) and mixed-effects model repeated measures (MMRM) approaches appear to be better choices than the traditional last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) approach in analyzing incomplete clinical trial data sets in drug development research. However, relative performances of these two approaches are unknown in controlling type I error rate and statistical power in the hypothesis testing of determining the efficacy of

Ohidul Siddiqui

2011-01-01

180

Teacher efficacy: A construct validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed an instrument to measure teacher efficacy and examined the relationship between teacher efficacy and observable teacher behaviors. Factor analysis of responses from 208 elementary school teachers to a 30-item Teacher Efficacy Scale yielded 2 substantial factors that corresponded to A. Bandura's 2-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy. A multitrait–multimethod analysis that supported both convergent and discriminant validity analyzed data from

Sherri Gibson; Myron H. Dembo

1984-01-01

181

Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

Wilborn, Colin

182

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-03-01

183

Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements.

Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

2013-01-01

184

Introduction: Endovascular Neurosurgery video supplement.  

PubMed

It is with great pride that we present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on endovascular neurosurgery. We were privileged to view a multitude of outstanding quality videos demonstrating the current state-of-the-art in endovascular neurosurgery. Careful and critical review was required to narrow down the videos to a workable volume for this supplement, though there were many more that we would have liked to have included. This issue consists of several videos that represent modern neuroendovascular techniques for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. The videos demonstrate the cutting-edge as well as standard endovascular therapies, which will be valuable to both the novice and the expert endovascular neurosurgeons. We are greatly honored to be involved with this project, and are very proud of its content and expert authors. We confidently believe you will enjoy the video content of this supplement. PMID:24983734

Hoh, Brian; Lanzino, Giuseppe

2014-07-01

185

Dietary supplement for medical patients  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A dietary supplement which is formulated for medical patients, particularly cancer patients undergoing a chemotherapy treatment regimen. The ingredients are formulated in a form which is easiest for the patient to digest, with consideration of the damage that chemotherapy causes to the digestive system. The dietary supplement provides an ample and well-balanced source of essential and non-essential amino acids, as well as vitamins and minerals. The amino acids are preferably provided in the form of free amino acids, which can be directly absorbed into the bloodstream without digestion. The supplement is formulated in such a manner that it can be used as the sole nutritional source for substantial periods of time.

2006-04-11

186

Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Conjugatedlinoleicacid(CLA)hasbeenshowntobe an effective supplement for reducing fat mass in animals, whereas results in humans have been inconsistent. Objective: This is a meta-analysis of human studies in which CLA was provided as a dietary supplement to test its efficacy in reducing fat mass. Design: We searched the PubMed database (National Library of Medicine,Bethesda,MD)andreferencesfromtheresultingsearchto identify studies in which CLA was provided to

Leah D Whigham; Abigail C Watras; Dale A Schoeller

187

Nutrient Requirements and Interactions Quantitative Efficacy of Niacin Sources for Chicks: Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide, NAD and Tryptophan1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A niacin-deficient diet based upon corn and casein was used to establish growth-promoting ef ficacy of various sources of niacin activity. In the presence of excess dietary nicotinamide, chicks fed the corn-casein diet achieved maximal weight gain when 100 mg\\/kg of L-tryptophan was supplemented. The basal diet for efficacy studies therefore contained 100 mg\\/kg of added tryptophan and no supplemental

YDDAVID H. BAKER

188

[Quality control in herbal supplements].  

PubMed

Quality and safety of food and herbal supplements are the result of a whole of different elements as good manufacturing practice and process control. The process control must be active and able to individuate and correct all possible hazards. The main and most utilized instrument is the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system the correct application of which can guarantee the safety of the product. Herbal supplements need, in addition to standard quality control, a set of checks to assure the harmlessness and safety of the plants used. PMID:16037649

Oelker, Luisa

2005-01-01

189

Chromium supplementation improves glucose tolerance in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.  

PubMed

Chromium supplementation (Cr) may be useful in the management of diabetes and appears to improve some aspects of glucose handling. However, several studies have used either high doses of Cr supplementation or have placed control animals on a Cr-deficient diet. We therefore wanted to test whether Cr dosages in the ranges that more closely approximate recommended levels of supplementation in humans are efficacious in glycemic control under normal dietary conditions. Euglycemic Wistar or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (a model of nonobese NIDDM) were assigned to water (control) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation (1 or 10 mg/kg/day) groups for up to 32 weeks. Glucose tolerance was tested following an overnight fast by injecting sterile glucose (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) and then measuring blood glucose at select times to determine the sensitivity to glucose by calculation of the area under the curve. Cr-P did not significantly alter the growth of the animals. In the euglycemic Wistar rats, Cr-P supplementation did not alter the response to a glucose tolerance test. In the GK rats, Cr-P supplementation significantly improved glucose tolerance at both levels of Cr-P supplementation (1 mg/kg/day: H20; 100 +/- 11%; Cr-P 70 +/- 8%; 10 mg/kg/day: H(2)0; 100 +/- 10%; Cr-P 66 +/- 9 %). Cr-P supplementation produced a small improvement in some indices of glycemic control. There were no differences observed for the two levels of Cr-P supplementation suggested that we did not identify a threshold for Cr-P effects, and future studies may use lower doses to find a threshold effect for improving glucose tolerance in diabetics. PMID:18629917

Abdourahman, Aicha; Edwards, John G

2008-08-01

190

National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Office of Dietary Supplements Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements Vitamin D Initiative ODS is advancing scientific understanding ...

191

Ocular side effects associated with dietary supplements and herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements are prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in the treatment of human disease. In the United States, allopathic physicians are at the early stage of learning how to treat patients with natural remedies and other forms of alternative medicine. Elsewhere, however, alternative remedies have been embraced more fully. In Germany, for example, the German Federal Health Agency created Commission E, which has allowed for a more sophisticated approach to assessing the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Health insurance in Germany frequently covers costs for doctor-prescribed herbal remedies. While there is strong evidence that many herbal products have therapeutic effects, there are also a large number of cases of severe adverse reactions due to some of the many thousands of herbal products. One of the first signs of potential toxicity is in the visual system, as in many cases patients notice loss of vision more than systemic side effects. In addition, ophthalmologists are able to detect objective findings through external eye exams and dilated fundus exams. Presented here are some of the more common ocular side effects from frequently prescribed dietary supplements. In most instances, stopping the treatment or decreasing the dose allows for full resolution of symptoms. In addition, comment is made on the regulatory confusion that exists for this industry, especially in the United States. PMID:16234877

Fraunfelder, Frederick W

2005-08-01

192

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Several studies have demonstrated differences in omega-3 fatty acid composition in plasma and in erythrocyte membranes in patients with ADHD compared to unaffected controls. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and phospholipid composition. Cell membrane fluidity can alter serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission. The goal of this meta-analysis is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children with ADHD. Method We searched PubMED for randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children with ADHD symptomatology. Our primary outcome measure was standardized mean difference in rating scales of ADHD severity. We conducted secondary analyses to determine the effects of dosing of different omega-3 fatty acids in supplements. Results Ten trials involving 699 children were included in this meta-analysis. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation demonstrated a small, but significant effect in improving ADHD symptoms. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) dose within supplements was significantly correlated with supplement efficacy. We found no evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity between trials. Conclusion Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, particularly with higher doses of EPA, was modestly effective in the treatment of ADHD. The relative efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was modest compared to currently available pharmacotherapies for ADHD such as psychostimulants, atomoxetine or alpha-2 agonists. However, given its relatively benign side-effect profile and evidence of modest efficacy, it may be reasonable to use omega-3 fatty supplementation to augment traditional pharmacological interventions or for families who decline other psychopharmacological options.

Bloch, Michael H.; Qawasmi, Ahmad

2013-01-01

193

Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

1985-01-01

194

Effect of Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation on the Outcome of Malaria Episodes Treated with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine  

PubMed Central

Folic acid supplementation may potentially alter the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment in children with malaria. However, there is lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials and effects of folic acid supplementation on clinical efficacy of SP therapy remain moderately understood among children. In a double masked, placebo-controlled trial among preschool children in Pemba Island (Tanzania), iron and folic acid supplementation (Fe/FA) showed an increased risk of hospitalizations and death. In the present paper, we evaluated if folic acid supplementation reduced the efficacy of malaria treatment and thereby contributed to observed adverse effects. During the study, 1648 children had confirmed malarial episodes and received either sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment and iron folic acid or SP treatment and placebo. These children were evaluated for recovery and incidence of hospitalization during the next 15, 30, and 140 days. Two groups did not differ in malarial episode or hospitalization rate on subsequent 15, 30, and 140 days. Altered efficacy of SP by folic acid was not observed and did not contribute to adverse events in the previous trial. This trial is registered with Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN59549825.

Black, Robert E.; Kabole, Ibrahim; Dhingra, Usha; Ramsan, Mahdi

2014-01-01

195

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

1984-01-01

196

NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

1985-01-01

197

Trial using multiple micronutrient food supplement and its effect on cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To test the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient food supplement (MMFS) on the nutrition status of school children and its\\u000a effect on cognition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A MMFS was developed containing chelated ferrous sulphate and microencapsulated vitamin A, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, niacin,\\u000a calcium pantothenate, vitaminC, vitamin E, lysine and calcium and the efficacy of the MMFS was assessed in 7–11 year

Malavika Vinod Kumar; S. Rajagopalan

2008-01-01

198

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

199

Aerospell Supplemental Spell Check File  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospell is a supplemental spell check file that can be used as a resource for researchers, writers, editors, students, and others who compose scientific and technical texts. The file extends the general spell check dictionaries of word processors by adding more than 13,000 words used in a broad range of aerospace and related disciplines.

2000-01-01

200

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... minerals, and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes (see box at right). Dietary supplements are also marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, and gelcaps. While some dietary supplements ...

201

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... or occasionally. Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and many other products. Dietary supplements come in a variety of forms: traditional tablets, capsules, and powders, as well as drinks and ...

202

Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... minerals, and other less familiar substances — such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and animal extracts (see box at right). Dietary supplements are also mareketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, and gelcaps. While some dietary supplements ...

203

Clioquinol Synergistically Augments Rescue by Zinc Supplementation in a Mouse Model of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc deficiency due to poor nutrition or genetic mutations in zinc transporters is a global health problem and approaches to providing effective dietary zinc supplementation while avoiding potential toxic side effects are needed. Methods/Principal Findings Conditional knockout of the intestinal zinc transporter Zip4 (Slc39a4) in mice creates a model of the lethal human genetic disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). This knockout leads to acute zinc deficiency resulting in rapid weight loss, disrupted intestine integrity and eventually lethality, and therefore provides a model system in which to examine novel approaches to zinc supplementation. We examined the efficacy of dietary clioquinol (CQ), a well characterized zinc chelator/ionophore, in rescuing the Zip4intest KO phenotype. By 8 days after initiation of the knockout neither dietary CQ nor zinc supplementation in the drinking water was found to be effective at improving this phenotype. In contrast, dietary CQ in conjunction with zinc supplementation was highly effective. Dietary CQ with zinc supplementation rapidly restored intestine stem cell division and differentiation of secretory and the absorptive cells. These changes were accompanied by rapid growth and dramatically increased longevity in the majority of mice, as well as the apparent restoration of the homeostasis of several essential metals in the liver. Conclusions These studies suggest that oral CQ (or other 8-hydroxyquinolines) coupled with zinc supplementation could provide a facile approach toward treating zinc deficiency in humans by stimulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells.

Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Finkelstein, David; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Andrews, Glen K.

2013-01-01

204

Conceptual Development of a Measure to Assess Pharmacists' Knowledge of Herbal and Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the conceptual development of a measure for assessing pharmacist knowledge of herbal and dietary supplements. Methods A standardized approach to constructing a multiple-choice competency examination following 8 pre-specified criteria (eg, specifying the target spectrum of herbal and dietary supplements) was used to create an item bank. The quality of each item was evaluated by 5 herbal and dietary supplement content experts based on specific criteria in 3 rounds of review. Results From 122 initial items, 56 items were retained for the item bank representing 4 content areas: efficacy/effectiveness, safety, drug-supplement interactions, and regulation. The experts tended to agree that the constructed items represented a wide range of difficulty. Conclusion The initial development of a conceptually based item bank/measure of pharmacist herbal and dietary supplement knowledge lays the groundwork for a large-scale validation study. The measure should be useful as a standalone tool and as a component of a knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for the assessment of pharmacist traits related to herbal and dietary supplements.

Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Mahady, Gail B.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

2008-01-01

205

Effect of organic zinc supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile in lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the efficacy of organic zinc (Zn) supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile as compared to inorganic source [zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)], 18 Muzaffarnagari male lambs of 11.30±0.45kg mean body weight (4–5 months of age) were divided into three groups of six animals in each in a randomized block design. Lambs in the control group were fed a

A. K. Garg; Vishal Mudgal; R. S. Dass

2008-01-01

206

Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report  

PubMed Central

Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

2014-01-01

207

Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.  

PubMed

Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

2014-01-01

208

Factors associated with toxicity, final dose, and efficacy of methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study factors associated with toxicity, final dose, and efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Data were used from a randomised clinical 48 week trial on 411 patients with RA all treated with MTX, comparing folates and placebo. Logistic regression was used to study the relation between baseline variables and various dependent factors, including hepatotoxicity (alanine aminotransferase ?3xupper limit of normal), MTX withdrawal, final MTX dose ?15 mg/week, and MTX efficacy. Results: Addition of folates to MTX treatment was strongly related to the lack of hepatotoxicity. Next to this, high body mass index was related to the occurrence of hepatotoxicity. Prior gastrointestinal (GI) events and younger age were related to the adverse event, diarrhoea. Hepatotoxicity and GI adverse events were the main reason for MTX withdrawal, which in turn was associated with the absence of folate supplementation, body mass index, prior GI events, and female sex. Renal function (creatinine clearance ?50 ml/min) was not associated with toxicity. Reaching a final dose of MTX of ?15 mg/week was related to folate supplementation and the absence of prior GI events. Efficacy of MTX treatment was associated with low disease activity at baseline, male sex, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and lower creatinine clearance. Conclusions: MTX toxicity, final dose, and efficacy are influenced by folate supplementation. Baseline characteristics predicting the outcome of MTX treatment are mainly prior GI events, body mass index, sex, use of NSAIDs, and creatinine clearance.

Hoekstra, M; van Ede, A E; Haagsma, C; van de Laar, M A F J; Huizinga, T; Kruijsen, M; Laan, R

2003-01-01

209

Dietary tomato powder supplementation in the prevention of leiomyoma of the oviduct in the Japanese quail.  

PubMed

Spontaneous leiomyomas of the oviduct are common tumors of the Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), which makes it a good animal model for screening potential agents for testing in the prevention and treatment of human myoma uteri. We have previously reported a decreased incidence of leiomyomas in the oviduct of Japanese quail with lycopene supplementation. Although the major carotenoid in tomatoes is lycopene, tomatoes also contain other compounds, which may contribute to their health benefit. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of tomato powder supplementation on the development of leiomyomas in the oviduct of Japanese quail. We also measured serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), carotenoids, and vitamins C, E, and A. A total of 150 quails (3 mo old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups consisting of 5 replicates of 10 birds in each group. Birds were fed either a basal diet (control group) or the basal diet supplemented with 25 g (Treatment I) or 50 g (Treatment II) of tomato powder (0.8 mg lycopene per g of tomato powder) per kg of diet. The animals were sacrificed after 365 days, and the tumors were identified. Tomato powder supplementation significantly decreased the number of leiomyomas as compared to control birds (P < 0.01). The tumors in tomato powder fed birds were smaller than those found in control birds (P < 0.01). Serum lycopene, lutein, zeaxantin, and vitamins C, E, and A increased (P = 0.01), whereas MDA concentrations decreased (P = 0.01) with tomato powder supplementation. No measurable lycopene could be detected in the serum of control birds, whereas a dose-dependent increase was observed in the serum of birds supplemented with tomato powder. The results indicate that dietary supplementation with tomato powder reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring leiomyoma of the oviduct in the Japanese quail. Clinical trials should be conducted to investigate the efficacy of tomato powder supplementation in the prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma in humans. PMID:17927504

Sahin, Kazim; Ozercan, Resat; Onderci, Muhittin; Sahin, Nurhan; Khachik, Frederick; Seren, Soley; Kucuk, Omer

2007-01-01

210

Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports, Supplement 13.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Supplement 13 to the report titled 'Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports' (AD-877 653L), (Supplement 1, AD-890 066L), (Supplement 2, AD-905 548L) (Supplement 3, AD-B005 275L), (Supplement 4, AD-B010 6421), (Supplement 5, AD-B019 966L), (S...

E. J. Books M. F. Fox A. L. Holmes

1985-01-01

211

Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports. Supplement 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is supplement 8 to the report titled 'Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports,' (AD-877 653L), (Supplement 1, AD-890 066L), (Supplement 2, AD-905 548L), (Supplement 3, AD-B005 275L), (Supplement 4, AD-B010 642L), (Supplement 5, AD-B019 966L), (...

R. P. Barron

1980-01-01

212

Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports, Supplement 12.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Supplement 12 to the report titled 'Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports' (AD-877 653L), (Supplement 1, AD-890 066L), (Supplement 2, AD-905 548L), (Supplement 3, AD-B005 275L), (Supplement 4, AD-B010 642L), (Supplement 5, AD-B019 966L), (...

R. P. Barron

1984-01-01

213

Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports, Supplement 10.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Supplement 10 to the report titled 'Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports,' (AD-877 653L), (Supplement 1, AD-890 066L), (Supplement 2, AD-905 548L), (Supplement 3, AD-B005 275L), (Supplement 4, AD-B010 642L), (Supplement 5, AD-B019 966L), ...

R. P. Barron M. F. Fox

1982-01-01

214

Some properties of (fw) and (fwr)-supplemented module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to further the study of (fw) and (fwr)-supplemented module. We study the relation between generalized weakly supplemented module (briefly (WGS)-module) and weakly supplemented module and any amply supplemented module M is weakly supplemented. Also any semilocal and locally Noetherian with radical small in M is weakly supplemented module.

Abed, Majid Mohammed; Abubakar, Mohamed; Ahmad, Abd Ghafur

2014-06-01

215

Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.  

PubMed

Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24861737

Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

2014-06-01

216

Folate supplementation reduces the side effects of methotrexate therapy for psoriasis.  

PubMed

Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX) is an effective treatment option for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. As psoriasis is an incurable disease, the goal of the MTX treatment is to suppress psoriasis, achieving long-term remissions with minimal treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Areas covered: Supplementation with folate - either folic acid (FA) or folinic acid - may reduce the side effects of MTX therapy. There are no consistent, evidence-based guidelines for folate supplementation in this clinical setting. We present data concerning the impact of folic supplementation on the safety and efficacy of MTX therapy for psoriasis. An extensive search (1960 - March 2014) identified few studies addressing with just one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and some case series. This meager yield underlines the need for further studies, especially RCTs, in this group of patients. Expert opinion: FA may be effective in diminishing the severity of AEs in patients with psoriasis treated with MTX and should be recommended. Supplementation with too high doses of FA may influence the efficacy of treatment. PMID:24972718

Baran, Wojciech; Batycka-Baran, Aleksandra; Zychowska, Magdalena; Bieniek, Andrzej; Szepietowski, Jacek C

2014-08-01

217

Why US children use dietary supplements  

PubMed Central

Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children.

Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

2013-01-01

218

Effects of Chromium Brewer’s Yeast Supplementation on Body Mass, Blood Carbohydrates, and Lipids and Minerals in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium(III) is considered as an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this clinical study\\u000a was to evaluate the efficacy of Cr brewer’s yeast supplementation on body mass, carbohydrate, lipids and mineral indices in\\u000a type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty adult type 2 diabetic subjects (11 males and 9 females aged 37–63) were supplemented with\\u000a Cr brewer’s yeast

Ewelina Król; Zbigniew Krejpcio; Hanna Byks; Pawe? Bogda?ski; Danuta Pupek-Musialik

219

Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Since the release of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) findings, an increasing number of dietary supplement products specifically targeting women in menopause have appeared in the American marketplace. This growth highlights the need for a critical evaluation of the tolerability and effectiveness of these products. The purpose of this article is to assess the evidence for safety and benefit of botanical monopreparations used for relief of menopause-related symptoms. The Cochrane Library and Medline databases were searched from January 1966 to October 2004, using a detailed list of terms related to botanicals and menopausal symptoms. Studies were considered eligible (1) if they were controlled trials of a botanical monopreparation administered orally for a minimum of 6 weeks to perimenopausal or postmenopausal women with hot flashes and (2) if they included a placebo or comparative treatment arm. Topical preparations, botanical combinations, and dietary interventions, such as soy food or protein, were not included. No language restrictions were imposed on the search. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies indicate that extract of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) improves menopause-related symptoms; however, methodologic shortcomings in the trials were identified. To date, 4 case reports of possible hepatotoxicity have been published, although previous safety reviews suggest that black cohosh is well tolerated and that adverse events are rare when it is used appropriately. The results of 6 clinical studies on soy (Glycine max L.) isoflavone extracts are mixed. Moreover, the composition and dose of soy supplements varies widely across studies, making comparisons and definitive conclusions difficult. One study challenged the long-term safety of high-dose soy isoflavone extract (150 mg/day for 5 years) on the uterine endometrium. Clinical data from 5 controlled trials assessing the efficacy of semipurified isoflavone red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) leaf extracts to reduce hot flash frequency and severity or to relieve symptoms associated with the domains of the Greene Menopausal Symptom Scale are contradictory. The largest study showed no benefit for reducing symptoms associated with menopause for 2 different red clover isoflavone products compared with placebo. No significant adverse events have been reported in the literature. Single clinical trials do not support the use of dong quai (Angelica sinensis L.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey), or evening primrose seed oil (Oenothera biennis L.) for improving menopausal symptoms. We conclude that black cohosh extracts appear to ease menopausal symptoms; ongoing studies funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will provide more definitive safety and efficacy data. Soy isoflavone extracts appear to have minimal to no effect, although definitive conclusions are difficult given the wide variation in product composition and dose. Long-term safety of higher dosage (150 mg/day) soy isoflavone extracts is uncertain. Semipurified isoflavone red clover leaf extracts have minimal to no effect in reducing menopausal symptoms. Dong quai, ginseng extract, and evening primrose seed oil appear to be ineffective in ameliorating menopausal symptoms at the dosages and in the preparations used in these studies. PMID:16414334

Low Dog, Tieraona

2005-12-19

220

Testosterone supplementation: what and how to give.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a gradual decrease of serum testosterone with aging in men. A considerable number of men will experience hypogonadal androgen levels, defined by the normal range for young men. Thus, in addition to the long-standing use of androgen replacement therapy in the classical forms of primary and secondary hypogonadism, age-associated testosterone deficiency has led to considerable developments in application modes for testosterone. Since oral preparations of testosterone are ineffective, due to the first-pass effect of the liver, or, in case of 17 alpha-alkylation, cause hepatotoxicity, intramuscular injection of long-acting esters, such as testosterone enanthate, have been the mainstay of testosterone therapy. However, the large fluctuations of serum testosterone levels cause unsatisfactory shifts of mood and sexual function in some men; combined with the frequent injections, this delivery mode is thus far from being ideal. In contrast, the transdermal testosterone patches are characterized by favorable pharmacokinetic behavior and have proven to be an effective mode of delivery. Safety data over 10 years indicate no negative effect on the prostate. Nevertheless, the scrotal testosterone patch system is hampered by the application site, which is not easily accepted by many subjects; the non-scrotal patch has a high rate of skin irritations. In view of the drawbacks of the currently available preparations, the most recent developments in testosterone supplementation appear to be highly promising agents. Androgen, which has been available in the United States since mid-2000, will be introduced this year in most European markets as Testogel, a hydroalcoholic gel containing 1% testosterone. Doses of 50-100 mg gel applied once daily on the skin deliver sufficient amounts of testosterone to restore normal hormonal values and to correct the signs and symptoms of hypogonadism. The gel has shown to be very effective and successful in American patients, who have benefited from its availability for almost 3 years. Furthermore, in phase II and III clinical studies, the intramuscular injection of 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate every 12-15 weeks has led to extremely stable serum testosterone levels for a prolonged period of time and has resulted in excellent efficacy. It is very likely in the future that these products will be the mainstay of testosterone supplementation. Whereas the indication for testosterone substitution for men with classical forms of hypogonadism is unequivocal, the use of testosterone in men with age-associated hypogonadism is less uniformly accepted. Yet, the few studies addressing this question indicate that men with testosterone serum levels below the lower normal limit for young adult men and with lack of energy, libido, depressed mood and osteoporosis may benefit from testosterone supplementation. However, it should be kept in mind that the experience documented in studies is limited. Nevertheless, serious side-effects, especially in regard to the prostate, did not occur, with the longest study extending over 3 years. PMID:14628500

Jockenhövel, F

2003-09-01

221

Epistemological Beliefs and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if the strength of teachers' epistemological beliefs predicted variance in teachers' sense of efficacy. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent to which beliefs in Certain Knowledge and Omniscient Authority accounted for variability in general teaching efficacy, over and above that…

Fernandez, Griffin W.

2009-01-01

222

Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal  

SciTech Connect

The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

Muscatello, A.C.

1998-12-31

223

Influence of training status on high-intensity intermittent performance in response to ?-alanine supplementation.  

PubMed

Recent investigations have suggested that highly trained athletes may be less responsive to the ergogenic effects of ?-alanine (BA) supplementation than recreationally active individuals due to their elevated muscle buffering capacity. We investigated whether training status influences the effect of BA on repeated Wingate performance. Forty young males were divided into two groups according to their training status (trained: T, and non-trained: NT cyclists) and were randomly allocated to BA and a dextrose-based placebo (PL) groups, providing four experimental conditions: NTPL, NTBA, TPL, TBA. BA (6.4 g day(-1)) or PL was ingested for 4 weeks, with participants completing four 30-s lower-body Wingate bouts, separated by 3 min, before and after supplementation. Total work done was significantly increased following supplementation in both NTBA (p = 0.03) and TBA (p = 0.002), and it was significantly reduced in NTPL (p = 0.03) with no difference for TPL (p = 0.73). BA supplementation increased mean power output (MPO) in bout 4 for the NTBA group (p = 0.0004) and in bouts 1, 2 and 4 for the TBA group (p ? 0.05). No differences were observed in MPO for NTPL and TPL. BA supplementation was effective at improving repeated high-intensity cycling performance in both trained and non-trained individuals, highlighting the efficacy of BA as an ergogenic aid for high-intensity exercise regardless of the training status of the individual. PMID:24500111

de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2014-05-01

224

Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure remains unknown. Objective: The objective was to test the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide production and blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. Design: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled 6-wk trial was conducted to assess the effects of daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones (in aglycone units) on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in 24 menopausal women with 12 women per group. Changes in nitric oxide metabolism were assessed via a primed, constant-infusion protocol with [15N]arginine and [13C]- and [2H]citrulline. Changes in blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics were assessed via office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, forearm blood flow, and indexes of arterial compliance. Results: When compared with placebo and after control for pretreatment values, soy isoflavone supplementation had no effect on arginine flux, citrulline flux, nitric oxide synthesis, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, or estimates of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones over a 6-wk period had no effect on nitric oxide metabolism or blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure.

Taylor, Addison A; Smith, E O'Brian; Barnes, Stephen; Hachey, David L

2012-01-01

225

Effects of host nutrition on virulence and fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes: Lipid- and protein-based supplements in Tenebrio molitor diets  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema riobrave, were tested for virulence and reproductive yield in Tenebrio molitor that were fed wheat bran diets with varying lipid- and protein-based supplements. Lipid supplements were based on 20% canola oil, peanut, pork or salmon, or a low lipid control (5% canola). Protein treatments consisted of basic supplement ingredients plus 0, 10, or 20% egg white; a bran-only control was also included. Some diet supplements had positive effects on nematode quality, whereas others had negative or neutral effects. All supplements with 20% lipids except canola oil caused increased T. molitor susceptibility to H. indica, whereas susceptibility to S. riobrave was not affected. Protein supplements did not affect host susceptibility, and neither lipid nor protein diet supplements affected reproductive capacity of either nematode species. Subsequently, we determined the pest control efficacy of progeny of nematodes that had been reared through T. molitor from different diets against Diaprepes abbreviatus and Otiorhynchus sulcatus. All nematode treatments reduced insect survival relative to the control (water only). Nematodes originating from T. molitor diets with the 0% or 20% protein exhibited lower efficacy versus D. abbreviatus than the intermediate level of protein (10%) or bran-only treatments. Nematodes originating from T. molitor lipid or control diets did not differ in virulence. Our research indicates that nutritional content of an insect host diet can affect host susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes and nematode fitness; therefore, host media could conceivably be optimized to increase in vivo nematode production efficiency.

Shapiro-Ilan, David; Rojas, M. Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Tedders, W. Louis

2008-01-01

226

Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

227

An ideal ocular nutritional supplement?  

PubMed

The role of nutritional supplementation in prevention of onset or progression of ocular disease is of interest to health care professionals and patients. The aim of this review is to identify those antioxidants most appropriate for inclusion in an ideal ocular nutritional supplement, suitable for those with a family history of glaucoma, cataract, or age-related macular disease, or lifestyle factors predisposing onset of these conditions, such as smoking, poor nutritional status, or high levels of sunlight exposure. It would also be suitable for those with early stages of age-related ocular disease. Literature searches were carried out on Web of Science and PubMed for articles relating to the use of nutrients in ocular disease. Those highlighted for possible inclusion were vitamins A, B, C and E, carotenoids beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, minerals selenium and zinc, and the herb, Ginkgo biloba. Conflicting evidence is presented for vitamins A and E in prevention of ocular disease; these vitamins have roles in the production of rhodopsin and prevention of lipid peroxidation respectively. B vitamins have been linked with a reduced risk of cataract and studies have provided evidence supporting a protective role of vitamin C in cataract prevention. Beta-carotene is active in the prevention of free radical formation, but has been linked with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers. Improvements in visual function in patients with age-related macular disease have been noted with lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation. Selenium has been linked with a reduced risk of cataract and activates the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage while zinc, although an essential component of antioxidant enzymes, has been highlighted for risk of adverse effects. As well as reducing platelet aggregation and increasing vasodilation, Gingko biloba has been linked with improvements in pre-existing field damage in some patients with normal tension glaucoma. We advocate that vitamins C and E, and lutein/zeaxanthin should be included in our theoretically ideal ocular nutritional supplement. PMID:15228513

Bartlett, Hannah; Eperjesi, Frank

2004-07-01

228

Iodine supplementation in the newborn.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world's greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation. PMID:24448111

Ghirri, Paolo; Lunardi, Sara; Boldrini, Antonio

2014-01-01

229

Does folic-acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions  

PubMed Central

Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA-replication and methyl-group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid (FA) to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may progress under FA supplementation, consistent with folate’s role in nucleotide synthesis and cell proliferation. To better understand the possible trade-offs between FA’s protective effects due to decreased mutation rates and possibly concomitant detrimental effects due to increased cell proliferation, we used a biologically-based mathematical model of colorectal carcinogenesis. We predict changes in cancer risk based on timing of treatment start and the potential impact of FA on cell proliferation and mutation rates. Conclusion: changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to FA supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and impact on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without FA supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting FA supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental. Experimental studies are needed to provide direct evidence for this dual role of folate in colorectal cancer and to validate and improve the model predictions.

Luebeck, EG; Moolgavkar, SH; Liu, AY; Boynton, A; Ulrich, CM

2010-01-01

230

Lycopene supplementation prevents the development of spontaneous smooth muscle tumors of the oviduct in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

Leiomyomas (fibroids) are benign tumors of the uterus affecting millions of women. Spontaneous leiomyomas of the oviduct are common tumors of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), which makes it a good animal model for screening potential agents for testing in the prevention and treatment of human myoma uteri. Because dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of a variety of human cancers, we investigated the effects of lycopene supplementation on the development of leiomyomas in the oviduct of Japanese quail. We also measured serum levels of oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and homocysteine], lycopene, vitamins C, E, and A, and tissue biomarkers Bcl-2 and Bax expression. One hundred twenty quails (6 mo old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups consisting of 4 replicates of 10 birds in each group. Birds were fed either a basal diet (group C) or the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg (group L1) or 200 mg (group L2) of lycopene per kilogram of diet. The animals were sacrificed after 285 days and the tumors were identified. Lycopene supplementation decreased the number of leiomyomas compared with control subjects (P=0.056). The tumors in lycopene-fed birds were smaller than those found in control birds (P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the expression of tissue Bcl-2 and Bax among the study groups. Serum vitamins C, E, and A increased (P=0.01), whereas MDA and homocysteine concentrations decreased (P=0.01) with lycopene supplementation. No measurable lycopene could be detected in the serum of control birds, whereas a dose-dependent increase was observed in the serum of lycopene-supplemented birds. The results indicate that dietary supplementation with lycopene reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring leiomyoma of the oviduct in the Japanese quail. Clinical trials should be conducted to investigate the efficacy of lycopene supplementation in the prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma in humans. PMID:15623465

Sahin, Kazim; Ozercan, Resat; Onderci, Muhittin; Sahin, Nurhan; Gursu, Mehmet F; Khachik, Frederick; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Munkarah, Adnan; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Kmak, David; Kucuk, Omer

2004-01-01

231

Does folic acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions.  

PubMed

Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, and methyl group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may progress under folic acid supplementation, consistent with the role of folate role in nucleotide synthesis and cell proliferation. To better understand the possible trade-offs between the protective effects due to decreased mutation rates and possibly concomitant detrimental effects due to increased cell proliferation of folic acid, we used a biologically based mathematical model of colorectal carcinogenesis. We predict changes in cancer risk based on timing of treatment start and the potential effect of folic acid on cell proliferation and mutation rates. Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental. Experimental studies are needed to provide direct evidence for this dual role of folate in colorectal cancer and to validate and improve the model predictions. PMID:18539928

Luebeck, E Georg; Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Liu, Amy Y; Boynton, Alanna; Ulrich, Cornelia M

2008-06-01

232

Effects of L Carnitine Supplementation in Sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In recent years L-carnitine has been used increasingly in animals. This review gives an overview of the effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on the reproductive performance of sows. In one investigation L-carnitine supplementation during pregnancy increased the number of piglets born to sows. Other studies showed heavier litters in sows supplemented with L-carnitine compared with

Klaus Eder

2005-01-01

233

Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

1984-01-01

234

Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic character...

A. Byrne

2003-01-01

235

Analyzing Adherence to Prenatal Supplement: Does Pill Count Measure Up?  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine if adherence as measured by pill count would show a significant association with serum-based measures of adherence. Methods. Data were obtained from a prenatal vitamin D supplementation trial where subjects were stratified by race and randomized into three dosing groups: 400 (control), 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day. One measurement of adherence was obtained via pill counts remaining compared to a novel definition for adherence using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) levels (absolute change in 25(OH)D over the study period and the subject's steady-state variation in their 25(OH)D levels). A multivariate logistic regression model examined whether mean percent adherence by pill count was significantly associated with the adherence measure by serum metabolite levels. Results. Subjects' mean percentage of adherence by pill count was not a significant predictor of adherence by serum metabolite levels. This finding was robust across a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. Based on our novel definition of adherence, pill count was not a reliable predictor of adherence to protocol, and calls into question how adherence is measured in clinical research. Our findings have implications regarding the determination of efficacy of medications under study and offer an alternative approach to measuring adherence of long half-life supplements/medications.

Appelgren, Kristie E.; Nietert, Paul J.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Wagner, Carol L.

2010-01-01

236

Analyzing adherence to prenatal supplement: does pill count measure up?  

PubMed

Objective. To determine if adherence as measured by pill count would show a significant association with serum-based measures of adherence. Methods. Data were obtained from a prenatal vitamin D supplementation trial where subjects were stratified by race and randomized into three dosing groups: 400 (control), 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D(3)/day. One measurement of adherence was obtained via pill counts remaining compared to a novel definition for adherence using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) levels (absolute change in 25(OH)D over the study period and the subject's steady-state variation in their 25(OH)D levels). A multivariate logistic regression model examined whether mean percent adherence by pill count was significantly associated with the adherence measure by serum metabolite levels. Results. Subjects' mean percentage of adherence by pill count was not a significant predictor of adherence by serum metabolite levels. This finding was robust across a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. Based on our novel definition of adherence, pill count was not a reliable predictor of adherence to protocol, and calls into question how adherence is measured in clinical research. Our findings have implications regarding the determination of efficacy of medications under study and offer an alternative approach to measuring adherence of long half-life supplements/medications. PMID:20169132

Appelgren, Kristie E; Nietert, Paul J; Hulsey, Thomas C; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

2010-01-01

237

47 CFR 87.321 - Supplemental eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aviation Support Stations § 87.321 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant must certify as to its...

2013-10-01

238

Carnitine Supplementation for Cancer-Related Fatigue  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, researchers will assess the prevalence of carnitine deficiencies in cancer patients and examine the effect of carnitine supplementation in patients experiencing moderate to severe fatigue.

239

Preliminary Efficacy of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety is a commonly occurring psychiatric concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This pilot study\\u000a examined the preliminary efficacy of a manual-based intervention targeting anxiety and social competence in four adolescents\\u000a with high-functioning ASD. Anxiety and social functioning were assessed at baseline, midpoint, endpoint, and 6 months following\\u000a treatment. Treatment consisted of cognitive-behavioral therapy, supplemented with parent education and

Susan W. White; Thomas Ollendick; Lawrence Scahill; Donald Oswald; Anne Marie Albano

2009-01-01

240

Anemia among school children in Vietnam: the efficacy of iron fortification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present thesis aimed to determine the efficacy of a school-based food fortification program to improve hemoglobin concentrations and iron stores of intestinal parasites-prone school children<\\/span>. Furthermore this thesis also compares the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on the changes in hemoglobin and iron status. <\\/o:p><\\/strong><\\/span><\\/span>A cross-sectional study among school children (6-8 years) in Tam Nong district

Le Thi Huong

2006-01-01

241

Therapeutic Value of Zinc Supplementation in Acute and Persistent Diarrhea: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background For over a decade, the importance of zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea has been recognized. In spite of recently published reviews, there remain several unanswered questions about the role of zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhea in the developing countries. Our study aimed to assess the therapeutic benefits of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea in children, and to examine the causes of any heterogeneity of response to zinc supplementation. Methods and Findings EMBASE®, MEDLINE ® and CINAHL® databases were searched for published reviews and meta-analyses on the use of zinc supplementation for the prevention and treatment of childhood diarrhea. Additional RCTs published following the meta-analyses were also sought. The reviews and published RCTs were qualitatively mapped followed by updated random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression to quantify and characterize the role of zinc supplementation with diarrhea-related outcomes. We found that although there was evidence to support the use of zinc to treat diarrhea in children, there was significant unexplained heterogeneity across the studies for the effect of zinc supplementation in reducing important diarrhea outcomes. Zinc supplementation reduced the mean duration of diarrhea by 19.7% but had no effect on stool frequency or stool output, and increased the risk of vomiting. Our subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression showed that age, stunting, breast-feeding and baseline zinc levels could not explain the heterogeneity associated with differential reduction in the mean diarrheal duration. However, the baseline zinc levels may not be representative of the existing zinc deficiency state. Conclusions Understanding the predictors of zinc efficacy including the role of diarrheal disease etiology on the response to zinc would help to identify the populations most likely to benefit from supplementation. To improve the programmatic use of zinc, further evaluations of the zinc salts used, the dose, the frequency and duration of supplementation, and its acceptability are required. The significant heterogeneity of responses to zinc suggests the need to revisit the strategy of universal zinc supplementation in the treatment children with acute diarrhea in developing countries.

Dibley, Michael J.; Badhoniya, Neetu; Kulkarni, Hemant

2010-01-01

242

NASA Thesaurus supplement: A four part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The four-part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes the Hierarchical Listing (Part 1), Access Vocabulary (Part 2), Definitions (Part 3), and Changes (Part 4). The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies and accepted upper/lowercase forms for new terms.

1989-01-01

243

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2014-01-01

244

Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers  

PubMed Central

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain.

Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastiao; de Barros, Livia Vieira; Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

2014-01-01

245

Journal Supplements Focused on Physical Activity Measurement  

Cancer.gov

This journal supplement summarizes and builds upon a workshop which convened researchers from diverse sectors and organizations to critically review the state-of-the-science. The supplement discusses current technologies for objective physical activity monitoring, provides recommendations for the use of these technologies, and explores future directions in the development of new tools and approaches.

246

Mechanics of Supplementation in the Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatcheries are increasingly used to supplement at-risk salmonids in the Columbia River. Under the supplementation concept, hatcheries are generally required to collect locally adapted populations for broodstock on small-order tributaries and to release their progenies to these same streams. Many are failing for reasons not fully known but partly because of functional problems with the facilities used to trap and

Robert M. Bugert

1998-01-01

247

CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

These supplements to the June round of the Current Population Survey (conducted at five-year intervals starting in 1971) were designed to examine transitions in the American family and to measure the demographic implications of these transitions for children. The supplements ask ...

248

Isoniazid induced pellagra despite pyridoxine supplementation.  

PubMed

Although pellagra is a recognized complication of isoniazid therapy, the diagnosis may be overlooked or delayed--sometimes with life-threatening consequences. We report a case of isoniazid-induced pellagra which occurred despite pyridoxine supplementation. Drug withdrawal and supplementation with niacin led to a rapid and sustained clinical improvement. The possible mechanisms of isoniazid induced pellagra are discussed. PMID:10354170

Darvay, A; Basarab, T; McGregor, J M; Russell-Jones, R

1999-05-01

249

Selected Bibliography of the Coccoidea: Second Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second supplement to 'A Selected Bibliography of the Coccoidea', cites the important literature on the classification of coccids that appeared between January 1, 1963, the cutoff date of the first supplement (U.S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 987, 1965), and...

L. M. Russell M. Kosztarab M. P. Kosztarab

1974-01-01

250

Combined analysis of pharmacokinetic and efficacy data of preclinical studies with statins markedly improves translation of drug efficacy to human trials.  

PubMed

Correct prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) and the safety and efficacy of novel compounds based on preclinical data, is essential but often fails. In the current study, we aimed to improve the predictive value of ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) transgenic mice regarding the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of various statins in humans by combining pharmacokinetic with efficacy data. The efficacy of five currently marketed statins (atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin) in hypercholesterolemic patients (low-density lipoprotein ? 160 mg/dl) was ranked based on meta-analysis of published human trials. Additionally, a preclinical combined PK efficacy data set for these five statins was established in E3L mice that were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of drug intervention in which statins were supplemented to the diet. Plasma and tissue levels of the statins were determined on administration of (radiolabeled) drugs (10 mg/kg p.o.). As expected, all statins reduced plasma cholesterol in the preclinical model, but a direct correlation between cholesterol lowering efficacy of the different statins in mice and in humans did not reach statistical significance (R(2) = 0.11, P < 0.57). It is noteworthy that, when murine data were corrected for effective liver uptake of the different statins, the correlation markedly increased (R(2) = 0.89, P < 0.05). Here we show for the first time that hepatic uptake of statins is related to their cholesterol-lowering efficacy and provide evidence that combined PK and efficacy studies can substantially improve the translational value of the E3L mouse model in the case of statin treatment. This strategy may also be applicable for other classes of drugs and other preclinical models. PMID:24049060

van de Steeg, E; Kleemann, R; Jansen, H T; van Duyvenvoorde, W; Offerman, E H; Wortelboer, H M; Degroot, J

2013-12-01

251

Supplemental report on cost estimates'  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

NONE

1992-04-29

252

Effect of prenatal zinc supplementation on birthweight.  

PubMed

Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthweight between the study groups, although the effect of iron-zinc supplementation on the mean birthweight was masked by a strong interaction between the type of supplement and the iron status of participants [F (1,179) = 5.614, p = 0.019]. Prenatal iron-zinc supplementation was effective in increasing the mean birthweight among anaemic and iron-deficient women but not among women with elevated iron stores in early pregnancy. PMID:19902797

Saaka, Mahama; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

2009-10-01

253

Effect of Prenatal Zinc Supplementation on Birthweight  

PubMed Central

Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthweight between the study groups, although the effect of iron-zinc supplementation on the mean birthweight was masked by a strong interaction between the type of supplement and the iron status of participants [F (1,179)=5.614, p=0.019]. Prenatal iron-zinc supplementation was effective in increasing the mean birthweight among anaemic and iron-deficient women but not among women with elevated iron stores in early pregnancy.

Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

2009-01-01

254

Overview of the August 2008 CPS Migration Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August 2008, the U.S. Census Bureau sponsored a supplement to the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) questionnaire. The Immigration/Emigration Supplement, also referred to as the Migration Supplement, included questions on five topics citizenship,...

E. M. Grieco G. Patricia de la Cruz L. J. Larsen

2012-01-01

255

THE INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS (IBIDS) DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database provides access to bibliographic citations and abstracts from published, international, scientific literature on dietary supplements. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Instit...

256

Walking the talk: Fit WIC wellness programs improve self-efficacy in pediatric obesity prevention counseling. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Six sites of the California Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participated in a staff wellness pilot intervention designed to improve staff self-efficacy in counseling WIC clients about childhood overweight. A pre-post test design with intervention and control groups was used; outcome measures included staff perceptions of the intervention's effects on the workplace environment, their personal habits and health beliefs, and their counseling self-efficacy.

257

Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose.

Dharmasena, Aruna

2014-01-01

258

The Effects of Supplementation with Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cardiac Rhythm: Anti-Arrhythmic, Pro-Arrhythmic, Both or Neither? It Depends...  

PubMed Central

Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (?-3) has been associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk, thereby concentrating attention on a potentially preventive effect regarding tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, recent randomized controlled trials challenge the efficacy of the additional application of ?-3 and its anti-arrhythmic effect under certain clinical conditions. The present paper reflects the results of earlier and recent clinical studies with respect to the individual background conditions that may determine the clinical outcome of ?-3 supplementation and thereby explain apparently conflicting clinical results. It is concluded that the efficacy of ?-3 supplementation to prevent cardiac arrhythmias strongly depends on the underlying clinical and pharmacological conditions, a hypothesis that also is supported by data from experimental animal studies and by molecular interactions of ?-3 at the cellular level.

Rauch, Bernhard; Senges, Jochen

2012-01-01

259

Effects of prenatal multimicronutrient supplementation on pregnancy outcomes: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Reduced intake of micronutrients during pregnancy exposes women to nutritional deficiencies and may affect fetal growth. We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy of prenatal supplementation with multimicronutrients on pregnancy outcomes. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for relevant articles published in English up to December 2008. We also searched the bibliographies of selected articles as well as clinical trial registries. The primary outcome was low birth weight; secondary outcomes were preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age infants, birth weight and gestational age. Results We observed a significant reduction in the risk of low birth weight among infants born to women who received multimicronutrients during pregnancy compared with placebo (relative risk [RR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73–0.91) or iron–folic acid supplementation (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.93). Birth weight was significantly higher among infants whose mothers were in the multimicronutrient group than among those whose mothers received iron–folic acid supplementation (weighted mean difference 54 g, 95% CI 36 g–72 g). There was no significant differences in the risk of preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age infants between the 3 study groups. Interpretation Prenatal multimicronutrient supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced risk of low birth weight and with improved birth weight when compared with iron–folic acid supplementation. There was no significant effect of multimicronutrient supplementation on the risk of preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age infants.

Shah, Prakesh S.; Ohlsson, Arne

2009-01-01

260

Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial  

PubMed Central

Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG) ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS) in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women) with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years) were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value) decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920), 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451), 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021), 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047), 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1), respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021). The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation) (p = 0.047) but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p < 0.05). The WBG supplementation was generally well-tolerated. Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG supplementation.

2012-01-01

261

Efficacy of Sunflower Decoy Plots for Blackbird Control and Supplemental Stopover Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife Conservation Sunflower Plots (WCSP) were planted and monitored during a two-year trial\\/research program to monitor the effect of decoy plots on blackbird use of nearby commercial sunflower and abundance of nonblackbird migratory species within the plots. In the two year evaluation period, in excess of 975 hours were spent by three researchers in the plots monitoring damage, vegetation, and

Heath M. Hagy; Jon Raetzman; George M. Linz; William J. Bleier

262

The Efficacy of Supplemental Magnesium in Reducing Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass is reported from 17% to 53%. Hypomagnesemia after this surgery is considered a contributing factor. Methods. Two hundred-two coronary bypass patients were randomized to magnesium (n 105) or placebo (n 97). The experimental group received 80-mg magne- sium sulfate per kilogram ideal weight in 100 mL dex- trose 5% water 30 minutes preoperatively.

Stephen R. Hazelrigg; Theresa M. Boley; Ibrahim B. Cetindag; Kreigh P. Moulton; Gary L. Trammell; Joan E. Polancic; Tilitha S. Shawgo; Jacquelyn A. Quin; Stephen Verhulst

263

Effects of Timed Insemination and Supplemental ?-Carotene on Reproduction and Milk Yield of Dairy Cows Under Heat Stress1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three experiments, we tested the efficacy of timed artificial insemination (AI) and b-carotene supplementation for improvement of reproduction and milk yield. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted dur- ing hot months, and Experiment 3 was conducted during cooler months. Cows were fed rations sup- plemented with b-carotene at 0 or 400 mg\\/d per cow for ?15 d before the

C. F. Aréchiga; C. R. Staples; L. R. McDowell; P. J. Hansen

1998-01-01

264

Articaine for Supplemental Buccal Mandibular Infiltration Anesthesia in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis When the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Fails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental buccal infiltration injection of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block failed. Fifty-five emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an IAN block

Rachel Matthews; Melissa Drum; Al Reader; John Nusstein; Mike Beck

2009-01-01

265

A pilot randomized controlled trial of oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation using fortified laddoos in underprivileged Indian toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Low habitual dietary calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency are common among Indian children. Using ‘laddoo’, an Indian snack, as a vehicle for administering calcium and vitamin D supplements, a randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted for 12 months to assess its efficacy on total body less head (TBLH) bone mineral content (BMC) in underprivileged toddlers.Subjects\\/Methods:A total of 60 toddlers

V H Ekbote; A V Khadilkar; S A Chiplonkar; N M Hanumante; V V Khadilkar; M Z Mughal

2011-01-01

266

Absorption and bioeffects of an isoflavone-based supplementation in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of isoflavones rich diets can improve several postmenopausal complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the absorption and the efficacy of isoflavonic supplementation in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. 36 postmenopausal women received 75 mg/day of isoflavones in the form of tablets, for six months. 21 subjects concluded the treatment. Plasmatic and urinary samples were collected before and after the treatment, along with a dietary interview. Isoflavones were determined in biological samples and in commercial administered supplements by a HPLC/DAD system. Results showed the presence of genistein (from 0.043 to 1.820 micromol/L) in plasma samples, and of genistein (from 2.486 to 20.363 micromol/24h) and daidzein (from 11.106 to 98.091 micromol/24h) in the urines of the treated women. In the 21 completers the Greene Climateric scale value for hot flushes changed from 3 to 1 or 0. No changes of the endometrial thickness and of the breast tissue were detected. The analysis of the supplement content in the tablets was in agreement with what declared by the producer. Administration of isoflavone supplements produced a decrease of symptoms in this cohort of postmenopausal women monitored for isoflavone absorption.

Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Silvia; Bartolini, Elisa; Ottanelli, Silva; Masi, Laura; Romani, Annalisa; Tanini, Annalisa; Vignolini, Pamela; Brandi, Maria Luisa

2009-01-01

267

Vitamin C Supplementation Lowers Urinary Levels of 4-Hydroperoxy-2-nonenal Metabolites in Humans  

PubMed Central

The lack of suitable biomarkers of oxidative stress is a common problem for antioxidant intervention studies in humans. We evaluated the efficacy of vitamin C supplementation in decreasing biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in nonsmokers and in cigarette smokers, a commonly studied, free-living human model of chronic oxidative stress. Participants received ascorbic acid (500 mg twice per day) or placebos for 17 d in a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design study. The urinary biomarkers assessed and reported herein are derived from 4-hydroperoxy-2-nonenal (HPNE) and include the mercapturic acid (MA) conjugates of 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE); 1,4-dihydroxy-2(E)-nonene (DHN); and 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenol (ONO). Vitamin C supplementation decreased the urinary concentrations of both ONO-MA (p=0.0013) and HNE-MA (p=0.0213) by ~30%; however, neither cigarette smoking nor sex affected these biomarkers. In contrast, vitamin C supplementation decreased urinary concentrations of DHN-MA (3-way interaction p=0.0304) in nonsmoking men compared with nonsmoking women (p<0.05), as well as in nonsmoking men compared with smoking men (p<0.05). Vitamin C supplementation also decreased (p=0.0092) urinary total of metabolites by ~20%. Thus, HPNE metabolites can be reduced favorably in response to improved plasma ascorbic acid concentrations, an effect due to ascorbic acid antioxidant function.

Kuiper, Heather C.; Bruno, Richard S.; Traber, Maret G.; Stevens, Jan F.

2011-01-01

268

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) supplementation prevents cognitive impairment and amyloid deposition in APP/PS1 mice.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease hallmarked by extracellular A?(1-42) containing plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Progressively, memory deficits and cognitive disabilities start to occur as these hallmarks affect hippocampus and frontal cortex, regions highly involved in memory. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, which is high in the vicinity of A? plaques and NFTs, was found to influence ?-secretase activity, the molecular crux in A?(1-42) production. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an endogenous bile acid that downregulates CTGF expression in hepatocytes and has been shown to possess therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative models. To investigate the possible in vivo therapeutic effects of TUDCA, we provided 0.4% TUDCA-supplemented food to APP/PS1 mice, a well-established AD mouse model. Six months of TUDCA supplementation prevented the spatial, recognition and contextual memory defects observed in APP/PS1 mice at 8 months of age. Furthermore, TUDCA-supplemented APP/PS1 mice displayed reduced hippocampal and prefrontal amyloid deposition. These effects of TUDCA supplementation suggest a novel mechanistic route for Alzheimer therapeutics. PMID:22974733

Lo, Adrian C; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Nunes, Ana F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; D'Hooge, Rudi

2013-02-01

269

Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.

Zuo, Zhong

2013-01-01

270

Vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants: a randomized dose-response trial.  

PubMed

Background:Breastfed infants require supplementation with vitamin D (vD), but little is known about the necessary dose. This double blind trial evaluated four different doses of vD.Methods:Exclusively breastfed infants (N = 213) were randomized at 1 mo to one of four doses, which they received through 9 mo while receiving no formula. The supplements provided daily 200 IU, 400 IU, 600 IU, or 800 IU of vD. The primary endpoint was plasma 25(OH)D level, and secondary outcomes were plasma parathyroid hormone and calcium, and illness incidence. The study was conducted during winter at 41° N.Results:Most infants had low (<50 nmol/l) 25(OH)D levels at 1 mo, but with supplementation levels rose. Overall, levels of 25(OH)D differed significantly in proportion to vD dose. There were no effects of vD on illness incidence or growth. Low levels were common, with 7.8% of levels being <50 nmol/l and 15 infants having 2 to 4 low levels.Conclusion:The four doses of vD produced different plasma levels of 25(OH)D. The higher doses were somewhat more efficacious in maintaining vD sufficiency in breastfed infants. The findings support the recommended dose of 400 IU/d, and stress the need to start supplementation at birth. PMID:24858141

Ziegler, Ekhard E; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M

2014-08-01

271

Compositions of plant carbohydrates as dietary supplements  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Compositions of plant carbohydrates for dietary supplements and nutritional support for promotion and maintenance of good health. Defined nutritionally effective amounts of one to eleven essential saccharides, glyconutrients, are used in various inventive compositions as dietary supplements. The dietary composition herein can include phytonutrients, vitamins, minerals, herbal extracts, and other non-toxic nutrients. The glyconutritional dietary supplement herein provides essential saccharides which are the building blocks of glycoproteins. These compositions, when administered orally or topically, have been found to improve the well being of mammals suffering from a variety of disorders.

2005-08-16

272

 Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary energy supplements: use and abuse by young athletes.  

PubMed

 In recent years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of dietary energy supplements (DES) associated with the parallel advertising against obesity and favoring high physical performance. We present the case and outcome of a young patient who developed acute mixed liver injury (hepatocellular and cholestatic) after ingestion of various "over the counter" products to increase muscle mass and physical performance (NO Xplode®, creatine, L-carnitine, and Growth Factor ATN®). The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and liver biopsy findings. The dietary supplement and herbal multivitamins industry is one with the highest growth rates in the market, with annual revenues amounting to billions and constantly lacking scientific or reproducible evidence about the efficacy and/or safety of the offered products. Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, different forms of injury associated with these natural substances have been documented particularly in the liver, supporting the need of a more strict regulation. PMID:22700641

Avelar-Escobar, Giovanni; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Ortiz-Olvera, Nayeli X; Castellanos, Guillermo; Ramos, Roberto; Gallardo-Cabrera, Víctor E; Vargas-Alemán, José de Jesús; Díaz de León, Oscar; Rodríguez, Elda V; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita

2012-01-01

273

Cost of Pycnogenol Supplementation and Traditional Diabetes Treatments per Unit of Improved Health Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Pycnogenol® may be cost effective in reducing the risk for diabetes-related complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Diabetic retinopathy may be a good target area for Pycnogenol supplementation because of Pycnogenol’s proven efficacy in improving\\u000a diabetic retinopathy, diabetes-related cardiovascular disease, and other diabetes-related health complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The cost of diabetes treatment may be reduced after Pycnogenol supplementation but a long term study should

Gayle Bentley; Frank Schonlau; Sherma Zibadi; Ronald Ross Watson

274

Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3 x 10(exp -4) Newton/sq meter (1 x 10(exp -6) torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K (200 R) and 361 K (650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 cu meter (120 gallon) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars.

Dempsey, P. J.; Stochl, R. J.

1995-01-01

275

Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

NONE

1995-11-01

276

Introduction to tobacco control supplement  

PubMed Central

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

2014-01-01

277

Lessons Learned in Engineering. Supplement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations. The supplemental CD contains accompanying PowerPoint presentations.

Blair, James C.; Ryan, Robert S.; Schultzenhofer, Luke A.

2011-01-01

278

Effect of micronutrient supplementation on diarrhoeal disease among stunted children in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of zinc combined with vitamin A or multiple micronutrients in preventing diarrhoea is unclear in African countries with high prevalence of HIV-exposed children. Potential modifying factors such as stunting need addressing. Objective To determine whether adding zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, to vitamin A reduces diarrhoea incidence, and whether this differs between strata of stunted or HIV-infected children. Methods We analyzed data from a randomized, controlled double-blinded trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00156832) of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6–24 months. Three cohorts of children: 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, received vitamin A, vitamin A plus zinc, or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc. The main outcome was incidence of diarrhoea. Poisson regression was used in intent-to-treat analyses. Stratified analyses followed testing for statistical interaction between intervention and stunting. Results We observed no significant differences in overall diarrhoea incidence among treatment arms. Stunting modified this effect with stunted HIV-uninfected children having significantly lower diarrhoea incidence if supplemented with zinc or multiple micronutrients compared to vitamin A alone (2.04 and 2.23 vs 3.92 episodes/year respectively, P=0.024). No meaningful sub-group analyses could be done in the cohort of HIV-infected children. Conclusion Compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, and with zinc and multiple micronutrients, reduced diarrhoea morbidity in stunted rural South African children. Efficacy of zinc supplementation in HIV-infected children needs confirmation in studies that represent the spectrum of disease severity and age groups.

Chhagan, Meera K; Van den Broeck, Jan; Luabeya, Kany-Kany Angelique; Mpontshane, Nontobeko; Tucker, Katherine L; Bennish, Michael L

2008-01-01

279

Cardiac Effects of Ergogenic Aides and Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Great concern exists that athletes who regularly exercise are using dietary supplements and other purported ergogenic aids\\u000a as a means for enhancing athletic performance and altering body composition.

Holly J. Benjamin; Joseph A. Congeni

280

Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss  

MedlinePLUS

... side effects, including strokes and heart attacks. Brazilian diet pills are also known as Emagrece Sim and Herbathin dietary supplements. The FDA has warned consumers not to buy ... many diet products (such as Biosculpt Liquid, Body Success, and ...

281

Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users  

MedlinePLUS

... advisories about these products. Coumadin (a prescription medicine), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin (an over-the- ... Black Cohosh Ginger Evening Primrose Oil Echinacea Garlic Ginkgo Biloba Fish Oil Glucosamine and/or Chondroitin Sulphate ...

282

47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted only upon FAA...

2013-10-01

283

Nutritional Supplement to Treat Macular Degeneration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nutritional or dietary supplement composition that strengthens and promotes retinal health through the prevention, stabilization, reversal and/or treatment of visual acuity loss by reducing the risk of developing late stage or advanced age-related macul...

C. L. Baustian F. L. Ferris G. E. Bunce L. Ellenbogen S. P. Bartels

2005-01-01

284

Assessment of nutraceuticals and food supplements.  

PubMed

It is now possible to define food supplements on the basis of their preclinical or clinical action. Nutraceuticals and food supplements when used as drugs to prevent or treat clinical conditions could be defined as Pre-drugs (Preventive drugs or pre-clinical drugs). Nutraceuticals, when used with the aim to limit the continuous use of patented drugs, theoretically more dangerous, more expensive and causing more interactions could be defined as Substitutive-low-risk (SLR)-drugs.For these natural products the real ground of evaluation is the patient, or the subject at risk, possibly, the borderline patient. In this supplement, our research group and network present some of our recent research and innovations particularly focusing on 'natural compounds' of very high preventive and clinical potentials. The combination of so many experts from different medical fields makes this interaction very interesting and promising. More studies and more applications for nutraceuticals and food supplements are coming. PMID:22108488

Belcaro, G; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A; Hosoi, M

2011-09-01

285

Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?  

PubMed Central

Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Felice, Valentina Di

2013-01-01

286

Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Explanatory Supplement provides a detailed description of how to perform practical astronomy or spherical astronomy. This completely revised and rewritten edition is an authoritative source on astronomical phenomena and calendars.

P. Kenneth Seidelmann

1992-01-01

287

Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Explanatory Supplement provides a detailed description of how to perform practical astronomy or spherical astronomy. This completely revised and rewritten edition is an authoritative source on astronomical phenomena and calendars.

Seidelmann, P. Kenneth

288

47 CFR 87.301 - Supplemental eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Flight Test Stations § 87.301 Supplemental...The following entities are eligible for flight test station licenses: (1) Manufacturers...design, development, modification, and flight test evaluation of aircraft or major...

2013-10-01

289

40 CFR 192.22 - Supplemental standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Implementation § 192.22 Supplemental standards. Federal agencies implementing subparts A and B may in lieu...

2013-07-01

290

Levels of supplementation for grazing beef heifers.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

2014-06-01

291

Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

2008-01-01

292

GLYCEMIC INDEX OF SPRIULINA SUPPLEMENTED MEALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycemic index (GI) of four Indian regional meals (Punjabi, South Indian, Gujarathi, and West Bengali) supplemented with 2.5 g of spray dried spriulina powder, was determined in twenty four normal subjects in the age group of 20-25 years. The subjects were fed equicarbohydrate meals providing 75 g of carbohydrates. The GI of Punjabi meal supplemented with 2.5 g of sprirulina

Uma Iyer; Uliyar Mani

1999-01-01

293

Micronutrient supplementation in mild Alzheimer disease patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate if nutritional supplementation with or without micronutrient enhancement prevent weight loss and the progression of the disease in mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients.Design: Mild AD patients were recruited from an Alzheimer Day Centre. Subjects received oral liquid supplements with (Study-group: S) or without (Control-group: C) micronutrient enhancement. Intake assessment, nutritional status, biochemical parameters, cognitive function, and eating

M Planas; M Conde; S Audivert; C Pérez-Portabella; R Burgos; P Chacón; J Rossello; M Boada; L. L Tàrraga

2004-01-01

294

Hot-water-furnace supplemental heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hot-water-furnace, supplemental water heater to be used with a furnace of the type having essentially parallel, vertically-oriented, multiple heating tubes surrounded by water for conveying combustion materials from a firebox to an exit area adjacent the multiple heating tubes. The hot-water furnace forms a flat support wall at the exit area. The supplemental water heater comprises:

1987-01-01

295

Supplemental feeding program for California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2-year supplemental feeding program for the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was of insufficient length to definitely show that a dependable food supply will stimulate additional breeding; however, production did increase during the study, and food supply appears a likely cause. Because no undesirable effects of feeding were noted, and because condor production is now critically low, an expanded supplemental feeding program is recommended.

Wilbur, S.R.; Carrier, W.D.; Borneman, J.C.

1974-01-01

296

Creatine Supplementation in Strength-Power Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exogenous ingestion of creatine (Cr) is typically used as a performance enhancing (ergogenic) supplement because it is\\u000a known to improve performance in muscular strength and power activities, enhance short bursts of muscular endurance, and allow\\u000a for greater muscular overload in order to improve training effectiveness. Creatine has become one of the most popular ingested\\u000a nutritional supplements due to its

Darryn S. Willoughby

297

Nutrition and Supplements for Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses dietary guidelines and nutritional supplements that have been proven to be beneficial in the treatment\\u000a of pain. First, a strong foundational diet is presented, including anti-inflammatory ingredients. Next, several key supplements\\u000a that are helpful for pain conditions are discussed. The chapter is completed with a discussion of some of the most common\\u000a chronic pain conditions, with specific

Maria Sulindro-Ma; Charise L. Ivy; Amber C. Isenhart

298

The Efficacy of a 9-Month Treadmill Walking Program on the Exercise Capacity and Weight Reduction for Adolescents with Severe Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the efficacy of a 9-month treadmill walking (TW) program on exercise capacity and body mass index (BMI) for adolescents with severe autism. Ten youth residing in a residential/school treatment facility were assigned to either a supplemental treadmill walking (TW) or control group. Both groups continued to participate in their…

Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Rendoff, Andrew D.; Grover, Travis; Beets, Michael W.

2007-01-01

299

Guide to over-the-counter sports supplements for athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplements are used by at least 40% of athletes, and depending on the sport, up to 100%. Often multiple supplements are taken in higher than normal doses. Both competitive and recreational athletes take supplements, though sometimes for different reasons. Some take them to support a poor quality diet; others take supplements because they simply feel that an ordinary diet,

Norbert Baume; Ien Hellemans; Martial Saugy

2007-01-01

300

Supplementation of oil-based inactivated H9N2 vaccine with M2e antigen enhances resistance against heterologous H9N2 avian influenza virus infection.  

PubMed

Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 has been evolving rapidly and vaccine escape variants have been reported to cause circulation of infections and economic losses. In the present study, we developed and evaluated ectodomain of the AIV matrix 2 (M2e) protein as a supplementing antigen for oil-based inactivated H9N2 vaccine to increase resistance against vaccine escape variants. AIV H9N2 M2e antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli and supplemented to inactivated H9N2 oil emulsion vaccine. Specific pathogen-free chickens received a single injection of inactivated H9N2 oil emulsion vaccines with or without M2e supplementation. At three weeks post vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine serological immune responses. Challenge study using a vaccine escape H9N2 variant was performed to evaluate the efficacy of M2e supplementation. M2e antigen supplemented in oil emulsion vaccine was highly immunogenic, and a single M2e-supplemented vaccination reduced challenge virus replication and shedding more effectively than non-supplemented vaccination. PMID:24472228

Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Cho, Chung Hwan; Yuk, Seong-Su; To, Erdene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Choi, Soo-Won; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Song, Man Ki; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

2014-03-14

301

Effect of four-day psyllium supplementation on bowel preparation for colonoscopy:A prospective double blind randomized trial [ISRCTN76623768  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with new onset constipation or presumed hemorrhoid bleeding frequently require the use of both fiber supplements and diagnostic colonoscopy. We sought to determine whether preliminary fiber supplementation would alter the tolerability or efficacy of a standard bowel preparation for colonoscopy Methods A prospective, double blind, randomized trial was designed to compare a short course of a psyllium-based supplement versus placebo prior to a colon lavage. Patients were given an unlabeled canister of powder, and instructed to take 1 tablespoon with 8 oz of water bid for 4 days before colonoscopy. A 4-liter polyethylene based glycol lavage was self-administered over 4 hours on the day prior to colonoscopy. A questionnaire on pre-study bowel habits and side effects was completed. Efficacy of the preparation was visually evaluated on a pre-determined scale. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, race, age, pre-study stool frequency or consistency. Tolerability was equivalent but efficacy of the bowel preparation was worse in the psyllium group compared to placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusions In non-constipated patients psyllium based fiber supplementation should not be initiated in the few days prior to endoscopy using a polyethylene glycol preparation.

Salwen, Walter A; Basson, Marc D

2004-01-01

302

Enhanced neuromuscular transmission efficacy in overloaded rat plantaris muscle.  

PubMed

To better understand the effect of muscle hypertrophy on the physiological properties of transmitter release, we investigated neuromuscular transmission (NMT) efficacy in overloaded rat plantaris muscle in situ. In the overload group, following bilateral tenotomy of plantaris synergists, rats were confined to wheel-cages. Age-matched rats in the control group were confined to plastic cages. During the terminal experiment, muscle action potentials were blocked using micro-conotoxin, and full-sized endplate potentials (EPPs) were recorded at 25, 50, and 75 HZ to determine their amplitude rundown. Quantal contents for the control and overload groups were 37.0 and 74.3, respectively (P <0.01). There was a significant group difference in EPP amplitude rundown at all frequencies examined, with increased rundown occurring in the overload group (P < 0.01). Cumulative quantal release was 139% and 153% higher in the overload group at 25 and 50 HZ, respectively (P < 0.05). Together, these data suggest the safety factor for NMT is increased by neuromuscular overload. Furthermore, these findings support and supplement previously reported activity-dependent improvements in NMT efficacy that are probably mediated via presynaptic adaptations. PMID:14694504

Argaw, Anteneh; Desaulniers, Patrice; Gardiner, Phillip F

2004-01-01

303

Effect of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves to vaccines and ovalbumin.  

PubMed Central

Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) from organic sources (Cr chelate and high Cr yeast) on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves following vaccination with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), para-influenza-3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Pasteurella haemolytica and ovalbumin (OVA). Using cross bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario, vaccines and OVA were given on d 0 and 21 after arrival in the feedlot. Immune responses of calves were measured as serum specific antibody titres against all antigens on d 0 and 28 or d 35. The anti-OVA antibody responses (trial 2) were further investigated by measuring antibody concentrations of calves weekly until d 55 after arrival in the feedlot. Supplemental Cr (0.14 ppm) from an amino acid-chelated source had no effect on antibody responses to IBR, P13 and BRSV, but enhanced (P < 0.05) antibody titres of calves in response to the BVD vaccine on d 28 or d 35. Supplemental Cr from Cr yeast had no effect on antibody titres of calves to any vaccines. Chromium from both sources (trial 1 and 2) had no effect on antibody responses of calves following vaccination with P. haemolytica. However, supplemental Cr (0.75 ppm) from Cr yeast enhanced (P < 0.05) serum antibody responses of calves to OVA during the primary response (d 14) and secondary response (d 35) following immunization. These data confirmed our previous finding that supplemental Cr can enhance humoral immune response of market-transit stressed calves, but its enhancement on vaccine efficacy was antigen-dependent and variable.

Chang, G X; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N; Gallo, G F

1996-01-01

304

Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol® and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.  

PubMed

A double-blind parallel group comparison design clinical study was conducted in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction to investigate the efficacy of a supplement containing Pycnogenol® and L-arginine. Subjects were instructed to take a supplement (Pycnogenol® 60?mg/day, L-arginine 690?mg/day and aspartic acid 552?mg/day) or an identical placebo for 8?weeks, and the results were assessed using the five-item erectile domain (IIEF-5) of the International Index of Erectile Function. Additionally, blood biochemistry, urinalysis and salivary testosterone were measured. Eight weeks of supplement intake improved the total score of the IIEF-5. In particular, a marked improvement was observed in 'hardness of erection' and 'satisfaction with sexual intercourse'. A decrease in blood pressure, aspartate transaminase and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GTP), and a slight increase in salivary testosterone were observed in the supplement group. No adverse reactions were observed during the study period. In conclusion, Pycnogenol® in combination with L-arginine as a dietary supplement is effective and safe in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. PMID:21618639

Aoki, Hiromitsu; Nagao, Junji; Ueda, Taro; Strong, Jeffry M; Schonlau, Frank; Yu-Jing, Song; Lu, Yan; Horie, Shigeo

2012-02-01

305

Synergies between vaccination and dietary arginine and glutamine supplementation improve the immune response of channel catfish against Edwardsiella ictaluri.  

PubMed

Channel catfish was used to investigate the enhancement of vaccine efficacy following dietary supplementation with arginine (ARG, 4% of diet), glutamine (GLN, 2% of diet), or a combination of both. After vaccination against Edwardsiella ictaluri, humoral and cellular immune responses, along with lymphoid organ responses were evaluated. E. ictaluri-specific antibody titers in plasma were higher (P < 0.05) in fish fed the supplemented diets compared to those fed the basal diet as early as 7 d post-vaccination (dpv). B-cell proportion in head-kidney was higher (P < 0.05) at 14 dpv in vaccinated fish fed the GLN diet. The responsiveness of spleen and head-kidney lymphocytes against E. ictaluri was enhanced (P < 0.05) by dietary supplementation of ARG or GLN at 14 dpv. Additionally, at 7 dpv, vaccinated fish fed the GLN diet had higher (P < 0.05) head kidney weights relative to the other dietary treatments, and vaccinated fish fed ARG-supplemented diets had higher (P < 0.05) protein content in this tissue. Results from this study suggest that dietary supplementation of ARG and GLN may improve specific cellular and humoral mechanisms, enhancing the acquired immunity in vaccinated channel catfish. PMID:22728565

Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Criscitiello, Michael F; Mwangi, Waithaka; Smith, Roger; Gatlin, Delbert M

2012-09-01

306

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

Albert Bandura

1984-01-01

307

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

308

Enhancing Self-Efficacy and Learning Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the effect of a communication designed to enhance the self-efficacy beliefs of introductory psychology students. Neutral e-mail messages of messages designed to enhance self-efficacy were sent to 76 college students. Results show that self-efficacy beliefs were related to examination scores and were significantly affected by the…

Jackson, Jay W.

2002-01-01

309

Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish

Byrne

2003-01-01

310

The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious…

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

2011-01-01

311

Linking Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy to Their Mathematical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching efficacy and compared them to their mathematical performance. Participants included 89 early childhood preservice teachers at a Midwestern university. Instruments included the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

Bates, Alan B.; Latham, Nancy; Kim, Jin-ah

2011-01-01

312

Relationship between Counseling Self-Efficacy and Multicultural Counseling Self-Efficacy among School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between school counselors' counseling self-efficacy and multicultural counseling self-efficacy. In addition, this study measured school counselors' levels of general school counseling self-efficacy, multicultural counseling self-efficacy, and the relationship between school counselor…

Crook, Tylon

2010-01-01

313

Mexican American caregivers’ coping efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Coping styles utilized by family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia have been implicated in the mental health of those\\u000a caregivers and in the course of schizophrenia. We tested the relation between caregivers’ coping efficacy, defined as the\\u000a caregiver’s perceptions of how successful they were in modifying their relative’s behavior, and caregiver’s psychological\\u000a distress as well as criticisms and positivity toward

Jorge I. Ramírez García; Brenda Hernández; Marina Dorian

2009-01-01

314

Reconceptualizing Efficacy in Substance Use Prevention Research: Refusal Response Efficacy and Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy in Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to utilize the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to expand the construct of efficacy in the adolescent substance use context. Using survey data collected from 2,129 seventh-grade students in 39 rural schools, we examined the construct of drug refusal efficacy and demonstrated relationships among response efficacy (RE), self-efficacy (SE), and adolescent drug use. Consistent with the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analyses of a 12-item scale yielded a three-factor solution: refusal RE, alcohol-resistance self-efficacy (ASE), and marijuana-resistance self-efficacy (MSE). Refusal RE and ASE/MSE were negatively related to alcohol use and marijuana use, whereas MSE was positively associated with alcohol use. These data demonstrate that efficacy is a broader construct than typically considered in drug prevention. Prevention programs should reinforce both refusal RE and substance-specific resistance SE.

Choi, Hye Jeong; Krieger, Janice L.; Hecht, Michael L.

2014-01-01

315

The influence of dietary vitamin C and E supplementation on the physiological response of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, in net culture.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary vitamin C (ascorbic acid or AA), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol or alpha-T), and C+E supplementation on the blood parameters of Arapaima gigas grown in net cages for 45 days. Four treatments were tested: control (commercial feed); C800; E500 and C+E (800+500) with supplementation of 800 mg AA kg(-1), 500 mg alpha-T kg(-1) and 800+500 mg AA+alpha-T kg(-1), respectively. Hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBC), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) (oxidative status indicators), thrombocytes and leukocytes (immunological indicators), plasma protein and glucose were evaluated. Fish fed vitamin C and C+E supplemented diets showed greater weight gain and survival. Dietary vitamin C and C+E diet supplementation resulted in increased Ht, Hb, RBC, MCHC, total leukocytes, total proteins, thrombocytes and eosinophils compared to the control and alpha-T. The alpha-tocopherol-supplemented diet reduced the number of total thrombocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils and increased glucose and eosinophils relatively to the control. In general, leukocytes and thrombocytes were good indicators of the efficiency of vitamin on the defense mechanism of the A. gigas reared in cages. Results indicate that high alpha-T diet supplementation provides no benefit for the maintenance of the oxidative or the immunological status of A. gigas. However, it was demonstrated that high dietary AA improves A. gigas immunological status. Red blood cell indices and immune system indicators showed no synergistic effect between the vitamins after supplementing the A. gigas diet with alpha-T+AA. PMID:16934509

de Menezes, Glauber Cruz; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Ono, Eduardo Akifumi; de Andrade, Jaqueline Inês Alves; Brasil, Elenice Martins; Roubach, Rodrigo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmão

2006-10-01

316

Complex disease-associated pharmacogenetics: drug efficacy, drug safety, and confirmation of a pathogenetic hypothesis (Alzheimer's disease)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics can be applied successfully to the drug discovery and development pipeline at multiple phases. We review drug-target screening using high throughput SNP associations with complex diseases testing more than 1 800 candidate targets with approximately 7 000 SNPs. Alzheimer's disease data are provided as an example. The supplementation of target-selected screening with genome-wide SNP association, to

A D Roses; A M Saunders; Y Huang; J Strum; K H Weisgraber; R W Mahley

2007-01-01

317

Clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics.  

PubMed

Creatine plays a central role in energy metabolism and is synthesized in the liver, kidney and pancreas. In healthy patients, it is transported via the blood stream to the muscles, heart and brain with high and fluctuating energy demands by the molecule creatine transporter. Creatine, although naturally synthesized in the human body, can be ingested in the form of supplements and is commonly used by athletes. The purpose of this review was to assess the clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics. Creatine metabolism disorders have so far been described at the level of two synthetic steps, guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), and at the level of the creatine transporter 1(CrT1). GAMT and AGAT deficiency respond positively to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate whereas in CrT1 defect, it is not able to replenish creatine in the brain with oral creatine supplementation. There are also data concerning the short and long-term therapeutic benefit of creatine supplementation in children and adults with gyrate atrophy (a result of the inborn error of metabolism with ornithine delta- aminotransferase activity), muscular dystrophy (facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, Becker dystrophy, Duchenne dystrophy and sarcoglycan deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy), McArdle's disease, Huntington's disease and mitochondria-related diseases. Hypoxia and energy related brain pathologies (brain trauma, cerebral ischemia, prematurity) might benefit from Cr supplementation. This review covers also the basics of creatine metabolism and proposed mechanisms of action. PMID:19751179

Evangeliou, Athanasios; Vasilaki, Konstantina; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

2009-11-01

318

Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production  

SciTech Connect

The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. (Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Newark, NJ (USA)); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

1989-12-01

319

Oxidation of Marine Omega-3 Supplements and Human Health  

PubMed Central

Marine omega-3 rich oils are used by more than a third of American adults for a wide range of purported benefits including prevention of cardiovascular disease. These oils are highly prone to oxidation to lipid peroxides and other secondary oxidation products. Oxidized oils may have altered biological activity making them ineffective or harmful, though there is also evidence that some beneficial effects of marine oils could be mediated through lipid peroxides. To date, human clinical trials have not reported the oxidative status of the trial oil. This makes it impossible to understand the importance of oxidation to efficacy or harm. However, animal studies show that oxidized lipid products can cause harm. Oxidation of trial oils may be responsible for the conflicting omega-3 trial literature, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The oxidative state of an oil can be simply determined by the peroxide value and anisidine value assays. We recommend that all clinical trials investigating omega-3 harms or benefits report the results of these assays; this will enable better understanding of the benefits and harms of omega-3 and the clinical importance of oxidized supplements.

Albert, Benjamin B.; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

2013-01-01

320

Fresh frozen plasma supplement to massive red blood cell transfusion.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of supplemental fresh frozen plasma (FFP) therapy after massive packed red cell (PRBC) replacement for hemorrhagic shock was studied in 22 conditioned dogs. Ten dogs were randomized to received FFP, balanced electrolyte solution (BES), and PRBC, while 12 dogs received BES and PRBC. Coagulation factor activity for Factors I, II, V, VII and VIII, as well as antithrombin III (AT III), prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time, were measured at preshock, postshock, postresuscitation, and postshock day two. All coagulation factor activities fell with shock and decreased further with resuscitation in both groups. Factor II (a procoagulant) and AT III (an anticoagulant) fell significantly less after resuscitation in the plasma dogs; otherwise, no postresuscitation differences were seen. The changes in factor activity from postresuscitation until day two reflected factor half life and molecular weight, independent of FFP therapy. These data show that prophylactic FFP therapy does not efficiently restore coagulation activity. Consequently, routine FFP therapy for its procoagulant effects after hemorrhagic shock should be abandoned pending controlled studies in man.

Martin, D J; Lucas, C E; Ledgerwood, A M; Hoschner, J; McGonigal, M D; Grabow, D

1985-01-01

321

Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in adults predicts efficacy in children  

PubMed Central

Objective: Due to the challenges inherent in performing clinical trials in children, a systematic review of published clinical trials was performed to determine whether the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults can be used to predict the efficacy of AEDs in the pediatric population. Methods: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library searches (1970–January 2010) were conducted for clinical trials of partial-onset seizures (POS) and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) in adults and in children <2 and 2–18 years. Independent epidemiologists used standardized search and study evaluation criteria to select eligible trials. Forest plots were used to investigate the relative strength of placebo-subtracted effect measures. Results: Among 30 adjunctive therapy POS trials in adults and children (2–18 years) that met evaluation criteria, effect measures were consistent between adults and children for gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Placebo-subtracted median percent seizure reduction between baseline and treatment periods (ranging from 7.0% to 58.6% in adults and from 10.5% to 31.2% in children) was significant for 40/46 and 6/6 of the treatment groups studied. The ?50% responder rate (ranging from 2.0% to 43.0% in adults and from 3.0% to 26.0% in children) was significant for 37/43 and 5/8 treatment groups. In children <2 years, an insufficient number of trials were eligible for analysis. Conclusions: This systematic review supports the extrapolation of efficacy results in adults to predict a similar adjunctive treatment response in 2- to 18-year-old children with POS.

Carman, Wendy J.; Thyagarajan, Veena; Daniels, Tony; Morris, Dexter L.; D'Cruz, O'Neill

2012-01-01

322

Effect of body weight on phosphorus digestibility and efficacy of a microbial phytase in young pigs.  

PubMed

The effect of body weight on P digestibility and on efficacy of supplemental Aspergillus niger phytase was studied in two experiments with young growing pigs. Excreta were collected quantitatively. All diets contained 2.0 g digestible P per kg dry matter at a maximum and renal P excretion never exceeded 15 mg/d. When dietary P mainly originated from monocalcium-phosphate, both P digestibility and Ca net absorption linearly increased by 3.6 and 5.6 percentage units, respectively, when BW increased from 15 to 35 kg. With a similar range in BW, P digestibility and Ca net absorption were unaffected by BW when P mainly originated from maize, barley and soybean meal. In both types of diet, crude protein digestibility increased with increasing body weight, whereas organic matter digestibility was effected by BW only in the diet containing maize, barley and soybean meal. Phytase (400 U/kg) almost doubled P digestibility when supplemented to a diet with P mainly originating from maize, soybean meal and barley. This effect of phytase supplementation was equal in pigs at 15.7 kg BW (33 vs. 55%) and at 39.1 kg BW (32 vs. 56%). Digestibility of any organic fraction was unaffected by supplemental phytase. With regard to on-farm conditions, it appears eligible from this results to apply digestibility coefficients for P determined in growing-finishing pigs for piglets as well. PMID:10548967

Rodehutscord, M; Krause, G; Pfeffer, E

1999-01-01

323

An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22432517

Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

2010-09-01

324

High Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Context Blood levels of homocysteine may be elevated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to disease pathophysiology by vascular and direct neurotoxic mechanisms. Even in the absence of vitamin deficiency, homocysteine levels can be reduced by administration of high-dose supplements of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12. Prior studies of B vitamins to reduce homocysteine in AD have not had sufficient size or duration to assess impact on cognitive decline. Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of B vitamin supplementation in the treatment of AD. Design We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial of high-dose folate/B6/B12 supplementation in individuals with AD. Setting The study was conducted between March, 2003 and February, 2007 at clinical research sites of the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study located throughout the US. Patients A total of 409 participants (out of 601 screened) with mild to moderate AD (Mini-Mental Status Scores between 14 and 26, inclusive) and normal folic acid, B12 and homocysteine levels were enrolled in this trial; 340 completed the trial on study medication. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of unequal size: 60% were treated with daily high-dose supplements (folate 5mg, vitamin B6 25mg, vitamin B12 1 mg), and 40% were treated with identical placebo; the duration of treatment was 18 months. Main Outcome Measure The primary outcome measure was the change in the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAScog). Results Although the vitamin supplement regimen was effective in reducing homocysteine levels (active ?2.42±3.35; placebo -0.86±2.59; p<0.001), it had no beneficial effect on the primary cognitive measure, rate of change in ADAS-Cog over 18 months (placebo: 0.372 point/month vs active: 0.401 point/month, p-value=0.522, CI of rate difference: (?0.06, 0.12), based on the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) model), or on any secondary measures. A higher rate of adverse events involving depression was observed in the group treated with vitamin supplements. Conclusion This regimen of high dose B vitamin supplements does not slow cognitive decline in individuals with mild to moderate AD.

Aisen, Paul S.; Schneider, Lon S.; Sano, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Weiner, Myron F.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Jin, Shelia; Stokes, Karen T.; Thomas, Ronald G.; Thal, Leon J.

2009-01-01

325

Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D

1991-05-01

326

Dietary Supplement Polypharmacy: An Unrecognized Public Health Problem?  

PubMed Central

Excessive and inappropriate use of medications, or ‘polypharmacy’, has been recognized as a public health problem. In addition, there is growing use of dietary supplements in the United States; however, little is known about the patterns of supplement use. Recent reports in the literature of cases of excessive or inappropriate use of herbal dietary supplements leading to the term ‘polyherbacy’. The clinical vignettes described in this article highlight the need for further research on the nature and extent of multiple and inappropriate dietary supplement use or ‘dietary supplement polypharmacy’. Clinical interviewing and population surveys both address this issue in complementary ways, and provide a further understanding of dietary supplement use patterns.

Gryzlak, Brian M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Wallace, Robert B.

2010-01-01

327

Multivitamin supplements for pregnant women. New insights.  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: One of my patients is planning pregnancy and has started taking multivitamin supplements. She is experiencing gastric discomfort. What are the alternatives? ANSWER: Gastric discomfort is usually related to iron intake; pregnant women could use supplements with less iron. Pregnant women need 0.4 to 1.0 mg of folic acid daily. If they have a family history of neural tube defects (NTDs), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy, or are currently taking valproic acid, carbamazepine, or antifolates (eg, sulfonamides), they are at intermediate-to-high risk of having babies with NTDs and need 4.0 to 5.0 mg of folic acid daily.

Ahn, Eric; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Koren, Gideon

2004-01-01

328

Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol  

PubMed Central

The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

2010-01-01

329

Supplement Timing of Cranberry Extract Plays a Key Role in Promoting Caenorhabditis elegans Healthspan  

PubMed Central

Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry exact (CBE), rich in polyphenols, is consumed as a nutraceutical, and possesses anti-aging properties. Here, we examined the influence of timing on the beneficial effects of CBE supplementation in C. elegans. The prolongevity effect of CBE in different aged worms, young adults, middle-age adults, and aged adults, was determined. Early-start intervention with CBE prolonged the remaining lifespan of worms of different ages more robustly than late-start intervention. The effectiveness of CBE on stress responses and physiological behaviors in different aged worms was also investigated. The early-start intervention prominently promoted motility and resistance to heat shocks and V. cholera infection, especially in aged worms. Together, these findings suggest that the timing of CBE supplementation critically influences its beneficial effects on C. elegans lifespan and healthspan. It is of interest to further investigate whether the similar results would occur in humans.

Guha, Sujay; Natarajan, Ojas; Murbach, Cole G.; Dinh, Jessica; Wilson, Ethan C.; Cao, Min; Zou, Sige; Dong, Yuqing

2014-01-01

330

Herbal ephedra\\/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine long-term safety and efficacy for weight loss of an herbal Ma Huang and Kola nut supplement (90\\/192 mg\\/day ephedrine alkaloids\\/caffeine).Design: Six-month randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial.Subjects: A total of 167 subjects (body mass index (BMI) 31.8±4.1 kg\\/m2) randomized to placebo (n=84) or herbal treatment (n=83) at two outpatient weight control research units.Measurements: Primary outcome measurements were changes

CN Boozer; PA Daly; P Homel; JL Solomon; D Blanchard; JA Nasser; R Strauss; T Meredith

2002-01-01

331

Trace Element Content of Senna Study Material and Selected Senna-Based Dietary Supplements as Determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of senna laxative products and the worldwide trend towards self-medication with dietary supplements of a natural origin have fueled several investigations into the potential health effects associated with their use. The goal of this work was to determine the trace element content [aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe),

Keith E. Levine; Glenn T. Ross; Reshan A. Fernando; James C. Blake; Charles M. Sparacino; Edo D. Pellizzari

2004-01-01

332

Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. Volume 35  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special supplement of the Meteoritics and Planetary Science Society Journal contains the abstracts of 324 technical presentations, and the presentations of awards during the Annual meeting of the Meteoritical Society. The abstracts review current research on meteors and planetary sciences.

Sears, Derek W. G. (Editor); Binzel, Richard P. (Editor); Gaffey, Michael J. (Editor); Kraehenbuehl, Urs (Editor); Pieters, Carle M. (Editor); Shaw, Denis (Editor); Wieler, Rainer (Editor); Brownlee, Donald E. (Editor); Goldstein, Joseph I. (Editor); Lyon, Ian C. (Editor)

2000-01-01

333

Coal development information packet. Supplement 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This supplement to the Coal Development Information Packet prepared and distributed by the Montana Energy Advisory Council in December 1974 is intended to provide a brief summary of ''socio-economic'' information pertinent to existing and potential energy development activities in Montana. The benefits of industrialization of Eastern Montana's coal reserves have been much touted. Increased revenues to state, county and local

1975-01-01

334

Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

2001-01-01

335

School Improvement Network Directory: 1992 Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory supplement provides information about 211 schools (in British Columbia, Department of Defense Dependent Schools--Panama, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Oregon, Pacific Jurisdictions, Washington, and Wyoming) working with the school-based management process Onward to Excellence (OTE), which seeks to…

Gipe, Linda, Comp.

336

Minority Groups: A Bibliography and Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The books, films, recordings, song books, and additional sources recommended in this annotated bibliography and supplement on minority groups are listed in sections intended for general reference, elementary students, secondary students, and teacher reference. Although the preponderance of sources deal with the history and culture of the American…

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

337

Creatine Supplementation and Exercise Performance Recent Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

ments taken in an attempt to improve athletic performance. The aim of this review is to update, summarise and evaluate the findings associated with Cr ingestion and sport and exercise performance with the most recent research available. Because of the large volume of scientific literature dealing with Cr supplementation and the recent efforts to delineate sport-specific effects, this paper focuses

Michael G. Bemben; Hugh S. Lamont

338

324 building safety analysis report supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process engineering designs, major equipment and plant facilities to be utilized in commercial nuclear waste preparation and vitrification in the 324 Radiochemical Engineering Building are reviewed with regard to accident potential and consequences. This Safety Analysis Report Supplement compares calculated environmental doses anticipated from the Commercial Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (CNWVP) routine operations with the average doses from past waste

A. O. Dodd; N. G. Wittenbrock

1977-01-01

339

In Search of Canadian Materials. Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as an aid to the selection of Canadian materials for the school library, this annotated bibliography supplements a 1978 listing of items by or about Canadians. Major subdivisions of the work include a reference materials section as well as sections by subject category: language and literature, Canadian history, Canadian studies, the arts,…

Tonn, Patricia, Comp.

340

Main issues in micronutrient supplementation in phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

For almost all patients with PKU, a low phenylalanine diet is the basis of the treatment despite a widely varying natural protein tolerance. A vitamin and mineral supplement is essential and it is commonly added to a phenylalanine-free (phe-free) source of L-amino acids. In PKU, many phe-free L-amino acid supplements have age-specific vitamin and mineral profiles to meet individual requirements. The main micronutrient sources are chemically derived and their delivery dosage is usually advised in three or more doses throughout the day. Within the EU, the composition of VM (vitamin and mineral) phe-free L-amino acid supplements is governed by the Foods for Special Medical Purposes (FSMP) directive (European Commission Directive number 1999/21/EC and amended by Directive 2006/141/EC). However the micronutrient composition of the majority fails to remain within FSMP micronutrient maximum limits per 100 kcal due to their low energy content and so compositional exceptions to the FSMP directive have to be granted for each supplement. All patients with PKU require an annual nutritional follow-up, until it has been proven that they are not at risk of any vitamin and mineral imbalances. When non-dietary treatments are used to either replace or act as an adjunct to diet therapy, the quality of micronutrient intake should still be considered important and monitored systematically. European guidelines are required about which micronutrients should be measured and the conditions (fasting status) for monitoring. PMID:24018009

Lammardo, A M; Robert, M; Rocha, J C; van Rijn, M; Ahring, K; Bélanger-Quintana, A; MacDonald, A; Dokoupil, K; Ozel, H Gokmen; Goyens, P; Feillet, F

2013-01-01

341

Explaining Adherence to Supplemental Oxygen Therapy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To describe and explain the patterns of adherence to supplemental oxygen in individuals with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN Qualitative study of a case-series of patients with COPD who use supplemental oxygen. SETTING Denver, Colorado. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling, English speaking individuals with hypoxemic COPD receiving long-term supplemental oxygen therapy. MEASUREMENTS Forced expiratory lung volume, in liters at one second (FEV1), the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, semistructured investigator-administered interviews. RESULTS Respondents from a demographically representative sample with moderate to severe COPD (average age, 69; average FEV1, 1.1) described 3 distinct patterns of adherence to supplemental oxygen therapy: as-needed use, part-time use, and full-time use. For many individuals, the pattern of adherence changed with time and reflected their struggle to optimally manage their health, symptoms, physical function, and social milieu. Adherence to oxygen tended to increase with time and was often associated with significant personal compromises. CONCLUSION Adhering to oxygen therapy is a complex and difficult task with many barriers, including the physical difficulty of using the oxygen, self-consciousness and a sense of social stigma, lack of perceived benefit, and fear of deleterious side effects from treatment. Improving adherence may involve understanding the process of adapting to oxygen use and addressing the many barriers to therapy.

Earnest, Mark A

2002-01-01

342

MCN Clinial Supplement, January/February 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal supplement developed by the Migrant Clinicans Network (MCN) contains three articles related to domestic violence in the migrant population. "Domestic Violence Tips for Clinicians" suggests what to include in the patient's medical record, recommends routine screening, and offers guidelines for interviewing. It also lists what to look…

Migrant Health Newsline, 1994

1994-01-01

343

Catalog of Programmed Instructional Material, Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A supplement to the NavPers 93826 Catalog of Programed Instructional Material provides a full description of instructional material programed within the Navy since April, 1967. Summaries are given of all courses, including information on the specific learners for whom the course's instruction is intended, the type of program, the projected time…

Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Personnel and Training Branch.

344

40 CFR 192.22 - Supplemental standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...more of the criteria of § 192.21(a) through (g) applies, the Secretary...this section. (d) When § 192.21(b), (f), or (g) apply, implementing agencies...environment. In addition, when § 192.21(g) applies, supplemental...

2010-07-01

345

40 CFR 192.22 - Supplemental standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...more of the criteria of § 192.21(a) through (g) applies, the Secretary...this section. (d) When § 192.21(b), (f), or (g) apply, implementing agencies...environment. In addition, when § 192.21(g) applies, supplemental...

2009-07-01

346

Supplementing iron bioavailability enhanced mung bean.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anaemia is a major public health problem. The high incidence is either due to insufficient intake of iron or poor bio availability. Enhancing the bio availability is as important as increasing the intake. The absorption could be enhanced by including ascorbic acid and beta carotene containing fruits and vegetables into recipes of iron containing food preparations. The effect of supplementation of iron bio-availability enhanced mung bean preparations was studied on 75 women who were compared against 75 who served as controls and another 75 who consumed regular traditional recipes. The methodology included identification of suitable mung bean variety, assessing iron in vitro bio availability, mapping the anaemic women, estimating their iron levels, supplementation for one year and studying the effect of supplementation. Mung bean supplementation had increased serum protein levels from 5.36 to 6.73 g/dl, serum iron levels had increased from 16.6 to 46.7 microg/dl. The TIBC levels decreased from 555 to 508 microg/dl while serum ferritin levels increased from 3.56 to 5.94 microg/dl and Hb levels from 7.54 to 8.29 g/dl. Thus, improving the bioavailability of iron of food preparations, will improve the iron status of women. PMID:18296312

Purushothaman, Vijayalakshmi; M, Amirthaveni; Tsou, Samson C S; S, Shanmugasundaram

2008-01-01

347

Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This supplement provides the medicinal properties of some 1,000 plants. The plants have been arranged in alphabetical order according to their scientific names so readers can find any particular drug on which information is required. Many of the commonly ...

R. N. Chopra I. C. Chopra B. S. Varma

1969-01-01

348

Cooper Lake and Channels, Texas. Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Cooper Lake and Channels projects was filed with the Council on Environmental Quality on 24 Jun 1977. Supplemental EIS on Cooper Lake and Channels, Texas dated March 1981 is a reevaluation of the EIS taki...

1977-01-01

349

Soy Supplementation and Prostate Cancer Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is conducting a randomized double-blind clinical trial to assess the ability of a soy protein dietary supplement to reduce prostate cancer risk in older men. A total of 120 men (60 white men and 60 African- American men) aged 50 years or olde...

E. Paskett

2000-01-01

350

Soy Supplementation and Prostate Cancer Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is conducting a randomized double-blind clinical trial to access the ability of a soy protein dietary supplement to reduce prostate cancer risk in older men. A total of 120 men (60 white and 60 African-American) aged 50 years or older with hi...

E. D. Paskett

2004-01-01

351

Soy Supplementation and Prostate Cancer Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is conducting a randomized double-blind clinical trial to assess the ability of a soy protein dietary supplement to reduce prostate cancer risk in older men. A total of 120 men (60 white and 60 African-American) aged 50 years or older with hi...

E. D. Paskett

2003-01-01

352

Soy Supplementation and Prostate Cancer Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is conducting a randomized double-blind clinical trial to assess the ability of a soy protein dietary supplement to reduce prostate cancer risk in older men. A total of 120 men (60 white men and 60 African- American men) aged 50 years or olde...

E. D. Paskett

2001-01-01

353

INFORMATION COLLECTION RULE (ICR) SUPPLEMENTAL SURVEYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The primary purpose of the ICR Supplemental Surveys is to better characterize the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and other microorganisms and DBP precursors and to collect data pertaining to water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, etc.) The inf...

354

Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1995 Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This statistical supplement provides state-level trend data for 10 indicators of children's well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) death rate of children ages 1 to 14 years; (4) kindergarten retention; (5) violent death rate of teenagers aged 15 to 19 years; (6) juvenile arrests; (7) youth completing high school; (8)…

Minneapolis Public Library, MN.

355

Supplemental air valve for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A valve for attachment in the PCV system of an internal combustion engine for regulating the admission of supplemental air to the crank case blow-by return, comprising: (a) a valve body defining a bore, the body having an inlet and an outlet connection defining a passageway through the valve for the blow-by return, the body further defining a port for

Pankow

1987-01-01

356

Multivitamin Supplementation and Risk of Birth Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that supplementation with folic acid, a B vitamin, reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). This case-control study tested the hypothesis that multivitamins reduce risks of selected birth defects other than NTDs. Infants with and without birth defects and aborted fetuses with birth defects were ascertained in the greater metropolitan areas of Boston, Philadelphia, and

Martha M. Werler; Catherine Hayes; Carol Louik; Samuel Shapiro; Allen A. Mitchell

357

Randomized study of zinc supplementation during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis underlying this study was that a daily dietary Zn supplement during pregnancy would be associated with higher values for selected indices of Zn nutriture than corresponding values for non-Zn-supplemented subjects, if, and only if, Zn status of the unsupplemented control group was sub-optimal. The 12 test and 17 control subjects were healthy, apparently well-nourished anglos who were enrolled before the 12th week of gestation. Mean age=29 yrs, mean parity=0.8. Test subjects received a daily supplement of 15 mg Zn (mean compliance=90%) from the time of enrollment until 3 months post-partum. The supplement was taken at bedtime while other vitamin/mineral preparations were taken before breakfast. Blood samples were obtained at 4 week intervals from enrollment. Selected preliminary results: plasma Zn declined progressively with length of gestation to a nadir of 53 +/- 6 ..mu..g/dl at 10 months. (Non-pregnant mean 77 +/- 7). As in a previous, non-randomized, study the rate of decline for the test group did not differ from that of the control group. Mean monthly neutrophil Zn ranged from 43 +/- 8 - 50 +/- 14 ..mu..g/10/sup 10/ cells; there was not consistent pattern across gestation. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity and pre-albumin of the test group did not differ from the control group. These data did not give any indication of sub-optimal Zn nutriture in this pregnant population.

Hambidge, K.M.; Oliva-Rasbach, J.; Jacobs, M.; Purcell, S.; Statland, C.; Poirier, J.

1986-03-05

358

Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the widespread destruction brought to the Gulf Coast by Hurricane Katrina, the 109th Congress completed action on a $10.5 billion emergency supplemental bill (P.L. 109-61, H.R. 3645), as requested by the Administration. The President submit...

J. E. Lake R. M. Chite

2005-01-01

359

Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine common herbal supplements, explore potential risks associated with herbal use, and provide recommendations to the athletic trainer regarding patient care issues. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases 1990–2000 using the key words herbals, regulation, supplements, toxicity, and adulteration. Data Synthesis: The use of herbal products continues to grow. While the origins of some medications and herbal supplements are similar, clinical testing and understanding of most herbal remedies is lacking. Some herbal products may prove useful in an athletic setting; however, current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations do not ensure safe and effective products. A descriptive review focusing on specific considerations for the athletic trainer is provided. Conclusions/Recommendations: Despite their increasing tendency to seek natural therapies, athletes need to be aware that “natural” does not equal “safe.” Athletes are entitled to know that most herbs are not proven safe or effective under current FDA standards. The athletic trainer must be able to provide honest, unbiased information when educating athletes regarding herbal supplements.

Storrs, Cordial M.

2001-01-01

360

Using Smartphones to Supplement Classroom Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supplementing classroom reading with smartphones can develop better vocabulary knowledge, comprehension, technology skills, and writing. This article connects smartphones to reading complex, informational text and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The author suggests that smartphones motivate, scaffold comprehension, and invite…

Bromley, Karen

2013-01-01

361

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2013-07-01

362

43 CFR 4.1134 - Supplementation of responses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Supplementation of responses. 4.1134 Section 4...Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals...1134 Supplementation of responses. A party who has responded...request for discovery with a response that was complete when...

2010-10-01

363

43 CFR 4.1134 - Supplementation of responses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Supplementation of responses. 4.1134 Section 4...Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals...1134 Supplementation of responses. A party who has responded...request for discovery with a response that was complete when...

2009-10-01

364

Report of the Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As requested, the Commission conducted a study on and is providing recommendations for the regulation of label claims and statements for dietary supplements, including the use of literature in connection with the sale of dietary supplements, including the...

1997-01-01

365

77 FR 38717 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 9303 RIN 3460-AA01 Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees AGENCY...employees that will supplement the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct (Standards) issued by OGE. The final...

2012-06-29

366

45 CFR 63.8 - Supplemental regulations and grant conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Supplemental regulations and grant conditions. 63.8 Section 63.8...HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF...63.8 Supplemental regulations and grant conditions. (a) Grants under...

2013-10-01

367

77 FR 1971 - Supplemental Security Income and Homeless Individuals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SSA-2011-0087] Supplemental Security Income and Homeless Individuals AGENCY: Social Security...public regarding the unique needs of homeless Supplemental Security Income (SSI...in public emergency shelters for the homeless, in an effort to better understand...

2012-01-12

368

21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101...CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements....

2010-04-01

369

21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101...CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements....

2009-04-01

370

DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

2013-01-01

371

Annual Bibliography of Significant Advances in Dietary Supplement Research, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Dietary Supplements is pleased to provide you with this publication for the seventh consecutive year. The Office engages in a process of identifying exemplary papers on dietary supplements and disseminating this information through the Annua...

2006-01-01

372

48 CFR 1801.103 - Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) 1801.103 Section 1801.103... Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1801.103 Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) (a) Under the...

2012-10-01

373

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2012-10-01

374

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2011-10-01

375

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2010-10-01

376

49 CFR 1542.219 - Supplementing law enforcement personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Supplementing law enforcement personnel. 1542.219 Section... § 1542.219 Supplementing law enforcement personnel. (a) When...qualified State, local, and private law enforcement personnel are...

2013-10-01

377

48 CFR 1837.203 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1837...Assistance Services 1837.203 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (c)) (c...1, Appointment of Personnel To/From NASA, Chapter 4, Employment of Experts...

2013-10-01

378

48 CFR 1801.103 - Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) 1801.103 Section 1801.103... Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1801.103 Authority. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)) (a) Under the...

2013-10-01

379

48 CFR 1813.003 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (g))  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (g)) 1813.003 Section 1813.003... SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES 1813.003 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (g)) (g) Acquisitions under...

2013-10-01

380

23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130...RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements....

2013-04-01

381

12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

2013-01-01

382

Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October

Tam

1995-01-01

383

Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10

Tam

1995-01-01

384

Antifracture efficacy of currently available therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and bone mineral density, and deterioration of the underlying structure of bone tissue. These changes lead to an increase in bone fragility and an increased risk for fracture, which are the clinical consequences of osteoporosis. The classical triad for consideration in osteoporosis is morbidity, mortality and cost. Vertebral fracture is an important source of morbidity in terms of pain and spinal deformity. On the other hand, hip fracture is associated with the worst outcomes and is widely regarded as a life-threatening event in the elderly; it is the source of the bulk of the cost of the disease in contemporary healthcare. The prevention of osteoporosis-associated fracture should include fall prevention, calcium supplementation and lifestyle advice, as well as pharmacological therapy using agents with proven antifracture efficacy. The most commonly used osteoporosis treatments in Europe are the bisphosphonates alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate and zoledronic acid; the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene; teriparatide; and strontium ranelate. Recent additions include the biological therapy denosumab and the SERM bazedoxifene. In this review, we explore the antifracture efficacy of these agents with the aim of simplifying treatment decisions. These treatments can be broadly divided according to their mode of action. The antiresorptive agents include the bisphosphonates, the SERMs and denosumab, while the bone-forming agents include parathyroid hormone and teriparatide. Strontium ranelate appears to combine both antiresorptive and anabolic activities. We collated data on vertebral and hip fracture efficacy from the pivotal 3-year phase III trials, all of which had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. The relative reductions in risk in the osteoporosis trials range from 30% to 70% for vertebral fracture and 30% to 51% for hip fracture. This translates into 3-year number needed to treat values of between 9 and 21 for vertebral fracture and from 48 upwards for hip fracture. International guidelines agree that agents that have been shown to decrease vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures should be used preferentially over agents that only demonstrate vertebral antifracture efficacy. This is the case for alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid, denosumab and strontium ranelate. Finally, therapeutic decisions should be based on a balance between benefits and risks of treatment, which must be carefully considered in each particular case both by the physician and the patient. Indeed, no single agent is appropriate for all patients and, therefore, treatment decisions should be made on an individual basis, taking into account all measures of treatment effect and risk before making informed judgments about the best individual treatment option. PMID:21175240

Reginster, Jean-Yves

2011-01-01

385

Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Third Edition (Including Supplements 1-7) Supplement 10.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this Supplement to AP-42, new, revised and updated emissions data are presented for mobile sources; aircraft; transportation and marketing of petroleum liquids; waste solvent reclamation; tank and drum cleaning; hydrofluoric acid; phosphoric acid; sulf...

1980-01-01

386

Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Third Edition (Including Supplements 1-7). Supplement No. 10.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this Supplement to AP-42, new, revised and updated emissions data are presented for mobile sources; aircraft; transportation and marketing of petroleum liquids; waste solvent reclamation; tank and drum cleaning; hydrofluoric acid; phosphoric acid; sulf...

1980-01-01

387

Morbidity and mortality reduction by supplemental vitamin A or beta-carotene in CBA mice given total-body gamma-radiation  

SciTech Connect

Male CBA mice received graded doses (450-750 rad) of total-body gamma-radiation (TBR) from a dual-beam /sup 137/Cs irradiator. Commencing directly after TBR, 2 days later, or 6 days later, groups of mice received supplemental vitamin A (Vit A) or beta-carotene (beta-Car), compounds previously found to reduce radiation disease in mice subjected to partial-body X-irradiation. Given directly after TBR, supplemental Vit A decreased mortality, evidenced by increases in the radiation dose required to kill 50% of the mice within 30 days (LD50/30). In one experiment, Vit A increased the LD50/30 from 555 to 620 rad; in another experiment, Vit A increased the dose from 505 to 630 rad. Similarly, in a third experiment, supplemental beta-Car increased the LD50/30 from 510 to 645 rad. Additionally, each compound increased the survival times, even of those mice that died within 30 days. In addition to reduction of mortality and prolongation of survival time, supplemental Vit A moderated weight loss, adrenal gland hyperemia, thymus involution, and lymphopenia--all signs of radiation toxicity. Delaying the supplementation for 2 days after irradiation did not greatly reduce the efficacy of Vit A; however, delaying supplementation for 6 days decreased its effect almost completely.

Seifter, E.; Rettura, G.; Padawer, J.; Stratford, F.; Weinzweig, J.; Demetriou, A.A.; Levenson, S.M.

1984-11-01

388

Principals' transformational leadership and teachers' collective efficacy.  

PubMed

The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership. PMID:18567210

Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu

2008-04-01

389

Do dialysis patients need extra folate supplementation?  

PubMed

To assess folate status and to evaluate the need for conventional folate supplementation in patients on dialysis, we measured serum folate, vitamin B12, and red cell folate concentrations by radioimmunoassay. Thirty-four continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients and 60 hemodialysis (HD) patients who had not been supplemented with folate were enrolled. Serum folate levels (5.8 +/- 3.6 ng/mL vs 2.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL, p < 0.001) and vitamin B12 levels (831.4 +/- 416.9 pg/mL vs 513.9 +/- 213.3 pg/mL, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in CAPD patients than HD patients. The red cell folate levels (849.7 +/- 489.4 ng/mL vs 491.0 +/- 253.2 ng/mL, p < 0.001) were also significantly higher in CAPD patients. The incidences of folate deficiency in CAPD and HD patients were overestimated using the cut-off value for serum folate concentration (3.0% vs 71.7%, respectively), but the incidence of true folate deficiency was lower using the cut-off value for red cell folate level (0.0% vs 10.0%, respectively). In conclusion, the true incidence of folate deficiency in stable CAPD and HD patients is surprisingly low, even in patients who may not be taking folate supplements. The need for conventional folate supplementation in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis must therefore be re-evaluated. Before the decision is made to use folate supplementation, measurement of red cell folate is essential to assess of folate reserves of the patients on dialysis. PMID:10682112

Lee, E Y; Kim, J S; Lee, H J; Yoon, D S; Han, B G; Shim, Y H; Choi, S O

1999-01-01

390

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

Albert Bandura

1982-01-01

391

Effect of routine iron supplementation with or without folic acid on anemia during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency in the world, particularly during pregnancy. According to the literature, anemia, particularly severe anemia, is associated with increased risk of maternal mortality. It also puts mothers at risk of multiple perinatal complications. Numerous studies in the past have evaluated the impact of supplementation with iron and iron-folate but data regarding the efficacy and quality of evidence of these interventions are lacking. This article aims to address the impact of iron with and without folate supplementation on maternal anemia and provides outcome specific quality according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) guidelines. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized and quasi-randomized trials on PubMed and the Cochrane Library as per the CHERG guidelines. The studies selected employed daily supplementation of iron with or without folate compared with no intervention/placebo, and also compared intermittent supplementation with the daily regimen. The studies were abstracted and graded according to study design, limitations, intervention specifics and outcome effects. CHERG rules were then applied to evaluate the impact of these interventions on iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Results After screening 3550 titles, 31 studies were selected for assessment using CHERG criteria. Daily iron supplementation resulted in 73% reduction in the incidence of anemia at term (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.17 – 0.42; random effects model) and 67% reduction in iron deficiency anemia at term (RR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16 – 0.69; random model) compared to no intervention/placebo. For this intervention, both these outcomes were graded as ‘moderate’ quality evidence. Daily supplementation with iron-folate was associated with 73% reduction in anemia at term (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12 – 0.56; random model) with a quality grade of ‘moderate’. The effect of the same intervention on iron deficiency anemia was non-significant (RR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.17 – 1.09; random model) and was graded as ‘low’ quality evidence. There was no difference in rates of anemia at term with intermittent iron-folate vs. daily iron-folate supplementation (RR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.82 –3.14; random model). Conclusion Applying the CHERG rules, we recommend a 73% reduction in anemia at term with daily iron (alone) supplementation or iron/folate (combined) vs. no intervention or placebo; for inclusion in the LiST model. Given the paucity of studies of intermittent iron or iron-folate supplementation, especially in developing countries, we recommend further evaluation of this intervention in comparison with daily supplementation regimen.

2011-01-01

392

The short-term effects of antioxidant and zinc supplements on oxidative stress biomarker levels in plasma: a pilot investigation  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if short-term Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) antioxidant and zinc supplementation affects biomarkers of oxidative stress, possibly serving as a predictor of their efficacy. Design Prospective interventional case series Methods Nineteen subjects, 12 with intermediate or advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (AREDS categories 3 or 4) and 7 non-AMD controls, were admitted to the Vanderbilt General Clinical Research Center and placed on a controlled diet for 7 days. Antioxidant and zinc supplements were stopped two weeks prior to study enrollment. Dietary supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E, 15 mg ?-carotene, 80 mg zinc oxide, and 2 mg cupric oxide per day was instituted on Study Day 2. Blood was drawn on Study Days 2 and 7, and plasma concentrations of cysteine (Cys), cystine (CySS), glutathione (GSH), isoprostane (IsoP), and isofuran (IsoF) were determined. Results Short-term AREDS supplementation significantly lowered mean plasma levels of CySS in participants on a regulated diet (p = 0.034). No significant differences were observed for Cys, GSH, IsoP, or IsoF. There were no significant differences between AMD patients and controls. Conclusions This pilot interventional study shows that a 5-day course of antioxidant and zinc supplements can modify plasma levels of CySS, suggesting that this oxidative stress biomarker could help predict how likely an individual is to benefit from AREDS supplementation. Further, CySS may be useful for the evaluation of new AMD therapies, particularly those hypothesized to affect redox status.

Brantley, Milam A.; Osborn, Melissa P.; Sanders, Barton J.; Rezaei, Kasra A.; Lu, Pengcheng; Li, Chun; Milne, Ginger L.; Cai, Jiyang; Sternberg, Paul

2012-01-01

393

INTRAVENOUS VERSUS ORAL IRON SUPPLEMENTATION IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron supplementation is required in a preponderance of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients treated with erythropoi- etic stimulatory agents (ESAs). Although many authors and clinical practice guidelines recommend primary oral iron supplementation in ESA-treated PD patients, numerous studies have clearly demonstrated that, because of a combi- nation of poor bioavailability of oral iron, gastrointestinal intolerance, and noncompliance, oral iron supplementation is

David W. Johnson

2006-01-01

394

Early Supplemental Feeding and Spontaneous Play in West Java, Indonesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of nutritional supplements on the duration and level of spontaneous play of 55 mildly to moderately malnourished toddlers living within the tea plantations of West Java, Indonesia. Infants were randomly assigned by their day care centers to one of three supplement groups: (1) energy and micronutrient supplements

Walka, Helen; Pollitt, Ernesto; Triana, Nina; Jahari, Abas B.

395

Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

2001-01-01

396

Supplemental instruction for improving first year results in engineering studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been made on the impact of supplemental instruction in supported courses, with most showing significantly better examination results for students attending supplemental instruction in comparison to those who do not. However, remarkably little attention has been devoted to following up whether the benefits of supplemental instruction reach beyond the course it supports. The present study focuses on

Joakim Malm; Leif Bryngfors

2011-01-01

397

Antioxidant and Vitamin D supplements for athletes: Sense or nonsense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that dietary supplements can improve athletic performance is popular among athletes. The use of antioxidant supplements is widespread among endurance athletes because of evidence that free radicals contribute to muscle fatigue during prolonged exercise. Furthermore, interest in vitamin D supplementation is increasing in response to studies indicating that vitamin D deficiency exists in athletic populations. This review explores

Scott Powers; W. Bradley Nelson; Enette Larson-Meyer

2011-01-01

398

Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

Not Available

1994-08-01

399

Supplemental Instruction for Improving First Year Results in Engineering Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have been made on the impact of supplemental instruction in supported courses, with most showing significantly better examination results for students attending supplemental instruction in comparison to those who do not. However, remarkably little attention has been devoted to following up whether the benefits of supplemental…

Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Morner, Lise-Lotte

2012-01-01

400

Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

NONE

1993-08-06

401

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).  

PubMed

Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23320910

Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

2013-01-01

402

Efficacy of folate and vitamin B12 in lowering homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

To evaluate the efficacy of supplementation with high dose folic acid with and without vitamin B 12 in lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in hemodialysis (HD) patients, we studied 36 HD patients randomized into four groups according to the received therapeutic regimen: group I (only folic acid (FA), 5 mg/day), group II (FA, 5 mg/day + vitamin B 12 , 1 mg/day) group III (only FA, 15 mg/day), group IV (FA, 15 mg/day, vitamin B 12 , 1 mg/day) for a period of 8 weeks. Plasma tHcy and serum FA and vitamin B 12 levels were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intakes were assessed during the study period. At baseline, 27.8% of the patients had normal levels of tHcy and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After supplementation, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group I and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups II, III and IV respectively, which was only significant in group IV (P= 0.014). The patients did not show any significant changes in serum folic acid, but a significant change in serum vitamin B 12 in group IV (P= 0.006). Percentage of patients reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group IV than in the reference group (group I). No correlations were found between changes of plasma tHcy levels and dietary intakes. We conclude that oral supplementation with 15 mg/day folic acid together with 1 mg/day of vitamin B 12 is effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients. These supplements also have a desirable effect on serum folic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:19736473

Azadibakhsh, Nassim; Hosseini, Rahebeh Shaker; Atabak, Shahnaz; Nateghiyan, Navid; Golestan, Banafsheh; Rad, Anahita Hooshyar

2009-09-01

403

A forced titration study of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of Ambrotose AO supplement  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidative stress plays a role in acute and chronic inflammatory disease and antioxidant supplementation has demonstrated beneficial effects in the treatment of these conditions. This study was designed to determine the optimal dose of an antioxidant supplement in healthy volunteers to inform a Phase 3 clinical trial. Methods The study was designed as a combined Phase 1 and 2 open label, forced titration dose response study in healthy volunteers (n = 21) to determine both acute safety and efficacy. Participants received a dietary supplement in a forced titration over five weeks commencing with a no treatment baseline through 1, 2, 4 and 8 capsules. The primary outcome measurement was ex vivo changes in serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The secondary outcome measures were undertaken as an exploratory investigation of immune function. Results A significant increase in antioxidant activity (serum ORAC) was observed between baseline (no capsules) and the highest dose of 8 capsules per day (p = 0.040) representing a change of 36.6%. A quadratic function for dose levels was fitted in order to estimate a dose response curve for estimating the optimal dose. The quadratic component of the curve was significant (p = 0.047), with predicted serum ORAC scores increasing from the zero dose to a maximum at a predicted dose of 4.7 capsules per day and decreasing for higher doses. Among the secondary outcome measures, a significant dose effect was observed on phagocytosis of granulocytes, and a significant increase was also observed on Cox 2 expression. Conclusion This study suggests that Ambrotose AO® capsules appear to be safe and most effective at a dosage of 4 capsules/day. It is important that this study is not over interpreted; it aimed to find an optimal dose to assess the dietary supplement using a more rigorous clinical trial design. The study achieved this aim and demonstrated that the dietary supplement has the potential to increase antioxidant activity. The most significant limitation of this study was that it was open label Phase 1/Phase 2 trial and is subject to potential bias that is reduced with the use of randomization and blinding. To confirm the benefits of this dietary supplement these effects now need to be demonstrated in a Phase 3 randomised controlled trial (RCT). Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12605000258651

2010-01-01

404

A Double-Blind Comparison of a Supplemental Interligamentary Injection of Fentanyl and Mepivacaine with 1:200,000 Epinephrine for Irreversible Pulpitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analgesic efficacy of supplemental interligamentary fentanyl injection for management of endodontic debridement patients was investigated through a randomized, double-blind study. Forty patients who presented with acute symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of the upper first molar tooth participated in the study. Patients were scheduled for endodontic debridement, for which infiltration anesthesia with 1.8ml of 2% mepivacaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 was the

Eman A. Elsharrawy; Yehia M. Elbaghdady

2007-01-01

405

Does the Evidence Make a Difference in Consumer Behavior? Sales of Supplements Before and After Publication of Negative Research Results  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if the public consumption of herbs, vitamins, and supplements changes in light of emerging negative evidence. Methods We describe trends in annual US sales of five major supplements in temporal relationship with publication of research from three top US general medical journals published from 2001 through early 2006 and the number of news citations associated with each publication using the Lexus-Nexis database. Results In four of five supplements (St. John’s wort, echinacea, saw palmetto, and glucosamine), there was little or no change in sales trends after publication of research results. In one instance, however, dramatic changes in sales occurred following publication of data suggesting harm from high doses of vitamin E. Conclusion Results reporting harm may have a greater impact on supplement consumption than those demonstrating lack of efficacy. In order for clinical trial evidence to influence public behavior, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence the translation of evidence in the public.

Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Miller, Franklin G.

2008-01-01

406

Evidence for supplemental treatments in androgenetic alopecia.  

PubMed

Currently, topical minoxidil and finasteride are the only treatments that have been FDA approved for the treatment of female pattern hair loss and androgenetic alopecia. Given the incomplete efficacy and sife effect profile of these medications, some patients utilize alternative treatments to help improve this condition. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence underlying the efficacy of these alternative approaches, including biotin, caffeine, melatonin, a marine extract, and zinc.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(7):809-812. PMID:25007363

Famenini, Shannon; Goh, Carolyn

2014-07-01

407

Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Student Work Teams: Relation to Self-Efficacy, Cohesion, and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A measure of collective efficacy was developed and administered to undergraduates working in project teams in engineering courses. Findings in each of two samples revealed that the measure contained a single factor and was related to ratings of team cohesion and personal efficacy. Collective efficacy was also found to relate to indicators of team…

Lent, Robert W.; Schmidt, Janet; Schmidt, Linda

2006-01-01

408

Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)  

PubMed Central

Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed and most had high levels of attrition. Overall, there was no clear evidence of differences between groups for infant primary outcomes: low birthweight (average risk ratio (RR) 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 1.52, seven studies), infant birthweight (mean difference MD ?8.62 g; 95% CI ?52.76 g to 35.52 g, eight studies), premature birth (average RR 1.82; 95% CI 0.75 to 4.40, four studies). None of the studies reported neonatal deaths or congenital anomalies. For maternal outcomes, there was no clear evidence of differences between groups for anaemia at term (average RR 1.22; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.80, four studies) and women receiving intermittent supplementation had less side effects (average RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.84, 11 studies) than those receiving daily supplements. Women receiving intermittent supplements were also at lower risk of having high haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations (greater than 130 g/L) during the second or third trimester of pregnancy (average RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.67, 13 studies). There were no significant differences in iron-deficiency anaemia between women receiving intermittent or daily iron+folic acid supplementation (average RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.08 to 6.63, 1 study). There were no maternal deaths (six studies) or women with severe anaemia in pregnancy (six studies). None of the studies reported on iron deficiency at term or infections during pregnancy. Where sufficient data were available for primary outcomes, we set up subgroups to look for possible differences between studies in terms of earlier or later supplementation; women’s anaemia status at the start of supplementation; higher and lower weekly doses of iron; and the malarial status of the region in which the trials were conducted. There was no clear effect of these variables on the results of the review. Authors’ conclusions The present systematic review is the most comprehensive summary of the evidence assessing the benefits and harms of intermittent iron supplementation regimens in pregnant women on haematological and pregnancy outcomes.

Pena-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

2014-01-01

409

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-Induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Findings of a recent epidemiological study suggested that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objectives: We conducted a randomized, controlled exposure study to evaluate the efficacy of fish oil supplements in attenuating adverse cardiac effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine and ultrafine particulate matter (CAP). Methods: Twenty-nine healthy middle-aged participants (mean, 58 ± 1 years of age) were supplemented in a randomized, double-blinded manner with 3 g/day of either fish oil or olive oil for 4 weeks before sequential chamber exposure to filtered air and CAP (mean mass concentration 278 ± 19 µg/m3) for 2 hr. Cardiac responses were assessed by comparing time and frequency domain changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and electrocardiographic repolarization changes measured before, immediately after, and 20 hr after exposure. Changes in plasma lipids were also evaluated at these time points. Results: Fish oil supplementation appeared to attenuate CAP-induced reductions in high-frequency/low-frequency ratio, as well as elevations in normalized low-frequency HRV and prolongation of the QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc). Very low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations increased significantly immediately after exposure to CAP in participants supplemented with olive oil, but not in those supplemented with fish oil. Conclusions: Exposure of healthy middle-aged adults to CAP for 2 hr induced acute cardiac and lipid changes after supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil. Our findings suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplements offer protection against the adverse cardiac and lipid effects associated with air pollution exposure.

Rappold, Ana G.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Steck, Susan E.; Berntsen, Jon; Cascio, Wayne E.; Devlin, Robert B.; Samet, James M.

2012-01-01

410

Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

1993-10-01

411

Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports, Supplement 11 and Index for 1970-1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Supplement 11 to the report titled 'Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports' (AD-877 653L), (Supplement 1, AD-890 066L), (Supplement 2, AD-905 548L), (Supplement 3, AD-B005 275L), (Supplement 4, AD-B010 6421), (Supplement 5, AD-B019 966L), (...

R. P. Barron M. F. Fox

1983-01-01

412

National Institutes of Health: Curriculum Supplement Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How might students best learn about science? It's a question that has commanded the attention of many educators. These curriculum supplements are teachers' guides to two weeks of lessons on the science behind selected health topics. On the homepage, visitors can use the Description area to learn a bit more about the basic goal of this series. The left-hand side of the homepage contains the bulk of these supplements and their related materials. Here visitors can find documents that include "Exploring Bioethics," "Cell Biology and Cancer," and "Using Technology to Understand Cellular and Molecular Biology." The site is rounded out by a selection of Webinars that include "Evolution and Medicine: A New Approach for High School Biology."

413

Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report is a companion document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94), (DOE/EIA-0383(94)), released in Jan. 1994. Part I of the Supplement presents the key quantitative assumptions underlying the AEO94 projections, responding to requests by energy analysts for additional information on the forecasts. In Part II, the Supplement provides regional projections and other underlying details of the reference case projections in the AEO94. The AEO94 presents national forecasts of energy production, demand and prices through 2010 for five scenarios, including a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices. These forecasts are used by Federal, State, and local governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers in the public and private sectors.

NONE

1994-03-01

414

Marked Seizure Reduction after MCT Supplementation  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 43-year-old man with history of nonsurgical partial epilepsy who previously failed multiple trials of antiepileptic drugs. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were added to his regular diet in the form of pure oil. Subsequently, his seizure frequency was markedly reduced from multiple daily seizures to one seizure every four days. His seizures recurred after transient discontinuation of MCT over a period of ten days. His seizure improvement was achieved at a dose of four tablespoons of MCT twice daily with no reported side effects. He developed significant diarrhea and flatulence at higher doses. We conclude that MCT oil supplementation to regular diet may provide better seizure control in some patients. MCT oil supplementation may be a more tolerable alternative to the standard ketogenic diet.

Azar, Nabil J.

2013-01-01

415

Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.  

PubMed

Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of ?-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. PMID:23265457

Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2013-05-01

416

teachers' changes in personal teaching efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal teaching efficacy is associated with a teacher's effectiveness in the classroom. To enhance this efficacy in a computer-simulated training program, both personal traits and guided practices need to be considered concurrently. In this study, it was hypothesised that the interactive effects from the coupling of personal traits with guided practices would be a reliable predictor of the degree of

Yu-Chu Yeh

417

Supporting Teacher Efficacy: Implications for School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher efficacy has been defined as an important construct in instructional effectiveness. With this knowledge, we must further analyze how efficacy is developed and maintained throughout a teaching career to maximize learning outcomes for students. A literature review revealed little research related to the constructs that are important in the…

Vesely, Jeanette

2009-01-01

418

Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that

James Trussell; Charlotte Ellertson

1999-01-01

419

Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

2012-01-01

420

Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

Dyck, D. J.

2000-01-01

421

Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions which make serum lipoproteins less susceptible to oxidation may be antiatherogenic. The antioxidant properties\\u000a of garlic which have been demonstratedin vitro led us to investigate the effects of garlic supplements on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility in humans. Ten healthy volunteers\\u000a were given 600 mg\\/d of garlic powder (6 tablets of Kwai®) for two weeks in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind crossover

Stacy Phelps; William S. Harris

1993-01-01

422

Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 421  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This supplemental issue of Aeronautical Engineering, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP#2000-7037) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. The coverage includes documents on the engineering and theoretical aspects of design, construction, evaluation, testing, operation, and performance of aircraft (including aircraft engines) and associated components, equipment, and systems. It also includes research and development in aerodynamics, aeronautics, and ground support equipment for aeronautical vehicles.

2000-01-01

423

Deficiency and Supplement: Perfecting the Prosthetic Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ralph Knevet’s 1635 A Supplement of The Faery Queene is a prosthetic (supplementary, “added-on”) in every way: not only does it supply supposedly missing parts of Spenser’s The Faerie Queene, but its historical allegory is defined by its additive qualities. The editorial challenges presented by Knevet’s prosthetic poem are typical of an important class of English literary works from this

Andrew Zurcher

2012-01-01

424

DHA supplementation and pregnancy outcomes123  

PubMed Central

Background: Observational studies associate higher intakes of n?3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) during pregnancy with higher gestation duration and birth size. The results of randomized supplementation trials using various n?3 LCPUFA sources and amounts are mixed. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that 600 mg/d of the n?3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can increase maternal and newborn DHA status, gestation duration, birth weight, and length. Safety was assessed. Design: This phase III, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted between January 2006 and October 2011. Women (n = 350) consumed capsules (placebo, DHA) from <20 wk of gestation to birth. Blood (enrollment, birth, and cord) was analyzed for red blood cell (RBC) phospholipid DHA. The statistical analysis was intent-to-treat. Results: Most of the capsules were consumed (76% placebo; 78% DHA); the mean DHA intake for the treated group was 469 mg/d. In comparison with placebo, DHA supplementation resulted in higher maternal and cord RBC-phospholipid-DHA (2.6%; P < 0.001), longer gestation duration (2.9 d; P = 0.041), and greater birth weight (172 g; P = 0.004), length (0.7 cm; P = 0.022), and head circumference (0.5 cm; P = 0.012). In addition, the DHA group had fewer infants born at <34 wk of gestation (P = 0.025) and shorter hospital stays for infants born preterm (40.8 compared with 8.9 d; P = 0.026) than did the placebo group. No safety concerns were identified. Conclusions: A supplement of 600 mg DHA/d in the last half of gestation resulted in overall greater gestation duration and infant size. A reduction in early preterm and very-low birth weight could be important clinical and public health outcomes of DHA supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00266825.

Colombo, John; Gajewski, Byron J; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Mundy, David; Yeast, John; Georgieff, Michael K; Markley, Lisa A; Kerling, Elizabeth H; Shaddy, D Jill

2013-01-01

425

Institutional plan: Supplements, FY 1998--FY 2003  

SciTech Connect

This supplement contains summaries of the projects, both DOE and non-DOE, that the Argonne National Laboratory conducts. DOE projects include nuclear energy, energy research, energy efficiency, fossil energy, defense programs, non-proliferation and national security, environmental management, and civilian radioactive waste management. The second part of this report contains descriptions of the Argonne National Lab site and facilities. Budget information is also presented.

NONE

1997-07-01

426

Research Review: The Role of Diet in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder--An Appraisal of the Evidence on Efficacy and Recommendations on the Design of Future Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The efficacy of three dietary treatments for ADHD has been repeatedly tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These interventions are restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE) and supplementation with free fatty acids (SFFA). There have been three systematic reviews and associated…

Stevenson, Jim; Buitelaar, Jan; Cortese, Samuele; Ferrin, Maite; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel; Simonoff, Emily; Wong, Ian C. K.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2014-01-01

427

Maternal compared with infant vitamin D supplementation.  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D metabolites were studied in mother-infant pairs at delivery and eight and 15 weeks after that to evaluate the possibility of vitamin D supplementation of infant through the mother. Healthy mothers (n = 49) delivering in January received daily either 2000 IU (group 1), 1000 IU (group 2), or no (group 3) vitamin D. Their infants were exclusively breast fed, and those in group 3 received 400 IU of vitamin D a day. After eight weeks of lactation the infantile vitamin D concentrations were similar in groups 1 and 3 but significantly lower in group 2. The serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were also lower in group 2. The mean mineral, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase values showed no intergroup differences at any point. No infants showed any clinical or biochemical signs of rickets, and their growth was equal. In conclusion, a daily postpartum maternal supplementation with 2000 IU of vitamin D, but not with 1000 IU, seems to normalise the vitamin D metabolites of breast fed infants in winter. Maternal safety with such supplementation over prolonged periods, however, should be examined.

Ala-Houhala, M; Koskinen, T; Terho, A; Koivula, T; Visakorpi, J

1986-01-01

428

Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ? 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ? 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ? 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ? 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within the ranges used in this experiment, does not negatively affect the efficacy of phytase. PMID:21325231

Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

2011-03-01

429

The Use of Nutritional Supplements Among Male Collegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: The consumption of nutritional supplements is high in various sports, whereas, there are not enough documents supporting the beneficial effects of supplements in athletes. In addition, there is no information about taking supplements by Iranian students who participate in sports. Therefore, the goals of this study were to assess the type and prevalence of supplement use, the frequency of use, and relationships between consumption and age, body mass index, training load and type of sport. Methods: One hundred ninety two male students from “Isfahan University of Medical Sciences” participated in this study, voluntarily. A questionnaire that included questions about type and effects of supplements, recommendation resources, place of obtaining, and type of sports were sent to students. Descriptive data were calculated as frequencies (%). Chi-square (?2) analysis was used to analyze the correlation between supplement use and the study variables. Results: Forty-five percent of respondents used some forms of supplements. Supplement users consumed 14 different supplements and each used as many as 1.8 ± 1.2 various supplements during the past six months. Multivitamins (64%) and vitamin C (42%) were the most popular supplements. Students, who participated in individual sports, were more likely to consume dietary supplements (P < 0.05) and ergogenic aids (P < 0.01), but team sports athletes, took more recovery nutrients (P < 0.01). Fifty seven point five percent of student bought their products from pharmacies, 40% from “sport supplements stores” and 2.5% from their friends. Conclusions: It can be concluded that less than half of these students consumed supplements and their information resources were inappropriate.

Darvishi, Leila; Askari, Gholamreza; Hariri, Mitra; Bahreynian, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ehsani, Simin; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Rezai, Parva; Khorvash, Fariba

2013-01-01

430

HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P < .03). In the melanoma-bearing mice treated with IR, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:20136435

Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

2010-02-01

431

Taking Dietary Supplements with Heart, Blood Pressure, or Cholesterol Medicines: A Review of the Research for Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... K Magnesium Ginseng Echinacea Garlic supplements Ginger supplements Ginkgo biloba Omega-3 fatty acids/fish oil Coenzyme ... such as: Ginseng Echinacea Garlic supplements Ginger supplements Ginkgo biloba Hawthorn Other supplements, such as: Omega-3 ...

432

Functional benefits of ergothioneine and fruit- and vegetable-derived nutraceuticals: overview of the supplemental issue contents.  

PubMed

For good reason, there is increasing interest in assessing the clinical efficacy of dietary supplements, naturally occurring compounds, and nutraceuticals intended for improving health and reducing disease. This is also a pressing interest in mitigating the effects of age-dependent chronic diseases. This opportunity argues for the need to develop a clear understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms responsible for the actions of dietary biofactors that can contribute to the slowing or preventing of diseases and the possibility of enhancing these improvements by coupling them with healthy lifestyle changes. PMID:22579240

Aruoma, Okezie I; Coles, L Stephen; Landes, Bernie; Repine, John E

2012-05-01

433

Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

2010-01-01

434

[Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].  

PubMed

The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and reproduction ward in the Voivodship Hospital in Pozna?. My own researches show that the most important source of knowledge about a diet during a pregnancy is a gynaecologist, the Internet and families of surveyed women. Most of surveyed persons know that a diet has got an impact on a growing up embryo and they consider that a diet should be supplementary. It ought to be noticed that a higher educated woman often wanted to consult that decision with a doctor, who (in the opinion of surveyed women) is the most important person to make a choice of dietary supplement. It was noticed both side effects and positive effects of supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements. "Prenatal" and "Femibion Natal" were most often chosen preparations. The key issue of my thesis is the fact that taken a folic acid before getting pregnant and a regular supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements for pregnants increases the chance of a higher body mass of a neonate and the diet is supplementary faster in a pregnancy the body mass of a neonate is higher. PMID:23421082

Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina

2012-01-01

435

Omalizumab: efficacy in allergic disease.  

PubMed

Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common conditions that have a substantial impact on patient quality of life, severely disrupting physical, emotional and social functioning. These diseases share many pathophysiological characteristics and recent research has provided evidence that a strong causal relationship exists between allergy and both asthma and allergic rhinitis. As a root cause of allergic diseases of the airways, immunoglobulin E (IgE) represents an appropriate target for the development of new therapies. Omalizumab (Xolair) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody that has demonstrated efficacy in allergic asthma and other IgE-related allergic illnesses. In three pivotal, placebo-controlled trials in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, omalizumab provided effective disease control, significantly reducing exacerbations while improving quality of life. Additionally, omalizumab reduced the need for unscheduled outpatient visits, emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Omalizumab was particularly useful as add-on treatment for patients with poorly controlled severe asthma. Similar benefits were reported in patients with seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis. Omalizumab significantly improved disease symptoms and reduced the use of rescue antihistamines. In patients with concomitant asthma and perennial allergic rhinitis, omaliuzumab significantly prevented asthma exacerbations and improved quality of life compared with placebo. Taken together, these results suggest that omalizumab represents an important clinical advance in the management of allergic disease. PMID:15507883

Spector, S

2004-06-01

436

An Analysis on the Effect of Computer Self-Efficacy over Scientific Research Self-Efficacy and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected…

Tuncer, Murat

2013-01-01

437

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

2013-01-01

438

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

Aljaloud, Sulaiman O; Ibrahim, Salam A

2013-01-01

439

Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

2010-03-01