Sample records for nda efficacy supplement

  1. Effect of Zinc on Efficacy of Iron Supplementation in Improving Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong; Grajeda, Ruben; Melgar, Paul; Marcinkevage, Jessica; Flores, Rafael; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    Iron and zinc may interact in micronutrient supplements and thereby decrease efficacy. We investigated interactive effects of combined zinc and iron supplementation in a randomized controlled trial conducted in 459 Guatemalan women. Four groups were supplemented for 12 weeks: (1) weekly iron and folic acid (IFA); (2) weekly IFA and 30?mg zinc; (3) daily IFA; (4) daily IFA and 15?mg zinc. Effects were assessed by generalized linear regression. Baseline hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was 137.4 ± 15.5?g/L, 13% were anemic and 54% had zinc deficiency. Hb cconcentrations were similar by supplement type, but Hb concentrations improved significantly in anemic women at baseline (increase of 21.8?g/L). Mean percentage changes in serum ferritin were significantly higher in daily compared to weekly supplemented groups (86% versus 32%). The addition of zinc to IFA supplements had no significant impact on iron or zinc status. In conclusion, adding zinc to IFA supplements did not modify efficacy on iron status or improve zinc status, but daily supplementation was more efficacious than weekly in improving iron stores. PMID:22720141

  2. THE PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF VITAMINS (C AND E), SELENIUM AND SILYMARIN SUPPLEMENTS AGAINST ALCOHOL TOXICITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abd Ali

    This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of vitamins (C and E), selenium and silymarin (an antioxidant complex from Silybum marianum) supplementation in reducing toxic effects of ethanol on liver weight and some blood parameters. Sixty male rabbits, individually housed in steel cages, were randomly divided into three groups. The first was a control group, the second received balanced diet

  3. Efficacy of ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate supplementation in elderly and clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Fitschen, Peter J; Wilson, Gabriel J; Wilson, Jacob M; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    Muscle loss is common during aging and chronic diseases, such as cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Moreover, muscle loss has been correlated with decreased physical function, quality of life, and mortality in these populations. Therefore, interventions to counteract muscle loss in the elderly and clinical populations are needed. Recently, the efficacy of the leucine metabolite, ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB), to maintain muscle mass has been investigated in these populations. Many studies have found increases in lean mass and strength in the elderly and clinical populations when using HMB; however, not all studies have found beneficial effects of HMB supplementation. The present review summarizes published human studies investigating the efficacy of HMB supplementation in the elderly and clinical populations. In addition, the mechanisms by which HMB may exert its effects are summarized and future research directions are suggested. PMID:23085015

  4. A change-point regression approach for efficacy evaluation of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Natsumi; Hattori, Satoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki

    2009-05-01

    In clinical trials for dietary supplements and functional foods, the study population tends to be a mixture of healthy subjects and those who are not so healthy but are not definitely diseased (called "borderline subjects"). For such heterogeneous populations, the t-test and ANCOVA method often fail to provide the desired treatment efficacy. We propose an alternative approach for the efficacy evaluation of dietary supplements and functional foods based on a change-point linear regression model. The model does not require the assumption of a constant treatment effect and provides clinically interpretable results. By employing the AIC-based profile likelihood method, inferences can be made easily using standard statistical software. The proposed method was applied to the Garcinia study data, and the merit of the method was demonstrated by comparing it with traditional methods. PMID:19430619

  5. Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M; Richard, Nicholas S; Judge, Lawrence W

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day(-1)). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51?mL O2/kg?min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals. PMID:24967264

  6. Feed additive studies with newly weaned pigs: efficacy of supplemental copper, antibiotics and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, M S; Izquierdo, O A; Baker, D H

    1985-02-01

    Six experiments involving 706 newly weaned 28- to 32-d-old pigs were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of copper (Cu) sulfate (to provide 250 mg/kg Cu), antibiotic-sulfa combinations [chlortetracycline, 110 mg/kg + penicillin, 55 mg/kg + sulfamethazine, 110 mg/kg; i.e., Aureo-Sulfa-Penicillin (ASP) or tylosin, 110 mg/kg + sulfamethazine, 110 mg/kg; i.e., Tylosin-Sulfa (TS)] and anhydrous citric or fumaric acid (.75 to 1.5% of the diet). The basal experimental diet was a 19% crude protein (CP)-fortified corn-soybean meal diet (1.08% lysine) containing 7% dried whey and 3% fish meal. Marked and consistent gain and gain/feed responses occurred from the Cu supplement, particularly during the first week postweaning. The antibiotic-sulfa combinations were less efficacious than Cu during the 1-wk postweaning stress period. During either the 1- or 3-wk growth periods, ASP and TS showed additivity with Cu in promoting rate and efficiency of weight gain. Liver Cu was increased by Cu addition to the diet, but neither ASP nor TS affected Cu deposition in the liver. In a factorial experiment involving 17% (1.01% lysine) or 20% CP (1.23% lysine) corn-soybean meal diets containing either no dried whey or an addition of 25% whey, Cu supplementation elicited marked improvements in rate and efficiency of weight gain, particularly in diets without added whey. Likewise, whey addition improved pig performance, especially when added to the diets containing no supplemental Cu.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3988632

  7. The efficacy of vitamin D supplementation during a prolonged submarine patrol.

    PubMed

    Gasier, Heath G; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Colin R; McAdams, Douglas C; Lutz, Laura J; McClung, James P

    2014-09-01

    Submariners spend prolonged periods submerged without sunlight exposure and may benefit from vitamin D supplementation to maintain vitamin D status. The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily vitamin D supplementation on maintenance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during a 3-month submarine patrol. Submariners were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 16), 1,000 IU/day (n = 20), or 2,000 IU/day (n = 17). Anthropometrics, self-reported dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, serum markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) parameters of the tibia were determined before and after the patrol. Prior to departure, 49 % of the subjects were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Following the patrol, 25(OH)D increased in all groups (p < 0.001): 3.3 ± 13.1 (placebo), 4.6 ± 11.3 (1,000 IU/day), and 13 ± 14 nmol/L (2,000 IU/day). The changes in 25(OH)D levels were dependent upon the baseline concentration of 25(OH)D and body mass (p < 0.001). Osteocalcin increased by 38 % (p < 0.01), and pQCT analyses revealed small, yet significant increases in indices of tibial structure and strength (p < 0.05) that were independent of supplementation. These data suggest that vitamin D status was low prior to the patrol, and the subsequent changes in vitamin D status were dependent on the baseline 25(OH)D levels and body mass. Furthermore, short-term skeletal health does not appear to be negatively affected by 3 months of submergence in spite of a suboptimal response to vitamin D supplementation. PMID:25005834

  8. ARIES NDA Robot operators` manual

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, N.L.; Nelson, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user`s manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery.

  9. Efficacy of an oral hyaluronate and collagen supplement as a preventive treatment of elbow dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    García-López, Núria; Díaz-Ramos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and five Labrador dogs were randomly divided into two groups to determine the number of animals that develop elbow dysplasia when treated with an oral supplement compared to untreated ones. Efficacy of the oral treatment was also evaluated once illness was diagnosed. The supplement (Hyaloral) contained hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed collagen, glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and gamma oryzanol. Clinical evaluation of the elbow joints was completed at months 3, 6, 12, and 20 by orthopaedic evaluations, radiography, serologic and blood analysis, and veterinarian evaluation of dysplasia symptoms. All side effects were recorded. In the control group, 33.3% of the dogs developed radiographic evidence of elbow dysplasia compared to 18.5% in the treated group. Symptoms of dysplasia at 12 months differed between the treated (12.5%) and control (61.5%) animals, and were significantly different at 20 months (p < 0.05). Differences in lameness along with movement and swelling of the elbows between groups were observed after 12 months. The treated group had improved significantly by the last visit (p < 0.05). No adverse side effects were reported. In conclusion, oral treatment with Hyaloral may have a potential cumulative action that provides protection against dysplasia and significantly improves symptoms of elbow dysplasia. PMID:25234322

  10. Confidence in the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements among United States active duty army personnel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background United States Army Soldiers regularly use dietary supplements (DS) to promote general health, enhance muscle strength, and increase energy, but limited scientific evidence supports the use of many DS for these benefits. This study investigated factors associated with Soldiers’ confidence in the efficacy and safety of DS, and assessed Soldiers’ knowledge of federal DS regulatory requirements. Methods Between 2006 and 2007, 990 Soldiers were surveyed at 11 Army bases world-wide to assess their confidence in the effectiveness and safety of DS, knowledge of federal DS regulations, demographic characteristics, lifestyle-behaviors and DS use. Results A majority of Soldiers were at least somewhat confident that DS work as advertised (67%) and thought they are safe to consume (71%). Confidence in both attributes was higher among regular DS users than non-users. Among users, confidence in both attributes was positively associated with rank, self-rated diet quality and fitness level, education, and having never experienced an apparent DS-related adverse event. Fewer than half of Soldiers knew the government does not require manufacturers to demonstrate efficacy, and almost a third incorrectly believed there are effective pre-market federal safety requirements for DS. Conclusions Despite limited scientific evidence supporting the purported benefits and safety of many popular DS, most Soldiers were confident that DS are effective and safe. The positive associations between confidence and DS use should be considered when developing DS-related interventions or policies. Additionally, education to clarify Soldiers’ misperceptions about federal DS safety and efficacy regulations is warranted. PMID:23051046

  11. Review: efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors: evidence from animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, M; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, M; Frost, G; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize there is a critical need for development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23145880

  12. Efficacy of some antioxidants supplementation in reducing oxidative stress post sodium tungstate exposure in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, S; Flora, S J S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of some antioxidants against sodium tungstate induced oxidative stress in male wistar rats. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100ppm in drinking water) for three months except for control group. In the same time, many rats were supplemented orally with different antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), n-acetylcysteine (NAC), quercetin or naringenin (0.30mM)) for five consecutive days a week for the same mentioned period before. Exposure to sodium tungstate significantly (P<0.05) inhibit blood ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, liver and blood reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels in tissues. ALA acid and NAC supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure increased GSH and also, was beneficial in the recovery of altered superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, besides, significantly reducing blood and tissue reactive oxygen species and TBARS levels. The results suggest a more pronounced efficacy of ALA acid and NAC supplementation than quercetin or naringenin supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure in preventing induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24613855

  13. Efficacy and safety of oral branched-chain amino acid supplementation in patients undergoing interventions for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Chen, Yaqin; Wang, Xiwei; Li, Hong; Zhang, Hongmin; Gong, Jiaojiao; Shen, Shasha; Yin, Wenwei; Hu, Huaidong

    2015-01-01

    Most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients have complications, including cirrhosis and malnutrition. The efficacy of dietary supplementation with oral branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in HCC patients undergoing interventions has not been confirmed. Relevant publications on the efficacy and safety of oral BCAA supplementation for HCC patients undergoing anti-HCC interventions through September, 2014 were searched for identification in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases. The pooled risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to assess the supplementation effects. A total of 11 eligible studies (974 patients in total) were evaluated and included in our analysis. Oral BCAA supplementation helped to maintain liver reserve with higher serum albumin (SMD?=?0.234, 95 % CI: 0.033-0.435, P?=?0.022), and lower rates of ascites (RR?=?0.545, 95 % CI: 0.316-0.938, P?=?0.029) and edema (RR?=?0.494, 95 % CI: 0.257-0.952, P?=?0.035) than in the control group. BCAA supplementation seemed to be effective in improving mortality, especially in Child-Pugh class B patients, but the efficacy was not confirmed. Apparent effects were not found in improving HCC recurrence, total bilirubin, ALT, or AST. BCAA supplementation was relatively safe without serious adverse events. BCAA supplementation may be clinically applied in improving liver functional reserve for HCC patients and further improving the quality of life. PMID:26155840

  14. PRECLINICAL RESEARCH CLINICAL RESEARCH NDA REVIEW Results from laboratory and animal

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    (FDA). An IND application seeks permission to use the drug/therapy in a Phase I trial. PHASE I The drug/therapy is tested in a small group (20 to 100) of healthy volunteers who are not at risk for disease. Phase I trials focuses on drug/therapy efficacy (how well the drug/ therapy works compared to a placebo). NDA

  15. Efficacy of Supplemental Phonics-Based Instruction for Low-Skilled Kindergarteners in the Context of Language Minority Status and Classroom Phonics Instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia F. Vadasy; Elizabeth A. Sanders

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of supplemental phonics instruction for 84 low-skilled language minority (LM) kindergarteners and 64 non-LM kindergarteners at 10 urban public schools. Paraeducators were trained to provide the 18-week (January–May) intervention. Students performing in the bottom half of their classroom language group (LM and non-LM) were randomly assigned either to individual supplemental instruction (treatment) or to classroom

  16. Efficacy of Parenteral Nutrition Supplemented With Glutamine Dipeptide to Decrease Hospital Infections in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Estívariz, Concepción F.; Griffith, Daniel P.; Luo, Menghua; Szeszycki, Elaina E.; Bazargan, Niloofar; Dave, Nisha; Daignault, Nicole M.; Bergman, Glen F.; McNally, Therese; Battey, Cindy H.; Furr, Celeste E.; Hao, Li; Ramsay, James G.; Accardi, Carolyn R.; Cotsonis, George A.; Jones, Dean P.; Galloway, John R.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Clinical benefits of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition may occur in hospitalized surgical patients, but efficacy data in different surgical subgroups are lacking. The objective was to determine whether glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition differentially affects nosocomial infection rates in selected subgroups of SICU patients. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition in SICU patients requiring parenteral nutrition and SICU care after surgery for pancreatic necrosis, cardiac, vascular, or colonic surgery. Subjects (n = 59) received isocaloric/isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition, providing 1.5 g/kg/d standard glutamine-free amino acids (STD-PN) or 1.0 g/kg/d standard amino acids + 0.5 g/kg/d glutamine dipeptide (GLN-PN). Enteral feedings were advanced as tolerated. Nosocomial infections were determined until hospital discharge. Results Baseline clinical/metabolic data were similar between groups. Plasma glutamine concentrations were low in all groups and were increased by GLN-PN. GLN-PN did not alter infection rates after pancreatic necrosis surgery (17 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN patients). In nonpancreatic surgery patients (12 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN), GLN-PN was associated with significantly decreased total nosocomial infections (STD-PN 36 vs GLN-PN 13, P < .030), bloodstream infections (7 vs 0, P < .01), pneumonias (16 vs 6, P < .05), and infections attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01), fungi, and enteric Gram-negative bacteria (each P < .05). Conclusions Glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition did not alter infection rates following pancreatic necrosis surgery but significantly decreased infections in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular, and colonic surgery. PMID:18596310

  17. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobin Wang; Xianhui Qin; Hakan Demirtas; Jianping Li; Guangyun Mao; Yong Huo; Ningling Sun; Lisheng Liu; Xiping Xu

    2007-01-01

    METHODS: We collected data from eight randomized trials of folic acid that had stroke reported as one of the endpoints. Relative risk (RR) was used as a measure of the effect of folic acid supplementation on the risk of stroke with a random effect model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect the treatment effects. FINDINGS: Folic

  18. Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources and study selection PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov searched in June and November 2012. Two authors independently reviewed and selected eligible randomised controlled trials, based on predetermined selection criteria. Results Out of 2240 articles retrieved from databases and relevant bibliographies, 50 randomised controlled trials with 294?478 participants (156?663 in intervention groups and 137?815 in control groups) were included in the final analyses. In a fixed effect meta-analysis of the 50 trials, supplementation with vitamins and antioxidants was not associated with reductions in the risk of major cardiovascular events (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.02; I2=42%). Overall, there was no beneficial effect of these supplements in the subgroup meta-analyses by type of prevention, type of vitamins and antioxidants, type of cardiovascular outcomes, study design, methodological quality, duration of treatment, funding source, provider of supplements, type of control, number of participants in each trial, and supplements given singly or in combination with other supplements. Among the subgroup meta-analyses by type of cardiovascular outcomes, vitamin and antioxidant supplementation was associated with a marginally increased risk of angina pectoris, while low dose vitamin B6 supplementation was associated with a slightly decreased risk of major cardiovascular events. Those beneficial or harmful effects disappeared in subgroup meta-analysis of high quality randomised controlled trials within each category. Also, even though supplementation with vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular death in high quality trials, and vitamin E supplementation with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction, those beneficial effects were seen only in randomised controlled trials in which the supplements were supplied by the pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion There is no evidence to support the use of vitamin and antioxidant supplements for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23335472

  19. Efficacy of supplementation of selected medicinal mushrooms with inorganic selenium salts.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemys?aw; Mleczek, Miros?aw; Siwulski, Marek; G?secka, Monika; Kozak, Lidia; Rissmann, Iwona; Miko?ajczak, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of supplementation with inorganic forms of selenium (Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3) in concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mM of three medicinal mushroom species: Agrocybe aegerita, Hericium erinaceus and Ganoderma lucidum. Tested mushroom species grew in Se additions of 0-0.6 mM (A. aegerita and H. erinaceus), while growth of G. lucidum bodies was observed for 0-0.8 mM. For the latter mushroom species, the total Se content was the highest. Content of Seorg was diverse; for control bodies it was the highest for G. lucidum (only organic forms were present), lower for A. aegerita (84% organic forms) and the lowest for H. erinaceus (56% organic forms). Accumulation of Se(IV) was generally significantly higher than Se(VI) for all tested mushroom species. There was no significant decrease of A. aegerita or G. lucidum biomass with the exception of G. lucidum bodies growing under 0.8 mM of Se species addition (15.51 ± 6.53 g). Biomass of H. erinaceus bodies was the highest under 0.2 (197.04 ± 8.73 g), control (191.80 ± 6.06 g) and 0.1 mM (185.04 ± 8.73 g) of both inorganic salts. The addition to the medium of Se salts brought about macroscopic changes in the fruiting bodies of the examined mushrooms. Concentrations exceeding 0.4 mM caused diminution of carpophores or even their total absence. In addition, colour changes of fruiting bodies were also recorded. At Se concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mM, A. aegerita fruiting bodies were distinctly lighter and those of H. erinaceus changed colour from purely white to white-pink. PMID:25310808

  20. Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a premix added to F-75 and F-100. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for safety and effectiveness of high-dose VA supplementation (VAS) in treatment of children with SAM. Methods A comprehensive literature review was undertaken for all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies from 1950 to 2012. Studies identified for full review were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology using a set of pre-defined criteria: indirectness; inconsistency; imprecision; and study limitations. A quality rating of high, moderate, or low was then assigned to each study, and only those attaining moderate to high were considered in making recommendations. Results Of the 2072 abstracts screened, 38 met criteria for full review, and 20 were rated moderate to high quality. Only one study replicated the WHO VA protocol in children with SAM. Indirectness was a critical limitation, as studies were not exclusive to children with SAM. There was inconsistency across trials for definitions of malnutrition, morbidities, and ages studied; and imprecision arising from sub-group analyses and small sample sizes. Evidence showed improved outcomes associated with low-dose compared to high-dose VAS, except in cases presenting with signs of VAD, measles, and severe diarrhea or shigellosis. Adverse outcomes related to respiratory infection, diarrhea, and growth were associated with high-dose VAS in children who were predominantly adequately nourished. No adverse effects of the high dose were found in children with SAM in the trial that replicated the WHO VA guideline. Conclusion This is the first systematic review of the safety and efficacy of high-dose VAS in treatment of SAM. We recommend a low-dose VAS regimen for children with SAM, except in cases presenting with measles, severe diarrhea (shigellosis), and any indication of VAD. Further research is needed in exclusively malnourished children and to explore alternate delivery strategies. PMID:24028603

  1. Impact of folate supplementation on the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in preventing malaria in pregnancy: the potential of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate.

    PubMed

    Nzila, Alexis; Okombo, John; Molloy, Anne M

    2014-02-01

    Malaria remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children under the age of 5 years and pregnant women. To counterbalance the malaria burden in pregnancy, an intermittent preventive treatment strategy has been developed. This is based on the use of the antifolate sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, taken at specified intervals during pregnancy, and reports show that this approach reduces the malaria burden in pregnancy. Pregnancy is also associated with the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), especially in women with low folate status, and folic acid supplementation is recommended in pregnancy to lower the risk of NTDs. Thus, in malaria-endemic areas, pregnant women have to take both antifolate medication to prevent malaria and folic acid to lower the risk of NTDs. However, the concomitant use of folate and antifolate is associated with a decrease in antifolate efficacy, exposing pregnant women to malaria. Thus, there is genuine concern that this strategy may not be appropriate. We have reviewed work carried out on malaria folate metabolism and antifolate efficacy in the context of folate supplementation. This review shows that: (i) the folate supplementation effect on antifolate efficacy is dose-dependent, and folic acid doses required to protect pregnant women from NTDs will not decrease antifolate activity; and (ii) 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, the predominant form of folate in the blood circulation, could be administered (even at high dose) concomitantly with antifolate without affecting antifolate efficacy. Thus, strategies exist to protect pregnant women from malaria while maintaining adequate folate levels in the body to reduce the occurrence of NTDs. PMID:24126794

  2. Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a pre...

  3. Efficacy of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in vitamin D deficient pregnant women with multiple sclerosis: Preliminary findings of a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the safety and efficacy of high-dose oral vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In a single center open-label randomized, controlled clinical Phase I/II pilot study, 15 pregnant women with confirmed MS with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were randomly allocated to receive either 50,000 IU/week vitamin D3 or routine care from 12 to 16 weeks of gestation till delivery. The main outcome measures were mean change in serum 25(OH)D levels, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score, and number of relapse events during pregnancy and within 6 months after delivery. Results: Average serum 25(OH)D level at the end of trial in vitamin D3 supplemented group was higher than routine care group (33.7 ng/mL vs. 14.6 ng/ml, P < 0.050). In vitamin D3 group, the mean EDSS did not changed 6 months after delivery (P > 0.050), whereas in routine care group, the mean EDSS increased from 1.3 (0.4) to 1.7 (0.6) (P < 0.070). Women in vitamin D3 group appeared to have fewer relapse events during pregnancy and within 6 months after delivery. No significant adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Adding high dose vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy to routine care of women with MS had significant effect on the serum 25(OH)D levels, EDSS and number of relapse events during pregnancy and within 6 months after delivery.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of High-dose Daily Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Children and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Bertolaso, Chiara; Schall, Joan I; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Stallings, Virginia A

    2015-07-01

    Suboptimal vitamin D (vit D) status (<32 ng/mL) is ubiquitous among African American children with type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS). The vit D supplemental dose to normalize vit D status is unknown. Five to 20-year-old African American children with (n=21) and without (n=23) SCD-SS were randomized to vit D3 supplementation (4000 or 7000 IU/d) and evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in vit D and SCD status. A dose was considered unsafe if serum calcium was elevated associated with elevated serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). At baseline 95% of subjects with SCD-SS and 87% of healthy controls had suboptimal vit D status (mean±SD, 19.2±7.2 and 22.3±9.3 ng/mL, respectively). After 12 weeks supplementation, both D3 doses were safe and well tolerated. Neither group achieved the a priori efficacy criterion of 25(OH)D?32 ng/mL in >80% of subjects (45% in SCD-SS and 63% in controls). However, for both subjects with SCD-SS and healthy subjects by 12 weeks, deficient (<20 ng/mL) vit D status was eliminated only in those receiving 7000 IU/d. For subjects with SCD-SS, by 12 weeks there was a significant (all P<0.05) increase in fetal hemoglobin, decrease in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and reduction in the percentage of subjects with a high platelet count. PMID:25985241

  5. Haptoglobin phenotype, preeclampsia risk and the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in a racially diverse population.

    PubMed

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Gandley, Robin E; McGee, Paula L; Spong, Catherine Y; Myatt, Leslie; Leveno, Kenneth J; Thorp, John M; Mercer, Brian M; Peaceman, Alan M; Ramin, Susan M; Carpenter, Marshall W; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Harper, Margaret; Tolosa, Jorge E; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Haptoglobin's (Hp) antioxidant and pro-angiogenic properties differ between the 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 phenotypes. Hp phenotype affects cardiovascular disease risk and treatment response to antioxidant vitamins in some non-pregnant populations. We previously demonstrated that preeclampsia risk was doubled in white Hp 2-1 women, compared to Hp 1-1 women. Our objectives were to determine whether we could reproduce this finding in a larger cohort, and to determine whether Hp phenotype influences lack of efficacy of antioxidant vitamins in preventing preeclampsia and serious complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH). This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which 10,154 low-risk women received daily vitamin C and E, or placebo, from 9-16 weeks gestation until delivery. Hp phenotype was determined in the study prediction cohort (n = 2,393) and a case-control cohort (703 cases, 1,406 controls). The primary outcome was severe PAH, or mild or severe PAH with elevated liver enzymes, elevated serum creatinine, thrombocytopenia, eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, medically indicated preterm birth or perinatal death. Preeclampsia was a secondary outcome. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression. Sampling weights were used to reduce bias from an overrepresentation of women with preeclampsia or the primary outcome. There was no relationship between Hp phenotype and the primary outcome or preeclampsia in Hispanic, white/other or black women. Vitamin supplementation did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome or preeclampsia in women of any phenotype. Supplementation increased preeclampsia risk (odds ratio 3.30; 95% confidence interval 1.61-6.82, p<0.01) in Hispanic Hp 2-2 women. Hp phenotype does not influence preeclampsia risk, or identify a subset of women who may benefit from vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. PMID:23573260

  6. Haptoglobin Phenotype, Preeclampsia Risk and the Efficacy of Vitamin C and E Supplementation to Prevent Preeclampsia in a Racially Diverse Population

    PubMed Central

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Gandley, Robin E.; McGee, Paula L.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Myatt, Leslie; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Thorp, John M.; Mercer, Brian M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Harper, Margaret; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Haptoglobin’s (Hp) antioxidant and pro-angiogenic properties differ between the 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 phenotypes. Hp phenotype affects cardiovascular disease risk and treatment response to antioxidant vitamins in some non-pregnant populations. We previously demonstrated that preeclampsia risk was doubled in white Hp 2-1 women, compared to Hp 1-1 women. Our objectives were to determine whether we could reproduce this finding in a larger cohort, and to determine whether Hp phenotype influences lack of efficacy of antioxidant vitamins in preventing preeclampsia and serious complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH). This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which 10,154 low-risk women received daily vitamin C and E, or placebo, from 9-16 weeks gestation until delivery. Hp phenotype was determined in the study prediction cohort (n?=?2,393) and a case-control cohort (703 cases, 1,406 controls). The primary outcome was severe PAH, or mild or severe PAH with elevated liver enzymes, elevated serum creatinine, thrombocytopenia, eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, medically indicated preterm birth or perinatal death. Preeclampsia was a secondary outcome. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression. Sampling weights were used to reduce bias from an overrepresentation of women with preeclampsia or the primary outcome. There was no relationship between Hp phenotype and the primary outcome or preeclampsia in Hispanic, white/other or black women. Vitamin supplementation did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome or preeclampsia in women of any phenotype. Supplementation increased preeclampsia risk (odds ratio 3.30; 95% confidence interval 1.61–6.82, p<0.01) in Hispanic Hp 2-2 women. Hp phenotype does not influence preeclampsia risk, or identify a subset of women who may benefit from vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. PMID:23573260

  7. Efficacy of Antioxidant Vitamins and Selenium Supplement in Prostate Cancer Prevention: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Jiang; Ke-hu Yang; Jin-hui Tian; Quan-lin Guan; Nan Yao; Nong Cao; Deng-hai Mi; Jie Wu; Bin Ma; Sun-hu Yang

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated the possible association between antioxidants vitamins or selenium supplement and the risk of prostate cancer, but the evidence is still inconsistent.We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Chinese biomedicine literature database, and bibliographies of retrieved articles up to January 2009. We included 9 randomized controlled trials with 165,056 participants; methodological quality

  8. Efficacy of Enteral Supplementation Enriched with Glutamine, Fiber, and Oligosaccharide on Mucosal Injury following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iyama, Satoshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Hashimoto, Akari; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Ibata, Soushi; Ono, Kaoru; Murase, Kazuyuki; Takada, Kohichi; Sato, Yasushi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Miyanishi, Koji; Akizuki, Emi; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Mizugichi, Toru; Takimoto, Rishu; Kobune, Masayoshi; Hirata, Koichi; Kato, Junji

    2014-01-01

    The combination of glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharides (GFO) is thought to be beneficial for alleviating gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by chemotherapy. A commercial enteral supplementation product (GFO) enriched with these 3 components is available in Japan. We performed a retrospective study to test whether oral GFO decreased the severity of mucosal injury following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of 44 HSCT patients, 22 received GFO and 22 did not. Severity of diarrhea/mucositis, overall survival, weight loss, febrile illness/documented infection, intravenous hyperalimentation days/hospital days, engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and cumulative incidence of relapse were studied. Sex, age, performance status, diagnosis, disease status, and treatment variables were similar in both groups. There were fewer days of diarrhea grade 3–4 in patients receiving GFO than in those who did not (0.86 vs. 3.27 days); the same was true for days of mucositis grade 3–4 (3.86 vs. 6.00 days). Survival at day 100 was 100% in the GFO group, but only 77.3% for the patients not receiving GFO (p = 0.0091, log-rank test). Weight loss and the number of days of intravenous hyperalimentation were better in the GFO group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Although not significant, less gut bacterial translocation with Enterococcus species developed in the GFO group (p = 0.0728) than in the non-GFO group. Other outcomes were not affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative clinical study of GFO supplementation to alleviate mucosal injury after allo-HSCT. We conclude that glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharide supplementation is an effective supportive therapy to decrease the severity of mucosal damage in HSCT. PMID:25493082

  9. Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, ?-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Fairman, Ciaran M; Spradley, Brandon D; Tai, Chih-Yin; Falcone, Paul H; Carson, Laura R; Mosman, Matt M; Joy, Jordan M; Kim, Michael P; Serrano, Eric R; Esposito, Enrico N

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a preworkout supplement (SUP) containing caffeine, creatine, ?-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days. We hypothesized that little to no changes in kidney and liver clinical blood markers or resting heart rate and blood pressure (BP) would be observed. In addition, we hypothesized that body composition and performance would improve in recreationally active males after 28 days of supplementation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, participants were randomly assigned to ingest one scoop of either the SUP or placebo every day for 28 days, either 20 minutes before exercise or ad libitum on nonexercise days. Resting heart rate and BP, body composition, and fasting blood samples were collected before and after supplementation. Aerobic capacity as well as muscular strength and endurance were also measured. Significant (P < .05) main effects for time were observed for resting heart rate (presupplementation, 67.59 ± 7.90 beats per minute; postsupplementation, 66.18 ± 7.63 beats per minute), systolic BP (presupplementation, 122.41 ± 11.25 mm Hg; postsupplementation, 118.35 ± 11.58 mm Hg), blood urea nitrogen (presupplementation, 13.12 ± 2.55 mg/dL; postsupplementation, 15.24 ± 4.47 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (presupplementation, 34.29 ± 16.48 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.76 ± 4.71 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase (presupplementation, 32.76 ± 19.72 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.88 ± 9.68 IU/L). Significant main effects for time were observed for body fat percentage (presupplementation, 15.55% ± 5.79%; postsupplementation, 14.21% ± 5.38%; P = .004) and fat-free mass (presupplementation, 70.80 ± 9.21 kg; postsupplementation, 71.98 ± 9.27 kg; P = .006). A significant decrease in maximal oxygen consumption (presupplementation, 47.28 ± 2.69 mL/kg per minute; postsupplementation, 45.60 ± 2.81 mL/kg per minute) and a significant increase in percentage of oxygen consumption per unit time at which ventilatory threshold occurred (presupplementation, 64.38% ± 6.63%; postsupplementation, 70.63% ± 6.39%) and leg press one-repetition maximum (presupplementation, 218.75 ± 38.43 kg; postsupplementation, 228.75 ± 44.79 kg) were observed in the SUP only. No adverse effects were noted for renal and hepatic clinical blood markers, resting heart rate, or BP. Supplements containing similar ingredients and doses should be safe for ingestion periods lasting up to 28 days in healthy, recreationally trained, college-aged men. PMID:24916558

  10. Preliminary assessment of the efficacy of supplementing knee extension capability in a lower limb exoskeleton with FES.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Hugo A; Farris, Ryan J; Ha, Kevin; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a cooperative controller that combines the knee joint actuation of an externally powered lower limb exoskeleton with the torque and power contribution from the electrically stimulated quadriceps muscle group. The efficacy of combining these efforts is experimentally validated with a series of weighted leg lift maneuvers. Measurements from these experiments indicate that the control approach effectively combines the respective efforts of the motor and muscle, such that good control performance is achieved, with substantial torque and energy contributions from both the biological and non-biological actuators. PMID:23366646

  11. A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy of an Oral Supplement in Women with Self-perceived Thinning Hair

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the ability of an oral supplement to increase hair growth in women with thinning hair. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Setting: One United States clinical site. Participants: Healthy women aged 21 to 75 years with Fitzpatrick I to IV photo skin types with self-perceived thinning hair. Measurements: Subjects were randomized to treatment with the study medication (N=10) or placebo (N=5) twice daily for 180 days. A 4cm2 area of scalp was selected for hair counts performed after 90±7 and 180±7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy measure was the change in terminal and vellus hairs in each target area. The secondary measure was changes in a self-assessment questionnaire. Results: The mean (SD) number of terminal vellus hairs among placebo-treated subjects at baseline was 256.0 (24.1), remaining at 245.0 (22.4) and 242.2 (26.9) after 90 and 180 days, respectively. The mean baseline number of terminal hairs in control-treated subjects was 271.0 (24.2) increasing to 571 (65.7) and 609.6 (66.6) after 90 and 180 days, respectively (for each, p<0.001 vs. placebo). The mean number of vellus hairs among placebo-and control-treated subjects did not significantly change. Significantly more control-treated subjects perceived improvements in overall hair volume, scalp coverage, and thickness of hair body after 90 days. Additional improvement after 180 days included hair shine, skin moisture retention, and skin smoothness. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: The oral supplement assessed in this study safely and effectively promotes significant hair growth in women with temporary hair thinning. PMID:23198010

  12. Efficacy of growth hormone supplementation with gonadotrophins in vitro fertilization for poor ovarian responders: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoying; Ruan, Jian; He, Lian-Ping; Hu, Weihua; Xu, Qinyang; Tang, Jingwen; Jiang, Jian; Han, Jun; Peng, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is involved in the regulation of male and female infertility. Several clinical studies reveal that adjuvant GH treatment has a possible role in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), especially in poor ovarian responders (POR) undergoing IVF/ICSI. Recent studies suggest that GH addition in POR patients significantly improves the rate of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Databases including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Google Scholar were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on the effectiveness of GH supplementation with gonadotrophins in IVF/ICSI for POR. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. Meta Analyst Beta 3.13 software was used to meta-analysis. Eleven studies (six RCTs and five CCTs) and 3788 subjects (613 subjects in cases group and 3175 subjects in controls group) were included in our study. The results of meta-analysis showed that GH addition significantly increased serum E2 level on the day of HCG (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.127-0.973) and MII oocyte number (OR = 0.827; 95% CI = 0.470-1.184). Furthermore, GH addition significantly improved the number of 2PN (OR = 0.934; 95% CI = 0.206-1.661) and obtained embryos (OR = 0.934; 95% CI = 0.206-1.661). However, no significant difference was found for the overall implantation rate was 8.8% (95% CI = -0.062-0.237) and clinical pregnancy rate was 5.1% (95% CI = -0.033-0.134). The present result revel that GH supplementation for IVF/ICSI in POR increases the probability of serum E2 level on the day of HCG, the number of MII oocyte, 2PN and obtained embryos. However, GH addition does not increase implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rates. Due to the limited quantity and quality of the included studies as well as the difference in methodology, we suggest this above could be taken as a reference for clinical analysis which needs to be further evaluated in its effects. PMID:26131068

  13. NDA SYSTEM RESPONSE MODELING AND ITS APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    2010-03-01

    The Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant (PORTS) is a uranium enrichment facility that was historically used to enrich uranium to levels that range from 2% to greater than 97%. The feed material for PORTS was obtained from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) that produced uranium in the form of UF6 that was enriched to about 1 to 2%. The enrichment process involves a multistage process by which gaseous UF{sub 6} passed through a diffusion barrier in each stage. The porous diffusion barrier in each stage retards the rate of the diffusion of the heavier {sup 238}U atoms relative to the diffusion of the lighter {sup 235}U atoms. By this process the product stream is slightly enriched by each stage of the process. Each stage consists of a compressor, converter and a motor. There are more than 4000 stages that are linked together with piping of various diameters to form the PORTS cascade. The cascade spans three interconnected buildings and comprises miles of piping, thousands of seals, converters, valves, motors, and compressors. During operation, PORTS process equipment contained UF{sub 6} gas with uranium enrichment that increased in the process stream from the first to the last stage in a known manner. Gaseous UF{sub 6} moving through the PORTS process equipment had potential to form deposits within the process equipment by several mechanisms, including solidification due to incorrect temperature and pressure conditions during the process, inleakage of atmospheric moisture that chemically reacts with UF{sub 6} to form hydrated uranyl fluoride solids, reduction reactions of UF{sub 6} with cascade metals, and UF{sub 6} condensation on the internal equipment surfaces. As a result, the process equipment of the PORTS contains a variable and unknown quantity of uranium with variable enrichment that has been deposited within the equipment during plant operations. The exact chemical form of this uranium is variable, although it is expected that the bulk of the material is of the form of uranyl fluoride that will become hydrated on exposure to moisture in air when the systems are no longer buffered. The deposit geometry and thickness is uncertain and variable. However, a reasonable assessment of the level of material holdup in this equipment is necessary to support decommissioning efforts. The assessment of nuclear material holdup in process equipment is a complex process that requires integration of process knowledge, nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, and computer modeling to maximize capabilities and minimize uncertainty. The current report is focused on the use of computer modeling and simulation of NDA measurements.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation with Echinacea purpurea on vaccine efficacy against infection with Flavobacterium columnare in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Guz, L; Puk, K; Walczak, N; Oniszczuk, T; Oniszczuk, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dietary Echinacea purpurea (EP) on the response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a Flavobacterium columnare vaccine was investigated. Two hundred D. rerio with an average weight of 290 ± 40 g were selected and fed different levels of E. purpurea (5 g kg(-1) diet--group 1, 10 g kg(-1) diet--group 2, 20 g kg(-1) diet--group 3, 30 g kg(-1) diet--group 4, and 0 g kg(-1) diet--group 5). Experimental feeding was begun 3 weeks prior to bath immunization and continued until the end of the experiment. Twenty-eight days after immunization the fish were challenged by bath immersion with F. columnare at a concentration of 1 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The relative percent survival of the experimental groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) was 5.0, 6.0, 30.0, 36.0 and 5.0, respectively. In conclusion, diet supplementation with E. purpurea may effectively enhance the response of zebrafish to a F. columnare vaccine. PMID:25638970

  15. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Latha, Satheesh Sasidharan; Jain, Shefali; Kataki, Rubi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist–patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. Materials and Methods: X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. Results: The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33%) were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66%) were unsuccessful. Conclusion: When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25506137

  16. Characterization of consistent NDA (nondestructive assay) standards

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Novak, E.F.; Seiler, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    By combining calorimetry and traditional analytical methods five sets of unique NDA standards were characterized for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of E.I. Du Pont de Nemours, Inc. The calorimetry measurements make it possible to nondestructively verify the homogeneity of the plutonia stock and to assure that the analytical aliquots were representative of the parent material. Two assay values were determined by calorimetric assay. When the isotopic composition was determined by mass spectroscopy and alpha pulse height analysis, the agreement between Pu content by calorimetry and controlled potential coulometry was within 0.06% for all five isotopic compositions. When nondestructive, gamma-ray isotopic techniques were used to assay the 1500 gram standards the agreement was within 0.1% for all five materials. The new half-lives and specific power recommended in the latest revision of ANSI N15.22-1987, Calibration Techniques for the Calorimetric Assay of Plutonium Bearing Solids were used for all computations. The standards were certified for plutonium content, isotopic composition, and thermal power. The mass of the standards varied from 20 to 1500 grams with /sup 240/Pu compositions ranging from 3 to 15 percent. 7 tabs.

  17. Prevalence of 25-OH Vitamin D Deficiency in a Population of Hemodialysis Patients and Efficacy of an Oral Ergocalciferol Supplementation Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Anna; Gilmartin, Cheryl; Srisakul, Usasiri; Arruda, Jose; Akkina, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Optimal dosing regimens for 25-OH vitamin D (VitD) deficiency are unknown in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of prescribing ergocalciferol supplementation based on KDOQI guidelines for chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages III–IV in HD patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 96 urban, predominately African-American HD patients at a single-center dialysis unit with VitD insufficiency or deficiency treated with ergocalciferol. Patients were classified as either compliant or non-compliant with supplementation as determined by review of pharmacy records. The primary outcome was VitD levels 6 months after initiation of treatment and secondary outcomes were VitD levels at 11 months, bone/mineral and anemia parameters. Results The population was predominately African-American (69%) and Hispanic (28%). There were 61 individuals in the compliant group and 35 individuals in the non-compliant group. The compliant group was older but otherwise similar in demographics and co-morbid conditions to the non-compliant group. After 6 months of treatment, the compliant group had a significant increase in VitD level (14.7 ± 6.0 to 28.7 ± 10.0 ng/ml, p < 0.0001) compared to the non-compliant group (14.7 ± 5.5 to 14.8 ± 7.1 ng/ml, p = 0.95). There were no differences in the incidence of hypercalcemia between the two groups. Except for a decrease in phosphorus in the compliant group (5.6 ± 1.6 to 4.9 ± 1.7 mg/dl, p = 0.004), there were no significant difference in bone/mineral or anemia parameters including dosing of darbepoetin. Conclusion An ergocalciferol-prescribing strategy using the KDOQI guidelines for stage III–IV kidney disease in HD patients with VitD deficiency or insufficiency is inadequate to achieve repletion or maintenance of normal VitD levels. PMID:23735861

  18. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  19. An NDA system for automated inline weapons component dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.; Martz, J.C.; Dworzak, W.R.

    1993-08-01

    The Automated Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARMS) is a new development and demonstration glove-box line planned for installation at TA-55. The mission of ARIES is development of advanced technologies for disassembly of retired plutonium weapons components. ARIES is subdivided into the following subsystems: Receiving (airlock to system controlled atmosphere), Disassembly (parts are separated into hemishells), Plutonium Consolidation, Americium Removal, Decontamination (removal of trace plutonium from nonplutonium parts), and Nondestructive Assay (NDA). The ARIES NDA subsystem consists of four computer-based NDA instruments (calorimeter, gamma-ray isotopic system, segmented gamma scanner, and an active/passive neutron multiplicity counter); a robot to load and unload the instruments; and a host computer to sense and control the instrument status, schedule measurements, archive the results of the assays, and direct the activities of the robot. The NDA subsystem will be fully integrated into the ARIES process line and will provide assays of nuclear material that are inherently safer and more efficient than nonautomated systems.

  20. The efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food SourceTM...

  1. Neutron method for NDA in the Sapphire Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.D. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of Project Sapphire, the top-secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons-grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) repacking of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable U.S. containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the {sup 235}U content of each container for nuclear criticality safety and compliance purposes; (3) packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of the Sapphire operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for {sup 235}U content.

  2. SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Supplemental Procedures

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    ' - CACCAATCCCGTGAAGGTATTGCTTT-3'; mouse TLR4 (392 bp) - forward 5'- CTTGCCTTCAAAACCTGGCTG-3', reverse 5 (442bp) - forward 5'-GATCTGTCTCATAATGGCTTG-3', reverse 5'- GTTGTGGAAGCCAAGCAAAG-3'; human TLR4 (477 bp1 SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Supplemental Procedures Expression analysis of genes involved in TLR

  3. Adequacy of hyaluronan binding assay and a new fertility index derived from it for measuring of male fertility potential and the efficacy of supplement therapy.

    PubMed

    Szucs, M; Osvath, P; Laczko, I; Jakab, A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to statistically prove that the HBA(®) test is an efficient practical method for andrologists to determine the fertility potential as well as to measure the efficiency of oral supplement therapy in case of male infertility. In the study, 175 patients were involved and it also included the follow-up studies of 39 patients after supplement therapy. Completing the 'classic' spermatological parameters with the results of HBA(®) test, the authors have also determined a new fertility index to be used for practical rating of the measure of fertility potential. After the supplement therapy, both sperm density and hyaluronan binding capacity increased significantly. The authors are convinced that the HBA(®) analysis is an objective, standardisable test, which provides a better approach to fertility potential. This analysis enables us to detect spermatozoa that were previously misjudged as normal by morphological assay and also makes the efficiency of the therapy more measurable. PMID:24890860

  4. Efficacy of Multivitamin/mineral Supplementation to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Giana; Drake, Victoria J; Frei, Balz

    2015-12-01

    We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were examined. The majority of scientific studies investigating the use of MVM supplements in chronic disease risk reduction reported no significant effect. However, the largest and longest RCT of MVM supplements conducted to date, the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS II), found a modest and significant reduction in total and epithelial cancer incidence in male physicians, consistent with the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. In addition, PHS II found a modest and significant reduction in the incidence of nuclear cataract, in agreement with several other RCTs and observational, prospective cohort studies. The effects of MVM use on other subtypes of cataract and age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. Neither RCTs nor prospective cohort studies are without their limitations. The placebo-controlled trial design of RCTs may be inadequate for nutrient interventions, and residual confounding, measurement error, and the possibility of reverse causality are inherent to any observational study. National surveys show that micronutrient inadequacies are widespread in the US and that dietary supplements, of which MVMs are the most common type, help fulfill micronutrient requirements in adults and children. PMID:24941429

  5. The efficacy of micronutrient supplementation in reducing the prevalence of anaemia and deficiencies of zinc and iron among adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of combined iron and zinc over the iron- or zinc-only supplementation in correcting deficiency and possible interactive effects in a group of adolescent school children. Subjects and methods: Schoolchildren (n=821) of 12–16 years of age were randomized into ...

  6. Geophysical investigation of a landslide: The Alt?nda? landslide site, ?zmir (western Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gökhan Göktürkler; Çaglayan Balkaya; Zülfikar Erhan

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical survey including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) was carried out to study a landslide site in the Alt?nda? district of ?zmir city, western Turkey. In the city, landslide is one of the causes of natural hazard, and one of the most important landslide sites is located in the Alt?nda? district. The ERT studies were

  7. Trabzon Ekolojik Koflullar›nda Baz› Doal Yer Örtücü Bitkilerin Adaptasyonlar› ve Peyzaj Mimarl›¤›nda Deerlendirilmeleri Üzerine Bir Araflt›rma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz ACAR

    Özet: Bu araflt›rmada, Trabzon ve yöre doal bitki örtüsünde bulunan estetik ve ifllevsel özellikteki baz› bitkilerin yer örtücü ve adaptasyon özellikleri araflt›r›lm›flt›r. Doal yetiflme ortamlar›nda geliflimini sürdürebilen toplam 8 familyaya ait 19 farkl› yer örtücü özellikteki tür bitki deneme materyali olarak seçilmifltir. Buna göre, çounluu alpin (yüksek dal›k) bölgeden getirilen bu bitkisel materyal 1994 y›l›nda toprakl› fidan halinde dikilmifltir. 1995

  8. Chitinolytic Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 isolated from Chilika lake, India enhances plant growth and biocontrol efficacy through chitin supplementation against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Malviya, Nityanand; Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Shrivastava, Pooja; Sivakumar, G

    2015-08-01

    A chitinolytic actinomycete Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 was isolated from water sample of Chilika lake, India and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It showed in vitro antifungal activity against the sclerotia producing pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in a dual culture assay and by chitinase enzyme production in a chitin supplemented minimal broth. Moreover, isolate S5MW2 was further characterized for biocontrol (BC) and plant growth promoting features in a greenhouse experiment with or without colloidal chitin (CC). Results of greenhouse experiment showed that CC supplementation with S5MW2 showed a significant growth of tomato plants and superior disease reduction as compared to untreated control and without CC treated plants. Moreover, higher accumulation of chitinase also recovered in the CC supplemented plants. Significant effect of CC also concurred with the Analysis of Variance of greenhouse parameters. These results show that the a marine antagonist S5MW2 has BC efficiency against R. solani and chitinase enzyme played important role in plant resistance. PMID:25982747

  9. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.

    2000-02-29

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

  10. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed in training before being used in competition. It is recommended that dietary supplements are only used based on the advice of a qualified sports nutrition professional. PMID:16766503

  11. RUMINATIONS ON NDA MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY COMPARED TO DA UNCERTAINTY

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.; Ashley, W.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    It is difficult to overestimate the importance that physical measurements performed with nondestructive assay instruments play throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They underpin decision making in many areas and support: criticality safety, radiation protection, process control, safeguards, facility compliance, and waste measurements. No physical measurement is complete or indeed meaningful, without a defensible and appropriate accompanying statement of uncertainties and how they combine to define the confidence in the results. The uncertainty budget should also be broken down in sufficient detail suitable for subsequent uses to which the nondestructive assay (NDA) results will be applied. Creating an uncertainty budget and estimating the total measurement uncertainty can often be an involved process, especially for non routine situations. This is because data interpretation often involves complex algorithms and logic combined in a highly intertwined way. The methods often call on a multitude of input data subject to human oversight. These characteristics can be confusing and pose a barrier to developing and understanding between experts and data consumers. ASTM subcommittee C26-10 recognized this problem in the context of how to summarize and express precision and bias performance across the range of standards and guides it maintains. In order to create a unified approach consistent with modern practice and embracing the continuous improvement philosophy a consensus arose to prepare a procedure covering the estimation and reporting of uncertainties in non destructive assay of nuclear materials. This paper outlines the needs analysis, objectives and on-going development efforts. In addition to emphasizing some of the unique challenges and opportunities facing the NDA community we hope this article will encourage dialog and sharing of best practice and furthermore motivate developers to revisit the treatment of measurement uncertainty.

  12. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

  13. Impact of NDA Uncertainites on NCS at the K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kimball (NISYS Corp.), Ian Gauld (ORNL)

    2008-05-29

    The K-25 Building at the East Tennessee Technology Park is relying on the use of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) methods for characterizing hold-up materials in process equipment. The characterization data is used for many purposes including mass estimates for nuclear criticality safety (NCS) and waste disposition. This paper addresses the sensitivity of certain parameters in the NDA process to overall mass measurement results.

  14. Older Adults Who Use Vitamin\\/Mineral Supplements Differ from Nonusers in Nutrient Intake Adequacy and Dietary Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhonda S. Sebastian; Linda E. Cleveland; Joseph D. Goldman; Alanna J. Moshfegh

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveTo measure nutrient intake adequacy of vitamin\\/mineral supplement users and nonusers aged 51 years and older, determine the efficacy of supplement practices in compensating for dietary deficits, and identify predictors of supplement use.

  15. Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Jie; Pei, Liu-Bao; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Zi-Yu; Yang, Jian-Li

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder is a devastating mental illness leading to a lifetime prevalence of higher than 16% on individuals. The treatment delay and inevitable adverse effects are major limitations of current depression interventions. Emerging evidence indicates that curcumin produced significant antidepressant properties in depression in both rodents and humans without adverse effects. Therefore, it is necessary to further clarify the antidepressant actions of curcumin and the underlying mechanism in depressed patients. A total of 108 male adults aged between 31 and 59 years were systematically recruited in Tianjin Anding Hospital. Subjects were administered the Chinese version of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale that measures different scores of depressive symptoms. The subjects were asked to take 2 capsules containing either 1000 mg of curcumin or placebo soybean powder daily for 6 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications. The plasma levels of interleukin 1?, tumor necrosis factor ?, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and salivary cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after curcumin or placebo treatment during the 6-week procedure. Chronic supplementation with curcumin produced significant antidepressant behavioral response in depressed patients by reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores. Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1? and tumor necrosis factor ? level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder. PMID:26066335

  16. Biofortified orange maize is as efficacious as a vitamin A supplement in Zambian children even in the presence of high liver reserves of vitamin A: a community-based, randomized placebo-controlled trial123456

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Bryan; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A; Schmaelzle, Samantha; Chileshe, Justin; Kalungwana, Ngándwe; Mosonda, Mofu; Pixley, Kevin; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biofortification is a strategy to relieve vitamin A (VA) deficiency. Biofortified maize contains enhanced provitamin A concentrations and has been bioefficacious in animal and small human studies. Objective: The study sought to determine changes in total body reserves (TBRs) of vitamin A with consumption of biofortified maize. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled biofortified maize efficacy trial was conducted in 140 rural Zambian children. The paired 13C-retinol isotope dilution test, a sensitive biomarker for VA status, was used to measure TBRs before and after a 90-d intervention. Treatments were white maize with placebo oil (VA?), orange maize with placebo (orange), and white maize with VA in oil [400 ?g retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) in 214 ?L daily] (VA+). Results: In total, 133 children completed the trial and were analyzed for TBRs (n = 44 or 45/group). Change in TBR residuals were not normally distributed (P < 0.0001); median changes (95% CI) were as follows: VA?, 13 (?19, 44) ?mol; orange, 84 (21, 146) ?mol; and VA+, 98 (24, 171) ?mol. Nonparametric analysis showed no statistical difference between VA+ and orange (P = 0.34); both were higher than VA? (P = 0.0034). Median (95% CI) calculated liver reserves at baseline were 1.04 (0.97, 1.12) ?mol/g liver, with 59% >1 ?mol/g, the subtoxicity cutoff; none were <0.1 ?mol/g, the deficiency cutoff. The calculated bioconversion factor was 10.4 ?g ?-carotene equivalents/1 ?g retinol by using the middle 3 quintiles of change in TBRs from each group. Serum retinol did not change in response to intervention (P = 0.16) but was reduced with elevated C-reactive protein (P = 0.0029) and ?-1-acid glycoprotein (P = 0.0023) at baseline. Conclusions: ?-Carotene from maize was efficacious when consumed as a staple food in this population and could avoid the potential for hypervitaminosis A that was observed with the use of preformed VA from supplementation and fortification. Use of more sensitive methods other than serum retinol alone, such as isotope dilution, is required to accurately assess VA status, evaluate interventions, and investigate the interaction of VA status and infection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01814891. PMID:25411289

  17. Dietary Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Rigassio Radler

    Dietary supplements fall under the rubric of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Patterns of use of CAM and dietary\\u000a supplements by Americans have increased, while the dietary supplement market has concurrently grown due to the demand and\\u000a the regulatory changes. People with kidney disease may seek to use dietary supplements to prevent further deterioration of\\u000a kidney function or to ameliorate

  18. 75 FR 21298 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; VIMPAT -NDA 22-253

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...application (NDA) 22-253 for VIMPAT TABLETS and is publishing this notice of that...product, VIMPAT (lacosamide). VIMPAT tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy in...application (NDA 22-253) for VIMPAT tablets was submitted on September 28,...

  19. Reading Intervention in Middle and High Schools: Implementation Fidelity, Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Carter, Janis C.; Rintamaa, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' efficacy and implementation in the context of a supplemental intervention for struggling adolescent readers. It examined teachers' efficacy at the start of their intervention training and investigated relationships among teachers' efficacy, implementation, and students' reading progress. The efficacy and…

  20. Applications of NDA instrumentation in the Y-12 highly enriched uranium recovery facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. W. Jeter; S. E. Smith; H. H. Hogue; G. L. Bowers; P. Russo; R. Strittmatter

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses an alternative to weighing and sampling which is coming into increasing use in Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for obtaining the uranium content of heterogeneous compounds and mixtures. This technique, nondestructive analyses (NDA), is based on measuring the natural or induced radioactivity of the uranium contained in the by-product materials. Nondestructive analyses equipment has been used in Y-12

  1. Creating NDA working standards through high-fidelity spent fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Skutnik, Steven E [ORNL] [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Romano, Catherine E [ORNL] [ORNL; Trellue, Holly [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is developing advanced non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel assemblies to advance the state-of-the-art in safeguards measurements. These measurements aim beyond the capabilities of existing methods to include the evaluation of plutonium and fissile material inventory, independent of operator declarations. Testing and evaluation of advanced NDA performance will require reference assemblies with well-characterized compositions to serve as working standards against which the NDA methods can be benchmarked and for uncertainty quantification. To support the development of standards for the NGSI spent fuel NDA project, high-fidelity modeling of irradiated fuel assemblies is being performed to characterize fuel compositions and radiation emission data. The assembly depletion simulations apply detailed operating history information and core simulation data as it is available to perform high fidelity axial and pin-by-pin fuel characterization for more than 1600 nuclides. The resulting pin-by-pin isotopic inventories are used to optimize the NDA measurements and provide information necessary to unfold and interpret the measurement data, e.g., passive gamma emitters, neutron emitters, neutron absorbers, and fissile content. A key requirement of this study is the analysis of uncertainties associated with the calculated compositions and signatures for the standard assemblies; uncertainties introduced by the calculation methods, nuclear data, and operating information. An integral part of this assessment involves the application of experimental data from destructive radiochemical assay to assess the uncertainty and bias in computed inventories, the impact of parameters such as assembly burnup gradients and burnable poisons, and the influence of neighboring assemblies on periphery rods. This paper will present the results of high fidelity assembly depletion modeling and uncertainty analysis from independent calculations performed using SCALE and MCNP. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  2. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  3. A globular complex formation by Nda1 and the other five members of the MCM protein family in fission yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhisa Adachi; Jiro Usukura; Mitsuhiro Yanagida

    1997-01-01

    Background: In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Nda1, Nda4, Mis5 and Cdc21 proteins belong to the MCM (minichromosome maintenance) pro- tein family which is thought to have six members. Each MCM member is required for the early stages of DNA replication, and has a well-conserved central 200-amino acid domain containing a puta- tive ATP binding motif. However, the precise molecular

  4. Dietary Supplements

    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

    ... Search FDA Submit search. ... FDA regulates dietary supplement labels and other labeling, such as package inserts and accompanying literature. ...

  5. Efficient solutions to the NDA-NCA low-order eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect

    Willert, J. A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Kelley, C. T. [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent algorithmic advances combine moment-based acceleration and Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) methods to accelerate the computation of the dominant eigenvalue in a k-eigenvalue calculation. In particular, NDA-NCA [1], builds a sequence of low-order (LO) diffusion-based eigenvalue problems in which the solution converges to the true eigenvalue solution. Within NDA-NCA, the solution to the LO k-eigenvalue problem is computed by solving a system of nonlinear equation using some variant of Newton's method. We show that we can speed up the solution to the LO problem dramatically by abandoning the JFNK method and exploiting the structure of the Jacobian matrix. (authors)

  6. ‹drar Örneklerinden ‹zole Edilen Toplum ve Hastane Kaynakl› Escherichia coli Sufllar›nda Antibiyotik Direnci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Füsun Zeynep; Onur KAYA; Güler YAYLI

    2004-01-01

    Gerek toplum kaynakl› gerekse hastane kaynakl› üriner sistem infeksiyonlar›nda en s›k izo- le edilen etken Escherichia coli'dir. Bu çal›flma, bölgemizdeki Escherichia coli sufllar›n›n çe- flitli antibiyotiklere direnç durumlar›n›n belirlenmesi ve ampirik tedavi seçeneklerinde yol gösterici olmas› amac›yla yap›lm›flt›r. 129 toplum kökenli, 120 hastane kökenli suflun, \\

  7. Cramer-Rao Bound for NDA DOA Estimates of Square QAM-Modulated Signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faouzi Bellili; Sonia Ben Hassen; Sofiène Affes; Alex Stephenne

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the stochastic Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the non-data-aided (NDA) direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of square quadrature amplitude (QAM)-modulated signals when the transmitted symbols are supposed to be completely unknown to the receiver. These signals are assumed to be corrupted by additive white circular complex Gaussian noise (AWCCGN). The channel is supposed to be slowly time-varying

  8. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Li; S. F. Klosterbuer; H. O. Menlove

    1996-01-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce

  9. NRF-Based NDA of Nuclear Material Using Monochromatic ?-Ray Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Angell, C. T.; Hajima, R.; Minato, F.; Suyama, K.; Seya, M.; Johnson, M. S.; McNabb, D. P.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is useful for nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials such as spent nuclear fuel. Counting precision of the NRF-based measurement system can be affected by background counts from self-activity of spent fuel and coherent scattering such as Rayleigh, nuclear Thomson, and Delbrück scattering. In this talk, the measurement principle and calculated uncertainties of the proposed detection system are presented.

  10. TRU DRUM NDE AND NDA WITH THE WASTE INSPECTION TOMOGRAPHY MOBILE TRAILER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Bernardi

    The Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) mobile trailer was developed and is operated by the Waste Inspection Technology Company (WITCO). WIT is designed for the unique characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste drums by performing high-energy 2 MV x-ray NonDestructive Examination (NDE) and gamma NonDestructive Assay (NDA). WIT provides for drum characterization through x-ray inspection of drum content and gamma assay determination

  11. ML-oriented NDA carrier synchronization for general rotationally symmetric signal constellations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Moeneclaey; Geert de Jonghe

    1994-01-01

    We point out that the nondecision-aided (NDA) carrier synchronizer, maximizing the low Es\\/No limit of the likelihood function averaged over a general 2?\\/N-rotationally symmetric signal constellation, reduces to the familiar timing-aided Nth power synchronizer; this extends a result of D'Andrea, Mengali and Reggiannini (1988) where only M-PSK constellations have been considered. Whereas in the case of M-PSK the tracking error

  12. Survey of DOE NDA practices for CH-Tru waste certification--illustrated with a greater than 10,000 drum NDA data base

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.; Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    We have compiled a greater than 10,000 CH-TRU waste drum data base from seven DOE sites which have utilized such multiple NDA measurements within the past few years. Most of these nondestructive assay (NDA) technique assay result comparisons have been performed on well-characterized, segregated waste categories such as cemented sludges, combustibles, metals, graphite residues, glasses, etc., with well-known plutonium isotopic compositions. Waste segregation and categorization practices vary from one DOE site to another. Perhaps the most systematic approach has been in use for several years at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), operated by Rockwell International, and located near Golden, Colorado. Most of the drum assays in our data base result from assays of RFP wastes, with comparisons available between the original RFP assays and PAN assays performed independently at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Solid Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility. Most of the RFP assays were performed with hyperpure germanium (HPGe)-based SGS assay units. However, at least one very important waste category, processed first-stage sludges, is assayed at RFP using a sludge batch-sampling procedure, prior to filling of the waste drums. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  13. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGE spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 55% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays.

  14. Dietary supplements commonly used for prevention.

    PubMed

    Najm, Wadie; Lie, Désirée

    2008-12-01

    The use of complimentary and alternative medicine is on the rise. This article reviews some of the commonly used herbal supplements and others focusing mainly on disease prevention. A summary table of medical conditions is provided, and when possible, a summary of efficacy and safety is provided to facilitate decision making. PMID:18928828

  15. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Figure 2. Culture-based example of issue regarding the correct identification is based on the formulation of Evans and Parslow (1985), with slight modifications following Moore et al latitude and based on the light model of Evans and Parslow (1985). As in Evans and Parslow (1985

  16. Efficacy and safety of oral lactoferrin supplementation in combination with rHuEPO-beta for the treatment of anemia in advanced cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: open-label, randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Gramignano, Giulia; Mulas, Carlo; Sanna, Eleonora; Mantovani, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Advanced-stage cancer patients often suffer from anemia that closely resembles the anemia of chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by specific changes in iron homeostasis and absorption. i.v. iron improves the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in anemic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. We report the results of an open-label, randomized, prospective trial aimed at testing the efficacy and safety of treatment with oral lactoferrin versus i.v. iron, both combined with rHuEPO, for the treatment of anemia in a population of 148 advanced cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. All patients received s.c. rHuEPO-beta, 30,000 UI once weekly for 12 weeks, and were randomly assigned to ferric gluconate (125 mg i.v. weekly) or lactoferrin (200 mg/day). Both arms showed a significant hemoglobin increase. No difference in the mean hemoglobin increase or the hematopoietic response, time to hematopoietic response, or mean change in serum iron, C-reactive protein, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed between arms. In contrast, ferritin decreased in the lactoferrin arm whereas it increased in the i.v. iron arm. In conclusion, these results show similar efficacy for oral lactoferrin and for i.v. iron, combined with rHuEPO, for the treatment of anemia in advanced cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:20647390

  17. Utilization of electronic resources in the NDA/BLA regulatory review of bioanalytical data: perspectives from US FDA reviewers.

    PubMed

    Au, Stanley; Yu, Chongwoo; Booth, Brian

    2011-07-01

    The electronic common technical document (eCTD) format is frequently used in submitting bioanalytical information as part of a new drug application (NDA) or biologics license application (BLA). While the use of the eCTD format has many advantages, the potential for further improvement exists. This review highlights issues that are commonly encountered in reviewing bioanalytical information during the review process. In addition, the authors suggest potential strategies that illustrate how the ability to locate bioanalytical data or information can be enhanced and the summary information can be more consistently organized for a NDA or a BLA that is submitted in an eCTD format. PMID:21728769

  18. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ? 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be accelerated. PMID:23689111

  19. Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration and reduces resting blood pressure. Intriguingly, nitrate supplementation also reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise and can, in some circumstances, enhance exercise tolerance and performance. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are reviewed and practical guidelines for safe and efficacious dietary nitrate supplementation are provided. PMID:24791915

  20. Production of NDA Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, P.D. Jr.; Marshall, R.S.

    1998-11-17

    The production of Non Destructive Assay (NDA) Working Reference Materials (WRMs) that are traceable to nationally recognized standards was undertaken to support implementation of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project (CEP). The WRMs produced for the CEP project consist of Increased Am/Pu mass ration (IAP) and depleted Uranium (DU) WRMs. The CEP IAP/DU WRM set provides radioactive material standards for use in combination with 55 gallon drum waste matrix surrogates for the assessment of waste NDA assay system performance. The Production of WRMs is a meticulous process that is not without certain trials and tribulations. Problems may arise at any of the various stages of WRM production which include, but are not limited to; material characterization (physical, chemical, and isotopic), material blend parameters, personnel radiation exposure, gas generation phenomenon, traceability to national standards, encapsulation, statistical evaluation of the data, and others. Presented here is an overall description of the process by which the CEP WRMs were produced and certified as well as discussions pertaining to some of the problems encountered and how they were solved.

  1. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ... of kidney problems. Are any dietary supplements for diabetes effective? There is not enough scientific evidence to ...

  2. Comparison of the clinical efficacy of two commercial fatty acid supplements (EfaVet and DVM Derm Caps), evening primrose oil, and cold water marine fish oil in the management of allergic pruritus in dogs: a double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H; Decker, G A; Wellington, J R

    1992-07-01

    Twenty dogs with atopy or idiopathic pruritus were treated in a double-blinded clinical trial with computer-randomized and computer-generated sequences of 4 fatty acid-containing products: evening primrose oil, cold water marine fish oil, DVM Derm Caps, and EfaVet. Each dog received each product for a 2-week period. Five of 20 dogs (25%) had a good-to-excellent reduction in their level of pruritus with at least 1 of the products: evening primrose oil (2 dogs), DVM Derm Caps (1), EfaVet (1), DVM Derm Caps and cold water marine fish oil (1). Only 1 dog experienced a side effect (loose stools). Clinical response to fatty acid supplements appeared to be quite individualized, and independent of age, breed, sex, weight, duration of disease, specific diagnosis, or number of positive intradermal test reactions. PMID:1643883

  3. Enhancement of Calcium/Vitamin D Supplement Efficacy by Administering Concomitantly Three Key Nutrients Essential to Bone Collagen Matrix for the Treatment of Osteopenia in Middle-Aged Women: A One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Masse, Priscilla G.; Jougleux, Jean-Luc; C. Tranchant, Carole; Dosy, Juliana; Caissie, Marcel; P. Coburn, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Two vitamins and proline (CB6Pro), three nutrients essential for bone collagen, were used in combination to a 1000 mg calcium/250 IU vitamin D (Ca/D) daily supplement to treat osteopenia as a preventive measure against osteoporosis later in life. Middle-aged women not using estrogen were screened for osteopenia using the WHO criteria and divided into three groups (n = 20 each): 1) placebo healthy controls with normal bone mineral density (BMD); 2) control Ca/D-treated osteopenic patients; and 3) Ca/D + CB6Pro-treated osteopenic patients. The three groups were comparable at baseline except for BMD. After one-year treatment, cortical diaphyseal BMD remained constant in each group, but trabecular bone loss persisted (at 5 lumbar sites) in osteopenic group 2. No further bone loss was detected in osteopenic group 3. A loss of 2% was evidenced in the placebo group at one lumbar site. Markers of bone formation (which increase in coupling to resorption) decreased significantly in both osteopenic groups. Although biomarkers of resorption did not change, hormone (PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3)-induced osteoclastic activity was significantly reduced. No decline in BMD occurred at any bone site in osteopenic group 3, highlighting the importance of improving the quality of bone matrix concomitantly to mineral replacement. PMID:20104261

  4. A hybrid approach to the neutron transport K-eigenvalue problem using NDA-based algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Willert, J. A.; Kelley, C. T. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Knoll, D. A.; Park, H. [Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In order to provide more physically accurate solutions to the neutron transport equation it has become increasingly popular to use Monte Carlo simulation to model nuclear reactor dynamics. These Monte Carlo methods can be extremely expensive, so we turn to a class of methods known as hybrid methods, which combine known deterministic and stochastic techniques to solve the transport equation. In our work, we show that we can simulate the action of a transport sweep using a Monte Carlo simulation in order to solve the k-eigenvalue problem. We'll accelerate the solution using nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) as in [1,2]. Our work extends the results in [1] to use Monte Carlo simulation as the high-order solver. (authors)

  5. Effects of Maternal L-glutamine Supplementation on Fetus to Mitigate Teratogenic Effects of Alcohol 

    E-print Network

    Sawant, Onkar Balkrishna

    2013-12-05

    and glutamine related amino acids bioavailability in maternal and fetal plasma as well as in the fetal amniotic and allantoic fluid. Maternal glutamine supplementation improved the bioavailability and efficacy of amino acids in the maternal and fetal compartment...

  6. Integrating Herbs and Supplements in Managed Care: A Pharmacy Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Charles; Mossbrucker, Pat; Davino-Ramaya, Carrie M; Bez, Ileana; Lin, Margaret M; Terry, Theresa A; Thomas, Emily A; Jones, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Herbal and other dietary supplements are popular among patients. Whether and how to establish and manage an herbal formulary remains a challenge for conventional managed-care organizations. Pharmacists and clinicians depend on evidence-based guidelines to help determine which products (whether pharmaceutical or herbal) to make available to patients. Evidence from randomized controlled trials that supports the use of most herbal supplements is scarce, yet for some supplements, credible evidence supports the possibility of efficacy. Quality control remains of concern for the supplement industry and for patients and clinicians considering the use of supplements. Clinicians may improve care by both disseminating educational materials and making available to patients popular quality-controlled herbal supplements deemed safe and effective. Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) has adopted a comprehensive and systematic approach to managing and stocking herbal supplements that can serve as a model for other conventional and managed care organizations. KPNW's dedicated Natural Products Advisory Committee (NPAC) has made considerable progress toward developing a constructive response to KPNW patients' herbal supplement use. Making supplements available at pharmacies can improve clinical outcomes, patient convenience, and quality control. NPAC currently limits its reviews to randomized, controlled trials and data from meta-analyses and systematic reviews for single-ingredient supplements. As interest in this area maintains steady growth, NPAC will continue to study how best to meet patients' needs. PMID:21331210

  7. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Assisted Psychotherapy for Anxiety Associated With

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Safety and Efficacy of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Assisted Psychotherapy for Anxiety Associated and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy in 12 patients with anxiety associated with life- threatening diseases. Treatment included drug-free psychotherapy sessions supplemented by two LSD

  9. Supplemental Material (Doan and Rudner 2007) 1 SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL

    E-print Network

    Rudner, David

    Supplemental Material (Doan and Rudner 2007) 1 SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL Perturbations to engulfment do and accumulation of IVB. #12;Supplemental Material (Doan and Rudner 2007) 2 SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURES Figure S1. Full

  10. A FLUORESCENCE-LC METHOD WITH NDA PRECOLUMN DERIVATIZATION FOR FUMONISIN B2 DETERMINATION IN BLACK ASPERGILLI CULTURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luís Abrunhosa; Thalita Calado; Tiago Resende; Armando Venâncio

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery that Aspergillus niger can produce fumonisins raises a new mycotoxigenic risk that requires additional studies to assess the impact on agricultural commodities. Here, we report the development and validation of a sensitive LC-fluorescence method for the identification of fumonisin B2 in black aspergilli cultures. The performances of naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA), o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA), and 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) for the

  11. Effects of Coleus Forskohlii Supplementation on Body Composition and Hematological Profiles in Mildly Overweight Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shonteh Henderson; Bahrat Magu; Chris Rasmussen; Stacey Lancaster; Chad Kerksick; Penny Smith; Charlie Melton; Patty Cowan; Mike Greenwood; Conrad Earnest; Anthony Almada; Pervis Milnor; Terri Magrans; Rodney Bowden; Song Ounpraseuth; Ashli Thomas; Richard B. Kreider

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of Coleus Forskohlii (CF) on body composition, and determined the safety and efficacy of supplementation. METHODS: In a double blind and randomized manner, 23 females supplemented their diet with ForsLean™ (250 mg of 10% CF extract, (n = 7) or a placebo [P] (n = 12) two times per day for 12-wks. Body composition

  12. Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of heat-injured Salmonella from egg albumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of Salmonella from liquid egg white (LEW) is complicated by thermal and innate LEW antimicrobial-induced injury. Numerous supplements have been reported to promote the recovery of injured bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of twelve media supplements to af...

  13. ARIES NDA Suite: Fully-integrated and automated nuclear material assay system for measurement of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fearey, B.L.; Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) mission the demonstration of advanced technologies for the integrated dismantlement of surplus nuclear weapon components (pits) and the packaging of the recovered plutonium into long-term storage containers. The unclassified plutonium product is suitable for traditional international safeguards, as well as other potential inspection regimes. As indicated in the recent Secretary of Energy`s Record of Decision (ROD), this unclassified excess material is anticipated to be offered for international safeguards under the US Voluntary Offer (INFCIRC/288) performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (TAEA). The ARIES nondestructive assay (NDA) suite offers state-of-the-art capabilities that provide highly accurate, precise material assay meeting IAEA bias defect measurement levels. Because of these levels of performance, the requirement of destructive analysis is largely removed. The unique combination of automation and high accuracy suggests the possibility of dual-use operator-owned IAEA authenticated instrumentation. Finally, the concept of continuous unattended monitoring for international safeguards applications with the ARIES NDA suite is intriguing and may encourage additional deployments of similar NDA systems internationally or elsewhere within the DOE complex.

  14. Tobacco Use Supplement: An Overview

    Cancer.gov

    1 Tobacco Use Supplement An Overview Gregory D. Weyland Current Population Survey (CPS) 2 Current Population Survey • Purpose and Uses – Monthly Labor Force Data – Supplements • Tobacco Use Supplement • Annual and EConomic Survey (ASEC) • Other Supplements 3 Current

  15. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  16. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  17. The Efficacy, Safety, and Practicality of Treatments for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley H. Smith; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Michael T. Willoughby; Steven Evans

    2000-01-01

    Studies examining interventions for adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reviewed to evaluate their efficacy. These efficacy findings were supplemented with a preliminary system for judging safety and practicality. Results suggest that the stimulant drug methylphenidate (MPH) is safe and well-established empirically, but has some problems with inconvenience and noncompliance. Preliminary research supports the efficacy, safety, and practicality of

  18. Efficacy of climate forcings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ?110%, which increases to ?145% when its indirect

  19. Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R M Hackman; P J Havel; H J Schwartz; J C Rutledge; M R Watnik; E M Noceti; S J Stohs; J S Stern; C L Keen

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To determine the safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement with a low dose of ephedra and caffeine in overweight\\/obese premenopausal female subjects.Design:A 9-month, double-blind, randomized control study compared the efficacy and safety of a dietary supplement with ephedra and caffeine to a control supplement.Subjects:Sixty-one healthy, premenopausal women with body mass index (BMI) from 27 to 39 kg\\/m2 were randomly

  20. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for process areas in a MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been designed and installed in the process area of an automated mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. These instruments employ neutron coincidence counting methods to measure the spontaneous-fission rate of plutonium in the powders, pellets, and fuel pins in the process area. The spontaneous fission rate and the plutonium isotopic ratios determine the mass of plutonium in the sample. Measurements can be either attended or unattended. The fuel-pin assay system (FPAS) resides above the robotic conveyor system and measures the plutonium content in fuel-pin trays containing up to 24 pins (/approximately/1 kg of plutonium). The material accountancy glove-box (MAGB) counters consist of two slab detectors mounted on the sides of the glove box to measure samples of powder or pellets as they are brought to the load cell. Samples measured by the MAGB counters may contain up to 18 kg of MOX. This paper describes the design and performance of four systems: the fuel-pin assay system and three separate MAGB systems. The paper also discusses the role of Monte Carlo transport techniques in the detector design and subsequent instrument calibration. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Integrating dietary supplements into cancer care.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Abrams, Donald I; Ladas, Elena J; Deng, Gary; Hardy, Mary; Capodice, Jillian L; Winegardner, Mary F; Gubili, J K; Yeung, K Simon; Kussmann, Heidi; Block, Keith I

    2013-09-01

    Many studies confirm that a majority of patients undergoing cancer therapy use self-selected forms of complementary therapies, mainly dietary supplements. Unfortunately, patients often do not report their use of supplements to their providers. The failure of physicians to communicate effectively with patients on this use may result in a loss of trust within the therapeutic relationship and in the selection by patients of harmful, useless, or ineffective and costly nonconventional therapies when effective integrative interventions may exist. Poor communication may also lead to diminishment of patient autonomy and self-efficacy and thereby interfere with the healing response. To be open to the patient's perspective, and sensitive to his or her need for autonomy and empowerment, physicians may need a shift in their own perspectives. Perhaps the optimal approach is to discuss both the facts and the uncertainty with the patient, in order to reach a mutually informed decision. Today's informed patients truly value physicians who appreciate them as equal participants in making their own health care choices. To reach a mutually informed decision about the use of these supplements, the Clinical Practice Committee of The Society of Integrative Oncology undertook the challenge of providing basic information to physicians who wish to discuss these issues with their patients. A list of leading supplements that have the best suggestions of benefit was constructed by leading researchers and clinicians who have experience in using these supplements. This list includes curcumin, glutamine, vitamin D, Maitake mushrooms, fish oil, green tea, milk thistle, Astragalus, melatonin, and probiotics. The list includes basic information on each supplement, such as evidence on effectiveness and clinical trials, adverse effects, and interactions with medications. The information was constructed to provide an up-to-date base of knowledge, so that physicians and other health care providers would be aware of the supplements and be able to discuss realistic expectations and potential benefits and risks. PMID:23439656

  2. [Safety of food supplements].

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, A; Przyrembel, H

    2004-09-01

    Food supplements are foodstuffs. Food which is not safe shall not be placed on the market. Adherence to the laws which aim for the safety of food ensures that food supplements are safe. Unfortunately, there are still gaps in the legislation for food supplements. However, even intrinsically safe foods can bear a risk for the consumer if not used appropriately, for example if food supplements are consumed instead of healthy diets or if food supplements are used as substitutes for indicated drugs. PMID:15378168

  3. Introduction to the supplement.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-06-01

    In July of 2014, a symposium entitled "Enhancing Vaccine Immunity and Value" was held in Siena, Italy. The focus of the symposium was on how to best meet the challenge of developing and implementing vaccines for future disease targets. Vaccination has been responsible for averting estimated 3 billion cases of disease and more than 500 million lives to date through the prevention of infectious diseases. This has largely been responsible for dramatic increases in life span in developed countries. However, with the demographics of the world's population are changing, with many adults now surviving into their 80s, we now face the challenge of protecting the aging and other underserved populations not only against infectious diseases but also against cancer and other chronic conditions that occur in older adults. To face this challenge, we must harness new technologies derived from recent advances in the fields of immunology, structural biology, synthetic biology and genomics that promise a revolution in the vaccine field. Specifically, vaccine adjuvants have the potential to harness the immune system to provide protection against new types of diseases, improve protection in young children and expand this protection to adults and the elderly. However, in order to succeed, we need to overcome the non-technical challenges that could limit the implementation of innovative vaccines, including controversies regarding the safety of adjuvants, increasing regulatory complexity, the inadequate methods used to assess the value of novel vaccines, and the resulting industry alienation from future investment. In this supplement, we have assembled manuscripts from lectures and discussions of the symposium last July that addressed two related questions: how to improve vaccine efficacy using breakthrough technologies and how to capture the full potential of novel vaccines. PMID:26022560

  4. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of ?-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements highlighted in this review needs to be conducted using team-sport athletes and using team-sport-relevant testing (e.g. single- and multiple-sprint performance). It should also be considered that there is no guarantee that dietary supplements that improve isolated performance (i.e. single-sprint or jump performance) will remain effective in the context of a team-sport match. Thus, more research is also required to investigate the effects of dietary supplements on simulated or actual team-sport performance. A second aim of this review was to investigate any health issues associated with the ingestion of the more commonly promoted dietary supplements. While most of the supplements described in the review appear safe when using the recommended dose, the effects of higher doses (as often taken by athletes) on indices of health remain unknown, and further research is warranted. Finally, anecdotal reports suggest that team-sport athletes often ingest more than one dietary supplement and very little is known about the potential adverse effects of ingesting multiple supplements. Supplements that have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious when ingested on their own may have adverse effects when combined with other supplements. More research is required to investigate the effects of ingesting multiple supplements (both on performance and health). PMID:21058748

  5. Suppression of NDA-Type Alternative Mitochondrial NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana Modifies Growth and Metabolism, but not High Light Stimulation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Wallström, Sabá V.; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L.; Escobar, Matthew A.; Geisler, Daniela A.; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G.

    2014-01-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins. PMID:24486764

  6. Review of nutritional supplements for the treatment of bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Dunlop, Boadie W

    2014-05-01

    Many patients view psychotropics with skepticism and fear and view nutritional supplements as more consistent with their values and beliefs. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the evidence base for nutritional supplements in the treatment of bipolar depression (BD). A literature search for all randomized, controlled clinical trials using nutritional supplements in the treatment of BD was conducted via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE computerized database. The studies were organized into essential nutrients/minerals, nonessential nutrients, and combinations of nutritional products. Among essential nutrients/minerals, omega-3-fatty acids (O3FAs) have the strongest evidence of efficacy for bipolar depression, although some studies failed to find positive effects from O3FAs. Weak evidence supports efficacy of vitamin C whereas no data support the usefulness of folic acid and choline. Among nonessential nutrients, cytidine is the least supported treatment. Studies of N-acetylcysteine have not resolved its efficacy in treating acute depressive episodes relative to placebo. However, one study demonstrates its potential to improve depressive symptoms over time and the other, though nonsignificant, suggests it has a prophylactic effect. Studies of inositol have been mostly negative, except for 1 study. Those that were negative were underpowered but demonstrated numerically positive effects for inositol. There is no evidence that citicholine is efficacious for uncomplicated BD depression, though it may have value for comorbid substance abuse among BD patients. Finally, combination O3FA-cytidine lacks evidence of efficacy. The findings of this review do not support the routine use of nutritional supplements in the treatment or prophylaxis of BD depression. Studies with more rigorous designs are required before definitive conclusions can be made. Despite the inadequacy of the existing data, clinicians should remain open to the value of nutritional supplements: after all, lithium is a mineral too. PMID:24353094

  7. fieker Fabrikas› At›¤› Döner Çumurunun B›ld›rc›n Rasyonlar›nda Kalsiyum Kayna¤› Olarak Kullan›lma Olanaklar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nihat ÖZEN; Emin ARAT

    Özet: Bu araflt›rma fleker fabrikas› at›¤› döner çamurunun b›ld›rc›n rasyonlar›nda kalsiyum kayna¤› olarak kullan›lma olanaklar›n› belirlemek amac›yla yap›lm›flt›r. Araflt›rma iki deneme halinde gerçeklefltirilmifltir. 45 günlük olan ilk büyütme denemesinde 10 günlük 1260 adet Japon b›ld›rc›n› (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) kullan›lm›flt›r. Yumurtlama döneminin ilk 24 haftas›n› kapsayan ikinci denemede ise 432 b›ld›rc›n kullan›lm›flt›r. Her iki denemede de hayvanlara kalsiyum a盤›n›n s›ras›yla %0

  8. The efficacy of supplementing ethoxyquin in poultry feed 

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Lavanya Janardan

    1992-01-01

    divide symmetrically. This is called homolysis, and the fragments are called radicals. 2. 1. 2, Production of free radicals According to Sister (1984), the homolytic fission of covalent bonds or electmn- transfer reactions yield free radicals. A new... and polyunsaturated fatty acids, the process of lipid peroxidation also occurs in biological systems, in the words of Duthie (1991), "Life is a constant battle to avoid becoming rancicL" Free radicals are involved in the initiation and propagation of lipid...

  9. The efficacy of supplementing ethoxyquin in poultry feed

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Lavanya Janardan

    1992-01-01

    possible. ABSTRACT DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES . LIST OF FIGURES TABLE OF CONTENTS Page tx CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE . 2. 1. Free radical mechanisms 2. 2. Chemical reactions of free... radicals 2. 3. Detection of fiee radicals 2. 4. Free radical scavengers 2. 5. Deleterious reactions of fic radicals 2. 6. Biological effects of food antioxidants 2. 7. Nutrition and immunity 2. 8. The immune system 2. 9. The antioxidant modulation...

  10. Dietary supplements for athletes: emerging trends and recurring themes.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L; Hespel, P

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used at all levels of sport. Changes in patterns of supplement use are taking place against a background of changes in the regulatory framework that governs the manufacture and distribution of supplements in the major markets. Market regulation is complicated by the increasing popularity of Internet sales. The need for quality control of products to ensure they contain the listed ingredients in the stated amount and to ensure the absence of potentially harmful substances is recognized. This latter category includes compounds prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Several certification programmes now provide testing facilities for manufacturers of both raw ingredients and end products to ensure the absence of prohibited substances. Athletes should carry out a cost-benefit analysis for any supplement they propose to use. For most supplements, the evidence is weak, or even completely absent. A few supplements, including caffeine, creatine, and bicarbonate, are supported by a strong research base. Difficulties arise when new evidence appears to support novel supplements: in recent years, ?-alanine has become popular, and the use of nitrate and arginine is growing. Athletes seldom wait until there is convincing evidence of efficacy or of safety, but caution is necessary to minimize risk. PMID:22150428

  11. MSEIP Documentation Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    The Midwestern States Educational Information Project's "MSEIP Documentation Supplement" is a companion publication to "MSEIP Documentation of Project Development and General System Design; Revised, June 1969." (LI 003275). The supplement starts with an overview of the MSEIP Data Control System which explains many of the techniques used in the…

  12. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  13. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  14. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  15. Efficacy of oral iron therapy in patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Wingard; Robert A. Parker; Nuhad Ismail; Raymond M. Hakim

    1995-01-01

    Iron supplementation is required by most dialysis patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin. The efficacy of oral iron is variable in these patients, and many require the use of intravenous iron dextran to maintain adequate iron levels, defined as transferrin saturation greater than 20%, serum ferritin greater than 100 ng\\/mL, and serum iron greater than 80 ?g\\/dL. To determine the efficacy

  16. Fall 2014 Transfer Supplemental

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    will be required to provide informa2on about your overall grade point average (GPA of admission may be withdrawn. Grade Point Average You must maintain the overall college grade point average (GPA) reported on your Supplemental Applica2on

  17. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... focuses specifically on dietary supplements, seeking to strengthen knowledge and understanding of these products by supporting and ... The centers are advancing the scientific base of knowledge about botanicals, making it possible to better evaluate ...

  18. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  19. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  20. Fluoride Treatments and Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    Fluoride Treatments and Supplements What Is It? What It's Used For Preparation How It's Done Follow-Up ... When To Call a Professional What Is It? Fluoride is a naturally occurring element that strengthens teeth. ...

  1. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca D. Jackson; Andrea Z. LaCroix; Margery Gass; Robert B. Wallace; John Robbins; Cora E. Lewis; Tamsen Bassford; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Henry R. Black; Patricia L. Blanchette; Denise E. Bonds; Robert L. Brunner; Robert G. Brzyski; Bette Caan; Jane A. Cauley; Rowan T. Chlebowski; Steven R. Cummings; Iris A. Granek; Jennifer Hays; Gerardo Heiss; Susan L. Hendrix; Barbara V. Howard; Judith Hsia; F. Allan Hubbell; Karen K. C. Johnson; Howard Judd; Jane Morley Kotchen; Lewis H. Kuller; Robert D. Langer; Norman L. Lasser; Marian C. Limacher; Shari E. Ludlam; JoAnn E. Manson; Karen L. Margolis; Joan McGowan; Judith K. Ockene; Mary Jo OSullivan; Lawrence Phillips; Ross L. Prentice; Gloria E. Sarto; Marcia L. Stefanick; Linda Van Horn; Jean Wactawski-Wende; Evelyn Whitlock; Garnet L. Anderson; Annlouise R. Assaf; David H. Barad

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal.\\u000aMETHODS: We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000 mg of elemental [corrected] calcium as calcium carbonate

  2. Efficacy of climate forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2005-09-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

  3. Differentiation of Positional Isomers of Hybrid Peptides Containing Repeats of beta-Nucleoside Derived Amino Acid (beta-Nda-) and L-Amino Acids by Positive and Negative Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS n )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Raju; M. Ramesh; R. Srinivas; S. Chandrasekhar; N. Kiranmai; V. U. M. Sarma

    2011-01-01

    A new class of positional isomeric pairs of -Boc protected oligopeptides comprised of alternating nucleoside derived beta-amino acid (beta-Nda-) and L-amino acid residues (alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ). The protonated dipeptide positional isomers with beta-Nda- at the N-terminus lose CH3OH, NH3, and C2H4O2,

  4. A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel N; Agharkar, Amruta S; Gonzales, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement's usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

  5. Belief in the efficacy of alternative medicine among general practitioners in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Knipschild; Jos Kleijnen; Gerben ter Riet

    1990-01-01

    A survey among 293 GPs in the Netherlands showed that many believe in the efficacy of common alternative procedures. High scores were especially found for manual therapy, yoga, acupuncture, hot bath therapy and homoeopathy. Other procedures, such as iridology, faith healing and many food supplements, were considered less useful.

  6. Efficacy of nutritional aupplementation therapy in depleted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva C Creutzberg; Emiel F. M Wouters; Rob Mostert; Clarie A. P. M Weling-Scheepers; Annemie M. W. J Schols

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveWeight loss and muscle wasting adversely affect morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Maintenance systemic glucocorticosteroids, prescribed in a substantial number of patients, further contribute to muscle weakness. We investigated the efficacy of oral nutritional supplementation therapy in depleted patients with COPD.

  7. Statistical Issues for Combining Multiple Caries Diagnostics for Demonstrating Caries Efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Katz; E. Huntington

    2004-01-01

    Caries efficacy in clinical trials has been based primarily on visual examinations supplemented by Fiber Optic Transillumination (FOTI) and radiography, with the assessments combined at the surface level to classify each surface as to its caries status. Newer caries diagnostics techniques measure the caries process in a quantitative manner and so thus yield continuous rather than ordinal results. The objective

  8. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

  9. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More When you reach for that ... powder or liquid form. Common supplements include vitamins, minerals and herbal products, also known as botanicals. People ...

  10. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed by the towering shelves of vitamin and mineral supplements in the grocery store? There are so ...

  11. Neuron, volume 77 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Oertner, Thomas

    -10 min). Neurons were suspended in MEM plus glutamax (Gibco 41090, supplemented with 11% fetal calf serum containing 80% MEM (Gibco 32360), 20% horse serum (Gibco 16050) supplemented with 1mM L-glutamine, 0

  12. Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    McCollum III, Ted

    1997-11-03

    Supplemental nutrients for cattle--as concentrated feeds, harvested forages, or a complementary grazing program--accounts for a significant portion of annual production costs in a cattle operation. The producer should know how a supplement affects...

  13. Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    (Invitrogen) supplemented with penicillin, streptomycin and glutamine at 37 C with 5% CO2 in a humidified, cells were starved over- night in DMEM supplemented with glutamine, penicillin, streptomycin, and 20 m

  14. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePLUS

    Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

  15. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePLUS

    ... indictment charging her with the illegal importation and distribution of more than four million diet pills that ... Human Medical Products [ARCHIVED] Label Claims for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Related Consumer Updates ...

  16. Teacher efficacy: A construct validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherri Gibson; Myron H. Dembo

    1984-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure teacher efficacy and examined the relationship between teacher efficacy and observable teacher behaviors. Factor analysis of responses from 208 elementary school teachers to a 30-item Teacher Efficacy Scale yielded 2 substantial factors that corresponded to A. Bandura's 2-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy. A multitrait–multimethod analysis that supported both convergent and discriminant validity analyzed data from

  17. Yersinia ruckeri Bakterini ile ‹mmunize Edilen Gökkufla¤› Alabal›klar›nda (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Antikor Üretiminin IFAT ve ELISA Teknikleri ile Saptanmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özet: Bu çal›flmada Yersinia ruckeri bakterini ile immunize edilen gökkufla¤› alabal›klar›nda oluflan antikor seviyesinin indirekt fluoresans antikor teknii (IFAT) ve enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) teknikleriyle tayinine çal›fl›lm›flt›r. Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) veya phosphate buffered saline (PBS) ile haz›rlanan Yersinia ruckeri bakterin inokulatlar›n›n gökkufla¤› alabal›klar›na intraperitonal enjeksiyonu ile oluflan humoral immunite seviyesi 20 haftal›k periyot süresince incelenmifltir. Deneme ve kontrol gruplar›

  18. Development of the nano-dust analyzer (NDA) for detection and compositional analysis of nanometer-size dust particles originating in the inner heliosphere.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, L; Auer, S; Gemer, A; Grün, E; Horanyi, M; Juhasz, A; Kempf, S; Malaspina, D; Mocker, A; Moebius, E; Srama, R; Sternovsky, Z

    2014-03-01

    A linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer is developed for the detection and chemical analysis of nanometer-sized particles originating near the Sun. Nano-dust particles are thought to be produced by mutual collisions between interplanetary dust particles slowly spiraling toward the Sun and are accelerated outward to high velocities by interaction with the solar wind plasma. The WAVES instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft reported the detection, strong temporal variation, and potentially high flux of these particles. Here we report on the optimization and the results from the detailed characterization of the instrument's performance using submicrometer sized dust particles accelerated to 8-60 km/s. The Nano Dust Analyzer (NDA) concept is derived from previously developed detectors. It has a 200 cm(2) effective target area and a mass resolution of approximately m/?m = 50. The NDA instrument is designed to reliably detect and analyze nanometer-sized dust particles while being pointed close to the Sun's direction, from where they are expected to arrive. Measurements by such an instrument will determine the size-dependent flux of the nano-dust particles and its variations, it will characterize the composition of the nano-dust and, ultimately, it may determine their source. The flight version of the NDA instrument is estimated to be <5 kg and requires <10 W for operation. PMID:24689626

  19. Intravenous versus oral iron supplementation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W

    2007-06-01

    Iron supplementation is required in a preponderance of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients treated with erythropoietic stimulatory agents (ESAs). Although many authors and clinical practice guidelines recommend primary oral iron supplementation in ESA-treated PD patients, numerous studies have clearly demonstrated that, because of a combination of poor bioavailability of oral iron, gastrointestinal intolerance, and noncompliance, oral iron supplementation is insufficient for maintaining a positive iron balance in these patients over time. Controlled trials have demonstrated that, in iron-deficient and iron-replete PD patients alike, intravenous (IV) iron supplementation results in superior iron stores and hemoglobin levels with fewer side effects than oral iron produces. Careful monitoring of iron stores in patients receiving IV iron supplementation is important in view of conflicting epidemiologic links between IV iron loading and infection and cardiovascular disease. Emerging new iron therapies such as heme iron polypeptide and ferumoxytol may further enhance the tolerability, efficacy, and ease of administration of iron in PD patients. PMID:17556315

  20. Supplemental Information spacer spacer

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    Supplemental Information cas9 repeat spacer spacer dsDNA Transcription DNA scanning CRISPRcas1 cas2 System from S. pyogenes, Related to Figure 1 The system consists of a set of CRISPR-associated (CasRNA) and the host RNase III. After cleavage, one single protein, Cas9, recognizes and binds to the cleaved form

  1. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  2. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  3. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  4. Recent Advances in Berry Supplementation and Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To summarize recent findings and current concepts in the beneficial effects of berry consumption on brain function during aging. Berryfruit supplementation has continued to demonstrate efficacy in reversing age-related cognitive decline in animal studies. In terms of the mechanisms behind the effe...

  5. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  6. An Evaluation of the Supplemental Instruction Programme in a First Year Calculus Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayowski, V.; MacMillan, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) incorporates collaborative learning in small, peer-led, group settings in order to integrate instruction in learning and reasoning skills with course content. Several meta-analyses speak to the efficacy of SI but fail to address selection bias due to ability/motivation and gender. In this study, SI was paired with a…

  7. Soy isoflavone supplementation and bone mineral density in menopausal women: a 2-y multicenter clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant estrogens that are abundant in soy. Although purported to protect against bone loss, the efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women remains controversial. Our aim was to test the effect of soy isoflav...

  8. Role of iron supplementation in promoting maternal and fetal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yekta, Zahra; Pourali, Reza; Mladkova, Nikol; Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad; Boromand, Farzane; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati

    2011-01-01

    Background The data comparing daily versus intermittent iron supplementation during pregnancy remain controversial. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of daily versus two different intermittent iron supplementation regimes on hematologic markers and birth outcomes in nonanemic pregnant women. Methods Two hundred and ten women with singleton pregnancies, no known disease, and hemoglobin levels >11.0 g/dL were randomly assigned to one of three groups, ie, Group A consuming two iron supplementation tablets once weekly (100 mg iron per week, n = 70), Group B consuming one tablet twice weekly (100 mg iron per week, n = 70) and Group C, consuming one tablet daily (50 mg iron per day, n = 70). No additional micronutrients were supplied. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were measured at 20, 28, and 38 weeks. Pregnancy and birth outcomes (pregnancy termination, method of delivery, birth weight, stillbirth) were analyzed. Results In total, 201 women completed the protocol. There was a significant difference in mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels in Group B at 38 weeks (P = 0.018 and P = 0.035, respectively) but this difference was not clinically significant (hemoglobin >12 g/dL, ferritin >19 ?g/L). There was a significant increase in ferritin in Group C (P = 0.03) at 28 weeks. No significant difference was observed with respect to pregnancy or birth outcome across the groups. All regimens prevented the occurrence of hemoglobin <10.5 g/dL, but weekly supplementation was associated with development of a hemoglobin level <11.0 g/dL (risk ratio 0.044). Conclusion Twice-weekly supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation, and may represent an acceptable compromise in iron supplementation regimens for nonanemic pregnant women. PMID:22162919

  9. Androgen Supplementation During Aging: Development of a Physiologically Appropriate Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sorwell, Krystina G.; Garyfallou, Vasilios T.; Garten, Jamie; Weiss, Alison; Renner, Laurie; Neuringer, Martha; Kohama, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Men show an age-related decline in the circulating levels of testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Consequently, there is interest in developing androgen supplementation paradigms for old men that replicate the hormone profiles of young adults. In the present study, we used old (21–26 years old) male rhesus monkeys as a model to examine the efficacy of an androgen supplementation paradigm that comprised oral T administration (12?mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the evening, and two oral DHEA administrations, 3?hr apart (0.04?mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the morning. After 5 days of repeated hormone supplementation, serial blood samples were remotely collected from each animal hourly across the 24-hr day, and assayed for cortisol, DHEAS, T, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2). Following androgen supplementation, T levels were significantly elevated and this was associated with a more sustained nocturnal elevation of T's primary bioactive metabolites, DHT and E1 and E2. Plasma DHEAS levels were also significantly elevated after androgen supplementation; DHEAS levels rose in the early morning and gradually declined during the course of the day, closely mimicking the profiles observed in young adults (7–12 years old); in contrast, cortisol levels were unaltered by the supplementation. Together the data demonstrate a non-invasive androgen supplementation paradigm that restores youthful circulating androgen levels in old male primates. Because this paradigm preserves the natural circulating circadian hormone patterns, we predict that it will produce fewer adverse side effects, such as perturbed sleep or cognitive impairment. PMID:24134213

  10. [Efficacy--appropriateness].

    PubMed

    Baldasseroni, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    I discuss the meaning and differences between the Appropriateness and Efficacy in the prevention of occupational risks and damage. It is argued that to be "appropriate" an intervention should be suitable, keeping with the circumstances, while the intervention that achieves the goal is "effective". In practice, the appropriateness is very used in the field of clinical medicine, with reference to the treatment, while in the prevention it is usual to use with greater frequency the term of effectiveness. PMID:25558725

  11. Vitamin Supplementation in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Seema

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin supplementation is fairly common among the elderly. Supplements are often used to prevent disease and improve health. In the United States, the use of dietary supplements has continued to increase over the last 30 years, and more than half of adults report using one or more dietary supplements. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables does have a protective effect on health. However, clinical trials on the use of vitamin supplements for promotion of health and prevention of disease have failed to demonstrate the strong associations seen in observational studies. PMID:26195095

  12. Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part II: Efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    This is the second of two papers which review issues concerning complementary medicines. The first reviewed the extent of use of complementary medicines, and issues related to the regulation and pharmaceutical quality of these products; the second considers evidence for the efficacy of several well-known complementary medicines, and discusses complementary-medicines pharmacovigilance. The term complementary medicines describes a range of pharmaceutical-type preparations, including herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils and dietary supplements, which mainly sit outside conventional medicine. The use of complementary medicines is a popular healthcare approach in the UK, and there are signs that the use of such products is continuing to increase. Patients and the public use complementary medicines for health maintenance, for the treatment or prevention of minor ailments, and also for serious, chronic illnesses. There is a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews to support the efficacy of certain herbal extracts and dietary supplements in particular conditions. However, many other preparations remain untested. Strictly speaking, evidence of efficacy (and safety) for herbal medicines should be considered to be extract specific. Pharmacovigilance for complementary medicines is in its infancy. Data are lacking in several areas relevant to safety. Standard pharmacovigilance tools have additional limitations when applied to investigating safety concerns with complementary medicines. PMID:12680880

  13. Whole food versus supplement: comparing the clinical evidence of tomato intake and lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M; Sesso, Howard D

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. A link between diet and CVD is well established, with dietary modification a foundational component of CVD prevention and management. With the discovery of bioactive components beyond the essential nutrients of foods, a new era of nutritional, medical, botanical, physiologic, and analytical sciences has unfolded. The ability to identify, isolate, purify, and deliver single components has expanded the dietary supplement business and health opportunity for consumers. Lycopene is an example of a food component that has attracted attention from scientists as well as food, agriculture, and dietary supplement industries. A major question, however, is whether delivering lycopene through a supplement source is as effective as or more effective than consuming lycopene through whole food sources, specifically the tomato, which is the richest source of lycopene in the Western diet. In this review, we examined clinical trials comparing the efficacy of lycopene supplements with tomato products on intermediate CVD risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function, blood pressure, and lipid metabolism. Overall, the present review highlights the need for more targeted research; however, at present, the available clinical research supports consuming tomato-based foods as a first-line approach to cardiovascular health. With the exception of blood pressure management where lycopene supplementation was favored, tomato intake provided more favorable results on cardiovascular risk endpoints than did lycopene supplementation. Indeed, future research that is well designed, clinically focused, mechanistically revealing, and relevant to human intake will undoubtedly add to the growing body of knowledge unveiling the promise of tomatoes and/or lycopene supplementation as an integral component of a heart-healthy diet. PMID:25469376

  14. Military-specific application of nutritional supplements: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Brink, Will

    2015-01-01

    The Soldiers of America's military endure numerous physical and mental challenges that demand strict physical fitness regimens, extreme mental agility, and a perpetual readiness to deploy at a moment's notice. The chronicity of these stressors has the potential to dramatically reduce performance - both directly and indirectly.  Because of this risk, many Soldiers turn to nutritional supplements with hopes of optimizing performance. Increasing amounts of research have demonstrated that various supplements may enhance overall physical prowess, health, and offer quicker recovery in the face of corporal or psychological extremes. Most individuals, including many medical and nutrition professionals, possess only an elementary comprehension of nutritional supplements and their effect on Soldiers in training or combat environments. Nevertheless, a grasp of these details is required for safety and optimal benefits. Various compounds have been evaluated - to include evidence within the military setting - and found to augment endurance, increase cognitive function, decrease knee pain, or offer hearing or lung protection in the face of high-energy impulses. These efficacious outcomes may serve to augment the health and longevity of these Soldiers; however, continued research is needed for efficacy and long-term safety within specific environments. PMID:25949806

  15. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CN Boozer; JA Nasser; SB Heymsfield; V Wang; G Chen; JL Solomon

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine in overweight humans the short-term safety and efficacy for weight loss of an herbal supplement containing Ma Huang, Guarana and other ingredients.DESIGN: An 8 week randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study of a herbal dietary supplement (72 mg\\/day ephedrine alkaloids and 240 mg\\/day caffeine).SUBJECTS: Overweight men and women (body mass index, ?29 and ?35 kg\\/m2).MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome

  16. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  17. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Eckerson

    \\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

  18. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey1234

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna; Nahin, Richard L; Rogers, Gail T; Barnes, Patricia M; Jacques, Paul M; Sempos, Christopher T; Bailey, Regan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use. Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions. Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy. PMID:23576049

  19. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries. PMID:26159983

  20. Efficacy of radioiodine urinalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Broga, D.W.; Berk, H.W.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Little exists in the literature to support the efficacy of urinalysis for demonstrating thyroid uptake of radioiodine. A review was made of a variety of kinetic models. Computer analysis and graphics were used to assess the variables in the two models chosen for this study. The applicability of each model was tested by using data obtained from a group of euthyroid subjects. The results indicate that using an integral urine-sampling method and a three-component model yields minimum detectable thyroid uptakes which fall well below required reporting limits. Furthermore, the results show that integral urine samples obtained in the first few hours post exposure may be used to predict major thyroid uptakes in time for effective thyroid blocking.

  1. The effects of age on skeletal muscle and the phosphocreatine energy system: can creatine supplementation help older adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Creatine supplementation has been found to significantly increase muscle strength and hypertrophy in young adults (? 35 yr) particularly when consumed in conjunction with a resistance training regime. Literature examining the efficacy of creatine supplementation in older adults (55-82 yr) suggests creatine to promote muscle strength and hypertrophy to a greater extent than resistance training alone. The following is a review of literature reporting on the effects of creatine supplementation on intramuscular high energy phosphates, skeletal muscle morphology and quality of life in older adults. Results suggest creatine supplementation to be a safe, inexpensive and effective nutritional intervention, particularly when consumed in conjunction with a resistance training regime, for slowing the rate of muscle wasting that is associated with aging. Physicians should strongly consider advising older adults to supplement with creatine and to begin a resistance training regime in an effort to enhance skeletal muscle strength and hypertrophy, resulting in enhanced quality of life. PMID:20034396

  2. Epistemological Beliefs and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Griffin W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the strength of teachers' epistemological beliefs predicted variance in teachers' sense of efficacy. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent to which beliefs in Certain Knowledge and Omniscient Authority accounted for variability in general teaching efficacy, over and above that…

  3. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  4. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  5. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  6. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  7. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing...specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and production equipment must...

  8. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  9. Many Hospital Patients Not Asked about Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... percent of the supplement users, the researchers found. Documentation of dietary supplement use on medical charts was ... Doctors need to establish a formalized approach to documentation to help prevent adverse reactions from dietary supplement- ...

  10. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  11. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  12. A synthetic stimulant never tested in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is identified in multiple dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic stimulant never before studied in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), was suspected of being present in dietary supplements. DMBA is an analogue of the pharmaceutical stimulant, 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA), which was recently banned by the US Food and Drug Administration. We obtained all dietary supplements sold by US distributors that listed an ingredient on the label, such as AMP Citrate, that might be a marketing name for DMBA. Supplements were analyzed for the presence and quantity of DMBA. Fourteen supplements met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed by two separate laboratories using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometry and a reference standard. The identity of DMBA was confirmed in 12 supplements in the range of 13 to 120?mg DMBA per serving. Following recommendations on the supplement label for maximum daily intake, customers would consume from 26 to 320?mg of DMBA per day. Supplements containing DMBA were marketed to improve athletic performance, increase weight loss and enhance brain function. DMBA has never before been detected in supplements. The stimulant has never been studied in humans; its efficacy and safety are entirely unknown. Regulatory agencies should act expeditiously to warn consumers and remove DMBA from all dietary supplements. PMID:25293509

  13. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation During Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Mridul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Loss of bone mineral density is an unintended consequence of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Supplementation with calcium and/or vitamin D in these men seems logical and is advocated by many lay and professional groups. Methods. We reviewed guidelines for calcium and vitamin D supplementation and the results of clinical trials of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy. Results. Whether supplementation of men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy with calcium and/or vitamin D results in higher bone mineral density than no supplementation has not been tested. The results of 12 clinical trials show that, at the doses commonly recommended, 500–1,000 mg calcium and 200–500 IU vitamin D per day, men undergoing androgen deprivation lose bone mineral density. Conclusion. The doses of calcium and vitamin D that have been tested are inadequate to prevent loss of bone mineral density in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy. In light of evidence that high levels of dietary calcium and calcium supplement use are associated with higher risks for cardiovascular disease and advanced prostate cancer, intervention studies should evaluate the safety as well as the efficacy of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in these men. PMID:22836449

  14. Psychology of Supplementation in Sport and Exercise: Motivational Antecedents and Biobehavioral Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Rafer; Arent, Shawn

    Research concerning the physiological and biobehavioral effects of supplements commonly used in sport or exercise settings has multiplied rapidly over the last decade. However, less attention has been directed to understanding the motivational pathways leading to sport and exercise supplement use. This chapter summarizes known usage rates for sport/fitness supplements and describes motivational theories and constructs that may be of use for understanding individuals' use of these substances. In this respect, we contend that researchers should consider behavioral approaches, the theory of planned behavior, balance theory, achievement goal theory, social physique anxiety, and muscle dysmorphia as useful for developing an understanding of the psychological influences on supplement use. For some of the latter theories/constructs, research has already shown support for their explanatory abilities, whereas research is scant and the utility for understanding sport/exercise supplement use is yet to be determined for many of the theories. In addition to describing the motivation behind supplement use, this chapter summarizes the biobehavioral effects of a select group of supplements commonly used to improve performance, fitness, or health. Specifically, we consider psychobiological effects of caffeine, creatine, Ginkgo biloba, and St. John's wort related to enhanced arousal, improved memory and cognition, enhanced brain function and protection, and reduced depression. There is promising initial evidence for the efficacy of these compounds in producing favorable psychological outcomes, although certain shortcomings of many studies on these compounds must be taken into account before reaching definitive conclusions.

  15. Otlak Ayr›¤› (Agropyron cristatum)'nda Deiflik S›ra Aral›klar›, Biçim Yükseklikleri ve An›z Yakman›n Tohum Verimine ve Verim Unsurlar›na Etkileri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali KOÇ; Mustafa TAN

    Özet: Bu araflt›rma Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi'nin deneme tarlas›nda 1987-1992 y›llar› aras›nda yürütülmüfl ve denemenin ilk y›l› d›fl›ndaki befl y›ll›k sonuçlar deerlendirilmifltir. Denemede farkl› s›ra aral›¤› (20, 30 ve 40 cm) ve biçim yükseklikleri (2.5, 5.0 ve 7.5 cm) ile an›z yakman›n otlak ayr›¤›n›n (Agropyron cristatum) tohum verimi ve baz› verim unsurlar›na etkileri incelenmifltir. Befl y›ll›k ortalamalara göre; s›ra aral›¤›n›n

  16. Differentiation of Positional Isomers of Hybrid Peptides Containing Repeats of ?-Nucleoside Derived Amino Acid (?-Nda-) and L-Amino Acids by Positive and Negative Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS n )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Raju; M. Ramesh; R. Srinivas; S. Chandrasekhar; N. Kiranmai; V. U. M. Sarma

    2011-01-01

    A new class of positional isomeric pairs of -Boc protected oligopeptides comprised of alternating nucleoside derived ?-amino\\u000a acid (?-Nda-) and L-amino acid residues (alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) have been differentiated by both positive and\\u000a negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS\\u000a n\\u000a ). The protonated dipeptide positional isomers with ?-Nda- at the N-terminus lose CH3OH, NH3, and C2H4O2,

  17. Bipolar Bozukluk ve fiizoaffektif Bozukluk Saalt›m›nda Klozapinin Yeri: Geriye Dönük Bir Çal›flma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özen Önen Sertöz; Fisun Akdeniz; Simavi Vahip

    CLOZAPINE TREATMENT IN BIPOLAR AND SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDERS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY Object: The aim of this study is to evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical features and efficacy of clozapine treatment in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizoaffective disorder (SD). Method: Patients with DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for BD and SD on clozapine treatment for at least one year and followed up

  18. Fitness Supplements as a Gateway Substance for Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Harty, Seth; Langenbucher, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 3.0% of young Americans have used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). A traditional model of adolescent substance use, the gateway hypothesis, suggests that drug use follows a chronological, causal sequence, whereby initial use of a specific drug leads to an increased likelihood of future drug use. Therefore, the use of illicit appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APED), such as AASs, also follows an analogous progression, whereby legal APEDs, (e.g., nutritional supplements) precedes illicit APED use. We examined the relationship between nutritional supplement use, beliefs about APEDs, and APED use in 201 male (n = 100) and female (n = 101) undergraduates. Participants completed measures of muscle dysmorphia (MDDI), body checking (BCQ, MBCQ), eating disorder symptoms (EDE–Q), perfectionism (FMPS), positive beliefs about the efficacy–safety of AAS use and APED use patterns. A series of covariance structure models (CSM) showed body image disturbance, compulsive exercise, illicit drug use, and perfectionism, independent of gender, were significant predictors of positive beliefs about AAS. Those who used both fat burning and muscle building supplements reported the strongest beliefs in AAS efficacy–safety, which was associated with higher likelihood of current illicit APED use. There was evidence of significant indirect relationships between supplement use and illicit APED use through contact with other AAS users and beliefs about AAS. The potential role for nutritional supplement use in the initiation of illegal APED use is discussed. Future prevention efforts may benefit from targeting legal APED users in youth. PMID:22486333

  19. Hyponatremia in patients with traumatic brain injury: incidence, mechanism, and response to sodium supplementation or retention therapy with hydrocortisone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiro Moro; Yoichi Katayama; Takahiro Igarashi; Tatsuro Mori; Tatsuro Kawamata; Jun Kojima

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundHyponatremia is a frequently observed electrolyte abnormality in patients with central nervous system disease. Several mechanisms, such as SIADH, hypopituitarism, and CSWS, have been proposed with varied incidences among several studies. We attempted to clarify the incidence and mechanism of hyponatremia for each type of TBI. We also assessed the efficacy of sodium supplementation and retention therapy. For sodium retention

  20. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  1. Preliminary Efficacy of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan W. White; Thomas Ollendick; Lawrence Scahill; Donald Oswald; Anne Marie Albano

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety is a commonly occurring psychiatric concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This pilot study\\u000a examined the preliminary efficacy of a manual-based intervention targeting anxiety and social competence in four adolescents\\u000a with high-functioning ASD. Anxiety and social functioning were assessed at baseline, midpoint, endpoint, and 6 months following\\u000a treatment. Treatment consisted of cognitive-behavioral therapy, supplemented with parent education and

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Iron Therapy for HCV-Positive Haemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serkan Kahraman; Rahmi Yilmaz; Gultekin Genctoy; Mustafa Arici; Bulent Altun; Yunus Erdem; Unal Yasavul; Cetin Turgan

    2005-01-01

    Background: Iron supplementation is the cornerstone of anaemia management in haemodialysis (HD) patients. However, efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive HD patients is yet to be elucidated. Methods: Sixty-six maintenance HD patients with suboptimal response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) were administered IV iron. Each patient received 100 mg\\/session IV iron sucrose for

  3. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  4. Supplemental Online Materials Cytoskeletal Organization

    E-print Network

    Sibley, David

    bar = 5 microns. #12;Supplemental Online Materials 3 Cryptosporidium Movies depicting gliding motility by Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites were recorded by Dawn Wetzel (Washington University) with assistance from speed. Gliding motility by Cryptosporidium is analogous to that described above in Toxoplasma

  5. Iodine Supplementation: Usage "with a Grain of Salt".

    PubMed

    Prete, Alessandro; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used "with a grain of salt," because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders. PMID:25873950

  6. Iodine Supplementation: Usage “with a Grain of Salt”

    PubMed Central

    Prete, Alessandro; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used “with a grain of salt,” because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders. PMID:25873950

  7. Effect of organic zinc supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile in lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Garg; Vishal Mudgal; R. S. Dass

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of organic zinc (Zn) supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile as compared to inorganic source [zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)], 18 Muzaffarnagari male lambs of 11.30±0.45kg mean body weight (4–5 months of age) were divided into three groups of six animals in each in a randomized block design. Lambs in the control group were fed a

  8. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and beneficial effects of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-06-28

    I read with great interest the review published by Eslamparast et al, on the dietary supplements with hepato-protective properties, and their proposed mechanisms to protect against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this way, recently, our study group reported the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet associated to an antioxidant complex, to improve in overweight patients not only anthropometric parameters, but also insulin-resistance, lipid serum levels, and intra-hepatic fat accumulation. PMID:26140093

  9. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and beneficial effects of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-01-01

    I read with great interest the review published by Eslamparast et al, on the dietary supplements with hepato-protective properties, and their proposed mechanisms to protect against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this way, recently, our study group reported the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet associated to an antioxidant complex, to improve in overweight patients not only anthropometric parameters, but also insulin-resistance, lipid serum levels, and intra-hepatic fat accumulation.

  10. Electronic Supplement Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan Electronic Supplement Physical Review Letters

    E-print Network

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan 1 Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Universal behavior of the initial stage of drop impact Evert Klaseboera impact #12;Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan 2 0

  11. From Biological to Program Efficacy: Promoting Dialogue among the Research, Policy, and Program Communities12

    PubMed Central

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

  12. From biological to program efficacy: promoting dialogue among the research, policy, and program communities.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

  13. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  14. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  15. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  16. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  17. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  18. 7 CFR 372.10 - Supplementing environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Supplementing environmental impact statements. 372.10 Section...10 Supplementing environmental impact statements. Once a decision to supplement an environmental impact statement is made, a...

  19. Hypertensive retinopathy associated with use of the ephedra-free weight-loss herbal supplement Hydroxycut.

    PubMed

    Willis, Scott L; Moawad, Fouad J; Hartzell, Joshua D; Iglesias, Melissa; Jackson, William L

    2006-01-01

    The use of performance-enhancing and weight-loss supplements is prevalent in the United States, and over the past decade, there has been growing concern with regard to the safety and efficacy of these products. It is well documented that ephedra-based products are associated with adverse reactions, including serious cardiovascular and neurologic injuries. With new restrictions placed on such products, companies are now marketing caffeine-based ephedra-free herbal supplements. Less is known about the potential side effects of these products. We present the case of a 42-year-old, previously healthy man who developed malignant hypertension and hypertensive retinopathy while taking Hydroxycut, a caffeine-based ephedra-free supplement. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of hypertensive retinopathy associated with the use of Hydroxycut. Given the lack of investigative studies in regard to their safety and efficacy, judicious care should be taken with the use of all herbal supplements, including those designated as ephedra-free. PMID:17406200

  20. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN), and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol (IX) and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol (XN), all of which were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. PMID:24861737

  1. Malignant hypertension and acute aortic dissection associated with caffeine-based ephedra-free dietary supplements: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imdad

    2009-01-01

    The use of weight loss dietary supplements is prevalent in the United States, and over the past decade, there has been tremendous growth of the use of these products. It is well documented that ephedra-based products are associated with various cardiovascular adverse effects. With new restrictions placed on such products, companies are now manufacturing caffeine-based ephedra-free herbal supplements. We present the case of 36-year old, previously healthy female who developed malignant hypertension and aortic dissection while taking various caffeine-based dietary supplements. Given the lack of research studies in regards to their safety and efficacy, judicious care should be taken with the use of dietary supplements, including those designated as ephedra-free. PMID:20181166

  2. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  3. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

  4. Effects of host nutrition on virulence and fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes: Lipid- and protein-based supplements in Tenebrio molitor diets

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Rojas, M. Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Tedders, W. Louis

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema riobrave, were tested for virulence and reproductive yield in Tenebrio molitor that were fed wheat bran diets with varying lipid- and protein-based supplements. Lipid supplements were based on 20% canola oil, peanut, pork or salmon, or a low lipid control (5% canola). Protein treatments consisted of basic supplement ingredients plus 0, 10, or 20% egg white; a bran-only control was also included. Some diet supplements had positive effects on nematode quality, whereas others had negative or neutral effects. All supplements with 20% lipids except canola oil caused increased T. molitor susceptibility to H. indica, whereas susceptibility to S. riobrave was not affected. Protein supplements did not affect host susceptibility, and neither lipid nor protein diet supplements affected reproductive capacity of either nematode species. Subsequently, we determined the pest control efficacy of progeny of nematodes that had been reared through T. molitor from different diets against Diaprepes abbreviatus and Otiorhynchus sulcatus. All nematode treatments reduced insect survival relative to the control (water only). Nematodes originating from T. molitor diets with the 0% or 20% protein exhibited lower efficacy versus D. abbreviatus than the intermediate level of protein (10%) or bran-only treatments. Nematodes originating from T. molitor lipid or control diets did not differ in virulence. Our research indicates that nutritional content of an insect host diet can affect host susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes and nematode fitness; therefore, host media could conceivably be optimized to increase in vivo nematode production efficiency. PMID:19259513

  5. Forms Supplement page -1 Export Administration Regulations January 2001

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    Forms Supplement page - 1 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 2 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 3 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 4 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12

  6. The regulation and expression of the creatine transporter: a brief review of creatine supplementation in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Ryan D; Willoughby, Darryn; Greenwood, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate has become one of the most popular ergogenic sport supplements used today. It is a nonessential dietary compound that is both endogenously synthesized and naturally ingested through diet. Creatine ingested through supplementation has been observed to be absorbed into the muscle exclusively by means of a creatine transporter, CreaT1. The major rationale of creatine supplementation is to maximize the increase within the intracellular pool of total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine). There is much evidence indicating that creatine supplementation can improve athletic performance and cellular bioenergetics, although variability does exist. It is hypothesized that this variability is due to the process that controls both the influx and efflux of creatine across the cell membrane, and is likely due to a decrease in activity of the creatine transporter from various compounding factors. Furthermore, additional data suggests that an individual's initial biological profile may partially determine the efficacy of a creatine supplementation protocol. This brief review will examine both animal and human research in relation to the regulation and expression of the creatine transporter (CreaT). The current literature is very preliminary in regards to examining how creatine supplementation affects CreaT expression while concomitantly following a resistance training regimen. In conclusion, it is prudent that future research begin to examine CreaT expression due to creatine supplementation in humans in much the same way as in animal models. PMID:18500965

  7. National nutrition supplementation programmes.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Chaturvedi, S; Nayar, D

    1992-12-01

    Currently major nutrition supplementation programs in India are: 1) Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS); 2) Mid-day meal Programs (MDM); 3) Special Nutrition Programs (SNP); 4) Wheat Based Nutrition Programs (WNP); 5) Applied Nutrition Programs (ANP); 6) Balwadi Nutrition Programs (BNP); 7) National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Program (NNAPP); 8) National Program for Prevention of Blindness due to Vitamin A Deficiency; and 9) National Goiter Control Program (NGCP). The history of the respective programs, their beneficiaries, objectives, activities, organization, and evaluation are detailed. The ICDS beneficiaries are children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers, and women aged 15-44 years, who are provided the following: supplementary nutrition; immunization; health check-ups; referral services; treatment of minor illnesses; pre-school education to children aged 3-6 years. The MDM program's intended beneficiaries are children attending the primary school. Children belonging to backward classes, scheduled caste, and scheduled tribe families are given priority. The SNP is to provide supplementary nutrition and health care services including supply of vitamin A solution and iron and folic acid tablets to pre-school children, and pregnant and lactating mothers of poor groups in urban slums and tribal areas. The ANP strives to make people conscious of their nutritional needs and to provide supplementary nutrition to children aged between 3-6 years and to pregnant and lactating mothers. The beneficiaries of the WNP scheme are children of pre-school age and nursing and expectant mothers in areas with high infant mortality such as urban slums and backward rural areas. The program of BNP aims to supply about one-third of the calorie and half of the protein requirements of pre-school children between the age of 3-5 years to improve the nutritional status. The NNAPP scheme beneficiaries are children in the 1-5 age group and pregnant and nursing mothers, female acceptors of terminal methods of family planning and IUDs. The NGCP aims to supply iodized salt to the entire country by 1992. PMID:1291517

  8. Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayoun Lee; Michael W. Deem

    2002-01-01

    We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system

  9. Infant Care Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Robin D.

    The Infant Care Survey (ICS) was developed to measure new mothers' confidence in their knowledge and skills regarding the care of babies under one year of age. One potential use of this test would be the identification of groups at high risk for health problems or for avoiding medical care. Self-efficacy was an important construct in the…

  10. OPERATIONAL NOTE EFFICACY OF DUETTM

    E-print Network

    OPERATIONAL NOTE EFFICACY OF DUETTM DUAL-ACTION ADULTICIDE AGAINST CAGED AEDES ALBOPICTUS, NJ 08901-8536 ABSTRACT. DuetTM was field evaluated against caged Aedes albopictus, with the use, sumithrin, adulticide, mosquito, Aedes albopictus Ultra-low volume (ULV) application is a proven method

  11. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  12. The Influence of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Metacognitive Prompting on Genetics Problem Solving Ability among High School Students in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurah, Catherine Muhonja

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the…

  13. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

  14. Efficacy Beliefs of Special Educators: The Relationships among Collective Efficacy, Teacher Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viel-Ruma, Kim; Houchins, David; Jolivette, Kristine; Benson, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine the relationship between reported levels of teacher self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and job satisfaction in special educators, teachers in one school district completed three surveys measuring these constructs. The results indicated that teacher self-efficacy had a direct effect on job satisfaction. It was further found…

  15. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  16. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  17. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  18. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  19. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and...INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant...

  20. Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Supplemental Feeding 

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Bruce B.; Hart, Charles R.

    2001-05-31

    When forage quality and/or quantity is affected by drought, livestock producers usually must decide whether to offer supplemental feed. This publication offers advice on making decisions about supplementation and gives feed management tips....

  1. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  2. Efficacy and safety of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kitts, D; Hu, C

    2000-12-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer) has been a popular herbal remedy used in eastern Asian cultures for thousands of years. In North America, the ginseng species indigenous to both Canada and the United States (Panax quinquefolium) represents an important industry for both domestic and export markets. There are numerous theories and claims describing the efficacy of ginseng, which can combat stress, enhance both the central and immune systems and contribute towards maintaining optimal oxidative status against certain chronic disease states and aging. Risk issues concerning the safety of ginseng at recommended dosages are less prominent and scientifically based. While some epidemiological or clinical studies have reported indications of efficacy for specific health benefits or potential toxicity, there are an equal number of studies that provide contradictory evidence. This situation has led to questionable conclusions concerning specific health benefits or risks associated with ginseng. Recent advances in the development of standardized extracts for both Panax ginseng (G-115) and Panax quinquefolius (CNT-2000) have and will continue to assist in the assessment of efficacy and safety standards for ginseng products. This paper reviews the scientific literature and evidence for ginseng efficacy and safety derived mostly from in vitro and animal studies and places emphasis on the need for more randomized, double-blinded, placebo clinical studies that can provide unequivocal conclusions. An example of the efficacy and safety of ginseng is provided with the description of biological activity of a North American ginseng extract (NAGE), which includes illustrating mechanisms for antioxidant activity without prooxidant properties. PMID:11276295

  3. 34 CFR 200.79 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Fiscal Requirements...79 Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant...

  4. 34 CFR 200.79 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Fiscal Requirements...79 Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant...

  5. 34 CFR 200.79 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Fiscal Requirements...79 Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant...

  6. 34 CFR 200.79 - Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and comparability...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant and... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Fiscal Requirements...79 Exclusion of supplemental State and local funds from supplement, not supplant...

  7. Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malinauskas BM; Overton RF; Carraway VG; Cash BC

    Purpose: This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). Materials and methods: A survey was used to assess sport- related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training

  8. Some properties of (fw) and (fwr)-supplemented module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed, Majid Mohammed; Abubakar, Mohamed; Ahmad, Abd Ghafur

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further the study of (fw) and (fwr)-supplemented module. We study the relation between generalized weakly supplemented module (briefly (WGS)-module) and weakly supplemented module and any amply supplemented module M is weakly supplemented. Also any semilocal and locally Noetherian with radical small in M is weakly supplemented module.

  9. Influence of training status on high-intensity intermittent performance in response to ?-alanine supplementation.

    PubMed

    de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that highly trained athletes may be less responsive to the ergogenic effects of ?-alanine (BA) supplementation than recreationally active individuals due to their elevated muscle buffering capacity. We investigated whether training status influences the effect of BA on repeated Wingate performance. Forty young males were divided into two groups according to their training status (trained: T, and non-trained: NT cyclists) and were randomly allocated to BA and a dextrose-based placebo (PL) groups, providing four experimental conditions: NTPL, NTBA, TPL, TBA. BA (6.4 g day(-1)) or PL was ingested for 4 weeks, with participants completing four 30-s lower-body Wingate bouts, separated by 3 min, before and after supplementation. Total work done was significantly increased following supplementation in both NTBA (p = 0.03) and TBA (p = 0.002), and it was significantly reduced in NTPL (p = 0.03) with no difference for TPL (p = 0.73). BA supplementation increased mean power output (MPO) in bout 4 for the NTBA group (p = 0.0004) and in bouts 1, 2 and 4 for the TBA group (p ? 0.05). No differences were observed in MPO for NTPL and TPL. BA supplementation was effective at improving repeated high-intensity cycling performance in both trained and non-trained individuals, highlighting the efficacy of BA as an ergogenic aid for high-intensity exercise regardless of the training status of the individual. PMID:24500111

  10. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

  11. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

  12. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

  13. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

  14. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture...Impact Statements § 1794.62 Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given...

  15. The use of dietary supplements by athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Maughan; Frederic Depiesse; Hans Geyer

    2007-01-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various “ergogenic” compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with

  16. Prevalence of nutritional supplements in gyms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Malik; Sonia Malik

    2010-01-01

    The abuse of all types of supplements to improve sport performance and physical fitness has spread to regularly gym users. The most appealing supplements are those that claim to help build muscle, improve endurance and reduce body fat. The aim of this study to evaluate the intake of nutritional and dietary supplements among males from four gyms in Kurukshetra, Haryana

  17. Nutritional Supplements to Increase Muscle Mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priscilla M. Clarkson; Eric S. Rawson

    1999-01-01

    Although nutritional supplements purported to increase muscle mass are widely available at health food stores, gyms, by mail order, and over the Internet, many of these supplements have little or no data to support their claims. This article reviews the theory and research behind popular nutritional supplements commonly marketed as muscle mass builders. Included are the minerals chromium, vanadyl sulfate,

  18. Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura

    1984-01-01

    This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

  19. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D requirements have become one of the most highly debated and controversial topics in nutrition. Recommendations for vitamin D intake during pregnancy are a central part of this discussion. The publication of a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women by Hollis and cow...

  20. Immunity, Volume 37 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Immunity, Volume 37 Supplemental Information The NLRP12 Inflammasome Recognizes Yersinia pestis.c. with 1000 colony forming units (c.f.u.) of Y. pestis KIM1001-pYtbLpxL. Thirty days later, vaccinated or naïve mice were challenged s.c. with 500 c.f.u. of virulent Y. pestis KIM1001 and survival was monitored

  1. Neuron, Volume 73 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Badre, David

    Neuron, Volume 73 Supplemental Information Rostrolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Individual that these biases and model parameters are influenced by striatal dopaminergic manipulations and genetics (Moustafa. (The use of an adaptive version of the boundary is more general and would allow the algorithm

  2. Cell, Volume 137 Supplemental Data

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    , Platinum Pfx Polymerase, SimplyBlue Coomassie G, Silverquest Staining kit, and inactivated fetal calf serum, and MEFs were cultured in DMEM with 10% Inactivated Fetal Bovine Serum (IFS). The Human Multiple Myeloma with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) supplemented with 2 mM glutamine. XG-7 cells were additionally

  3. Neuron, Volume 78 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Gentner, Timothy

    Neuron, Volume 78 Supplemental Information Associative Learning Enhances Population Coding colored dot denotes the mean response for two neurons to each of four stimuli. Each colored ellipse) For a positive relationship, neuron pairs with positive signal correlation and large noise correlation have

  4. Neuron, Volume 62 Supplemental Data

    E-print Network

    Luo, Liqun

    Neuron, Volume 62 Supplemental Data Uncoupling Dendrite Growth and Patterning: Single-Cell Knockout in 10 mg/mL trypsin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO: Cat. T1005). Cells were then washed in Hank's balanced salt on matrigel­coated glass coverslips in 24-well plates. Cells from one hippocampus were plated into ~6

  5. Immunity, Volume 39 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Martin, Alain

    1 Immunity, Volume 39 Supplemental Information Anthracyclines Induce DNA Damage Response) and doxorubicin (right panel). (d) Survival of C57BL/6 wild-type animals subjected to CLP treated with carrier), and (c) Immunoblotting of total protein extracts of THP-1 cells untreated or pre-treated with epirubicin

  6. Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

  7. Efficacy, effectiveness and side effects of medications used to prevent fractures.

    PubMed

    Reid, I R

    2015-06-01

    There is an increasing number of effective therapies for fracture prevention in adults at risk of osteoporosis. However, shortcomings in the evidence underpinning our management of osteoporosis still exist. Evidence of antifracture efficacy in the groups of patients who most commonly use calcium and vitamin D supplements is lacking, the safety of calcium supplements is in doubt, and the safety and efficacy of high doses of vitamin D give cause for concern. Alendronate, risedronate, zoledronate and denosumab have been shown to prevent spine, nonspine and hip fractures; in addition, teriparatide and strontium ranelate prevent both spine and nonspine fractures, and raloxifene and ibandronate prevent spine fractures. However, most trials provide little information regarding long-term efficacy or safety. A particular concern at present is the possibility that oral bisphosphonates might cause atypical femoral fractures. Observational data suggest that the incidence of this type of fracture increases steeply with duration of bisphosphonate use, resulting in concern that the benefit-risk balance may become negative in the long term, particularly in patients in whom the osteoporotic fracture risk is not high. Therefore, reappraisal of ongoing use of bisphosphonates after about 5 years is endorsed by expert consensus, and 'drug holidays' should be considered at this time. Further studies are needed to guide clinical practice in this area. PMID:25495429

  8. Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

    2002-03-01

    We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

  9. In situ object counting system (ISOCSi3T{sup M}) technique: A cost-effective tool for NDA verification in IAEA Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Nizhnik, V.; Belian, A.; Shephard, A.; Lebrun, A. [Dept. of Safeguards, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, A1400 (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear material measurements using the ISOCS technique are playing an increasing role in IAEA verification activities. The ISOCS capabilities include: a high sensitivity to the presence of U and Pu; the ability to detect very small amounts of material; and the ability to measure items of different shapes and sizes. In addition, the numerical absolute efficiency calibration of a germanium detector used in the technique does not require any calibration standards or reference materials. The ISOCS modelling software performs an absolute efficiency calibration for items with various container shapes, container wall materials, material compositions, material fill-heights, U/Pu weight fractions and even heterogeneously distributed emitting materials. In a number of cases, some key parameters, such as the matrix density and U/Pu weight fraction, can be determined in addition to the emitting material mass and isotopic composition. These capabilities provide a verification solution suitable for a majority of cases where quantitative and isotopic analysis should be performed. Taking into account these advantages, the technique becomes a cost-effective solution for nuclear material non-destructive assay (NDA) verification. At present, the IAEA uses the ISOCS for a wide range of applications including the quantitative analysis of U scrap materials, U/Pu contaminated solid wastes, U fuel elements, U hold-up materials. Additionally, the ISOCS is also applied to some specific verification cases such as the measurement of PuBe neutron sources and the quantification of fission products in solid wastes. In reprocessing facilities with U/Pu waste compaction or facilities with item re-batching, the continuity-of-knowledge can be assured by applying either video surveillance systems together with seals (requiring attaching/detaching and verification activities for each seal) or verification of operator declarations using quantitative measurements for items selected on a random basis. In some cases, the first option is too expensive and places a high demand on inspector and operator time. Quantitative NDA based on the ISOCS technique verifies these materials and significantly decreases the resources required for assuring the continuity-of-knowledge. (authors)

  10. Complex disease-associated pharmacogenetics: drug efficacy, drug safety, and confirmation of a pathogenetic hypothesis (Alzheimer's disease)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A D Roses; A M Saunders; Y Huang; J Strum; K H Weisgraber; R W Mahley

    2007-01-01

    Safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics can be applied successfully to the drug discovery and development pipeline at multiple phases. We review drug-target screening using high throughput SNP associations with complex diseases testing more than 1 800 candidate targets with approximately 7 000 SNPs. Alzheimer's disease data are provided as an example. The supplementation of target-selected screening with genome-wide SNP association, to

  11. Why US children use dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  12. Effect of Preventive Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Non-Malarial Morbidity in Tanzanian Pre-School Children: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Veenemans, Jacobien; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Ottenhof, Maarten J.; Mank, Theo G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Demir, Ay?e Y.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malarial morbidity. Methods and Findings Rural Tanzanian children (n?=?612) aged 6–60 months and with height-for-age z-score < –1.5 SD were randomized to daily supplementation with zinc (10 mg) alone, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Children were followed for an average of 45 weeks. During follow-up, we recorded morbidity episodes. We found no evidence that concurrent supplementation with multi-nutrients influenced the magnitude of the effect of zinc on rates of diarrhea, respiratory illness, fever without localizing signs, or other illness (guardian-reported illness with symptoms involving skin, ears, eyes and abscesses, but excluding trauma or burns). Zinc supplementation reduced the hazard rate of diarrhea by 24% (4%–40%). By contrast, multi-nutrients seemed to increase this rate (HR; 95% CI: 1.19; 0.94–1.50), particularly in children with asymptomatic Giardia infection at baseline (2.03; 1.24–3.32). Zinc also protected against episodes of fever without localizing signs (0.75; 0.57–0.96), but we found no evidence that it reduced the overall number of clinic visits. Conclusions We found no evidence that the efficacy of zinc supplements in reducing diarrhea rates is enhanced by concurrent supplementation with other micronutrients. By reducing rates of fever without localizing signs, supplementation with zinc may reduce inappropriate drug use with anti-malarial medications and antibiotics. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00623857 PMID:22870238

  13. Perioperative analgesia and the effects of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Abe, Andrew; Kaye, Alan David; Gritsenko, Karina; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Adam Marc

    2014-06-01

    With over 50,000 dietary supplements available, resurgence in consumer interest over the past few decades has resulted in an explosion of use of these agents worldwide. Disillusionment with current medications and belief in "natural medicines" has resulted in a multibillion dollar industry. Active ingredients in a number of herbs are being tested for therapeutic potential, and some are efficacious, so herbal medicines cannot be dismissed. The prevalence of herbology is further encouraged by a relatively relaxed policy of the FDA regarding these compounds, which they consider foods. As herbal products are included in the "supplement" category, there is no existing protocol for standardization of these products. There are numerous examples of herbals that can adversely affect patient recovery and outcomes in anesthesia. The prudent anesthesia provider will make sure to obtain correct information as to accurate herbal usage of each patient and attempt to discontinue these products two to three weeks prior to the delivery of an anesthetic. Postoperative analgesia, bleeding, and level of sedation can be negatively impacted related to herbal products and herbal-drug interactions. Over 90 herbal products are associated with bleeding and this can be a specific problem intraoperatively or when considering placement of a regional anesthetic for postoperative pain management. PMID:24993438

  14. Supplementation of milk with iron bound to lactoferrin using weanling mice: L. Effects on hematology and tissue iron.

    PubMed

    Fransson, G B; Keen, C L; Lönnerdal, B

    1983-11-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein present in high concentrations in human milk. The efficacy of supplementing iron bound to lactoferrin to iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young mice was evaluated in comparison with supplementation of iron as iron chloride. Mice fed a nonsupplemented milk diet (approximately 1 mg Fe/L) for 4 weeks had a microcytic, hypochromic anemia and low tissue iron concentrations. Iron supplementation of the diet with lactoferrin-iron, or iron chloride at a level of 5 mg Fe/L prevented the anemia and resulted in tissue iron levels similar to levels found for mice fed a stock commercial diet. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters analyzed between the groups of mice receiving the two iron supplements following a diet deficient in iron. Apolactoferrin when supplemented to the diet had no negative effect on the iron status of the mice. These results show that lactoferrin may be a useful vehicle for supplementation of iron. PMID:6644450

  15. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed. PMID:26074745

  16. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed. PMID:26074745

  17. Megavitamin E supplementation in man\\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Farrell; John G. Bieri

    To assess possible toxic and\\/or beneficial effects of vitamin E supplementation. a group of 28 adults voluntarily ingesting 100 to 800 lU\\/day of tocopherol for an average of 3 years were evaluated in this study. Half of the subjects claimed a feeling of improved health or well being, but no specific beneficial effects were noted consistently: the other half indicated

  18. Dietary and prophylactic iron supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Kent; Eugene D. Weinberg; Patricia Stuart-Macadam

    1990-01-01

    Mild hypoferremia represents an aspect of the ability of the body to withhold iron from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa,\\u000a and from neoplastic cells. However, our iron-withholding defense system can be thwarted by practices that enhance iron overload\\u000a such as indiscriminate iron fortification of foods, medically prescribed iron supplements, alcohol ingestion, and cigarette\\u000a smoking. Elevated standards for normal levels of

  19. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

  20. Effects of low-dose caffeine supplementation on early morning performance in the standing shot put throw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Bellar; Gary Kamimori; Lawrence Judge; Jacob E. Barkley; Edward J. Ryan; Matthew Muller; Ellen L. Glickman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of low-dose caffeine use for early morning performance in the shot put event. A double-blind, randomized, crossover design was used to investigate the effects of buccal caffeine supplementation on early morning shot put execution in nine inter-collegiate track and field athletes. In one condition the participants received a piece

  1. Effects of low-dose caffeine supplementation on early morning performance in the standing shot put throw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Bellar; Gary Kamimori; Lawrence Judge; Jacob E. Barkley; Edward J. Ryan; Matthew Muller; Ellen L. Glickman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of low-dose caffeine use for early morning performance in the shot put event. A double-blind, randomized, crossover design was used to investigate the effects of buccal caffeine supplementation on early morning shot put execution in nine inter-collegiate track and field athletes. In one condition the participants received a piece

  2. Effects of Timed Insemination and Supplemental ?-Carotene on Reproduction and Milk Yield of Dairy Cows Under Heat Stress1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Aréchiga; C. R. Staples; L. R. McDowell; P. J. Hansen

    1998-01-01

    In three experiments, we tested the efficacy of timed artificial insemination (AI) and b-carotene supplementation for improvement of reproduction and milk yield. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted dur- ing hot months, and Experiment 3 was conducted during cooler months. Cows were fed rations sup- plemented with b-carotene at 0 or 400 mg\\/d per cow for ?15 d before the

  3. AIMing towards improved antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew J; Kearns, Alison K; Stump, Sascha; Li, Chun; Gajewski, Mariusz P; Rider, Kevin C; Backos, Donald S; Reigan, Philip R; Beall, Howard D; Natale, Nicholas R

    2015-04-15

    Using the structure-activity relationship emerging from previous Letter, and guided by pharmacokinetic properties, new AIMs have been prepared with both improved efficacy against human glioblastoma cells and cell permeability as determined by fluorescent confocal microscopy. We present our first unambiguous evidence for telomeric G4-forming oligonucleotide anisotropy by NMR resulting from direct interaction with AIMs, which is consistent with both our G4 melting studies by CD, and our working hypothesis. Finally, we show that AIMs induce apoptosis in SNB-19 cells. PMID:25782743

  4. Herbal ephedra\\/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CN Boozer; PA Daly; P Homel; JL Solomon; D Blanchard; JA Nasser; R Strauss; T Meredith

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine long-term safety and efficacy for weight loss of an herbal Ma Huang and Kola nut supplement (90\\/192 mg\\/day ephedrine alkaloids\\/caffeine).Design: Six-month randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial.Subjects: A total of 167 subjects (body mass index (BMI) 31.8±4.1 kg\\/m2) randomized to placebo (n=84) or herbal treatment (n=83) at two outpatient weight control research units.Measurements: Primary outcome measurements were changes

  5. Pharmacological zinc levels reduce the phosphorus-releasing efficacy of phytase in young pigs and chickens.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, N R; Spencer, J D; Webel, D M; Baker, D H

    2004-06-01

    A pig trial and a chick trial were done to determine the effect of high levels of Zn and Cu on the P-releasing efficacy of phytase. Ninety-nine individually fed pigs (7.2 kg) were given ad libitum access to one of 11 experimental diets for a period of 21 d. Fibula ash (mg) was regressed against supplemental inorganic P (iP) intake (g) to establish the standard curve, from which phytase treatments were compared to determine P-releasing efficacy. The basal diet was a corn-soybean meal diet with no supplemental P (21% CP, 0.075% estimated available P, 130 mg of Zn/kg, as-fed basis). Diets included three graded levels of supplemental iP (0, 0.075, 0.150%) from reagent-grade KH2PO4, two levels of phytase (500 and 1,000 FTU/kg) from EcoPhos, 1,500 mg of Zn/kg from either Waelz ZnO or basic Zn chloride (Zn5Cl2(OH)8), and all combinations of phytase and Zn. One phytase unit (FTU) was defined as the amount of enzyme required to release 1 micromol of iP per minute from sodium phytate at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5. Phytase supplementation improved (P < 0.01) weight gain, G:F, and fibula ash (% and mg). Bone ash (mg) was highest (P < 0.01) for pigs fed diets containing 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase. Supplemental Zn had no effect (P > 0.50) on growth performance, but decreased (P < 0.05) fibula ash (mg). Comparison of the phytase treatments to the standard curve (r2 = 0.87) revealed P-release values of 0.130 and 0.195% for 500 and 1,000 FTU of phytase/kg, respectively, in the absence of Zn, whereas in the presence of Zn (pooled), P-release values were decreased (P < 0.01) to 0.092 and 0.132%, respectively. The effects of high levels of supplemental Zn (basic Zn chloride) and Cu (CuSO4 x 5H2O) on phytase efficacy also were investigated in a 12-d chick trial. Dietary treatments were arranged according to a 2(3) factorial, with two levels each of supplemental phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg from EcoPhos), Zn (0 and 800 mg/kg), and Cu (0 and 200 mg/kg). There was a phytase x Zn interaction (P < 0.01) for tibia ash. Thus, Zn supplementation decreased tibia ash in the presence, but not in the absence, of phytase. Supplemental Cu did not affect (P > 0.30) the response to phytase. These results suggest that pharmacological levels of Zn chelate the phytate complex, thereby decreasing its availability for hydrolysis by phytase. PMID:15217001

  6. Supplementation of Breastfeeding Infants and Weight Loss in Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacalynne Glover; Mark Sandilands

    1990-01-01

    Charts were reviewed to determine the frequency of glucose water supplementation of breastfed babies during their hospital stay and to discover if glucose water supplementation affected weight loss. Babies who received glucose water supplementation lost more weight and stayed in hospital longer than babies who did not receive supplementation. These findings were statistically significant. Routine supplementation with glucose water is

  7. Important considerations for treatment with dietary supplement versus prescription niacin products.

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Padley, Robert J; Moriarty, Patrick M

    2011-03-01

    Niacin is a water-soluble B vitamin (B3) known to have favorable effects on multiple lipid parameters, including raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and lowering triglycerides (TGs), lipoprotein(a), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although LDL-C remains the primary target of lipid-altering therapy, current guidelines emphasize HDL-C and other modifiable lipid factors as key secondary targets. Thus, niacin is considered an important therapeutic option to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who, in addition to high LDL-C, have elevated TGs and low HDL-C. Although available prescription niacin products, including immediate-release niacin (IR; Niacor) and an extended-release niacin formulation (Niaspan), have demonstrated safety and efficacy in randomized clinical trials, confusion remains among health care providers and their patients regarding the various commercially available nonprescription dietary supplement niacin products. These dietary supplements, which include IR, sustained-release (SR), and "no-flush" or "flush-free" niacin products, are not subject to the same stringent US Food and Drug Administration regulations as prescription drugs. In fact, both the American Heart Association and the American Pharmacists Association recommend against the use of dietary supplement niacin as a substitute for prescription niacin. Although some dietary supplement IR and SR niacin products have demonstrated a lipid response in clinical trials, products labeled as "no-flush" or "flush-free" that are intended to avoid the common niacin-associated adverse effect of flushing generally contain minimal or no free, pharmacologically active niacin and therefore lack beneficial lipid-modifying effects. To clarify important differences between available prescription and dietary supplement niacin products, this article contrasts current regulatory standards for dietary supplements and prescription drugs and provides an overview of available clinical data from key trials of niacin. PMID:21474895

  8. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura

    1982-01-01

    Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

  9. The Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Leader Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moe Machida; John Schaubroeck

    2011-01-01

    This article examines various ways in which self-efficacy belief influences leader development. Drawing from social cognitive theory, we discuss four self-efficacy concepts that are pertinent to leader development: (a) preparatory self-efficacy, (b) efficacy spirals, (c) learning self-efficacy, and (d) resilient self-efficacy. We argue that the role of self-efficacy in leader development is more complex than traditionally considered. The article also

  10. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Campbell

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements\\u000a to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy\\u000a (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence\\u000a one of these regulatory factors, the result is

  11. Evaluation of Di-indolylmethane supplementation to modulate tamoxifen efficacy in | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  12. Safety and efficacy of NovaSil clay as a dietary supplement to prevent aflatoxicosis

    E-print Network

    Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans

    2006-04-12

    to bacterial, viral, parasitic, and other fungal infections (Peska and Bondy, 1994; Turner et al., 2003; Miller and Wilson, 1994). 1.8 Molecular Mechanism of Action 1.8.1 Mutagenicity AFB1 is reportedly a direct acting mutagen that covalently...

  13. Safety and efficacy of NovaSil clay as a dietary supplement to prevent aflatoxicosis 

    E-print Network

    Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans

    2006-04-12

    and Wogan, 1984). Other effects of AFs (mainly AFB1) in multiple animal species include severe hypoproteinemia, hemorrhagic anemia and lesions, impaired blood coagulation, fatty liver, immunosuppression, unscheduled pathologic changes to organs...

  14. Comparative Efficacy of Two Different Dosages of Intrathecal Magnesium Sulphate Supplementation in Subarachnoid Block

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Binesh; Gupta, Aanchal; Grewal, Anju; Sood, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spinal anaesthesia is the primary anaesthetic technique for many types of surgeries. Adjuncts to the local anaesthetics (LA) used in spinal anaesthesia can exhibit undesirable side-effects like respiratory depression, urinary retention, pruritis, haemodynamic instability and nausea and vomiting, limiting their use. Magnesium when used in therapeutic doses avoids all of these side-effects. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized double blind study on 90 patients, 30 in each group, scheduled for orthopaedic lower limb surgery under subarachnoid block. Group I: received bupivacaine (0.5%), 12.5 mg + 0.5 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline, Group II received bupivacaine (0.5%), 12.5 mg + 0.2 ml (50 mg) of preservative free 25 % magnesium sulphate + 0.3 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline Group III: received bupivacaine (0.5%) 12.5 mg + 0.3 ml (75 mg) of 25 % magnesium sulphate + 0.2 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline for subarachnoid block. The onset and duration of sensory block, the highest dermatomal level of sensory block, motor block, time to complete motor block recovery and duration of spinal anaesthesia were recorded. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA was applied to determine the significance of difference between different groups. If p-value was significant then Turkey’s Post Hoc Multicomparison test was applied. Values of p<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The time of maximum sensory block, time of onset of motor block, duration of sensory block, duration of motor block and time of analgesia request were prolonged in patients given magnesium 50mg and 75mg along with local anaesthetic intrathecally. Conclusion: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, magnesium when administered intrathecally along with local anaesthetics prolongs the duration of spinal analgesia without adverse effects. PMID:25120997

  15. 47 CFR 87.277 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Enroute and Aeronautical Fixed Stations Aeronautical Fixed Stations § 87.277 Supplemental eligibility. Aeronautical fixed...

  16. 47 CFR 87.215 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.215 Supplemental eligibility. (a) A unicom and any associated dispatch...

  17. 47 CFR 87.347 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Utility Mobile Stations ...Supplemental eligibility. (a) Aeronautical utility stations may transmit... (b) An applicant for an aeronautical utility station operating...

  18. 47 CFR 87.347 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Utility Mobile Stations ...Supplemental eligibility. (a) Aeronautical utility stations may transmit... (b) An applicant for an aeronautical utility station operating...

  19. 47 CFR 87.277 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Enroute and Aeronautical Fixed Stations Aeronautical Fixed Stations § 87.277 Supplemental eligibility. Aeronautical fixed...

  20. 47 CFR 87.215 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.215 Supplemental eligibility. (a) A unicom and any associated dispatch...

  1. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus--a review.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Domenico, Philip

    2006-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) picolinate (CrPic) is a widely used nutritional supplement for optimal insulin function. A relationship among Cr status, diabetes, and associated pathologies has been established. Virtually all trials using CrPic supplementation for subjects with diabetes have demonstrated beneficial effects. Thirteen of 15 clinical studies (including 11 randomized, controlled studies) involving a total of 1,690 subjects (1,505 in CrPic group) reported significant improvement in at least one outcome of glycemic control. All 15 studies showed salutary effects in at least one parameter of diabetes management, including dyslipidemia. Positive outcomes from CrPic supplementation included reduced blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and reduced requirements for hypoglycemic medication. The greater bioavailability of CrPic compared with other forms of Cr (e.g., niacin-bound Cr or CrCl(3)) may explain its comparatively superior efficacy in glycemic and lipidemic control. The pooled data from studies using CrPic supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects show substantial reductions in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which equate to a reduced risk for disease complications. Collectively, the data support the safety and therapeutic value of CrPic for the management of cholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in subjects with diabetes. PMID:17109600

  2. Vitamin C Supplementation Lowers Urinary Levels of 4-Hydroperoxy-2-nonenal Metabolites in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Heather C.; Bruno, Richard S.; Traber, Maret G.; Stevens, Jan F.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of suitable biomarkers of oxidative stress is a common problem for antioxidant intervention studies in humans. We evaluated the efficacy of vitamin C supplementation in decreasing biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in nonsmokers and in cigarette smokers, a commonly studied, free-living human model of chronic oxidative stress. Participants received ascorbic acid (500 mg twice per day) or placebos for 17 d in a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design study. The urinary biomarkers assessed and reported herein are derived from 4-hydroperoxy-2-nonenal (HPNE) and include the mercapturic acid (MA) conjugates of 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE); 1,4-dihydroxy-2(E)-nonene (DHN); and 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenol (ONO). Vitamin C supplementation decreased the urinary concentrations of both ONO-MA (p=0.0013) and HNE-MA (p=0.0213) by ~30%; however, neither cigarette smoking nor sex affected these biomarkers. In contrast, vitamin C supplementation decreased urinary concentrations of DHN-MA (3-way interaction p=0.0304) in nonsmoking men compared with nonsmoking women (p<0.05), as well as in nonsmoking men compared with smoking men (p<0.05). Vitamin C supplementation also decreased (p=0.0092) urinary total of metabolites by ~20%. Thus, HPNE metabolites can be reduced favorably in response to improved plasma ascorbic acid concentrations, an effect due to ascorbic acid antioxidant function. PMID:21236333

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) supplementation prevents cognitive impairment and amyloid deposition in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Lo, Adrian C; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Nunes, Ana F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease hallmarked by extracellular A?(1-42) containing plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Progressively, memory deficits and cognitive disabilities start to occur as these hallmarks affect hippocampus and frontal cortex, regions highly involved in memory. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, which is high in the vicinity of A? plaques and NFTs, was found to influence ?-secretase activity, the molecular crux in A?(1-42) production. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an endogenous bile acid that downregulates CTGF expression in hepatocytes and has been shown to possess therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative models. To investigate the possible in vivo therapeutic effects of TUDCA, we provided 0.4% TUDCA-supplemented food to APP/PS1 mice, a well-established AD mouse model. Six months of TUDCA supplementation prevented the spatial, recognition and contextual memory defects observed in APP/PS1 mice at 8 months of age. Furthermore, TUDCA-supplemented APP/PS1 mice displayed reduced hippocampal and prefrontal amyloid deposition. These effects of TUDCA supplementation suggest a novel mechanistic route for Alzheimer therapeutics. PMID:22974733

  4. The Effects of Pre-Exercise Ginger Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Melissa D; Zavorsky, Gerald S; Smoliga, James M

    2015-06-01

    Ginger possesses analgesic and pharmacological properties mimicking non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We aimed to determine if ginger supplementation is efficacious for attenuating muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following high-intensity resistance exercise. Following a 5-day supplementation period of placebo or 4?g ginger (randomized groups), 20 non-weight trained participants performed a high-intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercise protocol to induce muscle damage. Markers associated with muscle damage and DOMS were repeatedly measured before supplementation and for 4?days following the exercise protocol. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed one repetition maximum lift decreased significantly 24?h post-exercise in both groups (p?supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise but does not influence indicators of muscle damage or DOMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25787877

  5. The Use of Selected Nutrition Supplements and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanje, A. James; Fortune, Brett; Song, Ming; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Almost all patients with liver disease, especially advanced liver disease, have some evidence of malnutrition, including mineral/vitamin deficiency. A major health trend in the United States has been the significant growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including nutrition supplements and herbal agents. In the 1990s, the United States government created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), as well as the Office on Dietary Supplements, to extend our knowledge in these areas. CAM users are often highly educated and frequently use CAM therapy for chronic diseases, including chronic liver disease. Indeed, most studies suggest that patients with chronic liver disease frequently use nutrition supplements and CAM agents in addition to their traditional medicines. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of nutrition supplements and herbals in liver disease. This article will focus mainly on 7 selected agents (vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, silymarin, and glycyrrhizin), for which there have been not only in vitro and animal studies but also human clinical trials, and we will review both potential efficacy and safety issues. PMID:16772543

  6. Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) is a term that reflects to a heterogenous group of natural food sources, processed grains and commercial supplements. Several forms of DF have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of DF in metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of DF on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of DF, but also quite variable. This article focuses on the role, mechanism of action and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk, and explores the effects of DF on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of DF. PMID:19931537

  7. Electronic Supplement Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan Electronic Supplement Physical Review Letters

    E-print Network

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica & Chan 1 Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Universal behavior of the initial stage of drop impact Evert Klaseboera + ­ in out RB RT po + out g zo po T B #12;Electronic Supplement ­ Physical Review Letters Klaseboer, Manica

  8. Validation of the Online Efficacy 1 Running Head: VALIDATION OF THE ONLINE EFFICACY

    E-print Network

    Yu, Alex

    Validation of the Online Efficacy 1 Running Head: VALIDATION OF THE ONLINE EFFICACY Validation-0611 Phone: (480) 965-3475 Aalexyu98@hotmail #12;Validation of the Online Efficacy 2 Abstract Educational. This paper provides a brief history of the online environment and discusses the development and validation

  9. NASA Thesaurus supplement: A four part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The four-part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes the Hierarchical Listing (Part 1), Access Vocabulary (Part 2), Definitions (Part 3), and Changes (Part 4). The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies and accepted upper/lowercase forms for new terms.

  10. THE INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS (IBIDS) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database provides access to bibliographic citations and abstracts from published, international, scientific literature on dietary supplements. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Instit...

  11. Fingerprinting of Materials: Technical Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    This supplement to the Guidelines for Maintaining a Chemical Fingerprinting Program has been developed to assist NASA personnel, contractors, and sub-contractors in defining the technical aspects and basic concepts which can be used in chemical fingerprinting programs. This material is not meant to be totally inclusive to all chemical fingerprinting programs, but merely to present current concepts. Each program will be tailored to meet the needs of the individual organizations using chemical fingerprinting to improve their quality and reliability in the production of aerospace systems.

  12. Iron supplementation in renal anemia.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven

    2006-07-01

    Iron-deficiency frequently develops in patients with chronic kidney disease who are treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). It results in reduced effectiveness of anemia therapy; patients may fail to reach hemoglobin targets or may require excessively large doses of rHuEPO. It has been recognized widely that iron management, monitoring for iron deficiency, and effective iron supplementation forms a core component of anemia therapy. This review discusses the physiology of iron balance, derangements in iron balance in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in patients treated with rHuEPO. PMID:16949471

  13. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone health parameters of healthy young Indian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidhi Malhotra; Ambrish Mithal; Sushil Gupta; Manoj Shukla; Madan Godbole

    2009-01-01

    Summary  There is a huge prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the Indian population. We studied the efficacy and safety of oral vitamin\\u000a D supplementation in apparently healthy adult women. Monthly cholecalciferol given orally, 60,000 IU\\/month during summers\\u000a and 120,000 IU\\/month during winters, safely increases 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels to near normal levels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  There is a huge burden of hypovitaminosis D in the Indian

  14. Pharmacological principles of antidepressant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Alan F

    2002-06-01

    Both noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) appear to be involved in depression. Evidence suggests that dual-acting antidepressants, i.e. those that affect both monoamine systems, such as tricyclic antidepressants and the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant mirtazapine, may have greater efficacy and a faster onset of action than drugs that act on a single monoamine system only, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Cell firing is reduced by SSRIs in the short-term, but is increased by mirtazapine, probably due to its actions on both NA (via alpha(2) antagonism) and 5-HT (via alpha(1)-stimulation by NA). This may help to explain clinical evidence suggesting that mirtazapine has a faster onset of action than the more selective antidepressants. PMID:12404665

  15. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY ON POROUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The efficacy of antimicrobial treatments to eliminate or control biological growth in the indoor environment can easily be tested on nonporous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment [i.e., gypsum ...

  16. Career Development and Self-Efficacy Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumari, Melati

    This article discusses the application of self-efficacy beliefs on career development. This theory was introduced by Hackett and Betz (1981) and has received many extensive studies. There are many factors that may influence career self-efficacy such as gender, culture, parental, and family backgrounds. The methods of increasing career…

  17. Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

  18. The Health Teaching Self-Efficacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Paul M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The Health Teaching Self-Efficacy (HTSE) Scale was devised to measure perceived deficits in ability at pretest and changes in self-efficacy in response to intervention. HTSE was tested on 31 school health teachers and was found to be highly reliable and internally consistent. (MDM)

  19. Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature Neuroscience

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 2 The sum is over presynaptic spike times tj, and ffast represents

  20. Differentiation of Positional Isomers of Hybrid Peptides Containing Repeats of ?-Nucleoside Derived Amino Acid (?-Nda-) and L-Amino Acids by Positive and Negative Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS n )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, B.; Ramesh, M.; Srinivas, R.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Kiranmai, N.; Sarma, V. U. M.

    2011-04-01

    A new class of positional isomeric pairs of -Boc protected oligopeptides comprised of alternating nucleoside derived ?-amino acid (?-Nda-) and L-amino acid residues (alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ). The protonated dipeptide positional isomers with ?-Nda- at the N-terminus lose CH3OH, NH3, and C2H4O2, whereas these processes are absent for the peptides with L-amino acids at the N-terminus. Instead, the presence of L-amino acids at the N-terminus results in characteristic retro-Mannich reaction involving elimination of imine. A good correlation has been observed between the conformational structure of the peptides and the abundance of y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions in MS n spectra. In the case of tetrapeptide isomers that are reported to form helical structures in solution phase, no y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions are observed when the corresponding amide -NH- participates in the helical structures. In contrast, significant y{n/+} and b{n/+} ions are formed when the amide -NH- is not involved in the H-bonding. In the case of tetra- and hexapeptides, it is observed that abundant b{n/+} ions are formed, presumably with stable oxazolone structures when the C-terminus of the b{n/+} ions possessed L-amino acid and the ?-Nda- at the C-terminus appears to prevent the cyclization process leading to the absence of corresponding b{n/+} ions.

  1. Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

  2. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section...PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING...1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) DOE...

  3. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section...PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING...1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) DOE...

  4. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section...PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING...1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) DOE...

  5. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section...PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING...1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) DOE...

  6. 10 CFR 1021.314 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 1021.314 Section...PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING...1021.314 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) DOE...

  7. Supplement consumption in body builder athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330

  8. Supplement to Art for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The document provides art activities for the classroom teacher who is not an art specialist. It contains activities which supplement experiences provided by the art teacher as well as activities designed to measure the achievement level of students in concept skills related to art and the principles of design. The supplement is divided into three…

  9. Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to

    E-print Network

    Beezer, Robert A.

    Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to Abstract Algebra, Theory and Applications by Robert A Robert A. Beezer GNU Free Documentation License Sage Version 5.2 AATA Version 2012-13 #12;Copyright 2011 This supplement explains how to use the open source software Sage to aid in your understanding of abstract algebra

  10. Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to

    E-print Network

    Beezer, Robert A.

    Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to Abstract Algebra, Theory and Applications by Robert A Robert A. Beezer GNU Free Documentation License Sage Version 5.11 AATA Version 2013-14 #12;Copyright 2011;Preface This supplement explains how to use the open source software Sage to aid in your understanding

  11. Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to

    E-print Network

    Beezer, Robert A.

    Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to Abstract Algebra, Theory and Applications by Robert A Robert A. Beezer GNU Free Documentation License Sage Version 6.3 AATA Version 2014-15 #12;Copyright 2011;Preface This supplement explains how to use the open source software Sage to aid in your understanding

  12. Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to

    E-print Network

    Beezer, Robert A.

    Sage for Abstract Algebra A Supplement to Abstract Algebra, Theory and Applications by Robert A Copyright Robert A. Beezer GNU Free Documentation License Sage Version 4.8 AATA Version 2011-12 #12;Preface This supplement explains how to use the open source software Sage to aid in your understanding

  13. Current Biology, Volume 21 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Joskowicz, Leo

    Supplemental Computational Considerations Supplemental References #12;2 octopus cuttlefish B2 0 10 20 30 40 50) and cuttlefish (B). A1. Raw #12;3 traces of bundle activity (left) and LFP (right) at the times denoted determines the input to LN (via the cholinergic AMLN synapse). B1. Similar to A1 in cuttlefish. Traces

  14. CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    These supplements to the June round of the Current Population Survey (conducted at five-year intervals starting in 1971) were designed to examine transitions in the American family and to measure the demographic implications of these transitions for children. The supplements ask ...

  15. Online Supplemental Material THELYTOKOUS PARTHENOGENESIS IN EUSOCIAL

    E-print Network

    Bi, Xin

    Online Supplemental Material THELYTOKOUS PARTHENOGENESIS IN EUSOCIAL HYMENOPTERA Christian Rabeling and Daniel J. C. Kronauer The online supplemental material contains a detailed evaluation of the thelytokous of each species. APIDAE The Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis is currently the best-studied

  16. OPTING OUT OF THE SUPPLEMENTAL HEALTH PLAN

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    June 2013 OPTING OUT OF THE SUPPLEMENTAL HEALTH PLAN Name: McGill ID #: Tel. Number: Email: I, the undersigned, wish to opt out of the McGill University ­ Supplemental Health Plan ("Plan") effective to opt-out of the McGill Health Plan I must provide written proof of alternative health coverage (eg

  17. Iron supplementation of breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M

    2011-11-01

    Reported here are three studies performed with the objective of finding ways to improve the iron status of breastfed infants and to prevent iron deficiency (ID). Participating infants were exclusively breastfed until 4 months of age; thereafter, they could receive complementary foods and, in some studies, supplemental formula. In the first study, infants were given medicinal iron between the ages of 1 and 5.5 months. During this period, iron status improved and ID was prevented; however, these benefits did not continue after the intervention ceased. In the second study, infants received medicinal iron or an equivalent amount of iron from an iron-fortified cereal between the ages of 4 and 9 months. Again, iron supplementation largely prevented ID from occurring, while non-anemic ID and ID anemia occurred in the control group as well as in the intervention groups before the intervention began. In the third study, infants received dry cereals fortified with electrolytic iron or with ferrous fumarate between the ages of 4 and 9 months. The cereals were equally effective in providing relative protection from ID. The results of these three studies indicate it is possible to protect breastfed infants from ID and IDA. PMID:22043886

  18. Supplement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDROLOGY AUSTRALIA; Own Cameron Highlanders; Charles Howard BAILEY; John William; Eric Ashton CARPENTER; Michael John MATTHEWS

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) has played a pivotal role in the care of persons with CF since the disease was first identified. The original pan- creatic enzyme products (PEPs) were developed to treat all types of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, in- cluding pancreatitis, pancreatic tumors, or CF. Enteric- coated enzymes were launched in 1978 and were an important breakthrough in

  19. Feldispat-kuvars ay›r›m›nda hidroflorik asit kullan›lmayan flotasyon yöntemlerinin karfl›laflt›r›lmas› The comparision of non-hydrofluoric acid flotation methods used in feldspar quartz separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derya KALYON; Özcan Y. GÜLSOY

    ÖZ Bu çal›flmada, feldispat-kuvars ay›r›m›nda kullan›lan hidroflorik asitsiz flotasyon yöntemleri birbirleriyle ve konvan- siyonel HF\\/amin yöntemi ile karfl›laflt›r›lm›flt›r. Literatürde bir çok çal›flma mevcut olmas›na ramen, bunlar aras›n- dan en etkili ve laboratuvarda uygulanabilir olanlar karfl›laflt›rma yapmak amac›yla seçilmifltir. Literatürdeki çal›fl- malar üç grupta toplanmaktad›r. Bunlar anyonik+katyonik toplay›c› kar›fl›mlar› kullan›lanlar, yaln›zca katyonik top- lay›c› kullan›lanlar ve iyonik olmayan toplay›c› kullan›lan yöntemlerdir.

  20. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  1. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project : Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown author

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis extracts on hematological parameters and parasitism in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Dotta, Geovana; Brum, Aline; Jeronimo, Gabriela Tomas; Maraschin, Marcelo; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diet supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis on hematological parameters and parasitism in tilapia. One hundred and eighty fish were distributed among 12 water tanks forming four treatments: fish supplemented with a 1:1 mixture of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% propolis and aloe extracts. After the fish had been fed on the experimental diets for 15 and 21 days, blood samples were taken and parasites collected. The monogeneans Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, C. halli, C. thurstonae and Scutogyrus longicornis were identified in the gills. Between the sampling times, there were increases in the numbers of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes, as observed after 21 days, possibly due to the stress level over the course of the assay and/or accumulation of substances in the organism. Supplementation with the mixture of propolis and aloe for 15 days showed the highest efficacy against the parasites. This was possibly due to the association between the two compounds. The results demonstrated that supplementation with mixtures of extracts did not produce hematological alterations and also favored a significant reduction in the number of gill parasites. The best results were achieved after 15 days of feeding with a diet with 0.5% and 1% supplementation with the extract mixture, which increased efficiency by 83 and 85% respectively. PMID:25909255

  3. Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Zappacosta, Bruno; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Persichilli, Silvia; Pounis, George; Ruggeri, Stefania; Minucci, Angelo; Carnovale, Emilia; Andria, Generoso; Ricci, Roberta; Scala, Iris; Genovese, Orazio; Turrini, Aida; Mistura, Lorenza; Giardina, Bruno; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 ?g from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 ?g [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 ?g folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations. PMID:23698160

  4. Effect of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves to vaccines and ovalbumin.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, G X; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N; Gallo, G F

    1996-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) from organic sources (Cr chelate and high Cr yeast) on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves following vaccination with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), para-influenza-3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Pasteurella haemolytica and ovalbumin (OVA). Using cross bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario, vaccines and OVA were given on d 0 and 21 after arrival in the feedlot. Immune responses of calves were measured as serum specific antibody titres against all antigens on d 0 and 28 or d 35. The anti-OVA antibody responses (trial 2) were further investigated by measuring antibody concentrations of calves weekly until d 55 after arrival in the feedlot. Supplemental Cr (0.14 ppm) from an amino acid-chelated source had no effect on antibody responses to IBR, P13 and BRSV, but enhanced (P < 0.05) antibody titres of calves in response to the BVD vaccine on d 28 or d 35. Supplemental Cr from Cr yeast had no effect on antibody titres of calves to any vaccines. Chromium from both sources (trial 1 and 2) had no effect on antibody responses of calves following vaccination with P. haemolytica. However, supplemental Cr (0.75 ppm) from Cr yeast enhanced (P < 0.05) serum antibody responses of calves to OVA during the primary response (d 14) and secondary response (d 35) following immunization. These data confirmed our previous finding that supplemental Cr can enhance humoral immune response of market-transit stressed calves, but its enhancement on vaccine efficacy was antigen-dependent and variable. PMID:8785720

  5. Vaccine efficacy and control measures in pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, S R

    1991-01-01

    An outbreak of pertussis in primary school-children in the St David's area of Pembrokeshire provided the opportunity to estimate pertussis vaccine efficacy. The estimate of efficacy was 88% when notified cases were used, but this fell to 68% when all children with bouts of coughing for two or more weeks were included. Notified cases were significantly less likely to have been vaccinated than other cases with similar symptoms. Therefore vaccine efficacy estimates based upon notified cases are likely to be biased. However, even the lower estimates suggest that pertussis immunisation is highly desirable and efforts to improve coverage should be increased. PMID:1863099

  6. Thermal styling: efficacy, convenience, damage tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Harper, Don; Qi, Jia Catherine; Kaplan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a simple method to explore the efficacy of thermal styling, By using a temperature gradient curling iron we rapidly explore a range of thermal treatment conditions. The thermodynamic literature on the glass transition in keratin fibers explains the surprisingly limited role of elevated temperature in improvements in the efficacy of holding the styled curvature of the fibers. The onset of damage, however, is strongly temperature dependent. This combination of measurements of damage and efficacy shows the range of conditions over which thermal protection products must be functional. PMID:21635843

  7. Protein and amino acid supplementation in older humans.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Naomi K

    2013-06-01

    The aging process is a continuum throughout life and often associated with deterioration of body function as well as accumulation of chronic disabilities and of disease. The impact of nutritional status on morbidity and mortality is unquestioned. Malnutrition increases the risk for frailty and nutritional deficits can influence immune status, response to medical treatments and recovery from acute illnesses, including surgery. Health-promoting interventions implemented individually, such as exercise programs, preventive home visits, comprehensive geriatric evaluation and management, and attention to adequate nutrition with or without nutritional supplements, have been shown in separate studies to be both feasible and effective in reducing age-related deterioration. Protein and its constituent amino acids (AA) are key components of any healthy diet. Sarcopenia, the slow but progressive loss of lean muscle mass associated with advancing age, has been the focus of many studies but there is no clear-cut answer to the question of how to restrain the process. The more general question of how the requirements for protein and specific AA change with age continues to be investigated. A shift towards studying the efficacy and safety of specific AA or combination of AA that may sustain and/or enhance physiologic processes, ranging from specific tissue metabolism to overall function (e.g. exercise performance, immune function, cognition, and chronic disease development) has occurred. This review focuses on recent studies examining the use of specific AA or mixtures as supplements in the elderly and whether/how AA may assist in the maintenance of health and independence. PMID:23563921

  8. Pro-inflammatory properties of shark cartilage supplement.

    PubMed

    Merly, Liza; Smith, Sylvia L

    2015-04-01

    The erosion and breakdown of cartilage is generally recognized to be an integral manifestation of arthritic disease, which is often accompanied by the development and progression of inflammation associated with it. Commercial shark cartilage (SC) is a popular dietary supplement taken for the prevention and/or control of chronic disease, including arthritis. The efficacy of SC in maintaining joint health remains questionable; there is a lack of sufficient reliable information on its effect on immunocompetent cells, and the potential health risks involved have not been adequately assessed. Our earlier in vitro studies showed that SC extracts induce a Th1-type inflammatory cytokine response in human leucocytes, and collagen type II alpha 1 protein was shown to be an active cytokine-inducing component in SC. In this study, we further define the cellular response to SC stimulation by classifying leucocytes into primary and secondary responders employing enriched leucocyte subpopulations. Inhibitors of specific signaling pathways were used to verify the functional effect of SC on specific pathway(s) utilized. Results indicate the monocyte/macrophage as the initially responding cell, followed by lymphocytes and the production of interferon-?. Chemokines, MCP-1 and RANTES, were produced at significant levels in stimulated leucocyte cultures. Initial cellular activation is likely followed by activation of Jun Kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways. This study presents evidence of significant immunological reactivity of components of commercial SC supplement, which could pose a potential health risk for consumers, particularly those with underlying inflammatory disease such as irritable bowel syndrome and arthritis. PMID:25600427

  9. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

  10. Comparative Efficacy of an Organic Acid Blend and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate as Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens: Effects on Performance, Gut Histology, and Small Intestinal Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Saikat; Haldar, Sudipto; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of organic acids as a growth promoter for broiler chickens relative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). Broiler chickens were supplemented with graded doses of an organic acid blend (OAB, 1?g and 2?g/kg diet) and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 0.5?g and 1?g/kg diet) for 35 days. Supplementation of OAB improved (P < .001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and increased protein accretion (P < .001). Dietary acidification caused pH of the gizzard to decline linearly (P < .01) with the dose of supplemental OAB. In the lower intestine, pH remained unaffected by dietary treatments. Unlike BMD, supplemental OAB selectively promoted growth of lactobacilli in the small intestine. Moreover, compared to BMD, OAB tended to maintain the villi in the small intestine at a greater height. Although benefits of exceeding the dose of supplemental organic acids more than 1?g/kg diet are not always conspicuous, based on the live weight and feed conversion data, supplementation of 2?g organic acid per kg diet may be recommended for total replacement of AGPs in broiler diet. PMID:20445787

  11. SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP -1 Rev. 101/20102014

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP - 1 Rev. 101/20102014 SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS January, 20102014 These Supplemental General Conditions are to modify, supplement, void, supersede and amend The University of Michigan Standard General Conditions (1/98). Where any item is modified, amended, voided

  12. SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP -1 Rev. 01/2014

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP - 1 Rev. 01/2014 SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS January, 2014 These Supplemental General Conditions are to modify, supplement, void, supersede and amend The University of Michigan Standard General Conditions (1/98). Where any item is modified, amended, voided or superseded

  13. Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Sales Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Barling; Russell Beattie

    1983-01-01

    Self-efficacy theory predicts that people will perform better when they believe they have the skills necessary for success. It also suggests, however, that believing in long-term rewards for success (\\

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques. Experiments w...

  15. Self-efficacy beliefs and tennis performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Barling; Mike Abel

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological aspects of self-efficacy theory are assessed in this study, and the tennis performance of 40 active players (M age = 26.6 years) serves as the criterion variable. On a theoretical level, only self-efficacy beliefs, and not response-outcome expectations or the valence thereof, were consistently and significantly related to 12 dimensions of tennis performance. This phenomenon pertained to

  16. Accelerating HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials.

    PubMed

    Barouch, Dan H; Michael, Nelson L

    2014-11-20

    Despite major advances in HIV-1 therapeutics and prevention strategies, the development of a safe and effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine will likely be critical for ending the global HIV-1 epidemic. Yet only four HIV-1 vaccine concepts have been tested for clinical efficacy over the past 30 years. In this Commentary, we describe key hurdles facing the HIV-1 vaccine development field and outline strategies to accelerate efficacy evaluation of novel HIV-1 vaccine candidates. PMID:25416935

  17. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents. PMID:25070694

  18. Efficacy comparison of scopolamine (SCP) and diazepam (DZ) against soman-induced lethality in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.W.; Gennings, C.; Carter, W.H.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Diazepam (DZ) and scopolamine (SCP) are known to be beneficial when each is used in combination with atropine (AT) + oxime therapy against intoxication by soman, but the efficacy of each might be expected to vary with the dosage of AT. Thus, the therapeutic efficacy of SCP (5 doses; 0 - 0.86 mg/kg) versus DZ (5 doses; 0 - 5 mg/kg), when used in conjunction with AT (3 doses; 0.5 - S mg/kg) + 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) therapy, was tested in groups of pyridostigmine pretreated guinea pigs exposed to 1.6, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.2 LD5Os of soman. Response surface methodology was employed to describe the relationship between lethality and the AT/DZ or AT/SCP dosages. Results show that within the indicated dose ranges used, the efficacy of SCP is not dependent on the presence of AT, whereas AT is needed for DZ to maintain the lowest probability of death. These findings suggest that in guinea pigs SCP could supplement AT or replace DZ as therapy against nerve agent intoxication.

  19. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy: Economic Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J; Smethells, John R; Ewan, Eric E; Hursh, Steven R

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. According to the first of these approaches, characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. The second approach, the demand analysis, rejects the concept of reinforcer efficacy, arguing instead that traditional measures of relative reinforcer efficacy (breakpoint, peak response rate, and choice) correspond to specific characteristics of non-normalized demand curves. The accuracy of these predictions was evaluated in rats' responding for food or fat: two reinforcers known to function as partial substitutes. Consistent with the first approach, predicted peak normalized response output values (Omax) obtained under single-schedule conditions ordinally predicted progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. Predictions of the demand analysis had mixed success. Pmax and Omax were significantly correlated with PR breakpoints and peak responding (respectively) when fat, but not when food, was the reinforcer. Relative consumption of food and fat under single schedules of reinforcement did not predict preference better than chance. The normalized demand analysis is supplemented with the economic concept of diminishing marginal utility, to predict preference shifts across the range of food and fat prices examined. PMID:17465313

  20. Clinical and Antibiofilm Efficacy of Antimicrobial Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Simon; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Hydrogels have been shown to have a significant role to play in wound healing. Hydrogels are used to assist in the management of dry, sloughy, or necrotic wounds. However, recent scientific evidence has shown that biofilms delay wound healing and increase a wound propensity to infection. It is therefore essential that hydrogels incorporating antimicrobials demonstrate efficacy on biofilms. Consequently, it is the aim of this article to review the efficacy of hydrogels, incorporating antimicrobials, on wounds with specific reference to their efficacy on biofilms. Recent Advances: Technologies being developed for the management of wounds are rapidly expanding. In particularly next-generation hydrogels, incorporating copolymers, have been reported to enable the smart release of antimicrobials. This has led to the development of a more tailored patient-specific antimicrobial hydrogel therapy. Critical Issues: Evidence relating to the efficacy of hydrogels, incorporating antimicrobials, on biofilms within both the in vitro and in vivo environments is lacking. Future Direction: Studies that investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial hydrogel wound dressings on both in vivo and in vitro biofilms are important. However, there is a significant need for better and more reproducible in vivo biofilm models. Until this is possible, data generated from appropriate and representative in vitro models will help to assist researchers and clinicians in evaluating antimicrobial and antibiofilm hydrogel technology for the extrapolation of efficacy data relevant to biofilms present in the in vivo environment.

  1. Adolescent Work Experience and Self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cunnien, Keith A.; MartinRogers, Nicole; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this paper To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. Findings The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents’ confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements. Research limitations/Implications This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences. Practical implications In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy. Original value of paper This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth’s developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence. PMID:19750144

  2. Cell Metabolism, Volume 16 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    Cell Metabolism, Volume 16 Supplemental Information DEPTOR Cell-Autonomously Promotes Adipogenesis adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Relates to Figure 4. Figure S5. Impact of DEPTOR overexpression or knockdown

  3. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kenneth Seidelmann

    1992-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement provides a detailed description of how to perform practical astronomy or spherical astronomy. This completely revised and rewritten edition is an authoritative source on astronomical phenomena and calendars.

  4. [Nutrition and dietary supplements in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Erbguth, F; Himmerich, H

    2014-12-01

    "Healthy" diets and supplements are widely used for prevention and disease modification in vascular, inflammatory and degenerative neurological diseases. Apart from a large number of cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies, there are only few interventional studies on individual dietary measures. A recent study confirmed the stroke preventive effect of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and nuts; a ketogenic diet reduces seizure frequency in epilepsy. Supplementation of riboflavin, magnesium and coenzyme Q10 are probably effective in migraine prophylaxis. Creatine can improve muscle strength in muscular dystrophy and myositis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend any of the many dietary supplements, such as vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids and other substances for the prevention or improvement of all other neurological diseases. This review critically evaluates the present data on the role of nutrition and dietary supplements in neurological diseases. PMID:25403288

  5. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-07-28

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  6. 7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental...under Public Law 106-387 will be made available to dairy operations in connection with normal milk...

  7. 7 CFR 1430.511 - Supplemental payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.511 Supplemental...under Public Law 106-387 will be made available to dairy operations in connection with normal milk...

  8. Soy Supplements Won't Ease Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and disease outcomes," study lead author Dr. Lewis Smith, professor of medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School ... food or a single component of a food," Smith said. "Instead of focusing on supplements, we should ...

  9. URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

  10. 47 CFR 87.239 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Multicom Stations § 87.239 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant for a multicom may be required to...

  11. 47 CFR 87.239 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Multicom Stations § 87.239 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant for a multicom may be required to...

  12. 47 CFR 87.373 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Search and Rescue Stations § 87...Supplemental eligibility. Licenses for aeronautical search and rescue stations will be...private organizations chartered to perform aeronautical search and rescue...

  13. 47 CFR 87.373 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Search and Rescue Stations § 87...Supplemental eligibility. Licenses for aeronautical search and rescue stations will be...private organizations chartered to perform aeronautical search and rescue...

  14. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drugs Learn about your prescription drugs and over-the- ...

  15. 47 CFR 87.473 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Radiodetermination Service § 87.473 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses for radionavigation land test stations (MTF) will be granted only to applicants engaged in the development, manufacture or maintenance of aircraft...

  16. 47 CFR 87.473 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Radiodetermination Service § 87.473 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses for radionavigation land test stations (MTF) will be granted only to applicants engaged in the development, manufacture or maintenance of aircraft...

  17. 47 CFR 87.473 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Radiodetermination Service § 87.473 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses for radionavigation land test stations (MTF) will be granted only to applicants engaged in the development, manufacture or maintenance of aircraft...

  18. 47 CFR 87.473 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Radiodetermination Service § 87.473 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses for radionavigation land test stations (MTF) will be granted only to applicants engaged in the development, manufacture or maintenance of aircraft...

  19. 47 CFR 87.373 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Search and Rescue Stations § 87.373 Supplemental...eligibility. Licenses for aeronautical search and rescue stations will be granted...organizations chartered to perform aeronautical search and rescue...

  20. 47 CFR 87.373 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Search and Rescue Stations § 87.373 Supplemental...eligibility. Licenses for aeronautical search and rescue stations will be granted...organizations chartered to perform aeronautical search and rescue...

  1. 47 CFR 87.373 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Search and Rescue Stations § 87.373 Supplemental...eligibility. Licenses for aeronautical search and rescue stations will be granted...organizations chartered to perform aeronautical search and rescue...

  2. Mineral Supplementation of Beef Cows in Texas

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.

    1997-06-04

    Mineral Supplementation of Beef Cows in Texas Dennis B. Herd* The proper balance of protein, energy, vitamins and all nutri- tionally important minerals is needed to make a successful nutrition program, one that?s productive yet economical. Nutrient...

  3. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Felice, Valentina Di

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. PMID:23434906

  4. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-02-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. PMID:23434906

  5. Levels of supplementation for grazing beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

  6. Linking Leadership to Student Learning: The Contributions of Leader Efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Leithwood; Doris Jantzi

    2008-01-01

    Purposes: This study aimed to improve our understanding of the nature, causes and consequence of school leader efficacy, including indirect influences on student learning. We asked about district contributions to school leader efficacy, whether leader self- and collective efficacy responded to the same or different district conditions and the effects of leader efficacy on conditions in the school and the

  7. The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

  8. The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

  9. Low Dose Daily Iron Supplementation Improves Iron Status and Appetite but Not Anemia, whereas Quarterly Anthelminthic Treatment Improves Growth, Appetite and Anemia in Zanzibari Preschool Children1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Stoltzfus; Hababu M. Chway; Antonio Montresor; James M. Tielsch; Jape Khatib Jape; Marco Albonico; Lorenzo Savioli

    Iron deficiency and helminth infections are two common conditions of children in developing countries. The consequences of helminth infection in young children are not well described, and the efficacy of low dose iron supplementation is not well documented in malaria-endemic settings. A 12-mo randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial of 10 mg daily iron and\\/or mebendazole (500 mg) every 3 mo

  10. Efficacy of different contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    Vessey, M; Lawless, M; Yeates, D

    1982-04-10

    The Oxford Family Planning Association (Oxford, England) contraceptive study has yielded data on the efficacy of a wide range of birth control methods for a large, homogeneous group of married women attending family planning clinics. Some of the main findings are summarized in the hope that they may be of direct value to the practicing physician. 17,032 women were recruited from 17 large family planning clinics in England and Scotland during 1968-1974. At recruitment, every woman was aged 25-39 years, married, a white British subject, willing to participate, and either a current user of oral contraceptives (OCs) of at least 5 months' standing or a current user of a diaphragm or an IUD of at least 5 months' standing without prior exposure to the pill. On return visits to the clinic, each woman is questioned and data, including details of all pregnancies and any change in contraceptive practice together with reasons for the change, are recorded on a special form. In the analyses which follow, the failure rates represent "use-effectiveness," i.e., they include accidental pregnancies attributable both to failure of the method and to failure by the woman to use the method correctly. Overall failure rates for the different contraceptive methods together with 95% confidence limits are shown in a table. The failure rate/100 woman-years is as follows: for combined OCs with more than 50 mcg estrogen--0.32, with 50 mcg estrogen--0.16, and with less than 50 mcg estrogen--0.27; progestogen-only OC, 1.2; diaphragm, 1.9; condom, 3.6; Lippes loop A 6.8; Lippes loop B, 1.8; Lippes loop C, 1.4; Lippes loop D, 1.3; Saf-T-Coil, 1.3; Dalkon shield, 2.4; Birnberg bow, 1.6; Antigon, 0.4; M-213, 1.3; Copper-T, 1.2; Copper-7, 1.5; Multiload, 0.0; type unknown, 1.8; rhythm, 15.5; coitus interruptus, 6.7; chemicals alone, 11.9; female sterilization, 0.13; and male sterilization, 0.02. Sustained motivation is essential for effective use of contraceptive methods requiring deliberate action on the part of the user. Accordingly, the failure rates were analyzed for OC users, diaphragm and condom users in relation to the only direct indicator of motivation recorded in the study, i.e., whether or not a woman considered her family to be complete. A substantial effect was apparent only for diaphragm users. PMID:6122067

  11. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues. PMID:24732156

  12. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  13. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  14. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  15. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplementation to treat symptomatic disc degeneration: Biochemical rationale and case report

    PubMed Central

    van Blitterswijk, Wim J; van de Nes, Jos CM; Wuisman, Paul IJM

    2003-01-01

    Background Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate preparations are widely used as food supplements against osteoarthritis, but critics are skeptical about their efficacy, because of the lack of convincing clinical trials and a reasonable scientific rationale for the use of these nutraceuticals. Most trials were on osteoarthritis of the knee, while virtually no documentation exists on spinal disc degeneration. The purpose of this article is to highlight the potential of these food additives against cartilage degeneration in general, and against symptomatic spinal disc degeneration in particular, as is illustrated by a case report. The water content of the intervertebral disc is a reliable measure of its degeneration/ regeneration status, and can be objectively determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signals. Case presentation Oral intake of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate for two years associated with disk recovery (brightening of MRI signal) in a case of symptomatic spinal disc degeneration. We provide a biochemical explanation for the possible efficacy of these nutraceuticals. They are bioavailable to cartilage chondrocytes, may stimulate the biosynthesis and inhibit the breakdown of their extracellular matrix proteoglycans. Conclusion The case suggests that long-term glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate intake may counteract symptomatic spinal disc degeneration, particularly at an early stage. However, definite proof requires well-conducted clinical trials with these food supplements, in which disc de-/regeneration can be objectively determined by MRI. A number of biochemical reasons (that mechanistically need to be further resolved) explain why these agents may have cartilage structure- and symptom-modifying effects, suggesting their therapeutic efficacy against osteoarthritis in general. PMID:12797867

  16. Oxidation of Marine Omega-3 Supplements and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Benjamin B.; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine omega-3 rich oils are used by more than a third of American adults for a wide range of purported benefits including prevention of cardiovascular disease. These oils are highly prone to oxidation to lipid peroxides and other secondary oxidation products. Oxidized oils may have altered biological activity making them ineffective or harmful, though there is also evidence that some beneficial effects of marine oils could be mediated through lipid peroxides. To date, human clinical trials have not reported the oxidative status of the trial oil. This makes it impossible to understand the importance of oxidation to efficacy or harm. However, animal studies show that oxidized lipid products can cause harm. Oxidation of trial oils may be responsible for the conflicting omega-3 trial literature, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The oxidative state of an oil can be simply determined by the peroxide value and anisidine value assays. We recommend that all clinical trials investigating omega-3 harms or benefits report the results of these assays; this will enable better understanding of the benefits and harms of omega-3 and the clinical importance of oxidized supplements. PMID:23738326

  17. MODERATOR EFFECTS OF SELF-EFFICACY ON OCCUPATIONAL STRESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Grau; Marisa Salanova; José María Peiró

    This paper analyses self-efficacy as a moderator in the occupational stress process. Specifically, it analyses the comple- mentarity between two self-efficacy measures: generalised and professional. The initial hypothesis was that specific self- efficacy will moderate more stress-strain relationships than generalised self-efficacy. Based on data collected from 140 wor- kers that use new technologies in their jobs, we found that self-efficacy

  18. Covariates of Self-Efficacy: Caregiver Characteristics Related to Mental Health Services Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, S.; Bickman, L.; Heflinger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, professionals are recognizing the need to involve parents and other caregivers in the mental health treatment of children. However, parents and caregivers may not feel efficacious when participating in mental health care. Self-efficacy is a mechanism of human agency that describes people's beliefs about their capabilities to exercise…

  19. The impact of self-efficacy and perceived system efficacy on effectiveness of virtual training systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawei Jia; Asim Bhatti; Saeid Nahavandi

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a research model which examined the impact of user perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) and virtual environment (VE) efficacy on the effectiveness of VE training systems. The model distinguishes between the perceptions of one's own capability to perform trained tasks effectively and the perceptions of system performance, regarding the established parameters from literature. Specifically, the model

  20. Use of Longitudinal Dose–Response Modeling to Support the Efficacy and Tolerability of Alitretinoin in Severe Refractory Chronic Hand Eczema (CHE)

    PubMed Central

    Schmith, GD; Singh, R; Gomeni, R; Graff, O; Hamedani, AG; Troughton, JS; Learned, SM

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal dose–response analyses of alitretinoin (an investigational agent in the US) were conducted to supplement results from phase III studies in severe, refractory chronic hand eczema, with objectives to address several outstanding development issues (e.g., optimal dose, possible factors affecting efficacy and/or tolerability). Models were fitted to the physicians' global assessment score and triglycerides over time. Five hundred trials were simulated to evaluate the relevance of findings. Analyses clarified that the optimal dose of alitretinoin was 30 mg once daily, where response rates were ?10% over placebo at 12 weeks and increased by 5–7% over placebo for every 4 weeks thereafter, for up to 24 weeks. Elderly subjects had higher magnitudes of efficacy and an increased probability of high triglycerides. Results from analyses sufficiently addressed the development issues, thereby adding to the weight of evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of alitretinoin in the treatment of severe, refractory chronic hand eczema.

  1. Maternal taurine supplementation attenuates maternal fructose-induced metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation and partially reverses adverse metabolic programming in offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Reynolds, C M; Sloboda, D M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

    2015-03-01

    Excessive fructose consumption is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and high fructose intake during pregnancy can lead to compromised fetal development in the rat. Evidence suggests that the amino acid taurine can ameliorate fructose-induced IR and NAFLD in nonpregnant animals. This study investigated the efficacy of taurine supplementation on maternal fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction and neonatal health. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomized to four groups during pregnancy and lactation: (a) control diet (CON), (b) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT), (c) CON supplemented with fructose solution (F) and (d) F supplemented with taurine (FT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Maternal hyperinsulinemia, increased homeostasis model assessment of IR indices and elevated proinflammatory cytokines were observed in F group and normalized in FT group. Maternal fructose-induced hepatic steatosis accompanied with increased liver weight was ameliorated with taurine supplementation. Maternal hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase expression was significantly increased in the F group compared to the CON, CT and FT groups. Neonatal hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was increased in male F neonates compared to the CON, CT and FT groups and was increased in female F and FT neonates compared to CON and CT. Interleukin-1? expression was decreased in male CT and FT neonates compared to other male groups. Hepatic tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 was lower in the male FT group than the F group. These results demonstrate that maternal taurine supplementation can partially reverse fructose-induced maternal metabolic dysfunction and may ameliorate adverse developmental programming effects in offspring in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25576095

  2. 1 Filter_Supplemental-Info_090913.doc Supplemental Information Regarding RF/Microwave Filter Design

    E-print Network

    /Microwave Filter Design The video module on RF/microwave filter design, Filter Demonstration in Microwave OfficeWeller/USF 1 Filter_Supplemental-Info_090913.doc Supplemental Information Regarding RF, briefly discusses the topic of prototype filter design using the insertion loss method. This document

  3. Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byrne

    2003-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish

  4. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

  5. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena A; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: ? S = +1.195 MCA score units (u), P = 0.017; placebo: ? P = +0.347?u, P = 0.513). The intercept (?) resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (? S - ? P = +0.848?u, P < 0.001). At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (? S - ? P = +0.077?u, P = 0.542). In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (? S - ? P = -0.398?u, P < 0.001), epigastric fullness (? S - ? P = -0.241, P < 0.001), epigastric pain (? S - ? P = -0.173?u, P = 0.002), and bloating (? S - ? P = -0.167?u, P = 0.017). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. PMID:25954317

  6. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).

    PubMed

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23320910

  7. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. PMID:20190347

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A SELF-EFFICACY SCALE FOR ASSESSING SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' SCIENCE SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Wong; Siew Lian

    This paper details the development of a self-efficacy scale for assessing secondary school students' science self-efficacy (SSE) beliefs. Differences in the way self-efficacy and self-concept are assessed is discussed in light of the conceptual difference between self-efficacy and other self-percepts. Steps in the formulation of the scale in accordance with theoretical guidelines on how self-efficacy should be assessed and measures

  9. Supplementation with zinc, but not vitamin A, improves seroconversion to vibriocidal antibody in children given an oral cholera vaccine.

    PubMed

    Albert, M John; Qadri, Firdausi; Wahed, Mohammad A; Ahmed, Tanvir; Rahman, A S M Hamidur; Ahmed, Firoz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Zaman, K; Baqui, Abdullah H; Clemens, John D; Black, Robert E

    2003-03-15

    To investigate whether micronutrient supplementation could improve the vibriocidal antibody response of children to a killed oral cholera vaccine, 2-5-year-old children were randomly assigned to receive vitamin A and zinc (AZ group), vitamin A and a placebo (A group), zinc and a placebo (Z group), or both placebos (P group). All children received 2 doses of the vaccine. The number of children who had a > or = 4-fold increase in vibriocidal antibody was significantly greater in the AZ group than in the P group (P = .025-.028). Factorial analysis suggested that the proportion of children with a > or = 4-fold increase in vibriocidal antibody titer was significantly greater in the zinc-supplemented groups than in the groups that did not receive zinc (P = .013-.048) and that vitamin A supplementation did not have a significant effect. Thus, supplementation with zinc improves seroconversion to vibriocidal antibody and, hence, has the potential to improve the efficacy of oral cholera vaccine in children. PMID:12660937

  10. Effects of Oral L-Citrulline Supplementation on Lipoprotein Oxidation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans with Vasospastic Angina

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Masahiko; Sakurada, Masami; Watanabe, Fumiko; Yamasaki, Tetsuo; Doi, Hiroshi; Ezaki, Hirotaka; Morishita, Koji; Miyakex, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increased lipid oxidation are associated with progressive endothelial dysfunction. L-Citrulline, the effective precursor of L-arginine which is essential as a substrate for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), is effective in enhancing NO-dependent signaling. However, little is known about the efficacy of L-citrulline supplementation on lipoprotein oxidation and endothelial dysfunction. Methods: Twenty-two patients (aged 41 - 64 years old) diagnosed with vasospastic angina with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (< 5.5 %) received 800 mg/day of L-citrulline for 8 weeks. FMD (%), blood NOx, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), small dense LDL, oxidized lipids, amino acids concentrations were measured before and after supplementation. Results: Compared with baseline values, FMD (%) was significantly improved at 4 and 8 weeks as well as at 4 weeks after the end of intake. L-Citrulline supplementation caused a significant lowering of plasma ADMA levels. Plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratio and NOx levels rose markedly throughout the study period. Moreover, significant reductions of serum oxidized LDL and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) ligand containing ApoB (LAB), an indicator of the biological activity of oxidized lipoprotein binding to LOX-1, were observed after L-citrulline intake. Conclusions: L-Citrulline supplementation improves endothelial dysfunction, probably due to potentiating NO-dependent reactions and decreasing the state of lipoprotein oxidation in humans. PMID:26005507

  11. Prophylactic supplementation of caprylic acid in feed reduces Salmonella enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Johny, Anup Kollanoor; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Charles, Anu Susan; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Darre, Michael J; Khan, Mazhar I; Hoagland, Thomas A; Schreiber, David T; Donoghue, Annie M; Donoghue, Dan J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, generally recognized as safe eight-carbon fatty acid, for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in chicks. One hundred commercial day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups of 20 birds each: CA control (no Salmonella Enteritidis, CA), positive control (Salmonella Enteritidis, no CA), negative control (no Salmonella Enteritidis, no CA), and 0.7 or 1% CA. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. On day 8, birds were inoculated with 5.0 log CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis by crop gavage. Six birds from each group were euthanized on days 1, 7, and 10 after challenge, and Salmonella Enteritidis populations in the cecum, small intestine, cloaca, crop, liver, and spleen were enumerated. The study was replicated three times. CA supplementation at 0.7 and 1% consistently decreased Salmonella Enteritidis populations recovered from the treated birds. Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the tissue samples of CA-treated chicks were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of control birds on days 7 and 10 after challenge. Feed intake and body weight did not differ between the groups. Histological examination revealed no pathological changes in the cecum and liver of CA-supplemented birds. The results suggest that prophylactic CA supplementation through feed can reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in day-old chicks and may be a useful treatment for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens. PMID:19435218

  12. Colistin: efficacy and safety in different populations.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Foroud; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews mechanisms, incidences, risk factors and preventive modalities of colistin toxicity as well as colistin use in special populations and through special routes. All clinical studies that examined the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, efficacy and side effects of colistin in the management of multidrug-resistant organisms in different patient population including pediatrics, adults, obese, critically ill, burn or cancer patients with any route of drug administration were considered. Compared with older recommended doses, current dosing approach improves cure rate without significant increase in the rate of colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Efficacy and safety of high doses of colistin should be considered in the future studies. Also comparing efficacy and safety of different doses of aerosolized colistin and defining the appropriate dose in different populations is another open area of future researches. PMID:26041134

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Neonatal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Demirjian, Alicia; Levy, Ofer

    2009-01-01

    Newborns have an immature immune system that renders them at high risk for infection while simultaneously reducing responses to most vaccines, thereby posing challenges in protecting this vulnerable population. Nevertheless, certain vaccines, such as Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) and Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), do demonstrate safety and some efficacy at birth, providing proof of principal that certain antigen-adjuvant combinations are able to elicit protective neonatal responses. Moreover, birth is a major point of healthcare contact globally meaning that effective neonatal vaccines achieve high population penetration. Given the potentially significant benefit of vaccinating at birth, availability of a broader range of more effective neonatal vaccines is an unmet medical need and a public health priority. This review focuses on safety and efficacy of neonatal vaccination in humans as well as recent research employing novel approaches to enhance the efficacy of neonatal vaccination. PMID:19089811

  14. Dietary Supplement Polypharmacy: An Unrecognized Public Health Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Gryzlak, Brian M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Wallace, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive and inappropriate use of medications, or ‘polypharmacy’, has been recognized as a public health problem. In addition, there is growing use of dietary supplements in the United States; however, little is known about the patterns of supplement use. Recent reports in the literature of cases of excessive or inappropriate use of herbal dietary supplements leading to the term ‘polyherbacy’. The clinical vignettes described in this article highlight the need for further research on the nature and extent of multiple and inappropriate dietary supplement use or ‘dietary supplement polypharmacy’. Clinical interviewing and population surveys both address this issue in complementary ways, and provide a further understanding of dietary supplement use patterns. PMID:18955288

  15. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. (Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Newark, NJ (USA)); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Efficacy of MCAD screening in SIDS patients in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A. III; Vnencak-Jones, C.L. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Ulm, J.E. [TN Dept. of Health, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA deficiency (MCAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. While several mutations have been identified in the MCAD gene, an A to G point mutation affecting codon 329 (K329E) represents >90% of those reported. Unfortunately, the reported carrier frequency of this mutation varies greatly between populations which reduces the efficiency of neonatal screening. Mounting evidence suggests a correlation between MCAD deficiency and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To determine the utility of MCAD screening in SIDS patients, we screened for the K329E mutation in DNA extracted from paraffin blocks retrieved from 75 consecutive SIDS patients. Two of 75 (2.7%) had DNA findings consistent with MCAD. One patient (A) was homozygous for K329E while a second patient (B) was heterozygous for K329E. Although the second abnormal MCAD allele has not yet been identified in this patient, in a clinical setting of SIDS, this patient may well represent a compound heterozygote. Subsequent to the analysis, the family of A was contacted and a newborn sib was found to be homozygous for K329E. Carnitine supplementation and frequent feedings were started and the child is doing well. Evaluation of family B is planned. Our finding of 2/75 SIDS patients with DNA findings suggestive of MCAD demonstrates the efficacy of MCAD screening in this population in contrast to that of newborn screening in TN where the estimated K329E carrier frequency is 1/249 and the calculated incidence of MCAD disease is approximately 1/248,000. Our study (1) confirms the finding of MCAD in 2 to 3% of consecutive SIDS patients, (2) utility of DNA testing in presymtomatic sibs of SIDS patients attributable to MCAD and (3) provides accurate recurrent risks and enables prenatal testing for SIDS families where the diagnosis of MCAD has been established.

  17. Learn More about Dietary Supplements and Estimating Total Nutrient Intakes | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    Dietary supplements are defined as products intended to supplement the diet that contain one or more dietary ingredients. Supplements are taken orally as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. The most commonly used dietary supplements are multivitamin-mineral products.

  18. The Economic Value of Dietary Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Raffensperger

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a All nutrients can be obtained from food, without dietary supplements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Adding dietary supplements could reduce the cost of the diet only marginally, and only if the supplements complement the diet\\u000a correctly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Most people could have a better diet and at lower cost simply by making different food choices.

  19. Preliminary Efficacy of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence; Oswald, Donald; Albano, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is a commonly occurring psychiatric concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This pilot study examined the preliminary efficacy of a manual-based intervention targeting anxiety and social competence in four adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Anxiety and social functioning were assessed at baseline, midpoint, endpoint, and 6 months following treatment. Treatment consisted of cognitive-behavioral therapy, supplemented with parent education and group social skills training. The treatment program was effective in reducing anxiety in three of the four subjects and improving the social skills in all four subjects. Recommendations for the assessment and treatment of anxiety youth with ASD such as use of self-report measures to complement clinician and parent-reports and adaptations to traditional child-based CBT, are offered. PMID:19568924

  20. A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Minich, Deanna M; Bland, Jeffrey S

    2007-06-01

    Supplementation with the crucifer-derived phytochemicals indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) has been an area of active interest due to their role in estrogen metabolism. This review addresses the debate about which cruciferous compound to use clinically by evaluating their efficacy and safety. Significantly more clinical trials are available for I3C than for DIM. I3C leads to beneficial shifts in hormone markers, and limited evidence suggests that DIM may result in a similar effect. More research in humans is needed to further address whether DIM poses any safety risk. Current data do not suggest that DIM provides enhanced clinical benefits over I3C. PMID:17605302

  1. 40 CFR 40.145 - Supplemental grant conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Supplemental grant conditions. 40.145 Section 40...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145 Supplemental grant...

  2. 40 CFR 40.145 - Supplemental grant conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Supplemental grant conditions. 40.145 Section 40...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145 Supplemental grant...

  3. 40 CFR 40.145 - Supplemental grant conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Supplemental grant conditions. 40.145 Section 40...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145 Supplemental grant...

  4. 40 CFR 40.145 - Supplemental grant conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Supplemental grant conditions. 40.145 Section 40...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145 Supplemental grant...

  5. 40 CFR 40.145 - Supplemental grant conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Supplemental grant conditions. 40.145 Section 40...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145 Supplemental grant...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  10. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  11. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  12. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  13. Manual Supplemental Approver Report for Travel & Business Expenses

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    of international travel to destinations where local custom or culture makes it difficult to obtain receipts). Meals1 Manual Supplemental Approver Report for Travel & Business Expenses Voucher that warrants Supplemental Approval must be fully documented. In addition the business justification

  14. WELDING RESEARCH ~----------------------~--~ SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL. FEBRUARY 1990

    E-print Network

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    J ) WELDING RESEARCH ~----------------------~--~ SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL. FEBRUARY 1990 Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council All papers published in the Welding Journal's Welding Research Supplement undergo Peer Review before publication for: I) originality

  15. Vitamin D Supplements Might Help Some Lose Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152449.html Vitamin D Supplements Might Help Some Lose Weight Italian ... News) -- For obese Americans who are low on vitamin D, taking a supplement of the nutrient might ...

  16. 42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 ...403.205 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General...

  17. 42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 ...403.205 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General...

  18. 42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 ...403.205 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General...

  19. 42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 ...403.205 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General...

  20. 42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare supplemental policy. 403.205 ...403.205 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General...

  1. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130 Section...ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft...

  2. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130 Section...ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft...

  3. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130 Section...ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft...

  4. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130 Section...ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact statements. (a) A draft...

  5. 45 CFR 63.8 - Supplemental regulations and grant conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Supplemental regulations and grant conditions. 63.8 Section 63.8...Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF...63.8 Supplemental regulations and grant conditions. (a) Grants under...

  6. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  7. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  8. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106 Section 1815...INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.501 - Home installation manual supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Home installation manual supplements. 3285.501...DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Features § 3285.501 Home installation manual supplements....

  10. 24 CFR 3285.501 - Home installation manual supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Home installation manual supplements. 3285.501...DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Features § 3285.501 Home installation manual supplements....

  11. 24 CFR 3285.501 - Home installation manual supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Home installation manual supplements. 3285.501...DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Features § 3285.501 Home installation manual supplements....

  12. 24 CFR 3285.501 - Home installation manual supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Home installation manual supplements. 3285.501...DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Features § 3285.501 Home installation manual supplements....

  13. 24 CFR 3285.501 - Home installation manual supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Home installation manual supplements. 3285.501...DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Features § 3285.501 Home installation manual supplements....

  14. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  15. Vitamin B12 Supplements May Not Help Some Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153630.html Vitamin B12 Supplements May Not Help Some Seniors They ... 16, 2015 THURSDAY, July 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin B12 supplements are known to benefit seniors with ...

  16. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 227 - Official Staff Commentary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Official Staff Commentary I Supplement I to Part 227 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Pt. 227, Supp. I Supplement I to Part 227—Official Staff...

  17. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 227 - Official Staff Commentary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Official Staff Commentary I Supplement I to Part 227 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Pt. 227, Supp. I Supplement I to Part 227—Official Staff...

  18. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 227 - Official Staff Commentary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Official Staff Commentary I Supplement I to Part 227 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Pt. 227, Supp. I Supplement I to Part 227—Official Staff...

  19. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 227 - Official Staff Commentary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Official Staff Commentary I Supplement I to Part 227 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Pt. 227, Supp. I Supplement I to Part 227—Official Staff...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 736 - Administrative Orders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative Orders No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 736 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...GENERAL PROHIBITIONS Pt. 736, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 736—Administrative Orders...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 768-Items Eligible for Expedited Licensing...AVAILABILITY DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA Supplement No. 2 to Part 768—Items Eligible for Expedited...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 7 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 7 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 7 Supplement No. 7 to Part 760—Interpretation Prohibited...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 4 Supplement No. 4 to Part 760—Interpretation The...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 4 Supplement No. 4 to Part 760—Interpretation The...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 8 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 8 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 8 Supplement No. 8 to Part 760—Interpretation Definition of...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false [Reserved] No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 768-Items Eligible for Expedited Licensing...AVAILABILITY DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA Supplement No. 2 to Part 768—Items Eligible for Expedited...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 5 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 5 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 5 Supplement No. 5 to Part 760—Interpretation A. Permissible...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 8 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 8 to Part 760 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 8 Supplement No. 8 to Part 760—Interpretation Definition of...

  9. 49 CFR 1114.29 - Supplementation of responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.29 Supplementation...who has responded to a request for discovery with a response that was complete...the modified procedure through new requests for supplementation...

  10. Acne and whey protein supplementation among bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Simonart, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative evidence supports the role of nutritional factors in acne. I report here 5 healthy male adult patients developing acne after the consumption of whey protein, a favorite supplement of those engaged in bodybuilding. These observations are in line with biochemical and epidemiological data supporting the effects of milk and dairy products as enhancers of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling and acne aggravation. Further prospective studies are required to determine the possible role of dietary supplements in the fitness and bodybuilding environment. PMID:23257731

  11. Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: Technique, Efficacy, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Winokur, Ronald S.; Pua, Bradley B.; Sullivan, Brian W.; Madoff, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung is an indispensable tool in the evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities due to its high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of malignancy. Percutaneous biopsy in the lung plays a critical role in obtaining pathologic proof of malignancy, guiding staging and planning treatment. This article reviews biopsy techniques and their related efficacy and complications. PMID:24436527

  12. The Efficacy of Career Education, Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterbury, Elvis; And Others

    The paper reviewed existing evaluative studies indicative of the efficacy of the career awareness element of career education. The studies represent a sampling of the degree of success achieved in implementing and evaluating career education across the nation. Information sources included the U.S. Office of Education and the National Institute of…

  13. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

  14. Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…

  15. Self-Efficacy and Music Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Gary E.; McCormick, John

    2006-01-01

    This study is the second in a series of investigations attempting to clarify relationships between variables that impact on a young musician's ability to perform music (as assessed on a graded music examination). Consistent with studies on school academic subjects, our previous investigation demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy in…

  16. Teacher Efficacy of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencay, Okkes Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Teacher Efficacy Scale in Physical Education (TESPE) in Turkey's conditions, and to test if there are any differences in gender and teaching experience of Turkish PE teachers. Turkish version of the scale was administered to 257 physical education teachers (184…

  17. Self-Efficacy Perspective on Achievement Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.

    In an initial section, this paper presents a review of the literature and discusses the hypothesized relationship between self-efficacy, (defined as personal judgments of how well one can organize and implement behaviors in situations that may contain novel, unpredictable and possibly stressful elements) and achievement behavior. Source of…

  18. Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett R Kuhn; Amy J Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime

  19. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

  20. Improving Math Proficiency through Self Efficacy Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Ellie H.; Schneider, Yasemin

    This paper reports the results of a pilot intervention designed to improve students' mathematics proficiency through self-efficacy training. Seventeen pre-first year college students participated in a five-week summer program that included whole class instruction, small group tutoring, and individual meetings with instructional coordinators. As…

  1. The efficacy of relaxation training with children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil C. Richter

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews studies that have examined the efficacy of relaxation training techniques in the treatment of childhood disorders. Methodological problems encountered in doing research in this area resemble those found in working with an adult population: imprecise definitions of subject populations and use of a variety of dependent variables from one study to another. Findings suggest that relaxation training

  2. Employee engagement and manager self-efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Luthans; Suzanne J. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    Although technology still dominates, human resources and how they are managed is receiving increased attention in the analysis of gaining competitive advantage. Yet, many complex questions remain. This study first examines the theoretical understanding of employee engagement. Then an empirical investigation is made of the role that a wide variety of managers’ (n = 170) psychological state of self-efficacy plays

  3. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. O'Hara; Scott Stuart; Laura L. Gorman; Amy Wenzel

    2000-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their in- fants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psy- chotherapy for postpartum depression. Methods: A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks

  4. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In Supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in Supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...Supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In Supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in Supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...Supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In Supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in Supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...Supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 13 Supplement No. 13 to Part 760—Interpretation Summary...3(d) of this part. In Supplement No. 1 to part 760, the following form of...the benefit of that exception. In other words, the discretion in selecting would have...similar to that dealt with in Supplement No. 1 to part 760, but several critical...Supplement No. 1, Part II.B. and......

  10. NIH Purchase Card Supplement Version 6.0

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    and Logistics Management Division of Simplified Acquisition Policy and Services NIH Purchase Card Supplement................................................................................................17 F. CONSIDER "GREEN" PURCHASING

  11. Dietary Supplements and Lessons to Be Learned from GRAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Burdock

    2000-01-01

    The demand for dietary supplements by the public has transformed this once cottage industry into a 12-billion-dollar-per-year business. Restrictive actions against dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prompted Congress to enact new and more permissive amendments governing dietary supplements (Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, DSHEA) to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FFD&C) Act in 1994.

  12. A soft circuit curriculum to promote technological self-efficacy

    E-print Network

    Lovell, Emily Marie

    2011-01-01

    The development of technological self-efficacy in young people can have a dramatic impact on diversity in the field of computing. Students'self-efficacy and scientific understanding can benefit from engaging in hands-on ...

  13. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  14. Dietary Supplement Use in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoichiro Ikuyama; Emiko Imamura

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplements are the most popular class of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Japan. In the present review, we describe several characteristics of dietary supplement users in patients with RA in Japan, based on our recent survey. Sixty percent of RA patients used supplements. Prevalence was higher in female than in male patients, and users were younger than non-users,

  15. 7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

  16. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

  17. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

  18. 7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

  19. 7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

  20. 7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 true Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

  1. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

  2. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

  3. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT...Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64 Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323... § 1940.323 Preparing supplements to EIS's. (a) Either the State Office...prepare supplements to either draft or final EIS's if: (1) A substantial...

  5. 40 CFR 97.43 - Compliance Supplement Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Compliance Supplement Pool. 97.43 Section 97.43...43 Compliance Supplement Pool. (a) For any NOX Budget...Program under title I of the Clean Air Act, the owners and operators...State's compliance supplement pool set forth in appendix D of...

  6. 40 CFR 97.43 - Compliance Supplement Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Compliance Supplement Pool. 97.43 Section 97.43...43 Compliance Supplement Pool. (a) For any NOX Budget...Program under title I of the Clean Air Act, the owners and operators...State's compliance supplement pool set forth in appendix D of...

  7. Cost-effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Postma; J. Londeman; M. Veenstra; L. T. W. de Jong-van den Berg; H. E. K. de Walle

    2002-01-01

    Background: Supplementation of folic acid prior to and in the beginning of pregnancy may prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns – such as spina bifida – and possibly other congenital malformations.Objective: To estimate cost effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folic acid using pharmaco-economic model calculation.Method: Probabilities for NTDs, risk reductions through periconceptional supplementation of folic acid and lifetime costs

  8. Original article Effects of protein level, methionine supplementation and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Effects of protein level, methionine supplementation and carbohydrate type the animals received a 0.4% methionine supplementation (groups M). Four or five dams per group were sacrificed on days 2, 7 and 14 after littering. The diet intake was increased by methionine supplementation

  9. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained?16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken?3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes. PMID:22248498

  10. Early Supplemental Feeding and Spontaneous Play in West Java, Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walka, Helen; Pollitt, Ernesto; Triana, Nina; Jahari, Abas B.

    This study examined the effects of nutritional supplements on the duration and level of spontaneous play of 55 mildly to moderately malnourished toddlers living within the tea plantations of West Java, Indonesia. Infants were randomly assigned by their day care centers to one of three supplement groups: (1) energy and micronutrient supplements;…

  11. Vitamin/Mineral Supplement Use among High School Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffery; Marquart, Leonard F.

    1994-01-01

    Examined supplement use among 742 athletes. Thirty-eight percent used supplements with usage not differing by gender or grade in school. Those wishing to participate in college sports more often consumed supplements. Healthy growth, illness, and sports performance given as reasons for use. Parents, doctors, and coaches influenced usage. (RJM)

  12. Original article Response to barium selenate supplementation in sheep

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    group did not receive any supplement of Se and/or vitamin E. The two groups were managed under the sameOriginal article Response to barium selenate supplementation in sheep kept at pasture supplements in the prevention of dis- orders related to Se deficiency in sheep maintained at pasture

  13. Dietary supplements for athletes: Emerging trends and recurring themes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Maughan; P. L. Greenhaff; P. Hespel

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used at all levels of sport. Changes in patterns of supplement use are taking place against a background of changes in the regulatory framework that governs the manufacture and distribution of supplements in the major markets. Market regulation is complicated by the increasing popularity of Internet sales. The need for quality control of products to ensure

  14. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  15. Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part I. Regulation and quality

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    This is the first of two papers which review issues concerning complementary medicines. The first reviews the extent of use of complementary medicines, and issues related to the regulation and pharmaceutical quality of these products; the second considers evidence for the efficacy of several well-known complementary medicines, and discusses complementary-medicines pharmacovigilance. The term complementary medicines describes a range of pharmaceutical-type preparations, including herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils and dietary supplements, which mainly sit outside conventional medicine. The use of complementary medicines is a popular healthcare approach in the UK, and there are signs that the use of such products is continuing to increase. Patients and the public use complementary medicines for health maintenance, for the treatment or prevention of minor ailments, and also for serious, chronic illnesses. The pervasive use of complementary medicines raises several concerns. Many of these arise because most complementary medicines are not licensed as medicines, and therefore evidence of quality, efficacy and safety is not required before marketing. The regulatory framework for herbal medicines and dietary supplements is currently under review. A new system for registration of traditional herbal medicines will ensure that marketed products meet standards for quality and safety. At present, the pharmaceutical quality of many complementary medicines is a cause for concern. PMID:12630971

  16. Self-efficacy beliefs in college statistics courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara J Finney; Gregory Schraw

    2003-01-01

    We developed measures of current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE) and self-efficacy to learn statistics (SELS) to address whether statistics self-efficacy is related to statistics performance, and whether self-efficacy for statistics increases during an introductory statistics course. Both instruments yielded reliable, one-factor solutions that were related positively to each other and to two measures of statistics performance (i.e., specific statistics problems and

  17. www.asu.edu/asuforaz Supplemental Essays

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    .............................................Lisa Aubrey, Abdullahi Gallab, and Aribidesi Usman 8. An Overview of Health Issues Concerning African-Americans in Arizona .................................African-American Legislative Health Committee 22. The Caribbeanwww.asu.edu/asuforaz Supplemental Essays #12;#12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 2. Interrogating the African-American

  18. The Ethics and Economics of Supplemental Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Leonard

    The ethics and economics of supplemental teaching are discussed by a dean of continuing education. It is suggested that the provision of opportunities to faculty that take them away from their primary responsibilities is a minor aspect of the ethical problem. Continuing education overload compensation is generally low, and there are many people…

  19. Supplemental Instruction Improves Grades but Not Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oja, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a growing student support service used to offer students peer-guided activities to improve course learning. The current research was conducted to answer two research questions: 1) Do those who participate in SI perform better in their courses than those who do not attend SI? 2) Are those who participate in SI more…

  20. Developmental Cell, Volume 24 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    1 Developmental Cell, Volume 24 Supplemental Information Robustness and Epistasis in the C. elegans perturbation lines. (A) Graph showing smFISH data as a function of genotype and developmental stage. Every as in panel A. (D) smFISH detection of lag-2 expression, which is used to es