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Sample records for nda efficacy supplement

  1. The efficacy of supplemental intraosseous anesthesia after insufficient mandibular block.

    PubMed

    Prohić, Samir; Sulejmanagić, Halid; Secić, Sadeta

    2005-02-01

    It is a well-known scientific fact that only a small percentage of infiltration of inferior alveolar nerve is clinically proven to be efficient. The objective of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of supplemental intraosseous injection, used after the insufficient classical mandibular block that didn't provide deep pulp anesthesia of mandibular molar planed for extraction. The experimental teeth consisted of 98 mandibular molars with clinical indication for extraction. Based on the history of disease, we indicated the extraction of the tooth. After that each tooth was tested with a electric pulp tester P1. We tested the pulp vitality and precisely determined the level of vitality. After that, each patient received classical mandibular block, and the pulp vitality was tested again. If the pulp tester indicated negative vitality for the certain mandibular molar, and the patient didn't complain about pain or discomfort during the extraction, the molar was extracted and the result was added to anesthetic success rate for the classical mandibular block. If, five minutes after receiving the mandibular block, the pulp tester indicated positive vitality (parameters of vitality) or the patient complained about pain or discomfort (parameters of pain and discomfort), we used the Stabident intraosseous anesthesia system. Three minutes after the application of supplemental intraosseous injection the molar was tested with the pulp tester again. The anesthetic solution used in both anesthetic techniques is lidocaine with 1:100.000 epinephrine. The results of this study indicate that the anesthetic efficacy of the mandibular block is 74.5%, and that supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the insufficient mandibular block, provides pulpal anesthesia in 94.9% of mandibular molars. The difference between anesthetic efficacy of the classical mandibular block and anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous anesthesia, applied after the insufficient mandibular block, is obvious. PMID:15771604

  2. Efficacy of a food supplement in patients with hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Nordio, M; Basciani, S

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid inflammation has been commonly seen in recent decades, due to a series of factors and is considered as the most frequent thyroid illness. It is characterized by some distinctive traits, which include morphological and hormonal modifications, often in association with an elevated anti-thyroid autoantibody title. The aim of the therapy is to improve symptoms as fast as possible, treating inflammation and subsequent hypothyroidism, when present. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of a Food Supplement (FS) containing enzymes which is commonly used in various inflammatory processes and is able to modulate immune reactions during inflammation in a very rapid and efficacious way. An open, controlled study was then designed and 45 patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were enrolled and divided into 3 groups (FS alone; thyroid hormones alone; FS plus thyroid hormones). Blood, morphological and subjective parameters were considered. The results obtained indicate that the FS used in our study is efficacious and safe when used alone and/or in combination with thyroid hormones in the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis, as documented by the improvement of the majority of the parameters considered. The efficacy was considered faster than thyroid hormones alone as far as subjective symptomatology is considered. In conclusion, the use of the food supplement evaluated herein during inflammation may be considered an additional tool in clinicians’ hands, when facing patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, especially in presence of subjective symptomatology, in order to rapidly alleviate it. PMID:25864745

  3. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  4. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary

  5. Evidence of clinically relevant efficacy for dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Borghi, Claudio

    2013-06-01

    Beyond the well-known effects on blood pressure (BP) of the DASH and the Mediterranean diets, a large number of studies have investigated the possible a BP-lowering effect from different dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, mostly antioxidant agents with a high tolerability and safety profile. In particular, a relatively large body of evidence support the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamin C, cocoa flavonoids, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, and aged garlic extract. However there is a need for data about the long-term safety of a large part of these products. Moreover, further clinical research is advisable to identify between the available active nutraceuticals and those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for widespread use in a general population with low added cardiovascular risk related to uncomplicated hypertension. PMID:23430658

  6. Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Thi Le, Huong; Brouwer, Inge D; Burema, Jan; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2006-01-01

    The effect of iron fortification is generally assumed to be less than iron supplementation; however, the magnitude of difference in effects is not known. The present study aims to compare the efficacy of these two strategies on anaemia and iron status. After screening on low Hb, 425 anaemic children in six primary schools in Tam Nong district of Phu Tho province were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing two groups receiving iron fortified instant noodles or iron supplementation for 6 months and a control group, with children in all groups having been dewormed. Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for haemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haemoglobinopathies analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on haemoglobin concentration, SF, TfR, body iron, and anaemic status as outcome variables. The improvement of haemoglobin, SF, and body iron level in the group receiving iron fortification was 42% (2.6 g/L versus 6.2 g/L), 20% (23.5 μg/L versus 117.3 μg/L), and 31.3% (1.4 mg/kg versus 4.4 mg/kg) of that in the iron supplementation group. The prevalence of anaemia dropped to 15.1% in the control group, with an additional reduction of anaemia of 8.5% in the iron supplementation group. The additional reduction due to iron fortification was 5.4%, which amounts to well over 50% of the impact of supplementation. In conclusion, the efficacy of iron fortification based on reduction of prevalence of anaemia, and on the change in haemoglobin level, is about half of the maximum impact of supplementation in case of optimal compliance. Thus, in a population of anaemic children with mild iron deficiency, iron fortification should be the preferred strategy to combat anaemia. PMID:17147795

  7. Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rashid; Ali, Raisuddin; Jaimini, Abhinav; Nishad, Dhruv Kumar; Mittal, Gaurav; Chaurasia, Om Prakash; Kumar, Raj; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Present study was carried out to evaluate acute and subacute toxicity and efficacy of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) based herbal antioxidant supplement (HAOS). Materials and Methods: In vivo toxicity studies were performed in male balb ‘C’ mice by oral administration. Acute toxicity study was done at doses ranging from 2000 to 10 000 mg/ kg while in subacute studies, HAOS was given at doses of 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for any toxic sign and symptoms periodically. At completion of study animals were sacrificed; their hematological, biochemical parameters were analyzed and histopathology of vital organs was done. In vivo efficacy studies in human volunteers were done and the levels of vitamin A and Vitamin C in blood samples were analyzed in comparison to a similar commercially available formulation. Results: No mortality and any clinical signs of toxicity were found in HAOS administered group of animals. There were no significant alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters. Histopathological analysis of vital organs showed normal architecture in all the HAOS administered groups. Human studies showed an increase of 32% and 172% in Vitamin A and Vitamin C levels respectively in term of bioavailability. Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement. PMID:23087514

  8. Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M; Richard, Nicholas S; Judge, Lawrence W

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day(-1)). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51 mL O2/kg∗min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals. PMID:24967264

  9. Efficacy of dietary aloe vera supplementation on hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Beong Ou; Seong, Nak Sul; Choue, Ryo Won; Kim, Jong Dai; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yu, Byung Pal; Jeon, Tae Il; Park, Dong Ki

    2003-08-01

    In the current study, we show the anti-oxidative and hypocholesterol effects of aloe vera in the liver. Male specific pathogen-free (SPF) Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Group A (control) was fed test chow without aloe supplementation; Group B was fed a diet containing a 1% (per weight basis) freeze-dried aloe filet; Group C was fed a diet containing a 1% (per weight basis) charcoal-processed, freeze-dried aloe filet; and Group D was fed a diet containing a charcoal-processed freeze-dried, whole leaf aloe (0.02% per weight basis) in the drinking water. Our results show that a life-long intake of aloe had superior anti-oxidative action against lipid peroxidation in vivo, as indicated by reduced levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide. Additional anti-oxidative action was evidenced by enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity in groups B and C. Furthermore, our study revealed that hepatic cholesterol significantly increased in the control group during aging in contrast to the aloe-supplemented groups, which showed approximately 30% lower cholesterol levels, thereby an effective hypocholesteremic efficacy. In this report, we suggest that life-long dietary aloe supplementation suppresses free radical-induced oxidative damage and age-related increases in hepatic cholesterol. PMID:14598919

  10. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection for teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Parente, S A; Anderson, R W; Herman, W W; Kimbrough, W F; Weller, R N

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a supplemental intraosseous injection (IOI) of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine using the Stabident device, after conventional anesthetic methods had failed. Patients who experienced pain during endodontic access and required a supplemental IOI using 0.45 to 0.90 ml of the local anesthetic were identified. All 37 of the patients treated had teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty-four of the teeth were mandibular posterior teeth, 2 were maxillary posterior teeth, and 1 was a maxillary anterior tooth. Patients with maxillary teeth had received infiltration anesthesia, and those with mandibular teeth had received an inferior alveolar nerve block in conjunction with long buccal infiltration. A minimum of 3.6 ml of local anesthetic was used with the conventional techniques. Modified visual analogue scales, coupled with operator evaluations, were used to measure success. The Stabident IOI was an effective supplemental anesthetic technique in 89% (+/- 5.1) or 33/37 patients evaluated. The 95% confidence interval was 74 to 97%. The IOI was successful in 91% (+/- 4.9) of the mandibular posterior teeth (31/34), and 67% of the maxillary teeth (2/3). PMID:10023263

  11. Characteristics of efficacy evidence supporting approval of supplemental indications for prescription drugs in United States, 2005-14: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the types of comparators and endpoints used in efficacy trials for approvals of supplemental indications, compared with the data supporting these drugs’ originally approved indications. Design Systematic review. Setting Publicly accessible data on supplemental indications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration from 2005 to 2014. Main outcome measures Types of comparators (active, placebo, historical, none) and endpoints (clinical outcomes, clinical scales, surrogate) in the efficacy trials for these drugs’ supplemental and original indication approvals. Results The cohort included 295 supplemental indications. Thirty per cent (41/136) of supplemental approvals for new indications were supported by efficacy trials with active comparators, compared with 51% (47/93) of modified use approvals and 11% (7/65) of approvals expanding the patient population (P<0.001), almost all of which related to pediatric patients (61/65; 94%). Trials using clinical outcome endpoints led to approval for 32% (44/137) of supplemental approvals for new indications, 30% (28/93) of modified indication approvals, and 22% (14/65) of expanded population approvals (P=0.29). Orphan drugs had supplemental approvals for 40 non-orphan indications, which were supported by similar proportions of trials using active comparators (28% (11/40) for non-orphan supplemental indications versus 24% (10/42) for original orphan indications; P=0.70) and clinical outcome endpoints (25% (10/40) versus 31% (13/42); P=0.55). Conclusions Wide variations were seen in the evidence supporting approval of supplemental indications, with the fewest active comparators and clinical outcome endpoints used in trials leading to supplemental approvals that expanded the patient population. PMID:26400844

  12. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplements in Prevention of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bobae; Oh, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between vitamin C supplementation and the risk of cancer. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to investigate the efficacy of vitamin C supplements for prevention of cancer. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases in November 2014 using common keywords related to vitamin C supplements and cancer. Results Among 785 articles, a total of seven trials were identified, which included 62,619 participants; 31,326 and 31,293 were randomized to vitamin C supplementation and control or placebo groups, respectively, which were included in the final analysis. A fixed-effects meta-analysis of all seven RCTs revealed no significant association between vitamin C supplementation and cancer (relative risk, 1.00; 95% confidence intervals, 0.95-1.05). Similarly, subgroup meta-analysis by dose of vitamin C administered singly or in combination with other supplements, follow-up period, methodological quality, cancer mortality, gender, smoking status, country, and type of cancer also showed no efficacy of vitamin C supplementation for cancer prevention. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that there is no evidence to support the use of vitamin C supplements for prevention of cancer. PMID:26634093

  13. Efficacy and safety of protein supplements for U.S. Armed Forces personnel: consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Austin, Krista G; Lieberman, Harris R; Askew, E Wayne

    2013-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance regarding the efficacy and safety of dietary protein supplement (PS) use by members of the U.S. Armed Forces, a panel of internationally recognized experts in the fields of protein metabolism and dietary supplement research was convened by the Department of Defense Center Alliance for Dietary Supplement Research and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command. To develop a consensus statement, potential benefits, risks, and strategies to optimize military performance through PS use were considered in the context of specific warfighter populations and occupational demands. To maintain muscle mass, strength, and performance during periods of substantial metabolic demand and concomitant negative energy balance the panel recommended that warfighters consume 1.5-2.0 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) of protein. However, if metabolic demand is low, such as in garrison, protein intake should equal the current Military Dietary Reference Intake (0.8-1.5 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)). Although PS use generally appears to be safe for healthy adults, warfighters should be educated on PS quality, given quality-control and contamination concerns with commercial dietary supplements. To achieve recommended protein intakes, the panel strongly urges consumption of high-quality protein-containing whole foods. However, when impractical, the use of PSs (20-25 g per serving or 0.25-0.3 g · kg(-1) per meal), particularly after periods of strenuous physical activity (e.g., military training, combat patrols, and exercise), is acceptable. The committee acknowledges the need for further study of protein requirements for extreme, military-specific environmental conditions and whether unique metabolic stressors associated with military service alter protein requirements for aging warfighters. PMID:24027189

  14. Versatile neutron NDA

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1995-07-01

    Non-destructive analysis (NDA) of bulk samples is a major tool in international safeguards and domestic MC&A. Yet, enhancements are needed to reduce inspection time, financial cost, and radiation exposure-while improving reliability and accuracy-particularly for mixtures of fissile and fertile isotopes. Perhaps the greatest remaining direction for NDA improvement is the development of a single controllable neutron source that would add versatility and capability. One of the primary prospects is a switchable radioactive neutron source (SRNS) that has been under advanced-concept development at Argonne with DOE funding. The SRNS would be in a sealed capsule that can be remotely switched on and off, or pulsed at a controllable rate. Li({alpha}, n) or Be({alpha}, n) reactions could give a choice of sub-threshold or hard-spectrum neutrons at yields ranging from 10{sup 4}/s to more than 10{sup 8}s. The SRNS would provide improved capabilities for (1) simultaneous or alternating interrogation with fast and slow neutrons, (2) detection of the first few seconds of delayed neutrons, (3) measurements in the presence of high neutron and/or gamma background, and (4) inspection of heterogeneous materials. When the neutrons are switched off, the source would be portable with vastly reduced shielding. Proof-of-concept with a single switchable plate has been established under laboratory conditions.

  15. Efficacy of Vitamin and Antioxidant Supplements in Prevention of Esophageal Cancer: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Yang, Hyo Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that higher intakes of vitamins or antioxidants were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported no preventive efficacy of vitamin or antioxidant supplements on esophageal cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer as reported by RCTs. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in May 2013. Two authors independently reviewed and selected eligible articles based on predetermined selection criteria. Results: Of 171 articles searched from three databases and relevant bibliographies, 10 RCTs were included in the final analyses. In a fixed-effect meta-analysis of 10 trials, there was no efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer (relative risk [RR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–1.25; I2=0.0%). Also, subgroup meta-analyses showed that vitamin and antioxidant supplements had no preventive efficacy on esophageal cancer both in the high risk (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.85–1.28; n=4) and non-high risk (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.65–1.56; n=6) groups for esophageal cancer. Further, subgroup meta-analyses revealed no preventive efficacy on esophageal cancer by type of methodological quality and type of vitamin and antioxidant supplements. Conclusions: Unlike observational epidemiological studies, this meta-analysis of RCTs suggests that there is no clinical evidence to support the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer. PMID:25337539

  16. Efficacy of an oral hyaluronate and collagen supplement as a preventive treatment of elbow dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    García-López, Núria; Díaz-Ramos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and five Labrador dogs were randomly divided into two groups to determine the number of animals that develop elbow dysplasia when treated with an oral supplement compared to untreated ones. Efficacy of the oral treatment was also evaluated once illness was diagnosed. The supplement (Hyaloral) contained hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed collagen, glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and gamma oryzanol. Clinical evaluation of the elbow joints was completed at months 3, 6, 12, and 20 by orthopaedic evaluations, radiography, serologic and blood analysis, and veterinarian evaluation of dysplasia symptoms. All side effects were recorded. In the control group, 33.3% of the dogs developed radiographic evidence of elbow dysplasia compared to 18.5% in the treated group. Symptoms of dysplasia at 12 months differed between the treated (12.5%) and control (61.5%) animals, and were significantly different at 20 months (p < 0.05). Differences in lameness along with movement and swelling of the elbows between groups were observed after 12 months. The treated group had improved significantly by the last visit (p < 0.05). No adverse side effects were reported. In conclusion, oral treatment with Hyaloral may have a potential cumulative action that provides protection against dysplasia and significantly improves symptoms of elbow dysplasia. PMID:25234322

  17. Efficacy of an oral hyaluronate and collagen supplement as a preventive treatment of elbow dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Martí-Angulo, Simón; García-López, Núria; Díaz-Ramos, Ana

    2014-12-01

    One hundred and five Labrador dogs were randomly divided into two groups to determine the number of animals that develop elbow dysplasia when treated with an oral supplement compared to untreated ones. Efficacy of the oral treatment was also evaluated once illness was diagnosed. The supplement (Hyaloral) contained hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed collagen, glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and gamma oryzanol. Clinical evaluation of the elbow joints was completed at months 3, 6, 12, and 20 by orthopaedic evaluations, radiography, serologic and blood analysis, and veterinarian evaluation of dysplasia symptoms. All side effects were recorded. In the control group, 33.3% of the dogs developed radiographic evidence of elbow dysplasia compared to 18.5% in the treated group. Symptoms of dysplasia at 12 months differed between the treated (12.5%) and control (61.5%) animals, and were significantly different at 20 months (p < 0.05). Differences in lameness along with movement and swelling of the elbows between groups were observed after 12 months. The treated group had improved significantly by the last visit (p < 0.05). No adverse side effects were reported. In conclusion, oral treatment with Hyaloral may have a potential cumulative action that provides protection against dysplasia and significantly improves symptoms of elbow dysplasia. PMID:25234322

  18. Efficacy of zinc as a nutritional supplement in ameliorating chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Anshoo; Nair, Praveen; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of zinc as a nutritional supplement in preventing chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The rats were segregated into 4 groups, which included normal controls and chlorpyrifos-treated, zinc-treated, and chlorpyrifos- and zinc-treated animals. Eight weeks of chlorpyrifos treatment resulted in a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both cerebellum and cerebrum as compared to normal animals. On the contrary, the activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were found to be significantly decreased following chlorpyrifos treatment. Furthermore, chlorpyrifos resulted in anxiety in rats as observed by the elevated plus maze test. In addition, an appreciable decrease was noticed in the muscular as well as locomotor activity of chlorpyrifos-treated animals was noticed by rotarod and actophotometer tests, respectively. However, zinc supplementation to chlorpyrifos-treated animals brought back the already raised levels of LPO and ROS to near normal limits in cerebrum. Moreover, zinc treatment to the chlorpyrifos-treated animals also resulted in a significant improvement in the levels of reduced glutathione, and enzyme activities of GST in both cerebrum as well as cerebellum. Also, improvement was observed in the behavior of chlorpyrifos-treated animals upon zinc supplementation. The present study thus concludes that zinc has potential to act as a neuroprotectant against pesticide-induced neurodegenerative and behavioral disorders but further investigations need to be conducted to understand the exact mechanism of neuroprotection. PMID:22126615

  19. [Comparison of the efficacy of two different iron supplements for anemia prevention in piglets].

    PubMed

    Vermeer, J E M; Kuijpers, A H C; Elbers, A R W

    2002-02-15

    In a randomized, confirmatory study performed between July and October 2000 the efficacy of two iron products in preventing iron deficiency anaemia was compared. A total of 102 newborn piglets from ten litters were treated intramuscularly with 200 mg iron as iron dextran per ml, or 200 mg iron as gleptoferron per ml. For true comparison, piglets within a litter of a sow were subdivided into pairs on the basis of birth weight (one pair of the two heaviest piglets, et cetera). Within a pair, treatment with the iron supplements was randomly allocated. One group of piglets was injected at an age of 1 day (experiment 1) and the other group of piglets was injected at an age of 3 days (experiment 2). The piglets were weighed and blood samples were taken at an age of 18 days (experiment 1) or at an age of 19 days (experiment 2). Average daily weight gain and haemoglobin concentrations of both treatment groups were compared. Both products were very effective in preventing anaemia. No significant differences could be found between the two formulations. It can be concluded that iron-dextran and gleptoferron can be used with similar effect for anaemia prevention in piglets. PMID:11885329

  20. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area. PMID:18537692

  1. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Nusstein, John; Kennedy, Shawn; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection, using the X-tip system in an apical location, in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block failed. Thirty-three emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an inferior alveolar nerve block and had moderate-to-severe pain on endodontic access. The X-tip system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The X-tip injection site was 3- to 7-mm apical to the mucogingival junction of the affected tooth. Success of the X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The results of this study demonstrated that 6 of 33 (18%) X-tip injections resulted in backflow of anesthetic solution into the oral cavity; none were successful in obtaining anesthesia. Twenty-seven of the remaining 33 X-tip injections (82%) were successful. We conclude that when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide profound pulpal anesthesia, the X-tip system, when used in an apical location and when there was no backflow of the anesthetic solution into the oral cavity, was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in mandibular posterior teeth of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:14651278

  2. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    Background Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. Methods A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. Results B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied. PMID:26355679

  3. Efficacy of some antioxidants supplementation in reducing oxidative stress post sodium tungstate exposure in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, S; Flora, S J S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of some antioxidants against sodium tungstate induced oxidative stress in male wistar rats. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100ppm in drinking water) for three months except for control group. In the same time, many rats were supplemented orally with different antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), n-acetylcysteine (NAC), quercetin or naringenin (0.30mM)) for five consecutive days a week for the same mentioned period before. Exposure to sodium tungstate significantly (P<0.05) inhibit blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, liver and blood reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels in tissues. ALA acid and NAC supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure increased GSH and also, was beneficial in the recovery of altered superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, besides, significantly reducing blood and tissue reactive oxygen species and TBARS levels. The results suggest a more pronounced efficacy of ALA acid and NAC supplementation than quercetin or naringenin supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure in preventing induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24613855

  4. Review: efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors: evidence from animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, M; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, M; Frost, G; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize there is a critical need for development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23145880

  5. Review of the efficacy of green tea, isoflavones and aloe vera supplements based on randomised controlled trials.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Williamson G; Coppens P; Serra-Majem L; Dew T

    2011-12-01

    We assess the evidence for health benefits of three commonly consumed plant food supplements (PFS), green tea, isoflavone and aloe vera, based on published systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Whilst the potential benefits of green tea have been reported in a wide range of health areas, it is only in the area of the metabolic syndrome that the number of RCTs is approaching sufficient to judge such efficacy. Isoflavone supplements are widely used, and RCTs indicate that they affect bone resorption at lower doses in postmenopausal women undergoing estrogen-related bone loss, but this is only translated to attenuation of bone loss at higher doses of isoflavones. A systematic review on RCTs concluded that the effects of isoflavones on hot flashes in postmenopausal women were highly variable and no conclusions could be drawn. Despite the popularity of aloe vera as a PFS, the evaluation of its efficacy as a coadjuvant therapy for certain metabolic or digestive pathologies remains scarce; it constitutes a typical example of a naturally occurring ingredient whose efficacy in topical applications presupposes its efficacy in systemic applications. Nevertheless, its possible toxic effects on oral consumption call for caution in its utility as a PFS. Since 2007, efficacy evaluation of PFS in Europe has been covered by European Union Nutrition and Health Claims legislation. The European Food Safety Authority has adopted an approach relying on RCTs, while medicinal effects are accepted based on traditional use. In general, there are insufficient RCTs for claims to be made, and conclusive results on PFS should be obtained in the future by conducting studies with more homogeneous populations, by using supplements with optimised and measured bioavailability, and by conducting larger RCTs.

  6. Review of the efficacy of green tea, isoflavones and aloe vera supplements based on randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Gary; Coppens, Patrick; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Dew, Tristan

    2011-12-01

    We assess the evidence for health benefits of three commonly consumed plant food supplements (PFS), green tea, isoflavone and aloe vera, based on published systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Whilst the potential benefits of green tea have been reported in a wide range of health areas, it is only in the area of the metabolic syndrome that the number of RCTs is approaching sufficient to judge such efficacy. Isoflavone supplements are widely used, and RCTs indicate that they affect bone resorption at lower doses in postmenopausal women undergoing estrogen-related bone loss, but this is only translated to attenuation of bone loss at higher doses of isoflavones. A systematic review on RCTs concluded that the effects of isoflavones on hot flashes in postmenopausal women were highly variable and no conclusions could be drawn. Despite the popularity of aloe vera as a PFS, the evaluation of its efficacy as a coadjuvant therapy for certain metabolic or digestive pathologies remains scarce; it constitutes a typical example of a naturally occurring ingredient whose efficacy in topical applications presupposes its efficacy in systemic applications. Nevertheless, its possible toxic effects on oral consumption call for caution in its utility as a PFS. Since 2007, efficacy evaluation of PFS in Europe has been covered by European Union Nutrition and Health Claims legislation. The European Food Safety Authority has adopted an approach relying on RCTs, while medicinal effects are accepted based on traditional use. In general, there are insufficient RCTs for claims to be made, and conclusive results on PFS should be obtained in the future by conducting studies with more homogeneous populations, by using supplements with optimised and measured bioavailability, and by conducting larger RCTs. PMID:21927741

  7. Efficacy of a Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel as a Tear Film Supplement: A Masked Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness. PMID:24914681

  8. Efficacy of a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel as a tear film supplement: a masked controlled study.

    PubMed

    Williams, David L; Mann, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness. PMID:24914681

  9. Efficacy of chromium(III) supplementation on growth, body composition, serum parameters, and tissue chromium in rats.

    PubMed

    Zha, L Y; Wang, M Q; Xu, Z R; Gu, L Y

    2007-10-01

    Chromium(III) is often claimed to have a positive effect on body composition, while the responses in researches with supplementation of different chemical form of chromium are various and inconsistent. We have studied the effects of 6 weeks of treatment with three different forms of chromium (300 mug/kg) as chromium chloride, chromium tripicolinate, and chromium nanocomposite (CrNano) on growth, body composition, serum parameters, and tissue chromium in rats. The supplementation of CrNano significantly increased average daily gain, food efficiency, and lean body mass and decreased fat mass and body fat proportion and serum levels of glucose, urea nitrogen, triglyceride, and insulin. Chromium contents in liver, kidney, and hind leg muscle were increased significantly with the addition of CrNano in diet. The results indicate that chromium nanocomposite has higher efficacy on growth and body composition compared to the traditional chromium agents. PMID:17914218

  10. Efficacy and safety of dietary supplements containing CLA for the treatment of obesity: evidence from animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Thomas M; Toubro, Soren; Astrup, Arne

    2003-12-01

    Dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are widely promoted as weight loss agents available over the counter and via the Internet. In this review, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLA supplementation based on peer-reviewed published results from randomized, placebo-controlled, human intervention trials lasting more than 4 weeks. We also review findings from experimental studies in animals and studies performed in vitro. CLA appears to produce loss of fat mass and increase of lean tissue mass in rodents, but the results from 13 randomized, controlled, short-term (<6 months) trials in humans find little evidence to support that CLA reduces body weight or promotes repartitioning of body fat and fat-free mass in man. However, there is increasing evidence from mice and human studies that the CLA isomer trans-10, cis-12 may produce liver hypertrophy and insulin resistance via a redistribution of fat deposition that resembles lipodystrophy. CLA also decreases the fat content of both human and bovine milk. In conclusion, although CLA appears to attenuate increases in body weight and body fat in several animal models, CLA isomers sold as dietary supplements are not effective as weight loss agents in humans and may actually have adverse effects on human health. PMID:12923219

  11. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Nusstein, J; Reader, A; Nist, R; Beck, M; Meyers, W J

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Fifty-one patients with symptomatic, vital maxillary, and mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis received conventional infiltrations or inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Pulp testing was used to determine pulpal anesthesia after "clinically successful" injections. Patients who were positive to the pulp tests, or were negative to the pulp tests but felt pain during endodontic access, received an intraosseous injection using 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The results demonstrated that 42% of the patients who tested negative to the pulp tests reported pain during treatment and required supplemental anesthesia. Eighty-one percent of the mandibular teeth and 12% of maxillary teeth required an intraosseous injection due to failure to gain pulpal anesthesia. Overall, the Stabident intraosseous injection was found to be 88% successful in gaining total pulpal anesthesia for endodontic therapy. We concluded that, for posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) was successful when conventional techniques failed. PMID:9693577

  12. Efficacy of progesterone supplementation during early pregnancy in cows: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Leyan; Robinson, Robert; Shi, Zhendan; Mann, George

    2016-05-01

    Progesterone is a critical hormone during early pregnancy in the cow. As a result, a number of studies have investigated the effects of progesterone supplementation on pregnancy rates. In this study, a meta-analysis using a univariate binary random effects model was carried out on 84 specific treatments reported in 53 publications involving control (n = 9905) and progesterone-treated (n = 9135) cows. Although the results of individual studies showed wide variations (-40% to +50% point changes), progesterone treatment resulted in an overall increase in pregnancy rate odds ratio (OR = 1.12; P < 0.01). Improvements in pregnancy rate were only observed in cows treated at natural estrus (OR = 1.41, P < 0.01) and not following synchronization of estrus or ovulation. Although treatment between Days 3 to 7 postinsemination was beneficial (OR = 1.15; P < 0.01), treatment earlier or later than this was not. Progesterone supplementation was beneficial in cows of lower fertility (<45% control pregnancy rate) but not in cows with higher fertility. These results indicated that the benefit of progesterone supplementation on fertility of cows required exogenous progesterone supplementation to start between Day 3 to 7 and the appropriate reproductive status (i.e., lower fertility, natural estrus) of the treated cows. PMID:26822872

  13. Efficacy of Parenteral Nutrition Supplemented With Glutamine Dipeptide to Decrease Hospital Infections in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Estvariz, Concepcin F.; Griffith, Daniel P.; Luo, Menghua; Szeszycki, Elaina E.; Bazargan, Niloofar; Dave, Nisha; Daignault, Nicole M.; Bergman, Glen F.; McNally, Therese; Battey, Cindy H.; Furr, Celeste E.; Hao, Li; Ramsay, James G.; Accardi, Carolyn R.; Cotsonis, George A.; Jones, Dean P.; Galloway, John R.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Clinical benefits of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition may occur in hospitalized surgical patients, but efficacy data in different surgical subgroups are lacking. The objective was to determine whether glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition differentially affects nosocomial infection rates in selected subgroups of SICU patients. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition in SICU patients requiring parenteral nutrition and SICU care after surgery for pancreatic necrosis, cardiac, vascular, or colonic surgery. Subjects (n = 59) received isocaloric/isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition, providing 1.5 g/kg/d standard glutamine-free amino acids (STD-PN) or 1.0 g/kg/d standard amino acids + 0.5 g/kg/d glutamine dipeptide (GLN-PN). Enteral feedings were advanced as tolerated. Nosocomial infections were determined until hospital discharge. Results Baseline clinical/metabolic data were similar between groups. Plasma glutamine concentrations were low in all groups and were increased by GLN-PN. GLN-PN did not alter infection rates after pancreatic necrosis surgery (17 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN patients). In nonpancreatic surgery patients (12 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN), GLN-PN was associated with significantly decreased total nosocomial infections (STD-PN 36 vs GLN-PN 13, P < .030), bloodstream infections (7 vs 0, P < .01), pneumonias (16 vs 6, P < .05), and infections attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01), fungi, and enteric Gram-negative bacteria (each P < .05). Conclusions Glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition did not alter infection rates following pancreatic necrosis surgery but significantly decreased infections in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular, and colonic surgery. PMID:18596310

  14. Measuring the Impact of a Supplemental Civic Education Program on Students' Civic Attitude and Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piñgul, Ferdinand S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of Project Citizen Philippines, an extra-classroom civic education program, on its 3rd and 4th year high school participants' civic attitude and efficacy beliefs. Three hundred forty three participants and 107 non-participants from various public high schools in the Philippines' National Capital Region were compared…

  15. Efficacy and Interaction of Antioxidant Supplements as Adjuvant Therapy in Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Yasueda, Asuka; Urushima, Hayato; Ito, Toshinori

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a key component in carcinogenesis. Although radiation produces reactive oxygen species, some anticancer agents such as alkylating agents, platinum and antitumor antibiotics exert cytotoxicity by generating free radicals. Nonenzymatic exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols can quench ROS activity. However, whether antioxidants alter antitumor effects during radiotherapy and some types of chemotherapy remains unclear. In the present study, we reviewed antioxidants as an adjuvant therapy for cancer patients during chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Electronic literature searches were performed to select all randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in which antioxidants were administered to cancer patients along with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Articles or abstracts written in English were included. In total, 399 reports received primary screening. Duplicated articles and those meeting the exclusion criteria (not RCT, not human, and no oral administration) were excluded. Finally, 49 reports matching the inclusion criteria were included. It was difficult to determine whether antioxidants affect treatment outcomes or whether antioxidants ameliorate adverse effects induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is desirable to use an evidence-based method to select supplements best suited to cancer patients. Although there are many opinions about risks or benefits of antioxidant supplementation, we could mostly conclude that the harm caused by antioxidant supplementation remains unclear for patients during cancer therapy, except for smokers undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26503419

  16. Efficacy of soyfoods and soybean isoflavone supplements for alleviating menopausal symptoms is positively related to initial hot flush frequency.

    PubMed

    Messina, Mark; Hughes, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Soy has received attention as an alternative to conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) largely because it is a unique dietary source of isoflavones. Isoflavones are diphenolic compounds that have both hormonal and nonhormonal properties and are considered to be selective estrogen receptor modulators. The estrogen-like effects of isoflavones in combination with the low reported frequency of hot flushes in Japan has prompted investigation of the effect of soy on menopausal symptoms. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of soyfoods and isoflavone supplements for the alleviation of hot flushes. Nineteen trials (13 using a parallel design) involving more than 1,700 women were identified. Six trials were excluded from analysis: two that involved breast cancer patients, two that reported data on severity but not hot flush frequency, one that was not blinded, and one that did not include a control group. Based on a simple regression analysis of the remaining data set (13 trials), there was a statistically significant relationship (P =.01) between initial hot flush frequency and treatment efficacy. Initial hot flush frequency explained about 46% of the treatment effects, and hot flush frequency decreased by about 5% (above placebo or control effects) for every additional initial hot flush per day in women whose initial hot flush frequency was five or more per day. Although conclusions based on this analysis should be considered tentative, the available data justify the recommendation that patients with frequent hot flushes consider trying soyfoods or isoflavone supplements for the alleviation of their symptoms. PMID:12804015

  17. An amphetamine isomer whose efficacy and safety in humans has never been studied, β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is found in multiple dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Bloszies, Clayton; Yee, Caleb; Gerona, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The amphetamine isomer β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA) was first synthesized in the early 1930s, but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been studied. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detected BMPEA in dietary supplements labelled as containing Acacia rigidula. Over a year after the FDA reported its findings, we analyzed Acacia rigidula dietary supplements to determine if BMPEA had been removed. Supplements were analyzed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Diluted methanolic extract from each supplement was run three times and each data set obtained was analyzed using Agilent MassHunter Qualitative Analysis. The presence of BMPEA was confirmed by accurate mass, retention time and mass spectra match against a reference standard. Quantification of BMPEA was determined using an eight-point calibration curve of spiked standard to a matrix blank. Twenty-one brands of Acacia rigidula supplements were analyzed. More than half (11/21; 52.4%) of the Acacia rigidula supplement brands contained BMPEA. The stimulant was present at quantities such that consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 93.7 mg of BMPEA per day. Consumers of Acacia rigidula supplements may be exposed to pharmacological dosages of an amphetamine isomer that lacks evidence of safety in humans. The FDA should immediately warn consumers about BMPEA and take aggressive enforcement action to eliminate BMPEA in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25847603

  18. Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Fanian, Ferial; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Messikh, Rafat; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Guichard, Alexandre; Kenari, Kamran Hejazi; Humbert, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments. Methods This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum) or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5). The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment. Results For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0.05) but no change in the active group. Descriptive statistics for the mean minimum, mean maximum, and minimum to maximum ratio on the nonexposed study zone showed a significant and dramatic difference between baseline and month 4 and between baseline and month 5.5 (P<0.05) in the active group, indicating decreasing anisotropy of the skin. High-frequency ultrasound on the exposed study zone revealed that skin thickness was significantly decreased in the placebo group during winter but was stable in the treated group (P<0.01). The photography scaling and self-assessment questionnaire revealed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion These results indicate that the skin is prone to seasonal changes during winter, particularly in exposed areas. The data also indicate that oral supplementation can be a safe treatment, with no serious side effects, and may prevent or even eliminate the negative effects of winter on the skin. PMID:24255597

  19. Efficacy and safety of oral branched-chain amino acid supplementation in patients undergoing interventions for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Chen, Yaqin; Wang, Xiwei; Li, Hong; Zhang, Hongmin; Gong, Jiaojiao; Shen, Shasha; Yin, Wenwei; Hu, Huaidong

    2015-01-01

    Most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients have complications, including cirrhosis and malnutrition. The efficacy of dietary supplementation with oral branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in HCC patients undergoing interventions has not been confirmed. Relevant publications on the efficacy and safety of oral BCAA supplementation for HCC patients undergoing anti-HCC interventions through September, 2014 were searched for identification in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases. The pooled risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to assess the supplementation effects. A total of 11 eligible studies (974 patients in total) were evaluated and included in our analysis. Oral BCAA supplementation helped to maintain liver reserve with higher serum albumin (SMD = 0.234, 95% CI: 0.033-0.435, P = 0.022), and lower rates of ascites (RR = 0.545, 95% CI: 0.316-0.938, P = 0.029) and edema (RR = 0.494, 95% CI: 0.257-0.952, P = 0.035) than in the control group. BCAA supplementation seemed to be effective in improving mortality, especially in Child-Pugh class B patients, but the efficacy was not confirmed. Apparent effects were not found in improving HCC recurrence, total bilirubin, ALT, or AST. BCAA supplementation was relatively safe without serious adverse events. BCAA supplementation may be clinically applied in improving liver functional reserve for HCC patients and further improving the quality of life. PMID:26155840

  20. A preliminary study of the safety, feasibility and cognitive efficacy of soy isoflavone supplements in older men and women

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Carey E.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Barnet, Jodi H.; Meade, Sarah A.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Atwood, Craig S.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Ries, Michele L.; Asthana, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Background: a small number of reports exist on the cognitive effects of soy isoflavones, the findings from which are mixed. Isoflavone efficacy is dependent upon conversion of glycosides contained in soy foods and supplements to the biologically active aglycons. Of particular interest is the production of the metabolite, equol, which is dependent upon intestinal microflora and an integrous digestive system, both being altered by age and age-associated conditions. Unfortunately, few studies enrolled adults over the age of 70, and none included older men. Objective: we examined safety, feasibility and cognitive efficacy of soy isoflavone administration in older nondemented men and women (age 6289 years). Design and Methods: in this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study, subjects ingested either 100 mg/day soy isoflavones (glycoside weight) or matching placebo tablets for 6 months. Results: active and placebo-treated subjects exhibited a comparable side-effect profile. Plasma levels of genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001), but not equol, increased with isoflavone administration. While similar at baseline, the two groups differed across 6 months of treatment on 8 of 11 cognitive tests administered. Isoflavone-treated subjects improved on tests of visual-spatial memory (P < 0.01) and construction (P = 0.01), verbal fluency (P < 0.01) and speeded dexterity (P = 0.04). Placebo-treated participants were faster than isoflavone-treated subjects on two tests of executive function (P < 0.05). Conclusions: these data suggest that administration of 100 mg/day of isoflavones was well tolerated. Plasma genistein and daidzein levels, but not equol, increased with isoflavone administration. Finally, data support the potential cognitive effects of soy isoflavones in older adults. PMID:19054783

  1. Efficacy and safety of fortification and supplementation with vitamin B12: biochemical and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Long known as an uncommon but serious medical disorder requiring medical management, vitamin B12 deficiency is now seen to be common worldwide, but it is in a quite different form than traditionally envisioned. Most of the newly recognized deficiency is subclinical in nature, its health impact and natural history are uncertain, and its prevalence has been greatly inflated by also including persons with "low-normal" vitamin B12 levels, few of whom are deficient. The spread of folic acid fortification has also introduced concerns about folate's potentially adverse neurologic consequences in persons with undetected vitamin B12 deficiency. Fortification with vitamin B12 may prove more complicated than fortification with folic acid, however, because the bioavailability of vitamin B12 is limited. Bioavailability for those who need the vitamin B12 the most is especially poor, because they often have malabsorption affecting either classical intrinsic factor-mediated absorption or food-vitamin B12 absorption. Moreover, new evidence shows that many elderly persons respond poorly to daily oral doses under 500 microg (1 microg = 0.74 nmol), even if they do not have classical malabsorption, which suggests that proposed fortification with 1 to 10 microg may be ineffective. Those least in need of vitamin B12 usually have normal absorption and are thus at greatest risk for whatever unknown adverse effects of high-dose fortification might emerge, such as the effects of excess accumulation of cyanocobalamin. Studies are needed to define the still unproven health benefits of vitamin B12 fortification, the optimal levels of fortification, the stability of such fortification, interactions with other nutrients, and any possible adverse effects on healthy persons. The answers will permit formulation of appropriately informed decisions about mandatory fortification or (because fortification may prove a poor choice) about targeted supplementation in subpopulations with special needs for additional vitamin B12, such as vegetarians, nursing mothers, and the elderly. PMID:18709891

  2. Efficacy of vitamins B supplementation on mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Meng; Yu, Jin-Tai; Wang, Hui-Fu; Jiang, Teng; Wang, Jun; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Tan, Chen-Chen; Wang, Chong; Tan, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Despite B vitamin supplementation playing an important role in cognitive function, the exact effect remains unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize the efficacy of treatment with vitamins B supplementation in slowing the rate of cognitive, behavioral, functional and global decline in individuals with MCI or AD. A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, clinicaltrials. gov, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Cognitive Improvement Group specialized registry was conducted on April 2014, with no limit of date. Five trials met the eligibility criteria and were selected for this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed moderate beneficial effects of vitamins B supplementation on memory (SMD 0.60, 95% CI 0.20, 1.00), whereas no significant difference on general cognitive function (WMD -0.10, 95% CI -0.80, 0.59), executive function (SMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.11, 0.21) and attention (WMD -0.03, 95% CI -1.20, 1.14) were found in MCI patients. In addition, no significantly cognitive benefits on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) (WMD 1.01, 95% CI -0.68, 2.70) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) (WMD -0.22, 95% CI -1.00, 0.57), functional (SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.05, 0.31), behavioral (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.16, 0.25) or global (WMD 0.07, 95% CI -0.48, 0.62) change were observed in AD patients. Collectively, weak evidence of benefits was observed for the domains of memory in patients with MCI. Nevertheless, future standard RCTs are still needed to determine whether it was still significant in larger populations. However, the data does not yet provide adequate evidence of an effect of vitamins B on general cognitive function, executive function and attention in people with MCI. Similarly, folic acid alone or vitamins B in combination are unable to stabilize or slow decline in cognition, function, behavior, and global change of AD patients. PMID:25274113

  3. Efficacy of supplementation of selected medicinal mushrooms with inorganic selenium salts.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Gąsecka, Monika; Kozak, Lidia; Rissmann, Iwona; Mikołajczak, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of supplementation with inorganic forms of selenium (Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3) in concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mM of three medicinal mushroom species: Agrocybe aegerita, Hericium erinaceus and Ganoderma lucidum. Tested mushroom species grew in Se additions of 0-0.6 mM (A. aegerita and H. erinaceus), while growth of G. lucidum bodies was observed for 0-0.8 mM. For the latter mushroom species, the total Se content was the highest. Content of Seorg was diverse; for control bodies it was the highest for G. lucidum (only organic forms were present), lower for A. aegerita (84% organic forms) and the lowest for H. erinaceus (56% organic forms). Accumulation of Se(IV) was generally significantly higher than Se(VI) for all tested mushroom species. There was no significant decrease of A. aegerita or G. lucidum biomass with the exception of G. lucidum bodies growing under 0.8 mM of Se species addition (15.51 ± 6.53 g). Biomass of H. erinaceus bodies was the highest under 0.2 (197.04 ± 8.73 g), control (191.80 ± 6.06 g) and 0.1 mM (185.04 ± 8.73 g) of both inorganic salts. The addition to the medium of Se salts brought about macroscopic changes in the fruiting bodies of the examined mushrooms. Concentrations exceeding 0.4 mM caused diminution of carpophores or even their total absence. In addition, colour changes of fruiting bodies were also recorded. At Se concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mM, A. aegerita fruiting bodies were distinctly lighter and those of H. erinaceus changed colour from purely white to white-pink. PMID:25310808

  4. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality. PMID:26983467

  5. Evaluation Series on Safety and Efficacy of Nutritional Supplements in Newly Diagnosed Hyperglycemia: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Hemant; Bantwal, Ganapati; Jain, Sunil; Kalra, Sanjay; Kale, Shailaja; Saboo, Banshi; Gupta, Jugal B.; Sivam, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is endemic with developing economies contributing to the bulk of this pandemic. Despite the evidence of incremental benefit of glycemic control starting early in life, acceptance of and adherence to modern medications remain suboptimal. Aims: To determine the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-lowering efficacy and safety of nutritional supplement, PreCrea®, in adult Indians with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia. Materials and Methods: Double-blind, randomized study conducted in six diabetes centers in India. A total of 193 treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >100 mg/dL were randomized into either PreCrea® 600 mg (n = 90) or matched placebo (n = 89) capsules twice daily, along with lifestyle modification, for 12 weeks. The main outcomes were changes in HbA1c and FPG levels, attainment of the American Diabetes Association (ADA)-defined goals for HbA1c, and clinical and biochemical measures of safety. Results: At 12 weeks, mean HbA1c in PreCrea® group reduced by 0.91% compared with 0.08% increase in the placebo group (P < .001). The reductions in the mean FPG at week 4 (P < .001) and week 12 (P = 0.04) were significant compared to the baseline. ADA goal of HbA1c <7% increased from 15.5% at the baseline to 35.6% at week 12 in PreCrea® subjects. Clinical safety and biochemical safety did not change. Hypoglycemia and weight gain were not observed with PreCrea®. Conclusions: Nearly 1% point reduction in HbA1c at week 12 with PreCrea® is comparable with most first-line glucose-lowering drugs. The safety and tolerability of PreCrea® highlights its potential as a first-line therapy in newly detected hyperglycemia. PMID:27042609

  6. Impact of folate supplementation on the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in preventing malaria in pregnancy: the potential of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate.

    PubMed

    Nzila, Alexis; Okombo, John; Molloy, Anne M

    2014-02-01

    Malaria remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children under the age of 5 years and pregnant women. To counterbalance the malaria burden in pregnancy, an intermittent preventive treatment strategy has been developed. This is based on the use of the antifolate sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, taken at specified intervals during pregnancy, and reports show that this approach reduces the malaria burden in pregnancy. Pregnancy is also associated with the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), especially in women with low folate status, and folic acid supplementation is recommended in pregnancy to lower the risk of NTDs. Thus, in malaria-endemic areas, pregnant women have to take both antifolate medication to prevent malaria and folic acid to lower the risk of NTDs. However, the concomitant use of folate and antifolate is associated with a decrease in antifolate efficacy, exposing pregnant women to malaria. Thus, there is genuine concern that this strategy may not be appropriate. We have reviewed work carried out on malaria folate metabolism and antifolate efficacy in the context of folate supplementation. This review shows that: (i) the folate supplementation effect on antifolate efficacy is dose-dependent, and folic acid doses required to protect pregnant women from NTDs will not decrease antifolate activity; and (ii) 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, the predominant form of folate in the blood circulation, could be administered (even at high dose) concomitantly with antifolate without affecting antifolate efficacy. Thus, strategies exist to protect pregnant women from malaria while maintaining adequate folate levels in the body to reduce the occurrence of NTDs. PMID:24126794

  7. Design and fabrication of NDA standards

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, S.T.

    1996-04-01

    The Plutonium Facility, TA-55, at Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently producing NDA calibration standards used by various laboratories in the DOE complex. These NIST traceable standards have been produced to calibrate NDA instruments for accountability measurements used for resolving shipper/receiver differences, and for accountability in process residues and process waste. Standards are needed to calibrate various NDA (Non-destructive Assay) instruments such as neutron coincidence counters, gamma-ray counters, and calorimeters. These instruments measure various ranges of nuclear material being produced in the DOE nuclear community. Los Alamos National Laboratory has taken a lead role in fabrication of uranium and plutonium standards, along with other actinides such as neptunium and americium. These standards have been fabricated for several laboratories within the complex. This paper will summarize previous publications detailing the careful planning encompassing components such as precise weighing, destructive analysis, and the use of post fabrication NDA measurements to confirm that the standards meet all preliminary expectations before use in instrument calibration. The paper will also describe the specialized containers, diluents, and the various amount of nuclear materials needed to accommodate the calibration ranges of the instruments.

  8. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  9. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Guan, Le Luo; Ahn, S. K.; Cho, K. W.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant by-products (MPB) supplementation to a total mixed ration (TMR) on growth, carcass characteristics and economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. Twenty seven steers (body weight [BW], 573±57 kg) were assigned to 3 treatment groups so that each treatment based on BW contained 9 animals. All groups received ad libitum TMR throughout the feeding trial until slaughter (from 24 to 30 months of age) and treatments were as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (T1), 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPB; treatment 2 (T2), 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPB. Initial and final BW were not different among treatments. Resultant data were analyzed using general linear models of SAS. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05) for T1 than control, but there was no difference between control and T2. Plasma albumin showed low-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, whereas non-esterified fatty acid was high-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, respectively. Carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and rib eye muscle area were not affected by MPB supplementation, whereas quality and yield grades were highest (p<0.05) for T1 and T2, respectively. Daily feed costs were decreased by 0.5% and 0.8% and carcass prices were increased by 18.1% and 7.6% for T1 and T2 compared to control, resulting from substituting TMR with 30 and 50 g/kg MPB, respectively. In conclusion, the substituting TMR by 30 g/kg MPB may be a potential feed supplement approach to improve economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580440

  10. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  11. Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a pre...

  12. Safety and Efficacy of High-Dose Daily Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Children and Young Adults Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Kelly A.; Schall, Joan I.; Zemel, Babette S.; Tuluc, Florin; Hou, Xiaoling; Rutstein, Richard M.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Suboptimal vitamin D (vitD) status is common in children and young adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The vitD supplemental dose needed to normalize vitD status in this population is unknown. Methods In this double-blind trial, subjects infected with HIV ages 8.3 to 24.9 years were randomized to vitD3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and evaluated at 6 and 12 week for changes in vitD status and HIV indicators. A dose was considered unsafe if serum calcium was elevated (above age and sex-specific range) associated with elevated serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D); >160 ng/mL). Results At baseline, 95% of subjects (n = 44; 43% with perinatally acquired HIV, 57% with behaviorally acquired HIV) had a suboptimal serum 25(OH)D concentration of <32 ng/mL (mean ± standard deviation, 19.3 ± 7.4; range, 4.4–33.6 ng/mL). After 12 weeks (main outcome) of D3 supplementation, both D3 doses were safe and well tolerated, with no evidence of elevation of serum calcium concentrations or deterioration in HIV immunologic or virologic status. Sufficient vitD status, defined as serum 25(OH)D ≥32 ng/mL, was achieved in 81% of all subjects, and only the 7000 IU/day group (86%) achieved this a priori efficacy criterion in >80% of subjects. Change in serum 25(OH)D did not differ between HIV acquisition groups. Conclusions A 7000 IU/day D3 supplementation was safe and effective in children and young adults infected with HIV. PMID:26625449

  13. Haptoglobin Phenotype, Preeclampsia Risk and the Efficacy of Vitamin C and E Supplementation to Prevent Preeclampsia in a Racially Diverse Population

    PubMed Central

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Gandley, Robin E.; McGee, Paula L.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Myatt, Leslie; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Thorp, John M.; Mercer, Brian M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Harper, Margaret; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Haptoglobin’s (Hp) antioxidant and pro-angiogenic properties differ between the 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 phenotypes. Hp phenotype affects cardiovascular disease risk and treatment response to antioxidant vitamins in some non-pregnant populations. We previously demonstrated that preeclampsia risk was doubled in white Hp 2-1 women, compared to Hp 1-1 women. Our objectives were to determine whether we could reproduce this finding in a larger cohort, and to determine whether Hp phenotype influences lack of efficacy of antioxidant vitamins in preventing preeclampsia and serious complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH). This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which 10,154 low-risk women received daily vitamin C and E, or placebo, from 9-16 weeks gestation until delivery. Hp phenotype was determined in the study prediction cohort (n = 2,393) and a case-control cohort (703 cases, 1,406 controls). The primary outcome was severe PAH, or mild or severe PAH with elevated liver enzymes, elevated serum creatinine, thrombocytopenia, eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, medically indicated preterm birth or perinatal death. Preeclampsia was a secondary outcome. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression. Sampling weights were used to reduce bias from an overrepresentation of women with preeclampsia or the primary outcome. There was no relationship between Hp phenotype and the primary outcome or preeclampsia in Hispanic, white/other or black women. Vitamin supplementation did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome or preeclampsia in women of any phenotype. Supplementation increased preeclampsia risk (odds ratio 3.30; 95% confidence interval 1.61–6.82, p<0.01) in Hispanic Hp 2-2 women. Hp phenotype does not influence preeclampsia risk, or identify a subset of women who may benefit from vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. PMID:23573260

  14. NDA issues with RFETS vitrified waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.; Veazey, G.

    1998-12-31

    A study was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the purpose of determining the feasibility of using a segmented gamma scanner (SGS) to accurately perform non-destructive analysis (NDA) on certain Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) vitrified waste samples. This study was performed on a full-scale vitrified ash sample prepared at LANL according to a procedure similar to that anticipated to be used at RFETS. This sample was composed of a borosilicate-based glass frit, blended with ash to produce a Pu content of {approximately}1 wt %. The glass frit was taken to a degree of melting necessary to achieve a full encapsulation of the ash material. The NDA study performed on this sample showed that SGSs with either {1/2}- or 2-inch collimation can achieve an accuracy better than 6 % relative to calorimetry and {gamma}-ray isotopics. This accuracy is achievable, after application of appropriate bias corrections, for transmissions of about {1/2} % through the waste form and counting times of less than 30 minutes. These results are valid for ash material and graphite fines with the same degree of plutonium particle size, homogeneity, sample density, and sample geometry as the waste form used to obtain the results in this study. A drum-sized thermal neutron counter (TNC) was also included in the study to provide an alternative in the event the SGS failed to meet the required level of accuracy. The preliminary indications are that this method will also achieve the required accuracy with counting times of {approximately}30 minutes and appropriate application of bias corrections. The bias corrections can be avoided in all cases if the instruments are calibrated on standards matching the items.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with Echinacea purpurea on vaccine efficacy against infection with Flavobacterium columnare in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Guz, L; Puk, K; Walczak, N; Oniszczuk, T; Oniszczuk, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dietary Echinacea purpurea (EP) on the response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a Flavobacterium columnare vaccine was investigated. Two hundred D. rerio with an average weight of 290 ± 40 g were selected and fed different levels of E. purpurea (5 g kg(-1) diet--group 1, 10 g kg(-1) diet--group 2, 20 g kg(-1) diet--group 3, 30 g kg(-1) diet--group 4, and 0 g kg(-1) diet--group 5). Experimental feeding was begun 3 weeks prior to bath immunization and continued until the end of the experiment. Twenty-eight days after immunization the fish were challenged by bath immersion with F. columnare at a concentration of 1 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The relative percent survival of the experimental groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) was 5.0, 6.0, 30.0, 36.0 and 5.0, respectively. In conclusion, diet supplementation with E. purpurea may effectively enhance the response of zebrafish to a F. columnare vaccine. PMID:25638970

  16. The efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis supplementation in the management of overweight and obesity: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, Igho; Davies, Lucy; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the use of the African Bush Mango, Irvingia gabonensis for body weight reduction in obese and overweight individuals. Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant RCTs. The bibliographies of located articles were also searched. No age, gender, or language restrictions were imposed. The reporting quality of identified RCTs was assessed using a methodological checklist adapted from the Consolidated Standard of Reporting Trials Statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and assessed the reporting quality of included studies. Three RCTs were identified, and all were included. The RCTs all had flaws in the reporting of their methodology. All RCTs reported statistically significant reductions in body weight and waist circumference favoring I. gabonensis over placebo. The results from the RCTs also suggest positive effects of I. gabonensis supplementation on the blood lipid profile. Adverse events included headache and sleep difficulty. Due to the paucity and poor reporting quality of the RCTs, the effect of I. gabonensis on body weight and related parameters are unproven. Therefore, I. gabonensis cannot be recommended as a weight loss aid. Future research in this area should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:23419021

  17. A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy of an Oral Supplement in Women with Self-perceived Thinning Hair

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the ability of an oral supplement to increase hair growth in women with thinning hair. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Setting: One United States clinical site. Participants: Healthy women aged 21 to 75 years with Fitzpatrick I to IV photo skin types with self-perceived thinning hair. Measurements: Subjects were randomized to treatment with the study medication (N=10) or placebo (N=5) twice daily for 180 days. A 4cm2 area of scalp was selected for hair counts performed after 90±7 and 180±7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy measure was the change in terminal and vellus hairs in each target area. The secondary measure was changes in a self-assessment questionnaire. Results: The mean (SD) number of terminal vellus hairs among placebo-treated subjects at baseline was 256.0 (24.1), remaining at 245.0 (22.4) and 242.2 (26.9) after 90 and 180 days, respectively. The mean baseline number of terminal hairs in control-treated subjects was 271.0 (24.2) increasing to 571 (65.7) and 609.6 (66.6) after 90 and 180 days, respectively (for each, p<0.001 vs. placebo). The mean number of vellus hairs among placebo-and control-treated subjects did not significantly change. Significantly more control-treated subjects perceived improvements in overall hair volume, scalp coverage, and thickness of hair body after 90 days. Additional improvement after 180 days included hair shine, skin moisture retention, and skin smoothness. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: The oral supplement assessed in this study safely and effectively promotes significant hair growth in women with temporary hair thinning. PMID:23198010

  18. NDA accountability measurement needs in the DOE plutonium community

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenak, C.A.

    1988-08-31

    The purpose of this first ATEX report is to identify the twenty most vital nondestructive assay (NDA) accountability measurement needs in the DOE plutonium community to DOE and to contractor safeguards RandD managers in order to promote resolution of these needs. During 1987, ATEX identified sixty NDA accountability measurement problems, many of which were common to each of the DOE sites considered. These sixty problems were combined into twenty NDA accountability measurement needs that exist within five major areas: NDA ''standards'' representing various nuclear materials and matrix composition; Impure nuclear materials compounds, residues, and wastes; Product-grade nuclear materials; Nuclear materials process holdup and in-process inventory; and Nuclear materials item control and verification. 2 figs.

  19. Supplementation of Nicotinic Acid with NAMPT Inhibitors Results in Loss of In Vivo Efficacy in NAPRT1-Deficient Tumor Models1

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Thomas; Oeh, Jason; Xiao, Yang; Liang, Xiaorong; Vanderbilt, Alexander; Qin, Ann; Yang, Lulu; Lee, Leslie B; Ly, Justin; Cosino, Ely; LaCap, Jennifer A; Ogasawara, Annie; Williams, Simon; Nannini, Michelle; Liederer, Bianca M; Jackson, Peter; Dragovich, Peter S; Sampath, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a metabolite essential for cell survival and generated de novo from tryptophan or recycled from nicotinamide (NAM) through the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-dependent salvage pathway. Alternatively, nicotinic acid (NA) is metabolized to NAD through the nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing 1 (NAPRT1)-dependent salvage pathway. Tumor cells are more reliant on the NAMPT salvage pathway making this enzyme an attractive therapeutic target. Moreover, the therapeutic index of NAMPT inhibitors may be increased by in NAPRT-deficient tumors by NA supplementation as normal tissues may regenerate NAD through NAPRT1. To confirm the latter, we tested novel NAMPT inhibitors, GNE-617 and GNE-618, in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor models. While NA did not protect NAPRT1-deficient tumor cell lines from NAMPT inhibition in vitro, it rescued efficacy of GNE-617 and GNE-618 in cell culture- and patient-derived tumor xenografts in vivo. NA co-treatment increased NAD and NAM levels in NAPRT1-deficient tumors to levels that sustained growth in vivo. Furthermore, NAM co-administration with GNE-617 led to increased tumor NAD levels and rescued in vivo efficacy as well. Importantly, tumor xenografts remained NAPRT1-deficient in the presence of NA, indicating that the NAPRT1-dependent pathway is not reactivated. Protection of NAPRT1-deficient tumors in vivo may be due to increased circulating levels of metabolites generated by mouse liver, in response to NA or through competitive reactivation of NAMPT by NAM. Our results have important implications for the development of NAMPT inhibitors when considering NA co-treatment as a rescue strategy. PMID:24403854

  20. NDA SYSTEM RESPONSE MODELING AND ITS APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    2010-03-01

    The Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant (PORTS) is a uranium enrichment facility that was historically used to enrich uranium to levels that range from 2% to greater than 97%. The feed material for PORTS was obtained from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) that produced uranium in the form of UF6 that was enriched to about 1 to 2%. The enrichment process involves a multistage process by which gaseous UF{sub 6} passed through a diffusion barrier in each stage. The porous diffusion barrier in each stage retards the rate of the diffusion of the heavier {sup 238}U atoms relative to the diffusion of the lighter {sup 235}U atoms. By this process the product stream is slightly enriched by each stage of the process. Each stage consists of a compressor, converter and a motor. There are more than 4000 stages that are linked together with piping of various diameters to form the PORTS cascade. The cascade spans three interconnected buildings and comprises miles of piping, thousands of seals, converters, valves, motors, and compressors. During operation, PORTS process equipment contained UF{sub 6} gas with uranium enrichment that increased in the process stream from the first to the last stage in a known manner. Gaseous UF{sub 6} moving through the PORTS process equipment had potential to form deposits within the process equipment by several mechanisms, including solidification due to incorrect temperature and pressure conditions during the process, inleakage of atmospheric moisture that chemically reacts with UF{sub 6} to form hydrated uranyl fluoride solids, reduction reactions of UF{sub 6} with cascade metals, and UF{sub 6} condensation on the internal equipment surfaces. As a result, the process equipment of the PORTS contains a variable and unknown quantity of uranium with variable enrichment that has been deposited within the equipment during plant operations. The exact chemical form of this uranium is variable, although it is expected that the bulk of the material is of the form of uranyl fluoride that will become hydrated on exposure to moisture in air when the systems are no longer buffered. The deposit geometry and thickness is uncertain and variable. However, a reasonable assessment of the level of material holdup in this equipment is necessary to support decommissioning efforts. The assessment of nuclear material holdup in process equipment is a complex process that requires integration of process knowledge, nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, and computer modeling to maximize capabilities and minimize uncertainty. The current report is focused on the use of computer modeling and simulation of NDA measurements.

  1. Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Fairman, Ciaran M; Spradley, Brandon D; Tai, Chih-Yin; Falcone, Paul H; Carson, Laura R; Mosman, Matt M; Joy, Jordan M; Kim, Michael P; Serrano, Eric R; Esposito, Enrico N

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a preworkout supplement (SUP) containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days. We hypothesized that little to no changes in kidney and liver clinical blood markers or resting heart rate and blood pressure (BP) would be observed. In addition, we hypothesized that body composition and performance would improve in recreationally active males after 28 days of supplementation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, participants were randomly assigned to ingest one scoop of either the SUP or placebo every day for 28 days, either 20 minutes before exercise or ad libitum on nonexercise days. Resting heart rate and BP, body composition, and fasting blood samples were collected before and after supplementation. Aerobic capacity as well as muscular strength and endurance were also measured. Significant (P < .05) main effects for time were observed for resting heart rate (presupplementation, 67.59 ± 7.90 beats per minute; postsupplementation, 66.18 ± 7.63 beats per minute), systolic BP (presupplementation, 122.41 ± 11.25 mm Hg; postsupplementation, 118.35 ± 11.58 mm Hg), blood urea nitrogen (presupplementation, 13.12 ± 2.55 mg/dL; postsupplementation, 15.24 ± 4.47 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (presupplementation, 34.29 ± 16.48 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.76 ± 4.71 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase (presupplementation, 32.76 ± 19.72 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.88 ± 9.68 IU/L). Significant main effects for time were observed for body fat percentage (presupplementation, 15.55% ± 5.79%; postsupplementation, 14.21% ± 5.38%; P = .004) and fat-free mass (presupplementation, 70.80 ± 9.21 kg; postsupplementation, 71.98 ± 9.27 kg; P = .006). A significant decrease in maximal oxygen consumption (presupplementation, 47.28 ± 2.69 mL/kg per minute; postsupplementation, 45.60 ± 2.81 mL/kg per minute) and a significant increase in percentage of oxygen consumption per unit time at which ventilatory threshold occurred (presupplementation, 64.38% ± 6.63%; postsupplementation, 70.63% ± 6.39%) and leg press one-repetition maximum (presupplementation, 218.75 ± 38.43 kg; postsupplementation, 228.75 ± 44.79 kg) were observed in the SUP only. No adverse effects were noted for renal and hepatic clinical blood markers, resting heart rate, or BP. Supplements containing similar ingredients and doses should be safe for ingestion periods lasting up to 28 days in healthy, recreationally trained, college-aged men. PMID:24916558

  2. Efficacy and safety of Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: A randomized trial of two different levels of dosing on maternal and neonatal Vitamin D outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Masoodi, Shariq Rashid; Shafi, Shafia; Hameed, Iqra; Dar, Maqsood Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Parveen, Shameema; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Shah, Parviz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant women represent a typical group susceptible to dietary and mineral deficiencies. This study was sought to assess the efficacy and safety of various doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation during pregnancy and ratify the inadequacy of the recommended daily allowance for Vitamin D in vulnerable groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant women were included in this open-label, parallel group, prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. Study subjects were assigned to four treatment groups: Group 1 (n = 26), 1000 IU of Vitamin D daily; Group 2 (n = 21), 30,000 IU of Vitamin D monthly; Group 3 (n = 27), 2000 IU of Vitamin D daily; and Group 4 (n = 26), 60,000 IU Vitamin D monthly. Group 1 and 2 were further analyzed together as Group 1K (1000 IU daily and 30,000 IU monthly), and Group 3 and 4 as Group 2K (2000 IU daily and 60,000 IU monthly). The analysis was done on an intention to treat basis. Results: A total of 87 patients completed the study; 21 in Group 1, 25 in Group 2, 18 in Group 3, and 23 in Group 4. The levels of 25(OH)D at baseline ranged from 1.3 to 58.0 with a mean of 24.2 ± 15.1 ng/ml. Postsupplementation, 25(OH)D levels ranged from 11.5 to 70.3 with a mean of 40.2 ± 12.2 ng/ml. The postsupplementation levels of 25(OH)D were higher in Group 2K (42.86 ± 12.83) than in Group 1K (36.96 ± 10.56) with P value of 0.023. Conclusion: We concluded that Vitamin D supplementation with 2000 IU/day or 60,000 IU/month is very effective and safe in achieving Vitamin D sufficiency in pregnant women.

  3. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor before taking a dietary supplement. What About Herbal Supplements? Herbal supplements are dietary supplements that come from plants. A ... and black cohosh . Researchers are looking at using herbal supplements to prevent or treat some health problems. It’s ...

  4. The efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food SourceTM...

  5. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multi-center, Extension Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of a New Oral Supplement in Women with Self-perceived Thinning Hair

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this six-month, randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled study was to determine if the administration of a new oral supplement will promote terminal hair growth. Design: A randomized, double-blind study. Setting: Two private practices (dermatology and facial plastics). Participants: Women 21 to 75 years of age with self-perceived thinning hair. Measurements: The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in terminal and vellus hairs in a 4cm2 target area of the scalp after 90 and 180 days of treatment. Secondary endpoints were change in hair diameter and responses to Quality of Life and Self-Assessment questionnaires. Results: Subjects treated with the new oral supplement achieved a significant increase in the number of baseline terminal hairs at 90 and 180 days (for each, p<0.0001, respectively) and were significantly greater then placebo (p<0.0001). Treatment with the new oral supplement was also associated with a significant increase in baseline terminal hair diameter after 90 (p=0.006) and 180 days of treatment (p=0.001) which was significantly greater than placebo at the end of the study (p=0.003). Improvements in hair growth and hair diameter were associated with significant improvement in most responses to Self-Assessment and Quality of Life Questionnaire responses. There were no adverse events. Conclusion: The daily administration of a new oral supplement was associated with significant increases in the number of terminal and vellus hairs and hair diameter. Most study participants believed the use of the oral supplement resulted in significant improvement in skin and hair quality and quality of life. PMID:26705444

  6. Efficacy of ?-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of ?-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(LandraceנYorkshire)נDuroc; average body weight 253kg] were randomly allotted to a 2נ2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400U ?-mannanase/kg. During the 6weeks of experimental feeding, ?-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p=0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p<0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p<0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission. PMID:26635142

  7. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  8. Efficacy of Multivitamin/mineral Supplementation to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Giana; Drake, Victoria J; Frei, Balz

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were examined. The majority of scientific studies investigating the use of MVM supplements in chronic disease risk reduction reported no significant effect. However, the largest and longest RCT of MVM supplements conducted to date, the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS II), found a modest and significant reduction in total and epithelial cancer incidence in male physicians, consistent with the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. In addition, PHS II found a modest and significant reduction in the incidence of nuclear cataract, in agreement with several other RCTs and observational, prospective cohort studies. The effects of MVM use on other subtypes of cataract and age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. Neither RCTs nor prospective cohort studies are without their limitations. The placebo-controlled trial design of RCTs may be inadequate for nutrient interventions, and residual confounding, measurement error, and the possibility of reverse causality are inherent to any observational study. National surveys show that micronutrient inadequacies are widespread in the US and that dietary supplements, of which MVMs are the most common type, help fulfill micronutrient requirements in adults and children. PMID:24941429

  9. The efficacy of micronutrient supplementation in reducing the prevalence of anaemia and deficiencies of zinc and iron among adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of combined iron and zinc over the iron- or zinc-only supplementation in correcting deficiency and possible interactive effects in a group of adolescent school children. Subjects and methods: Schoolchildren (n=821) of 12–16 years of age were randomized into ...

  10. Spent Fuel NDA Research Path for the Sweden Encapsulation-Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J.; Trellue, Holly R.; Liljenfeldt, Henrik

    2015-01-22

    This set of slides provides a description of research performed to date on spent fuel NDA: Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project, and NDA analysis and research planned for CLINK. The general purpose is strengthening the technical toolkit of safeguard inspectors. Data mining is being applied to determine the optimal mathematical structure to match the complexity of spent fuel NDA signals and to enable a range of quantities to be estimated.

  11. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed in training before being used in competition. It is recommended that dietary supplements are only used based on the advice of a qualified sports nutrition professional. PMID:16766503

  12. PA02.15. Validation of ayurvedic concept of anthropometry and clinical evaluation of efficacy of “Suktyadi Yog” as a calcium supplementation in children

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S Vinod; Kumar, N Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to validate the ayurvedic anthropometical parameter for assessment of proper growth & devlopment and also to identify any disease linkage. For proper bony growth adequate calcium supplement is necessary. Evaluation of role of an ayurvedic compound containing calcium preparation needed therefore included in the second phase of the study. In calcium deficiency Ayurvedic Managment “Suktyadi Yog” may be useful. It is a rich source of calcium and have deepaniya drugs. Deepaniya drugs is useful for absorption of calcium. Method: Validations of Ayurvedic Sharir pramana on the basis of modern concept (Parameters) in children and Peer review journals were searched to list content of “Suktyadi yog” with calcium supplementation activities, particularly acting in calcium deficient and healthy children. Result: Result of the study show Sharir praman of children found almost equal to as explained in ayurvedic texts. Out of all research Sukti bhasma, Godanti bhasma, yasad bhasma and Trikatu was found potent to reduce Calcium deficiency. It is very cost effective, easily available with highest calcium supplementation properties. Conclusion: Calcium deficiency is a major problem in children and “Suktyadi yog” is a best option to reduce it.

  13. Chitinolytic Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 isolated from Chilika lake, India enhances plant growth and biocontrol efficacy through chitin supplementation against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Malviya, Nityanand; Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Shrivastava, Pooja; Sivakumar, G

    2015-08-01

    A chitinolytic actinomycete Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 was isolated from water sample of Chilika lake, India and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It showed in vitro antifungal activity against the sclerotia producing pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in a dual culture assay and by chitinase enzyme production in a chitin supplemented minimal broth. Moreover, isolate S5MW2 was further characterized for biocontrol (BC) and plant growth promoting features in a greenhouse experiment with or without colloidal chitin (CC). Results of greenhouse experiment showed that CC supplementation with S5MW2 showed a significant growth of tomato plants and superior disease reduction as compared to untreated control and without CC treated plants. Moreover, higher accumulation of chitinase also recovered in the CC supplemented plants. Significant effect of CC also concurred with the Analysis of Variance of greenhouse parameters. These results show that the a marine antagonist S5MW2 has BC efficiency against R. solani and chitinase enzyme played important role in plant resistance. PMID:25982747

  14. Results from the first Waste and Residue NDA Measurements School

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Abhold, M.; Coop, K.; Prettyman, T.; Rinard, P.; Sheppard, G.; Smith, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first Waste and Residue Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements School was given at Los Alamos on June 3--7, 1996. This school is a new part of the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Safeguards Training Program, with additional instructor support from the National Transuranic Waste Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Westinghouse savannah River Company, Pajarito Scientific Corporation, and Canberra Industries. The school was attended by 22 safeguards and waste measurement personnel from DOE facilities, and included lectures on waste characterization requirements, the WIPP Performance Demonstration Program, waste and residue NDA techniques, and a workshop discussion on waste assay issues. Hands-on training modules with 55-gallon-drum waste assay systems were held using a Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner, a Tomographic Gamma-ray Scanner, two Add-a-Source Waste-Drum Assay Systems, a Californium Shuffler, and a Differential Die-away system that included Combined Thermal-Epithermal Neutron Interrogation (CTEN). This paper will describe the new school and report on the measurement results obtained during the school with the above-mentioned waste-drum assay systems.

  15. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.

    2000-02-29

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

  16. MMRM versus MI in dealing with missing data--a comparison based on 25 NDA data sets.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ohidul

    2011-05-01

    Both multiple imputation (MI) and mixed-effects model repeated measures (MMRM) approaches appear to be better choices than the traditional last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) approach in analyzing incomplete clinical trial data sets in drug development research. However, relative performances of these two approaches are unknown in controlling type I error rate and statistical power in the hypothesis testing of determining the efficacy of an investigational drug. Little research has been done in comparing robustness of the two approaches in analyzing ignorable missing data of clinical trials. In this research, a comparison between the MI and MMRM approaches is made in analyzing the simulated incomplete data sets and 25 New Drug Application (NDA) data sets of neuropsychiatric drug products. The MMRM approach appears to be a better choice in maintaining statistical properties of a test as compared to the MI approach in dealing with ignorable missing data of clinical trials. PMID:21442517

  17. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

  18. Evaluation of efficacy, safety and tolerability of high dose-intermittent calcitriol supplementation to advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sookprasert, Aumkhae; Pugkhem, Ake; Khuntikeo, Narong; Chur-in, Siri; Chamadol, Nittaya; Prawan, Auemduan; Janeklang, Somkid; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; Wongkham, Sopit

    2012-01-01

    Antitumor activity (growth suppression) of vitamin D has been demonstrated using cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines, CCA cell-grafted animal models, and human CCA tissue cultures. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity and tolerability of intermittent-high dose calcitriol in advanced inoperable intrahepatic CCA patients and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of combinations of calcitriol and 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapeutic drugs. The patients were divided into 3 groups: the first (n=2) received intermittent-high dose oral calcitriol 12 μg/day for 3 days, i.e. Monday-Wednesday, per week up to 3 months. The treatment did not cause any serious adverse events, except hypercalcemia grade I, once in 72 administrations. The second group (n=3) received chemotherapeutic drugs (5-fluorouracil, Mitomycin C and Leucovorin) for 3 cycles, one patient showing a partial response. The third group (n=4) received high dose calcitriol in combination with chemotherapeutic-drugs. All 4 patients encountered serious adverse events and two of them were withdrawn after the first drug cycle. This pilot study suggests that, although high dose-intermittent calcitriol appeared to be safe and tolerated well in advanced intrahepatic CCA patients, co-administration with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapeutic drugs caused unexpected potentiation of their toxicity. Adjustment of the doses of both drugs is required to avoid such toxicity and to optimize therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs when they were combined with high dose-intermittent calcitriol. PMID:23480759

  19. Session 31B - Panel: Opportunities in the UK with the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, Gary; Hayes, David; Gorham, Ron; Wareing, Mark; Simper, Adrian; Selby, Terry

    2006-07-01

    The NDA participated in a panel session 31B on Wednesday afternoon starting at 3:15. The NDA is a non-departmental public body, set up in April 2005 under the Energy Act 2004 to take strategic responsibility for the UK's nuclear legacy. Details of their organization and history are located on their web site at www.nda.gov.uk. Also copies of their Power Point presentations made at WM'06 are available on their web site. Their core objective is to ensure that the 20 civil public sector nuclear sites under our ownership are decommissioned and cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment for this and future generations. They lead the development of a unified and coherent decommissioning strategy, working in partnership with regulators and site licensees to achieve best value, optimum impact on local communities, and the highest environmental standards. The NDA's main task is the decommissioning and clean up of civil nuclear sites. If the Government decides it is necessary, however, the Energy Act 2004 allows the NDA to take responsibility for sites currently operated by, or on behalf of, the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Resources will then be transferred from the MoD to meet the costs of clean up. The NDA made a number of presentations to allow conference delegates the opportunity to understand some of the major aspects of their work and to interact with NDA staff. These included the following topics and gave opportunity for audience discussion: - A brief presentation to update on progress by the NDA; - Outline of low level waste management and the prioritisation process; - Discussion of the competition schedule related to low level waste management and the Drigg site. The following presentations and handout were delivered in various sessions of the conference as noted below and are available on their web page including the WM'06 Plenary Session presentation by Sir Anthony Cleaver, Chairman of the NDA. During Session 31B, the following Power Point presentations were made. NDA Overview by David Hayes, Director of Special Projects National M and O Contractor Work Prioritisation Process by Mark Wareing, including topics on: - Need for prioritisation; - Development of the process; - Using the process as a measure of progress. Competition by Ron Gorham, Head of Procurement, including topics on: - The current model; - What NDA are actually competing; - The acquisition process; - NDA aspirations for competition; - NDA aspirations from the market. Low Level Waste Contracting in the UK by Adrian Simper, Expenditure and Programme Strategy Manager, including topics on: - Low Level Waste: NDA responsibilities, Definitions, Arisings; - Proposed NDA Procurement for LLW Management: Scope, Contracting approach, Timetable. The NDA responded to questions from the audience and also announced that the NDA will be holding a special Industry Day for potential contractors interested in the first NDA competition - the Low Level Waste Repository near Drigg in Cumbria. The event is scheduled on the 25-26 April 2006 with more details on their web site at www.nda.gov.uk. (authors)

  20. Efficacy of Cistanche Tubulosa and Laminaria Japonica Extracts (MK-R7) Supplement in Preventing Patterned Hair Loss and Promoting Scalp Health

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Joon; Kim, Tae Su; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Pyo; Kang, Myung Hwa; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Cistanche tubulosa and Laminaria japonica have been reported to have anti-oxidative, anticoagulant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. They are expected to be a promising candidates for promoting hair growth and treating dandruff and scalp inflammation as a consequence. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) in promoting hair health in patients with mild to moderate patterned hair loss. Using phototrichogram (Folliscope 4.0, LeadM, Seoul, Korea), we compared the density and diameter of hairs in patients receiving a placebo or Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks of the study. In order to determine the efficacy of treatment on dandruff and scalp inflammation, investigator's assessment score and patient's subjective score were also performed. We found a statistically significant increase in the hair density of the test group (n = 45, MK-R7 400 mg) after 16 weeks of consuming the MK-R7 (test group: 23.29 n/cm2 ± 24.26, control: 10.35 n/cm2 ± 20.08, p < 0.05). In addition, we found a statistically significant increase in hair diameter in the test group compared to control group at week 16 (test group: 0.018 mm ± 0.015, control: 0.003 mm ± 0.013, p < 0.05). There were also significant outcomes regarding the investigator's visual assessment and patient's subjective score of dandruff and scalp inflammation in the test group compared to those in control group. Based on the results of this clinical study, we conclude that Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) are promising substances for promoting health of the scalp and hair. PMID:25954733

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26871553

  2. RUMINATIONS ON NDA MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY COMPARED TO DA UNCERTAINTY

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.; Ashley, W.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    It is difficult to overestimate the importance that physical measurements performed with nondestructive assay instruments play throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They underpin decision making in many areas and support: criticality safety, radiation protection, process control, safeguards, facility compliance, and waste measurements. No physical measurement is complete or indeed meaningful, without a defensible and appropriate accompanying statement of uncertainties and how they combine to define the confidence in the results. The uncertainty budget should also be broken down in sufficient detail suitable for subsequent uses to which the nondestructive assay (NDA) results will be applied. Creating an uncertainty budget and estimating the total measurement uncertainty can often be an involved process, especially for non routine situations. This is because data interpretation often involves complex algorithms and logic combined in a highly intertwined way. The methods often call on a multitude of input data subject to human oversight. These characteristics can be confusing and pose a barrier to developing and understanding between experts and data consumers. ASTM subcommittee C26-10 recognized this problem in the context of how to summarize and express precision and bias performance across the range of standards and guides it maintains. In order to create a unified approach consistent with modern practice and embracing the continuous improvement philosophy a consensus arose to prepare a procedure covering the estimation and reporting of uncertainties in non destructive assay of nuclear materials. This paper outlines the needs analysis, objectives and on-going development efforts. In addition to emphasizing some of the unique challenges and opportunities facing the NDA community we hope this article will encourage dialog and sharing of best practice and furthermore motivate developers to revisit the treatment of measurement uncertainty.

  3. Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Jie; Pei, Liu-Bao; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Zi-Yu; Yang, Jian-Li

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder is a devastating mental illness leading to a lifetime prevalence of higher than 16% on individuals. The treatment delay and inevitable adverse effects are major limitations of current depression interventions. Emerging evidence indicates that curcumin produced significant antidepressant properties in depression in both rodents and humans without adverse effects. Therefore, it is necessary to further clarify the antidepressant actions of curcumin and the underlying mechanism in depressed patients. A total of 108 male adults aged between 31 and 59 years were systematically recruited in Tianjin Anding Hospital. Subjects were administered the Chinese version of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale that measures different scores of depressive symptoms. The subjects were asked to take 2 capsules containing either 1000 mg of curcumin or placebo soybean powder daily for 6 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications. The plasma levels of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and salivary cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after curcumin or placebo treatment during the 6-week procedure. Chronic supplementation with curcumin produced significant antidepressant behavioral response in depressed patients by reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores. Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder. PMID:26066335

  4. The efficacy of vitamin C supplementation on reducing total serum cholesterol in human subjects: a review and analysis of 51 experimental trials

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective Observational studies in humans have shown an inverse relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and total serum cholesterol. However, experimental studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the ability of vitamin C to reduce total serum cholesterol. Methods Published reports of trials studying the effects of vitamin C on serum lipids were identified by a search of Medline from 1966 to 2004. Data from 51 experimental studies comprising of 1666 pooled subjects were selected for analysis. Results A very strong negative association was observed between baseline total serum cholesterol and the percent change in cholesterol (r = −0.585, p<0.001). When subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their baseline total serum cholesterol levels, the following weighted mean percent changes in cholesterol from baseline were observed: normal cholesterol (<199mg/dl): 0.91±6.8% (n=508); borderline high cholesterol (200–239mg/dl): 3.90±5.78% (n=605); high cholesterol (240–279mg/dl): 11.40±7.96% (n=300); severe cholesterol (>280mg/dl): 14.30±8.36% (n=253). A significant inverse relationship was found between the baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations and mean percent change in total cholesterol from baseline (r = −0.500, p<0.005). It was also observed that the high and severe baseline cholesterol groups possessed lower baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations than those in the normal cholesterol groups (0.79 and 0.55 versus 1.24 mg/dl respectively). Conclusion This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the cholesterol lowering and cardio-protective benefit of vitamin C supplementation may be in its ability to elevate plasma vitamin C concentrations in those patients who initially possess lower than normal vitamin C plasma concentrations. PMID:19674666

  5. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of six-month supplementation with concentrated fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Short-term clinical trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia revealed mixed results. The majority of these studies used an 8- to 12-week intervention based on ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid. A randomized placebo-controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 26-week intervention, composed of either 2.2 g/day of n-3 PUFA, or olive oil placebo, with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Seventy-one patients (aged 16-35) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation was schizophrenia symptom severity change measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Mixed models repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences between the study arms regarding total PANSS score change favouring n-3 PUFA (p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.29). A fifty-percent improvement in symptom severity was achieved significantly more frequently in the n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group (69.4 vs 40.0%; p = 0.017). N-3 PUFA intervention was also associated with an improvement in general psychopathology, measured by means of PANSS (p = 0.009; ES = 0.32), depressive symptoms (p = 0.006; ES = 0.34), the level of functioning (p = 0.01; ES = 0.31) and clinical global impression (p = 0.046; ES = 0.29). The findings suggest that 6-month intervention with n-3 PUFA may be a valuable add-on therapy able to decrease the intensity of symptoms and improve the level of functioning in first-episode schizophrenia patients. PMID:26679763

  6. Review and Ranking of NDA Techniques to Determine Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cheatham, Jesse R; Wagner, John C

    2010-01-01

    A number of efforts are under way to improve nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) safeguard applications. These efforts have largely focused on advancing individual NDA approaches to assay plutonium content. Although significant improvements have been made in NDA techniques, relatively little work has been done to thoroughly and systematically compare the methods. A comparative review of the relative strengths and weaknesses of current NDA techniques brings a new perspective to guide future research. To gauge the practicality and effectiveness of the various relevant NDA approaches, criteria have been developed from two broad categories: functionality and operability. The functionality category includes accuracy estimates, measurement time, plutonium verification capabilities, and assembly or fuel rod assay. Since SNF composition changes with operational history and cooling times, the viability of certain NDA approaches will also change over time. While active interrogation approaches will benefit from reduced background radiation, passive assays will lose the information contained in short-lived isotopes. Therefore, the expected assay accuracy as a function of time is considered. The operability category attempts to gauge the challenges associated with the application of different NDA techniques. This category examines the NDA deploy-ability, measurement capabilities and constraints in spent fuel pools, required on-site facilities, NDA technique synergies, and the extent to which the measurements are obtrusive to the facility. Each topic listed in the categories will be given a numerical score used to rank the different NDA approaches. While the combined numerical score of each technique is informative, the individual-topic scoring will allow for a more-tailored ranking approach. Since the needs and tools of the International Atomic Energy Agency differ from those of a recycling facility, the best assay technique may change with users and SNF characteristics. This ranking system will also examine the merits of a staged inspection with quick measurements followed by more-accurate assays of suspicious SNF. The final results of this ranking process will be used to guide the NDA safeguards research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Efficacy of a supplemental candy coproduct as an alternative carbohydrate source to lactose on growth performance of newly weaned pigs in a commercial farm condition.

    PubMed

    Guo, J Y; Phillips, C E; Coffey, M T; Kim, S W

    2015-11-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of a supplemental candy coproduct (Chocolate Candy Feed [CCF]; International Ingredient Corp., St. Louis, MO), an alternative carbohydrate source to dietary lactose, on growth performance and on health status of nursery pigs. Crossbred pigs ( = 1,408; 21 d of age and 7.1 ± 0.3 kg BW; Smithfield Premium Genetics, Rose Hill, NC) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (16 pens/treatment and 22 pigs/pen) in a randomized complete block design: 0, 15, 30, and 45% of lactose replaced by CCF based on equal amounts of total sugars. The experimental period was divided into 3 phases: phase I (1.8 kg diet/pig for 11 ± 1 d), phase II (6.8 kg diet/pig for 17 ± 2 d), and phase III (until 49 d after weaning). Pigs received a common phase III diet. The levels of lactose, supplied by whey permeate (79.3 ± 0.8% lactose), were 20, 8, and 0% in phase I, II, and III, respectively. All experimental diets contained the same levels of essential AA and energy (ME) for each phase. Fecal scores were observed on d 5, 7, and 9 after weaning. Blood samples were taken at the end of phase I and II to measure blood urea N. The duration of phase I tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.063) with increasing CCF. In phase I, the ADFI increased ( < 0.05) with increasing CCF whereas ADG and G:F did not change. In phase II, the duration and ADFI did not change whereas ADG linearly decreased ( < 0.05) with increasing CCF. However, the G:F was not changed as CCF increased. During phase I and II together, the duration was linearly decreased ( < 0.05) as CCF increased, whereas no difference in growth performance was observed. Overall, ADFI, ADG, and G:F were not affected by replacing whey permeate with CCF in diets, indicating no adverse effects of a candy coproduct as a carbohydrate substitute to lactose on growth performance of nursery pigs. Blood urea N did not change in phase I but tended to linearly increase ( = 0.088) in phase II as CCF increased. There were no differences in fecal scores and mortality as CCF increased. However, increasing CCF tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.083) morbidity, which implies no adverse effects of a candy coproduct replacement on health status of nursery pigs. In conclusion, a candy coproduct can be used to replace up to 45% of dietary lactose for nursery pigs without negative effects on growth performance or health status. A candy coproduct could be an economical alternative to partly replace the use of lactose in swine production. PMID:26641050

  8. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  9. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2005-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500957

  10. Biofortified orange maize is as efficacious as a vitamin A supplement in Zambian children even in the presence of high liver reserves of vitamin A: a community-based, randomized placebo-controlled trial123456

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Bryan; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A; Schmaelzle, Samantha; Chileshe, Justin; Kalungwana, Ngándwe; Mosonda, Mofu; Pixley, Kevin; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biofortification is a strategy to relieve vitamin A (VA) deficiency. Biofortified maize contains enhanced provitamin A concentrations and has been bioefficacious in animal and small human studies. Objective: The study sought to determine changes in total body reserves (TBRs) of vitamin A with consumption of biofortified maize. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled biofortified maize efficacy trial was conducted in 140 rural Zambian children. The paired 13C-retinol isotope dilution test, a sensitive biomarker for VA status, was used to measure TBRs before and after a 90-d intervention. Treatments were white maize with placebo oil (VA−), orange maize with placebo (orange), and white maize with VA in oil [400 μg retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) in 214 μL daily] (VA+). Results: In total, 133 children completed the trial and were analyzed for TBRs (n = 44 or 45/group). Change in TBR residuals were not normally distributed (P < 0.0001); median changes (95% CI) were as follows: VA−, 13 (−19, 44) μmol; orange, 84 (21, 146) μmol; and VA+, 98 (24, 171) μmol. Nonparametric analysis showed no statistical difference between VA+ and orange (P = 0.34); both were higher than VA− (P = 0.0034). Median (95% CI) calculated liver reserves at baseline were 1.04 (0.97, 1.12) μmol/g liver, with 59% >1 μmol/g, the subtoxicity cutoff; none were <0.1 μmol/g, the deficiency cutoff. The calculated bioconversion factor was 10.4 μg β-carotene equivalents/1 μg retinol by using the middle 3 quintiles of change in TBRs from each group. Serum retinol did not change in response to intervention (P = 0.16) but was reduced with elevated C-reactive protein (P = 0.0029) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (P = 0.0023) at baseline. Conclusions: β-Carotene from maize was efficacious when consumed as a staple food in this population and could avoid the potential for hypervitaminosis A that was observed with the use of preformed VA from supplementation and fortification. Use of more sensitive methods other than serum retinol alone, such as isotope dilution, is required to accurately assess VA status, evaluate interventions, and investigate the interaction of VA status and infection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01814891. PMID:25411289

  11. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... How FDA Helps You How to Be a Smart Shopper Dietary supplements are products that people add to their diets. They include vitamins, minerals, herbs, and amino acids. They can be pills, liquids, powders or energy bars. Although dietary supplements can help support good ...

  12. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy ... keeping bones strong. Pregnant women can take the vitamin folic acid to prevent ... provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  13. Nutritional supplements for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H; Mulqueen, Jilian

    2014-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appears to have modest benefit for improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Many other natural supplements are widely used in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side effects. This review synthesizes and evaluates the scientific evidence regarding the potential efficacy and side effects of natural supplements and herbal remedies for ADHD. We provide clinicians with recommendations regarding their potential use and role in overall ADHD treatment. PMID:25220092

  14. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... calcium: Drink more fluids. Eat high-fiber foods Switch to another form of calcium if the diet ... Washington, DC, 2010. Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent ...

  15. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for new data on efficacy as it becomes available ( ods.od.nih.gov ). PMID:15867902

  16. ML-oriented NDA carrier synchronization for general rotationally symmetric signal constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeneclaey, Marc; Dejonghe, Geert

    1994-08-01

    In this contribution we point out that the nondecision-aided (NDA) carrier synchronizer, maximizing the low E(sub s)/N(sub o) limit of the likelihood function averaged over a general 2(pi) /N-rotationally symmetric signal constellation, reduces to the familiar timing-aided Nth power synchronizer. Whereas in the case of M-PSK the tracking error variance of this NDA ML synchronizer is known to converge to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) with increasing E(sub s)/N(sub o), we show that for other rotationally symmetric constellations (such as QAM) the tracking error variance is substantially larger than the CRB.

  17. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  18. Podophyllum hexandrum as a potential botanical supplement for the medical management of nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs) and free radical-mediated ailments: leads from in vitro/in vivo radioprotective efficacy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Dhaker, Atlar Singh; Adhikari, Manish; Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Shikha; Gupta, Damodar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Rajender P

    2010-03-01

    Management of radiation-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species requires a holistic approach to mitigate the deleterious effects of free radicals. Flora of the Himalayas, which prevails under extreme climatic conditions, has been explored for its potential utility to develop radioprotective drugs. The Himalayan high altitude medicinal plant, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, was selected on the basis of its unique properties, and a novel fractionated nonpolar extract (REC-2003) was prepared and evaluated for radioprotective efficacy, in vitro as well as in vivo. The free radical scavenging activity of REC-2003 was found to be > 75% (20 μg/ml) with maximum superoxide scavenging activity (57.56 ± 1.38%) recorded at 1 mg/ml concentration (tetrazolium-based estimation). More than 30% inhibition of nitric oxide radicals was observed at concentrations > 0.5 mg/ml, while hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (deoxy-D-ribose assay) exhibited a dose-dependent (100-600 μg/ml) increase. Significantly high (90%) protection to human erythrocytes was observed at 75 μg/ml, which was found to be the most optimized dose. Similarly, more than 90% inhibition was observed against lipid peroxidation (evaluated by estimating levels of malondialdehyde). The significant antihemolytic potential of REC-2003 could be attributed to its ability to scavenge free radicals, reduce peroxidative stress on lipid membranes, and render protection to DNA (evaluated using plasmid relaxation assay). All these activities holistically contributed toward the radioprotective ability. REC-2003 (8 mg/kg BW; intraperitoneal (i.p.), -30 min) rendered > 80% total-body protection in Swiss Albino Strain 'A' mice [against lethal radiation (10 Gy)] in a 30-day survival assay. Phytochemical characterization of the constituents of REC-2003 revealed the presence of polyphenolics (flavonoids). The characterized constituents also included the aryl-tetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin, its glycoside, 4'-demethyl derivative, and epi-podophyllotoxin. The optimized requisite single dose (8 mg/KgBW; i.p., -30 min) for obtaining significant radioprotection is reasonably low and establishes its future utility as a dietary supplement in the medical management of free radical-mediated diseases and specifically for rescue missions during nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs). PMID:22435572

  19. The impacts of standardized information management processes on NDA and NDE waste characterization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, C.J.; Conrad, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evolution of standards-based information management has not fully penetrated nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination operating platforms. Interoperability concepts, which are fundamental to successful information management architecture and structure, are sweeping the markets and redefining the computing industries. The need for the federal government to improve its effectiveness from an informed position has invoked Information Management (IM) concepts into the federal government`s strategies and policies. These strategies and policies are becoming regulatory mandates which are to be imposed contractually, directly delegating responsibility to the contractors to ensure compliance. Participants in the waste clean-up arena will need to ensure that their analyses systems and reporting practices fulfill these emerging life-cycle information management requirements, both to meet the customer`s need and to protect themselves from legal liability. The challenge today faced by the NDA/NDE industry is to adopt these IM concepts, and utilize them in the assay systems and structures. The robust systems developed to perform the NDA/NDE analyses must be equally robust to address these regulatory and contractual mandates. The greatest impact of the regulations in the NDA/NDE arena will be to actually standardize and produce standards-based analyses reports that include integration capability with all the elements of NDA/NDE processes and be interchangeable with all other ancillary processes.

  20. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372

  1. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried outmore » to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.« less

  2. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried out to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.

  3. Creating NDA working standards through high-fidelity spent fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Skutnik, Steven E; Gauld, Ian C; Romano, Catherine E; Trellue, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is developing advanced non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel assemblies to advance the state-of-the-art in safeguards measurements. These measurements aim beyond the capabilities of existing methods to include the evaluation of plutonium and fissile material inventory, independent of operator declarations. Testing and evaluation of advanced NDA performance will require reference assemblies with well-characterized compositions to serve as working standards against which the NDA methods can be benchmarked and for uncertainty quantification. To support the development of standards for the NGSI spent fuel NDA project, high-fidelity modeling of irradiated fuel assemblies is being performed to characterize fuel compositions and radiation emission data. The assembly depletion simulations apply detailed operating history information and core simulation data as it is available to perform high fidelity axial and pin-by-pin fuel characterization for more than 1600 nuclides. The resulting pin-by-pin isotopic inventories are used to optimize the NDA measurements and provide information necessary to unfold and interpret the measurement data, e.g., passive gamma emitters, neutron emitters, neutron absorbers, and fissile content. A key requirement of this study is the analysis of uncertainties associated with the calculated compositions and signatures for the standard assemblies; uncertainties introduced by the calculation methods, nuclear data, and operating information. An integral part of this assessment involves the application of experimental data from destructive radiochemical assay to assess the uncertainty and bias in computed inventories, the impact of parameters such as assembly burnup gradients and burnable poisons, and the influence of neighboring assemblies on periphery rods. This paper will present the results of high fidelity assembly depletion modeling and uncertainty analysis from independent calculations performed using SCALE and MCNP. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  4. Do dietary supplements help promote weight loss?

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Van Ausdal, Wendy; Grochoski, Greg

    2009-01-01

    As two-thirds of the US population is overweight or obese, new strategies are needed to help individuals safely and effectively lose weight. One option is to use dietary supplements, but not all supplements that are touted for weight loss have published clinical support for efficacy. The purpose of this article was to identify all published articles on dietary supplements for weight loss. Effectiveness of these supplements was defined as promoting 1-2 lb of weight loss each week. Although several dozen different dietary supplements are sold, only 14 published studies were identified. Four individual ingredients and three blends of ingredients were considered to be effective. Additionally, we compared weight loss from these dietary supplements to over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat (alli™, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK). Five single ingredients and three blends of ingredients produced more weight loss than OTC orlistat. Persons who use dietary supplements for weight management, counsel patients on how to lose weight, and retailers who sell dietary supplements, should become familiar with those supplements only that are effective at producing weight loss to assure the best results. PMID:22435353

  5. Efficient solutions to the NDA-NCA low-order eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect

    Willert, J. A.; Kelley, C. T.

    2013-07-01

    Recent algorithmic advances combine moment-based acceleration and Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) methods to accelerate the computation of the dominant eigenvalue in a k-eigenvalue calculation. In particular, NDA-NCA [1], builds a sequence of low-order (LO) diffusion-based eigenvalue problems in which the solution converges to the true eigenvalue solution. Within NDA-NCA, the solution to the LO k-eigenvalue problem is computed by solving a system of nonlinear equation using some variant of Newton's method. We show that we can speed up the solution to the LO problem dramatically by abandoning the JFNK method and exploiting the structure of the Jacobian matrix. (authors)

  6. Integrated five-station NDA (nondestructive analysis) system to support decontamination and decommissioning of plutonium fabrication facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.T.

    1989-11-01

    Pajarito Scientific Corporation has been selected by Nuclear Fuel Services and their subsidiary, Ecotek, to provide an integrated, multistation nondestructive assay (NDA) system to support the decontamination and decommissioning (D D) of a plutonium mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility. This effort involves the design, fabrication, checkout, and calibration of all NDA equipment as well as system integration, assay algorithms, and software development. The safe, efficient, and economic D D of a plutonium fuel fabrication facility can be greatly enhanced through the intelligent use of several types of neutron-based NDA equipment integrated into a unified data acquisition and management system. At the front end of the D D process, it is advantageous to obtain an accurate estimate of the plutonium inventory in individual glove boxes and other discrete items such as piping or ducting that will be inserted into the decontamination cell. A neutron NDA measurement at this point helps to ensure that safe operating limits will not be exceeded. An additional safety factor is achieved by neutron NDA monitoring of all D D cell holdup points such as particulate filters and shear/compaction units. In the present system, both the predecontamination and in-cell holdup NDA stations consist of high-sensitivity, moderated {sup 3}He proportional counter passive neutron detectors with plutonium detection sensitivities of {approximately}0.1 g.

  7. Characterization of Nda2, a plastoquinone-reducing type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase in chlamydomonas chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Desplats, Carine; Mus, Florence; Cuin, Stphan; Billon, Emmanuelle; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2009-02-13

    Electron transfer pathways associated to oxygenic photosynthesis, including cyclic electron flow around photosystem I and chlororespiration, rely on non-photochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). In higher plant chloroplasts, a bacterial-like NDH complex homologous to complex I is involved in PQ reduction, but such a complex is absent from Chlamydomonas plastids where a type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase activity has been proposed to operate. With the aim to elucidate the nature of the enzyme-supporting non-photochemical reduction of PQs, one of the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases identified in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome (Nda2) was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and further characterized. As many type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, Nda2 uses NADH as a preferential substrate, but in contrast to the eukaryotic enzymes described so far, contains non-covalently bound FMN as a cofactor. When expressed at a low level, Nda2 complements growth of an E. coli lacking both NDH-1 and NDH-2, but is toxic at high expression levels. Using an antibody raised against the recombinant protein and based on its mass spectrometric identification, we show that Nda2 is localized in thylakoid membranes. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements performed on thylakoid membranes show that Nda2 is able to interact with thylakoid membranes of C. reinhardtii by reducing PQs from exogenous NADH or NADPH. We discuss the possible involvement of Nda2 in cyclic electron flow around PSI, chlororespiration, and hydrogen production. PMID:19056727

  8. NRF-Based NDA of Nuclear Material Using Monochromatic γ-Ray Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Angell, C. T.; Hajima, R.; Minato, F.; Suyama, K.; Seya, M.; Johnson, M. S.; McNabb, D. P.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is useful for nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials such as spent nuclear fuel. Counting precision of the NRF-based measurement system can be affected by background counts from self-activity of spent fuel and coherent scattering such as Rayleigh, nuclear Thomson, and Delbrück scattering. In this talk, the measurement principle and calculated uncertainties of the proposed detection system are presented.

  9. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  10. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Metabolites, Constituents, and Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; and metabolites/constituents/extracts). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sports performance. PMID:18500967

  11. Optimization of the Nano-Dust Analyzer (NDA) for operation under solar UV illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O`Brien, L.; Grün, E.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the Nano-Dust Analyzer (NDA) instrument is analyzed for close pointing to the Sun, finding the optimal field-of-view (FOV), arrangement of internal baffles and measurement requirements. The laboratory version of the NDA instrument was recently developed (O'Brien et al., 2014) for the detection and elemental composition analysis of nano-dust particles. These particles are generated near the Sun by the collisional breakup of interplanetary dust particles (IDP), and delivered to Earth's orbit through interaction with the magnetic field of the expanding solar wind plasma. NDA is operating on the basis of impact ionization of the particle and collecting the generated ions in a time-of-flight fashion. The challenge in the measurement is that nano-dust particles arrive from a direction close to that of the Sun and thus the instrument is exposed to intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The performed optical ray-tracing analysis shows that it is possible to suppress the number of UV photons scattering into NDA's ion detector to levels that allow both high signal-to-noise ratio measurements, and long-term instrument operation. Analysis results show that by avoiding direct illumination of the target, the photon flux reaching the detector is reduced by a factor of about 103. Furthermore, by avoiding the target and also implementing a low-reflective coating, as well as an optimized instrument geometry consisting of an internal baffle system and a conical detector housing, the photon flux can be reduced by a factor of 106, bringing it well below the operation requirement. The instrument's FOV is optimized for the detection of nano-dust particles, while excluding the Sun. With the Sun in the FOV, the instrument can operate with reduced sensitivity and for a limited duration. The NDA instrument is suitable for future space missions to provide the unambiguous detection of nano-dust particles, to understand the conditions in the inner heliosphere and its temporal variability, and to constrain the chemical differentiation and processing of IDPs.

  12. Dietary supplements commonly used for prevention.

    PubMed

    Najm, Wadie; Lie, Désirée

    2008-12-01

    The use of complimentary and alternative medicine is on the rise. This article reviews some of the commonly used herbal supplements and others focusing mainly on disease prevention. A summary table of medical conditions is provided, and when possible, a summary of efficacy and safety is provided to facilitate decision making. PMID:18928828

  13. Medication and supplement use by athletes.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Mario

    2005-07-01

    Athletes are affected in various ways by medications and supplements. Physicians caring for athletes need to be aware of medicines that athletes are taking and how they may interact with performance, exercise, environment, and other medicines. Athletes may attempt to gain a performance advantage with the use of a variety of dietary supplements and performance enhancers. Physicians must be knowledgeable of these so that athletes are properly educated about potential benefits and risks and physical effects. This article first reviews common medicines that athletes use and their potential efficacy and interactions with exercise and environment, then reviews dietary supplements and the data on their efficacy for performance enhancement. Finally, current and future doping issues are discussed. PMID:16004927

  14. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ? 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be accelerated. PMID:23689111

  15. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and supplements you use. These products can cause problems with surgery, including bleeding problems with anesthesia. You should stop using herbal health products or supplements at least ...

  16. Efficacy of High-Dose Supplementation With Oral Vitamin D3 on Depressive Symptoms in Dialysis Patients With Vitamin D3 Insufficiency: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Lian, Yueying; Li, Ning; Liu, Hong; Li, Guanzeng

    2016-06-01

    Psychological problems are common among end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis. We aim to evaluate whether high-dose vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation has beneficial effects on depressive symptoms in dialysis patients. This prospective, randomized, and double-blind trial includes 746 dialysis patients with depression treated in 3 hospitals in Southeast China. Depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to 52-week treatment of oral 50,000 IU/wk VD3 (cholecalciferol) (test group) or a placebo (control group). The presence of depressive symptoms was evaluated using the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II both before and after treatment. Sociodemographic data, clinical data, nutritional indexes, inflammatory biomarkers, and plasma VD3 concentrations were also determined. Finally, 726 patients completed the experiments, including 362 tested patients and 364 controls. After 52 weeks, the depressive symptoms were not significantly improved in the test group (mean BDI II scores changed from -1.1 ± 0.3 to -3.1 ± 0.6) versus the control group. Multivariable logistic regression showed BDI scores were not significantly improved in the test group versus the control group with adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity index, dialysis modality, or (OH)D levels (multivariable-adjusted mean change or MAMC [95% confidence interval (CI)], -2.3 [-2.48 to -1.83]) in the whole dialysis population. After stratification by depression types, the findings do support a significant relationship between the VD3 supplementation and the improvement in BDI II scores in dialysis patients with vascular depression (MAMC [95% CI], -4.4 [-5.08 to -2.76]), but the effect was not significant for major depressive disorders (MAMC [95% CI], -0.9 [-1.52 to -0.63]). The high-dose VD3 supplementation did not significantly reduce the depressive symptoms in our total dialysis population, but a beneficial effect on vascular depression was found, probably mainly based on the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27022679

  17. Dietary supplement use: consumer characteristics and interests.

    PubMed

    Greger, J L

    2001-04-01

    Four major issues should be considered in a discussion of what consumers need to know about supplements and herbal treatments. 1) Usage of supplements is changing as consumers are taking charge of their health and seeking alternative forms of medicine (Eisenberg et al. 1998, Gilbert 1999 ). 2) The characteristics of supplement users have been profiled in numerous academic and industrial surveys. However, even the best models based on consumers' characteristics can predict < 30% of diet-related behavior (Baranowski et al. 1999 ). 3) Experts in traditional medicine and nutrition lack information on supplements and herbals. The Practice and Policy Guidelines Panel of the National Institute of Health Office of Alternative Medicine (1997) stated that practices used in complementary and alternative medicine were "unsuitable for the development of evidence-based practice guidelines." Well-designed basic and clinical research is needed on the efficacy, bioavailability and safety of supplements and herbal medications. 4) It is debatable which agencies and professionals are the best gatekeepers of information on supplements and herbals. Significant numbers of consumers do not seem to rely on their physicians for information on alternative forms of medicine (Eisenberg 1997 ). Despite the obstacles, the traditional medical community (including nutritionists) should focus more research efforts on diet supplements and herbal treatments and increase training on these topics for students majoring in health care fields. Then health care professionals can mount high quality, targeted education programs for consumers. PMID:11285350

  18. Efficacies and adverse reactions of modified vitamin supplement programs before pemetrexed chemotherapy as a second-line treatment against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant wild-type lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengzhi; Qin, Yinyin; Ming, Ouyang; Xie, Zhanghong; Zhang, Jiexia; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rongchang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to observe the efficacies and adverse reactions of modified vitamin programs before pemetrexed chemotherapy (second-line treatment) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant wild-type lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: 477 patients with IIIB, phase IV glomerular filtration rate (GFR) mutant-negative lung adenocarcinomas and performed pemetrexed chemotherapy were collected and divided into group A (167 cases, with modified program) and group B (310 cases, with traditional program). The modified program was: orally administrated 400 μg folic acid once per day and 1 day before the first-round pemetrexed chemotherapy, until the 21st day of the final administration of pemetrexed, and intramuscularly injected 500 μg vitamin B12 1 day before the first-round pemetrexed chemotherapy, and injected once 1 day before every round pemetrexed treatment. Results: Comparison between group A and group B: mean chemotherapy cycles (4.08 vs 3.98); effectiveness rate (22.16% vs 22.90%); disease control rate (56.51% vs 55.00%); without significant difference (P > 0.05). Two groups currently all reached the median overall survival (OS). The median progression-free survival (PFS): 4.2 vs 4.1 months; OS: 12.9 vs 13.2 months, without statistical difference (P > 0.05). Such side effects between the two groups as leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, creatinine increasing, alanine transaminase (ALT) increasing, stomatitis, peripheral neuropathy, alopecia and rash had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The modified vitamin supportive treatment could ensure the efficacy, significantly simplify, facilitate the clinical application, and increase the associated toxicities, indicating that the pemetrexed-based chemotherapy did not need to be delayed because applying the vitamin supportive treatment. PMID:26550317

  19. Nutritional supplements and alternative medicine.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Krueger KJ; McClain CJ; McClave SA; Dryden GW

    2004-03-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major health care trend in the last decade has been the increased use of complementary and alternative medicine and nutritional supplements. Indeed, we now have Physician's Desk References for both herbal therapies and dietary supplements. A large amount of out-of-pocket dollars are spent on complementary and alternative medicine each year in the United States, and complementary and alternative medicine users believe strongly in the efficacy of their treatments.RECENT FINDINGS: In the area of inflammatory bowel disease, probiotics appear to be a highly promising form of therapy. In acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition has been shown to be safe and effective. Peppermint oil is one of the most widely used complementary and alternative medicine therapies for irritable bowel syndrome. Antioxidants are increasingly used in liver disease, especially agents involved in methionine metabolism. Both S-adenosylmethionine and betaine have shown efficacy in animal models of alcoholic liver disease, and "knockout" mice that develop S-adenosylmethionine deficiency also develop steatohepatitis. Thus, there is great interest in these complementary and alternative medicine agents in both alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. There are also important safety issues related to complementary and alternative medicine. Deaths of well-known athletes have highlighted the risks of ephedra, and some research suggests that complementary and alternative medicine agents are a major cause of fulminant liver failure necessitating liver transplantation.SUMMARY: Thus, physicians must be aware not only of the potential therapeutic benefits of complementary and alternative medicine agents and nutritional supplements, but also their potential risks, including toxicity and drug interactions.

  20. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commission. Once a dietary supplement is on the market, FDA has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include ... selling these products. It is not legal to market a dietary supplement product as a treatment or ...

  1. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... analysis of studies that looked at magnesium from foods or supplements. Safety No serious side effects were reported in ... still preliminary on the effects on diabetes of supplements and foods rich in polyphenols —antioxidants found in fruits, grains, ...

  2. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/dietarysupplements.html Dietary Supplements Labels Database The Dietary Supplement Label Database—a project of ... links Instagram Read our disclaimer about external links LinkedIn E-mail Updates NCCIH Home Privacy and Policies ...

  3. [Efficacy studies].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

    2014-07-01

    Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

  4. Portable NDA Equipment for Enrichment Measurements in the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Decman, D J; Bandong, B B; Wong, J L; Valentine, J D; Luke, S J

    2008-06-02

    The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program has used portable nondestructive assay (NDA) equipment to measure the {sup 235}U enrichment of material subject to the transparency agreement since 1997. The equipment is based on the 'enrichment meter' method and uses low-resolution sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors. Although systems using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors can produce more accurate results we have found that the results with NaI(Tl) detectors are quite adequate for the requirements of the transparency agreement. This paper will describe the details of the equipment's operation, calibration, testing, and deployment in Russia. We will also provide a comparison of the units originally deployed in 1997 with the upgraded systems that were deployed in 2003.

  5. A hybrid approach to the neutron transport K-eigenvalue problem using NDA-based algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Willert, J. A.; Kelley, C. T.; Knoll, D. A.; Park, H.

    2013-07-01

    In order to provide more physically accurate solutions to the neutron transport equation it has become increasingly popular to use Monte Carlo simulation to model nuclear reactor dynamics. These Monte Carlo methods can be extremely expensive, so we turn to a class of methods known as hybrid methods, which combine known deterministic and stochastic techniques to solve the transport equation. In our work, we show that we can simulate the action of a transport sweep using a Monte Carlo simulation in order to solve the k-eigenvalue problem. We'll accelerate the solution using nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) as in [1,2]. Our work extends the results in [1] to use Monte Carlo simulation as the high-order solver. (authors)

  6. Anterior segment complications of a nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Sandeep; Abowd, Michael; Sharma, Ashish; Weiss, Jayne S

    2007-05-01

    A patient who had been taking an oral L-arginine-based body-building supplement developed bilateral diffuse subconjunctival hemorrhages, circumcorneal dilated vessels, and peripheral corneal infiltrates after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis. There is limited information regarding the efficacy, safety, and constituents of nutritional supplements because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulates them differently than prescription medications, and they do not require approval prior to marketing. These products may result in adverse effects as evidenced by the subconjunctival hemorrhages (an exaggerated vasodilator and antithrombotic effect of nitric oxide formed from arginine) and peripheral corneal infiltrates in this case. The case highlights the importance of eliciting a history of nutritional supplement and/or herbal medication use, especially in patients scheduled to have surgery. PMID:17466873

  7. Fall prevention with supplemental and alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from fall prevention trials with supplemental vitamin D have been mixed and a possible differential benefit of supplemental versus alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D (activeD) has not been established. We performed a meta-analysis on the efficacy of supplemental vitamin D and activeD with or witho...

  8. OLDER ADULTS WHO USE VITAMIN/MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS DIFFER FROM NONUSERS IN NUTRIENT INTAKE ADEQUACY AND DIETARY ATTITUDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to measure nutrient intake adequacy of vitamin/mineral supplement users and nonusers 51 years and older, determine the efficacy of current supplement practices, and identify predictors of supplement use. Two 24-hour recalls, and demographic and attitude information fro...

  9. Introduction to the supplement.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-06-01

    In July of 2014, a symposium entitled "Enhancing Vaccine Immunity and Value" was held in Siena, Italy. The focus of the symposium was on how to best meet the challenge of developing and implementing vaccines for future disease targets. Vaccination has been responsible for averting estimated 3 billion cases of disease and more than 500 million lives to date through the prevention of infectious diseases. This has largely been responsible for dramatic increases in life span in developed countries. However, with the demographics of the world's population are changing, with many adults now surviving into their 80s, we now face the challenge of protecting the aging and other underserved populations not only against infectious diseases but also against cancer and other chronic conditions that occur in older adults. To face this challenge, we must harness new technologies derived from recent advances in the fields of immunology, structural biology, synthetic biology and genomics that promise a revolution in the vaccine field. Specifically, vaccine adjuvants have the potential to harness the immune system to provide protection against new types of diseases, improve protection in young children and expand this protection to adults and the elderly. However, in order to succeed, we need to overcome the non-technical challenges that could limit the implementation of innovative vaccines, including controversies regarding the safety of adjuvants, increasing regulatory complexity, the inadequate methods used to assess the value of novel vaccines, and the resulting industry alienation from future investment. In this supplement, we have assembled manuscripts from lectures and discussions of the symposium last July that addressed two related questions: how to improve vaccine efficacy using breakthrough technologies and how to capture the full potential of novel vaccines. PMID:26022560

  10. Dietary supplement research portfolio at the NIH, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wambogo, Edwina A; Regan, Karen S; Davis, Cindy D

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009-2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement-related funding for FYs 2009-2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women's reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

  11. How the NDA Provides Transparency and Visibility of the Technical Deliverability of the R and D Programme - 13303

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Brownridge, Melanie; McMinn, Mervin

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) was created under the UK Energy Act 2004 to ensure the UK historic civil public sector nuclear legacy sites are decommissioned safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment. The delivery will involve carrying out many unique projects within a high hazard environment requiring the very highest standards in safety, security and environmental management. Unique problems require unique solutions and there is a substantial amount of research and development required for each project. The NDA's R and D strategic objective is to ensure that delivery of the NDA's mission is technically underpinned by sufficient and appropriate research and development. This drives a requirement to provide transparency and visibility of the technical deliverability of the programme through the technical baseline and accompanying research and development requirements. The NDA need to have confidence in the technical deliverability of the Site License Companies (SLCs) plans, provide overall visibility of R and D across the NDA Estate and ensure that appropriate R and D is being carried out in a timely manner. They need to identify where coordinated R and D programmes may be advantageous as a result of common needs, risks and opportunities and ensure key R and D needs across NDA are identified, prioritised and work programmes are costed and scheduled in the Lifetime Plans for individual sites and SLCs. Evidence of the Site License Company's approach and their corresponding technical underpinning programmes is achieved through submission of a number of outputs collectively known as TBuRDs (Technical Baseline and Underpinning Research and Development Requirements). This paper is a summary of the information generated by an independent review of those TBuRDs. It highlights some of the key messages, synergies and common R and D activities across the estate. It demonstrates the value of a consistent approach to collecting R and D data across multiple Sites with a view to enhancing knowledge transfer and improving delivery efficiency. It will be of interest to all who are running R and D programmes where other programmes may be carrying out similar activities. (authors)

  12. Weight-loss supplements: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Huntington, Mark K; Shewmake, Roger A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in this country. In an effort to address this major public health problem, people have adopted a variety of strategies. These include medical and surgical interventions, both rational and fad diets, exercise and assorted weight-loss dietary supplements. Recent U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) action involving some of these proprietary supplements raises questions of both their safety and efficacy. This article reviews the evidence behind the components of many of these supplements and discusses the role of nutrition in weight loss. PMID:20853590

  13. Should supplemental antioxidant administration be avoided during chemotherapy and radiation therapy?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite nearly two decades of research investigating the use of dietary antioxidant supplementation during conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, controversy remains about the efficacy and safety of this complementary treatment. Several studies of concurrent antioxidant administration with...

  14. β-Alanine supplementation and military performance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Harris, Roger C; Moran, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    During sustained high-intensity military training or simulated combat exercises, significant decreases in physical performance measures are often seen. The use of dietary supplements is becoming increasingly popular among military personnel, with more than half of the US soldiers deployed or garrisoned reported to using dietary supplements. β-Alanine is a popular supplement used primarily by strength and power athletes to enhance performance, as well as training aimed at improving muscle growth, strength and power. However, there is limited research examining the efficacy of β-alanine in soldiers conducting operationally relevant tasks. The gains brought about by β-alanine use by selected competitive athletes appears to be relevant also for certain physiological demands common to military personnel during part of their training program. Medical and health personnel within the military are expected to extrapolate and implement relevant knowledge and doctrine from research performed on other population groups. The evidence supporting the use of β-alanine in competitive and recreational athletic populations suggests that similar benefits would also be observed among tactical athletes. However, recent studies in military personnel have provided direct evidence supporting the use of β-alanine supplementation for enhancing combat-specific performance. This appears to be most relevant for high-intensity activities lasting 60-300 s. Further, limited evidence has recently been presented suggesting that β-alanine supplementation may enhance cognitive function and promote resiliency during highly stressful situations. PMID:26206727

  15. MUD and Self Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kwan Min

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

  16. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  17. Integrating dietary supplements into cancer care.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Abrams, Donald I; Ladas, Elena J; Deng, Gary; Hardy, Mary; Capodice, Jillian L; Winegardner, Mary F; Gubili, J K; Yeung, K Simon; Kussmann, Heidi; Block, Keith I

    2013-09-01

    Many studies confirm that a majority of patients undergoing cancer therapy use self-selected forms of complementary therapies, mainly dietary supplements. Unfortunately, patients often do not report their use of supplements to their providers. The failure of physicians to communicate effectively with patients on this use may result in a loss of trust within the therapeutic relationship and in the selection by patients of harmful, useless, or ineffective and costly nonconventional therapies when effective integrative interventions may exist. Poor communication may also lead to diminishment of patient autonomy and self-efficacy and thereby interfere with the healing response. To be open to the patient's perspective, and sensitive to his or her need for autonomy and empowerment, physicians may need a shift in their own perspectives. Perhaps the optimal approach is to discuss both the facts and the uncertainty with the patient, in order to reach a mutually informed decision. Today's informed patients truly value physicians who appreciate them as equal participants in making their own health care choices. To reach a mutually informed decision about the use of these supplements, the Clinical Practice Committee of The Society of Integrative Oncology undertook the challenge of providing basic information to physicians who wish to discuss these issues with their patients. A list of leading supplements that have the best suggestions of benefit was constructed by leading researchers and clinicians who have experience in using these supplements. This list includes curcumin, glutamine, vitamin D, Maitake mushrooms, fish oil, green tea, milk thistle, Astragalus, melatonin, and probiotics. The list includes basic information on each supplement, such as evidence on effectiveness and clinical trials, adverse effects, and interactions with medications. The information was constructed to provide an up-to-date base of knowledge, so that physicians and other health care providers would be aware of the supplements and be able to discuss realistic expectations and potential benefits and risks. PMID:23439656

  18. Dietary Supplement Research Portfolio at the NIH, 2009–201112

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wambogo, Edwina A.; Regan, Karen S.; Davis, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009–2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement–related funding for FYs 2009–2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women’s reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

  19. Calcium supplements: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Reid, I R; Bristow, S M; Bolland, M J

    2015-10-01

    Calcium is an essential element in the diet, but there is continuing controversy regarding its optimal intake, and its role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Most studies show little evidence of a relationship between calcium intake and bone density, or the rate of bone loss. Re-analysis of data from the placebo group from the Auckland Calcium Study demonstrates no relationship between dietary calcium intake and rate of bone loss over 5 years in healthy older women with intakes varying from <400 to >1500 mg day(-1) . Thus, supplements are not needed within this range of intakes to compensate for a demonstrable dietary deficiency, but might be acting as weak anti-resorptive agents via effects on parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Consistent with this, supplements do acutely reduce bone resorption and produce small short-term effects on bone density, without evidence of a cumulative density benefit. As a result, anti-fracture efficacy remains unproven, with no evidence to support hip fracture prevention (other than in a cohort with severe vitamin D deficiency) and total fracture numbers are reduced by 0-10%, depending on which meta-analysis is considered. Five recent large studies have failed to demonstrate fracture prevention in their primary analyses. This must be balanced against an increase in gastrointestinal side effects (including a doubling of hospital admissions for these problems), a 17% increase in renal calculi and a 20-40% increase in risk of myocardial infarction. Each of these adverse events alone neutralizes any possible benefit in fracture prevention. Thus, calcium supplements appear to have a negative risk-benefit effect, and so should not be used routinely in the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26174589

  20. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements highlighted in this review needs to be conducted using team-sport athletes and using team-sport-relevant testing (e.g. single- and multiple-sprint performance). It should also be considered that there is no guarantee that dietary supplements that improve isolated performance (i.e. single-sprint or jump performance) will remain effective in the context of a team-sport match. Thus, more research is also required to investigate the effects of dietary supplements on simulated or actual team-sport performance. A second aim of this review was to investigate any health issues associated with the ingestion of the more commonly promoted dietary supplements. While most of the supplements described in the review appear safe when using the recommended dose, the effects of higher doses (as often taken by athletes) on indices of health remain unknown, and further research is warranted. Finally, anecdotal reports suggest that team-sport athletes often ingest more than one dietary supplement and very little is known about the potential adverse effects of ingesting multiple supplements. Supplements that have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious when ingested on their own may have adverse effects when combined with other supplements. More research is required to investigate the effects of ingesting multiple supplements (both on performance and health). PMID:21058748

  1. Using NDA Techniques to Improve Safeguards Metrics on Burnup Quantification and Plutonium Content in LWR SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, Steven F; Charlton, William S; Solodov, Alexander A; Ehinger, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Globally, there exists a long history in reprocessing in evaluation of the shipper/receiver difference (SRD) on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) received and processed. Typically, the declared shipper s values for uranium and plutonium in SNF (based on calculations involving the initial manufacturer s data and reactor operating history) are used as the input quantities to the head-end process of the facility. Problems have been encountered when comparing these values with measured results of the input accountability tank contents. A typical comparison yields a systematic bias indicated as a loss of 5 7 percent of the plutonium (Pu) and approximately 1 percent for the uranium (U). Studies suggest that such deviation can be attributed to the non-linear nature of the axial burnup values of the SNF. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Texas A&M University are co-investigating the development of a new method, via Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques, to improve the accuracy in burnup and Pu content quantification. Two major components have been identified to achieve this objective. The first component calculates a measurement-based burnup profile along the axis of a fuel rod. Gamma-ray data is collected at numerous locations along the axis of the fuel rod using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector designed for a wide range of gamma-ray energies. Using two fission products, 137Cs and 134Cs, the burnup is calculated at each measurement location and a profile created along the axis of the rod based on the individual measurement locations. The second component measures the U/Pu ratio using an HPGe detector configured for relatively low-energy gamma-rays including x-rays. Fluorescence x-rays from U and Pu are measured and compared to the U/Pu ratio determined from a destructive analysis of the sample. This will be used to establish a relationship between the measured and actual values. This relationship will be combined with the burnup analysis results to establish a relationship between fission product activity and Pu content. It is anticipated that this new method will allow receiving facilities to make a limited number of NDA, gamma-ray, measurements to confirm the shipper declared values for burnup and Pu content thereby improving the SRD.

  2. Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of thermally-injured Salmonella from liquid egg white

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of Salmonella from liquid egg white (LEW) is complicated by thermal and innate LEW antimicrobial-induced injury. Numerous supplements have been reported to promote the recovery of injured bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of twelve media supplements to ...

  3. Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of heat-injured Salmonella from egg albumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of Salmonella from liquid egg white (LEW) is complicated by thermal and innate LEW antimicrobial-induced injury. Numerous supplements have been reported to promote the recovery of injured bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of twelve media supplements to af...

  4. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  5. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    PubMed

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe. PMID:26591824

  6. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  7. Quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials containing uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden

    The ability of inspection agencies and facility operators to measure powders containing several actinides is increasingly necessary as new reprocessing techniques and fuel forms are being developed. These powders are difficult to measure with nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques because neutrons emitted from induced and spontaneous fission of different nuclides are very similar. A neutron multiplicity technique based on first principle methods was developed to measure these powders by exploiting isotope-specific nuclear properties, such as the energy-dependent fission cross sections and the neutron induced fission neutron multiplicity. This technique was tested through extensive simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code and by one measurement campaign using the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and two measurement campaigns using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) with various (alpha,n) sources and actinide materials. Four potential applications of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4) weapons verification in arms control agreements. This technique still has several challenges which need to be overcome, the largest of these being the challenge of having high-precision active and passive measurements to produce results with acceptably small uncertainties.

  8. Optimization of the Separation of NDA-Derivatized Methylarginines by Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Thomas H.; Snyder, Christa M.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The methylated arginines (MAs) monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) have been shown to be independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. This article describes progress regarding the development of an analytical method capable of rapidly analyzing MAs using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip electrophoresis (MCE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Several parameters including buffer composition and separation voltage were optimized to achieve an ideal separation. The analytes of interest were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) to produce fluorescent 1-cyanobenz[f]isoindole (CBI) derivatives and then subjected to CE analysis. Baseline resolution of SDMA, ADMA, MMA, and arginine was achieved in less than 8 min. The limits of detection for SDMA, ADMA, MMA, and arginine were determined to be 15, 20, 25, and 5 nM, respectively, which are well below the expected plasma concentrations. The CE separation method was then transferred to a glass MCE device with LIF detection. MAs were baseline resolved in 3 min on-chip using a 14 cm separation channel with detection limits of approximately 10 nM for each species. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the separation of MAs by MCE. PMID:22357605

  9. The use of TI-208 gamma rays for safeguards, nondestructive-assay (NDA) measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R. B.; Chiang, L. G.; Norris, M. J.; Gunn, C. A.; Adaline, B. C.

    2009-05-26

    This paper examines two cases where gamma rays from Tl-208, including the 2614keV gamma ray, were used to detect anomalies in waste material. In addition to the characterization of waste for waste acceptance, and compliance with environmental and transportation laws, there is a safeguards element as well. The more sophisticated method of NDA at Y-12 includes a means to detect shielded special nuclear material (SNM). Excess count rates in the 2614keV gamma ray from Tl-208 are an indication of potential shielded HEU in waste as well as other containers. The 2614keV gamma ray is easy to monitor routinely. When a large 2614keV peak is detected, further investigation can be conducted from the gamma spectrum. This paper describes this further investigation in two cases. In one case self-shielded HEU was detected. In the other case the Tl-208 gamma rays came from a piece of Th-232 metal.

  10. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  11. Clinical effectiveness of a pancreatic enzyme supplement.

    PubMed

    Valerio, D; Whyte, E H; Schlamm, H T; Ruggiero, J A; Blackburn, G L

    1981-01-01

    In 23 adult patients with pancreatic insufficiency, we evaluated the efficacy of a pancreatic enzyme delivered as pH-sensitive enteric-coated pancreatic lipase microspheres, and compared it with placebo and other available enzyme supplements. In a short-term study, fecal fat was 23.5 +/- 7 g/day with the microspheres, compared with 29.9 +/- 8 with other supplements, providing fat utilization of 76 +/- 7% versus 63 +/- 10% (p less than 0.05). Microspheres reduced daily stool frequency to 1.9 movements from 4.3 on other enzymes (p less than 0.01). These results were obtained with an average intake of 10 microsphere capsules/day. In a year-long study of 22 patients, an average weight gain of 4.0 +/- 1.1 kg was observed associated with return of near-normal social and work life-style in previously housebound patients. PMID:7195437

  12. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. PMID:26892473

  13. Multivitamin/mineral supplements and prevention of chronic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Yo; Caballero, Benjamin; Chang, Stephanie; Alberg, Anthony; Semba, Richard; Schneyer, Christine; Wilson, Renee F; Cheng, Ting-Yuan; Prokopowicz, Gregory; Barnes, George J; Vassy, Jason; Bass, Eric B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review and synthesize published literature on the efficacy of multivitamin/mineral supplements and certain single nutrient supplements in the primary prevention of chronic disease in the general adult population, and on the safety of multivitamin/mineral supplements and certain single nutrient supplements, likely to be included in multivitamin/mineral supplements, in the general population of adults and children. DATA SOURCES All articles published through February 28, 2006, on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases. REVIEW METHODS Each article underwent double reviews on title, abstract, and inclusion eligibility. Two reviewers performed data abstraction and quality assessment. Differences in opinion were resolved through consensus adjudication. RESULTS Few trials have addressed the efficacy of multivitamin/mineral supplement use in chronic disease prevention in the general population of the United States. One trial on poorly nourished Chinese showed supplementation with combined Beta-carotene, vitamin E and selenium reduced gastric cancer incidence and mortality, and overall cancer mortality. In a French trial, combined vitamin C, vitamin E, Beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc reduced cancer risk in men but not in women. No cardiovascular benefit was evident in both trials. Multivitamin/mineral supplement use had no benefit for preventing cataract. Zinc/antioxidants had benefits for preventing advanced age-related macular degeneration in persons at high risk for the disease. With few exceptions, neither Beta-carotene nor vitamin E had benefits for preventing cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataract, and age-related macular degeneration. Beta-carotene supplementation increased lung cancer risk in smokers and persons exposed to asbestos. Folic acid alone or combined with vitamin B12 and/or vitamin B6 had no significant effects on cognitive function. Selenium may confer benefit for cancer prevention but not cardiovascular disease prevention. Calcium may prevent bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women, and may reduce vertebral fractures, but not non-vertebral fractures. The evidence suggests dose-dependent benefits of vitamin D with/without calcium for retaining bone mineral density and preventing hip fracture, non-vertebral fracture and falls. We found no consistent pattern of increased adverse effects of multivitamin/mineral supplements except for skin yellowing by Beta-carotene. CONCLUSIONS Multivitamin/mineral supplement use may prevent cancer in individuals with poor or suboptimal nutritional status. The heterogeneity in the study populations limits generalization to United States population. Multivitamin/mineral supplements conferred no benefit in preventing cardiovascular disease or cataract, and may prevent advanced age-related macular degeneration only in high-risk individuals. The overall quality and quantity of the literature on the safety of multivitamin/mineral supplements is limited. PMID:17764205

  14. Review: Evidence-based Clinical Research of Anti-obesity Supplements in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yasueda, Asuka; Ito, Toshinori; Maeda, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically throughout the world, and weight reduction through lifestyle management is urgently warranted. At present, numerous supplements advertised for their anti-overweight property are available in the Japanese market, but most of these lack proper evidence. Thus, we investigated dietary supplements that have been tested in clinical trials. Search Strategy: We researched anti-obesity supplements in the Japanese market using the google search engine in Japanese with the key terms “anti-obesity supplements,” ”diet supplements,” and “weight reduction supplements.” Results: We listed 49 companies that supply anti-obesity supplements. Of these, 11 had published clinical evidence of the anti-obesity efficacy of their supplements. These products contain the following active ingredients: Angelica keiskei, bofu-tsusho-san, capsaishin, DHA/EPA, forskohlii, garcinia cambogia, lactoferrin, L-carnitine, oligonol, tea catechin, and yeast hydrolysate. Conclusion: We obtained 11 supplements for which clinical evidence was published in medical journals in English. We also found 10 products for which clinical or animal evidence was published in Japanese. We expect that many companies will produce evidence of the efficacy of their products in the near future, thereby validating the use of dietary anti-obesity supplements in Japan. PMID:26005506

  15. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  16. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  17. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to synthesize additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin ... a vitamin supplement or from adequate exposure to sunlight. A number of factors decrease the amount of ...

  18. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals (Endocrine Practice) [945KB PDF] Probiotics and Children (Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition) [ ... Two Studies Explore the Potential Health Benefits of Probiotics (07/04/08) Traditional Chinese Herbs May Benefit ...

  19. Suppression of NDA-type alternative mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in arabidopsis thaliana modifies growth and metabolism, but not high light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport.

    PubMed

    Wallström, Sabá V; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L; Escobar, Matthew A; Geisler, Daniela A; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G

    2014-05-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)⁺ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins. PMID:24486764

  20. Suppression of NDA-Type Alternative Mitochondrial NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana Modifies Growth and Metabolism, but not High Light Stimulation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Wallström, Sabá V.; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L.; Escobar, Matthew A.; Geisler, Daniela A.; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G.

    2014-01-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins. PMID:24486764

  1. Iron supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mngen, Ercment

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Pregnant women are at especially high risk for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. A considerable proportion of pregnant women in both developing and industrialized countries become anemic during pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women has remained unacceptably high worldwide despite the fact that routine iron supplementation during pregnancy has been almost universally recommended to prevent maternal anemia, especially in developing countries over the past 30 years. The major problem with iron supplementation during pregnancy is compliance. Despite many studies, the relationship between maternal anemia and adverse pregnancy outcome is unclear. However, there is now sufficient evidence that iron supplements increase hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels during pregnancy and also improve the maternal iron status in the puerperium, even in women who enter pregnancy with adequate iron stores. Recent information also suggests an association between maternal iron status in pregnancy and the iron status of infants postpartum. The necessity of routine iron supplementation during pregnancy has been debated in industrialized countries and routine supplementation is not universally practiced in all these countries. In view of existing data, however, routine iron supplementation during pregnancy seems to be a safe strategy to prevent maternal anemia in developing countries, where traditional diets provide inadequate iron and where malaria and other infections causing increased losses are endemic. PMID:14601265

  2. AN NDA Technique for the Disposition of Mixed Low Level Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Clapham; J.V. Seamans; R.E. Arbon

    2006-05-16

    The AMWTP is aggressively characterizing and shipping transuranic (TRU) waste to meet the DOE-IDs goal of 6000m3 of TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The AMWTP shipping schedule requires streamlined waste movements and efficient waste characterization. Achieving this goal is complicated by the presence of waste that cannot be shipped to WIPP. A large amount of this waste is non-shippable due to the fact that no measurable TRU activity is identified during non-destructive assay (NDA).

  3. Dietary supplements for athletes: emerging trends and recurring themes.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L; Hespel, P

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used at all levels of sport. Changes in patterns of supplement use are taking place against a background of changes in the regulatory framework that governs the manufacture and distribution of supplements in the major markets. Market regulation is complicated by the increasing popularity of Internet sales. The need for quality control of products to ensure they contain the listed ingredients in the stated amount and to ensure the absence of potentially harmful substances is recognized. This latter category includes compounds prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Several certification programmes now provide testing facilities for manufacturers of both raw ingredients and end products to ensure the absence of prohibited substances. Athletes should carry out a cost-benefit analysis for any supplement they propose to use. For most supplements, the evidence is weak, or even completely absent. A few supplements, including caffeine, creatine, and bicarbonate, are supported by a strong research base. Difficulties arise when new evidence appears to support novel supplements: in recent years, β-alanine has become popular, and the use of nitrate and arginine is growing. Athletes seldom wait until there is convincing evidence of efficacy or of safety, but caution is necessary to minimize risk. PMID:22150428

  4. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  5. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH BLUEBERRY EXTRACTS IMPROVES THE SURVIVAL AND FUNCTION OF GRAFTED EMBRYONIC DOPAMINE NEURONS IN RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transplantation of embryonic dopamine (DA) neurons into the striatum is a viable treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, transplanted cells survive poorly. This study provides evidence that dietary supplementation with blueberry extract (BBE) provides an efficacious, easily administered a...

  6. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

  7. Diet and Psoriasis: Part 3. Role of Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Millsop, Jillian W.; Bhatia, Bhavnit K.; Debbaneh, Maya; Koo, John; Liao, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis patients are increasingly turning to the use of alternative and complementary medicine to manage their psoriasis. Patients often inquire about what dietary supplements may be beneficial, including the use of oral vitamin D, vitamin B12, selenium, and omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils. In this review we examine the extent to which each of these common nutritional interventions has been studied for the treatment of psoriasis. We weighed evidence from both controlled and uncontrolled prospective trials. The evidence of benefit was highest for fish oils. For other supplements, there is need for additional large, randomized clinical trials to establish evidence of efficacy. PMID:24780177

  8. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the problem of sexual herbal supplements from pharmacovigilance perspectives. We provide insights into the various concerns and call for collaboration to resolve the problem. We highly recommend to include herbal medicines in national pharmacovigilance systems and to establish comprehensive national pharmacovigilance program to raise the awareness about herbal medicines particularly those used in enhancing sexual desire. PMID:26903775

  9. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the problem of sexual herbal supplements from pharmacovigilance perspectives. We provide insights into the various concerns and call for collaboration to resolve the problem. We highly recommend to include herbal medicines in national pharmacovigilance systems and to establish comprehensive national pharmacovigilance program to raise the awareness about herbal medicines particularly those used in enhancing sexual desire. PMID:26903775

  10. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

  11. Oral choline supplementation for postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, N.; Davies, S.; Nadarajah, A.; Rivera, J.; Whittington, R.; Mercier, R. J.; Virag, L.; Wang, S.; Flood, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of nicotinic receptors with nicotine has been shown to reduce post-surgical pain in clinical and preclinical studies. Choline is a selective agonist at ?7-type nicotinic receptors that does not have addictive or sympathetic activating properties. It is anti-nociceptive in animal studies. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial of oral choline supplementation with lecithin to aid in the treatment of pain after gynaecological surgery. Methods Sixty women having open gynaecological surgery were randomly assigned to receive 20 g of lecithin before surgery or placebo. Plasma choline concentration and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were measured. Pain report was the primary outcome measure. Results We achieved a small but statistically significant increase in choline after surgery with oral supplementation. Plasma TNF was not decreased and pain report was not different between groups at rest or with movement. There were no adverse effects of treatment. Conclusions Oral supplementation with lecithin during the perioperative period resulted in very slow absorption and thus only a small increase in plasma choline was achieved. This concentration was inadequate to reduce TNF as has been shown in other studies. The absence of an anti-inflammatory effect was likely related to our failure to demonstrate efficacy in pain reduction. PMID:23568851

  12. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... documents are processed in the same way as an original EA or EIS. No new scoping is required for a supplemental EIS filed within one year of the filing of the original ROD. If the review indicates no need for...

  13. Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Geoff

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

  14. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  15. Supplemental TV Taped Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Robert G.; Frank, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Videotapes were developed as supplemental material for a course in chemical engineering thermodynamics. Describes the course, videotapes produced (includes list by topics as related to course content), and effectiveness of the tapes. Although no significant improvement in test performance was noted, students indicated they learned material faster…

  16. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  17. Performance of growing cattle on poor-quality rangelands supplemented with farm-formulated protein supplements in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, J; Katsande, S; Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Chiuta, T

    2015-10-01

    Farmers use different non-conventional protein supplements and different feeding strategies to aid their animals survive the dry season in Zimbabwe. The strategies can be giving supplements once a week or once every other day up to very little supplement daily. Supplements are either legume crop residues or forage legumes. However, the efficacy of the use of non-conventional protein supplements in promoting growth and at the same time lowering the age at first calving is little understood. The study tested whether supplementing with farm-formulated non-conventional feeds could reduce live weight loss during the dry season and promote live weight gain as well as early development of sexual maturity in beef cattle. In a completely randomized design, thirty dams with calves on hooves were allocated to five different treatments which were repeated during the dry season for 3 years. The 3-year study results show that weight loss can be controlled, resulting in positive growth in both the pre-weaning and post-weaning phases of growing cattle. Yearlings fed solely on natural pasture lost significant weight during the dry season as compared to supplemented groups. The period to puberty and first calving was achieved at 18 and 27 months, respectively. Using non-conventional protein supplements could thus improve livestock productivity in resource-poor farming communities. It was concluded that smallholder farmers can supplement cattle with a kilogram per day of low-cost farm-based non-conventional legume meal to improve livestock productivity in semi-arid regions of Zimbabwe. PMID:25754582

  18. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

  19. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of bruising and bleeding. Supplement: Goldenseal Root Possible drug-supplement interaction with: Cyclosporine. Can decrease ... using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Goldenseal root may decrease how quickly the liver breaks down ...

  20. Patients' understanding of the regulation of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Ashar, Bimal H; Miller, Redonda G; Pichard, Carmen P; Levine, Rachel; Wright, Scott M

    2008-02-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) permits manufacturers to sell products without providing pre-market evidence of safety or efficacy. One fundamental reason for the passage of the DSHEA was to empower consumers to make their own choices, free from governmental restriction. Yet, little is known about the public's understanding of the supplement regulatory process. We undertook a study to assess patients' knowledge regarding governmental oversight of product marketing and advertising. A survey of 300 adult patients from the Baltimore Metropolitan area was administered after showing participants an advertisement for a dietary supplement. Patients were asked questions regarding their understanding of federal regulation of the advertised product. A total of 52% of respondents were unaware that the dietary supplement had not been approved by the government while 63% were unaware that the advertisement for that supplement had not been pre-approved. Factors associated with a lack of understanding of the product approval process included lower education level (OR 2.52; 95% CI 1.52-4.19) and non-Caucasian race (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.17-3.36). Lower education level was also associated with confusion regarding the advertisement approval process (OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.48-4.57). Based on these results, patients seem unclear about the government's role in the regulation of dietary supplements. Educational efforts should be geared towards clarifying these issues. PMID:18080205

  1. Dietary supplements and human health: for better or for worse?

    PubMed

    Jerome-Morais, Anita; Diamond, Alan M; Wright, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    Encouraged by the potential health benefits of higher dietary intake of substances with beneficial properties, the use of supplements containing these compounds has increased steadily over recent years. The effects of several of these, many of which are antioxidants, have been supported by data obtained in vitro, in animal models, and often by human studies as well. However, as carefully controlled human supplementation trials have been conducted, questions about the efficacy and safety of these supplements have emerged. In this Educational Paper, three different supplements were selected for consideration of the benefits and risks currently associated with their intake. The selected supplements include β-carotene, selenium, and genistein. The use of each is discussed in the context of preclinical and clinical data that provide evidence for both their use in reducing disease incidence and the possible liabilities that accompany their enhanced consumption. Variables that may influence their impact, such as lifestyle habits, baseline nutritional levels, and genetic makeup are considered and the application of these issues to broader classes of supplements is discussed. PMID:21207517

  2. A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Audhya, Tapan; Geier, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Recent evidence shows that subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significantly lower levels of glutathione than typically developing children. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of two commonly used glutathione supplements in subjects diagnosed with an ASD to determine their efficacy in increasing blood glutathione levels in subjects diagnosed with an ASD. Material/Methods The study was an eight-week, open-label trial using oral lipoceutical glutathione (n=13) or transdermal glutathione (n=13) in children, 3–13 years of age, with a diagnosis of an ASD. Subjects underwent pre- and post-treatment lab testing to evaluate plasma reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, cysteine, taurine, free and total sulfate, and whole-blood glutathione levels. Results The oral treatment group showed significant increases in plasma reduced glutathione, but not whole-blood glutathione levels following supplementation. Both the oral and transdermal treatment groups showed significant increases in plasma sulfate, cysteine, and taurine following supplementation. Conclusions The results suggest that oral and transdermal glutathione supplementation may have some benefit in improving some of the transsulfuration metabolites. Future studies among subjects diagnosed with an ASD should further explore the pharmacokinetics of glutathione supplementation and evaluate the potential effects of glutathione supplementation upon clinical symptoms. PMID:22129897

  3. Estimating vaccine efficacy using animal efficacy data.

    PubMed

    Yellowlees, Ann; Perry, Richard H J

    2015-07-15

    Animal models are used to predict the effect of an intervention in humans. An example is the prediction of the efficacy of a vaccine when it is considered unethical or infeasible to challenge humans with the target disease to assess the effect of the vaccine on the disease in humans directly. In such cases, data from animal studies are used to develop models relating antibody level to protection probability in the animal, and then data from a study or studies in human subjects vaccinated with the proposed vaccine regimen are used in combination with the relevant animal models to predict protection in humans, and hence estimate vaccine efficacy. We explain the statistical techniques required to provide an estimate of vaccine efficacy and its precision. We present simulated examples showing that precise estimation of the relationship between antibody levels and protection in animals, at levels likely to be induced in humans by the vaccine regimen, is key to precise estimation of the vaccine efficacy. Because the confidence interval for the estimate of vaccine efficacy cannot be expressed in analytical form, but must be estimated from resampling, or bootstrapping, it is not possible to design studies with required power analytically. Therefore we propose that a simulation-based design of experiments approach using preliminary data is used to maximise the power of further studies and thus minimise the human and animal experimentation required. PMID:25818749

  4. Nutritional Supplements for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Mulqueen, Jilian

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation has demonstrated evidence of efficacy in meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials in ADHD. The benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acid appear small compared to the effect sizes observed for traditional pharmacological treatments of ADHD. Some evidence suggests that polyunsaturated fatty acid formulations with higher eicosapentaenoic acid may be more effective in improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Iron and zinc supplementation may have benefit in reducing ADHD symptoms in children with or at high risk of deficiency. Data demonstrating efficacy of iron, zinc or magnesium in non-nutrient deficient ADHD populations is lacking. Many other natural supplements are widely utilized in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side-effects. PMID:25220092

  5. Flavonoids, the emerging dietary supplement against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    K V, Athira; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-03-25

    The letter illustrates the emerging potential of flavonoids as dietary supplement to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and refers to the recent article on ''Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat'' by Chtourou et al. They demonstrated that supplementation of naringin, a flavanone glycoside, found in grape and citrus fruit species, can attenuate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction via restoration of redox balance and suppression of inflammation, NF-κB activation and apoptosis. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin has always compelled the researchers to find solution to ameliorate its side effects. In recent years, numerous candidates have been evaluated for their protective potential against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and flavonoids have come up with promising results. The future prospects might be promising with a proper refinement and collective integration of the preclinical and clinical research in the field of flavonoid supplementation to cisplatin therapy. PMID:26876905

  6. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  7. A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel N; Agharkar, Amruta S; Gonzales, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement's usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

  8. Immigrant Teachers' Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Young Suk; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine 27 immigrant teachers' understanding of teaching Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Students. The participants were asked to respond to the 18-item survey of Teacher Efficacy of English Language Learners. The implications of the findings for the cultural differences in teacher efficacy are discussed. Appended…

  9. Antioxidant supplementation on cancer risk and during cancer therapy: an update.

    PubMed

    Ozben, Tomris

    2015-01-01

    Radiation and some chemotherapeutic agents used in conventional cancer treatment generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a high ROS level diminishes cellular antioxidant capacity and leads to apoptosis and cancer cell death. Antioxidant supplements are consumed widely by cancer patients in order to prevent toxic side effects of cancer treatment to normal tissues and organs. However, the effects of antioxidant supplementation in cancer therapy were largely disappointing. There is still no consensus on the efficacy and safety of dietary antioxidant supplementation during conventional cancer therapy. In some studies, antioxidant supplements did not reduce the risk for cancer or prevent tumour growth; at the contrary, these interventions resulted in some cases to be harmful to the patients. Therefore, a guidance on antioxidant supplementation based on large clinical trials is urgently needed in order to obtain the best possible care and to avoid risky treatments for cancer patients. PMID:25496272

  10. Too little, too late: ineffective regulation of dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Starr, Ranjani R

    2015-03-01

    Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk. PMID:25602879

  11. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  12. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products. PMID:26642690

  14. [Physical activity and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Harald S; Hansen, Mette; Kiens, Bente; Kvorning, Thue; Nielsen, Lars N; Rasmussen, Lone B; Aagaard, Peter G

    2009-08-17

    The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has examined the scientific literature to evaluate the performance and health-related aspects of consuming dietary supplements in the context of physical activity. Certain nutritional supplements such as creatine and caffeine have documented ergogenic effects in specific situations. However, for the moderately physically active adult and healthy individual, who already consumes an energy- and nutrient balanced diet, consuming any currently legal dietary supplement does not seem to confer additional benefits on performance or health. PMID:19732518

  15. Daily Enteral DHA Supplementation Alleviates Deficiency in Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid (FA) important for health and neurodevelopment. Premature infants are at risk of DHA deficiency and circulating levels directly correlate with health outcomes. Most supplementation strategies have focused on increasing DHA content in mother's milk or infant formula. However, extremely premature infants may not reach full feedings for weeks and commercially available parenteral lipid emulsions do not contain preformed DHA, so blood levels decline rapidly after birth. Our objective was to develop a DHA supplementation strategy to overcome these barriers. This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial determined feasibility, tolerability and efficacy of daily enteral DHA supplementation (50 mg/day) in addition to standard nutrition for preterm infants (24-34 weeks gestational age) beginning in the first week of life. Blood FA levels were analyzed at baseline, full feedings and near discharge in DHA (n = 31) or placebo supplemented (n = 29) preterm infants. Term peers (n = 30) were analyzed for comparison. Preterm infants had lower baseline DHA levels (p < 0.0001). Those receiving DHA had a progressive increase in circulating DHA over time (from 3.33 to 4.09 wt% or 2.88 to 3.55 mol%, p < 0.0001) while placebo-supplemented infants (receiving standard neonatal nutrition) had no increase over time (from 3.35 to 3.32 wt% or 2.91 to 2.87 mol%). Although levels increased with additional DHA supplementation, preterm infants still had lower blood DHA levels than term peers (4.97 wt% or 4.31 mol%) at discharge (p = 0.0002). No differences in adverse events were observed between the groups. Overall, daily enteral DHA supplementation is feasible and alleviates deficiency in premature infants. PMID:26846324

  16. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Jim

    For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

  17. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries. PMID:26159983

  18. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk. PMID:24667103

  19. Whole food versus supplement: comparing the clinical evidence of tomato intake and lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M; Sesso, Howard D

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. A link between diet and CVD is well established, with dietary modification a foundational component of CVD prevention and management. With the discovery of bioactive components beyond the essential nutrients of foods, a new era of nutritional, medical, botanical, physiologic, and analytical sciences has unfolded. The ability to identify, isolate, purify, and deliver single components has expanded the dietary supplement business and health opportunity for consumers. Lycopene is an example of a food component that has attracted attention from scientists as well as food, agriculture, and dietary supplement industries. A major question, however, is whether delivering lycopene through a supplement source is as effective as or more effective than consuming lycopene through whole food sources, specifically the tomato, which is the richest source of lycopene in the Western diet. In this review, we examined clinical trials comparing the efficacy of lycopene supplements with tomato products on intermediate CVD risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function, blood pressure, and lipid metabolism. Overall, the present review highlights the need for more targeted research; however, at present, the available clinical research supports consuming tomato-based foods as a first-line approach to cardiovascular health. With the exception of blood pressure management where lycopene supplementation was favored, tomato intake provided more favorable results on cardiovascular risk endpoints than did lycopene supplementation. Indeed, future research that is well designed, clinically focused, mechanistically revealing, and relevant to human intake will undoubtedly add to the growing body of knowledge unveiling the promise of tomatoes and/or lycopene supplementation as an integral component of a heart-healthy diet. PMID:25469376

  20. Whole Food versus Supplement: Comparing the Clinical Evidence of Tomato Intake and Lycopene Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors12

    PubMed Central

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M.; Sesso, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. A link between diet and CVD is well established, with dietary modification a foundational component of CVD prevention and management. With the discovery of bioactive components beyond the essential nutrients of foods, a new era of nutritional, medical, botanical, physiologic, and analytical sciences has unfolded. The ability to identify, isolate, purify, and deliver single components has expanded the dietary supplement business and health opportunity for consumers. Lycopene is an example of a food component that has attracted attention from scientists as well as food, agriculture, and dietary supplement industries. A major question, however, is whether delivering lycopene through a supplement source is as effective as or more effective than consuming lycopene through whole food sources, specifically the tomato, which is the richest source of lycopene in the Western diet. In this review, we examined clinical trials comparing the efficacy of lycopene supplements with tomato products on intermediate CVD risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function, blood pressure, and lipid metabolism. Overall, the present review highlights the need for more targeted research; however, at present, the available clinical research supports consuming tomato-based foods as a first-line approach to cardiovascular health. With the exception of blood pressure management where lycopene supplementation was favored, tomato intake provided more favorable results on cardiovascular risk endpoints than did lycopene supplementation. Indeed, future research that is well designed, clinically focused, mechanistically revealing, and relevant to human intake will undoubtedly add to the growing body of knowledge unveiling the promise of tomatoes and/or lycopene supplementation as an integral component of a heart-healthy diet. PMID:25469376

  1. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24 Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions...

  2. Cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pham, Antony Q; Kourlas, Helen; Pham, David Q

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and most patients with the disease have type 2 diabetes. The effectiveness of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes has received a great deal of media attention after a study was published in 2003. Although the efficacy of cinnamon in patients with diabetes has not been established, many patients seek other therapies and supplement their prescribed pharmacologic therapy with cinnamon. We conducted a literature search, limited to English-language human studies, using MEDLINE (1966-August 2006), EMBASE (1980-August 2006), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-August 2006), and Iowa Drug Information Service (1966-August 2006). References from articles and clinical trials were reviewed for additional sources; no abstracts were reviewed. We found two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trials and one prospective, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed clinical trial that evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes; a total of 164 patients were involved in these trials. Two of the studies reported modest improvements in lowering blood glucose levels with cinnamon supplementation in small patient samples. One trial showed no significant difference between cinnamon and placebo in lowering blood glucose levels. Overall, cinnamon was well tolerated. These data suggest that cinnamon has a possible modest effect in lowering plasma glucose levels in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. However, clinicians are strongly urged to refrain from recommending cinnamon supplementation in place of the proven standard of care, which includes lifestyle modifications, oral antidiabetic agents, and insulin therapy. PMID:17381386

  3. Current safeguards inspection for UO sub 3 product and conceptual study of NDA system for UO sub 3 pot in Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kashimura, T.; Watanabe, F.; Maki, A.; Sugiyama, T. )

    1991-01-01

    In Tikai Reprocessing Plan (TRP) with a capacity of 0.7 MTU/d, the separated uranium is recovered as UO3 powder which is filled in particular pots and stored in UO3 storage facilities. The total amount of UO3 products in TRP at present is approximately 430 tons, or 1950 pots (December, 1990). These UO3 products undergo safeguards inspection by IAEA once a year. AT the time of inspection IAEA measures the gross weight of pot and confirms the uranium enrichment by non-destructive assays (NDA) for the certain number of pots. This paper summarizes the current safeguards inspection for UO3 products in TRP. The results of conceptual study on an integrated NDA system for UO3 pot are also described.

  4. A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel N.; Agharkar, Amruta S.; Gonzales, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement’s usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

  5. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the initial supplemental sale only blocks for which bids were rejected after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered. If, after the initial supplemental sale, a supplemental sale is not held annually for any reason... Management, General § 556.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale...

  6. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the initial supplemental sale only blocks for which bids were rejected after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered. If, after the initial supplemental sale, a supplemental sale is not held annually for any reason... Management, General § 556.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale...

  7. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the initial supplemental sale only blocks for which bids were rejected after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered. If, after the initial supplemental sale, a supplemental sale is not held annually for any reason... Management, General § 556.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale...

  8. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... current nor meet current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. The presentation of dietary supplement label information is not an endorsement or guarantee of accuracy by the Office of Dietary Supplements or the National Library of Medicine, both part of the National Institutes ...

  9. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePlus

    ... study. These include glucosamine (for joint pain) and herbal supplements such as echinacea (immune health) and flaxseed oil ( ... be fine,” Coates says. “According to the FDA, supplement products most likely ... ingredients are herbal remedies promoted for weight loss and for sexual ...

  10. Music: Supplemental Material: Chorus, Junior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trott, Maralyn D.

    This document is a supplement to TE 499 767, presented in this issue. The contents are similar to the original document, but the supplement expands on the subject of "Course Procedures, Strategies, and Suggested Learning Activities." Resources for the Pupil and Teacher are listed. A Choral Written Test and a True and False Test conclude the…

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  12. Military-specific application of nutritional supplements: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Brink, Will

    2015-01-01

    The Soldiers of America's military endure numerous physical and mental challenges that demand strict physical fitness regimens, extreme mental agility, and a perpetual readiness to deploy at a moment's notice. The chronicity of these stressors has the potential to dramatically reduce performance - both directly and indirectly.  Because of this risk, many Soldiers turn to nutritional supplements with hopes of optimizing performance. Increasing amounts of research have demonstrated that various supplements may enhance overall physical prowess, health, and offer quicker recovery in the face of corporal or psychological extremes. Most individuals, including many medical and nutrition professionals, possess only an elementary comprehension of nutritional supplements and their effect on Soldiers in training or combat environments. Nevertheless, a grasp of these details is required for safety and optimal benefits. Various compounds have been evaluated - to include evidence within the military setting - and found to augment endurance, increase cognitive function, decrease knee pain, or offer hearing or lung protection in the face of high-energy impulses. These efficacious outcomes may serve to augment the health and longevity of these Soldiers; however, continued research is needed for efficacy and long-term safety within specific environments. PMID:25949806

  13. A Prekindergarten Curriculum Supplement for Enhancing Mainstream American English Knowledge in Nonmainstream American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan R.; Rosin, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a curriculum supplement designed to enhance awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE) in African American English- (AAE-) speaking prekindergarten children. Method: Children in 2 Head Start classrooms participated in the study. The experimental classroom received the Talking…

  14. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Omega-3 as Supplemental Treatment in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, Hamidreza; Solhi, Hasan; Jamilian, Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies found omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in brain cell membranes of schizophrenic patients. Conventional antipsychotics have many adverse reactions. Safety, availability and low price made omega-3 as a potential supplement for treatment of these patients. This study investigated the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid as add-on treatment in schizophrenia. Material & Methods: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled fixed-dose, add-on clinical trial conducted over 8 weeks. 60 patients with documented schizophrenia randomly divided into two groups: omega-3(1000 mg/day) (n=30) and placebo (n=30). Patients received omega-3 or placebo in addition to their standard antipsychotic treatment. Patient follow up was done using Positive and Negative syndrome Scale (PANSS). Data analyzed using SPSS software v.20. Result: At the end of 8 weeks treatment, PANSS score decreased significantly in both groups (p<0.05) in comparison to baseline. Efficacy of omega-3 in decreasing general psychopathologic and total scores was significant in comparison to placebo group from 4 and 6 weeks after onset of treatment, respectively (p<0.05). Totally, omega-3 supplement therapy efficacy in comparison to sole conventional antipsychotics was 0.86 which was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: We found that supplemental omega-3 might increase efficacy of conventional antipsychotics in decreasing symptoms of schizophrenia. Low price, rare adverse reactions and availability of omega-3 made this substance a potential supplement in improved treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25363186

  15. An Evaluation of the Supplemental Instruction Programme in a First Year Calculus Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayowski, V.; MacMillan, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) incorporates collaborative learning in small, peer-led, group settings in order to integrate instruction in learning and reasoning skills with course content. Several meta-analyses speak to the efficacy of SI but fail to address selection bias due to ability/motivation and gender. In this study, SI was paired with a

  16. Effect of mineral supplementation on the performance by stocker cattle grazing winter wheat pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the efficacy of mineral supplementing stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture, 2 experiments were conducted. In Exp 1, 72 steer and heifer calves (avg BW = 228 kg) were randomly assigned to 12, 4.9-ha pastures on November 12 at 1.2 calves/ha (4 pastures), and February 5 at 2.5 calves/ha (8...

  17. Soy isoflavone supplementation and bone mineral density in menopausal women: a 2-y multicenter clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant estrogens that are abundant in soy. Although purported to protect against bone loss, the efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women remains controversial. Our aim was to test the effect of soy isoflav...

  18. Recent Advances in Berry Supplementation and Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To summarize recent findings and current concepts in the beneficial effects of berry consumption on brain function during aging. Berryfruit supplementation has continued to demonstrate efficacy in reversing age-related cognitive decline in animal studies. In terms of the mechanisms behind the effe...

  19. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  20. An Evaluation of the Supplemental Instruction Programme in a First Year Calculus Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayowski, V.; MacMillan, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) incorporates collaborative learning in small, peer-led, group settings in order to integrate instruction in learning and reasoning skills with course content. Several meta-analyses speak to the efficacy of SI but fail to address selection bias due to ability/motivation and gender. In this study, SI was paired with a…

  1. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a…

  4. Thinking about Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Questions about perceived self-efficacy are used to analyze cognitive processes through which people approach their efficacy for performance. The review indicates that: (a) self-efficacy perceptions generalize across idiosyncratic sets; (b) efficacy-standards discrepancies can create individual negative moods; and (c) distinctions can be made

  5. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  6. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-yoon; Browne, Michael C; Rael, Carlos D; Carroll, Colin J; Sunshine, Alexander; Novikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  7. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided. PMID:22465867

  8. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  9. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  10. Efficacy of climate forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2005-09-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy 110%, which increases to 145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of 0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy 58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy 78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

  11. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is it OK to give my baby breast milk and formula? Although breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants, in ... with a supplemental nursing system in which pumped milk or formula goes through a small tube that ...

  12. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Snelten, Courtney S; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women's health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  13. Vitamin D supplementation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of rickets. In our paediatrics department in a major London hospital, we audited the number of babies with low vitamin D levels attending our prolonged jaundice clinic. Prior to our newly designed intervention, those babies with low vitamin D levels would be given a letter to encourage collection of supplementation from their GP. The GP would receive a letter which included a 14-page guideline on vitamin D supplementation. For this project, we included all breastfed babies that attended our prolonged jaundice clinic between August 2012 and December 2012. Those babies that were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient were identified. We then followed up these patients and asked them whether they were being prescribed the correct supplementation after being identified as vitamin deficient. For our intervention, we designed a leaflet to simplify guidelines that was then distributed to mothers and their GPs. Following this intervention, we re-audited the new cohort of patients who received the leaflet between August and November 2013. The study found 71% of babies to be vitamin D deficient. Moreover, almost two in five mothers had less than the recommended six months of vitamin supplementation during pregnancy. After identifying a deficiency, one would expect that uptake of vitamin supplementation would increase dramatically. However, only four in 10 babies went on to receive the correct dose and preparation of supplements. A marked increase in uptake was seen during the re-audit post intervention, with 71% of babies receiving correct supplementation. While an increase in government advertising would have contributed to the rise in uptake of vitamin D supplementation, a leaflet proved to be a simple yet effective intervention in improving vitamin uptake in babies. As a result, this was then implemented as part of trust guidelines. PMID:26733062

  14. Nutritional supplements in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Genevieve Luehrs; McKinzie, Brian P; Bullington, Wendy Moore; Cooper, Tanna B; Pilch, Nicole Ann

    2011-01-01

    Poor nutritional intake during critical illness can contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. Although nutrition strategies for critically ill patients attempt to provide essential macronutrients, recent evidence suggests that certain micronutrients and supplements may improve wound healing and decrease infectious and inflammatory complications. This review will focus on mechanism of action, adverse effects and drug interactions reported in the literature, and appropriate dosing and outcomes data for specific nutritional supplements in various critically ill adult populations. PMID:22064578

  15. [Nutrient supplements - possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of micronutrient-supplements by the general public has become widespread; between 25 and more than 40% of individuals questioned in western developed nations confirm to regularly consume such products. In principle, there are two product categories for micronutrient-supplements - medicinal products (drugs) and foodstuffs. The latter are marketed as food supplements (FS) and dietary foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes (FSMP). FS serve the general supplementation of any consumer whilst foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses are directed at consumers with special dietary requirements; FSMP are intended for the dietary management of patients. There are clearly defined legal frameworks for those product categories. Independently of their legal product status, six areas of application can be characterised for micronutrient-supplements: general and special supplementation, primary prevention, compensation of disease-related deficits, therapeutic function and containment of diseases or avoidance of subsequent damages (secondary and tertiary function). Gauged with the mean-intake, micro nutrient supply in Germany is sufficient (exception: folic acid and vitamin D; partially also iodine). However, the intake of vitamins E, C, B1 and B2 as well as the minerals calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine could be improved in 20-50% of the general public. Micro nutrient preparations in physiological dose could contribute to closing this gap in supply. PMID:23758028

  16. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., except that for the initial supplemental sale only blocks for which bids were rejected after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered. If, after the initial supplemental sale, a supplemental sale is not held... supplemental sale only blocks for which high bids were forfeited after October 1, 1987, may be reoffered....

  17. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in...

  18. 7 CFR 1955.22 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.22 Section 1955.22 Agriculture... Real and Chattel Property § 1955.22 State supplements. State Supplements will be prepared with the... supplements will be submitted to the National Office for post approval in accordance with FmHA or...

  19. 7 CFR 1951.207 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1951.207 Section 1951.207... Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.207 State supplements. State supplements developed to carry out the... regulations. State supplements are to be used only when required by National Instructions or necessary...

  20. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  1. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  2. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  4. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... furthered by doing so even though such supplement is not required by 40 CFR 1502.9(c)(1). RUS and the... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental EIS. 1794.62 Section 1794.62 Agriculture... Supplemental EIS. (a) A supplement to a draft or final EIS shall be prepared, circulated, and given notice...

  5. Motivational Interviewing Skills are Positively Associated with Nutritionist Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira; Lockner, Donna; Kibbe, Debra; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between physical and social self-concepts, motivational interviewing (MI), and nutrition assessment skills with dimensions of counseling self-efficacy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics. Participants: Sixty-five WIC

  6. Using Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate the Efficacy of New Curricular Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drits-Esser, Dina; Bass, Kristin M.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    How can researchers in K-12 contexts stay true to the principles of rigorous evaluation designs within the constraints of classroom settings and limited funding? This paper explores this question by presenting a small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the efficacy of curricular supplemental materials on epigenetics. The

  7. Motivational Interviewing Skills are Positively Associated with Nutritionist Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira; Lockner, Donna; Kibbe, Debra; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between physical and social self-concepts, motivational interviewing (MI), and nutrition assessment skills with dimensions of counseling self-efficacy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics. Participants: Sixty-five WIC…

  8. Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

    2013-01-01

    This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

  9. Efficacy of Computer-Assisted Instruction for the Development of Early Literacy Skills in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaruso, Paul; Rodman, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined the efficacy of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to supplement a phonics-based reading curriculum for preschoolers and kindergartners in an urban public school system. The CAI programs provided exercises in phonological awareness and basic phonics skills. We compared treatment classes using CAI with control classes…

  10. Using Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate the Efficacy of New Curricular Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drits-Esser, Dina; Bass, Kristin M.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    How can researchers in K-12 contexts stay true to the principles of rigorous evaluation designs within the constraints of classroom settings and limited funding? This paper explores this question by presenting a small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the efficacy of curricular supplemental materials on epigenetics. The…

  11. Suboptimal vitamin K status despite supplementation in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis123

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A

    2010-01-01

    Background: For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear. Objective: This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8–25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements. Design: In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence–factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 mug/L)mdashwere assessed. The vitamin K supplementation groups were as follows: lt 150 mug/d (low; multivitamins or no supplement), 150–999 mug/d (middle; CF-specific vitamins), and ge 1000 mug/d (high; mephyton). %ucOC values were compared with 140 healthy subjects aged 6–21 y. Results: In subjects with CF, the median (range) %ucOC was 35% (3%, 76%) and the median (range) for PIVKA-II was 2 (0, 42) mu g/L. Subjects with CF had a higher %ucOC with low [45% (10%, 76%)] and medium [41% (3%, 66%)] supplement intakes but not with a high supplement intake [16% (4%, 72%)] compared with healthy subjects [23% (0%, 43%); both P lt 0.05]. Supplementation group for males and females and 25(OH)D and age for males were significant predictors of vitamin K status. Conclusions: Vitamin K status was often suboptimal despite routine supplementation. Only subjects taking high-dose vitamin K achieved a status similar to healthy subjects, and only the vitamin K supplementation dose predicted vitamin K status for males and females. These data suggest that higher doses of vitamin K are required. PMID:20554788

  12. Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Christofides, Anna; O'Connor, Deborah L; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline) in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 ?g folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 ?g folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22). Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490 PMID:19635145

  13. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J; Conlin, Jeremy L; Evans, Louise G; Hu, Jianwei; Blanc, Pauline C; Lafleur, Adrienne M; Menlove, Howard O; Schear, Melissa A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Croft, Stephen; Fensin, Michael L; Freeman, Corey R; Koehler, William E; Mozin, V; Sandoval, N P; Lee, T H; Cambell, L W; Cheatham, J R; Gesh, C J; Hunt, A; Ludewigt, B A; Smith, L E; Sterbentz, J

    2010-09-15

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  14. Psychology of Supplementation in Sport and Exercise: Motivational Antecedents and Biobehavioral Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Rafer; Arent, Shawn

    Research concerning the physiological and biobehavioral effects of supplements commonly used in sport or exercise settings has multiplied rapidly over the last decade. However, less attention has been directed to understanding the motivational pathways leading to sport and exercise supplement use. This chapter summarizes known usage rates for sport/fitness supplements and describes motivational theories and constructs that may be of use for understanding individuals' use of these substances. In this respect, we contend that researchers should consider behavioral approaches, the theory of planned behavior, balance theory, achievement goal theory, social physique anxiety, and muscle dysmorphia as useful for developing an understanding of the psychological influences on supplement use. For some of the latter theories/constructs, research has already shown support for their explanatory abilities, whereas research is scant and the utility for understanding sport/exercise supplement use is yet to be determined for many of the theories. In addition to describing the motivation behind supplement use, this chapter summarizes the biobehavioral effects of a select group of supplements commonly used to improve performance, fitness, or health. Specifically, we consider psychobiological effects of caffeine, creatine, Ginkgo biloba, and St. John's wort related to enhanced arousal, improved memory and cognition, enhanced brain function and protection, and reduced depression. There is promising initial evidence for the efficacy of these compounds in producing favorable psychological outcomes, although certain shortcomings of many studies on these compounds must be taken into account before reaching definitive conclusions.

  15. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation During Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Mridul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Loss of bone mineral density is an unintended consequence of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Supplementation with calcium and/or vitamin D in these men seems logical and is advocated by many lay and professional groups. Methods. We reviewed guidelines for calcium and vitamin D supplementation and the results of clinical trials of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy. Results. Whether supplementation of men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy with calcium and/or vitamin D results in higher bone mineral density than no supplementation has not been tested. The results of 12 clinical trials show that, at the doses commonly recommended, 500–1,000 mg calcium and 200–500 IU vitamin D per day, men undergoing androgen deprivation lose bone mineral density. Conclusion. The doses of calcium and vitamin D that have been tested are inadequate to prevent loss of bone mineral density in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy. In light of evidence that high levels of dietary calcium and calcium supplement use are associated with higher risks for cardiovascular disease and advanced prostate cancer, intervention studies should evaluate the safety as well as the efficacy of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in these men. PMID:22836449

  16. Clinical trials of vitamin and mineral supplements for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Peter; Anderson, Darrell; Nelson, Stefanie A; Taylor, Philip R

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 20-30% of Americans consume multivitamin supplements daily, indicating high public interest in the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases through a nutrition-based approach. Although several bioactive food components, including vitamins and minerals, have been investigated for their ability to affect cancer risk, few large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of multivitamins with cancer as the primary endpoint have been performed. The results of most large-scale trials of multivitamin supplements (combinations of > or = 2 vitamins and minerals) to prevent cancer have been mixed. The Linxian General Population and Dysplasia trials found a decreased risk of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, for participants taking a multivitamin supplement, but this was in a borderline-deficient population in China. Two trials, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study and the beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, found an increased risk of lung cancer among male cigarette smokers or asbestos-exposed persons taking beta-carotene-a surprising result, considering that most epidemiologic studies have suggested that consumption of fruit and vegetables appears to lower cancer risk. To clarify the effects of multivitamin supplements, several large randomized clinical trials are underway, including the Physicians' Health Study II, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial, and a European study, Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI. MAX). Because epidemiologic studies generally evaluate foods rather than specific bioactive food components, a systematic approach to determining how combinations of vitamins and minerals may interact to ameliorate cancer risk is necessary to further our understanding of the potential benefits and risks of supplement use. PMID:17209217

  17. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  18. Teacher Efficacy: A Research Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahid, Julia; Thompson, David

    This study synthesized research on teacher efficacy. A 14-stage model was implemented to identify and analyze characteristics found in the synthesis population of 89 primary studies which addressed teacher efficacy. The 89 primary studies yielded 789 distinct and 973 total research hypotheses; 25 distinct and 973 total teacher efficacy constructs;…

  19. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-03-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

  20. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

  1. A synthetic stimulant never tested in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is identified in multiple dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic stimulant never before studied in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), was suspected of being present in dietary supplements. DMBA is an analogue of the pharmaceutical stimulant, 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA), which was recently banned by the US Food and Drug Administration. We obtained all dietary supplements sold by US distributors that listed an ingredient on the label, such as AMP Citrate, that might be a marketing name for DMBA. Supplements were analyzed for the presence and quantity of DMBA. Fourteen supplements met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed by two separate laboratories using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometry and a reference standard. The identity of DMBA was confirmed in 12 supplements in the range of 13 to 120?mg DMBA per serving. Following recommendations on the supplement label for maximum daily intake, customers would consume from 26 to 320?mg of DMBA per day. Supplements containing DMBA were marketed to improve athletic performance, increase weight loss and enhance brain function. DMBA has never before been detected in supplements. The stimulant has never been studied in humans; its efficacy and safety are entirely unknown. Regulatory agencies should act expeditiously to warn consumers and remove DMBA from all dietary supplements. PMID:25293509

  2. Fitness supplements as a gateway substance for anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Harty, Seth; Langenbucher, James W

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 3.0% of young Americans have used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). A traditional model of adolescent substance use, the gateway hypothesis, suggests that drug use follows a chronological, causal sequence, whereby initial use of a specific drug leads to an increased likelihood of future drug use. Therefore, the use of illicit appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APED), such as AASs, also follows an analogous progression, whereby legal APEDs, (e.g., nutritional supplements) precedes illicit APED use. We examined the relationship between nutritional supplement use, beliefs about APEDs, and APED use in 201 male (n = 100) and female (n = 101) undergraduates. Participants completed measures of muscle dysmorphia (MDDI), body checking (BCQ, MBCQ), eating disorder symptoms (EDE-Q), perfectionism (FMPS), positive beliefs about the efficacy-safety of AAS use and APED use patterns. A series of covariance structure models (CSM) showed body image disturbance, compulsive exercise, illicit drug use, and perfectionism, independent of gender, were significant predictors of positive beliefs about AAS. Those who used both fat burning and muscle building supplements reported the strongest beliefs in AAS efficacy-safety, which was associated with higher likelihood of current illicit APED use. There was evidence of significant indirect relationships between supplement use and illicit APED use through contact with other AAS users and beliefs about AAS. The potential role for nutritional supplement use in the initiation of illegal APED use is discussed. Future prevention efforts may benefit from targeting legal APED users in youth. PMID:22486333

  3. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  4. Combination antibiotic supplementation of corneal storage medium.

    PubMed

    Hwang, D G; Nakamura, T; Trousdale, M D; Smith, T M

    1993-03-15

    Gram-positive cocci frequently contaminate donor corneal tissue and represent the most common cause of postkeratoplasty endophthalmitis. Although gentamicin is currently added to corneal storage medium in an effort to decrease bacterial contamination of donor tissue, it has poor or variable in vitro activity against many strains of streptococci and staphylococci. To investigate whether the antibiotic supplementation of corneal storage media could be improved, we surveyed 11 antibiotics for antimicrobial efficacy under simulated storage conditions against gentamicin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and St. viridans. All antibiotics showed markedly reduced activity at 4 C as compared to their predicted activity at 37 C. Bactericidal activity of streptomycin and tobramycin was enhanced by preceding 4 C storage with a three-hour period at room temperature (23 C). Under these conditions, streptomycin showed the best antimicrobial activity of the 11 antibiotics tested. Addition of gentamicin to streptomycin resulted in further improvement of activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, whereas the addition of penicillin G to streptomycin enhanced the activity against St. viridans. Optimal antibiotic activity (99% or more killing) against all four isolates of gentamicin-resistant gram-positive cocci was best achieved with the combination of gentamicin, streptomycin, and penicillin G, coupled with a three-hour period at room temperature before 4 C storage. PMID:8442488

  5. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  6. Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part II: Efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    This is the second of two papers which review issues concerning complementary medicines. The first reviewed the extent of use of complementary medicines, and issues related to the regulation and pharmaceutical quality of these products; the second considers evidence for the efficacy of several well-known complementary medicines, and discusses complementary-medicines pharmacovigilance. The term complementary medicines describes a range of pharmaceutical-type preparations, including herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils and dietary supplements, which mainly sit outside conventional medicine. The use of complementary medicines is a popular healthcare approach in the UK, and there are signs that the use of such products is continuing to increase. Patients and the public use complementary medicines for health maintenance, for the treatment or prevention of minor ailments, and also for serious, chronic illnesses. There is a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews to support the efficacy of certain herbal extracts and dietary supplements in particular conditions. However, many other preparations remain untested. Strictly speaking, evidence of efficacy (and safety) for herbal medicines should be considered to be extract specific. Pharmacovigilance for complementary medicines is in its infancy. Data are lacking in several areas relevant to safety. Standard pharmacovigilance tools have additional limitations when applied to investigating safety concerns with complementary medicines. PMID:12680880

  7. Chromium Supplementation Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdourahman, Aicha; Edwards, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chromium supplementation (Cr) may be useful in the management of diabetes and appears to improve some aspects of glucose handling. However, several studies have used either high doses of Cr supplementation or have placed control animals on a Cr-deficient diet. We therefore wanted to test whether Cr dosages in the ranges that more closely approximate recommended levels of supplementation in humans are efficacious in glycemic control under normal dietary conditions. Euglycemic Wistar or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (a model of nonobese NIDDM) were assigned to water (control) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation (1 or 10 mg/kg/day) groups for up to 32 weeks. Glucose tolerance was tested following an overnight fast by injecting sterile glucose (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) and then measuring blood glucose at select times to determine the sensitivity to glucose by calculation of the area under the curve. Cr-P did not significantly alter the growth of the animals. In the euglycemic Wistar rats, Cr-P supplementation did not alter the response to a glucose tolerance test. In the GK rats, Cr-P supplementation significantly improved glucose tolerance at both levels of Cr-P supplementation (1 mg/kg/day: H20; 100 ± 11%; Cr-P 70 6 8%; 10 mg/kg/day: H20; 100 ± 10%; Cr-P 66 ± 9 %). Cr-P supplementation produced a small improvement in some indices of glycemic control. There were no differences observed for the two levels of Cr-P supplementation suggested that we did not identify a threshold for Cr-P effects, and future studies may use lower doses to find a threshold effect for improving glucose tolerance in diabetics. PMID:18629917

  8. Benefits of antioxidant supplements for knee osteoarthritis: rationale and reality.

    PubMed

    Grover, Ashok Kumar; Samson, Sue E

    2016-01-01

    Arthritis causes disability due to pain and inflammation in joints. There are many forms of arthritis, one of which is osteoarthritis whose prevalence increases with age. It occurs in various joints including hip, knee and hand with knee osteoarthritis being more prevalent. There is no cure for it. The management strategies include exercise, glucosamine plus chondroitin sulfate and NSAIDs. In vitro and animal studies provide a rationale for the use of antioxidant supplements for its management. This review assesses the reality of the benefits of antioxidant supplements in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Several difficulties were encountered in examining this issue: poorly conducted studies, a lack of uniformity in disease definition and diagnosis, and muddling of conclusions from attempts to isolate the efficacious molecules. The antioxidant supplements with most evidence for benefit for pain relief and function in knee osteoarthritis were based on curcumin and avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables. Boswellia and some herbs used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine may also be useful. The benefits of cuisines with the appropriate antioxidants should be assessed because they may be more economical and easier to incorporate into the lifestyle. PMID:26728196

  9. Iodine Supplementation: Usage “with a Grain of Salt”

    PubMed Central

    Prete, Alessandro; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used “with a grain of salt,” because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders. PMID:25873950

  10. The role of enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders.

    PubMed

    Roxas, Mario

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews various forms of enzyme supplementation used clinically in digestive and absorption disorders. Enzyme supplementation plays an integral role in the management of various digestive disorders, particularly with regard to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. However, application of enzymes may also be beneficial for other conditions associated with poor digestion including lactose intolerance. Historically, porcine and bovine pancreatic enzymes have been the preferred form of supplementation for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Use of microbe-derived lipase has shown promise with studies indicating benefit similar to pancreatic enzymes, but at a lower dosage concentration and with a broader pH range. Safety and efficacy of enzymes derived from microbial species in the treatment of conditions such as malabsorption and lactose intolerance is promising. Plant-based enzymes, such as bromelain from pineapple, serve as effective digestive aids in the breakdown of proteins. Synergistic effects have been observed using a combination of animal-based enzymes and microbe-derived enzymes or bromelain. PMID:19152478

  11. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  12. Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Pawluczyk, Izabella Z A; Najafabadi, Maryam G; Brown, Jeremy R; Bevington, Alan; Topham, Peter S

    2015-09-01

    Defects in sialylation are known to have serious consequences on podocyte function leading to collapse of the glomerular filtration barrier and the development of proteinuria. However, the cellular processes underlying aberrant sialylation in renal disease are inadequately defined. We have shown in cultured human podocytes that puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) downregulates enzymes involved in sialic acid metabolism and redox homeostasis and these can be rescued by co-treatment with free sialic acid. The aim of the current study was to ascertain whether sialic acid supplementation could improve renal function and attenuate desialylation in an in vivo model of proteinuria (PAN nephrosis) and to delineate the possible mechanisms involved. PAN nephrotic rats were supplemented with free sialic acid, its precursor N-acetyl mannosamine or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Glomeruli, urine, and sera were examined for evidence of kidney injury and therapeutic efficacy. Of the three treatment regimens, sialic acid had the broadest efficacy in attenuating PAN-induced injury. Proteinuria and urinary nephrin loss were reduced. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that podocyte ultrastructure, exhibited less severe foot process effacement. PAN-induced oxidative stress was ameliorated as evidenced by a reduction in glomerular NOX4 expression and a downregulation of urine xanthine oxidase levels. Sialylation dysfunction was improved as indicated by reduced urinary concentrations of free sialic acid, restored electrophoretic mobility of podocalyxin, and improved expression of a sialyltransferase. These data indicate that PAN induces alterations in the expression of enzymes involved in redox control and sialoglycoprotein metabolism, which can be ameliorated by sialic acid supplementation possibly via its properties as both an antioxidant and a substrate for sialylation. PMID:26121320

  13. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D requirements have become one of the most highly debated and controversial topics in nutrition. Recommendations for vitamin D intake during pregnancy are a central part of this discussion. The publication of a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women by Hollis and cow...

  14. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  15. Hydrogen supplemented diesel electric locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.B.

    1983-05-03

    A system is disclosed for using internally generated electricity as the power to operate an electrolysis cell for the production of hydrogen gas. This hydrogen gas would be stored under pressure and used on demand as a fuel supplement as for hill ascension by a diesel locomotive.

  16. New supplements to infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved. PMID:16429109

  17. Media Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The 24 reviews in this article include textbooks on journalism and media studies; multimedia kits on advertising, TV news, reporting, and the "grammar" of media; resources on making ad interpreting films in the classroom; supplements on writing for both print and nonprint media; and professional references on improving visual literacy. (Editor)

  18. Aerospell Supplemental Spell Check File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospell is a supplemental spell check file that can be used as a resource for researchers, writers, editors, students, and others who compose scientific and technical texts. The file extends the general spell check dictionaries of word processors by adding more than 13,000 words used in a broad range of aerospace and related disciplines.

  19. Putting science behind botanical supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the goals and activities of the Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements at Iowa State University and the University of Iowa, a multidisciplinary effort to investigate the bioactivity and bioavailability of three genera of medicinal plants: Echinacea, Hypericum, and...

  20. How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary “choices” were ...

  1. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

  2. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

  3. Progress in Developing Dietary Supplement Databases: The Analytically Validated Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) and Dietary Supplement Label Databases (DSLD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although an estimated 50% of the US population consumes dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on bioactive constituents in them are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database deve...

  4. On fish oil and omega-3 supplementation in children: the role of such supplementation on attention and cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gadoth, Natan

    2008-05-01

    In recent years we are facing a dramatic rise in the use of "behind the counter" medications to combat aging and improve memory and life quality. Many parents to children with learning difficulties, behavioral aberrations and those who are diagnosed with developmental disorders such as attention deficit, poor motor coordination and pervasive disorder are frequently advised by both professionals and lay persons to supplement their children with fish oil and or commercial preparations of omega-3, omega-6, or both polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in various combinations. The common logic is that "being a natural product, even if it does not help it should be safe to use". Indeed, this statement may well be true. In this paper a short description of the basic biochemistry and physiology of PUFA will be followed by a critical review of the presently known "evidence based" data on the value of this popular supplementation. At present the theoretical basis for supplementing children with the developmental disorders mentioned above is shaky and the evidence for its efficacy is still in doubt. PMID:18006261

  5. IND/NDA process

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, R.; Kawin, B.

    1981-06-01

    This summary provides a brief, general discussion of new drug applications, the reasons for their submission to FDA, and general features of their evaluation by FDA. The generic statutory and regulatory foundation that underlies the purposes and implements the development and testing of new drugs is briefly outlined.

  6. Depleted uranium disposition study -- Supplement, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Weapons and Materials Planning has requested a supplemental study to update the recent Depleted Uranium Disposition report. This supplemental study addresses new disposition alternatives and changes in status.

  7. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  8. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental rules. 1280.96 Section 1280.96 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA...? § 1280.96 Supplemental rules. Library directors may establish appropriate supplemental rules...

  10. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under section 23 of the Act, the...

  11. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment....

  12. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an...

  13. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an...

  14. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an MA organization...

  15. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an...

  16. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an MA organization may... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section...

  17. 27 CFR 70.73 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental assessments... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Assessment § 70.73 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is... period of limitation, may make a supplemental assessment for the purpose of correcting or completing...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.96 - Supplemental rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental rules. 1280.96... FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Additional Rules Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential Libraries? § 1280.96 Supplemental rules. Library directors may establish appropriate supplemental rules...

  19. 31 CFR 10.65 - Supplemental charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.65 Supplemental charges. (a) In general. The Director of the Office of Professional Responsibility may file supplemental charges, by... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental charges. 10.65...

  20. 20 CFR 226.16 - Supplemental annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental annuity. 226.16 Section 226.16... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.16 Supplemental annuity. A supplemental annuity is payable in addition to tiers I and II and the vested dual benefit to...

  1. 47 CFR 61.86 - Supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplements. 61.86 Section 61.86... Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.86 Supplements. An issuing carrier may not file a supplement except to suspend or cancel a tariff publication, or to defer...

  2. 47 CFR 61.86 - Supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplements. 61.86 Section 61.86... Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.86 Supplements. A carrier may not file a supplement except to suspend or cancel a tariff publication, or to defer the effective...

  3. 14 CFR 221.81 - Suspension supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suspension supplement. 221.81 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Suspension of Tariff Provisions by Department § 221.81 Suspension supplement. (a) Suspension supplement. Upon receipt of an order of the Department suspending any...

  4. 14 CFR 221.81 - Suspension supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension supplement. 221.81 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Suspension of Tariff Provisions by Department § 221.81 Suspension supplement. (a) Suspension supplement. Upon receipt of an order of the Department suspending any...

  5. 14 CFR 221.81 - Suspension supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Suspension supplement. 221.81 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Suspension of Tariff Provisions by Department § 221.81 Suspension supplement. (a) Suspension supplement. Upon receipt of an order of the Department suspending any...

  6. 14 CFR 221.81 - Suspension supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suspension supplement. 221.81 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Suspension of Tariff Provisions by Department § 221.81 Suspension supplement. (a) Suspension supplement. Upon receipt of an order of the Department suspending any...

  7. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment...

  8. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment...

  9. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment...

  10. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.809 Supplemental treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment...

  11. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  12. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  13. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  14. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  15. 21 CFR 814.39 - PMA supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PMA supplements. 814.39 Section 814.39 Food and... PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Premarket Approval Application (PMA) § 814.39 PMA supplements. (a) After FDA's approval of a PMA, an applicant shall submit a PMA supplement for review and approval by...

  16. National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Dietary Supplements Office of Dietary Supplements Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know ODS experts are featured in this 2-minute video introduction ...

  17. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

  18. Efficacy testing of disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Stephen F

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has the responsibility for regulating antimicrobial products, including sporicides, used to treat and decontaminate inanimate surfaces. In response to the anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) attacks of 2001 and the associated need for verifying the performance of chemicals for building decontamination, the EPA initiated research in late 2003 to evaluate and improve efficacy test methods for sporicides. The OPP Microbiology Laboratory located at the Environmental Science Center, Ft. Meade, MD is the lead laboratory. Through funding provided by EPA's Office of Research and Development (Safe Buildings Program), a collaborative research plan has been established to address several key issues. Research is currently being conducted on 2 fronts: (1) the evaluation of quantitative methodology for assessing the efficacy of sporicides, and (2) the development and comparative testing of selected modifications to improve the AOAC Sporicidal Activity Test (AOAC Method 966.04). Future studies will include the evaluation of candidate surrogates of B. anthracis using a quantitative method, and a multilaboratory validation study of a quantitative method-surrogate combination. The General Referee is serving as the Principal Investigator for all research described in this report, and has the overall responsibility for the technical conduct of the projects. In cases where the General Referee has oversight of projects that involve official collaborative studies and validation support from AOAC INTERNATIONAL, AOAC officials and the Committee Chair will determine the appropriate mechanism for formal study review. The 2003 General Referee report provides the background on the development and direction of the research projects. The preliminary data, general conclusions, next steps, and recommendations are provided in this report. PMID:15759761

  19. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  20. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-03-01

    Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs. PMID:23117836

  1. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed. PMID:26074745

  2. Synthetic androgens as designer supplements.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed. PMID:26074745

  3. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J

    1995-06-01

    Creatine phosphate allows high rates of adenosine triphosphate resynthesis to occur in muscle and therefore plays a vital role in the performance of high-intensity exercise. Recent studies have shown that feeding large amounts of creatine (typically 20 g per day for 5 days) increases muscle total creatine (and phosphocreatine) content. The extent of the increase that is normally observed is inversely related to the presupplementation level. Vegetarians, who have a very low dietary creatine intake, generally show the largest increases. Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase performance in situations where the availability of creatine phosphate is important; thus, performance is improved in very high-intensity exercise and especially where repeated sprints are performed with short recovery periods. Creatine supplementation is widely practiced by athletes in many sports and does not contravene current doping regulations. There are no reports of harmful side effects at the recommended dosage. PMID:7670456

  4. Nutrition supplementation for diabetic wound healing: a systematic review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Maier, Haiyan M; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Spicer, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    There are 25.8 million people with diabetes in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet). This number is expected to increase by 1 million per year. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) occur in patients with a history of poorly controlled blood glucose. Almost 30% of people with diabetes aged 40 years or older experience DFUs caused by an impaired nerve sensation. It is one of the more persistent types of chronic wounds, which poses an economic burden on individuals and society and reduces the quality of life of patients and their families. This paper reviews the efficacy of nutrition supplementation in diabetic wound healing, including both human and animal studies. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methods, the search was conducted in PubMed and ISI's Web of Science databases. Studies in which diabetic wounds/foot ulcers were treated with specific nutritional or herbal suplements were selected. This review includes 4 human and 9 animal studies that met the criteria of the search. Positive outcomes in the human studies were not significant while the nutritional supplements used in the animal studies were effective and promoted wound healing. The most notable effect of supplementation with curcumin, L-Arginine, or vitamin E have been shown in animal sudies. More human studies need to be conducted to determine the efficacy of these nutritional supplements in promoting wound healing. PMID:24053007

  5. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN), and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol (IX) and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol (XN), all of which were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. PMID:24861737

  6. Oral protein-energy supplements for children with chronic disease: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Poustie, Vanessa J; Watling, Ruth M; Smyth, Rosalind L

    2003-11-01

    Growth failure and poor nutritional status are features of children with chronic disease. Oral protein-energy supplements are one of a number of interventions provided with the aim of improving nutritional status in these children. The present paper describes a Cochrane systematic review assessing the efficacy of these products in children with chronic disease. The objective was to examine the evidence that in children with chronic disease oral protein-energy supplements alter nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life. All randomised controlled trials of the use of oral protein-energy supplements in children with chronic disease were identified through searching electronic databases and hand searching the abstract books of nutrition conferences. Studies identified were independently assessed for eligibility and methodological quality, and data on outcomes of interest were combined in a meta-analysis where possible. Two trials were eligible for inclusion in the review, both of which were undertaken with children with cystic fibrosis. No statistical differences could be found between treatment and control groups when data from both studies were combined. Oral protein-energy supplements are widely used to improve the nutritional status of children with chronic disease. No conclusions can be drawn on the efficacy of these products based on the limited data available. Further randomised controlled trials are required to investigate the use of these products in children with chronic disease. Until further data are available, these products should be used with caution. PMID:15018478

  7. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. PMID:24861737

  8. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  9. Teacher Efficacy Measurement and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    Research on the concept of teacher efficacy spans over 20 years, but much remains to be learned. Although precise definitions of the concept have always been problematic, in general, teacher efficacy is defined as teacher's belief or conviction that they can influence how well students learn (T. Guskey and P. Passaro, 1994). Efforts to clarify the…

  10. Evidence-Based Approach to Fiber Supplements and Clinically Meaningful Health Benefits, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    McRorie, Johnson W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fiber that is intrinsic and intact in fiber-rich foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains) is widely recognized to have beneficial effects on health when consumed at recommended levels (25 g/d for adult women, 38 g/d for adult men). Most (90%) of the US population does not consume this level of dietary fiber, averaging only 15 g/d. In an attempt to bridge this “fiber gap,” many consumers are turning to fiber supplements, which are typically isolated from a single source. Fiber supplements cannot be presumed to provide the health benefits that are associated with dietary fiber from whole foods. Of the fiber supplements on the market today, only a minority possess the physical characteristics that underlie the mechanisms driving clinically meaningful health benefits. The first part (current issue) of this 2-part series will focus on the 4 main characteristics of fiber supplements that drive clinical efficacy (solubility, degree/rate of fermentation, viscosity, and gel formation), the 4 clinically meaningful designations that identify which health benefits are associated with specific fibers, and the gel-dependent mechanisms in the small bowel that drive specific health benefits (eg, cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control). The second part (next issue) of this 2-part series will focus on the effects of fiber supplements in the large bowel, including the 2 mechanisms by which fiber prevents/relieves constipation (insoluble mechanical irritant and soluble gel-dependent water-holding capacity), the gel-dependent mechanism for attenuating diarrhea and normalizing stool form in irritable bowel syndrome, and the combined large bowel/small bowel fiber effects for weight loss/maintenance. The second part will also discuss how processing for marketed products can attenuate efficacy, why fiber supplements can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, and how to avoid symptoms for better long-term compliance. PMID:25972618

  11. Evidence-Based Approach to Fiber Supplements and Clinically Meaningful Health Benefits, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    McRorie, Johnson W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fiber that is intrinsic and intact in fiber-rich foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains) is widely recognized to have beneficial effects on health when consumed at recommended levels (25 g/d for adult women, 38 g/d for adult men). Most (90%) of the US population does not consume this level of dietary fiber, averaging only 15 g/d. In an attempt to bridge this “fiber gap,” many consumers are turning to fiber supplements, which are typically isolated from a single source. Fiber supplements cannot be presumed to provide the health benefits that are associated with dietary fiber from whole foods. Of the fiber supplements on the market today, only a minority possess the physical characteristics that underlie the mechanisms driving clinically meaningful health benefits. In this 2-part series, the first part (previous issue) described the 4 main characteristics of fiber supplements that drive clinical efficacy (solubility, degree/rate of fermentation, viscosity, and gel formation), the 4 clinically meaningful designations that identify which health benefits are associated with specific fibers, and the gel-dependent mechanisms in the small bowel that drive specific health benefits (eg, cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control). The second part (current issue) of this 2-part series will focus on the effects of fiber supplements in the large bowel, including the 2 mechanisms by which fiber prevents/relieves constipation (insoluble mechanical irritant and soluble gel-dependent water-holding capacity), the gel-dependent mechanism for attenuating diarrhea and normalizing stool form in irritable bowel syndrome, and the combined large bowel/small bowel fiber effects for weight loss/maintenance. The second part will also discuss how processing for marketed products can attenuate efficacy, why fiber supplements can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, and how to avoid symptoms for better long-term compliance. PMID:25972619

  12. Clenbuterol marketed as dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria K; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Guddat, Sven; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2008-03-01

    In several studies it has been demonstrated that products containing pharmaceutically active ingredients are marketed as dietary supplements. Most of these products contain anabolic steroids. Recently products for weight loss containing active drugs have also appeared on the market. In the present case a healthy male ordered the product 'Anabolic burner' via the Internet. The product was received from a German dispatcher and paid by bank transfer to a German bank account. After ingesting one tablet he reported tremor and delivered a urine sample. This urine was found to contain 2 ng/mL of clenbuterol utilizing LC-MS/MS analysis. Additionally the product itself was analyzed with GC-MS for clenbuterol, yielding a content of about 30 microg per tablet. The beta-2 agonist clenbuterol is only legally available on prescription and is classified as prohibited doping substance in sports. The present case for the first time confirms the presence of clenbuterol in a dietary supplement. It again demonstrates the common problem with products on the supplement market, where non-licensed pharmaceuticals and doping substances are easily available. The ingestion of these products containing additions of therapeutic drugs can lead to side effects and/or interactions with conventional medicines. PMID:17939172

  13. Malignant hypertension and acute aortic dissection associated with caffeine-based ephedra-free dietary supplements: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imdad

    2009-01-01

    The use of weight loss dietary supplements is prevalent in the United States, and over the past decade, there has been tremendous growth of the use of these products. It is well documented that ephedra-based products are associated with various cardiovascular adverse effects. With new restrictions placed on such products, companies are now manufacturing caffeine-based ephedra-free herbal supplements. We present the case of 36-year old, previously healthy female who developed malignant hypertension and aortic dissection while taking various caffeine-based dietary supplements. Given the lack of research studies in regards to their safety and efficacy, judicious care should be taken with the use of dietary supplements, including those designated as ephedra-free. PMID:20181166

  14. FDA hearing highlights opposition to dietary supplement practices; written comments due August 20. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-08-01

    A July 1999 FDA hearing on dietary supplements revealed vehement opposition to the free rein regulations that are given to the dietary supplements industry. Unless abuses in the industry are somehow curbed, congressional action may occur. Industry representatives at an earlier FDA meeting criticized the agency for not cracking down on fraudulent or improper health-food products. It was suggested that the National Institutes of Health research the safety and efficacy of these products, with possible fees assessed from industry. The FDA has requested public feedback on how it should regulate the dietary supplement industry. Such regulation may make some supplements unavailable at any price in the United States, which could potentially harm people with serious illness. The key issue is how to halt unethical marketing while maintaining public access. PMID:11366575

  15. Malignant hypertension and acute aortic dissection associated with caffeine-based ephedra-free dietary supplements: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The use of weight loss dietary supplements is prevalent in the United States, and over the past decade, there has been tremendous growth of the use of these products. It is well documented that ephedra-based products are associated with various cardiovascular adverse effects. With new restrictions placed on such products, companies are now manufacturing caffeine-based ephedra-free herbal supplements. We present the case of 36-year old, previously healthy female who developed malignant hypertension and aortic dissection while taking various caffeine-based dietary supplements. Given the lack of research studies in regards to their safety and efficacy, judicious care should be taken with the use of dietary supplements, including those designated as ephedra-free. PMID:20181166

  16. Creatine as nutritional supplementation and medicinal product.

    PubMed

    Benzi, G; Ceci, A

    2001-03-01

    Because of assumed ergogenic effects, the creatine administration has become popular practice among subjects participating in different sports. Appropriate creatine monohydrate dosage may be considered a medicinal product since, in accordance with the Council Directive 65/65/EEC, any substance which may be administered with a view to restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions in humans beings is considered a medicinal product. Thus, quality, efficacy and safety must characterise the substance. In addition, the European Court of Justice has held that a product which is recommended or described as having preventive or curative properties is a medicinal product even if it is generally considered as a foodstuff and even if it has no known therapeutic effect in the present state of scientific knowledge. In biochemical terms, creatine administration increases creatine and phosphocreatine muscle concentration, allowing for an accelerated rate of ATP synthesis. In thermodynamics terms, creatine stimulates the creatine-creatine kinase-phosphocreatine circuit, which is related to the mitochondrial function as a highly organised system for the control of the subcellular adenylate pool. In pharmacokinetics terms, creatine entry into skeletal muscle is initially dependent on the extracellular concentration, but the creatine transport is subsequently downregulated. In pharmacodynamics terms, the creatine enhances the possibility to maintain power output during brief periods of high-intensity exercises. In spite of uncontrolled daily dosage and long-term administration, no researches on creatine monohydrate safety in humans were set up by standardised protocols of clinical pharmacology and toxicology, as currently occurs in phases I and II for products for human use. More or less documented side effects induced by creatine monohydrate are weight gain; influence on insulin production; feedback inhibition of endogenous creatine synthesis; long-term damages on renal function. A major point that related to the quality of creatine monohydrate products is the amount of creatine ingested in relation to the amount of contaminants present. During the industrial production of creatine monohydrate from sarcosine and cyanamide, variable amounts of contaminants (dicyandiamide, dihydrotriazines, creatinine, ions) are generated and, thus, their tolerable concentrations (ppm) must be defined and made consumers known. Furthermore, because sarcosine could originate from bovine tissues, the risk of contamination with prion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad-cow disease) can t be excluded. Thus, French authorities forbade the sale of products containing creatine. Creatine, as other nutritional factors, can be used either at supplementary or therapeutic levels as a function of the dose. Supplementary doses of nutritional factors usually are of the order of the daily turnover, while therapeutic ones are three or more times higher. In a subject of 70 kg with a total creatine pool of 120 g, the daily turnover is approximately of 2 g. Thus, in healthy subjects nourished with fat-rich, carbohydrate, protein-poor diet and participating in a daily recreational sport, the oral creatine monohydrate supplementation should be of the order of the daily turnover, i.e., less than 2.5-3 g per day, bringing the gastrointestinal absorption to account. In healthy athletes submitted daily to high-intensity strength or sprint training, the maximal oral creatine monohydrate supplementation should be of the order of two times the daily turnover, i.e., less than 5-6 g per day for less than two weeks, and the creatine monohydrate supplementation should be taken under appropriate medical supervision. The oral administration of more that 6 g per day of creatine monohydrate should be considered as a therapeutic intervention and should be prescribed by physicians only in the cases of suspected or proven deficiency, or in conditions of severe stress and/or injury. The incorporation of creatine into the medicinal product class is supported also by the use in pathological conditions, e.g., some mitochondrial cytopathies, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, etc. PMID:11317142

  17. Supplement use by women during pregnancy: data from the Massachusetts General Hospital National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Marlene P; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z; Moustafa, Danna; Viguera, Adele C; Cohen, Lee S

    2016-06-01

    Women of reproductive age commonly use integrative treatments. However, the reproductive safety for most complementary products lacks systematic study. We aimed to study the use of supplements by women in a prospective pregnancy registry. The Massachusetts General Hospital National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics was established to evaluate the reproductive safety of atypical antipsychotics. Exposed and control participants were systematically queried about the use of vitamins and supplements. Slightly greater than half (53.2 %) of the participants eligible for analysis (N = 534) were using at least one vitamin or supplement at the time of enrollment, not including prenatal vitamins or folic acid. The most common supplements used were omega-3 fatty acids (38.0 %), vitamin D (11.0 %), calcium (8.2 %), and iron (4.7 %). Probiotics and melatonin were used by 2.6 and 0.9 %, respectively. In this prospective pregnancy registry, we found that over half of the participants were taking supplements or vitamins other than prenatal vitamins and folic acid. These findings underscore the need for active query on the part of health care providers about the use of supplements during pregnancy, and the need to obtain rigorous reproductive safety and efficacy data for supplements used by pregnant women and reproductive aged women. PMID:26472040

  18. Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

  19. Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Rashti, Stefanie L; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of 15 days of betaine supplementation on muscle endurance, power performance and rate of fatigue in active college-aged men. Methods Twenty-four male subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group (BET; 20.4 ± 1.3 years; height: 176.8 ± 6.6 cm; body mass: 77.8 ± 13.4 kg) consumed the supplement daily, and the second group (PL; 21.4 ± 4.7 years; height: 181.3 ± 5.9 cm; body mass: 83.3 ± 5.2 kg) consumed a placebo. Subjects were tested prior to the onset of supplementation (T1) and 7 (T2) and 14 days (T3) following supplementation. Each testing period occurred over a 2-day period. During day one of testing subjects performed a vertical jump power (VJP) and a bench press throw (BPT) power test. In addition, subjects were required to perform as many repetitions as possible with 75% of their 1-RM in both the squat and bench press exercises. Both peak and mean power was assessed on each repetition. On day two of testing subjects performed two 30-sec Wingate anaerobic power tests (WAnT), each test separated by a 5-min active rest. Results No differences were seen at T2 or T3 in the repetitions performed to exhaustion or in the number of repetitions performed at 90% of both peak and mean power between the groups in the bench press exercise. The number of repetitions performed in the squat exercise for BET was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that seen for PL at T2. The number of repetitions performed at 90% or greater of peak power in the squat exercise was significantly greater for BET at both T2 and T3 than PL. No differences in any power assessment (VJP, BPT, WAnT) was seen between the groups Conclusion Two-weeks of betaine supplementation in active, college males appeared to improve muscle endurance of the squat exercise, and increase the quality of repetitions performed. PMID:19250531

  20. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Aya; Misso, Marie; Teede, Helena; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extraskeletal role of vitamin D is being increasingly recognised. This has important clinical implications, as vitamin D deficiency has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Vitamin D has proposed anti-inflammatory properties, yet the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing inflammation remains largely unknown. The purpose of this review is to investigate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation, and to identify relevant knowledge gaps in the field. Methods and analysis Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and All EBM will be systematically searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs, comparing vitamin D supplementation with placebo, usual care or other pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. One reviewer will assess articles for eligibility according to prespecified selection criteria, after which 2 independent reviewers will perform data extraction and quality appraisal. Meta-analyses will be conducted where appropriate. Ethics and dissemination Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data is collected. This systematic review will identify potential clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation, and will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and at conference meetings, to inform future research on the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for inflammation and inflammatory diseases. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016037104. PMID:27048637

  1. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women1234

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Addison A; Smith, E O'Brian; Barnes, Stephen; Hachey, David L

    2012-01-01

    Background: Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure remains unknown. Objective: The objective was to test the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide production and blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. Design: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled 6-wk trial was conducted to assess the effects of daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones (in aglycone units) on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in 24 menopausal women with 12 women per group. Changes in nitric oxide metabolism were assessed via a primed, constant-infusion protocol with [15N]arginine and [13C]- and [2H]citrulline. Changes in blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics were assessed via office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, forearm blood flow, and indexes of arterial compliance. Results: When compared with placebo and after control for pretreatment values, soy isoflavone supplementation had no effect on arginine flux, citrulline flux, nitric oxide synthesis, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, or estimates of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 80 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones over a 6-wk period had no effect on nitric oxide metabolism or blood pressure and associated vascular hemodynamics in menopausal women with high normal blood pressure. PMID:22552034

  2. Effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on visual and cognitive development throughout childhood: a review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Eilander, A; Hundscheid, D C; Osendarp, S J; Transler, C; Zock, P L

    2007-04-01

    The present paper evaluates the most recent randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation (with or without n-6 LCPUFA) during pregnancy, lactation, infancy and childhood on visual and cognitive development. Available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on cognitive development of infants and children, but not for visual development. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm and term infants on cognitive development of infants remains inconclusive. However, supplementing term infants with daily doses of 100 mg docosahexaenoic acid plus 200 mg arachidonic acid improves visual development as measured by electrophysiological tests. Evidence for benefits of n-3 LCPUFA on cognitive development in healthy children older than 2 years of age is too limited to allow a clear conclusion. Taken together, the evidence for potential benefits of LCPUFA supplementation is promising but yet inconclusive. PMID:17376662

  3. Nutrition Supplements: Science vs Hype.

    PubMed

    Armsey, T D; Green, G A

    1997-06-01

    Aggressive marketing has led millions of recreational and elite athletes to use nutrition supplements in hopes of improving performance. Unfortunately, these aids can be costly and potentially harmful, and the advertised ergogenic gains are often based on little or no scientific evidence. No benefits have been convincingly demonstrated for amino acids, L-carnitine, L-tryptophan, or chromium picolinate. Creatine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may confer ergogenic or anabolic effects. Chromium picolinate and DHEA have adverse side effects, and the safety of the other products remains in question. PMID:20086916

  4. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  5. Fingerprinting of Materials: Technical Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    This supplement to the Guidelines for Maintaining a Chemical Fingerprinting Program has been developed to assist NASA personnel, contractors, and sub-contractors in defining the technical aspects and basic concepts which can be used in chemical fingerprinting programs. This material is not meant to be totally inclusive to all chemical fingerprinting programs, but merely to present current concepts. Each program will be tailored to meet the needs of the individual organizations using chemical fingerprinting to improve their quality and reliability in the production of aerospace systems.

  6. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

  7. Interactions of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this systematic review was to examine the benefits, harms and pharmacokinetic interactions arising from the co-administration of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs. Many patients on cardiovascular drugs take dietary supplements for presumed benefits and may be at risk for adverse supplement-drug interactions. Methods The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements and MEDLINE were searched from the inception of the review to October 2011. Grey literature was also reviewed. Two reviewers independently screened records to identify studies comparing a supplement plus cardiovascular drug(s) with the drug(s) alone. Reviewers extracted data using standardized forms, assessed the study risk of bias, graded the strength of evidence and reported applicability. Results Evidence was obtained from 65 randomized clinical trials, 2 controlled clinical trials and 1 observational study. With only a few small studies available per supplement, evidence was insufficient for all predefined gradable clinical efficacy and harms outcomes, such as mortality and serious adverse events. One long-term pragmatic trial showed no benefit from co-administering vitamin E with aspirin on a composite cardiovascular outcome. Evidence for most intermediate outcomes was insufficient or of low strength, suggesting no effect. Incremental benefits were noted for triglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acid added to statins; and there was an improvement in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with garlic supplementation when people also consumed nitrates Conclusions Evidence of low-strength indicates benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (plus statin, or calcium channel blockers and antiplatelets) and garlic (plus nitrates or warfarin) on triglycerides and HDL-C, respectively. Safety concerns, however, persist. PMID:22651380

  8. Updated cost-effectiveness analysis of supplemental glutamine for parenteral nutrition of intensive-care patients

    PubMed Central

    Pradelli, L; Povero, M; Muscaritoli, M; Eandi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Intravenous (i.v.) glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition (PN) can improve clinical outcomes, reduce mortality and infection rates and shorten the length of hospital and/or intensive care unit (ICU) stays compared with standard PN. This study is a pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine whether i.v. glutamine supplementation of PN remains both a highly favourable and cost-effective option for Italian ICU patients. Subjects/Methods: A previously published discrete event simulation model was updated by incorporating the most up-to-date and clinically relevant efficacy data (a clinically realistic subgroup analysis from a published meta-analysis), recent cost data from the Italian health-care system and the latest epidemiology data from a large Italian ICU database (covering 230 Italian ICUs and more than 77 000 patients). Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results: Parenteral glutamine supplementation can significantly improve ICU efficiency in Italy, as the additional cost of supplemented treatment is more than completely offset by cost savings in hospital care. Supplementation was more cost-effective (cost-effectiveness ratio (CER)=€35 165 per patient discharged alive) than standard, non-supplemented PN (CER=€40 156 per patient discharged alive), and it resulted in mean cost savings of €4991 per patient discharged alive or €1047 per patient admitted to the hospital. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results. Conclusions: Alanyl-glutamine supplementation of PN is a clinically and economically attractive strategy for ICU patients in Italy and may be applicable to selected ICU patient populations in other countries. PMID:25469466

  9. Classroom Teacher's "Idea" Notebook, Supplement Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campanella, Alfred J.

    1974-01-01

    A periodic supplement presents methods, techniques, and strategies employed by teachers in the areas of latitude and longitude, writing essay answers, historical hypotheses, and videotaping field trips. (KM)

  10. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  11. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

  12. Dietary germanium biotite supplementation enhances the induction of antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoo, Han Sang

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential ability of germanium biotite (GB) to stimulate the production of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). To this aim, we measured the total FMDV-specific antibody responses and IgM production after vaccination against FMD both experimentally and in the field. GB supplementation with FMDV vaccination stimulated the production of anti-FMDV antibodies, and effectively increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. These results suggest that GB may be a novel alternative feed supplement that can serve as a boosting agent and an immunostimulator for increasing the efficacy of FMDV vaccination in pigs. PMID:24690605

  13. Efficacy of Antimicrobial Therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Lisa E; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Golden, Matthew R; Martin, David H

    2015-12-15

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been causally linked with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, preterm birth, spontaneous abortion, and infertility in women, yet treatment has proven challenging. To inform treatment recommendations, we reviewed English-language studies describing antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance-associated mutations, and clinical efficacy of antibiotic therapy, identified via a systematic search of PubMed supplemented by expert referral. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from some contemporary isolates exhibited high-level susceptibility to most macrolides and quinolones, and moderate susceptibility to most tetracyclines, whereas other contemporary isolates had high MICs to the same antibiotics. Randomized trials demonstrated poor efficacy of doxycycline and better, but declining, efficacy of single-dose azithromycin therapy. Treatment failures after extended doses of azithromycin similarly increased, and circulating macrolide resistance was present in high levels in several areas. Moxifloxacin remains the most effective therapy, but treatment failures and quinolone resistance are emerging. Surveillance of M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns is urgently needed. PMID:26602619

  14. NASA Thesaurus supplement: A four part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The four-part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes the Hierarchical Listing (Part 1), Access Vocabulary (Part 2), Definitions (Part 3), and Changes (Part 4). The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies and accepted upper/lowercase forms for new terms.

  15. 20 CFR 227.2 - Initial supplemental annuity rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... supplemental annuity rate is $43 for an employee with 30 or more years of service. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial supplemental annuity rate. 227.2... COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.2 Initial supplemental annuity rate. The supplemental annuity...

  16. Herbal Products and Dietary Supplements: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Use, Attitudes, and Knowledge Among the Lebanese Population.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Ghada; Ramadan, Wijdan; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    There has been a marked increase in use of herbal products and dietary supplements (HP/DS) in many developed and developing countries. However, data about consumption patterns and awareness about these products in the Lebanese population is scarce. The present study aimed to examine the determinants of HP/DS use in Lebanese adults, identify potential interactions and safety concerns and assess the knowledge and attitudes of consumers towards the efficacy and safety of these products. A face-to-face, 28-item survey was administered to Lebanese adults (n = 726) in community pharmacies across the country. Thirty-five percent of participants reported to be currently consuming at least one HP/DS including 23 % who were consuming vitamins and/or mineral supplements and 18 % consuming herbal products. Significant safety concerns were identified among consumers in the form of disease-supplement, drug-supplement as well as supplement-supplement interactions. Logistic multivariate regression analysis indicated that use of supplements was positively associated with the female gender and increasing age. The majority of respondents falsely believed that HP/DS pose no risk to the general population and that they must be safe to be sold in Lebanon. Moreover, most participants were consuming these products based on recommendations from friends or relatives rather than from healthcare professionals. Substantial misconceptions about HP/DS exist among Lebanese adults, indicating a need for consumers' education from professional and reliable sources on the efficacy and safety of such products. PMID:26659604

  17. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  18. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty

  19. Measuring Vitamins and Minerals in Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Describe 1) why information on vitamin and mineral intakes from dietary supplements is needed for estimating total nutrient intakes in populations 2) the current status and challenges in developing an analytically validated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) 3) lessons from pil...

  20. Annual grass as supplements for beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown when limit grazing cool-season annual grasses as a supplement in a complementary forage system, energy and CP supplementation are not required and hay requirements are reduced 23% for gestating beef cows. To further improve the sustainability of complementary forage systems, repla...

  1. CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    These supplements to the June round of the Current Population Survey (conducted at five-year intervals starting in 1971) were designed to examine transitions in the American family and to measure the demographic implications of these transitions for children. The supplements ask ...

  2. 47 CFR 87.321 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.321 Section 87.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aviation Support Stations § 87.321 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant must certify as to...

  3. 47 CFR 87.321 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.321 Section 87.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aviation Support Stations § 87.321 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant must certify as to...

  4. 38 CFR 36.4359 - Supplemental loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental loans. 36.4359 Section 36.4359 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4359 Supplemental loans. (a) Any loan for the...

  5. 17 CFR 230.418 - Supplemental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... relating to a business combination as defined in Rule 145(a) (17 CFR 230.145(a)), exchange offer, tender... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.418 Supplemental...

  6. Supplement to Art for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The document provides art activities for the classroom teacher who is not an art specialist. It contains activities which supplement experiences provided by the art teacher as well as activities designed to measure the achievement level of students in concept skills related to art and the principles of design. The supplement is divided into three…

  7. 39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental orders. 952.30 Section 952.30 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or...

  8. 39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental orders. 952.30 Section 952.30 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or...

  9. 39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental orders. 952.30 Section 952.30 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or...

  10. 39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental orders. 952.30 Section 952.30 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or...

  11. 39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental orders. 952.30 Section 952.30 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief...

  12. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  13. 47 CFR 87.447 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.447 Section 87.447... Operational Fixed Stations § 87.447 Supplemental eligibility. An applicant for an operational fixed station... aeronautical mobile service; and (b) Common carrier facilities are not available to satisfy the...

  14. 47 CFR 87.373 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.373 Section 87.373 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aeronautical Search and Rescue Stations § 87.373 Supplemental eligibility. Licenses for aeronautical search...

  15. 47 CFR 87.473 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.473 Section 87.473 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Stations in the Radiodetermination Service § 87.473 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses...

  16. 21 CFR 1002.11 - Supplemental reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental reports. 1002.11 Section 1002.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....11 Supplemental reports. Prior to the introduction into commerce of a new or modified model within...

  17. 32 CFR 644.359 - Supplemental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental information. 644.359 Section 644.359 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... Services Administration (gsa) § 644.359 Supplemental information. The DE will cooperate to the...

  18. 47 CFR 87.321 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.321 Section 87.321... Aviation Support Stations § 87.321 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant must certify as to its eligibility under the scope of service described above....

  19. 47 CFR 87.239 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.239 Section 87.239... Aeronautical Multicom Stations § 87.239 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant for a multicom may be required to demonstrate why such a station is necessary, based on the scope of service defined above....

  20. 47 CFR 87.301 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.301 Section 87.301 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Flight Test Stations § 87.301 Supplemental eligibility. (a) The following entities are eligible...

  1. 47 CFR 87.419 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.419 Section 87.419 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.419 Supplemental eligibility. Only one control tower or RCO will...

  2. 47 CFR 87.347 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.347 Section 87.347... Aeronautical Utility Mobile Stations § 87.347 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Aeronautical utility stations may... RCO or an FAA flight service station. (b) An applicant for an aeronautical utility station...

  3. 16 CFR 1.86 - Supplemental statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Procedures for Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.86 Supplemental statements. Except for proposals for legislation, as provided in CEQ Regulation (40 CFR 1502.9(c)), the... supplement will be placed in the rulemaking record....

  4. Supplement consumption in body builder athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330

  5. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  6. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  7. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  8. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  9. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  10. Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

  11. 47 CFR 87.301 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.301 Section 87.301 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Flight Test Stations § 87.301 Supplemental eligibility. (a) The following entities are eligible for flight test station licenses:...

  12. [Supplements for Programs for Children with Exceptionalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Board of Education, Topeka.

    This compilation includes 14 supplements to the Kansas state plan for education, all relating to various aspects of special education. Several of the supplements offer guidelines for specific age groups or conditions, providing information on definitions, screening and identification, curriculum and instruction, administrative structures, related…

  13. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an

  14. 47 CFR 87.321 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.321 Section 87.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aviation Support Stations § 87.321 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant must certify as to...

  15. CURRENT PATTERNS OF SUPPLEMENT USE IN ADOLESCENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many adults take vitamin mineral supplements, but there is relatively little up-to-date information available on vitamin-mineral supplement use among adolescents. In the 1998 Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health Tracking Study (CATCH III), a school-based dietary intervention sponsor...

  16. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA-1088 or completing a form online . In addition, report your reaction to the dietary supplement company by using the contact information on the product label. Quality Dietary supplements ... of the wrong ingredient, the addition of too much or too little of an ...

  17. 30 CFR 75.361 - Supplemental examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental examination. 75.361 Section 75.361... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation 75.361 Supplemental examination. (a) Except for certified persons conducting examinations required by this subpart, within 3 hours before...

  18. 17 CFR 3.22 - Supplemental filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental filings. 3.22 Section 3.22 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Registration § 3.22 Supplemental filings. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the...

  19. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  20. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  1. Effect of Prenatal Zinc Supplementation on Birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthweight between the study groups, although the effect of iron-zinc supplementation on the mean birthweight was masked by a strong interaction between the type of supplement and the iron status of participants [F (1,179)=5.614, p=0.019]. Prenatal iron-zinc supplementation was effective in increasing the mean birthweight among anaemic and iron-deficient women but not among women with elevated iron stores in early pregnancy. PMID:19902797

  2. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  3. Examining the evidence: progesterone supplementation during fresh and frozen embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel; Boostanfar, Robert; Silverberg, Kaylen; Yanushpolsky, Elena Hesina

    2014-12-01

    ART has evolved over time and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) is now a frequently performed, successful option. During the last decade, cryopreservation techniques have received considerable interest, whereas interest in the priming and preparation of the endometrium prior to and after embryo transfer was more limited. The available evidence for the rationale and timing of progesterone supplementation as well as an understanding of the differences among progesterone formulations with respect to efficacy, optimum use, and patient preference is worth examining. A Summit was convened to review the literature on progesterone supplementation in ART and after FET and to provide guidance on the most clinically relevant issues. Utilizing an innovative consensus-building model to examine the evidence, Summit faculty drafted summit statements prior to the meeting, completed a literature search, and created a presentation based on this. At the conclusion of their discussion the faculty developed final summit statements, evaluating the strength of the evidence supporting each statement, and rating their level of support for each statement. The clinically relevant topic areas were the rationale for progesterone supplementation, timing and appropriate dosing, whether progesterone sérum levels reflect outcomes, and distinguishing among progesterone formulations with respect to efficacy, tolerability, and patient preference/satisfaction. PMID:25679949

  4. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

  5. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:

  6. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective when taken with St. John’s Wort, an herbal supplement. Depending on the medication involved, the results OMCvoeeurd- ... a prescrip- tion blood thinner), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin and vita- min E (a supplement) can ...

  7. THE INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS (IBIDS) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database provides access to bibliographic citations and abstracts from published, international, scientific literature on dietary supplements. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Instit...

  8. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  9. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Dharmasena, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose. PMID:24790886

  10. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes. PMID:25940747

  11. Efficacy of in-feed supplementation of plant-derived antimicrobials in reducing aflatoxicosis in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are a group of secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate a variety of chicken feed ingredients. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry, since aflatoxicosis in chickens resul...

  12. Improving the Efficacy of Cryopreservation of Spermatogonia Stem Cells by Antioxidant Supplements.

    PubMed

    Aliakbari, Fereshte; Gilani, Mohamad Ali Sedighi; Amidi, Fardin; Baazm, Maryam; Korouji, Morteza; Izadyar, Fariborz; Yazdekhasti, Hosein; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is an applicable method for young males seeking fertility preservation before starting a treatment. It increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and oxidative stress, which damages cellular structures. In this study, we added two antioxidants, catalase and α-tocopherol (α-TCP), to the basic freezing medium to evaluate their effects on the efficiency of SSCs. SSCs were isolated from testes of 3- to 6-day-old male mice using enzymatic digestion. The enrichment of isolated cells was evaluated by flow cytometry and Stra8 antibody. Catalase (40 μg/mL), or α-TCP (200 μg/mL) was added to the basic freezing medium. The cell viability was evaluated by the methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) assay. After thawing, cells were cultured for 1 month, and the expression pattern of specific genes of SSCs and the ability of the cells to restore spermatogenesis were used to determine the efficiency of the cryopreservation method. The survival rate of the frozen cells in the presence of catalase or α-TCP was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05). The number of colonies and their diameter measured after 1 month were significantly higher in the antioxidant groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). Gene expression and resumption of spermatogenesis also followed the same pattern. Thus, adding antioxidants to the basic freezing medium can be helpful in increasing the quality and viability of SSCs after cryopreservation. This new approach to stem cells cryopreservation can also be a promising strategy for fertility preservation in patients who suffer from malignancy. PMID:27055629

  13. Efficacy Study of a Pre-Algebra Supplemental Program in Rural Mississippi: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Tedra F.; Arens, Sheila A.; Stewart, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Mastering mathematics is important for all students, not only because such success increases college and career options and prospects for future income, but also because mathematics literacy helps citizens and policy leaders to make sound judgments (NMAP, 2008). Research suggests that the rural achievement gap can be addressed with modifiable…

  14. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

  15. Effect of Preventive Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Non-Malarial Morbidity in Tanzanian Pre-School Children: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Veenemans, Jacobien; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Ottenhof, Maarten J.; Mank, Theo G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Demir, Ayşe Y.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malarial morbidity. Methods and Findings Rural Tanzanian children (n = 612) aged 6–60 months and with height-for-age z-score < –1.5 SD were randomized to daily supplementation with zinc (10 mg) alone, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Children were followed for an average of 45 weeks. During follow-up, we recorded morbidity episodes. We found no evidence that concurrent supplementation with multi-nutrients influenced the magnitude of the effect of zinc on rates of diarrhea, respiratory illness, fever without localizing signs, or other illness (guardian-reported illness with symptoms involving skin, ears, eyes and abscesses, but excluding trauma or burns). Zinc supplementation reduced the hazard rate of diarrhea by 24% (4%–40%). By contrast, multi-nutrients seemed to increase this rate (HR; 95% CI: 1.19; 0.94–1.50), particularly in children with asymptomatic Giardia infection at baseline (2.03; 1.24–3.32). Zinc also protected against episodes of fever without localizing signs (0.75; 0.57–0.96), but we found no evidence that it reduced the overall number of clinic visits. Conclusions We found no evidence that the efficacy of zinc supplements in reducing diarrhea rates is enhanced by concurrent supplementation with other micronutrients. By reducing rates of fever without localizing signs, supplementation with zinc may reduce inappropriate drug use with anti-malarial medications and antibiotics. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00623857 PMID:22870238

  16. Important considerations for treatment with dietary supplement versus prescription niacin products.

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Padley, Robert J; Moriarty, Patrick M

    2011-03-01

    Niacin is a water-soluble B vitamin (B3) known to have favorable effects on multiple lipid parameters, including raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and lowering triglycerides (TGs), lipoprotein(a), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although LDL-C remains the primary target of lipid-altering therapy, current guidelines emphasize HDL-C and other modifiable lipid factors as key secondary targets. Thus, niacin is considered an important therapeutic option to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who, in addition to high LDL-C, have elevated TGs and low HDL-C. Although available prescription niacin products, including immediate-release niacin (IR; Niacor) and an extended-release niacin formulation (Niaspan), have demonstrated safety and efficacy in randomized clinical trials, confusion remains among health care providers and their patients regarding the various commercially available nonprescription dietary supplement niacin products. These dietary supplements, which include IR, sustained-release (SR), and "no-flush" or "flush-free" niacin products, are not subject to the same stringent US Food and Drug Administration regulations as prescription drugs. In fact, both the American Heart Association and the American Pharmacists Association recommend against the use of dietary supplement niacin as a substitute for prescription niacin. Although some dietary supplement IR and SR niacin products have demonstrated a lipid response in clinical trials, products labeled as "no-flush" or "flush-free" that are intended to avoid the common niacin-associated adverse effect of flushing generally contain minimal or no free, pharmacologically active niacin and therefore lack beneficial lipid-modifying effects. To clarify important differences between available prescription and dietary supplement niacin products, this article contrasts current regulatory standards for dietary supplements and prescription drugs and provides an overview of available clinical data from key trials of niacin. PMID:21474895

  17. 7 CFR 1948.61 - State supplements and guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance... Public Law 103-354 office). (a) State supplements. State Directors may supplement this subpart...

  18. Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Dela Peña, Ike

    2016-01-01

    Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a "safer" approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments. PMID:26966583

  19. Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; dela Peña, Ike

    2016-01-01

    Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a “safer” approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments. PMID:26966583

  20. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses. PMID:26772449

  1. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. (4) Coordinate supplementation research planning and field evaluation program activities and management recommendations for the Nez Perce Tribe.

  2. Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?

    PubMed

    Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims. PMID:19998572

  3. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids' oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  4. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

  5. The use of selected nutrition supplements and complementary and alternative medicine in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hanje, A James; Fortune, Brett; Song, Ming; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig

    2006-06-01

    Almost all patients with liver disease, especially advanced liver disease, have some evidence of malnutrition, including mineral/vitamin deficiency. A major health trend in the United States has been the significant growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including nutrition supplements and herbal agents. In the 1990s, the United States government created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), as well as the Office on Dietary Supplements, to extend our knowledge in these areas. CAM users are often highly educated and frequently use CAM therapy for chronic diseases, including chronic liver disease. Indeed, most studies suggest that patients with chronic liver disease frequently use nutrition supplements and CAM agents in addition to their traditional medicines. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of nutrition supplements and herbals in liver disease. This article will focus mainly on 7 selected agents (vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, silymarin, and glycyrrhizin), for which there have been not only in vitro and animal studies but also human clinical trials, and we will review both potential efficacy and safety issues. PMID:16772543

  6. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  7. The Use of Selected Nutrition Supplements and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanje, A. James; Fortune, Brett; Song, Ming; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Almost all patients with liver disease, especially advanced liver disease, have some evidence of malnutrition, including mineral/vitamin deficiency. A major health trend in the United States has been the significant growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including nutrition supplements and herbal agents. In the 1990s, the United States government created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), as well as the Office on Dietary Supplements, to extend our knowledge in these areas. CAM users are often highly educated and frequently use CAM therapy for chronic diseases, including chronic liver disease. Indeed, most studies suggest that patients with chronic liver disease frequently use nutrition supplements and CAM agents in addition to their traditional medicines. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of nutrition supplements and herbals in liver disease. This article will focus mainly on 7 selected agents (vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, silymarin, and glycyrrhizin), for which there have been not only in vitro and animal studies but also human clinical trials, and we will review both potential efficacy and safety issues. PMID:16772543

  8. Absorption and bioeffects of an isoflavone-based supplementation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Silvia; Bartolini, Elisa; Ottanelli, Silva; Masi, Laura; Romani, Annalisa; Tanini, Annalisa; Vignolini, Pamela; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of isoflavones rich diets can improve several postmenopausal complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the absorption and the efficacy of isoflavonic supplementation in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. 36 postmenopausal women received 75 mg/day of isoflavones in the form of tablets, for six months. 21 subjects concluded the treatment. Plasmatic and urinary samples were collected before and after the treatment, along with a dietary interview. Isoflavones were determined in biological samples and in commercial administered supplements by a HPLC/DAD system. Results showed the presence of genistein (from 0.043 to 1.820 micromol/L) in plasma samples, and of genistein (from 2.486 to 20.363 micromol/24h) and daidzein (from 11.106 to 98.091 micromol/24h) in the urines of the treated women. In the 21 completers the Greene Climateric scale value for hot flushes changed from 3 to 1 or 0. No changes of the endometrial thickness and of the breast tissue were detected. The analysis of the supplement content in the tablets was in agreement with what declared by the producer. Administration of isoflavone supplements produced a decrease of symptoms in this cohort of postmenopausal women monitored for isoflavone absorption. PMID:22461255

  9. Impact of zinc supplementation in malnourished children with acute watery diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Dutta, P; Mitra, U; Datta, A; Niyogi, S K; Dutta, S; Manna, B; Basak, M; Mahapatra, T S; Bhattacharya, S K

    2000-10-01

    A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 malnourished children with acute dehydrating diarrhoea to evaluate the efficacy of oral supplementation of zinc as an adjunct therapy to oral rehydration solution (ORS). After decoding it was observed that 44 children received zinc sulphate (177 mg/kg/day in three divided doses equivalent to 40 mg elemental zinc) in a syrup form and 36 children received only syrup placebo. Clinical parameters and microbiological findings of stool samples were comparable in the two groups at the time of enrollment. All the children (100 per cent) in the zinc supplemented group and 32 (89 per cent) children in the placebo group recovered within 5 days of hospitalization (p = 0.04). The zinc supplemented group had a significantly shorter duration of diarrhoea (70.4 +/- 10.0 vs. 103.4 +/- 17.1 h; p = 0.0001), passed less liquid stool (1.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.7kg; p=0.0001), consumed less oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 3.6 +/- 0.8 litre; p = 0.0001) and other liquids (867.0 +/- 466.1 vs. 1354.7 +/- 675.6 ml; p = 0.0001) as compared to the placebo group. Our findings suggest that zinc supplementation as an adjunct therapy to ORS has beneficial effects on the clinical course of dehydrating acute diarrhoea. PMID:11077932

  10. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended. PMID:24846474

  11. Selenium species in selenium fortified dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemyslaw; Rudnicka, Monika; Wachelka, Marcin; Kozak, Lidia; Rzany, Magda; Wozniak, Magdalena; Kaskow, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of dietary supplements available on the Polish market. The supplements comprised a large group of products with selenium content declared by the producer. The study involved determination of dissolution time under different conditions and solubility as well as content and speciation of selenium. The total content was determined as well as organic selenium and the inorganic forms Se(IV) and Se(VI). The organic selenium content was calculated as the difference between total Se and inorganic Se. The values obtained were compared with producers' declarations. The work is the first such study of selenium supplements available on the market of an EU Member State. PMID:26212996

  12. A mechanistic review on plant-derived natural compounds as dietary supplements for prevention of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Sodagari, Hamid Reza; Esfahani, Shadi A; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a recurrent idiopathic inflammatory condition, characterized by disruption of the gut mucosal barrier. This mechanistic review aims to highlight the significance of plant-derived natural compounds as dietary supplements, which can be used in addition to restricted conventional options for the prevention of IBD and induction of remission. Various clinical trials confirmed the effectiveness and tolerability of natural supplements in patients with IBD. Mounting evidence suggests that these natural compounds perform their protective and therapeutic effect on IBD through numerous molecular mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative stress, modulation of intracellular signaling transduction pathways, as well as improving gut microbiota. In conclusion, natural products can be considered as dietary supplements with therapeutic potential for IBD, provided that their safety and efficacy is confirmed in future well-designed clinical trials with adequate sample size. PMID:26799847

  13. Efficacy and Accountability in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    This study examined the relationship among accountability, efficacy, and organizational effectiveness by integrating findings from 17 research and development reports on Management by Objectives (MBO), an intervention that incorporates elements and processes of both accountability (goal-setting, measuring and monitoring, feedback) and efficacy…

  14. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  15. Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

  16. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

  17. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Avigan, Mark I; Mozersky, Robert P; Seeff, Leonard B

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  18. Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) is a term that reflects to a heterogenous group of natural food sources, processed grains and commercial supplements. Several forms of DF have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of DF in metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of DF on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of DF, but also quite variable. This article focuses on the role, mechanism of action and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk, and explores the effects of DF on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of DF. PMID:19931537

  19. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Avigan, Mark I.; Mozersky, Robert P.; Seeff, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  20. Dietary fiber supplements: effects in obesity and metabolic syndrome and relationship to gastrointestinal functions.

    PubMed

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a term that reflects a heterogeneous group of natural food sources, processed grains, and commercial supplements. Several forms of dietary fiber have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of dietary fiber in the metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of dietary fiber on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of dietary fiber but also quite variable. This report focuses on the role, mechanism of action, and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and the metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk and explores the effects of dietary fiber on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of dietary fiber. PMID:19931537

  1. Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.J.; Stochl, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3{times}10{sup -4} N/m{sup 2}(1 x 10{sup -6} torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K(200 R) and 361 K(650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 m{sup 3} (120 gal) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH{sub 2} and LN{sub 2} ground storage dewars.

  2. Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.J.; Stochl, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3 x 10(exp -4) Newton/sq meter (1 x 10(exp -6) torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K (200 R) and 361 K (650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 cu meter (120 gallon) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars.

  3. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  4. Lessons Learned in Engineering. Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, James C.; Ryan, Robert S.; Schultzenhofer, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations. The supplemental CD contains accompanying PowerPoint presentations.

  5. Introduction to tobacco control supplement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues. PMID:24732156

  6. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  7. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  8. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khera, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2–3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels.123 There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa) after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone. PMID:25652639

  9. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa) after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone. PMID:25652639

  10. Efficacy and safety of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kitts, D; Hu, C

    2000-12-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer) has been a popular herbal remedy used in eastern Asian cultures for thousands of years. In North America, the ginseng species indigenous to both Canada and the United States (Panax quinquefolium) represents an important industry for both domestic and export markets. There are numerous theories and claims describing the efficacy of ginseng, which can combat stress, enhance both the central and immune systems and contribute towards maintaining optimal oxidative status against certain chronic disease states and aging. Risk issues concerning the safety of ginseng at recommended dosages are less prominent and scientifically based. While some epidemiological or clinical studies have reported indications of efficacy for specific health benefits or potential toxicity, there are an equal number of studies that provide contradictory evidence. This situation has led to questionable conclusions concerning specific health benefits or risks associated with ginseng. Recent advances in the development of standardized extracts for both Panax ginseng (G-115) and Panax quinquefolius (CNT-2000) have and will continue to assist in the assessment of efficacy and safety standards for ginseng products. This paper reviews the scientific literature and evidence for ginseng efficacy and safety derived mostly from in vitro and animal studies and places emphasis on the need for more randomized, double-blinded, placebo clinical studies that can provide unequivocal conclusions. An example of the efficacy and safety of ginseng is provided with the description of biological activity of a North American ginseng extract (NAGE), which includes illustrating mechanisms for antioxidant activity without prooxidant properties. PMID:11276295

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of cancer cachexia: issues in designing clinical trials of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Harle, Lindsey; Brown, Todd; Laheru, Daniel; Dobs, Adrian S

    2005-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular, despite the limited evidence of the efficacy and safety of some forms of CAM. Cancer patients often turn to CAM therapies for the relief of treatment- induced side-effects and comorbidities. Cancer-associated weight loss commonly results in decreased functional status, life expectancy, and quality of life. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with cancer cachexia, mainstream treatments do not sustain weight. Although nutritional supplements are commonly used, many of these have not been tested in clinical trials. The issues faced in dietary supplement research differ from those in pharmaceutical drug trials. These include problems with standardization, contamination, and compliance documentation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is proposed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fish oil supplementation for the treatment of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients. The primary outcome measure will be lean body mass; secondary outcomes include functional status and quality of life. The methodology of the clinical trial is reviewed here and the unique problems faced by investigators in designing studies of dietary supplements are discussed. PMID:16398596

  12. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Folic acid (FA) may have a role in the prevention of pregnancy complications. However, the efficacy of FA supplementation in reducing the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is still unclear. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth (PTB). The research protocol was designed a priori, defining methods for searching the literature in electronic databases, including and examining articles, and extracting and analyzing data. We included all randomized trials (RCTs) of asymptomatic singleton gestations without prior PTB who were randomized to prophylactic treatment with either FA supplementation or control (placebo or no treatment). The primary outcome was the incidence of PTB <37 weeks. Five randomized trials including 5,332 asymptomatic singleton gestations without prior PTB were included in the analysis. Women who received FA supplementation had a similar rate of PTB <37 weeks (22.6% vs 22.9%; RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.82-1.18), PTB<34 weeks (7.1% vs 8.7%; RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.55-1.09) and of preterm premature rupture of membranes (2.4% vs 2.9%; RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.44-1.50) compared with control group. Regarding neonatal outcome we found no significant differences in birth weight (mean difference 85.58g, 95% CI -55.17-226.34), low birth weight (21.0% vs 15.1%; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.28) and perinatal death (2.9% vs 2.4%; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.60-1.34). In summary, FA supplementation during pregnancy does not prevent PTB <37 weeks. Daily FA supplementation remains the most important intervention to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. PMID:26901401

  13. 18 CFR 153.11 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., OR MODIFY FACILITIES USED FOR THE EXPORT OR IMPORT OF NATURAL GAS Application Under Section 3 § 153... authorization, after opportunity for hearing, such supplemental orders implementing its authority under...

  14. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  15. Tryptophan supplementation modulates social behavior: A review.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Laura; Jongkees, Bryant J; Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-05-01

    Tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of serotonin (5-HT), is one of the most investigated amino-acids. TRP supplementation can increase 5-HT levels in the brain and for this reason numerous studies have investigated whether administration of TRP can positively influence social behavior that relies on serotonergic function. Here we review the available studies on TRP, to clarify if and under what circumstances TRP supplementation might modulate social behavior. TRP supplementation seems to improve control over social behavior in patients and individuals suffering from disorders or behaviors associated with dysfunctions in serotonergic functioning. In contrast, in healthy humans TRP supplementation seems to promote social behavior. Although more research is needed to disentangle and understand the relations between individual differences, TRP effectivity, 5-HT functioning, social interactions, and context, we conclude TRP can be a promising tool for modulating social behavior. PMID:26987640

  16. [Nutrition and dietary supplements in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Erbguth, F; Himmerich, H

    2014-12-01

    "Healthy" diets and supplements are widely used for prevention and disease modification in vascular, inflammatory and degenerative neurological diseases. Apart from a large number of cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies, there are only few interventional studies on individual dietary measures. A recent study confirmed the stroke preventive effect of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and nuts; a ketogenic diet reduces seizure frequency in epilepsy. Supplementation of riboflavin, magnesium and coenzyme Q10 are probably effective in migraine prophylaxis. Creatine can improve muscle strength in muscular dystrophy and myositis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend any of the many dietary supplements, such as vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids and other substances for the prevention or improvement of all other neurological diseases. This review critically evaluates the present data on the role of nutrition and dietary supplements in neurological diseases. PMID:25403288

  17. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-02-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise. PMID:23434906

  18. Supplement use in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    DesJardins, Matt

    2002-12-01

    Use of dietary supplements has become common practice among adolescent athletes in the United States. Concern has arisen regarding safety in adolescents in light of the fact that supplements are not required to meet usual US Food and Drug Administration requirements for standard pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, advertised ergogenic gains are based on little or no scientific evidence. Creatine, anabolic steroids, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, caffeine, ephedrine-type alkaloids, calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methybutyrate, and human growth hormone are reviewed. Although some studies have indicated performance benefit in particular athletic situations, there are few available data in adolescents. Furthermore, the few safety studies of these supplements do not include adolescents. Adolescents may be at particular risk when using anabolic steroids and caffeine-ephedra combinations. Research has demonstrated effective education programs can reduce adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements. PMID:12831686

  19. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... their products are safe BEFORE they go to market. If the dietary supplement contains a NEW ingredient, ... must notify FDA about that ingredient prior to marketing. However, the notification will only be reviewed by ...

  20. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-07-28

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  1. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drugs Learn about your prescription drugs and over-the- ...

  2. Herbal remedies, dietary supplements, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alok; Delanty, Norman

    2003-02-01

    The use of herbal remedies and dietary supplements is widespread throughout the world, and use may be increasing. These are taken for a wide range of perceived benefits, such as energy and memory enhancement and treatment of specific conditions. Individuals with and without epilepsy may use these substances and may not inform their treating physician unless specifically asked. Inquiry about herbal medicine and dietary supplement intake should now be part of routine clinical history taking. Anecdotal accounts suggest that some herbal substances may have anticonvulsant effect, but randomised double-blind controlled trails are lacking. Alternatively many herbals and dietary supplements may predispose to seizures in individuals without epilepsy and worsen seizure control in those with epilepsy. In this article, we review the potential anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of herbal remedies and dietary supplements and discuss the potential interaction between these herbal substances and conventional anticonvulsant medications. PMID:12558579

  3. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the government for safety or effectiveness before marketing. Also, unlike drugs, supplements are not intended to ... Others: American Dietetic Association American Pharmacists Association Food Marketing Institute International Food Information Council Foundation National Council ...

  4. Contraceptive efficacy of lactational amenorrhea in urban Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Aravena, R; Cárdenas, H; Casado, M E; Miranda, P; Schiappacasse, V; Croxatto, H B

    1991-04-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of breastfeeding was assessed in 236 healthy urban women who were followed at monthly intervals during the first postpartum year. Proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the influence of time postpartum, menstrual status and breastfeeding pattern upon the risk of pregnancy. Time and menstrual status had a highly significant effect on this risk. Those women who remained in amenorrhea had cumulative probabilities of pregnancy of 0.9% and 17% at 6 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. In those who recovered menstrual cycles, the risk rose to 36% and 55% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Milk supplementation also increased significantly the risk when considered alone but not when time and/or menstrual status were included in the analysis. However, amenorrheic women who introduced bottle feeding, had a higher risk of pregnancy after 6 months postpartum than those who remained fully nursing. The analysis was unable to detect a significant influence of the nursing frequency. The results confirm that lactational amenorrhea is an effective contraceptive during the first six months postpartum. The first postpartum bleeding marks a great increase in the risk of pregnancy. Supplementation also increases the risk, particularly in amenorrheic women. PMID:1855380

  5. Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Ériton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

  6. Botanical and Dietary Supplements for Menopausal Symptoms: What Works, What Doesn’t

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

    2006-01-01

    All women reach menopause and approximately two-thirds of women develop menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes. Hormone therapy long was considered the first line of treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, given the results of the Women’s Health Initiative, many women are reluctant use exogenous hormones for symptomatic treatment and are turning to botanicals and dietary supplement (BDS) products for relief. Despite the fact that there is limited scientific evidence describing efficacy and long term safety of such products, many women find these “natural treatments” appealing. Peri- and postmenopausal women are amongst the highest users of these products, but 70% of women do not tell their health care providers about their use. Compounding this issue is the fact that few clinicians ask their patients about use of BDS, largely because they have not been exposed to alternative medical practices in their training and are unfamiliar with these products. This paper reviews the botanicals and dietary supplements commonly used in menopause, (such as black cohosh, red clover, soy products, among others) as well as the available data on efficacy and safety. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to December 2004 using terms related to botanical and dietary supplements and menopausal symptoms for peri- or postmenopausal women. Abstracts from relevant meetings as well as reference books and websites on herbal supplements were also searched. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were used if available; open trials and comparison group studies were used when RCTs were not available. The evidence to date suggests that black cohosh is safe and effective for reducing menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes and possibly mood disorders. Phytoestrogen extracts, including soy foods and red clover appear to have at best only minimal effect on menopausal symptoms but have positive health effects on plasma lipid concentrations and may reduce heart disease. St. John’s wort has been shown to improve mild to moderate depression in the general population and appears to show efficacy for mood disorders related to the menopausal transition. Other commonly used botanicals have limited evidence to demonstrate safety and efficacy for relief of symptoms related to menopause. PMID:16181020

  7. Dietary Supplement Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Parian, Alyssa; Limketkai, Berkeley N

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic relapsing and remitting chronic diseases for which there is no cure. The treatment of IBD frequently requires immunosuppressive and biologic therapies which carry an increased risk of infections and possible malignancy. There is a continued search for safer and more natural therapies in the treatment of IBD. This review aims to summarize the most current literature on the use of dietary supplements for the treatment of IBD. Specifically, the efficacy and adverse effects of vitamin D, fish oil, probiotics, prebiotics, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, aloe vera and cannabis sativa are reviewed. PMID:26561079

  8. The Influence of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Metacognitive Prompting on Genetics Problem Solving Ability among High School Students in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurah, Catherine Muhonja

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the…

  9. The Efficacy of a 9-Month Treadmill Walking Program on the Exercise Capacity and Weight Reduction for Adolescents with Severe Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Rendoff, Andrew D.; Grover, Travis; Beets, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 9-month treadmill walking (TW) program on exercise capacity and body mass index (BMI) for adolescents with severe autism. Ten youth residing in a residential/school treatment facility were assigned to either a supplemental treadmill walking (TW) or control group. Both groups continued to participate in their…

  10. Supplemental feeding program for California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.; Carrier, W.D.; Borneman, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    A 2-year supplemental feeding program for the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was of insufficient length to definitely show that a dependable food supply will stimulate additional breeding; however, production did increase during the study, and food supply appears a likely cause. Because no undesirable effects of feeding were noted, and because condor production is now critically low, an expanded supplemental feeding program is recommended.

  11. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, Garrett R

    2013-07-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. PMID:23809900

  12. History full circle: 'Novel' sympathomimetics in supplements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Nicolas; Keizers, Peter H J

    2016-03-01

    Since the banning of ephedrine in over-the-counter nutritional supplements a decade ago, a plethora of untested and/or unsafe sympathomimetic stimulants have taken its place. This paper argues that these 'novel' stimulants in supplements recapitulate the work of synthetic chemists at commercial pharmaceutical firms during the 1930s and 1940s, all seeking substitutes for recently successful products based on ephedrine and amphetamine. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27072841

  13. Self-efficacy and health education.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, L; McLeroy, K R

    1986-10-01

    Bandura's theory of self-efficacy has been applied in many areas of health education including smoking cessation, pain control, eating problems, cardiac rehabilitation, and adherence to regimens. Consequently, self-efficacy has emerged as an important concept with which health educators should be familiar. Self-efficacy refers to one's belief in the ability to do a specific behavior. Self-efficacy is a principle connection between knowledge and action since the belief that one can do a behavior usually occurs before one actually attempts the behavior. Self-efficacy also affects the choice of behavior, settings in which behaviors are performed, and the amount of effort and persistence to be spent on performance of a specific task. This article will examine self-efficacy theory, describe sources of self-efficacy, and present applications of self-efficacy theory. PMID:3534459

  14. 76 FR 56407 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement/Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    .../Supplemental Overseas Environmental Impact Statement for the Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low... employment of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems....

  15. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  16. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market

    PubMed Central

    Lhamo, Y.; Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Tripathi, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5%) or alfacalcidiol (43%) as tablets (51.1%) and capsules (35.2%). Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large. PMID:27168680

  17. 17 CFR 229.902 - (Item 902) Individual partnership supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Roll-Up Transactions § 229.902 (Item... supplement to the disclosure document for each entity. (b) The separate supplement required by paragraph (a... in the forepart of the supplement to the effect that: (i) Supplements have been prepared for...

  18. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES... Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall prepare supplements to either...

  19. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES... Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall prepare supplements to either...

  20. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES... Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall prepare supplements to either...

  1. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES... Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall prepare supplements to either...

  2. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES... Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall prepare supplements to either...

  3. Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reivich, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

  4. Singapore High School Students' Creativity Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ai-Girl; Ho, Valerie; Yong, Lim-Chyi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Singapore education adopted nurturing creativity and developing creativity efficacy among their students and children. This study investigated Singapore high school students' creativity efficacy based on the contemporary model of creativity (Amabile, 1983, 1996), self efficacy (Bandura, 1989, 1997) and inclusion education. Aims:…

  5. Generalization of Self-Efficacy in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RiCharde, Stephen; Wang, Alvin Y.

    To test the hypothesis that a bidirectional or hierarchical relationship exists between self-efficacy and mnemonic self-concept, an investigation was made of the relationship between a task-independent learning strategy and self-efficacy for a variety of cognitive skills. A total of 60 second graders were pretested for self-efficacy on four…

  6. Self-Efficacy and Cognitive Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.

    This paper reviews self-efficacy research with special emphasis on students in school. Bandura's emphasis on domain-specific assessment is useful for understanding student learning and fits well with current research on instructional processes. A self-efficacy model of student learning is presented, comprising entry characteristics, self-efficacy

  7. Optimizing efficacy of mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gebril, Ayman; Alsaadi, Manal; Acevedo, Reinaldo; Mullen, Alexander B; Ferro, Valerie A

    2012-09-01

    In general, there are only a few vaccines administered via mucosal routes, as the mucosal immune system presents numerous hurdles, including diversity in mucosal surface structure, complexity in immune cell interaction and limitations in experimental methodology. This therefore necessitates a range of strategies to be used for each target area. With reference to the three main routes of delivery and associated mucosal surfaces (oral/intestinal, nasal/respiratory and female genital tract), this review examines how coadministration of immune-stimulatory molecules, adjuvants, delivery systems and mucoadhesives are used to improve mucosal vaccine efficacy. Key considerations to the development of next-generation mucosal vaccines include improved efficacy and safety, technological advancements in medical devices to enable convenience and better administration, as well as reduced manufacturing costs. PMID:23151169

  8. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents. PMID:25070694

  9. The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurien, Sarah Anjali

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious

  10. The efficacy of low temperature plasma (LTP) sterilization, a new sterilization technique.

    PubMed

    Höller, C; Martiny, H; Christiansen, B; Rüden, H; Gundermann, K O

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of low temperature plasma (LTP) sterilization, a newly developed sterilization procedure was tested. Following experiments were carried out: Determination of the most resistant test organism, influence of 10% and 20% defibrinated sheep blood or varying salt concentrations on the efficacy of the sterilization process, influence of the carrier position in the sterilization chamber and in the sterilization pouches, influence of a loaded sterilization chamber, comparative efficacy of EO and LTP, steel carriers with a blood burden of 0%, 5% and 10%, comparative efficacy of EO and LTP, strip carriers in endoscopes, blood burden 0% and 10%, with and without adaptors, evaluation of two bioindicator models. B. pumilus was the test spore that overall seemed to be most resistant to the sterilization procedure. Supplementation of the test suspension with blood or saline crystals resulted in significantly reduced efficacy and has to be avoided in practical operation. The fully loaded sterilization chamber or the position of germ carriers on the shelves had no negative influence on the effectivity of the sterilization process. There were no significant differences between EO and LTP, the blood burden not exceeding 5%. 10% blood burden resulted in a significantly weaker action of LTP. For sterilization of long lumens adaptors containing hydrogen peroxide are necessary. An appropriate bioindicator tube model is introduced. PMID:8397686

  11. Supplemented vaccination with tandem repeat M2e virus-like particles enhances protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2016-01-27

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry. PMID:26691568

  12. The bioavailability of supplemental biotin in cattle.

    PubMed

    Frigg, M; Straub, O C; Hartmann, D

    1993-01-01

    A trial using 12 yearling heifers was carried out to test whether biotin metabolism and bioavailability are influenced by continuous dietary supplementation with biotin. Six of these heifers received no biotin supplementation (controls), while six received a daily dietary supplement of 20 mg biotin over the whole experimental period of four months. During each of three test periods (on days 14 and 21, 56 and 63, and 118 and 124), single test dosages of 40 mg (oral) and 5 mg (intravenous) biotin were given to each animal in a crossover test design. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h after each of these single doses, and at approximately two-weekly intervals for the assessment of baseline values. Serum biotin levels were determined by an ELSA test. Areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated as the target parameter for the assessment of the bioavailability of orally administered biotin. Serum biotin baseline levels were 300-800 ng/l in the controls and 3000-8000 ng/l in the supplemented animals. In both groups, AUC values in the first test period (days 14 and 21) were significantly higher than in subsequent periods. However, the biotin supplementation showed no significant effect. There was no significant difference in elimination half-lives between groups with and without biotin supplementation. The range was 5-18 h. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the bioavailability of biotin between the test periods or between the biotin-supplemented and unsupplemented animals. Overall bioavailability was 48%. PMID:8407161

  13. Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Zappacosta, Bruno; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Persichilli, Silvia; Pounis, George; Ruggeri, Stefania; Minucci, Angelo; Carnovale, Emilia; Andria, Generoso; Ricci, Roberta; Scala, Iris; Genovese, Orazio; Turrini, Aida; Mistura, Lorenza; Giardina, Bruno; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 μg from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 μg [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 μg folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations. PMID:23698160

  14. Resveratrol supplementation affects bone acquisition and osteoporosis: Pre-clinical evidence toward translational diet therapy.

    PubMed

    Tou, Janet C

    2015-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health issue that is expected to rise as the global population ages. Resveratrol (RES) is a plant polyphenol with various anti-aging properties. RES treatment of bone cells results in protective effects, but dose translation from in vitro studies to clinically relevant doses is limited since bioavailability is not taken into account. The aims of this review is to evaluate in vivo evidence for a role of RES supplementation in promoting bone health to reduced osteoporosis risk and potential mechanisms of action. Due to multiple actions on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, RES has potential to attenuate bone loss resulting from different etiologies and pathologies. Several animal models have investigated the bone protective effects of RES supplementation. Ovariectomized rodent models of rapid bone loss due to estrogen-deficiency reported that RES supplementation improved bone mass and trabecular bone without stimulating other estrogen-sensitive tissues. RES supplementation prior to age-related bone loss was beneficial. The hindlimb unloaded rat model used to investigate bone loss due to mechanical unloading showed RES supplementation attenuated bone loss in old rats, but had inconsistent bone effects in mature rats. In growing rodents, RES increased longitudinal bone growth, but had no other effects on bone. In the absence of human clinical trials, evidence for a role of RES on bone heath relies on evidence generated by animal studies. A better understanding of efficacy, safety, and molecular mechanisms of RES on bone will contribute to the determination of dietary recommendations and therapies to reduce osteoporosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Resveratol: Challenges in translating pre-clinical findings to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25315301

  15. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation and Loss of Bone Mineral Density in Women Undergoing Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Mridul; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2013-01-01

    An unintended consequence of breast cancer therapies is an increased risk of osteoporosis due to accelerated bone loss. We conducted a systematic review of calcium and/or vitamin D (Ca±D) supplementation trials for maintaining bone mineral density (BMD) in women with breast cancer using the “before-after” data from the Ca±D supplemented comparison group of trials evaluating the effect of drugs such as bisphosphonates on BMD. Whether Ca±D supplements increase BMD in women undergoing breast cancer therapy has never been tested against an unsupplemented control group. However, results from 16 trials indicate that the Ca±D doses tested (500-1500 mg calcium; 200-1000 IU vitamin D) were inadequate to prevent BMD loss in these women. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality in women with breast cancer. Because calcium supplements may increase cardiovascular disease risk, future trials should evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ca±D supplementation in women undergoing breast cancer therapy. PMID:23932583

  16. Cytokine response to vitamin E supplementation is dependent on pre-supplementation cytokine levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E supplementation has been suggested to improve immune response in the aged in part by altering cytokine production. However, there is not a consensus regarding the effect of supplemental vitamin E on cytokine production in humans. There is evidence that baseline immune health can affect im...

  17. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

  18. The influence of dietary vitamin C and E supplementation on the physiological response of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, in net culture.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Glauber Cruz; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Ono, Eduardo Akifumi; de Andrade, Jaqueline Ins Alves; Brasil, Elenice Martins; Roubach, Rodrigo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmo

    2006-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary vitamin C (ascorbic acid or AA), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol or alpha-T), and C+E supplementation on the blood parameters of Arapaima gigas grown in net cages for 45 days. Four treatments were tested: control (commercial feed); C800; E500 and C+E (800+500) with supplementation of 800 mg AA kg(-1), 500 mg alpha-T kg(-1) and 800+500 mg AA+alpha-T kg(-1), respectively. Hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBC), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) (oxidative status indicators), thrombocytes and leukocytes (immunological indicators), plasma protein and glucose were evaluated. Fish fed vitamin C and C+E supplemented diets showed greater weight gain and survival. Dietary vitamin C and C+E diet supplementation resulted in increased Ht, Hb, RBC, MCHC, total leukocytes, total proteins, thrombocytes and eosinophils compared to the control and alpha-T. The alpha-tocopherol-supplemented diet reduced the number of total thrombocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils and increased glucose and eosinophils relatively to the control. In general, leukocytes and thrombocytes were good indicators of the efficiency of vitamin on the defense mechanism of the A. gigas reared in cages. Results indicate that high alpha-T diet supplementation provides no benefit for the maintenance of the oxidative or the immunological status of A. gigas. However, it was demonstrated that high dietary AA improves A. gigas immunological status. Red blood cell indices and immune system indicators showed no synergistic effect between the vitamins after supplementing the A. gigas diet with alpha-T+AA. PMID:16934509

  19. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals. PMID:24323888

  20. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.